Science.gov

Sample records for incorporating pump storage

  1. Pumped storage: Surge in the southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.M.; Hunt, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a surge of interest by independent power producers (IPPs) in developing pumped storage hydropower projects. However, of the 100 applicants for preliminary permits for pumped storage projects, only nine submitted license applications for development and none have been built. Two large pumped storage projects proposed by IPPs, Summit in Ohio and Mount Hope in New Jersey, received their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licenses in record time.

  2. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  3. Thermodynamic efficiency of pumped heat electricity storage.

    PubMed

    Thess, André

    2013-09-13

    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400 °C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  4. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  5. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  6. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  12. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  13. Sorption pumps and storage for gases

    DOEpatents

    Haaland, Peter; Bethel, Dylan

    2016-08-16

    A method and system for filling gas storage vessels from a source operates by cooling a sorbent, opening a valve to transfer gas by physisorption, regulating the sorbent temperature to achieve the desired degree of filling, closing the valve connecting to the gas source, and warming the tank, sorbent, and gas to provide a predetermined pressure at room temperature.

  14. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  15. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  16. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric...

  17. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project....

  18. Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.

  19. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57... storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations, storage and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  1. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  2. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  3. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  4. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  5. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  6. 18 CFR 11.3 - Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., excluding pumped storage projects. 11.3 Section 11.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES... Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.3 Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage...

  7. 18 CFR 11.3 - Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., excluding pumped storage projects. 11.3 Section 11.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES... Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.3 Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage...

  8. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and...

  9. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, August...

  10. 77 FR 19279 - Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project to be located near the town of Moab, Grand County, Utah. The ] project would...

  11. Feasibility of a small scale pumped storage demonstration project, Hibbing, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The economic and technical feasibility of developing a 5 to 15 MW pumped storage power plant was examined. The substitution of power from a pumped storage facility for the purchased peak power is advantageous because: (1) the coal fired cogeneration plant operates with an improved heat rate; (2) numerous open pits from abandoned iron ore mines are available as reservoirs for pumped storage; and (3) the peaking power generated does not depend on petroleum fuel. It is suggested that: eight mine sites are suitable for pumped storage; oil fired peak power units should be avoided to improve the efficiency of the existing cogeneration; this is a nonpolluting form of power generation; and the development of small scale reversible pump/turbine units for commercial operation is desirable.

  12. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 18 CFR 11.4 - Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... energy used for pumped storage pumping. (2) A licensee who has filed these data under another section of... for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands. 11.4 Section 11.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  14. 18 CFR 11.4 - Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... energy used for pumped storage pumping. (2) A licensee who has filed these data under another section of... for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands. 11.4 Section 11.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE...

  15. Incorporation of groundwater pumping in a global Land Surface Model with the representation of human impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Koirala, Sujan; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Hanasaki, Naota; Longuevergne, Laurent; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

    2015-01-01

    Observations indicate that groundwater levels are declining in many regions around the world. Simulating such depletion of groundwater at the global scale still remains a challenge because most global Land Surface Models (LSMs) lack the physical representation of groundwater dynamics in general and well pumping in particular. Here we present an integrated hydrologic model, which explicitly simulates groundwater dynamics and pumping within a global LSM that also accounts for human activities such as irrigation and reservoir operation. The model is used to simulate global water fluxes and storages with a particular focus on groundwater withdrawal and depletion in the High Plains Aquifer (HPA) and Central Valley Aquifer (CVA). Simulated global groundwater withdrawal and depletion for the year 2000 are 570 and 330 km3 yr-1, respectively; the depletion agrees better with observations than our previous model result without groundwater representation, but may still contain certain uncertainties and is on the higher side of other estimates. Groundwater withdrawals from the HPA and CVA are ˜22 and ˜9 km3 yr-1, respectively, which are also consistent with the observations of ˜24 and ˜13 km3 yr-1. The model simulates a significant decline in total terrestrial water storage in both regions as caused mainly by groundwater storage depletion. Groundwater table declined by ˜14 cm yr-1 in the HPA during 2003-2010; the rate is even higher (˜71 cm yr-1) in the CVA. These results demonstrate the potential of the developed model to study the dynamic relationship between human water use, groundwater storage, and the entire hydrologic cycle.

  16. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  17. Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The tests included single-unit load rejection, single-unit pump power loss, multi-unit emergency shutdown from generating, multi-unit emergency shutdown from pumping, and spherical valve closure.

  18. Incorporation of phase-change materials into a ground thermal energy storage system: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Y.; Korin, E.

    1996-09-01

    An investigation of a ground thermal energy storage system, which includes storage units containing phase-change materials (PCM), is presented. This study is related to a large-diameter helical heat exchanger, which is placed vertically in the ground. The PCM storage units under consideration have a cylindrical shell shape and are located inside and/or outside the helix. A modified numerical scheme for the solution of heat transfer in the ground, in the PCM units, and within the heat exchanger pipe, is presented. The theoretical results show that the thermal diffusivity of the PCM dominates the thermal performance of the system. Incorporation of PCM storage units containing paraffin wax results in a reduction of the thermal efficiency in comparison with a system not containing these units. However, incorporation of PCM having the same thermal diffusivity as of the soil results in a significant improvement of the thermal performance.

  19. 76 FR 8729 - Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010, the Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Bison Peak...

  20. 76 FR 62399 - Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, the Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Bison Peak...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. Transformer stations,...

  2. 18 CFR 11.3 - Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects. 11.3 Section 11.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF THE FEDERAL POWER...

  3. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of...

  4. 18 CFR 11.3 - Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of government dams... Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.3 Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects. (a) General rule. (1) Any licensee whose non-Federal project uses a Government dam or other...

  5. 18 CFR 11.3 - Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of government dams... Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.3 Use of government dams, excluding pumped storage projects. (a) General rule. (1) Any licensee whose non-Federal project uses a Government dam or other...

  6. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, May 6, 2011 at 1 p.m. (Pacific Time)....

  7. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, April 15, 2011 at 9 a.m. (Pacific Time)....

  8. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...

  9. 76 FR 60491 - Mona South Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mona South Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application... connection will be determined later to ensure efficiency; (7) optimization of generation and energy...

  10. Effects of bank storage and well pumping on base flow, Carmel River, Monterey County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.; Maloney, L. M.; Williams, J. G.

    1987-06-01

    Bank storage contributions to base flow may be important on alluvial rivers with highly permeable bank materials, such as the lower Carmel River, Monterey County, California. The recharge phase of bank storage occurs during flood stage in the river when a hydraulic gradient exists from the river into the banks. In general, discharge from bank storage is most important on the recession limb of individual floods, with most stored water typically being discharged within 2-3 flood periods. As the river stage continues to fall, a hydraulic gradient from the banks to the river will be maintained and stored water will drain from the banks. On the Carmel River, the seasonal recession limb provides conditions of a gradually declining stage over several months. In 1982, a moderately wet year, bank storage contributions were detected two months after the last peak flow of the winter rainy season, during a period of critical importance to steelhead trout and probably to riparian vegetation. However, in 1983, an extremely wet year, bank storage was undetectable two months after the season's last peak flow, probably because the sustained base flow from the upper basin overwhelmed the more transient bank storage contribution. Groundwater withdrawal from the alluvial aquifer locally lowered the water table so that streamflow was influent to the banks in the reach of major pumping wells. This effect was striking in its persistence, whether the Carmel River was gaining or losing overall in its alluvial reach. Pumping rates were roughly comparable to flow losses across the well field.

  11. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  12. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  13. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Okumino: Japan`s largest pumped-storage plant enters service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Hirotsune

    1996-08-01

    Measures taken during the planning, design, and construction of Chubu Electric`s Okumino Pumped-Storage Plant to reduce capital costs and construction time are described. The project plan, including dams and reservoirs, tunnels, and generating equipment, are outlined. Technical information is tabulated and a list is provided of plant contractors and suppliers. Unique features of the plant are highlighted, including remote operation, a detour waterway, and generator-motor configuration.

  15. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  16. Distributed Non-evaporable Getter pumps for the storage ring of the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Dortwegt, R.; Benaroya, R.

    1993-07-01

    A pair of distributed Non-evaporable Getter (NeG) strip assemblies is installed in each of 236 aluminum vacuum chambers of the 1104-m storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source. Distributed pumping is provided to remove most of the gas resulting from photon-stimulated desorption occurring along the outer walls of the chambers. This is an efficient way of pumping because conductance is limited along the beam axis. The St-707 NeG strips are conditioned at 450{degree}C for 45 min. with 42 A. Base pressures obtained are also as low as 4 {times} 10{sup 11} Torr. The NeG strip assemblies are supported by a series of electrically isolated, 125-mm-long, interlocking stainless steel carriers. These unique interlocking carrier elements provide flexibility along the vacuum chamber curvature (r=38.96 m) and permit removal and installation of assemblies with as little as 150 mm external clearance between adjacent chambers.

  17. Storage stability of ascorbic acid incorporated in edible whey protein films.

    PubMed

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Min, Sea C; Krochta, John M

    2011-12-14

    The stability of ascorbic acid (AA) incorporated in whey protein isolate (WPI) film and the related color changes during storage were studied. No significant loss of AA content was found in any films prepared from pH 2.0 casting solution stored at 30% relative humidity (RH) and 22 °C over 84 days. Total visible color difference (ΔE*(ab)) of all films slowly increased over storage time. The ΔE*(ab) values of pH 3.5 films were significantly higher than those of pH 2.0 films. The stability of AA-WPI films was found to be mainly affected by the pH of the film-forming solution and storage temperature. Oxidative degradation of AA-WPI films followed Arrhenius behavior. Reduction of the casting solution pH to below the pK(a1) (4.04 at 25 °C) of AA effectively maintained AA-WPI storage stability by greatly reducing oxidative degradation, whereas anaerobic and nonenzymatic browning were insignificant. The half-life of pH 2.0 AA-WPI film at 30% RH and 22 °C was 520 days.

  18. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  19. Replacement of the static frequency converter starting equipment at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, G.; Deckman, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In October 1994, the Tennessee Valley Authority awarded a contract for replacement of their Static Frequency Converter (SFC) Starting Equipment at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant. Replacement of the original SFC was deemed necessary to counter a rising forced outage rate and costly repairs directly attributable to the advanced age and condition of the original equipment. This paper presents a comparison of the features of the new SFC versus the original SFC. The new SFC is scheduled to undergo check-out and testing in Spring of 1996.

  20. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  1. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  2. Field performance of cavitation erosion resistant alloy on pumped-storage hydroturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; March, P.A.; Epps, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The TVA Raccoon Mountain Plant is a four unit pumped-storage plant located on the Tennessee River, Nickajack Reservoir, in Marion County, Tennessee, six miles (3.7 km) west of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The four units went into commercial operation between January 31, 1978 and August 31, 19179. Each unit has a generating rating of 392 MW at a 1020 ft head (310.9 meters). Each turbine is a reversible Francis type, with vertical shaft, manufactured by Allis-Chalmers (now Voith Hydro, Inc.). The runner diameter is 16 ft 7 inches (5.05 meters). the runner material is ASTM A296-CA6NM.

  3. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  4. Effect of Incorporated Pumping Station Weight on the Rotating Torque of Geokhod Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernukhin, R. V.; Timofeev, V. Y.; Grigoryeva, E. G.

    2016-04-01

    The article describes the results of a theoretical research of installation of a pumping station into the tail section of a geokhod. It is considered how an increasing weight of the tail section influences power characteristics of geokhod transmission. The research is based on a mathematical model of geokhod’s moving through the underground space.

  5. Closed-form analytical solutions incorporating pumping and tidal effects in various coastal aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaoyue; Li, Hailong; Wan, Li; Wang, Xusheng; Jiang, Xiaowei

    2014-07-01

    Pumping wells are common in coastal aquifers affected by tides. Here we present analytical solutions of groundwater table or head variations during a constant rate pumping from a single, fully-penetrating well in coastal aquifer systems comprising an unconfined aquifer, a confined aquifer and semi-permeable layer between them. The unconfined aquifer terminates at the coastline (or river bank) and the other two layers extend under tidal water (sea or tidal river) for a certain distance L. Analytical solutions are derived for 11 reasonable combinations of different situations of the L-value (zero, finite, and infinite), of the middle layer's permeability (semi-permeable and impermeable), of the boundary condition at the aquifer's submarine terminal (Dirichlet describing direct connection with seawater and no-flow describing the existence of an impermeable capping), and of the tidal water body (sea and tidal river). Solutions are discussed with application examples in fitting field observations and parameter estimations.

  6. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  7. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  8. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  9. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  10. Mitigation of harmonic disturbance at pumped storage power station with static frequency converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.C.; Wu, C.J.; Yen, S.S.

    1997-09-01

    This paper investigates the harmonic distortion problem and mitigation method at the Mingtan Pumped Storage Power Station in Taiwan, where six 300 MVA synchronous generators/motors are started by a static frequency converter (SFC) before the pumping stage. Since the SFC uses 6-pulse rectifier technique, a large amount of harmonic currents are produced during the starting period. The harmonic distortion level at each bus of the power plant was very high. Especially, the total harmonic distortion (THD) of current at the lighting feeder reached up to 184%, so that power fuses were burned out. At first a 5 mH reactor was inserted in the SFC feeder and a 5th order and high pass filter was installed. However, the harmonic distortion levels were still too high, but there is no space for additional higher-order filters. Finally, the SFC is fed with an individual transformer, and the harmonic disturbance problem is avoided. This paper also gives computer simulations to investigate the harmonic distortion problems and verify the mitigation methods.

  11. 18 CFR 11.4 - Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands. 11.4 Section 11.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER PART I OF...

  12. 18 CFR 11.4 - Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of government dams... of Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.4 Use of government dams... pumped storage project using a Government dam or other structure and for any project using tribal...

  13. 18 CFR 11.4 - Use of government dams for pumped storage projects, and use of tribal lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of government dams... of Tribal Lands and Other Government Lands, and Use of Government Dams § 11.4 Use of government dams... pumped storage project using a Government dam or other structure and for any project using tribal...

  14. Numerical investigation of high temperature heat pipe incorporated in thermal energy storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Qiu, Songgang; Tiari, Saeed

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, a new type of high temperature heat pipe is investigated which can be incorporated in the thermal energy storage for concentrated solar power systems. A detailed two dimensional axisymmetric numerical procedure is developed to analyze the steady state thermal-hydrodynamic characteristics of the heat pipe. The model accounts for conduction in the wall and wick regions as well as compressible flow in vapor chambers. The geometrical features, working fluid type, wick structure and operational temperature of the heat pipe are adjusted satisfying the heat transport limitations. The proposed numerical model agrees well with available experimental data. The effects of evaporator heat input and vapor core radius on the vapor velocity and pressure fields, vapor and wall temperature distributions as well as heat pipe thermal resistance are studied. The results revealed that the thermal resistance increases with the increase of heat input while decreases with the increase of radius, however, there exists a certain radius which further increase over would not affect the thermal resistance significantly.

  15. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  16. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  17. Incorporating high-pressure electroosmotic pump and a nano-flow gradient generator into a miniaturized liquid chromatographic system for peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Apeng; Lynch, Kyle B; Wang, Xiaochun; Lu, Joann J; Gu, Congying; Liu, Shaorong

    2014-09-24

    We integrate a high-pressure electroosmotic pump (EOP), a nanoflow gradient generator, and a capillary column into a miniaturized liquid chromatographic system that can be directly coupled with a mass spectrometer for proteomic analysis. We have recently developed a low-cost high-pressure EOP capable of generating pressure of tens of thousands psi, ideal for uses in miniaturized HPLC. The pump worked smoothly when it was used for isocratic elutions. When it was used for gradient elutions, generating reproducible gradient profiles was challenging; because the pump rate fluctuated when the pump was used to pump high-content organic solvents. This presents an issue for separating proteins/peptides since high-content organic solvents are often utilized. In this work, we solve this problem by incorporating our high-pressure EOP with a nano-flow gradient generator so that the EOP needs only to pump an aqueous solution. With this combination, we develop a capillary-based nano-HPLC system capable of performing nano-flow gradient elution; the pump rate is stable, and the gradient profiles are reproducible and can be conveniently tuned. To demonstrate its utility, we couple it with either a UV absorbance detector or a mass spectrometer for peptide separations.

  18. Effects of pipe diameters on the pressures during delayed load rejection in high-head pumped storage power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, W.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    High-head pumped storage power stations face serious problems related to the transient process, especially in the area of delayed load rejection in stations with annular piping layouts. The controlled pressures are adversely affected, which leads to many problems in the engineering design phase. In this study, we investigated this condition through theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and actual engineering practice. We concluded that the root cause of the pressure issues is the flow switching resulted from the non-synchronous changes in pressure between each branch pipe. Moreover, we examined the impact of the diameters of the upstream main pipe and branch pipe on the controlled pressures and determined that the diameter of the branch pipe has a major influence on the pressures as it changes the flow switching rate. A similar investigation was conducted for downstream pipes. Our conclusions can be applied to actual engineering practice for high-head pumped storage power stations.

  19. Development of an operational, full-scale fish protection system at a major pumped-storage hydropower dam

    SciTech Connect

    Nestler, J.M.; Ploskey, G.R.; Weeks, G.

    1995-12-31

    A large scale, fully operational, integrated fish protection system was developed for Richard B. Russell Dam, a Corps of Engineers pumped-storage hydropower facility with 640 MW conventional generation capacity and 340 MW pumping capacity, on the Savannah River between Georgia and South Carolina. The fish protection system, designed to operate during pumping operation only, combines: (1) knowledge of seasonal and diel movement patterns of fishes to develop guidelines to restrict pumping to periods of minimal fish entrainment potential; (2) detailed 2-dimensional physical and numerical hydraulic modeling to identify high velocity entraining flow zones, low velocity zones, and slack water zones; (3) an acoustic repulsion system employing high-frequency sound to divert blueback herring out of the entraining zone and into low velocity or slack water zones; (4) banks of high pressure sodium incandescent lights located in the low velocity-slack water zones to attract and hold fishes during pumping operation; and (5) a veneer made of 0.32-cm wedge wire on 5.08-cm centers that is placed directly over the trash racks to divert fishes larger than about 35-cm in length from the trash racks. Strobe lights were initially included in the system, but later abandoned after evaluation for effectiveness. Yearlong full recovery net monitoring supplemented by fixed aspect hydroacoustics sampling using two of the four pumped-storage units demonstrates the effectiveness of the fish protection. The total cost of the system was less than one million dollars. Integrating separate fish protection technologies into a comprehensive fish protection system can be used to increase fish protection at hydropower dams.

  20. Effects of operating Mt. Elbert pumped-storage powerplant on Twin Lakes, Colorado: 1982 report of findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBounty, J.F.; Sartoris, J.J.; Lieberman, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    A series of studies is being performed to identify and quantify changes that occur in the aquatic ecology of Twin Lakes, Colorado, because of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant, which began operation in September 1981. The report presents results of studies done is 1982. These results, along with those from studies presently being done, will be compared with results from preoperational limnology studies at Twin Lakes from 1971 through 1981.

  1. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  3. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  4. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  5. Evaluation of the feasibility and viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Adam M.; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Martinez, Rocio; Bishop, Norm

    2015-09-01

    The viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) is examined in detail through the conceptual design, cost scoping, and economic analysis of three case studies. Modular PSH refers to both the compactness of the project design and the proposed nature of product fabrication and performance. A modular project is assumed to consist of pre-fabricated standardized components and equipment, tested and assembled into modules before arrival on site. This technology strategy could enable m-PSH projects to deploy with less substantial civil construction and equipment component costs. The concept of m-PSH is technically feasible using currently available conventional pumping and turbine equipment, and may offer a path to reducing the project development cycle from inception to commissioning.

  6. A chemical heat pump based on the reaction of calcium chloride and methanol for solar heating, cooling and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-03-01

    An engineering development test prototype of the CaCl2-CheOH chemical heat pump was tested. The unit, which has storage capacity in excess of 100,000 BTU, completed over 100 full charge-discharge cycles. Cycling data show that the rate of heat pumping depends strongly on the absorber-evaporator temperature difference. These rates are more than adequate for solar heating or for solar cooling using dry ambient air heat rejection. Performance degradation after 100 cycles, expressed as a contact resistance, was less than 2 C. The heat exchangers showed some warpage due to plastic flow of the salt, producing the contact resistance. The experimental COP for cooling was 0.52, close to the theoretically predicted value.

  7. Traveling-wave laser-produced-plasma energy source for photoionization laser pumping and lasers incorporating said

    DOEpatents

    Sher, Mark H.; Macklin, John J.; Harris, Stephen E.

    1989-09-26

    A traveling-wave, laser-produced-plasma, energy source used to obtain single-pass gain saturation of a photoionization pumped laser. A cylindrical lens is used to focus a pump laser beam to a long line on a target. Grooves are cut in the target to present a surface near normal to the incident beam and to reduce the area, and hence increase the intensity and efficiency, of plasma formation.

  8. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  9. Antifungal effectiveness of potassium sorbate incorporated in edible coatings against spoilage molds of apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Mehyar, Ghadeer F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Abu-Blan, Hifzi A; Swanson, Barry G

    2011-04-01

    Predominant spoilage molds of fresh apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes stored at 4 °C were isolated and examined for resistance to potassium sorbate (PS) incorporated in polysaccharide edible coatings. The isolated molds were Penicillium expansum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus niger from apples. P. oxalicum and C. cucumerinum were isolated from cucumbers and P. expansium and C. fulvum from tomatoes. Guar gum edible coating incorporated with PS was the most effective mold inhibitor, significantly (P<0.05) reducing the isolated spoilage molds for 20, 15, and 20 d of storage at 4 °C on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes, respectively. PS incorporated into pea starch edible coating was less effective and selectively inhibited the isolated mold species, causing significant (P<0.05) reduction in mold on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes counts for 20, 10 to 15, and 15 to 20 d of storage at 4 °C, respectively. The isolated mold species exhibited different resistances to PS incorporated in the edible coatings. The greatest inhibition (2.9 log CFU/g) was obtained with C. herbarum on apples and the smallest (1.1 log CFU/g) was with P. oxalicum on cucumbers and the other isolated mold species exhibited intermediate resistance. The coatings tested, in general, inhibited molds more effectively on apples than on tomatoes and cucumbers. Addition of PS to pea starch and guar gum, edible coatings improved the antifungal activity of PS against isolated spoilage molds on apples, cucumbers, and tomatoes. PS inhibition was most effective against C. herbarum on apples and least effective against P. oxalicum on cucumbers.

  10. Frozen storage stability of beef patties incorporated with extracts from ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus).

    PubMed

    Reihani, S F S; Tan, Thuan-Chew; Huda, Nurul; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2014-07-15

    In Malaysia, fresh ulam raja leaves (Cosmos caudatus) are eaten raw with rice. In this study, beef patties incorporated with extracts of ulam raja (UREX) and commercial green tea extract (GTE) added individually at 200 and 500 mg/kg were stored at -18°C for up to 10 weeks. Lipid oxidation, cooking yield, physicochemical properties, textural properties, proximate composition and sensory characteristics of the beef patties were compared between those incorporated with UREX, GTE and the control (pure beef patty). Incorporation of UREX or GTE at 500 mg/kg into beef patties reduced the extent of lipid oxidation significantly (P<0.05). UREX showed a strong lipid oxidation inhibitory effect, comparable with GTE. In addition, a significant improvement (P<0.05) in cooking yield and textural properties was also recorded. However, incorporation of UREX and GTE into beef patties showed no significant influence (P>0.05) on the colour, pH, proximate composition and overall sensory acceptability of the patties.

