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Sample records for increased body weight

  1. Has increased body weight made driving safer?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan W

    2014-11-01

    We develop a model of alcohol consumption that incorporates the negative biological relationship between body mass and inebriation conditional on total alcohol consumption. Our model predicts that the elasticity of inebriation with respect to weight is equal to the own-price elasticity of alcohol, consistent with body mass increasing the effective price of inebriation. Given that alcohol is generally considered price inelastic, this result implies that as individuals gain weight, they consume more alcohol but become less inebriated. We test this prediction and find that driver blood alcohol content (BAC) is negatively associated with driver weight. In fatal accidents with driver BAC above 0.10, the driver was 7.8 percentage points less likely to be obese than drivers in fatal accidents that did not involve alcohol. This relationship is not explained by driver attributes (age and sex), driver behaviors (speed and seatbelt use), vehicle attributes (weight class, model year, and number of occupants), or accident context (county of accident, time of day, and day of week).

  2. Increased Body Weight Reduces Voluntary Movement to Maintain Energy Expenditure of Rats Exposed to Increases in Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Moran, M. M.; Stein, T. P.; Sin, Sidney (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the increase in obesity related diseases there is heightened interest in mechanisms regulating body weight. To assess the influence of increases in body weight on energy expenditure and intake in rats we employed variable levels of gravity. Our approach afforded the means to measure interactions of energy expenditure and intake in response to increases in body weight (body mass x gravity level). We found a dose relationship between rapid elevation of body weight and reduction of voluntary movement, such that the energy requirements for activity are unchanged, and total energy expenditure and intake maintained. Reduction of movement appears to be a response to increased body weight, rather than a contributing factor, suggesting a new regulatory pathway.

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  4. Chronic administration of nalmefene leads to increased food intake and body weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-07-01

    Nalmefene is an orally available opioid receptor antagonist that has been shown to suppress appetite in humans, but its effects on chronic food intake and body weight remain unclear. Here, we report that chronic (21-day) oral administration of nalmefene at 2 or 10 mg/kg/day in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice led to significant increases (9-11%) in cumulative food intake. Mice in the nalmefene-treated groups also gained body weight at a rate faster than the control. Body composition analysis showed that the extra body weight gains in the treated animals were mostly due to increased fat accumulation. Since acute nalmefene treatment showed a trend toward a decrease rather than an increase in food intake, it is possible that the orexigenic effect of chronic oral administration of nalmefene was caused by pharmacologically active metabolites rather than the drug itself. Our results argue against the potential use of nalmefene for treating human obesity.

  5. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Powell, Elyse S; Avena, Nicole M; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2010-11-01

    High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) accounts for as much as 40% of caloric sweeteners used in the United States. Some studies have shown that short-term access to HFCS can cause increased body weight, but the findings are mixed. The current study examined both short- and long-term effects of HFCS on body weight, body fat, and circulating triglycerides. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained for short term (8 weeks) on (1) 12 h/day of 8% HFCS, (2) 12 h/day 10% sucrose, (3) 24 h/day HFCS, all with ad libitum rodent chow, or (4) ad libitum chow alone. Rats with 12-h access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than animals given equal access to 10% sucrose, even though they consumed the same number of total calories, but fewer calories from HFCS than sucrose. In Experiment 2, the long-term effects of HFCS on body weight and obesogenic parameters, as well as gender differences, were explored. Over the course of 6 or 7 months, both male and female rats with access to HFCS gained significantly more body weight than control groups. This increase in body weight with HFCS was accompanied by an increase in adipose fat, notably in the abdominal region, and elevated circulating triglyceride levels. Translated to humans, these results suggest that excessive consumption of HFCS may contribute to the incidence of obesity.

  6. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... sign of a medical problem. Causes for sudden weight loss can include Thyroid problems Cancer Infectious diseases Digestive diseases Certain medicines Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, ...