  11. Microbial Carbon Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134

    2010-12-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools

  12. Incorporating Peatland Plant Communities into the Enzymic 'Latch' Hypothesis: Can Vegetation Influence Carbon Storage Mechanisms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, K. J.; Daniels, A. L.; Potvin, L. R.; Kane, E. S.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Lilleskov, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    High water table conditions in peatland ecosystems are known to favor plant production over decomposition and carbon is stored. Dominant plant communities change in response to water table but little is know of how these changes affect belowground carbon storage. One hypothesis known as the enzymic 'latch' proposed by Freeman et al. suggests that oxygen limitations due to high water table conditions inhibit microorganisms from synthesizing specific extracellular enzymes essential for carbon and nutrient mineralization, allowing carbon to be stored as decomposition is reduced. Yet, this hypothesis excludes plant community interactions on carbon storage. We hypothesize that the dominant vascular plant communities, sedges and ericaceous shrubs, will have inherently different effects on peatland carbon storage, especially in response to declines in water table. Sedges greatly increase in abundance following water table decline and create extensive carbon oxidation and mineralization hotspots through the production of deep roots with aerenchyma (air channels in roots). Increased oxidation may enhance aerobic microbial activity including increased enzyme activity, leading to peat subsidence and carbon loss. In contrast, ericaceous shrubs utilize enzymatically active ericoid mycorrhizal fungi that suppress free-living heterotrophs, promoting decreased carbon mineralization by mediating changes in rhizosphere microbial communities and enzyme activity regardless of water table declines. Beginning May 2010, bog monoliths were harvested, housed in mesocosm chambers, and manipulated into three vegetation treatments: unmanipulated (+sedge, +Ericaceae), sedge (+sedge, -Ericaceae), and Ericaceae (-sedge, +Ericaceae). Following vegetation manipulations, two distinct water table manipulations targeting water table seasonal profiles were implemented: (low intra-seasonal variability, higher mean water table; high intra-seasonal variability, lower mean water table). In 2012, peat

  13. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-04-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  14. Concepts for design of an energy management system incorporating dispersed storage and generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, H.; Koerner, T.; Nightingale, D.

    1981-01-01

    New forms of generation based on renewable resources must be managed as part of existing power systems in order to be utilized with maximum effectiveness. Many of these generators are by their very nature dispersed or small, so that they will be connected to the distribution part of the power system. This situation poses new questions of control and protection, and the intermittent nature of some of the energy sources poses problems of scheduling and dispatch. Under the assumption that the general objectives of energy management will remain unchanged, the impact of dispersed storage and generation on some of the specific functions of power system control and its hardware are discussed.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground transformer stations, combustible... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4262 Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid... and dispensing areas for combustible liquids, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms shall...

  16. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  17. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  18. Microporous metal-organic frameworks incorporating 1,4-benzeneditetrazolate: syntheses, structures, and hydrogen storage properties.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Mircea; Yu, Anta F; Long, Jeffrey R

    2006-07-12

    The potential of tetrazolate-based ligands for forming metal-organic frameworks of utility in hydrogen storage is demonstrated with the use of 1,4-benzeneditetrazolate (BDT(2)(-)) to generate a series of robust, microporous materials. Reaction of H(2)BDT with MnCl(2).4H(2)O and Mn(NO(3))(2).4H(2)O in N,N-diethylformamide (DEF) produces the two-dimensional framework solids Mn(3)(BDT)(2)Cl(2)(DEF)(6) (1) and Mn(4)(BDT)(3)(NO(3))(2)(DEF)(6) (2), whereas reactions with hydrated salts of Mn(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) in a mixture of methanol and DMF afford the porous, three-dimensional framework solids Zn(3)(BDT)(3)(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(2).3.5CH(3)OH (3), Mn(3)(BDT)(3)(DMF)(4)(H(2)O)(2).3CH(3)OH.2H(2)O.DMF (4), Mn(2)(BDT)Cl(2)(DMF)(2).1.5CH(3)OH.H(2)O (5), and Cu(BDT)(DMF).CH(3)OH.0.25DMF (6). It is shown that the method for desolvating such compounds can dramatically influence the ensuing gas sorption properties. When subjected to a mild evacuation procedure, compounds 3-6 exhibit permanent porosity, with BET surface areas in the range 200-640 m(2)/g. The desolvated forms of 3-5 store between 0.82 and 1.46 wt % H(2) at 77 K and 1 atm, with enthalpies of adsorption in the range 6.0-8.8 kJ/mol, among the highest so far reported for metal-organic frameworks. In addition, the desolvated form of 6 exhibits preferential adsorption of O(2) over H(2) and N(2), showing promise for gas separation and purification applications.

  19. Comparison of acoustic and conventional flow measurement techniques at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.; Missimer, J.R.; Voss, A.; Pearson, H.S.

    1987-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research project to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using the acoustic method of flow measurement in hydroelectric power plant efficiency tests. As a portion of this program, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant was chosen as one of the sites to be tested. The primary objective of the TVA test was to compare the measurements of the Ocean Research Engineering (ORE), acoustic flowmeter installed on Unit 1 to the Volumetric and Winter-Kennedy Techniques for flow measurement. The Winter-Kennedy Technique is the standard flow measurement technique used in the plant. The Volumetric Technique consisted of accurate measurement of the upper reservoir volume over specified time increments. For calibration, the upper reservoir was initially drained and as it was being filled, aerial photographs were taken to obtain contour lines which were correlated with simultaneous stage measurements. The photographs were used to compute the differential volume of the reservoir associated with a change in stage. Six performance tests were conducted on Unit 1. During the tests no other units were operated. Five tests were conducted in the generating mode and one test was conducted in the pumping mode. The uncertainty in the measurements using the Volumetric Technique is of the order of 0.5 percent for changes of stage elevation in excess of two feet. The flowrate measured by the ORE acoustic flowmeter was consistently of the order of 1.5 percent lower than the flowrate determined from the Volumetric Technique in both the generating and pumping modes. 3 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. A method for incorporating equilibrium chemical reactions into multiphase flow models for CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaltink, Maarten W.; Vilarrasa, Victor; De Gaspari, Francesca; Silva, Orlando; Carrera, Jesús; Rötting, Tobias S.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers involves many coupled processes, including multiphase flow, heat and mass transport, rock deformation and mineral precipitation and dissolution. Coupling is especially critical in carbonate aquifers, where minerals will tend to dissolve in response to the dissolution of CO2 into the brine. The resulting neutralization will drive further dissolution of both CO2 and calcite. This suggests that large cavities may be formed and that proper simulation may require full coupling of reactive transport and multiphase flow. We show that solving the latter may suffice whenever two requirements are met: (1) all reactions can be assumed to occur in equilibrium and (2) the chemical system can be calculated as a function of the state variables of the multiphase flow model (i.e., liquid and gas pressure, and temperature). We redefine the components of multiphase flow codes (traditionally, water and CO2), so that they are conservative for all reactions of the chemical system. This requires modifying the traditional constitutive relationships of the multiphase flow codes, but yields the concentrations of all species and all reaction rates by simply performing speciation and mass balance calculations at the end of each time step. We applied this method to the H2O-CO2-Na-Cl-CaCO3 system, so as to model CO2 injection into a carbonate aquifer containing brine. Results were very similar to those obtained with traditional formulations, which implies that full coupling of reactive transport and multi-phase flow is not really needed for this kind of systems, but the resulting simplifications may make it advisable even for cases where the above requirements are not met. Regarding the behavior of carbonate rocks, we find that porosity development near the injection well is small because of the low solubility of calcite. Moreover, dissolution concentrates at the front of the advancing CO2 plume because the brine below the plume tends to reach

  1. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants.

  2. 76 FR 80926 - Cortez Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... a total storage capacity of 8,000 acre-feet and a water surface area of 275 acres at full pool... capacity of 9,500 acre-feet and a water surface area of 200 acres at full pool elevation; (3) two 15- foot-diameter steel consisting of a surface penstock, a vertical shaft and an inclined tunnel; (4) two...

  3. 77 FR 16219 - Cortez Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... a total storage capacity of 8,000 acre-feet and a water surface area of 275 acres at full pool... capacity of 9,500 acre-feet and a water surface area of 200 acres at full pool elevation; (3) two 15- foot-diameter steel consisting of a surface penstock, a vertical shaft and an inclined tunnel; (4) two...

  4. 77 FR 16219 - Mayville Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... within excavated underground mine space with a surface area of 212 acres and a storage capacity of 9,540...-foot-long concrete-lined tailrace; (8) a lower reservoir created within excavated underground mine... of your comments. For assistance, please contact FERC Online Support at FERCOnlineSupport@ferc.gov...

  5. Role of vacuolar membrane proton pumps in the acidification of protein storage vacuoles following germination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karl A; Chavda, Burzin J; Pierre-Louis, Gandhy; Quinn, Adam; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2016-07-01

    During soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seed development, protease C1, the proteolytic enzyme that initiates breakdown of the storage globulins β-conglycinin and glycinin at acidic pH, is present in the protein storage vacuoles (PSVs), the same subcellular compartments in seed cotyledons where its protein substrates accumulate. Actual proteolysis begins to be evident 24 h after seed imbibition, when the PSVs become acidic, as indicated by acridine orange accumulation visualized by confocal microscopy. Imidodiphosphate (IDP), a non-hydrolyzable substrate analog of proton-translocating pyrophosphatases, strongly inhibited acidification of the PSVs in the cotyledons. Consistent with this finding, IDP treatment inhibited mobilization of β-conglycinin and glycinin, the inhibition being greater at 3 days compared to 6 days after seed imbibition. The embryonic axis does not appear to play a role in the initial PSV acidification in the cotyledon, as axis detachment did not prevent acridine orange accumulation three days after imbibition. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses of cotyledon protein extracts were consistent with limited digestion of the 7S and 11S globulins by protease C1 starting at the same time and proceeding at the same rate in detached cotyledons compared to cotyledons of intact seedlings. Embryonic axis removal did slow down further breakdown of the storage globulins by reactions known to be catalyzed by protease C2, a cysteine protease that normally appears later in seedling growth to continue the storage protein breakdown initiated by protease C1. PMID:27043965

  6. 76 FR 70440 - Haiwee Ridge Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... at elevation 3,766 feet above mean sea level (msl), but the water level in the reservoir is limited... 680-foot-long RCC dam) having a total storage capacity of 15,100 acre-feet and a water surface area of... acre-feet and a water surface area of 660 acres at full pool elevation of 3,756 feet msl;...

  7. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    PubMed

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities. PMID:22700378

  8. Initial findings: The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Johnson, B.K.; Wallin, R.P.; Chiu, S.A.; Crawley, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building System Integration Research Program. The goal of the program is to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving integrated decision-making during design and construction. Improved decision-making could significantly reduce buildings' energy use by the year 2010. The objectives of the Commercial Building System Integration Research Program are: to identify and quantify the most significant energy-related interactions among building subsystems; to develop the scientific and technical basis for improving energy related interactions in building subsystems; and to provide guidance to designers, owners, and builders for improving the integration of building subsystems for energy efficiency. The lead laboratory for this program is the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A wide variety of expertise and resources from industry, academia, other government entities, and other DOE laboratories are used in planning, reviewing and conducting research activities. Cooperative and complementary research, development, and technology transfer activities with other interested organizations are actively pursued. In this report, the interactions of a water loop heat pump system and building structural mass and their effect on whole-building energy performance is analyzed. 10 refs., 54 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Wind-Pump Storage Feasibility Study Project

    SciTech Connect

    Shawn A. LaRoche; Tracey LeBeau; Innovation Investments, LLC

    2007-04-20

    The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.

  10. Analysis of Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) viability associated with other types of intermittent renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, J. G. P.; Barbosa, P. S. F.; Luvizotto, E., Jr.; Zuculin, S.; Pinto, Marrc; Tiago Filho, G. L.

    2014-03-01

    The energy generated by wind or solar photovoltaic (PV system) can be used by PSP to accumulate water in the upper reservoir, in the form of potential energy to be used later, during periods of high energy demand. This procedure offers the advantage of enabling the use of intermittent renewable energy source in times of growing needs of the electric power supply. The location of the PSP, the environmental aspects involved, their possible use for various purposes (stability of the power system at peak times, associate the turbine water for public supply purposes, among others) and the discussion of regulatory issues needs to be debated in the current context, where environmental issues require reliable sources of power generation and demand shows strong growth rates. A dynamic model is used to analyze the behavior of a PSP proposal for a site in Brazil, analyzing a complete cycle of its operation as a pump or turbine. The existing difficulties to use this proposal based on existing regulatory policies are also discussed, and a list of recommended adjustments is provided to allow the penetrations of PSP projects in the Brazilian institutional framework, coupled with other intermittent energy sources.

  11. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1990-09-01

    Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

  12. The stability of carboplatin, diamorphine, 5-fluorouracil and mitozantrone infusions in an ambulatory pump under storage and prolonged 'in-use' conditions.

    PubMed

    Northcott, M; Allsopp, M A; Powell, H; Sewell, G J

    1991-04-01

    Drug infusions can be exposed for prolonged periods to 'in-use' conditions where the temperature of an infusion in a holster-worn infusion pump may reach 37 degrees C. In this study, the stability of three cytotoxic drug infusions (carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil and mitozantrone) and one analgesic infusion (diamorphine HCl) was determined in Parker Micropump medication reservoirs under refrigerated storage and prolonged in-use conditions. The stability of the three cytotoxic drug infusions was unaffected by 14 days storage at either 4 or 37 degrees C. The diamorphine HCl infusion was stable over 14 days storage at 4 degrees C but under in-use conditions at 37 degrees C, drug degradation became significant (greater than 5%) if storage exceeded 7 days.

  13. Twin Lakes studies: a characterization of the Twin Lakes fishery via creel census with an evaluation of potential effects of pump-storage power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Nesler, T.P.

    1981-11-01

    Creel census studies were conducted at Twin Lakes, Colo. from 1972 to 1979 to characterize the fishery, and to provide a basis for the evaluation of potential impacts upon the fishery resulting from the construction and operation of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant located on the lower lake. In this report, creel census data are presented for the period December 1976 to September 1979. Creel census has resulted in characterization of the Twin Lakes fishery with a precision adequate for analyses of pumped-storage effects upon the major components of the fishery. Potential powerplant impacts, such as increased mortality to rainbow trout, daily and seasonal water-level fluctuations, and shoreline turbidity may have adverse effects on the Twin Lakes shore fishery for rainbow trout. Large-scale impacts probably will be necessary to demonstrate effects upon the boat fishery and the lake trout harvest.

  14. Tonoplast lipid composition and proton pump of pineapple fruit during low-temperature storage and blackheart development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-05-01

    Vacuole represents a major storage organelle playing vital roles in pH homoeostasis and cellular detoxification. The chemical and functional properties of tonoplast in response to chilling temperature and their roles in chilling injury are largely unknown. In the current study, lipid composition of tonoplast and the activities of two vacuolar proton pumps, H?-ATPase (V-ATPase) and H?-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase), were investigated in accordance with the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus). Chilling temperature at 10 °C for 1 week induced irreversible blackheart injury in concurrence with a substantial decrease in V-ATPase activity. By contrast, the activity was increased after 1 week at 25 °C. The activity of V-PPase was not changed under both temperatures. Level of total phospholipids of tonoplast decreased at 10 °C, but increased at 25 °C. There was no change at the level of total glycolipids under both temperatures. Thus, low temperature increased the ratio of total glycolipids vs. total phospholipids of tonoplast. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant phospholipids of tonoplast. Low temperature increased the relative level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the percentage of both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for over 60 % of the total tonoplast fatty acids, with C18:1 and C18:2 being predominant. Low temperature significantly decreased the percentage of C18:3. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of tonoplast at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in the development of chilling injury in pineapple fruit.

  15. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-12-31

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  16. Remotely maintained waste transfer pump

    SciTech Connect

    Eargle, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) operates the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy (DOE). Waste from the processing of irradiated material is stored in large shielded tanks. Treated liquid wastes are to be transferred from these tanks to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for incorporation in glass suitable for storage in a federal repository. Characteristics of the wastes range from water-like liquid to highly viscous wastes containing suspended solids. Pumping head requirements for various conditions ranged from 10 meters (35 feet) to 168 meters (550 feet). A specially designed, cantilever type, remotely operated and maintained pump was designed and built to transfer the wastes. To demonstrate the design, a prototype pump was built and testing thoroughly with simulated waste. Severe vibration problems were overcome by proper drive shaft selection and careful control of the space between the pump shaft and fixed running clearances (sometimes called seals). Eleven pumps are now installed and six pumps have been successfully run in water service.

  17. Pumping and Breastmilk Storage

    MedlinePlus

    ... has how-to information and support to help women breastfeed successfully. Related information It's Only Natural: African-American breastfeeding Support for nursing moms in the workplace Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Accessibility | Privacy ...

  18. Integrated subsurface water solutions for coastal environments through integrated pump&treat and aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikaki, Martha; Kallioras, Andreas; Christoforidis, Christophoros; Iossifidis, Dimitris; Zafeiropoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Makropoulos, Christos; Raat, Klaasjan; van den Berg, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal wetlands in semi-arid regions, as in Circum-Mediterranean, are considered important ecosystems that provide valuable services to human population and the environment, such as: flood protection, erosion control, wildlife habitat, water quality, recreation and carbon sequestration. Un-managed surface and groundwater exploitation in these areas usually leads to deterioration of such sensitive ecosystems by means of water resources degradation and/or increased salinity. Groundwater usually plays a vital role for the sustainability of these hydrological systems, as the underlying aquifers operate as regulators for both quantity and quality of their waters. Multi-layer and multi-objective Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) systems can be proved effective groundwater engineered solutions for the restoration of deteriorated coastal wetlands in semi- and arid regions. The plain of Marathon is a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts a naturally occurring -and today degraded- coastal wetland with the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem linked to a typical coastal hydrogeological system of a semi-arid region; and therefore can serve as a model for similar systems world-wide. The geo-hydrological setting of the area involves a multi-layer aquifer system consisting of (i) an upper un-consolidated formation of depositional unit dominated mostly by fluvial sediments and (ii) the surrounding and underlying karstified marbles; both being linked to the investigated wetland and also subjected to seawater encroachment. A smart engineered MAR system via an optimised Pump & Treat system integrated with an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) scheme in this area would include the abstraction of brackish groundwater from the deeper karst aquifer at a location close to the shoreline and direct treatment with Reverse Osmosis (RO). for desalination. Two-fold re-use scheme of the purified effluent can then be engineered for (i) the restoration of the coastal wetland; and (ii

  19. Influence of drug incorporation, temperature and storage time on the pH, textural and rheological properties of different poloxamer hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Hugo; Amaral, Maria Helena; Lobão, Paulo; Lobo, José Manuel Sousa

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, Poloxamers had attracted a particular interest in the design of dermal and transdermal delivery systems in order to improve or retard drug permeation through the skin. In the present study, the influence of different parameters, such as, temperature, storage time, type of polymer (Lutrol(®) F-127 and Lutrol(®) F-108) and the addition of two types of drugs (ibuprofen and hydrocortisone) in the pH, texture and rheological behavior of topical pharmaceutical formulations containing poloxamers was assessed. In fact, the type of polymer used in the preparation of the hydrogels, the type of drug incorporated, the temperature and the storage time caused changes in the pH, texture and rheological behavior of topical formulations containing Lutrol(®) F-127 and Lutrol(®) F-108. Lutrol(®) F-127 hydrogels showed higher values of pH, firmness, adhesiveness and viscosity than Lutrol(®) F-108 hydrogels. The chemical nature of the drugs incorporated in these poloxamer hydrogels influence the pH of the preparations. Low percentages of drug incorporated into both types of hydrogels didn't affect significantly their textural and rheological characteristics. The hydrogels prepared with Lutrol(®) F- 127 proved to be more resistant to temperature variations, maintaining their rheological behavior over time. PMID:23886320

  20. Studies of the effects of operating the Mt. Elbert pumped-storage powerplant on Twin Lakes, Colorado: 1980 report of findings

    SciTech Connect

    LaBounty, J.F.; Sartoris, J.J.

    1981-12-01

    A series of studies is being performed to qualify and quantify changes that occur in the limnological features of Twin Lakes, Colo. because of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant, which began operation in August 1981. This report presents the results of studies done in 1980. These results, along with those from other studies done since 1971 when the project began, are being used to define the preoperational limnology of Twin Lakes. The lakes are a pair of dimictic, connected, montane, drainage lakes of glacial origin. Based on seven limnological parameters, the lakes are classified as oligotrophic lakes.

  1. Unusually Huge Charge Storage Capacity of Mn3O4-Graphene Nanocomposite Achieved by Incorporation of Inorganic Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Jin, Xiaoyan; Lee, Seul; Oh, Seung Mi; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-06-01

    Remarkable improvement in electrode performance of Mn3O4-graphene nanocomposites for lithium ion batteries can be obtained by incorporation of a small amount of exfoliated layered MnO2 or RuO2 nanosheets. The metal oxide nanosheet-incorporated Mn3O4-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites are synthesized via growth of Mn3O4 nanocrystals in the mesoporous networks of rGO and MnO2/RuO2 2D nanosheets. Incorporation of metal oxide nanosheets is highly effective in optimizing porous composite structure and charge transport properties, resulting in a remarkable increase of discharge capacity of Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposite with significant improvement of cyclability and rate performance. The observed enormous discharge capacity of synthesized Mn3O4-rGO-MnO2 nanocomposite (∼1600 mA·h·g(-1) for the 100th cycle) is the highest value among reported data for Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposite. Despite much lower electrical conductivity of MnO2 than RuO2, the MnO2-incorporated nanocomposite at optimal composition (2.5 wt %) shows even larger discharge capacities with comparable rate characteristics compared with the RuO2-incorporated homologue. This finding underscores that the electrode performance of the resulting nanosheet-incorporated nanocomposite is strongly dependent on its pore and composite structures rather than on the intrinsic electrical conductivity of the additive nanosheet. The present study clearly demonstrates that, regardless of electrical conductivity, incorporation of metal oxide 2D nanosheet is an effective way to efficiently optimize the electrode functionality of graphene-based nanocomposites. PMID:27120268

  2. Improving the Thermochemical Energy Storage Performance of the Mn2 O3 /Mn3 O4 Redox Couple by the Incorporation of Iron.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Alfonso J; Serrano, David P; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Redox cycles of manganese oxides (Mn2 O3 /Mn3 O4 ) are a promising alternative for thermochemical heat storage systems coupled to concentrated solar power plants as manganese oxides are abundant and inexpensive materials. Although their cyclability for such a purpose has been proved, sintering processes, related to the high-temperature conditions at which charge-discharge cycles are performed, generally cause a cycle-to-cycle decrease in the oxidation rate of Mn3 O4 . To guarantee proper operation, both reactions should present stable reaction rates. In this study, it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of Fe, which is also an abundant material, into the manganese oxides improves the redox performance of this system by increasing the heat storage density, narrowing the redox thermal hysteresis, and, above all, stabilizing and enhancing the oxidation rate over long-term operation, which counteracts the negative effects caused by sintering, although its presence is not avoided.

  3. Improving the Thermochemical Energy Storage Performance of the Mn2 O3 /Mn3 O4 Redox Couple by the Incorporation of Iron.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, Alfonso J; Serrano, David P; Pizarro, Patricia; Coronado, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Redox cycles of manganese oxides (Mn2 O3 /Mn3 O4 ) are a promising alternative for thermochemical heat storage systems coupled to concentrated solar power plants as manganese oxides are abundant and inexpensive materials. Although their cyclability for such a purpose has been proved, sintering processes, related to the high-temperature conditions at which charge-discharge cycles are performed, generally cause a cycle-to-cycle decrease in the oxidation rate of Mn3 O4 . To guarantee proper operation, both reactions should present stable reaction rates. In this study, it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of Fe, which is also an abundant material, into the manganese oxides improves the redox performance of this system by increasing the heat storage density, narrowing the redox thermal hysteresis, and, above all, stabilizing and enhancing the oxidation rate over long-term operation, which counteracts the negative effects caused by sintering, although its presence is not avoided. PMID:25925817

  4. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus.

    PubMed

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of bitter orange treatment groups were recorded lower than the other groups reaching to 25.11 ± 0.02 mg/100 g at the end of the storage. The TMA-N values of bitter orange treatment groups were lower than that of control and grapefruit treatment groups. In terms of TBARS value, alteration was observed in the control samples and this value significantly (p < 0.01) increased from 0.101 ± 0.011 mg MA/kg to 0.495 ± 0.083 mg MA/kg, while remained lower in the citrus extracts treatment groups at the end of storage since their antioxidant capacity. The oxidation was suppressed in citrus extracts treatment groups, especially in bitter orange flavedo treatment. The results showed the bitter orange albedo and bitter orange flavedo extracts in combination with ice storage have more effectiveness in controlling the biochemical indices in common pandora. PMID:26604414

  5. Chlorophyll a concentration and distribution in Twin Lakes, Colorado prior to operation of Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant, 1977-1981. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.G.; LaBounty, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A series of studies is being performed to identify changes in the limnology of Twin Lakes, Colorado, resulting from the operation of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant. This report presents preoperation chlorophyll concentrations in Twin Lakes from 1977 through 1981. Twin Lakes are a pair of oligotrophic, dimictic, and cool, high-mountain lakes. The lakes are thermally stratified between spring and fall turnover periods. They are ice-covered in winter and are poor in phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients. Some type of standing-crop, or primary-production estimate is necessary in any ecological evaluation because it represents the size of the food-chain base. The assessment of chlorophyll a concentration is the quickest and easiest way to estimate standing crop in a body of water.

  6. Hydrogen storage in a potassium-ion-bound metal-organic framework incorporating crown ether struts as specific cation binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dae-Woon; Chyun, Seung An; Suh, Myunghyun Paik

    2014-07-21

    To develop a metal-organic framework (MOF) for hydrogen storage, SNU-200 incorporating a 18-crown-6 ether moiety as a specific binding site for selected cations has been synthesized. SNU-200 binds K(+), NH4(+), and methyl viologen (MV(2+)) through single-crystal to single-crystal transformations. It exhibits characteristic gas-sorption properties depending on the bound cation. SNU-200 activated with supercritical CO2 shows a higher isosteric heat (Qst) of H2 adsorption (7.70 kJ mol(-1)) than other zinc-based MOFs. Among the cation inclusions, K(+) is the best for enhancing the isosteric heat of the H2 adsorption (9.92 kJ mol(-1)) as a result of the accessible open metal sites on the K(+) ion. PMID:24939240

  7. Use of time-subsidence data during pumping to characterize specific storage and hydraulic conductivity of semi-confining units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbey, T. J.

    2003-09-01

    A new graphical technique is developed that takes advantage of time-subsidence data collected from either traditional extensometer installations or from newer technologies such as fixed-station global positioning systems or interferometric synthetic aperture radar imagery, to accurately estimate storage properties of the aquifer and vertical hydraulic conductivity of semi-confining units. Semi-log plots of time-compaction data are highly diagnostic with the straight-line portion of the plot reflecting the specific storage of the semi-confining unit. Calculation of compaction during one-log cycle of time from these plots can be used in a simple analytical expression based on the Cooper-Jacob technique to accurately calculate specific storage of the semi-confining units. In addition, these semi-log plots can be used to identify when the pressure transient has migrated through the confining layer into the unpumped aquifer, precluding the need for additional piezometers within the unpumped aquifer or within the semi-confining units as is necessary in the Neuman and Witherspoon method. Numerical simulations are used to evaluate the accuracy of the new technique. The technique was applied to time-drawdown and time-compaction data collected near Franklin Virginia, within the Potomac aquifers of the Coastal Plain, and shows that the method can be easily applied to estimate the inelastic skeletal specific storage of this aquifer system.

  8. Clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multi-walled carbon nanotubes: a lithium-ion battery cathode with enhanced lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mokhlesur; Glushenkov, Alexey M; Chen, Zhiqiang; Dai, Xiujuan J; Ramireddy, Thrinathreddy; Chen, Ying

    2013-12-14

    We report the preparation of a novel nanocomposite architecture of α-LiFeO2-MWCNT based on clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The composite represents a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The preparation of the nanocomposite is achieved by combining a molten salt precipitation process and a radio frequency oxygen plasma for the first time. We demonstrate that clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles incorporated into MWCNTs are capable of delivering a stable and high reversible capacity of 147 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles with the first cycle Coulombic efficiency of ~95%. The rate capability of the composite is significantly improved and its reversible capacity is measured to be 101 mA h g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 C. Both rate capability and cycling stability are not simply a result of introduction of functionalized MWCNTs but most likely originate from the unique composite structure of clusters of α-LiFeO2 nanoparticles integrated into a network of MWCNTs. The excellent electrochemical performance of this new nanocomposite opens up new opportunities in the development of high-performance electrode materials for energy storage application using the radio frequency oxygen plasma technique.

  9. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Effect of heat treatment on oxidase activity and proton-pumping capability of proteoliposome-incorporated beef heart cytochrome aa3

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, N.; Nicholls, P.

    1984-12-18

    By incubating beef heart cytochrome c oxidase at 43-45 degrees C, selective inactivation of the H+-pumping function is possible without affecting cytochrome c oxidase activity; proteoliposomes reconstituted with heated enzyme (43.5 degrees C for 60 min at pH 7.0) showed an apparent H+/e- ratio of only 0.3 and a turnover with cytochrome c plus ferrocyanide as substrate of 20 s-1, while those with the intact enzyme showed an apparent H+/e- ratio somewhat greater than 1.0 and a turnover of 19 s-1. This decrease in the H+/e- ratio could not be attributed to a stimulation of H+ permeability upon heating, since the respiratory control ratio and the magnitude of membrane potential formation remained almost the same in the two cases. A pH-dependent Em (midpoint redox potential) change of cytochrome a in the presence of cyanide was still observed after the heat treatment. Heating induced a small spectral shift in the Soret region of the oxidized (resting) enzyme; the peak of the heated enzyme was at 421 nm, while that of the intact enzyme was at 419 nm. The spectral shift obtained by pulsing the enzyme with oxygen under turnover conditions is also altered.

  11. Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution in CLM4.5: Effects on predicted site and global evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Niu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We implemented the Amenu-Kumar model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to simulate plant Root Hydraulic Redistribution (RHR) and analyzed its influence on CLM hydrology from site to global scales. We evaluated two numerical implementations: the first solved the coupled equations of root and soil water transport concurrently, while the second solved the two equations sequentially. Through sensitivity analysis, we demonstrate that the sequentially coupled implementation (SCI) is numerically incorrect, whereas the tightly coupled implementation (TCI) is numerically robust with numerical time steps varying from 1 to 30 min. At the site-level, we found the SCI approach resulted in better agreement with measured evapotranspiration (ET) at the AmeriFlux Blodgett Forest site, California, whereas the two approaches resulted in equally poor agreement between predicted and measured ET at the LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site in Amazon, Brazil. Globally, the SCI approach overestimated annual land ET by as much as 3.5 mm d-1 in some grid cells when compared to the TCI estimates. These comparisons demonstrate that TCI is a more robust numerical implementation of RHR. However, we found, even with TCI, that incorporating RHR resulted in worse agreement with measured soil moisture at both the Blodgett Forest and Tapajos sites and degraded the agreement between simulated terrestrial water storage anomaly and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations. We find including RHR in CLM4.5 improved ET predictions compared with the FLUXNET-MTE estimates north of 20° N but led to poorer predictions in the tropics. The biases in ET were robust and significant regardless of the four different pedotransfer functions or of the two meteorological forcing data sets we applied. We also found that the simulated water table was unrealistically sensitive to RHR. Therefore, we contend that further structural and data improvements are warranted to improve the hydrological

  12. Machine perfusion following static cold storage preservation in kidney transplantation: donor-matched pair analysis of the prognostic impact of longer pump time.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Gaetano; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Sageshima, Junichiro; Roth, David; Kupin, Warren; Guerra, Giselle; Tueros, Lissett; Zarak, Alberto; Hanson, Lois; Ganz, Susan; Chen, Linda; Ruiz, Phillip; Livingstone, Alan S; Burke, George W

    2012-01-01

    The impact of machine perfusion (MP) time on kidney transplant outcome is mixed in previous studies using multivariable analyses. In an analysis of 66 pairs of donor-matched adult, first transplant recipients (N = 132) with identical donor characteristics except for pump time, tests of association of shorter versus longer pump time (first versus second kidney removed) by delayed graft function(DGF), slow graft function(SGF), and biopsy proven acute rejection(BPAR) were performed using McNemar's test. Freedom-from-BPAR, graft and patient survival, and renal function were also compared. Mean ± SD pump times for paired recipients with first and second kidneys were 22.7 ± 7.3 h and 31.2 ± 7.9 h, respectively (mean difference: 8.5 ± 4.5 h, P < .000001). There was no significant impact of pump time on DGF or SGF, with discordant pairs favoring less SGF with longer pump time (N.S.). The incidence of BPAR during the first 12 months post-transplant yielded a borderline difference favoring longer pump time (P = .09), and freedom-from-BPAR during the first 12 months was significantly more favorable for longer pump times (95% vs. 84%, P = 0.04). No differences were observed in graft and patient survival, and renal function. While offering significantly favorable protection from BPAR, this analysis of donor-matched recipient pairs corroborates longer MP (pump) times having no unfavorable effect on other clinical outcomes.

  13. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  14. Peak Discharge, Flood Profile, Flood Inundation, and Debris Movement Accompanying the Failure of the Upper Reservoir at the Taum Sauk Pump Storage Facility near Lesterville, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    The Taum Sauk pump-storage hydroelectric power plant located in Reynolds County, Missouri, uses turbines that operate as pumps and hydraulic head generated by discharging water from an upper to a lower reservoir to produce electricity. A 55-acre upper reservoir with a 1.5- billion gallon capacity was built on top of Proffit Mountain, approximately 760 feet above the floodplain of the East Fork Black River. At approximately 5:16 am on December 14, 2005, a 680-foot wide section of the upper reservoir embankment failed suddenly, sending water rushing down the western side of Proffit Mountain and emptying into the floodplain of East Fork Black River. Flood waters from the upper reservoir flowed downstream through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park and into the lower reservoir of the East Fork Black River. Floods such as this present unique challenges and opportunities to analyze and document peak-flow characteristics, flood profiles, inundation extents, and debris movement. On December 16, 2005, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data were collected and used to support hydraulic analyses, forensic failure analyses, damage extent, and mitigation of future disasters. To evaluate the impact of sedimentation in the lower reservoir, a bathymetric survey conducted on December 22 and 23, 2005, was compared to a previous bathymetric survey conducted in April, 2005. Survey results indicated the maximum reservoir capacity difference of 147 acre-feet existed at a pool elevation of 730 feet. Peak discharge estimates of 289,000 cubic feet per second along Proffit Mountain and 95,000 cubic feet per second along the East Fork Black River were determined through indirect measurement techniques. The magnitude of the embankment failure flood along the East Fork Black River was approximately 4 times greater than the 100-year flood frequency estimate of 21,900 cubic feet per second, and approximately 3 times greater than the 500-year flood frequency estimate of 30,500 cubic feet per second

  15. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  16. Effect of alginate/carboxyl methyl cellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on the quality of silver carp fillet and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inhibition during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Nastaran; Ariiai, Peiman; Fattahi, Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    The effects of alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil on quality of silver carp fillet chilled storage (4 + 1 °C) were examined over a period of 16 days. The control samples (c), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose coating (C-A), alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating incorporated with clove essential oil (with different concentration 1 and 1.5 %) (C-A + CEO1 % and C-A + CEO 15 % respectively) were analyzed by bacteriological (total viable counts (TVC) and total psychrotrophic counts (TPC)), biochemical (Peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), and pH) and sensory characteristics. Also, the efficacy of these treatments was investigated in control of the population of Eschershia coli O157:H7 inoculated in silver carp fillet. According to the obtained results, C-A + CEO 1.5 % showed lowest (p < 0.05) and acceptable biochemical, bacteriological and sensory characteristics attributes up to 16 days storage at 4 °C compared to the others. Also, this treated sample was acceptable even at the end of the 16-day storage and it could reduce the population of E. coli O157:H7 below the acceptable level (<2) from day 4 until the end of the storage period. The results indicate Alginate/carboxyl methylcellulose composite coating with clove essential oil might be recommended as a preservative in the meat products. PMID:26787996

  17. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  18. Casing pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, H.E.; Bass, R.E.

    1987-09-29

    A natural gas operated pump is described for use in the casing of an oil well, comprising: a tubular pump body having an open lower end for admitting well fluids to the interior of the pump body and an open upper end, wherein a downwardly facing seating surface is formed on the inner periphery of the pump body adjacent the upper end thereof; means for forming a seal between the pump body and the casing of the well; a rod extending longitudinally through the seating surface formed in the pump body and protruding from the upper end of the pump body; a valve member mounted on the rod below the seating surface and shaped to mate with the seating surface; and means for vertically positioning the rod in proportion to fluid pressure within the pump body.

  19. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600); (2) The pump is used to dewater not more than one watertight... engine installation, each pump may be driven off a different propulsion engine. (e) A submersible... submersible electric bilge pump provided the hose or tube does not penetrate any required watertight...

  20. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600); (2) The pump is used to dewater not more than one watertight... engine installation, each pump may be driven off a different propulsion engine. (e) A submersible... submersible electric bilge pump provided the hose or tube does not penetrate any required watertight...

  1. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600); (2) The pump is used to dewater not more than one watertight... engine installation, each pump may be driven off a different propulsion engine. (e) A submersible... submersible electric bilge pump provided the hose or tube does not penetrate any required watertight...

  2. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600); (2) The pump is used to dewater not more than one watertight... engine installation, each pump may be driven off a different propulsion engine. (e) A submersible... submersible electric bilge pump provided the hose or tube does not penetrate any required watertight...

  3. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600); (2) The pump is used to dewater not more than one watertight... engine installation, each pump may be driven off a different propulsion engine. (e) A submersible... submersible electric bilge pump provided the hose or tube does not penetrate any required watertight...

  4. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  5. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  6. Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: applications using chemical heat pumps. Final report, September 15, 1979-April 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Offenhartz, P O.D.

    1981-04-01

    TRNSYS-compatible subroutines for the simulation of chemical heat pumps have been written, and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) have been performed for Washington, DC and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O and CaCl/sub 2//CH/sub 3/OH cycles have been carried out. Projected performance of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3//NH/sub 3/ cycle has also been investigated, and found to be essentially identical to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//H/sub 2/O. In all cases simulated, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system, which is necessary because chemical heat pumps operate at higher solar collector temperatures (> 100/sup 0/C) than conventional solar systems. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed surprisingly well. In the Ft. Worth climate, less than 45 m/sup 2/ of collectors were required to meet over 90% of the heating and cooling loads. In Washington, DC, the area required to meet the cooling load was smaller (as little as 20 m/sup 2/, depending on window shading), but was sufficient to meet only 50 to 60% of the heating load. However, gas-fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption: the thermal COPs in the heating mode were in the range 1.6 to 1.7. Since chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, they were also effective in providing domestic hot water, supplying ca. 70% of the DHW in summer, ca. 50% in winter, and nearly 100% in spring and fall.

  7. Effect of pristine graphene incorporation on charge storage mechanism of three-dimensional graphene oxide: superior energy and power density retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kiran Pal; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-08-01

    In the race of gaining higher energy density, carbon’s capacity to retain power density is generally lost due to defect incorporation and resistance increment in carbon electrode. Herein, a relationship between charge carrier density/charge movement and supercapacitance performance is established. For this purpose we have incorporated the most defect-free pristine graphene into defective/sacrificial graphene oxide. A unique co-solvent-based technique is applied to get a homogeneous suspension of single to bi-layer graphene and graphene oxide. This suspension is then transformed into a 3D composite structure of pristine graphene sheets (GSs) and defective N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO), which is the first stable and homogenous 3D composite between GS and RGO to the best of our knowledge. It is found that incorporation of pristine graphene can drastically decrease defect density and thus decrease relaxation time due to improved associations between electrons in GS and ions in electrolyte. Furthermore, N doping is implemented selectively only on RGO and such doping is shown to improve the charge carrier density of the composite, which eventually improves the energy density. After all, the novel 3D composite structure of N-RGO and GS greatly improves energy and power density even at high current density (20 A/g).

  8. Effect of pristine graphene incorporation on charge storage mechanism of three-dimensional graphene oxide: superior energy and power density retention

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kiran Pal; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In the race of gaining higher energy density, carbon’s capacity to retain power density is generally lost due to defect incorporation and resistance increment in carbon electrode. Herein, a relationship between charge carrier density/charge movement and supercapacitance performance is established. For this purpose we have incorporated the most defect-free pristine graphene into defective/sacrificial graphene oxide. A unique co-solvent-based technique is applied to get a homogeneous suspension of single to bi-layer graphene and graphene oxide. This suspension is then transformed into a 3D composite structure of pristine graphene sheets (GSs) and defective N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO), which is the first stable and homogenous 3D composite between GS and RGO to the best of our knowledge. It is found that incorporation of pristine graphene can drastically decrease defect density and thus decrease relaxation time due to improved associations between electrons in GS and ions in electrolyte. Furthermore, N doping is implemented selectively only on RGO and such doping is shown to improve the charge carrier density of the composite, which eventually improves the energy density. After all, the novel 3D composite structure of N-RGO and GS greatly improves energy and power density even at high current density (20 A/g). PMID:27530441

  9. Effect of pristine graphene incorporation on charge storage mechanism of three-dimensional graphene oxide: superior energy and power density retention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran Pal; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-08-17

    In the race of gaining higher energy density, carbon's capacity to retain power density is generally lost due to defect incorporation and resistance increment in carbon electrode. Herein, a relationship between charge carrier density/charge movement and supercapacitance performance is established. For this purpose we have incorporated the most defect-free pristine graphene into defective/sacrificial graphene oxide. A unique co-solvent-based technique is applied to get a homogeneous suspension of single to bi-layer graphene and graphene oxide. This suspension is then transformed into a 3D composite structure of pristine graphene sheets (GSs) and defective N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO), which is the first stable and homogenous 3D composite between GS and RGO to the best of our knowledge. It is found that incorporation of pristine graphene can drastically decrease defect density and thus decrease relaxation time due to improved associations between electrons in GS and ions in electrolyte. Furthermore, N doping is implemented selectively only on RGO and such doping is shown to improve the charge carrier density of the composite, which eventually improves the energy density. After all, the novel 3D composite structure of N-RGO and GS greatly improves energy and power density even at high current density (20 A/g).

  10. Effect of pristine graphene incorporation on charge storage mechanism of three-dimensional graphene oxide: superior energy and power density retention.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran Pal; Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Razmjooei, Fatemeh; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2016-01-01

    In the race of gaining higher energy density, carbon's capacity to retain power density is generally lost due to defect incorporation and resistance increment in carbon electrode. Herein, a relationship between charge carrier density/charge movement and supercapacitance performance is established. For this purpose we have incorporated the most defect-free pristine graphene into defective/sacrificial graphene oxide. A unique co-solvent-based technique is applied to get a homogeneous suspension of single to bi-layer graphene and graphene oxide. This suspension is then transformed into a 3D composite structure of pristine graphene sheets (GSs) and defective N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO), which is the first stable and homogenous 3D composite between GS and RGO to the best of our knowledge. It is found that incorporation of pristine graphene can drastically decrease defect density and thus decrease relaxation time due to improved associations between electrons in GS and ions in electrolyte. Furthermore, N doping is implemented selectively only on RGO and such doping is shown to improve the charge carrier density of the composite, which eventually improves the energy density. After all, the novel 3D composite structure of N-RGO and GS greatly improves energy and power density even at high current density (20 A/g). PMID:27530441

  11. COSTING MODELS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION: PART III- PUMPS, TANKS, AND RESERVOIRS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distribution systems are generally designed to ensure hydraulic reliability. Storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are critical in maintaining this reliability. Although storage tanks, reservoirs and pumps are necessary for maintaining adequate pressure, they may also have a negati...

  12. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  13. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  14. Energy Storage Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program funded the Energy Storage Project to develop battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of the Constellation Program for human exploration. Technology needs were determined by architecture studies and risk assessments conducted by the Constellation Program, focused on a mission for a long-duration lunar outpost. Critical energy storage needs were identified as batteries for EVA suits, surface mobility systems, and a lander ascent stage; fuel cells for the lander and mobility systems; and a regenerative fuel cell for surface power. To address these needs, the Energy Storage Project developed advanced lithium-ion battery technology, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiated-mixed-metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety. The project also developed "non-flow-through" proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant--fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale nonflow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. This report summarizes the project s goals, objectives, technical accomplishments, and risk assessments. A bibliography spanning the life of the project is also included.

  15. Recent advances in magnetic heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uherka, Kenneth L.; Hull, John R.; Scheihing, Paul E.

    Magnetic heat pump (MHP)/refrigeration systems, incorporating state-of-the-art superconducting magnet technology, were assessed for industrial applications ranging from the liquefaction of gases (20 K to 100 K range) to cold storage refrigeration for food preservation (250 K to 320 K range). Initial market penetration of MHP technology is anticipated to occur in the gas liquefaction sector, since the performance advantages of magnetic refrigeration cycles relative to gas compression cycles and other conventional systems are more pronounced in the lower temperature ranges. Design options for rotary MHP devices include alternative regeneration schemes to obtain the temperature spans necessary for industrial applications. The results of preliminary design assessment studies indicate that active magnetic regenerator concepts, in which the magnetic working material also serves as the regenerative medium, offer advantages over alternative MHP designs for industrial applications.

  16. Insulin pumps.

    PubMed

    Pickup, J

    2010-02-01

    Insulin pump therapy is now more than 30 years old, and is an established part of the routine care of selected people with type 1 diabetes. Nevertheless, there are still significant areas of concern, particularly how pumps compare with modern injection therapy, whether the increasingly sophisticated pump technologies like onboard calculators and facility for computer download offer any real benefit, and whether we have a consensus on the clinical indications. The following papers offer some insight into these and other current questions.

  17. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  18. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-28

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.31 cm(3) g(-1). Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g(-1), and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10,000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications.