  7. [FEATURES OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED BODY WEIGHT].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Yu; Vesnina, L; Kaydashev, I

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-RI8), we defined the peculiarities of eating behavior and their impact on quality of life in young people aged 18-25 years. All participants were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI). The control group included 41 persons with normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The group of young adults with increased body weight (BMI over 25 kg/M2) consisted of 27 persons. We found eating behavior disorders in 85,19 % of overweight people and in 41,46 % of persons with normal weight. The restrictive eating behaviors as well as a significant percentage of violations by external type had predominated in overweight individuals by the structure of disorders. The external and restrictive types of eating behavior disorders were predominated in persons with normal weight. Investigation of quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed a significantly decline in the physical role functioning and pain. Index of general physical health component, being not high enough in both groups, was significantly lower in overweight people with 52.70 points against 56.11. We concluded that the eating behavior disorders in persons with normal weight and in overweight people required an individual approach to forming healthy lifestyle and fixing broken food stereotype. It will counteract the further increase of body weight and contribute to improving the quality of life. PMID:26495736

  8. [FEATURES OF EATING BEHAVIOR IN PERSONS WITH NORMAL AND INCREASED BODY WEIGHT].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, Yu; Vesnina, L; Kaydashev, I

    2015-01-01

    Using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and Three-factor Eating Questionnaire-R18 (TFEQ-RI8), we defined the peculiarities of eating behavior and their impact on quality of life in young people aged 18-25 years. All participants were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI). The control group included 41 persons with normal body weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). The group of young adults with increased body weight (BMI over 25 kg/M2) consisted of 27 persons. We found eating behavior disorders in 85,19 % of overweight people and in 41,46 % of persons with normal weight. The restrictive eating behaviors as well as a significant percentage of violations by external type had predominated in overweight individuals by the structure of disorders. The external and restrictive types of eating behavior disorders were predominated in persons with normal weight. Investigation of quality of life using the SF-36 questionnaire showed a significantly decline in the physical role functioning and pain. Index of general physical health component, being not high enough in both groups, was significantly lower in overweight people with 52.70 points against 56.11. We concluded that the eating behavior disorders in persons with normal weight and in overweight people required an individual approach to forming healthy lifestyle and fixing broken food stereotype. It will counteract the further increase of body weight and contribute to improving the quality of life.

  9. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM)/ body lean mass (BLM) in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI) matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW) and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW). Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27) vs. 15.7% (22)). Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM) have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively). Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS. PMID:27326419

  10. Increasing metabolic rate despite declining body weight in an adult parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Casas, Jérôme; Body, Mélanie; Gutzwiller, Florence; Giron, David; Lazzari, Claudio R; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Richard, Romain; Llandres, Ana L

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic rate is a positive function of body weight, a rule valid for most organisms and the basis of several theories of metabolic ecology. For adult insects, however, the diversity of relationships between body mass and respiration remains unexplained. The aim of this study is to relate the respiratory metabolism of a parasitoid with body weight and foraging activity. We compared the metabolic rate of groups of starving and host-fed females of the parasitoid Eupelmus vuilleti recorded with respirometry for 7days, corresponding to the mean lifetime of starving females and over half of the lifetime of foraging females. The dynamics of carbohydrate, lipid and protein in the body of foraging females were quantified with biochemical techniques. Body mass and all body nutrients declined sharply from the first day onwards. By contrast, the CO2 produced and the O2 consumed increased steadily. Starving females showed the opposite trend, identifying foraging as the reason for the respiration increase of feeding females. Two complementary physiological processes explain the unexpected relationship between increasing metabolic rate and declining body weight. First, host hemolymph is a highly unbalanced food, and the excess nutrients (protein and carbohydrate) need to be voided, partially through excretion and partially through respiration. Second, a foraging young female produces eggs at an increasing rate during the first half of its lifetime, a process that also increases respiration. We posit that the time-varying metabolic rate contributions of the feeding and reproductive processes supplements the contribution of the structural mass and lead to the observed trend. We extend our explanations to other insect groups and discuss the potential for unification using Dynamic Energy Budget theory.