  19. An Extended Age-Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Room-Temperature Storage and Cold Deformation Process Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Grong, Øystein; Schäfer, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a new age-hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys is presented (named NaMo-Version 2), which takes into account the combined effect of cold deformation and prolonged room-temperature storage on the subsequent response to artificial aging. As a starting point, the original physical framework of NaMo-Version 1 is revived and used as a basis for the extension. This is permissible, since a more in-depth analysis of the underlying particle-dislocation interactions confirms previous expectations that the simplifying assumption of spherical precipitates is not crucial for the final outcome of the calculations, provided that the yield strength model is calibrated against experimental data. At the same time, the implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner formalism means that the different microstructure models can be linked together in a manner that enforces solute partitioning and competition between the different hardening phases which form during aging ( e.g., clusters, β″ and β'). In a calibrated form, NaMo-Version 2 exhibits a high degree of predictive power, as documented by comparison with experiments, using both dedicated nanostructure and yield strength data as a basis for the validation. Hence, the model is deemed to be well-suited for simulation of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys involving cold-working operations like sheet forming and stretch bending in combination with heat treatment and welding.

  20. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-28

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m(2) g(-1) and a pore volume of 0.31 cm(3) g(-1). Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g(-1), and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10,000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications. PMID:26731700

  1. Getting the tail to wag the dog: Incorporating groundwater transport into catchment solute transport models using rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water hydrologic models are increasingly used to analyze the transport of solutes through the landscape, such as nitrate. However, many of these models cannot adequately capture the effect of groundwater flow paths, which can have long travel times and accumulate legacy contaminants, releasing them to streams over decades. If these long lag times are not accounted for, the short-term efficacy of management activities to reduce nitrogen loads may be overestimated. Models that adopt a simple 'well-mixed' assumption, leading to an exponential transit time distribution at steady state, cannot adequately capture the broadly skewed nature of groundwater transit times in typical watersheds. Here I will demonstrate how StorAge Selection functions can be used to capture the long lag times of groundwater in a typical subwatershed-based hydrologic model framework typical of models like SWAT, HSPF, HBV, PRMS and others. These functions can be selected and calibrated to reproduce historical data where available, but can also be fitted to the results of a steady-state groundwater transport model like MODFLOW/MODPATH, allowing those results to directly inform the parameterization of an unsteady surface water model. The long tails of the transit time distribution predicted by the groundwater model can then be completely captured by the surface water model. Examples of this application in the Chesapeake Bay watersheds and elsewhere will be given.

  2. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  3. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  4. Elastic and hierarchical porous carbon nanofibrous membranes incorporated with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals for highly efficient capacitive energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jianlong; Fan, Gang; Si, Yang; He, Jianxin; Kim, Hak-Yong; Ding, Bin; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; El-Newehy, Mohamed; Yu, Jianyong

    2016-01-01

    Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery from the deformations, and a superior softness. Quantitative pore size distribution and fractal analysis reveal that the CNFs possessed tunable porous structures with a high surface area of 493 m2 g-1 and a pore volume of 0.31 cm3 g-1. Benefiting from the robust mechanical stability, hierarchical porous structures and good electrochemical properties, the NiFe2O4 doped CNF membranes demonstrate a high electrical capacitance of 343 F g-1, and good reversibility with a cycling efficiency of 97.4% even after 10 000 cycles. The successful synthesis of elastic porous CNF membranes also provided a versatile platform for the design and development of functional CNF based materials for various applications.Flexible membranes created from porous carbon nanofibers (CNFs) hold great promise in the next generation wearable energy storage devices, but challenges still remain due to the poor mechanical properties of porous carbon nanofibers. Here, we report a facile strategy to fabricate elastic and hierarchical porous CNF membranes with NiFe2O4 nanocrystals embedded via multicomponent electrospinning and nano-doping methods. Benefiting from the scattering effect of NiFe2O4 nanocrystals and graphitized carbon layers for the condensed stress, the resultant CNF membranes exhibit an enhanced elasticity with a bending radius <12 μm, rapid recovery

  5. Improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1981-01-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. The system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. It is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions where liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations. Refs.

  6. An improved model for sucker rod pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Doty, D.R.; Schmidt, Z.

    1983-02-01

    An improved model for predicting the behavior of sucker rod pumping installations is presented. This model incorporates the dynamics of the liquid columns as well as the sucker rod string through a system of partial differential equations. This system of equations is solved by a modified method of characteristics on a digital computer. The model predicts the polished-rod and pump dynamometer cards and incorporates the effects of liquid inertia and viscosity. The model is capable of simulating a wide variety of pumping conditions for which liquid physical properties are important. The information predicted by the model is useful in the design and operation of sucker rod pumping installations.

  7. Submersible pump

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D. B.

    1985-08-27

    A method and apparatus for using a submersible pump to lift reservoir fluids in a well while having the tubing/casing annulus isolated from the produced fluids. The apparatus allows the submersible pump to be positioned above the annular packoff device. The apparatus comprises an outer shield that encloses the pump and can be attached to the production tubing. The lower end of the shield attaches to a short tubing section that seals with the annular packoff device or a receptacle above the annular packoff device.

  8. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  9. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  10. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  11. Hydraulic oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffie, T.F.

    1983-09-27

    The preferred embodiment is directed to an oil well pumping apparatus incorporating a walking beam having a horsehead at one end which connects to the sucker rods in the oil well. The opposite end of the walking beam is supported on a fixed pivot. A hydraulic and pneumatic combination unit connects from a supporting platform to a central point on the beam to raise and lower the beam. The improved apparatus utilizes air pressure to balance the static load on the apparatus and dynamically strokes the sucker rod string by imparting a reciprocating motion through hydraulic power applied at a specified rate to raise and lower the walking beam. A pump and motor system for a closed hydraulic loop is included. Alternate preferred embodiments are disclosed. In one form, a lubricating system is incorporated. First and second alternate forms of pickoff apparatus which powers the pneumatically balanced pumping apparatus is also included.

  12. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  13. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  14. Ammoniated salt heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, W. R.; Jaeger, F. J.; Giordano, T. J.

    A thermochemical heat pump/energy storage system using liquid ammoniate salts is described. The system, which can be used for space heating or cooling, provides energy storage for both functions. The bulk of the energy is stored as chemical energy and thus can be stored indefinitely. The system is well suited to use with a solar energy source or industrial waste heat. Several liquid ammoniates are identified and the critical properties of three of the most promising are presented. Results of small scale (5000 Btu) system tests are discussed and a design concept for a prototype system is given. This system represents a significant improvement over the system using solid ammoniates investigated previously because of the increase in heat transfer rates (5 to 60 Btu/hr sq ft F) and the resulting reduction in heat exchanger size. As a result the concept shows promise of being cost competitive with conventional systems.

  15. Pump jack

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, G. E.

    1985-02-26

    A pump jack of the type comprising a rocker arm pivotably mounted intermediate its ends on a support member, said rocker arm being divided by said pivot mounting into a sucker-rod limb and a drive limb wherein the improvement comprises a pneumatic motor pivotably attached to the drive support member and further pivotably attached to the mounting base of the pump jack to provide the power to reciprocate the pump jack. The working fluid of said pneumatic motor being natural gas which is available from the well casing of the well without any interference with the flow of the oil in the oil tube of the well thereby making use of an energy source available at any oil well without having to provide gasoline to drive a rotating type gasoline engine or electricity to drive an electric motor usually of the rotating variety. Also the stroke of a pneumatic cylinder inherently smooths out and eliminates the shock loading at the extremes of motion at the piston mounted to the sucker rods of such pump jack at the bottom of the well.

  16. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  17. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  18. DOE Global Energy Storage Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.

  19. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  20. 946 nm Diode Pumped Laser Produces 100mJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axenson, Theresa J.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An innovative approach to obtaining high energy at 946 nm has yielded 101 mJ of laser energy with an optical-to-optical slope efficiency of 24.5%. A single gain module resonator was evaluated, yielding a maximum output energy of 50 mJ. In order to obtain higher energy a second gain module was incorporated into the resonator. This innovative approach produced un-surprised output energy of 101 mJ. This is of utmost importance since it demonstrates that the laser output energy scales directly with the number of gain modules. Therefore, higher energies can be realized by simply increasing the number of gain modules within the laser oscillator. The laser resonator incorporates two gain modules into a folded "M-shaped" resonator, allowing a quadruple pass gain within each rod. Each of these modules consists of a diode (stack of 30 microlensed 100 Watt diode array bars, each with its own fiber lens) end-pumping a Nd:YAG laser rod. The diode output is collected by a lens duct, which focuses the energy into a 2 mm diameter flat to flat octagonal pump area of the laser crystal. Special coatings have been developed to mitigate energy storage problems, including parasitic lasing and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), and encourage the resonator to operate at the lower gain transition at 946 nm.

  1. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  2. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  3. Well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J.S.

    1983-03-08

    Well fluid pumping apparatus comprises: (A) body structure defining an upright plunger bore, (B) a plunger reciprocable in that bore, (C) the body structure also defining a chamber sidewardly offset from an axis defined by the plunger bore and communicating with the bore, and (D) valving carried by the body structure to pass intake fluid via the chamber into the plunger bore in response to stroking of the plunger in one direction in the bore, and to pass discharge fluid from the plunger bore into and from the chamber in response to stroking of the plunger in the opposite direction in the bore.

  4. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    DOEpatents

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  5. Pump apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a gas-oil well production system for pumping formation fluid wherein a down hole pump is provided having a barrel including a barrel fluid inlet, a barrel fluid outlet, a barrel chamber, and a plunger mounted in the barrel chamber having a plunger chamber. The plunger is reciprocally driven between an upper terminal position at the end of the plunger upstroke and a lower terminal position at the end of the plunger downstroke. The method for removing developed gaseous fluids in the formation fluid from the barrel chamber comprises: drawing formation fluid into the barrel chamber during the plunger upstroke; providing gas port means in the barrel; expelling the developed gaseous fluids from the barrel chamber through the gas port means during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from the upper terminal position of the gas port means; and substantially blocking the gas port means and moving formation fluid into the plunger chamber during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from below the gas port means to the lower terminal position.

  6. Off peak geothermal heat pump storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    The basic design of a system installed in the Columbus, Ohio Zoo is described. The distribution system is described in detail. The control system is microprocessor controlled, with about 50 monitoring points. Preliminary evaluations have indicated that the system can operate with an overall coefficient of performance in excess of 3.5. 1 figure.

  7. 76 FR 30341 - Reliable Storage 1 LLC;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Reliable Storage 1 LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions to Intervene, and Competing Applications On March 25, 2011, Reliable Storage 1 LLC filed... permission. The proposed pumped storage project would consist of the following: (1) A 70-foot-high,...

  8. Storage of Heat, Cold and Electricity.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Anastasia; Ammann, Andreas; Abdon, Andreas; Fischer, Ludger J; Gwerder, Damian; Worlitschek, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    A promising energy storage system is presented based on the combination of a heat pump, a heat engine, a hot and a cold storage. It can be operated as a pure bulk electricity storage (alternative to Pumped Heat Electrical Storage (PHES)/Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)) or as combined storage of heat, cold and electricity. Both variations have been evaluated using a steady state, thermodynamic model and two promising concepts are proposed: A transcritical CO(2) cycle for the pure electricity storage and a subcritical NH(3) cycle for combined storage of electricity, heat and cold. Parametric studies are used to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the roundtrip efficiency of the storage system. PMID:26842329

  9. Storage of Heat, Cold and Electricity.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Anastasia; Ammann, Andreas; Abdon, Andreas; Fischer, Ludger J; Gwerder, Damian; Worlitschek, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    A promising energy storage system is presented based on the combination of a heat pump, a heat engine, a hot and a cold storage. It can be operated as a pure bulk electricity storage (alternative to Pumped Heat Electrical Storage (PHES)/Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)) or as combined storage of heat, cold and electricity. Both variations have been evaluated using a steady state, thermodynamic model and two promising concepts are proposed: A transcritical CO(2) cycle for the pure electricity storage and a subcritical NH(3) cycle for combined storage of electricity, heat and cold. Parametric studies are used to evaluate the influence of different parameters on the roundtrip efficiency of the storage system.

  10. Molecular water pumps.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, T

    2000-01-01

    specific sequence of allosteric conformations in a membrane bound enzyme would give rise to vectorial transport of water across the membrane. In addition to their recognized functions, cotransporters have the additional property of water channels. Compared to aquaporins, the unitary water permeability is about two orders of magnitude lower. It is suggested that the water permeability is determined from chemical associations between the water molecule and sites within the pore, probably in the form of hydrogen-bonds. The existence of a passive water permeability suggests an alternative model for the molecular water pump: The water flux couples to the flux of non-aqueous substrates in a hyperosmolar compartment within the protein. Molecular water pumps allow cellular water homeostasis to be viewed as a balance between pumps and leaks. This enables cells to maintain their intracellular osmolarity despite external variations. Molecular water pumps could be relevant for a wide range of physiological functions, from volume regulation in contractile vacuoles in amoeba to phloem transport in plants (Zeuthen 1992, 1996). They could be important building blocks in a general model for vectorial water transport across epithelia. A simplified model of a leaky epithelium incorporating K+/Cl-/H2O and Na+/glucose/H2O cotransport in combination with channels and primary active transport gives good quantitative predictions of several properties. In particular of how epithelial cell layers can transport water uphill. PMID:10916424

  11. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1980-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  12. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to faciliate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  13. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  14. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate intallation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  15. Chemical heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Leonard

    1984-01-01

    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure, as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer.

  16. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    SciTech Connect

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-22

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  17. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  18. Experience with Dry Running Vacuum Pumps in Helium Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arztmann, R.

    2008-03-01

    A process vacuum system for helium using dry running vacuum pumps only was shop tested and installed in a refrigeration plant to serve cavities operating at 2K for a cryogenic storage ring. The paper explains the joint development steps of Busch AG and Linde Kryotechnik AG to use dry running vacuum pumps for helium service at ambient temperature. A roots type booster pump followed by a non lube rotary screw pump provides very good performance in a helium vacuum pump system. Variable frequency drives on both pumps allow to adjust the pump characteristics to a wide range of operating parameters. Operation without friction of sealing elements in the compression space also of the screw pump promises extended maintenance intervals and virtually no wear on the rotors. The current plant operation at Max Plank Institute in Heidelberg, Germany Laboratory will provide additional experience for further applications.

  19. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  20. Lifecycle Cost Analysis of Hydrogen Versus Other Technologies for Electrical Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steward, D.; Saur, G.; Penev, M.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-11-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis evaluating the economic viability of hydrogen for medium- to large-scale electrical energy storage applications compared with three other storage technologies: batteries, pumped hydro, and compressed air energy storage (CAES).

  1. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  2. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  3. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  4. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  5. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  6. Cold water aquifer storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-03-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  7. Investigation of the pump wavelength influence on pulsed laser pumped Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvy, H.; Withford, M. J.; Mildren, R. P.; Piper, J. A.

    2005-09-01

    Recent theoretical modelling and experimental results have shown that excess lattice phonon energy created dur ing the non-radiative energy transfer from the 4T2 pump manifold to the 2E storage level in Alexandrite when pumped with wavelengths shorter than ˜645 nm causes chaotic lasing output. Shorter pump wavelengths have also been associated with increased non-radiative energy decay and reduced laser efficiency. We report studies of fluorescence emission spectra of Alexandrite illuminated at a range of wavelengths from green to red, which demonstrate reduced fluorescence yield for shorter pump wavelengths at elevated crystal temperatures. Investigations of pulsed laser pumping of Alexandrite over the same spectral range demonstrated reduced pump threshold energy for longer pump wavelengths. High repetition rate pulsed pumping of Alexandrite at 532, 578 and 671 nm showed stable and efficient laser performance was only achieved for red pumping at 671 nm. These results support the theoretical model and demonstrate the potential for scalable, red laser pumped, all-solid-state Alexandrite lasers.

  8. 27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  9. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  10. Hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, P.R.; Jantzen, D.E.

    1984-05-15

    This invention relates to an improved pump jack characterized by a hollow piston rod which telescopes down over the sucker rod to which it is clamped for reciprocating motion. The cylinder, in turn, is fastened in fixed position directly to the upper exposed end of the well casing. As fluid is introduced into the lower end of the cylinder it raises the piston into engagement with a pushrod housed in the upper cylinder head that lifts switch-actuating means associated therewith into a position operative to actuate a switch located adjacent thereto thereby causing the latter to change state and actuate a multi-function solenoid valve so as to cut off fluid flow to the cylinder. As gravity lowers the sucker rod and piston exhausting the hydraulic fluid therebeneath, an adjustable stop engages the pushrod from above so as to return it together with the switch-actuating means associated therewith to their original positions thereby resetting the switch to complete the operating cycle.

  11. System design factors for solar panel assisted mechanical heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of energy management of heat pumps with auxiliary energy storage devices is discussed in this paper. By using a solar collector which doubles as a radiator allows the heat pump system to provide both heating and cooling. Qualitative design factors for this kind of system is discussed with the philosophy of the concept.

  12. Self-pumping solar heating system with geyser pumping action

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.L.; Bartera, R.E.

    1984-10-23

    A self-pumping solar heating system having a collector including a multitude of small diameter riser tubes from which heated liquid is pumped into a header by a geyser action. A vapor condenser assures a header pressure conducive to bubble nucleation in the riser tube upper end segments. The level of liquid within the header or its outlet is higher than the liquid level in the riser tubes to produce a gravity imbalance capable of circulating heated liquid past a storage heat exchanger, below the header, and then upwardly through the closed vapor condenser in the header prior to return to a collector inlet manifold. A modified header utilizes an open vapor condenser in vapor communication with the collector header.

  13. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  14. NV Energy Electricity Storage Valuation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James F.; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Samaan, Nader A.; Jin, Chunlian

    2013-06-30

    This study examines how grid-level electricity storage may benet the operations of NV Energy in 2020, and assesses whether those benets justify the cost of the storage system. In order to determine how grid-level storage might impact NV Energy, an hourly production cost model of the Nevada Balancing Authority (\\BA") as projected for 2020 was built and used for the study. Storage facilities were found to add value primarily by providing reserve. Value provided by the provision of time-of-day shifting was found to be limited. If regulating reserve from storage is valued the same as that from slower ramp rate resources, then it appears that a reciprocating engine generator could provide additional capacity at a lower cost than a pumped storage hydro plant or large storage capacity battery system. In addition, a 25-MW battery storage facility would need to cost $650/kW or less in order to produce a positive Net Present Value (NPV). However, if regulating reserve provided by storage is considered to be more useful to the grid than that from slower ramp rate resources, then a grid-level storage facility may have a positive NPV even at today's storage system capital costs. The value of having storage provide services beyond reserve and time-of-day shifting was not assessed in this study, and was therefore not included in storage cost-benefit calculations.

  15. Darrieus wind-turbine and pump performance for low-lift irrigation pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, L. J.; Sharif, M.

    1981-10-01

    In the Great Plains about 15 percent of the irrigation water pumped on farms comes from surface water sources; for the United States as a whole, the figure is about 22 percent. Because of forecast fuel shortages, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources such as wind power for surface water pumping. Specific objectives of this investigation were to: design and assemble a prototype wind powered pumping system for low lift irrigation pumping; determine performance of the prototype system; design and test an irrigation system using the wind powered prototype in a design and test an farm application; and determine the size combinations of wind turbines, tailwater pits, and temporary storage reservoirs needed for successful farm application of wind powered tailwater pumping systems in western Kansas. The power source selected was a two bladed, 6 m diameter, 9 m tall Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine with 0.10 solidity and 36.1 M(2) swept area.

  16. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is recommended for inclusion in the present system based on favorable quantitative and qualitative measures relative to the other options under consideration.

  17. Hand-held computer designs rod pumping installation

    SciTech Connect

    Herlihy, J.D.

    1984-10-01

    This article describes the program designed to facilitate the design of sucker rod pumping systems for conventional and Mark 2 units. For depths of 2000' or less the modified Mill's method is used, and below 2000' the design procedures of API RP llL are incorporated. The program automatically uses the appropriate design procedure depending on the fluid or pump level. The pump depth is used to calculate rod weighs and the working fluid level to calculate net lift considerations.

  18. Optical pumping in a whispering-mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-08-11

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide are described. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction path lengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  19. Optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for optical pumping in a whispering mode optical waveguide. Both a helical ribbon and cylinder are disclosed which incorporate an additional curvature for confining the beam to increase intensity. An optical pumping medium is disposed in the optical path of the beam as it propagates along the waveguide. Optical pumping is enhanced by the high intensities of the beam and long interaction pathlengths which are achieved in a small volume.

  20. Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program: 1986 annual report. [Economic planning, technical assessment, field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Bates, J.M.; Brown, D.R.; Weijo, R.O.

    1987-07-01

    The Thermal Energy Storage Evaluation Program activities were initiated to provide economic planning, technical assessment and field testing support for the thermal energy storage program, as well as management of the overall program for the DOE. Economic planning included two assessment studies. In technical assessment, issues that might affect an assessment were outlined for the development of a standard methodology to conduct assessments; work is underway to establish ''market-based'' cost and performance goals for cool storage technologies in residential applications; planning has begun for investigation of benefits in incorporating aquifer thermal energy storage with heat pumps; and plans are being formulated to evaluate the potential benefit of using aquifer thermal energy storage to augment power plant cooling. Field testing to develop technologies for the recovery and reuse of industrial waste heat began with the instrumentation design for the ceramic/salt matrix in an operating brick-making plant. Work in advanced studies by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory continued on thermochemical conversion and storage using small particles as the heat exchanger catalyst. In SO/sub 3/ dissociation experiments at 645/sup 0/C using light and dark conditions, results clearly demonstrated the benefit in directly radiantly heating the catalyst to accomplish the endothermic step of a thermochemical storage reaction.

  1. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  2. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cryopumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels that alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independant pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  3. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  4. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  5. The Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rocha, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    dissolved inorganic material to deeper waters. Thus, deeper waters contain higher concentrations of biologically utilized materials than do surface waters. Older deeper waters contain higher concentrations of bums compared to newly formed deep waters or surface waters. (7K)Figure 3. Diagram of the biological pump (after OCTET workshop report). One side-effect of the biological pump is that CO2 is shunted from the surface ocean and into the deep sea, thus lowering the amount in the atmosphere. For many years it has been recognized that pre-Industrial CO2 levels in the atmosphere were about one-third of what they would be in the absence of a biological pump (Broecker, 1982). It is also known that the biological pump is not operating at its full capacity. In so-called "high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll" (HNLC) areas of the ocean, a considerable portion of the nutrients supplied to the surface waters is not utilized in support of primary production, most likely due to the limitation of phytoplankton growth by an inadequate supply of trace elements (e.g., Martin and Fitzwater, 1988). The possibility that the biological pump in HNLC areas might be stimulated by massive additions of iron both artificially as a means of removing anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere and naturally as a cause for the lower glacial atmospheric CO2 levels (Martin, 1990) is the focus of much research and debate (e.g., Martin et al., 1994; Coale et al., 1996; Boyd et al., 2000; Watson et al., 2000).Although the biological pump is most popularly known for its impact on the cycling of carbon and major nutrients, it also has profound impacts on the geochemistry of many other elements and compounds. The biological pump heavily influences the cycling, concentrations, and residence times of trace elements - such as cadmium, germanium, zinc, nickel, iron, arsenic, selenium - through their incorporation into organic matter and biominerals (Bruland, 1980; Azam and Volcani, 1981; Elderfield and Rickaby, 2000

  6. Tritium gas transfer pump development

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    Non-lubricated, hermetically sealed pumps for tritium service have been selected to replace Sprengel pumps in the existing Tritium Facility. These pumps will be the primary gas-transfer pumps in the planned Replacement Tritium Facility. The selected pumps are Metal Bellows Corporation's bellows pumps and Normetex scroll pumps. Pumping range for a Normetex/Metal Bellows system is from 0.01 torr suction to 2300 torr discharge. Performance characteristics of both pumps are presented. 10 figs.

  7. Simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigmon, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The relative value of thermal energy storage (TES) for heat pump storage (heating and cooling) as a function of storage temperature, mode of storage (hotside or coldside), geographic locations, and utility time of use rate structures were derived. Computer models used to simulate the performance of a number of TES/heat pump configurations are described. The models are based on existing performance data of heat pump components, available building thermal load computational procedures, and generalized TES subsystem design. Life cycle costs computed for each site, configuration, and rate structure are discussed.

  8. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Beard

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time, but has shown the ability to reduce costs, and increase production, if run times can be improved. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. PSI and Beard Oil intend to continue testing the pump with non-government funding. The testing to date did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude the widespread use of this pump, and as an operator, I believe that with further improvement and testing, the pump can have a significant impact on stripper well costs. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of the production environment found at the Weber field and in CMB production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  9. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, J.L.

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  10. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  12. Insulin pump (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  13. Photovoltaic pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  14. Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.

  15. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  16. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  17. Multiwell pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Dysarz, E.D.

    1987-06-30

    This patent describes a balanced pumping apparatus for pumping two laterally spaced wells comprising: a left conductor on a left well; a right conductor on a right the well; a left pump casing inside the well conductor; a right pump casing inside the right well conductor; a left sucker rod inside the left pump casing; a right sucker rod inside the right pump casing; flexible linkage means for attachment to the top ends of the right sucker rod and left sucker rod; a drive motor with a rotating shaft; a drive sprocket rotatably engaging the flexible linkage means; a separate pump casing flange attached to the upper section of each well conductors; a separate upper flange attached to the upper section of each pump casing and positioned at an axial location above the point attached to the pump casing; a separate transition piece attached to the top of each pump casing flange; a separate pump support attached to the top of each transition piece; a plate-like structural support means placed in a vertical plane above the well conductors and supporting the drive motor, the drive sprocket, the flexible linkage means, and the sucker rods; a structural load transfer means connecting the plate-like structural support means to the well conductors; a motor control unit for supporting itself and controlling the drive motor; and a separate shaft extending across each pump support.

  18. Types of Breast Pumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... uses batteries or a cord plugged into an electrical outlet to power a small motorized pump that creates suction to ... pumping. Because these breast pumps rely on a power source, women who use ... situations when electricity or extra batteries may not be available. If ...

  19. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  20. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  1. Green pumped Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, Jerry W.; Brown, David C.

    2005-04-01

    Initial experiments with pulsed and CW pumping an alexandrite laser rod at 532 nm are presented. This pumping architecture holds promise for the production of scalable diode-pumped, tunable alexandrite laser systems operating in the near infrared (750 nm), and the ultraviolet (375 and 250 nm) spectral regions.

  2. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  3. Controls of wellbore flow regimes on pump effluent composition.

    PubMed

    Martin-Hayden, James M; Plummer, Mitchell; Britt, Sanford L

    2014-01-01

    Where well water and formation water are compositionally different or heterogeneous, pump effluent composition will vary due to partial mixing and transport induced by pumping. Investigating influences of purging and sampling methodology on composition variability requires quantification of wellbore flow regimes and mixing. As a basis for this quantification, analytical models simulating Poiseuille flow were developed to calculate flow paths and travel times. Finite element modeling was used to incorporate influences of mixing. Parabolic velocity distributions within the screened interval accelerate with cumulative inflow approaching the pump intake while an annulus of inflowing formation water contracts uniformly to displace an axial cylinder of pre-pumping well water as pumping proceeds. Increased dispersive mixing forms a more diffuse formation water annulus and the contribution of formation water to pump effluent increases more rapidly. Models incorporating viscous flow and diffusion scale mixing show that initially pump effluent is predominantly pre-pumping well water and compositions vary most rapidly. After two screen volumes of pumping, 94% of pump effluent is inflowing formation water. Where the composition of formation water and pre-pumping well water are likely to be similar, pump effluent compositions will not vary significantly and may be collected during early purging or with passive sampling. However, where these compositions are expected to be considerably different or heterogeneous, compositions would be most variable during early pumping, that is, when samples are collected during low-flow sampling. Purging of two screen volumes would be required to stabilize the content and collect a sample consisting of 94% formation water.

  4. Controls of Wellbore Flow Regimes on Pump Effluent Composition

    SciTech Connect

    James Martin-Hayden; plummer; Sanford Britt

    2014-01-01

    Where well water and formation water are compositionally different or heterogeneous, pump effluent composition will vary due to partial mixing and transport induced by pumping. Investigating influences of purging and sampling methodology on composition variability requires quantification of wellbore flow regimes and mixing. As a basis for this quantification, analytical models simulating Poiseuille flow were developed to calculate flow paths and travel times. Finite element modeling was used to incorporate influences of mixing. Parabolic velocity distributions within the screened interval accelerate with cumulative inflow approaching the pump intake while an annulus of inflowing formation water contracts uniformly to displace an axial cylinder of pre-pumping well water as pumping proceeds. Increased dispersive mixing forms a more diffuse formation water annulus and the contribution of formation water to pump effluent increases more rapidly. Models incorporating viscous flow and diffusion scale mixing show that initially pump effluent is predominantly pre-pumping well water and compositions vary most rapidly. After two screen volumes of pumping, 94% of pump effluent is inflowing formation water. Where the composition of formation water and pre-pumping well water are likely to be similar, pump effluent compositions will not vary significantly and may be collected during early purging or with passive sampling. However, where these compositions are expected to be considerably different or heterogeneous, compositions would be most variable during early pumping, that is, when samples are collected during low-flow sampling. Purging of two screen volumes would be required to stabilize the content and collect a sample consisting of 94% formation water.

  5. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  6. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  7. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  8. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  9. Proton Pumps: Mechanism of Action and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Janos K.; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding molecular structures and mechanisms of action of proton pumps has paved the way to their novel applications in biotechnology. Proton pumps, in particular bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthases, are capable of continuous, renewable conversion of light to chemical, mechanical or electrical energy, which can be used in macro- or nano-scale devices. The capability of protein systems incorporated into liposomes to generate ATP, which can be further used to drive chemical reactions, and to act as molecular motors has been already demonstrated. Other possible applications of such biochemical devices include targeted drug delivery and biocatalytic re actors. All these devices might prove superior to their inorganic alternatives.

  10. Comparison of rechargeable versus battery-operated insulin pumps: temperature fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchetin, Paul; McCann, Thomas W; Ojha, Navdeep; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna; Levy, Brian L

    2016-01-01

    The role of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pumps) has become increasingly important in diabetes management, and many different types of these systems are currently available. This exploratory study focused on the reported heating issues that lithium-ion battery-powered pumps may have during charging compared with battery-operated pumps. It was found that pump temperature increased by 6.4°C during a long charging cycle of a lithiumion battery-operated pump under ambient temperatures. In an environmental-chamber kept at 35°C, the pump temperature increased by 4.4°C, which indicates that the pump temperature was above that of the recommended safety limit for insulin storage of 37°C. When designing new pumps, and when using currently available rechargeable pumps in warmer climates, the implications of these temperature increases should be taken into consideration. Future studies should also further examine insulin quality after charging. PMID:27789976

  11. Theory of the geyser-pump solar collector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.

    1985-01-01

    The geyser-pump solar collector is a self-controlling, self-pumping active collector having no moving or electronic parts, drawing its mechanical pump energy from boiling in the collector's risers. The only use of the geyser-pump principle reported in patents and the open literature is only for circulating the fluid in the collector plate. Computer simulations show that most design and algorithm parameters have only negligible impact on solar fraction, F. The only parameter which affects F is the length of the storage heat exchanger. Episodic cloud cover does not hamper the geyser-pump collector's ability to restart. Daylong simulations show that the energy cost of geyser-pumping is only about 3% of the absorbed insolation. The geyser-pump collector is found to be as efficient as an electrically pumped collector. Initial costs are estimated to be about the same for the geyser-pump and conventional collectors, but lifetime costs of the geyser-pump are substantially lower, perhaps only half, because of low maintenance.

  12. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  13. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  14. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  15. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  16. ATES/heat pump simulations performed with ATESSS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, L. W.

    1989-01-01

    Modifications to the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage System Simulator (ATESSS) allow simulation of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES)/heat pump systems. The heat pump algorithm requires a coefficient of performance (COP) relationship of the form: COP = COP sub base + alpha (T sub ref minus T sub base). Initial applications of the modified ATES code to synthetic building load data for two sizes of buildings in two U.S. cities showed insignificant performance advantage of a series ATES heat pump system over a conventional groundwater heat pump system. The addition of algorithms for a cooling tower and solar array improved performance slightly. Small values of alpha in the COP relationship are the principal reason for the limited improvement in system performance. Future studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are planned to investigate methods to increase system performance using alternative system configurations and operations scenarios.

  17. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  18. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  19. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  20. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  1. Wind pumping: A handbook

    SciTech Connect

    van Meel, J.; Smulders, P.

    1989-01-01

    The handbook is meant to provide energy and water-supply professionals and economists as well as field officers with an easily accessible source of information on wind pumping. It consolidates information acquired by institutions, professionals, and research centers in an easily extractable form. An overview of the characteristics of the technology is provided. The techniques for sizing of wind pumps and the sizing of alternative small pumps is discussed. Guidelines for financial and economic assessment of wind pumping are given. Particulars on installation, maintenance, and other logistical matters are also given. Several annexes provide supporting details and examples.

  2. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.105 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. DOE...

  3. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.105 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) The...

  4. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... Storage Tanks Test Procedures § 431.105 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) General. DOE...

  5. Dynamic measurements of beam-pump parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Bowen, J.F. )

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of nine electrical and mechanical parameters were made on conventional and special-geometry units during operation of beam-pump/sucker rod systems in oil and natural gas wells. All quantities were measured simultaneously and computer-recorded for a variety of pumping conditions. In this paper, using this data, the authors compared measured dynamic gearbox torques with calculated values, illustrating how calculation techniques model dynamically measured data. Calculated efficiencies indicating losses through the units from polished rod to the gearbox are shown to be necessary for adjusting gearbox torque calculations to measured values. Also, torque/speed curves are shown at the motor sheave. These data are corrected for inertial effects and plotted vs. motor manufacturers' published curves. Possibilities for future work incorporating these measurement techniques while the unit is in operation were discussed. In general, the data show how dynamically measured beam-pump data compare with conventional calculation techniques.

  6. Ground coupled solar heat pumps: analysis of four options

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Heat pump systems which utilize both solar energy and energy withdrawn from the ground are analyzed using a simplified procedure which optimizes the solar storage temperature on a monthly basis. Four ways of introducing collected solar energy to the system are optimized and compared. These include use of actively collected thermal input to the heat pump; use of collected solar energy to heat the load directly (two different ways); and use of a passive option to reduce the effective heating load.

  7. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  8. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  9. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  10. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your ...

  11. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  12. 32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLANT AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, JULY 1898 SHEET NO. 1. Aperture card 4966-1 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  14. Phase Separators And Fountain-Effect Pumps For He 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehouse, Paul L.

    1989-01-01

    Fused-glass microchannel arrays for use as HE 11 phase separators and fountain-effect pumps. Microchannel devices for use in low-gravity storage and cooling systems containing superfluid helium. Phase separators and pumps take advantage of thermomechanical effect peculiar to He 11 in restricted spaces. By creating thermal gradient in porous plug, direction of flow reversed, turning phase separator into pump. However, addition of heat disadvantage. Thermal gradient created by using Peltier effect to transfer heat across array, removing heat from He 11 supply and overcoming undesirable addition of heat.

  15. Heat pumps and heat pipes for applications in cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    Advanced active carbon fibre/NH3 heat pumps with dual sources of energy (solar/gas) were developed for providing space heating, cooling and sanitary hot water for buildings. The next heat pump generation will include a combination of chemicals with an active carbon fibre to increase the NH3 absorption. Combination of heat pipes and heat pumps solves the problem of heating the ground and air in green houses using the heat of the ground, hot ground waters, solar energy and gas flames with heat storage.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. Cryogenic Vacuum Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zachman, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    System provides high pumping capacity even for noble gases. First stage, removes water and CO2 from input gas. Second stage, removes noble gases except helium and some lighter gases not trapped by first stage. Third stage, traps all remaining gases. All three stages mounted inside liquid-nitrogen Dewar that cools first stage. Pump small enough for general laboratory use.

  19. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  20. Micromachined peristaltic pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined pumps including a channel formed between a first membrane and a substrate or between first and second flexible membranes. A series of electrically conductive strips is applied to a surface of the substrate or one of the membranes. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips causes a region of closure to progress down the channel to achieve a pumping action.

  1. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  2. Magnetic heat pump design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirol, L. D.; Dacus, M. W.

    1988-03-01

    Heat pumps utilizing the magnetocaloric effect offer a potentially attractive alternative to conventional heat pumps and refrigerators. Many physical configurations of magnetic heat pumps are possible. Major classes include those requiring electrical energy input and those with mechanical energy input. Mechanical energy is used to move magnets, working material, or magnetic shielding. Each type of mechanical magnetic heat pump can be built in a rotary (recuperative) or reciprocal (regenerative) configuration. Machines with electrical energy input utilize modulation of the magnetic field to cause working material to execute the desired thermodynamic cycle, and can also be recuperative or regenerative. Recuperative rotary heat pumps in which working material is moved past stationary magnets is the preferred configuration. Regenerative devices suffer performance degradation from temperature change of regenerator material and mixing and conduction in the regenerator. Field modulated cycles are not practical due to ac losses in superconducting magnets. Development of methods for recuperator fluid pumping is the major challenge in design of rotary recuperative devices. Several pumping options are presented, and the design of a bench scale heat pump described.

  3. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1994-12-31

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  4. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  5. Deep well solar pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, J.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

  6. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  7. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dmour, Eshraq; Ahlback, Jonny; Einfeld, Dieter; Tavares, Pedro Fernandes; Grabski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3 GeV storage ring of MAX IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings. PMID:25177979

  8. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  9. Southern company energy storage study :

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Kim, Khong Hon; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of rate equations was improved to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the calculation. The improved algorithm was applied to explain the existing experimental data taken from a flashlamp pumped iodine laser for three kinds of lasants, i-C3F7I, n-C4F9I, and t-C4F9I. Various solid laser materials were evaluated for solar-pumping. The materials studied were Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and Cr:Nd:GSGG crystals. The slope efficiency of 0.17 percent was measured for the Nd:YLF near the threshold pump intensity which was 211 solar constants (29W/sq cm). The threshold pump intensity of the Nd:YAG was measured to be 236 solar constants (32W/sq cm) and the near-threshold slope efficiency was 0.12 percent. True CW laser operation of Cr:Nd:GSGG was possible only at pump intensities less than or equal to 1,500 solar constants (203 W/sq cm). This fact was attributed to the high thermal focusing effect of the Cr:Nd:GSGG rod.

  11. Adapting the sucker rod pump to your well's requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Devices must be incorporated in sucker rod pumps to keep an insert pump or the standing valve of a tubing pump in their working positions, yet permit their retrieval. Pump holddowns or anchors may be either cup type or mechanical; normally they are located either at the tip or the bottom of the pump. Most common in wells of approx. 6000 ft and shallower is the 3-cup holddown utilizing cups approx. 30 to 40 thousandths of an inch larger than the I.D. of their seating nipple. The hydrostatic head on the cups does most of the work. Should it be necessary to pull the anchored pump, its holddown cups function like swab cups within the restricted I.D. of the seating nipple. The pump barrel becomes a plunger in the tubing. Until the holddown cups emerge from the seating nipple into the larger tubing I.D., the pulling unit must lift, not only the rods and pump, but also all the fluid in the tubing. In deep wells, the preference is for mechanical holddowns, which release in response to a predetermined pull so that no lifting of the fluid column is involved in unseating the pump.

  12. FIELD TRIALS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT SUBMERSIBLE PUMP

    SciTech Connect

    Rob Beard; Leland Traylor

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this grant was to evaluate under real world conditions the performance of a new type of downhole pump, the hydraulically driven submersible diaphragm pump. This pump is supplied by Pumping Solutions Incorporated, Albuquerque NM. The original scope of the project was to install 10 submersible pumps, and compare that to 10 similar installations of rod pumps. As an operator, the system as tested was not ready for prime time. The PSI group did improve the product and offered excellent service. The latest design appears to be much better, but more test data is needed to show short run life is not a problem. This product should continue to be developed; the testing did not uncover any fundamental problems that would preclude it's widespread use. On the positive side, the pump was easy to run, was more power efficient then a rod pump, and is the only submersible that could handle the large quantities of solids typical of CBM production. The product shows much promise for the future, and with continued design and testing, this type of submersible pump has the potential to become the standard of the industry.

  13. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  14. Not ''just'' pump and treat

    SciTech Connect

    Angleberger, K; Bainer, R W

    2000-12-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been consistently improving the site cleanup methods by adopting new philosophies, strategies and technologies to address constrained or declining budgets, lack of useable space due to a highly industrialized site, and significant technical challenges. As identified in the ROD, the preferred remedy at the LLNL Livermore Site is pump and treat, although LLNL has improved this strategy to bring the remediation of the ground water to closure as soon as possible. LLNL took the logical progression from a pump and treat system to the philosophy of ''Smart Pump and Treat'' coupled with the concepts of ''Hydrostratigraphic Unit Analysis,'' ''Engineered Plume Collapse,'' and ''Phased Source Remediation,'' which led to the development of new, more cost-effective technologies which have accelerated the attainment of cleanup goals significantly. Modeling is also incorporated to constantly develop new, cost-effective methodologies to accelerate cleanup and communicate the progress of cleanup to stakeholders. In addition, LLNL improved on the efficiency and flexibility of ground water treatment facilities. Ground water cleanup has traditionally relied on costly and obtrusive fixed treatment facilities. LLNL has designed and implemented various portable ground water treatment units to replace the fixed facilities; the application of each type of facility is determined by the amount of ground water flow and contaminant concentrations. These treatment units have allowed for aggressive ground water cleanup, increased cleanup flexibility, and reduced capital and electrical costs. After a treatment unit has completed ground water cleanup at one location, it can easily be moved to another location for additional ground water cleanup.

  15. Radiation Shielding Materials and Containers Incorporating Same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; and Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound (''PYRUC'') shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  16. Radiation shielding materials and containers incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mirsky, Steven M.; Krill, Stephen J.; Murray, Alexander P.

    2005-11-01

    An improved radiation shielding material and storage systems for radioactive materials incorporating the same. The PYRolytic Uranium Compound ("PYRUC") shielding material is preferably formed by heat and/or pressure treatment of a precursor material comprising microspheres of a uranium compound, such as uranium dioxide or uranium carbide, and a suitable binder. The PYRUC shielding material provides improved radiation shielding, thermal characteristic, cost and ease of use in comparison with other shielding materials. The shielding material can be used to form containment systems, container vessels, shielding structures, and containment storage areas, all of which can be used to house radioactive waste. The preferred shielding system is in the form of a container for storage, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. In addition, improved methods for preparing uranium dioxide and uranium carbide microspheres for use in the radiation shielding materials are also provided.

  17. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  18. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Gene K.

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  19. Deep well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Downen, J.L.; Sutliff, W.N.

    1981-06-16

    A pump barrel open at its lower end is coupled at its upper end by a tubular adapter assembly to the lower end of a pump tubing string. This assembly presents an internal bevelled sealing latching annulus, an axially bored pump head being radially expansively spring latched in a fixed axial sealed relation with the annulus to seal the upper end of the pump barrel from the adapter assembly to form a pump compression chamber surrounding a hollow polish rod extending upwardly from a plunger mounted on the lower end of the polish rod for reciprocation in the pump barrel. The plunger carries tandem travelling valves close beneath its connection with the polish rod. The lower valve opening to receive oil through the barrel and plunger on the down stroke and concurrently delivering such oil into the compression chamber. The upper valve closes on the down stroke and opening on the up stroke during which the lower valve closes to expel oil trapped in the compression chamber upward through the upper valve into the lower end of the hollow polish rod which oil is discharged at the upper end thereof into the pump tubing string through the fitting adapting the polish rod to the lower end of the sucker rod.

  20. Performance of mosquito's pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji

    2005-11-01

    The flow of human blood in Mosquito's proboscis on Hagen-Poiseuille flow is investigated by using micro PIV system to apply mosquito's sucking system for micro-TAS devises. We want to know how high the power of Mosquito's pump is and how small the resistance in a proboscis is, a structure of Mosquito's sucking pump, and its characteristics as mechanical pump. We made the mosquito suck blood of our arm to obtain the average value, made many slices of a mosquito with 2μm thickness after fixed by wax. We anatomized the mosquito's head and picked up the sucking pump under the microscope to know its volume. Mosquito's pump shows high performance compared with the artificial pumps. The surfaces of proboscis were taken by using SEM, AFM because it is important factor for interaction between flow and its wall. Visualization of the blood flows near the tip of and inside proboscis are taken by micro PIV system to know the flow rate. We estimate the power of pump and the friction drag of proboscis by using these data.

  1. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  2. Alexandrite-pumped alexandrite regenerative amplifier for femtosecond pulse amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, A.; Fermann, M.E.; Stock, M.L.; Harter, D.J.; Squier, J.

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate a regenerative amplifier incorporating alexandrite as the gain medium that is pumped by an alexandrite laser. Temperature-altered gain permitted the 728-nm alexandrite pump laser, operating at room temperature, to pump a 780{endash}800-nm alexandrite laser that was maintained at elevated temperatures. 200-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator were amplified to the millijoule level. This system also amplified femtosecond pulses from a frequency-doubled Er-doped fiber laser. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  4. Development and initial testing of a permanently implantable centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, T; Takami, Y; Benkowski, R; Ohtsubo, S; Yukio, O; Tayama, E; Ohtsuka, G; Niimi, Y; Glueck, J; Sueoka, A; Schmallegger, H; Schima, H; Wolner, E; Nosé, Y

    1997-07-01

    To be able to salvage heart failure patients, the need for an economical permanent ventricular assist device is increasing. To meet this increasing demand, a miniaturized centrifugal blood pump has been developed as a permanently implantable device. The Gyro permanently implantable model (PI-601) incorporates a sealless design with a blood stagnation free structure. The pump impeller is magnetically coupled to the driver magnet in a sealless manner. This pump is atraumatic and antithrombogenic and incorporates a double pivot bearing system. A miniaturized actuator was utilized in this system in collaboration with the University of Vienna. The priming volume of this pump is 20 ml. The overall size of the pump actuator package is 53 mm in height and 65 mm in diameter, 145 ml of displacement volume, and 305 g in weight. Testing to date has included in vitro hydraulic performance and hemolysis. This pump can provide 5 L/min against a 110 mm Hg total pressure head at 2,000 rpm and 8 L/min against 150 mm Hg at 2,500 rpm. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) value of this pump was 0.0028 g/100 L at 5 L/min against 100 mm Hg. A preliminary anatomical study revealed the possibility of the implantability of 2 such systems in biventricular bypass at a preperitoneal location. This system is feasible for use as a permanently implantable biventricular assist device. PMID:9212924

  5. 40 CFR 265.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1052 Standards: Pumps...

  6. 40 CFR 265.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1052 Standards: Pumps...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light...

  8. 40 CFR 265.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1052 Standards: Pumps...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1052 Standards: Pumps...

  10. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light...

  11. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light...

  12. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light...

  13. 40 CFR 264.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1052 Standards: Pumps in light...