  11. Stimulation of body weight increase and epiphyseal cartilage growth by insulin like growth factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) to induce growth in hypophysectomized immature rats was tested by continuous infusion of the partially purified factor at daily doses of 6, 21, and 46 mU for an 8-day period. A dose-dependent growth of the proximal epiphyseal cartilage of the tibia and an associated stimulation of the primary spongiosa were produced by these amounts of IGF. The two highest doses of IGF also resulted in dose-dependent increases of body weight. Gel permeation of the sera at neutrality showed that the large-molecular-weight IGF binding protein was not induced by the infusion of IGF, whereas it ws generated in the sera of hypophysectomized rats that were infused with daily doses of 86 mU of human growth hormone.

  12. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  13. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Teresa Bechere; Danti, Gabriel Vecchi; Garcia, Denise Maximo Lellis; Ferraro, Alexandre A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018) and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight. PMID:25789515

  14. [Methods for early detection of predisposition to abnormal increases in body weight of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ivashchenko, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a special method designed for the early identification of children's and adolescents' propensity for abnormal weight gain. The basis of this technique is the principle of monitoring the actual values of body mass index for each child or young person at the age of dynamic changes in the index of the normal range. The weekly body weight of each child or adolescent who participates in the study is measured and the results are included in a special registry. Measurement of the body weight of the children and adolescents occurs in the morning at the same hour on an empty stomach after use of the toilet and performance of necessary hygiene. Afterwards, the obtained values of their body mass indices are compared with those considered normal for age, according to official data. In cases when the resulting body mass index of a child or young person exceeds the range of normal-for-age values, an in-depth medical examination of the child or adolescent is conducted together with the nature of their food intake and mode of physical activity, which may then be corrected.

  15. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  16. Limb contribution to increased self-selected walking speeds during body weight support in individuals poststroke.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Christopher P; Burgess, Jamie K; Brown, David A

    2015-03-01

    Individuals poststroke walk at faster self-selected speeds under some nominal level of body weight support (BWS) whereas nonimpaired individuals walk slower after adding BWS. The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in self-selected overground walking speed under BWS conditions of individuals poststroke can be explained by changes in their paretic and nonparetic ground reaction forces (GRF). We hypothesize that increased self-selected walking speed, recorded at some nominal level of BWS, will relate to decreased braking GRFs by the paretic limb. We recruited 10 chronic (>12 months post-ictus, 57.5±9.6 y.o.) individuals poststroke and eleven nonimpaired participants (53.3±4.1 y.o.). Participants walked overground in a robotic device, the KineAssist Walking and Balance Training System that provided varying degrees of BWS (0-20% in 5% increments) while individuals self-selected their walking speed. Self-selected walking speed and braking and propulsive GRF impulses were quantified. Out of 10 poststroke individuals, 8 increased their walking speed 13% (p=0.004) under some level of BWS (5% n=2, 10% n=3, 20% n=3) whereas nonimpaired controls did not change speed (p=0.470). In individuals poststroke, changes to self-selected walking speed were correlated with changes in paretic propulsive impulses (r=0.68, p=0.003) and nonparetic braking impulses (r=-0.80, p=0.006), but were not correlated with decreased paretic braking impulses (r=0.50 p=0.14). This investigation demonstrates that when individuals poststroke are provided with BWS and allowed to self-select their overground walking speed, they are capable of achieving faster speeds by modulating braking impulses on the nonparetic limb and propulsive impulses of the paretic limb.

  17. [Fewer hours of sleep associated with increased body weight in chilean university nutrition students].