  14. 40 CFR 265.1052 - Standards: Pumps in light liquid service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1052 Standards: Pumps...

  15. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  16. A formula for computing transmissibility causing maximum possible drawdown due to pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.M.; Skibitzke, Herbert E.

    1962-01-01

    By modifying the Theis nonequilibrium formula a relation is found in which the maximum possible drawdown is expressed in terms of a unique value for the aquifer coefficient of transmissibility. The relation is valid for any specified period and rate of pumping, for a given aquifer coefficient of storage, and for ,any desired radial distance from the center of pumping.

  17. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  18. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  19. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  20. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  1. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  2. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  3. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  4. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  5. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  6. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  7. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  8. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump comprising: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; hydraulic pump means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rod string. A production fluid column in a well bore above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder include an accumulator connected with the hydraulic pump means and the direction control for supercharging the intake of the pump during the extend movement of the cylinder and for applying an opposing hydraulic force to the cylinder during the retract movement.

  9. Smart'' pump and treat

    SciTech Connect

    Isherwood, W.; Rice, D. Jr.; Ziagos, J. ); Nichols, E. )

    1991-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is approaching the final phase of the Superfund decision-making process for site restoration and will soon initiate full scale cleanup. Despite some well-publicized failings of the pump and treat approach, we have concluded that intelligent application of this strategy if the best choice for ground water restoration at LLNL. Our proposed approach differs sufficiently from the pump and treat methods implemented at other sites that we call it smart'' pump and treat. Smart pump and treat consists of four distinct, but interrelated, elements: three preremediation strategies and one modification to pump and treat itself. Together, these techniques are an integrated program that utilizes an understanding of crucial aspects of contaminant flow and transport to speed up the remediation of contaminated aquifers. The four elements are: (1) a spatially detailed site characterization, linked with regional hydrogeologic models; (2) directed extraction, where the extraction and recharge locations are controlled by field-determined hydrogeologic parameters; (3) field-validated modeling that the matches the complexity of the collected data; and (4) adaptive pumping, whose pattern varies with time. Together, these techniques minimize the cost and the time to reach regulatory directed cleanup goals and maximize the rate of contaminant removal. 8 refs.

  10. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

  11. Auxiliary lubrication pump apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Glesmann, H.C.; Thomas, R.G.

    1987-02-10

    This patent describes an auxiliary lubrication pump apparatus for use with a towing vehicle having an engine switch, a battery, and an interior compartment, and a towed vehicle having an automatic transmission which requires forced lubrication while being towed. The apparatus comprises: (a) a lubrication pump; (b) a transmission to pump hose connected between the automatic transmission and the lubrication pump; (c) a valve having at least one signal output and two inputs: (d) a hose means for connecting an output of the lubrication pump to one of the inputs of the valve; (e) a first outflow hose for connecting the automatic transmission to another input of the valve; (f) a second output hose for connecting the output of the valve to the automatic transmission; (g) pressure sensing means positioned to sense pressure as regards the second outflow hose; and (h) control means responsive to the pressure sensing means and having switch means for providing electricity to the lubrication pump and to provide an alarm whenever the control means detects through the pressure sensing means that inadequate pressure exists.

  12. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  13. The Evolution of Ion Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Peter C.; Wilson, T. Hastings

    1985-01-01

    Constructs an evolutionary sequence to account for the diversity of ion pumps found today. Explanations include primary ion pumps in bacteria, features and distribution of ATP-driven pumps, preference for cation transport, and proton pump reversal. The integrated evolutionary hypothesis should encourage new experimental approaches. (DH)

  14. An aeroacoustically driven thermoacoustic heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaton, W. V.; Zeegers, J. C. H.

    2003-04-01

    The mean flow of gas in a pipe past a side branch, closed at the far end, can excite the resonant acoustic modes of the cavity much like blowing across the top of a bottle. This aeroacoustic whistle can excite very high amplitude acoustic waves within the side branch (easily 10% of the mean pressure) at optimal gas flow rates and mean pressures within the main pipe. The aeroacoustic whistle uses no moving parts to convert part of the power in the mean flow into acoustic power. Likewise a thermoacoustic heat pump, utilizing this acoustic power, uses no moving parts to pump heat and establish (or maintain) a temperature difference across a porous medium. This new combination of an aeroacoustic sound source and thermoacoustic heat pump (with suitable thermoelectric elements) is part of an electric power generation feasibility study for natural gas wells. Reliable electrical power generation down-hole to provide electricity for sensors, communications devices or energy storage units is an important research and development goal. Experimental results will be presented that demonstrate the performance of a simple thermoacoustic heat pump when powered by an aeroacoustic sound source. [Work supported by Shell International Exploration and Production B.V.

  15. 26. VIEW OF PUMP ROOM, SHOWING PORTIONS OF HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF PUMP ROOM, SHOWING PORTIONS OF HIGH PRESSURE AIR SYSTEM AT LEFT AND CENTER AND OVERFLOW STORAGE TANK AT RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  16. A pump-free membrane-controlled perfusion microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Goral, Vasiliy N; Tran, Elizabeth; Yuen, Po Ki

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we present a microfluidic platform for passive fluid pumping for pump-free perfusion cell culture, cell-based assay, and chemical applications. By adapting the passive membrane-controlled pumping principle from the previously developed perfusion microplate, which utilizes a combination of hydrostatic pressure generated by different liquid levels in the wells and fluid wicking through narrow strips of a porous membrane connecting the wells to generate fluid flow, a series of pump-free membrane-controlled perfusion microfluidic devices was developed and their use for pump-free perfusion cell culture and cell-based assays was demonstrated. Each pump-free membrane-controlled perfusion microfluidic device comprises at least three basic components: an open well for generating fluid flow, a micron-sized deep chamber/channel for cell culture or for fluid connection, and a wettable porous membrane for controlling the fluid flow. Each component is fluidically connected either by the porous membrane or by the micron-sized deep chamber/channel. By adapting and incorporating the passive membrane-controlled pumping principle into microfluidic devices, all the benefits of microfluidic technologies, such as small sample volumes, fast and efficient fluid exchanges, and fluid properties at the micro-scale, can be fully taken advantage of with this pump-free membrane-controlled perfusion microfluidic platform.

  17. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  18. Tokamak pump limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, Robert W.

    1984-12-01

    Experiments with pump limiters on several operating tokamaks have established them as efficient collectors of particles. The gas pressure rise within the chamber behind the limiters has been as high as 50 mTorr when there is no internal chamber pumping. Observations of the plasma power distribution over the front face of these limiter modules yield estimates for the scale length of radial power decay consistent with predictions of relatively simple theory. Interaction of the in-flowing plasma with recycling neutral gas near the limiter deflector plate is predicted to become important when the effective ionization mean free path is comparable to or less than the neutral atom mean path length within the throat structure of the limiter. Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased

  19. Darrieus wind-turbine and pump performance for low-lift irrigation pumping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, L.J.; Sharif, M.

    1981-10-01

    In the Great Plains about 15 percent of the irrigation water pumped on farms comes from surface water sources; for the United States as a whole, the figure is about 22 percent. Because of forecast fuel shortages, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources such as wind power for surface water pumping. Specific objectives of this investigation were to: design and assemble a prototype wind-powered pumping system for low-lift (i.e., < 15 m head) irrigation pumping; determine performance of the prototype system; design and test an irrigation system using the wind-powered prototype in a farm application; and determine the size combinations of wind turbines, tailwater pits, and temporary storage reservoirs needed for successful farm application of wind-powered tailwater pumping systems in western Kansas. The power source selected was a two-bladed, 6-m-diameter, 9-m-tall Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine with 0.10 solidity and 36.1 M/sup 2/ swept area.

  20. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  1. Multi-Function Gas Fired Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this project was to design a residential fuel fired heat pump and further improve efficiency in collaboration with an industry partner – Southwest Gas, the developer of the Nextaire commercial rooftop fuel-fired heat pump. Work started in late 2010. After extensive search for suitable engines, one manufactured by Marathon was selected. Several prototypes were designed and built over the following four years. Design changes were focused on lowering the cost of components and the cost of manufacturing. The design evolved to a final one that yielded the lowest cost. The final design also incorporates noise and vibration reduction measures that were verified to be effective through a customer survey. ETL certification is currently (as of November 2015) underway. Southwest Gas is currently in talks with GTI to reach an agreement through which GTI will assess the commercial viability and potential of the heat pump. Southwest Gas is searching for investors to manufacture the heat pump and introduce it to the market.

  2. Pumping Optimization Model for Pump and Treat Systems - 15091

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Karanovic, M.; Miller, Charles W.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-15

    Pump and Treat systems are being utilized to remediate contaminated groundwater in the Hanford 100 Areas adjacent to the Columbia River in Eastern Washington. Design of the systems was supported by a three-dimensional (3D) fate and transport model. This model provided sophisticated simulation capabilities but requires many hours to calculate results for each simulation considered. Many simulations are required to optimize system performance, so a two-dimensional (2D) model was created to reduce run time. The 2D model was developed as a equivalent-property version of the 3D model that derives boundary conditions and aquifer properties from the 3D model. It produces predictions that are very close to the 3D model predictions, allowing it to be used for comparative remedy analyses. Any potential system modifications identified by using the 2D version are verified for use by running the 3D model to confirm performance. The 2D model was incorporated into a comprehensive analysis system (the Pumping Optimization Model, POM) to simplify analysis of multiple simulations. It allows rapid turnaround by utilizing a graphical user interface that: 1 allows operators to create hypothetical scenarios for system operation, 2 feeds the input to the 2D fate and transport model, and 3 displays the scenario results to evaluate performance improvement. All of the above is accomplished within the user interface. Complex analyses can be completed within a few hours and multiple simulations can be compared side-by-side. The POM utilizes standard office computing equipment and established groundwater modeling software.

  3. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  4. Heat driven pulse pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  5. Pump tank divider plate for sump suction sodium pumps

    DOEpatents

    George, John A.; Nixon, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    A circular plate extends across the diameter of "sump suction" pump, with a close clearance between the edge of the plate and the wall of the pump tank. The plate is located above the pump impeller, inlet and outlet flow nozzles but below the sodium free surface and effectively divides the pump tank into two separate chambers. On change of pump speed, the close fitting flow restriction plate limits the rate of flow into or out of the upper chamber, thereby minimizing the rate of level change in the tank and permitting time for the pump cover gas pressure to be varied to maintain an essentially constant level.

  6. 20. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump, view to the north. The station unwatering pumps are the two large units in the center and right foreground of photograph and are marked with the numbers 1 and 2. The sump pump is the smaller unit in left foreground of photograph. These pumps are used for unwatering the draft chests for maintenance. Note the draft tube unwatering valve visible in background between the two unwatering pumps. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  7. Pumping of helium and hydrogen by sputter-ion pumps. II. Hydrogen pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, K.M.; Pate, D.J.; Todd, R.J. )

    1994-05-01

    The pumping of helium by various forms of sputter-ion pumps (i.e., SIPs) is given in part I [K. M. Welch, D. J. Pate, and R. J. Todd, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A [bold 11], 1607 (1993)]. The pumping of hydrogen in diode and triode SIPs is herein discussed. The type of cathode material used in these pumps is shown to have a significant impact on the effectiveness with which hydrogen is pumped. Examples of this include data for pumps with aluminum, titanium, and titanium-alloy cathodes. Diode pumps with aluminum cathodes are shown to be no more effective in the pumping of hydrogen than in the pumping of helium. The use of titanium anodes and titanium [ital shielding] of a pump body is also shown to impact measurably the speed of a pump at very low pressures. This stems from the fact that hydrogen is [times]10[sup 6] more soluble in titanium than in stainless steel. Hydrogen becomes resident in the anodes because of fast neutral burial. Ions and fast neutrals of hydrogen are also buried in the walls of pump bodies. Outgassing of this hydrogen from the anodes and pump bodies results in a gradual increase in pump base pressure and consequential decrease in hydrogen pump speed at very low base pressures.

  8. Improved methods for GRACE-derived groundwater storage change estimation in large-scale agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brena, A.; Kendall, A. D.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale agroecosystems are major providers of agricultural commodities and an important component of the world's food supply. In agroecosystems that depend mainly in groundwater, it is well known that their long-term sustainability can be at risk because of water management strategies and climatic trends. The water balance of groundwater-dependent agroecosystems such as the High Plains aquifer (HPA) are often dominated by pumping and irrigation, which enhance hydrological processes such as evapotranspiration, return flow and recharge in cropland areas. This work provides and validates new quantitative groundwater estimation methods for the HPA that combine satellite-based estimates of terrestrial water storage (GRACE), hydrological data assimilation products (NLDAS-2) and in situ measurements of groundwater levels and irrigation rates. The combined data can be used to elucidate the controls of irrigation on the water balance components of agroecosystems, such as crop evapotranspiration, soil moisture deficit and recharge. Our work covers a decade of continuous observations and model estimates from 2003 to 2013, which includes a significant drought since 2011. This study aims to: (1) test the sensitivity of groundwater storage to soil moisture and irrigation, (2) improve estimates of irrigation and soil moisture deficits (3) infer mean values of groundwater recharge across the HPA. The results show (1) significant improvements in GRACE-derived aquifer storage changes using methods that incorporate irrigation and soil moisture deficit data, (2) an acceptable correlation between the observed and estimated aquifer storage time series for the analyzed period, and (3) empirically-estimated annual rates of groundwater recharge that are consistent with previous geochemical and modeling studies. We suggest testing these correction methods in other large-scale agroecosystems with intensive groundwater pumping and irrigation rates.

  9. Practical and efficient magnetic heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1978-01-01

    Method for pumping heat magnetically at room temperature is more economical than existing refrigeration systems. Method uses natural magneto-thermal effect of gadolinium metal to establish temperature gradient across length of tube. Regenerative cyclic process in which gadolinium sample is magnetized and gives off heat at one end of tube, and then is demagnetized at other end to absorb heat has established temperature gradients of 144 degrees F in experiments near room temperature. Other materials with large magnetothermal effects can be used below room temperature. Possible commercial applications include freeze-drying and food processing, cold storage, and heating and cooling of buildings, plants, and ships.

  10. In-Situ Pumping Test for Multilayer Hydrogeological Site in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Tan, Y.; Lien, I.; Hsu, G.; Bao, K.

    2010-12-01

    Pingtung plain is located the in the southwestern Taiwan, and rainfall concentrated from May to October with the average annual precipitation of 2000 mm. However, topographic steepest rushing stream lead to most of the precipitation becomes runoff and drains to the ocean in short time. Due to the shortage of surface water, the groundwater is an important one of much water recourses. Additionally, the government will be set up artificial lakes in proximal-fan of pingtung plain, which increases recharge and supply to usage of the agricultural and aquaculture. However, the locations of pumping wells are decided not only affecting the developmental quantity of the groundwater but economic growth serious limited. Therefore, MODFLOW-96 was used to simulate the groundwater distribution and optimal the better recharge zone in the regional scale. Based on the model calibration and verification results, the tuku farm of the kaoping lake study is better recharged from Laonong Stream and the northeast, and the safe yield is much than other study zone. Additionally, directional variations in permeability anisotropic formations have important effects on velocities and storage of the groundwater recourses. We have further utilized modifying ANN (artificial neural networks) approach, as well as incorporating the Papadopoulos analytical solution [Lin et al, 2010], to estimate the directional and magnitude of the permeability parameters for pumping test at the tuku farm of the kaoping lake study, which the methodology will be improve accuracy of the estimation parameter. According to drawdown record data of six observation wells, results suggest that the locations of the pumping wells are set up in the northeast and northwest which since sedimentary formations are more permeable along the major direction from the northeast and northwest. Hence, the information can be helpful the groundwater management and supply in the Pingtung plain.

  11. Development of a solar-powered Rankine cycle heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biancardi, F. R.; Melikian, G.; Sitler, J. W.

    1982-03-01

    The first prototype 18-ton solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump module was successfully designed, built and tested for more than 250 hr. in a specially-designed laboratory facility at UTRC. Operation in both the cooling and heat pump mode was demonstrated over a wide range of building, climatic, and collector/storage conditions. The design point performance of the heat pump in both the cooling and heat pump modes was confirmed, and performance mapping of the module completed. The heat pump demonstrated the wide operating range possible (using 200 to 300 F hot water) and high heat pump mode performance levels, such as a COP of 1.4 to 2.5 and 500,000 Btu/hr capacity. In cooling, a COP of 0.5 to 0.75 and up to 20 tons was demonstrated. In a simulation of operation in an actual building, the heat pump smoothly and accurately followed the building load for a full day. A detailed assessment of the individual module components was completed and performance, cost and reliability improvements were identified. No evidence of R11 decomposition or component wear or corrosion was found.

  12. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Hishinuma, O.; Masuda, A.; Ohmori, T.; Miyaki, M.; Takemoto, E.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for an internal combustion engine comprising: a housing having a cylindrical inner surface; a shaft having a portion disposed in rotatably sliding engagement with the cylindrical inner surface and having a first axial bore and a second radial bore therein; at least one pumping plunger slidably disposed in the second radial bore to cooperate therewith to define a compression chamber; a pumping plunger is adapted to be moved in the second radial bore to vary the volume of the compression chamber; an injection plunger slidably disposed in the first axial, bore to cooperate in defining the first and second pressure chambers separated from each other by the injection plunger.

  13. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  14. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  15. Paramagnetic-Salt Thermometer With Flux Pump And SQUID's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, Donald M.; Israelsson, Ulf E.

    1993-01-01

    Paramagnetic-salt low-temperature thermometer incorporates improved superconducting magnetic-flux pump, multiple superconducting quantum interference devices as magnetometers, and feedback stabilization of magnetic flux. Requires much smaller initial magnetizing currents and provides improved temperature resolution via suppression of drift in magnetic induction.

  16. Modeling Irrigation Pumping and Groundwater Depletion in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Y. N.; Koirala, S.; Yamada, T.; Hanasaki, N.; Yeh, P. J.; Yoshimura, K.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is an important source of human water use in many regions. Today, at least one-fourth of world's population rely on water drawn from underground aquifers. During the last several decades, rapid expansion of irrigated areas has led to significant increase in agricultural groundwater withdrawal. Natural dynamic equilibrium of groundwater systems (recharge = discharge) is perturbed when groundwater is artificially pumped, and if pumping exceeds recharge over large areas and prolonged period of time, progressive decrease in groundwater storage can occur which is usually termed as 'groundwater mining'. Evidence is now growing that groundwater resources have been dwindling due to excessive groundwater mining, particularly in semi-arid regions where most croplands with intensive irrigation are located. Here, we provide the first model-based study of the impact of irrigation pumping on groundwater depletion by using an integrated model HIGW-MAT developed by incorporating human impact modules (reservoir operation, irrigation, water withdrawal) and a fully dynamic groundwater representation into the state-of-the-art land surface model called MATSIRO (Minimal Advanced Treatments of Surface Interaction and Runoff). Total water requirements of a grid cell (domestic, industrial, and agricultural) are withdrawn from surface and/or sub-surface sources based on water availability. When the surface water sources such as river and medium-sized reservoirs deplete below a prescribed threshold, water is pumped from groundwater reservoir. The groundwater scheme is an unconfined aquifer model in which soil column is separated into continuously interacting saturated and unsaturated zones by the water table. Thus, the model simulates the flow of water taking into account anthropogenic water regulation and groundwater pumping and return flow of anthropogenic water use. Simulations are conducted at 1° × 1° (longitude and latitude) spatial resolution at the global scale. The

  17. Air-Operated Sump Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolt, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Pump removes liquid seepage from small, restricted area and against large pressure head. Developed for moving small amounts of water and oil from sump pit 85 ft (25.91 m) deep. Fits in space only 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm) in diameter and 18 in. (45.7 cm) long. In discharge part of pumping cycle, air forces liquid out of pump chamber through pipe. During filling part of pumping cycle, water enters pump chamber from sump pit. Float in chamber next to pump chamber controls pressurization through timer and solenoid valve.

  18. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  19. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  20. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  1. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1984-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  2. Velocity pump reaction turbine

    DOEpatents

    House, Palmer A.

    1982-01-01

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  3. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  4. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  5. High pressure reciprocating pump

    SciTech Connect

    Besic, D.

    1990-05-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a reciprocating pump having a plunger and a pumping chamber. It comprises: the plunger having a bore communicating with an intersection opening and wherein the plunger incudes a central axis; a suction valve and a discharge valve, each having an axis of actuation parallel to a central axis of the plunger; the suction valve comprising a cylindrical core having a central passageway, and the core is slidably received by a seating member and resiliently biased to the seating member.

  6. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  7. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  8. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  9. High head pump-turbine: Pumping mode numerical simulations with a cavitation model for off-design conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jese, U.; Fortes-Patella, R.; Antheaume, S.

    2014-03-01

    Flexibility and energy storage are one of the main challenges of the energy industry at the present time. Pumped Storage Power Plants (PSP), using reversible pump-turbines, are among the most cost-efficient solutions to answer these needs. To provide a rapid adjustment to the electricity grid, pump-turbines are subject of quick switching between pumping and generating modes and to extended operation under off-design conditions. In particular, at part load, instabilities in pump characteristics can occur. It can lead to unsteadiness and even to a shift of the operating point with significant modification of discharge and drop of efficiency. This unstable area is often exposed to the cavitation phenomenon, which can lead to vibrations, loss of performance and sometimes erosion. The paper focuses on the numerical analysis of the pumping mode regime, especially on the part load off-design instabilities, observed as a saddle shaped pump-turbine head curve and the presence and development of the cavitation in the part load area. The investigations were made on the reduce-scaled model of a high head pump-turbine design. Numerical calculations were performed using commercial code with implemented barotropic cavitation model. Some of the numerical results were compared to the experimental data. Flow analysis was stressed on the cavitation influence on the flow behavior and the performance of the machine. The analysis was made for various flow rates and a wide range of NPSH values. The importance of specific parts of the numerical domain for obtained results was investigated and evaluated.

  10. Regional evaluation of hydrologic factors and effects of pumping, St Peter-Jordan aquifer, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkart, M.R.; Buchmiller, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Pumping has caused changes in the flow system that include regional declines in the potentiometric surface of the aquifer. Simulation indicates that pumping through 1980 increased net vertical leakage into the aquifer to about double the predevelopment rate. Discharge across lateral boundaries has been substantially reduced or reversed by pumping. Aquifer storage provided about one-third of the water required to supply pumping in the 1970's. Simulation of future conditions, assuming no increase in pumping rates, indicates that the rate of decline in water levels will decrease by the year 2020. As equilibrium with pumping is approached in 2020, 75 percent of the pumpage will be balanced by vertical leakage, eight percent by water released from aquifer storage, and 17 percent by increases in boundary recharge or decreases in boundary discharge. Future pumping at an increasing rate of about 10 percent per decade of the average pumping rate in 1975 will require about one and one-half times the vertical leakage of the 1971-1980 period and about fivetimes the net inflow from lateral boundaries; however, the rate of water released from aquifer storage will be about half the 1970's rate. Under these conditions, the head in the aquifer will continue to decline at an almost constant rate until 2020.