    PubMed

    Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Fernández-Godoy, Eloina; Fehrmann-Rosas, Pamela; Delgado-Sánchez, Claudia; Quintana-Muñoz, Carol; Yunge-Hidalgo, Wilma; Hidalgo-Fernández, Andrea; Fuentes-Fuentes, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between fewer hours of sleep and excess weight/obesity in first- to fourth-year nutrition students at Universidad de San Sebastian in Chile. A total of 635 students were evaluated, of whom 86.4% were women. The Pittsburg sleep survey was administered to each student along with an anthropometric evaluation, and the body mass index of each was calculated. A raw and adjusted analysis of logistic regression was performed. A total of 57.1% of students slept less than the recommended amount. Sleeping less was associated with excess weight or obesity in the model adjusted for age and daytime sleepiness (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.84; 95% CI, 1.26-2.68), and adjusted for age, smoking, dairy, fruit, and legume consumption; and daytime sleepiness (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.29-2.76). There is an association between fewer hours of sleep and higher body mass in this population; this should be considered in excess weight prevention. PMID:27656925

  18. The relevance of increased fat oxidation for body-weight management: metabolic inflexibility in the predisposition to weight gain.

    PubMed

    Astrup, A

    2011-10-01

    Cells, tissues and organisms have the ability to rapidly switch substrate oxidation from carbohydrate to fat in response to changes in nutrient intake, and to changes in energy demands, environmental cues and internal signals. In healthy, metabolically normal individuals, substrate switching occurs rapidly and completely; in other words, substrate switching is 'flexible'. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that a blunted substrate switching from low- to high-fat oxidation exists in obese individuals, as well as in pre-obese and post-obese, and that this 'metabolic inflexibility' may be a genetically determined trait. A decreased fat oxidation can lead to a positive energy balance under conditions of high-fat feeding, due to depletion of glycogen stores that stimulates appetite and energy intake through glucostatic and glucogenostatic mechanisms, e.g. hepatic sensing of glycogen stores. Several genetic polymorphisms and single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified that are associated with low-fat oxidation rates and metabolic inflexibility, and genetic identification of susceptible individuals may lead to personalized prevention of weight gain using fat oxidation stimulants ('fat burners') in the future. PMID:21692967

  19. Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Booth, Alison O; Huggins, Catherine E; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Nowson, Caryl A

    2015-10-14

    This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( - 0·17, 95% CI - 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( - 0·19, 95% CI - 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( - 0·06, 95% CI - 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( - 0·36, 95% CI - 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( - 0·32, 95% CI - 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( - 0·96, 95% CI - 1·46, - 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  20. [Nutrition and body weight].

    PubMed

    Gohlke, H

    2002-01-01

    Certain dietary components play a key role for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Complex carbohydrates lower the prevalence of CAD. Protein should provide 15% of daily calories. Populations with a high consumption of soy protein have a low coronary event rate and a high life expectancy. Soy protein has a favorable effect on LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. Dietary cholesterol correlates with an increased incidence of CAD. Saturated fats increase cholesterol levels as well as the activity of clotting factor VII and promote progression of CAD. Mono-(MUFA) and poly-unsaturated fatty acids lower LDL-cholesterol to a similar extent. MUFA are contained in rape seed oil, olive oil and pea nut oil, but also in avocados and almonds. Omega-3-fatty acids are in fatty fish like salmon, tuna and herring and improve survival after myocardial infarction. They improve among others endothelial function (adhesion molecules). Eating 1-2 fish meals per week has a preventive effect on CAD and stroke. Dietary fiber decreases the risk for CAD up to 30% and favorably influences carbohydrate metabolism. Antioxidants have a favorable effect in their natural form (fruits and fresh vegetables). The secondary preventive effect of a mediterranean diet after myocardial infarction (probably by a combination of the above effects) has been validated. Body weight correlates with coronary risk, diabetes and use of health care resources. A reduction of body weight is best achieved by calory reduction plus an increase of physical activity. A calory-adjusted diet, low in total fat with a significant proportion of unsaturated fats and omega-3-fatty acids and rich in fiber is of great importance for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Fruits, vegetables and whole grain products are important components of this diet, which lowers the coronary event rate, increases longevity and is associated with a low rate of malignancies and osteoporosis.