  11. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  12. Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  13. Portable engine-pump assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, H.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a portable engine-pump assembly that is compact and light in weight comprising: an internal combustion engine mounted with its crankshaft extending vertically, a centrifugal pump having an impeller mounted for rotation on a pump shaft within a volute chamber, means mounting the pump on and immediately beneath the engine with the pump shaft extending vertically in accurate alignment and concentricity with the engine crankshaft, means coupling the engine crankshaft and the pump shaft together so that the engine crankshaft drives the pump shaft, the pump comprising a pump body defining the volute chamber and providing a pump inlet passage and a pump discharge passage oriented in generally horizontal directions, the pump body defining an inlet chamber providing passages for the flow of liquid from the pump inlet passage into the impeller from both above and below same and including an upper body portion and a lower body portion, and an exhaust system for the engine including an exhaust passage contained in the upper body portion, a muffler having an inlet, and means providing flow communication between the exhaust passage and the inlet of the muffler.

  14. 1. VIEW OF PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING NO. 5 (wooden structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING NO. 5 (wooden structure to right) AND NO. 6 (brick structure to the left, ca. 1891) ON THE EASTERN BANK OF THE STONY CREEK RIVER. Brick foundation for the pump machinery and brick conduit tunnel are still intact in the basement of Pattern Storage Building No. 6. - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Pattern Storage Building, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  15. Recent Development in Hydrogen Peroxide Pumped Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ledebuhr, A G; Antelman, D R; Dobie, D W; Gorman, T S; Jones, M S; Kordas, J F; McMahon, D H; Ng, L C; Nielsen, D P; Ormsby, A E; Pittenger, L C; Robinson, J A; Skulina, K M; Taylor, W G; Urone, D A; Wilson, B A

    2004-03-22

    This paper describes the development of a lightweight high performance pump-fed divert and attitude control system (DACS). Increased kinetic Kill Vehicles (KV) capabilities (higher .v and acceleration capability) will especially be needed for boost phase engagements where a lower mass KV DACS enables smaller overall interceptors. To increase KV performance while reducing the total DACS dry mass (<10 kg), requires a design approach that more closely emulates those found in large launch vehicles, where pump-fed propulsion enables high propellant-mass-fraction systems. Miniaturized reciprocating pumps, on a scale compatible with KV applications, offer the potential of a lightweight DACS with both high {Delta}v and acceleration capability, while still enabling the rapid pulsing of the divert thrusters needed in the end-game fly-in. Pumped propulsion uses lightweight low-pressure propellant tanks, as the main vehicle structure and eliminates the need for high-pressure gas bottles, reducing mass and increasing the relative propellant load. Prior work used hydrazine and demonstrated a propellant mass fraction >0.8 and a vehicle propulsion dry mass of {approx}3 kg. Our current approach uses the non-toxic propellants 90% hydrogen peroxide and kerosene. This approach enables faster development at lower costs due to the ease of handling. In operational systems these non-toxic propellants can simplify the logistics for manned environments including shipboard applications. This DACS design configuration is expected to achieve sufficient mass flows to support divert thrusters in the 1200 N to 1330 N (270 lbf to 300 lbf) range. The DACS design incorporates two pairs of reciprocating differential piston pumps (oxidizer and fuel), a warm-gas drive system, compatible bi-propellant thrusters, lightweight valves, and lightweight low-pressure propellant tanks. This paper summarizes the current development status and plans.

  16. Custom Unit Pump Design and Testing for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the pre-flight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion , and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated between 40 and 240 lbm/hr flowrate, 35 to 100 F

  17. 13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. The River Pump House pump room, in this case in the 100-F Area in January 1945. In the 100 Area, the pumps supplied water to the 100 Area and to the export water system that ran to D and F reactors and the 200 areas. D-8248 - B Reactor, Richland, Benton County, WA

  18. Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power distribution cabinets for valve motors along north wall at left. View to east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 24. Pump Room interiordewatering pump motor on upper level. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Pump Room interior-dewatering pump motor on upper level. Note the removable roof hatch (steel frame) directly above motor. Dewatering pumps motor control center at left - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 29. WORTHINGTON FIRE PUMP WITH TURBINE HIDDEN BEHIND. PUMP HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. WORTHINGTON FIRE PUMP WITH TURBINE HIDDEN BEHIND. PUMP HOUSE IS LOCATED AT HEAD OF OLD TRASH GATES. PUMP ENTERS WATER ON EXTERIOR OF WALL IN FAR SIDE OF PHOTO. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  2. 39. THREECYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. THREE-CYLINDER HYDRAULIC OIL PUMP (MANUFACTURED BY WORTHINGTON: PUMP AND MACHINERY COMPANY, HOLYOKE MASSACHUSETTS) IN MACHINERY CHAMBER FOR SLUICE GATE WORKS ON GALLERY 1. NOTE OIL TANK ABOVE PUMP MOTOR. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Owyhee Dam, Across Owyhee River, Nyssa, Malheur County, OR

  3. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  4. Pump Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  5. Well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.D.

    1981-12-15

    A pumping apparatus that may be used with a well in which a sucker rod is connected with the well so as to remain in axial alignment with the same during shifting of the well and the sucker rod is supported clear of the well and the structure for operating the same.

  6. Hydraulic well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Dollison, W.W.

    1986-02-25

    This patent describes a system for operating a sucker rod string connected with a well pump. This pump consists of: a double-acting fluid cylinder having opposing power ends; means for connecting the cylinder with the sucker rod string for raising and lowering the string to operate the pump; means for supplying pressurized fluid alternately to the cylinder ends including a direction control movable between extend and retract conditions to extend and retract the cylinder; drive means for shifting the direction control; control means for operating the drive means responsive to the extend and retract movements of the cylinder; including limit valves positioned to simulate the hydraulic cylinder extend and retract stroke end locations, the limit valves being movably mounted for changing the location of each limit valve and the distance between the limit valves for selectively adjusting the length of the strokes of the hydraulic cylinder and the end limit of the extend and retract strokes of the cylinder. A cam operator is for opening and closing each of the limit valves at the end locations and means connecting the cam operator means with the hydraulic cylinder. Cable is reeved over the movable and fixed sheave means and secured along the second end thereof at a fixed location; and means for applying a fluid counterbalancing force into the cylinder for offsetting the combined weights of the sucker rods string, a production fluid column in a well core above the pump, and movable surface equipment supported on the cylinder.

  7. Heat pumps for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    Research activities, both in the laboratory and in the field, confirm that heat pumps can improve energy efficiency and productivity for a multitude of process types. By using heat pumps, process industries can save significant amounts of energy and money and successfully control emissions. Those industries with special needs, such as recovering solvents, can meet them more energy efficiently and cost effectively with heat pumps. Through the years, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) has helped industry solve its energy problems by joining in cooperative agreements with companies willing to do the research. The companies involved in these agreements share the costs of the research and benefit directly from the technology developed. OIT then has information from demonstration projects that it can pass on to others within industry. All the projects described in this brochure were joint ventures between DOE and industry participants. OIT will assist in accelerating the use of heat pumps in the industrial marketplace by continuing to work with industry on research and demonstration projects and to transfer research results and project performance information to the rest of industry. Successfully transferring this technology could conserve as much as 1.5 quads of energy annually at a savings of more than $4 billion at today's prices.

  8. Linear induction pump

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, John W.; Moore, Robert M.; Bienvenue, Louis L.

    1985-03-19

    Electromagnetic linear induction pump for liquid metal which includes a unitary pump duct. The duct comprises two substantially flat parallel spaced-apart wall members, one being located above the other and two parallel opposing side members interconnecting the wall members. Located within the duct are a plurality of web members interconnecting the wall members and extending parallel to the side members whereby the wall members, side members and web members define a plurality of fluid passageways, each of the fluid passageways having substantially the same cross-sectional flow area. Attached to an outer surface of each side member is an electrically conductive end bar for the passage of an induced current therethrough. A multi-phase, electrical stator is located adjacent each of the wall members. The duct, stators, and end bars are enclosed in a housing which is provided with an inlet and outlet in fluid communication with opposite ends of the fluid passageways in the pump duct. In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the inlet and outlet includes a transition means which provides for a transition from a round cross-sectional flow path to a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow path defined by the pump duct.

  9. An Improved Archimedes Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoglu, Resat

    2002-12-01

    In this note we propose a slightly improved version of the Archimedes pump which was advertised as a toy model in The Physics Teacher. It consists of a hose wound densely around a tube (or pipe made of metallic or plastic material) which can be rotated mechanically (a hand driven one is the most primitive case as shown in the Picture 1) or electrically.

  10. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  11. Progressive cavity pump

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.W.

    1989-04-04

    A progressive cavity pump is described, comprising: a first housing portion defining an inlet; a second housing portion attachable to the first housing portion and defining an outlet; a substantially elastomeric stator comprising an outer portion removably attached to the first and second housing portions, having a first end and a second end spaced from the first end, an inner portion defining a pumping chamber and spaced an annular end portion interconnecting the first ends of the outer and inner portions; a rotor disposed in the inner portion of the stator and extending through the pumping chamber for pumping fluid from the inlet to the outlet in response to rotation of the rotor; and an elongated member disposed in the housing portions and generally annularly between the inner and outer portions of the stator and longitudinally between the annular end portion of the stator and a portion of the second housing portion, the member being removable from the housing portions and separable from the stator.

  12. Downhold hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a downhole pump of the type having a main housing within which there is formed an engine chamber and a production chamber. A piston is reciprocatingly received within the engine chamber, a plunger reciprocatingly received within the production chamber, a connecting rod by which the piston and plunger are connected together; the combination with the main housing, piston, plunger.

  13. Downhole hydraulic actuated pump

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, G.K.

    1988-09-06

    This patent describes a downhole hydraulically actuated pump assembly of the type having a main housing within which an engine and pump is enclosed; a connecting rod, an engine piston, a pump plunger, means by which the engine and connecting rod reciprocate the pump plunger and thereby produces fluid; the main housing has a lower end having a formation fluid inlet; and upper end having a power fluid inlet; and, a produced fluid outlet; the plunger divides one marginal end of the housing into upper and lower production chambers; the lower end of the connecting rod is hollow and extends through the plunger into fluid communication with the formation fluid inlet to provide a source of formation fluid for the upper and lower production chambers; a traveling value assembly contained within the plunger and arranged to transfer formation fluid from the hollow rod, through the plunger, and into the upper and lower production chambers, respectively, as the plunger upstrokes and downstrokes; produced fluid valve means by which fluid flows from the upper and lower production chambers and through the produced fluid outlet.

  14. Piezohydraulic Pump Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Reciprocating piston piezohydraulic pumps were developed originally under the Smart Wing Phase II program (Lynch) and later under the CHAP program (CSA, Kinetic Ceramics). These pumps focused on 10 cm scale stack actuators operating below resonance and, more recently, at resonance. A survey of commercially available linear actuators indicates that obtaining power density and specific power greater than electromagnetic linear actuators requires driving the stacks at frequencies greater than 1 KHz at high fields. In the case of 10 cm scale actuators the power supply signal conditioning becomes large and heavy and the soft PZT stack actuators generate a lot of heat due to internal losses. Reciprocation frequencies can be increased and material losses significantly decreased through use of millimeter scale single crystal stack actuators. We are presently targeting the design of pumps that utilize stacks at the 1-10 mm length scale and run at reciprocating frequencies of 20kHz or greater. This offers significant advantages over current approaches including eliminating audible noise and significantly increasing the power density and specific power of the system (including electronics). The pump currently under development will comprise an LC resonant drive of a resonant crystal and head mass operating against a resonant fluid column. Each of these resonant systems are high Q and together should produce a single high Q second order system.

  15. Shrouded inducer pump

    DOEpatents

    Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    An improvement in a pump including a shrouded inducer, the improvement comprising first and second sealing means 32,36 which cooperate with a first vortex cell 38 and a series of secondary vortex cells 40 to remove any tangential velocity components from the recirculation flow.

  16. RSES heat pump technician certification

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiner, J.

    1996-06-01

    In 1987 the National Heat Pump certification test was developed by the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), and in 1994, the program was more specifically named Heat Pump Service Technician Certification. This report describes the benefits of certification.

  17. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  18. Fuel pumping system and method

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng ,

    2006-12-19

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  19. High Density Digital Data Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D., II; Gray, David L.; Rowland, Wayne D.

    1991-01-01

    The High Density Digital Data Storage System was designed to provide a cost effective means for storing real-time data from the field-deployable digital acoustic measurement system. However, the high density data storage system is a standalone system that could provide a storage solution for many other real time data acquisition applications. The storage system has inputs for up to 20 channels of 16-bit digital data. The high density tape recorders presently being used in the storage system are capable of storing over 5 gigabytes of data at overall transfer rates of 500 kilobytes per second. However, through the use of data compression techniques the system storage capacity and transfer rate can be doubled. Two tape recorders have been incorporated into the storage system to produce a backup tape of data in real-time. An analog output is provided for each data channel as a means of monitoring the data as it is being recorded.

  20. Oil well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Whatley, D. L.; Chaviers, W. M.

    1985-07-23

    The present system and apparatus for pumping an oil well damps out the stretch and over travel in sucker rod over travel particularly when the rod string approaches its point of reversal of direction either up or down. This is accomplished by decelerating the rate of travel of the rod string and at its end of travel pausing for a time period sufficient to allow rod string oscillations to damp out prior to reversal of rod string direction which due to the long length of the rod string, its weight and the weight of the trapped oil avoids breaking the rod string and the time loss occasioned thereby in both loss of well production and costly replacement of equipment and the time loss resulting therefrom. The present invention also achieves substantial recovery of hi-viscosity oil not recoverable at present by standard recovery procedures. This is accomplished with a sensor positioned to be actuated by the ram of the hydraulic drive. When the sensor is actuated, it energizes a time delay relay which holds the sucker rod string in the upper most raised position allowing the suction to be maintained on the bottom hole pump with the standing valve open. This allows the hi-viscus oil to enter the bottom hole pump barrel. When the time delay relay is released, the sucker rod string starts its downward movement closing the bottom hole standing valve. This traps the hi-viscus oil in the pump barrel which is then displaced by the downward-movement of the plunger in the bottom hole pump.

  1. Absorption heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhtinen, M.; Heikkilae, M.; Andersson, R.

    1987-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of absorption heat pumps in Finland. The work was done as a case study: the technical and economic analyses have been carried out for six different cases, where in each the suitable size and type of the heat pump plant and the auxiliary components and connections were specified. The study also detailed the costs concerning the procurement, installation and test runs of the machinery, as well as the savings in energy costs incurred by the introduction of the plant. Conclusions were drawn of the economic viability of the applications studied. The following cases were analyzed: heat recovery from flue gases and productin of district heat in plants using peat, natural gas, and municipal wastes as a fuel. Heat recovery in the pulp and paper industry for the upgrading of pressure of secondary steam and for the heating of white liquor and combustion and drying the air. Heat recovery in a peat-fulled heat and power plant from flue gases that have been used for the drying of peat. According to the study, the absorption heat pump suits best to the production of district heat, when the heat source is the primary energy is steam produced by the boiler. Included in the flue as condensing is the purification of flue gases. Accordingly, benefit is gained on two levels in thick applications. In heat and power plants the use of absorption heat pumps is less economical, due to the fact that the steam used by the pump reduces the production of electricity, which is rated clearly higher than heat.

  2. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  3. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  4. Blood Pump Bearing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  5. Prediction of pump cavitation performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method for predicting pump cavitation performance with various liquids, liquid temperatures, and rotative speeds is presented. Use of the method requires that two sets of test data be available for the pump of interest. Good agreement between predicted and experimental results of cavitation performance was obtained for several pumps operated in liquids which exhibit a wide range of properties. Two cavitation parameters which qualitatively evaluate pump cavitation performance are also presented.

  6. Dark pulse generation in fiber lasers incorporating carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Chow, K K

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the generation of dark pulses from carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporated erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with net anomalous dispersion. A side-polished fiber coated with CNT layer by optically-driven deposition method is embedded into the laser in order to enhance the birefringence and nonlinearity of the laser cavity. The dual-wavelength domain-wall dark pulses are obtained from the developed CNT-incorporated fiber laser at a relatively low pump threshold of 50.6 mW. Dark pulses repeated at the fifth-order harmonic of the fundamental cavity frequency are observed by adjusting the intra-cavity polarization state.

  7. 5. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump for Units 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Station Unwatering Pumps and Sump Pump for Units 1 and 2, view to the west. The unwatering pumps are the two larger items toward the right side of the photograph (one in foreground and one in background. The smaller item toward the left of the photograph is the sump pump. These pumps are used for draining water from the draft chest for maintenance. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  8. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  9. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    SciTech Connect

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  10. Rotating magnetic poles used to pump mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, B. T.; Lowdermilk, W. H.; Vary, A.

    1966-01-01

    Rotating magnetic pump with redesigned pump cell is used for pumping mercury. The modified pump has better electrical continuity, more efficient heat removal, and good wetting characteristics in the mercury flow channel.

  11. Advanced high-temperature electromagnetic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahan, J. W.; Powell, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Three phase helical, electromagnetic induction pump for use as boiler feed pump in potassium Rankine-cycle power system is described. Techniques for fabricating components of pump are discussed. Specifications of pump are analyzed.

  12. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

    1988-01-01

    A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

  13. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  14. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  15. Performance Analysis of a Hot Water Supply System with a CO2 Heat Pump by Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Shimizu, Takeshi; Takemura, Kazuhisa; Ito, Koichi

    Heat pumps using CO2 as a natural refrigerant have been developed and are expected to contribute to energy saving in hot water supply. In residential applications, CO2 heat pumps are used in combination with hot water storage tanks. The objective of this series of papers is to analyze the overall performance of a hot water supply system composed of a CO2 heat pump and a hot water storage tank by numerical simulation. In the 1st report, a simulation model of a CO2 heat pump is created based on thermodynamic equations and measured data for an existing CO2 heat pump. In addition, the performance of a CO2 heat pump is clarified in relation to the air temperature as well as the inlet and outlet water temperatures.

  16. 40 CFR 264.1058 - Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves...

  17. 40 CFR 264.1058 - Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves...

  18. 40 CFR 264.1058 - Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1058 - Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1058 - Standards: Pumps and valves in heavy liquid service, pressure relief devices in light liquid or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1058 Standards: Pumps and valves...

  1. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  2. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this

  3. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  4. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or...

  7. The Microbial Carbon Pump: A new Concept in Marine Biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, three mechanisms, called pumps, have been suggested to explain the vertical distribution of carbon in the water column: The solubility pump, the carbonate pump and biological carbon pump (BCP). Recently, the conceptual framework of the microbial carbon pump (MCP) has been developed by the SCOR (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research) WG 134. The MCP is defined as the transfer of labile organic matter into recalcitrant organic matter by microbial activity (microbial loop and viral shunt) causing long-term storage of carbon. The major pathways of the MCP are: 1) Direct exudation of microbial cells during production and proliferation, 2) viral lysis of microbial cells releasing microbial cell wall and cell surface macromolecules and 3) organic aggregate (particle) degradation and transformation.The MCP is important for understanding the marine carbon cycle, since the carbon content in marine dissolved organic matter (DOM, DOC) is similar to the carbon content of CO2 in the atmosphere. First estimates indiacte that the capacity of carbon sequestration into deep marine waters and sediments of the BCP and MCP is in the same order of magnitude (0.4 and 0.5-0.6 Gt C per yr). The fourth carbon pump is likely an important mechanism in the marine carbon cycle and potentially vulnerable to global change.

  8. Functional design criteria for pumping and instrumentation control (PIC) skids

    SciTech Connect

    BOETTGER, J.S.

    1999-08-25

    Radioactive liquid and semisolid waste from operation of Hanford's nuclear fuel processing plants is stored in 177 underground storage tanks located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford site. 28 of these tanks are of double-shell construction. The remaining 149 tanks are of single-shell construction. Only the newer, double-shell tanks (DST) can meet current requirements for containment of dangerous waste. Therefore, the single-shell tanks (SST) are being ''interim stabilized,'' which is the process of removing liquid from the waste through the use of a jet pump installed in a saltwell which penetrates the waste. Lockheed Martin Hanford Company has decided to purchase additional Pumping and Instrumentation Control (PIC) skids to monitor and control the operation of saltwell jet pumps in SSTs. Similar PIC skids are already in use at several locations. The PIC skids will shut off all power to equipment/instruments if preset limits are exceeded for such conditions as flammable gas, leak detection, pressure and flow, as well as provide air and water necessary for saltwell pumping activities. This document outlines the functional design criteria for pumping and instrumentation control (PIC) skids to support the interim stabilization effort for saltwell pumping.

  9. Multiple source heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  10. Solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  11. Oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.L.

    1980-10-21

    An oil well subsurface pump comprising a housing having one end thereof adapted to be secured to the lowermost end of a sucker rod, or the like, and the opposite end thereof in open communication with the fluid reservoir in a well bore, a ball check valve carried by the housing, a ball stop member disposed within the housing for limiting the movement of the ball member in one direction and having ports therein for passage of fluid upwardly through the housing, resilient sealing assembly interposed between the outer periphery of the housing and the inner periphery of the barrel and slidable with respect to the barrel during a pumping operation, and discharge ports provided in the housing in spaced relation to the sealing assembly for directing well fluid from the interior of the housing to the annulus between the housing and the working barrel for transportation of the fluid to the surface of the well bore.

  12. Sucker rod pump

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, J.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a subsurface well pump, it comprises: a working barrel; a plunger which reciprocates along the vertical axis within the working barrel between an upper and lower position; a rod connected to the plunger and extending to a means for providing reciprocating force; a well string extending from the top of the working barrel to the surface; an outlet check valve which permits flow to exit the working barrel into the well string and does not permit flow to exit the well string into the working barrel; and an inlet check valve which permits flow into the working barrel from outside of the subsurface pump, the inlet check valve being above the top position of the plunger, the inlet check valve having a cross sectional flow area about equal to or greater than the horizontal cross sectional area of the working barrel, and the inlet check valve being a hinged flapper valve.

  13. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  14. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  15. Fuel injection pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.A.; Mowbray, D.F.

    1987-10-13

    A liquid fuel injection pumping apparatus is described comprising a rotary and axially movable fuel distributor member housed within a body, a reciprocable pumping plunger housed within a bore formed in the distributor member, cam means mounted in the body for effecting inward movement of the plunger as the distributor member rotates, passage means in the body and distributor member and stop means for limiting the extent of outward movement of the plunger. The extent of outward movement depends on the axial setting of the distributor member in the body, resilient means biasing the distributor member in one axial direction, a chamber defined in the body, means for controlling the fluid pressure in the chamber to control the axial setting of the distributor member.

  16. Micromachined peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A micromachined pump including a channel formed in a semiconductor substrate by conventional processes such as chemical etching. A number of insulating barriers are established in the substrate parallel to one another and transverse to the channel. The barriers separate a series of electrically conductive strips. An overlying flexible conductive membrane is applied over the channel and conductive strips with an insulating layer separating the conductive strips from the conductive membrane. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips pulls the membrane into the channel portion of each successive strip to achieve a pumping action. A particularly desirable arrangement employs a micromachined push-pull dual channel cavity employing two substrates with a single membrane sandwiched between them.