  1. The central nervous norepinephrine network links a diminished sense of emotional well-being to an increased body weight

    PubMed Central

    Melasch, J; Rullmann, M; Hilbert, A; Luthardt, J; Becker, GA; Patt, M; Villringer, A; Arelin, K; Meyer, PM; Lobsien, D; Ding, Y-S; Müller, K; Sabri, O; Hesse, S; Pleger, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The neurobiological mechanisms linking obesity to emotional distress remain largely undiscovered. METHODS In this pilot study, we combined positron emission tomography, using the norepinephrine transporter (NET) tracer [11C]-O-methylreboxetine, with functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging, the Beck depression inventory (BDI), and the impact of weight on quality of life-Lite questionnaire (IWQOL–Lite), to investigate the role of norepinephrine in the severity of depression (BDI), as well as in the loss of emotional well-being with body weight (IWQOL–Lite). RESULTS In a small group of lean-to-morbidly obese individuals (n = 20), we show that an increased body mass index (BMI) is related to a lowered NET availability within the hypothalamus, known as the brain’s homeostatic control site. The hypothalamus displayed a strengthened connectivity in relation to the individual hypothalamic NET availability to the anterior insula/frontal operculum, as well as the medial orbitofrontal cortex, assumed to host the primary and secondary gustatory cortex, respectively (n = 19). The resting-state activity in these two regions was correlated positively to the BMI and IWQOL–Lite scores, but not to the BDI, suggesting that the higher the resting-state activity in these regions, and hence the higher the BMI, the stronger the negative impact of the body weight on the individual’s emotional well-being was. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study suggests that the loss in emotional well-being with weight is embedded within the central norepinephrine network. PMID:26620766

  2. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  3. Weight gain and increase of body mass index among children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ortega, José María; Funes-Godoy, Silvia; Díaz-Atienza, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Pérez-Costillas, Lucía; Gurpegui, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    We performed an updated review of the available literature on weight gain and increase of body mass index (BMI) among children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic medications. A PubMed search was conducted specifying the following MeSH terms: (antipsychotic agents) hedged with (weight gain) or (body mass index). We selected 127 reports, including 71 intervention trials, 42 observational studies and 14 literature reviews. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), in comparison with first-generation antipsychotics, are associated with a greater risk for antipsychotic-induced weight gain although this oversimplification should be clarified by distinguishing across different antipsychotic drugs. Among SGAs, olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain, while ziprasidone seems to cause the least. Antipsychotic-induced BMI increase appears to remain regardless of the specific psychotropic co-treatment. Children and adolescents seem to be at a greater risk than adults for antipsychotic-induced weight gain; and the younger the child, the higher the risk. Genetic or environmental factors related to antipsychotic-induced weight gain among children and adolescents are mostly unknown, although certain genetic factors related to serotonin receptors or hormones such as leptin, adiponectin or melanocortin may be involved. Strategies to reduce this antipsychotic side effect include switching to another antipsychotic drug, lowering the dosage or initiating treatment with metformin or topiramate, as well as non-pharmacological interventions. Future research should avoid some methodological limitations such as not accounting for age- and sex-adjusted BMI (zBMI), small sample size, short period of treatment, great heterogeneity of diagnoses and confounding by indication. PMID:23503976

  4. RAPID BODY WEIGHT GAIN INCREASES THE RISK OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION-INDUCED SKIN CARCINOGENESIS IN SKH-1 HAIRLESS MICE

    PubMed Central

    Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fahey, Jed W.; Jenkins, Stephanie N.; Wehage, Scott L.; Talalay, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Although it is well known that caloric restriction reduces the risk of chronic diseases including cancer, the role of weight gain in the development of ultraviolet light-induced tumors has not, to our knowledge, been investigated. In view of the increase in obesity worldwide, we asked the question whether there is any relationship between body weight gain and skin tumor development. We subjected three groups, each comprising 30 SKH-1 hairless female mice, to UV radiation (30 mJ/cm2 twice weekly for 17 weeks) and observed tumor formation over the ensuing 8–13 weeks: Group 1 received pelleted diet; Group 2 received pellets during the irradiation period and was then switched to powder; and, Group 3 received powder exclusively. At the end of the experiment, the mean body weight of Group 1 was 32.1 ± 0.5 g, whereas that of Groups 2 and 3 was 39.0 ± 1.5 g and 39.5 ± 1.4 g, respectively. Tumor incidence reached 90% at 8 weeks after completion of irradiation for the animals in Group 3 and at 13 weeks for the animals in Group 2. Similarly, at 8 weeks after irradiation when all animals of Group 3 were euthanized, tumor multiplicity was 0.8, 1.2, and 3.2 for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Thus, in comparison with the mice consuming pellets, the powder-fed mice gained weight more rapidly, and developed tumors much faster. Considering the escalating numbers of individuals worldwide who are overweight or obese, our findings provide further impetus for advocating healthier diets and maintenance of constant body weight in adults. PMID:19083457