  17. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  18. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  19. Optical Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstar, John

    1987-01-01

    Classifies and briefly describes several types of optical storage media available today--read-only and write-once analog disks, read-only and write-once digital disks and erasable disks. The appropriateness of CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory) for use in libraries of developing nations is discussed in terms of users' information needs and…

  20. Estimating pumping time and ground-water withdrawals using energy- consumption data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurr, R.T.; Litke, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of the hydrology of an aquifer requires knowledge about the volume of groundwater in storage and also about the volume of groundwater withdrawals. Totalizer flow meters may be installed at pumping plants to measure withdrawals; however, it generally is impractical to equip all pumping plants in an area with meters. A viable alternative is the use of rate-time methods. Rate-time methods may be used at individual pumping plants to decrease the data collection necessary for determining withdrawals. At sites where pumping-time measurement devices are not installed, pumping time may be determined on the basis of energy consumption and power demand. At pumping plants where energy consumption is metered, data acquired by reading of meters is used to estimate pumping time. Care needs to be taken to read these meters correctly. At pumping plants powered by electricity, the calculations need to be modified if transformers are present. At pumping plants powered by natural gas, the effects of the pressure-correction factor need to be included in the calculations. At pumping plants powered by gasoline, diesel oil, or liquid petroleum gas, the geometry of storage tanks needs to be analyzed as part of the calculations. The relation between power demand and pumping rate at a pumping plant can be described through the use of the power-consumption coefficient. Where equipment and hydrologic conditions are stable, this coefficient can be applied to total energy consumption at a site to estimate total groundwater withdrawals. Random sampling of power consumption coefficients can be used to estimate area-wide groundwater withdrawal. (USGS)

  1. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  2. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    SciTech Connect

    Aschliman, Dave; Lubbehusen, Mike

    2015-06-30

    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  3. Spreadsheet pump circuit design

    SciTech Connect

    Kerlin, M. )

    1989-12-01

    Computer spreadsheet software can be a valuable tool to the process design engineer. Interrelated calculations describing a single system can be executed as rapidly as one can enter a different input variable. Spreadsheets are also adept at evaluating numerous cases simultaneously. This paper discusses the pump calculation template which combines both of these features: the interrelation of fixed and variable resistances (systems loss and control values) and the relationship from case to case of differential head versus flowrate.

  4. Magnetic heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.; Uherka, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic heat pumps and refrigerators are potential replacements for vapor-compression devices that use chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants. Several room-temperature designs, using low-temperature superconducting magnets, have reached the experimental device stage. High-temperature superconducting materials may significantly increase the viability of the technology, both by enhancing existing design concepts and by enabling new major design types such as field switching of the superconducting magnets.

  5. Performance of a solar augmented heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedinger, A. F. G.; Tomlinson, J. J.; Reid, R. L.; Chaffin, D. J.

    Performance of a residential size solar augmented heat pump is reported for the 1979-1980 heating season. The facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee, has a measured heat load coefficient of 339.5 watt/C (644 BTU/hr- F). The solar augmented heat pump system consists of 7.4 cu m of one inch diameter crushed limestone. The heat pump is a nominal 8.8 KW (2 1/2 ton) high efficiency unit. The system includes electric resistance heaters to give the option of adding thermal energy to the pebble bed storage during utility off-peak periods, thus offering considerable load management capability. A 15 KW electric resistance duct heater is used to add thermal energy to the pebble bin as required during off-peak periods. Hourly thermal performance and on site weather data was taken for the period November 1, 1979, to April 13, 1980. Thermal performance data consists of heat flow summations for all modes of the system, pebble bed temperatures, and space temperature. Weather data consists of dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, total global insolation (in the plane of the collector), and wind speed and direction. An error analysis was performed and the least accurate of the measurements was determined to be the heat flow at 5%. Solar system thermal performance factor was measured to be 8.77. The heat pump thermal performance factor was 1.64. Total system seasonal performance factor was measured to be 1.66. Using a modified version of TRNSYS, the thermal performance of this system was simulated. When simulation results were compared with data collected onsite, the predicted heat flow and power consumption generally were within experimental accuracy.

  6. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  7. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  8. Pumping potential wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, all such structures must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which pump ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electron collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density, multidipole plasma are considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two-dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  9. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  10. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  11. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  12. Development and Verification of a TOPAZ-II Electromagnetic Pump Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Paramonov, Dmitry V.

    1994-07-01

    An integrated model of the TOPAZ-II electromagnetic (EM) pump is developed and incorporated into the Thermionic Transient Analysis Model (TITAM). The magnetic field strength of the induction coil depends not only on the current supplied by the pump TFEs, but also on the temperature of the coil. All electric and thermal properties of the coolant, wall material of pump ducts, and the electric leads are taken to be temperature dependent. The pump model is benchmarked with experimental data at different coolant temperatures. Results show the pump model to be in good agreement with experimental data. The maximum deviation in the mass flow predictions obtained at different coolant temperatures and pump currents is less than 0.1 kg/s.

  13. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  14. Representing pump-capacity relations in groundwater simulati on models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The yield (or discharge) of constant-speed pumps varies with the total dynamic head (or lift) against which the pump is discharging. The variation in yield over the operating range of the pump may be substantial. In groundwater simulations that are used for management evaluations or other purposes, where predictive accuracy depends on the reliability of future discharge estimates, model reliability may be enhanced by including the effects of head-capacity (or pump-capacity) relations on the discharge from the well. A relatively simple algorithm has been incorporated into the widely used MODFLOW groundwater flow model that allows a model user to specify head-capacity curves. The algorithm causes the model to automatically adjust the pumping rate each time step to account for the effect of drawdown in the cell and changing lift, and will shut the pump off if lift exceeds a critical value. The algorithm is available as part of a new multinode well package (MNW2) for MODFLOW. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Representing pump-capacity relations in groundwater simulation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    2010-01-01

    The yield (or discharge) of constant-speed pumps varies with the total dynamic head (or lift) against which the pump is discharging. The variation in yield over the operating range of the pump may be substantial. In groundwater simulations that are used for management evaluations or other purposes, where predictive accuracy depends on the reliability of future discharge estimates, model reliability may be enhanced by including the effects of head-capacity (or pump-capacity) relations on the discharge from the well. A relatively simple algorithm has been incorporated into the widely used MODFLOW groundwater flow model that allows a model user to specify head-capacity curves. The algorithm causes the model to automatically adjust the pumping rate each time step to account for the effect of drawdown in the cell and changing lift, and will shut the pump off if lift exceeds a critical value. The algorithm is available as part of a new multinode well package (MNW2) for MODFLOW.

  16. A Passively-Suspended Tesla Pump Left Ventricular Assist Device

    PubMed Central

    Izraelev, Valentin; Weiss, William J.; Fritz, Bryan; Newswanger, Raymond K.; Paterson, Eric G.; Snyder, Alan; Medvitz, Richard B.; Cysyk, Joshua; Pae, Walter E.; Hicks, Dennis; Lukic, Branka; Rosenberg, Gerson

    2009-01-01

    The design and initial test results of a new passively suspended Tesla type LAVD blood pump are described. CFD analysis was used in the design of the pump. Overall size of the prototype device is 50 mm in diameter and 75 mm in length. The pump rotor has a density lower than that of blood and when spinning inside the stator in blood it creates a buoyant centering force that suspends the rotor in the radial direction. The axial magnetic force between the rotor and stator restrain the rotor in the axial direction. The pump is capable of pumping up to 10 liters/min at a 70 mmHg head rise at 8000 RPM. The pump has demonstrated a normalized index of hemolysis level below .02 mg/dL for flows between 2 and 9.7 L/min. An inlet pressure sensor has also been incorporated into the inlet cannula wall and will be used for control purposes. One initial in vivo study showed an encouraging result. Further CFD modeling refinements are planned as well as endurance testing of the device. PMID:19770799

  17. Energy Storage Technology Development for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing battery and fuel cell technology to meet the expected energy storage needs of human exploration systems. Improving battery performance and safety for human missions enhances a number of exploration systems, including un-tethered extravehicular activity suits and transportation systems including landers and rovers. Similarly, improved fuel cell and electrolyzer systems can reduce mass and increase the reliability of electrical power, oxygen, and water generation for crewed vehicles, depots and outposts. To achieve this, NASA is developing non-flow-through proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell stacks, and electrolyzers coupled with low permeability membranes for high pressure operation. The primary advantage of this technology set is the reduction of ancillary parts in the balance-of-plant fewer pumps, separators and related components should result in fewer failure modes and hence a higher probability of achieving very reliable operation, and reduced parasitic power losses enable smaller reactant tanks and therefore systems with lower mass and volume. Key accomplishments over the past year include the fabrication and testing of several robust, small-scale non-flow-through fuel cell stacks that have demonstrated proof-of-concept. NASA is also developing advanced lithium-ion battery cells, targeting cell-level safety and very high specific energy and energy density. Key accomplishments include the development of silicon composite anodes, lithiatedmixed- metal-oxide cathodes, low-flammability electrolytes, and cell-incorporated safety devices that promise to substantially improve battery performance while providing a high level of safety.

  18. Peristaltic pump noise: A nemesis conquered

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Continuous-flow analyzers (CFA), and especially Segmented Flow Analyzers (SFA), typically employ peristaltic pumps to generate a carrier stream and add reagents thereto. The resulting pump {open_quotes}noise{close_quotes} usually limits precision, and is generally deemed unavoidable. Although the problem is partially solved by hydraulic debubbling, most modern instruments employ bubble thru the flow-cell (BTTFC) technology and electronic debubbling. The authors have developed an algorithm that can significantly reduce this source of noise, even when the individual segments in the SFA stream are of varying volumes and/or concentrations. It does this, without any modifications to the pump, by examining each individual segment as it passes thru the flowcell. The Alpkem model 304 multichannel pump, for example, can be set to produce 90 bubbles/minutes (and therefore 90 segments/minute), so one has 667 msec in which to gather sufficient information to identify a {open_quotes}bad{close_quotes} segment and modify its value. This hardware includes a Hewlett Packard model 8452A diode array spectrophotometer fitted with fiber optics leading to/from a flowcell (5 mm path length X 1mm ID). Each segment remains in the flowcell 300-500 msec. With a data sampling rate of 10/sec (100 msec integration time), the authors can acquire 3-5 intensity values for each segment and convert these to absorbance values. The software to perform all this was written in QuickBASIC 4.5 and incorporates a few routines from Hewlett Packard`s library. The program will be described in some detail so that analytical chemists who use BTTFC can obtain higher precision.

  19. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  20. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  1. At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    At 1050 Gallery, Block 12, two centrifugal pumps, Buffalo Pumps, Buffalo, NY, driven by Allis Chalmers motors (size 3 HSO, head 230, 120 cpm, 1750, rpm, Impulse dia. 15) installed in the 1960s and used for water-cooling system for 230-kv cable; the cables have been removed and the pumps are not currently used. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam & Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, Across Columbia River, Southeast of Town of Grand Coulee, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  2. Optimizing the performance of a solar liquid piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, C. L.

    Utilization of solar energy for pumping water for irrigation or storage is discussed. Oscillations of a Freon 113 liquid column are generated in a working tube when a continuous flow of hot water, and cooling water, are supplied to heated and cooling coils located in the tube. The oscillations are converted into a pump (SLPP) model exhibited self starting, stable operation over a wide range of conditions, provides the inlet hot water heat source and inlet cooling water heat sink are above and below the critical values for stalling at a given pump head. The operation of the SLPP model, is primarily affected by the heating coil position within the working tube, and the geometries of the inlet and outlet water tubes.

  3. International Conference on Energy Storage, Brighton, Sussex, England, April 29-May 1, 1981, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Current developmental, experimental, and production prototype energy storage systems are surveyed, with an emphasis on European programs and products. Attention is given to chemical, thermochemical/heat pump combinations, and reversible reaction heat storage methods. Applications of zeolite, hydrogenated cyclohexane, and fluidized media are examined, as are thermal storage options for industry and utilities. Phase change materials in bulk, encapsulated, and sodium acetate forms are reviewed, particularly for solar energy thermal storage. The compatibility of construction materials with latent heat storage is discussed. Battery systems for transport vehicles, load leveling, and storage of solar and wind-derived electricity are described. Aquifer storage is explored, together with underground pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage, a two-basin tidal power scheme, and kinetic energy rings such as flywheels.

  4. FAFCO Ice Storage test report

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    1993-11-01

    The Ice Storage Test Facility (ISTF) is designed to test commercial ice storage systems. FAFCO provided a storage tank equipped with coils designed for use with a secondary fluid system. The FAFCO ice storage system was tested over a wide range of operating conditions. Measured system performance during charging showed the ability to freeze the tank fully, storing from 150 to 200 ton-h. However, the charging rate showed significant variations during the latter portion of the charge cycle. During discharge cycles, the storage tank outlet temperature was strongly affected by the discharge rate and tank state of charge. The discharge capacity was dependent upon both the selected discharge rate and maximum allowable tank outlet temperature. Based on these tests, storage tank selection must depend on both charge and discharge conditions. This report describes FAFCO system performance fully under both charging and discharging conditions. While the test results reported here are accurate for the prototype 1990 FAFCO Model 200, currently available FAFCO models incorporate significant design enhancements beyond the Model 200. At least one major modification was instituted as a direct result of the ISTF tests. Such design improvements were one of EPRI`s primary goals in founding the ISTF.

  5. Structural design and analysis of a mixer pump for beyond-design- basis load

    SciTech Connect

    Rezvani, M.A.; Strehlow, J.P.; Baliga, R.; Kok, S.B.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents the results of the structural evaluation of a mixer pump for a postulated drop accident. The mixer pump will be installed in a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This tank has a 1,000,000-gallon (3,785,000 liter) capacity and is used to store radioactive waste before final disposal. The beyond-design-basis load case presented here is a postmulated drop of the pump during installation or removal. It is assumed that the pump assembly might be dropped approximateely 140 ft (15 m) from a height at which the bottom of the pump assembly is slightly above the top of the access riser to the bottom of the tank. The acceptance criterion for this load case is that the pump assembly shall not penetrate the primary tank liner. To ensure the integrity of the liner, the kinetic energy (developed in the pump drop) must be absorbed by some means to limit the impact force on the tank dome and thereby keep the pump from contacting the bottom of the tank. The limited clearance near the mounting assembly warranted an innovative two-step design of the energy absorbing system to limit the impact force on the tank dome to an acceptable value. This innovative design incorporates two energy absorbers in a unique series arrangement, one with the pump assembly and tile other in the pump pit.

  6. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  7. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  8. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  9. Electromagnetic pump stator coil

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Dahl, Leslie R.

    1996-01-01

    An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom.

  10. Electromagnetic pump stator coil

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, A.W.; Dahl, L.R.

    1996-06-25

    An electrical stator coil for an electromagnetic pump includes a continuous conductor strip having first and second terminals at opposite ends thereof and an intermediate section disposed therebetween. The strip is configured in first and second coil halves, with the first coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the first terminal to the intermediate section, and the second coil half including a plurality of windings extending from the second terminal to the intermediate section. The first and second coil halves are disposed coaxially, and the first and second terminals are disposed radially inwardly therefrom with the intermediate section being disposed radially outwardly therefrom. 9 figs.

  11. Novel limiter pump topologies

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure.

  12. Heat pump arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamsson, T.; Hansson, K.

    1981-03-03

    The invention concerns a heat pump arrangement for heating of houses. The arrangement comprises a compressor, a condensor and a vaporizer, which is a part of an icing machine. The vaporizer is designed as a heat exchanger and is connected to a circulation system comprising an accumulator, to which the ice slush from the icing machine is delivered. Water from the accumulator is delivered to the icing machine. The water in the accumulator can be heated E.G. By means of a solar energy collector, the outdoor air etc. Surface water or waste water from the household can be delivered to the accumulator and replace the ice slush therein.

  13. 48. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior detail of water and hydraulic pumps VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  14. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  15. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials.

  16. Autonomous pump against concentration gradient

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhi-cheng; Zheng, Dong-qin; Ai, Bao-quan; Zhong, Wei-rong

    2016-01-01

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, we have studied the molecular transport in asymmetric nanochannels. The efficiency of the molecular pump depends on the angle and apertures of the asymmetric channel, the environmental temperature and average concentration of the particles. The pumping effect can be explained as the competition between the molecular force field and the thermal disturbance. Our results provide a green approach for pumping fluid particles against the concentration gradient through asymmetric nanoscale thin films without any external forces. It indicates that pumping vacuum can be a spontaneous process. PMID:26996204

  17. Prolift pumping unit makes debut

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1983-03-01

    The ProLift is a long stroke unit designed to pump wells more efficiently and at less cost than existing walking beam type pumps. The price is competitive with other pumps on the market. The basic component of the pump unit is the yo-yo, a 30-in. diam steel drum slotted for a special belt that connects via an idler drum and a crown shiv with the rod string. The yo-yo rotates in both directions, playing out the belt on the down cycle, winding it in on the upward cycle. On the down stroke, the yo-yo generates electricity. A counterweight box travels inside the mast.

  18. Long life coolant pump technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts were investigated to improve space system coolant pump technology to be suitable for mission durations of two years and greater. These design concepts included an improved bearing system for the pump rotating elements, consisting of pressurized conical bearings. This design was satisfactorily endurance tested as was a new prototype pump built using various other improved design concepts. Based upon an overall assessment of the results of the program it is concluded that reliable coolant pumps can be designed for three year space missions.

  19. Fan and pump noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misoda, J.; Magliozzi, B.

    1973-01-01

    The development is described of improved, low noise level fan and pump concepts for the space shuttle. In addition, a set of noise design criteria for small fans and pumps was derived. The concepts and criteria were created by obtaining Apollo hardware test data to correlate and modify existing noise estimating procedures. A set of space shuttle selection criteria was used to determine preliminary fan and pump concepts. These concepts were tested and modified to obtain noise sources and characteristics which yield the design criteria and quiet, efficient space shuttle fan and pump concepts.

  20. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials. PMID:23773031

  1. Heat pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  2. Oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.L.

    1983-07-26

    An oil well subsurface pump is disclosed comprising a housing for reciprocal disposition within a working barrel and havone end thereof adapted to be secured to the lowermost end of a sucker rod, or the like, and the opposite end thereof in open communication with the fluid reservoir in a well bore, a ball check valve carried by the housing and disposed within a ball chamber having one end closed for limiting the movement of the ball member in one direction and the opposite end open to the well fluid, resilient sealing assembly interposed between the outer periphery of the housing and the inner periphery of the working barrel and slidable with respect to the barrel during a pumping operation, longitudinally disposed passageways provided in the housing and extending from the ball chamber to a position beyond the upper limit of the sealing assembly to provide communication through the housing to the annulus between the housing and the working barrel for passage of the well fluid from the fluid reservoir to the annulus for transportation of the fluid to the surface of the well bore, the sealing assembly comprising a plurality of superimposed flanged rings having sealing members secured around the outer periphery thereof and a locking ring outboard of the flanged rings for securing the flanged rings in position around the outer periphery of the housing.

  3. Hydraulic well pumping apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.P.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a hydraulic powered well pumping apparatus for operation of a sucker rod well pump in a well borehole, the apparatus comprising: (a) an elongate polished rod having upper and lower ends, the rod being aligned above and adapted to connect to a string of sucker rods in a well borehole therebelow; (b) an adjustably positioned sleeve means aligned above and enclosing a portion of the polished rod and having a shorter length than the polished rod to enable the polished rod to extend above the sleeve means and below the sleeve means for connection to the string of sucker rods in the well borehole; (c) an axially hollow upstanding cylinder slideably receiving the sleeve means therethrough and enclosing a piston therein, the piston being: (1) moved on admitting hydraulic oil to the cylinder, and (2) joined to the sleeve means for moving the sleeve means and thereby moving the polished rod; (d) means for mounting the upstanding cylinder directly aligned with and above a casing at the top of a well adapted to have a sucker rod string positioned therein; (e) means for adjusting the stroke length imparted to the sucker rod string between minimum and maximum stroke lengths; and (f) means for adjusting the location of the sleeve means relative to the polished rod to vary the relative length of polished rod below the sleeve means and wherein a portion of the polished rod extends above the sleeve means dependent on the relative respective portions thereof.

  4. The terrestrial silica pump.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joanna C; Fulweiler, Robinson W

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) cycling controls atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C) to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1), accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP). However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1)) is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2) levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  5. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  6. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  7. Theoretical Prediction of the Pumping Performance of Dry Pumps
    (Taking the Scroll Pump and the Screw Pump by Way of Example)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Tadashi; Ohbayashi, Tetsuro

    Since almost all commercially provided dry pumps are of the positive displacement type, the leak flow through clearance between displacement chambers in the pump is a dominant factor which determines pumping performance. Prediction methods for the pumping performance of dry pumps are explained by comparing it to the scroll pump and the screw pump. The scroll pump has long clearances, but the screw pump has relatively short ones, and the volume of the chambers reduces from the inlet toward the outlet in the scroll pump, but that in the screw pump is kept constant throughout the pumping process. Such a structural difference produces a small difference in the way of treating leak flow. These two methods can be applied to the other dry pumps requiring only minor modification.

  8. TAPS storage tank bottoms fitted with improved cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, T.; Bayle, R.; Kennelley, K.

    1995-10-23

    Discovery of external corrosion on tank floors at several aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) along the Trans Alaska Pipeline system (TAPS) led engineers to evaluate methods of repairing corrosion damage and to examine how to improve tank bottoms` cathodic protection. The corrosion underscored Alaska`s difficult operating conditions. Warm crude oil and turbine fuel, at temperatures of up to 120 F, are stored at various stages of pumping and transport in 31 above-ground steel storage tanks located at 11 pump stations along the pipeline. The paper describes the discovery of external corrosion and the three types of repairs undertaken at the tanks.

  9. 123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751). PUMP ON LEFT; HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL FOR UMBILICAL MAST AND TRENCH DOORS IN CENTER OF ROOM, FACING WEST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Work plan, AP-102 mixer pump removal and pump replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, R.F.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work plan is to plan the steps and estimate the costs required to remove the failed AP-102 mixer pump, and to plan and estimate the cost of the necessary design and specification work required to order a new, but modified, mixer pump including the pump and pump pit energy absorbing design. The main hardware required for the removal of the mixer is as follows: a flexible receiver and blast shield; a metal container for the pulled mixer pump; and a trailer and strongback to haul and manipulate the container. Additionally: a gamma scanning device will be needed to detect the radioactivity emanating from the mixer as it is pulled from the tank; a water spray system will be required to remove tank waste from the surface of the mixer as it is pulled from the AP-102 tank; and a lifting yoke to lift the mixer from the pump pit (the SY-101 Mixer Lifting Yoke will be used). A ``green house`` will have to be erected over the AP-102 pump pit and an experienced Hoisting and Rigging crew must be assembled and trained in mixer pump removal methods before the actual removal is undertaken.

  11. Diode-pumped laser with improved pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    2004-03-09

    A laser wherein pump radiation from laser diodes is delivered to a pump chamber and into the lasing medium by quasi-three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator light channels. The light channels have reflective side walls with a curved surface and reflective end walls with a curved surface. A flow tube between the lasing medium and the light channel has a roughened surface.

  12. Pump Operation Workshop. Third Edition (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    Presented is the learner's manual for a five-day workshop designed to supplement the skills of water and wastewater treatment personnel. The program consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on sessions covering the operation of water and wastewater pumps. Areas addressed include: material pumped, pump systems, types of pumps, pump controls,…

  13. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  14. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  15. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  16. 46 CFR 64.93 - Pump controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pump controls. 64.93 Section 64.93 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.93 Pump controls. (a) A pressure gauge must be installed— (1) On the pump discharge; (2) Near the pump controls; and (3) Visible to the operator. (b) A pump must have...

  17. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  18. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pumps. 157.126 Section 157.126... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-OES)....

  20. 46 CFR 154.1135 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumps. 154.1135 Section 154.1135 Shipping COAST GUARD... Pumps. (a) Water to the water spray system must be supplied by: (1) A pump that is only for the use of the system; (2) A fire pump; or (3) A pump specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522)....