  5. Longevity, mortality and body weight.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Thomas T; Storms, Lowell H; Elrick, Harold

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation of total body weight to longevity and mortality. The MEDLINE database was searched for data that allow analysis of the relationship between absolute body weight and longevity or mortality. Additional data were used involving US veterans and baseball players. Trend lines of age at death versus body weight are presented. Findings show absolute body size is negatively related to longevity and life expectancy and positively to mortality. Trend lines show an average age at death versus weight slope of -0.4 years/kg. We also found that gender differences in longevity may be due to differences in body size. Animal research is consistent with the findings presented. Biological mechanisms are also presented to explain why increased body mass may reduce longevity. Life expectancy has increased dramatically through improved public health measures and medical care and reduced malnutrition. However, overnourishment and increased body size have promoted an epidemic of chronic disease and reduced our potential longevity. In addition, both excess lean body mass and fat mass may promote chronic disease.

  6. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    PubMed

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P < 0.05). Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Backfat gain and loin muscle depth gain were not affected by treatment (P = 0.56 and P = 0.37, respectively). Farrowing rate was smaller, although not significantly, for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  7. Body size and longitudinal body weight changes do not increase mortality in incident peritoneal dialysis patients of the Brazilian peritoneal dialysis multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, a neutral risk between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and a protective effect for an index >30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: <−3.1%, −3.1 to+0.12%, +0.12 to <+3.1% (reference category), +3.1 to +7.1% and >+7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157

  8. Increase in body mass index from normal weight to overweight in a cross-sectional sample of healthy research volunteers.

    PubMed

    Courville, Amber B; DiVito, Meagan; Moyer, Lindsay; Rossinoff, Anna; Royster, Caitlin; Psota, Tricia; Ayres, Elaine; Zambell, Kirsten L

    2014-12-01

    Current literature provides limited information about healthy volunteers serving as controls for biomedical research. This study describes trends in body mass index (BMI), a ratio of weight to height (kilograms per square meter), of the population of healthy volunteers at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC) and compares these trends to a nationally representative sample, as reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We hypothesized that BMI trends at the NIH CC would follow those of the US population. This cross-sectional study examined the BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC from 1976 to 1980, 1981 to 1987, 1988 to 1994, 1995 to 1998 and for all subsequent two-year periods onward until 2012. Study data were extracted from the NIH Biomedical Translational Research Information System. Subjects were selected based on a discharge code of "volunteer." Descriptive statistics of volunteers at the NIH CC were calculated for height, weight, age-adjusted BMI, age, and sex, and associations between categorical variables were analyzed using the χ2 test. Differences between BMI categories or periods for continuous independent variables were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Tamhane T2 tests. The 13 898 healthy volunteers with median age of 34 years were 53% female and primarily non-Hispanic whites. Mean BMI was within the normal category from 1976 to 1987. From 1988 on, mean BMI fluctuated but increased overall. The BMI of healthy volunteers at the NIH CC appears to follow national trends as described by National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data of increasing body weight during the past three decades followed by a recent plateau.

  9. Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor-alpha-deficient mice have reduced food intake, increased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne; Han, Guang; Cai, Yan; Dai, Tiane; Konishi, Tamiko; Leng, Ai-She

    2003-02-01

    Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor (RXR)alpha-deficient mice and wild-type mice were fed either a regular or a high-saturated-fat diet for 12 wk to study the functional role of hepatocyte RXRalpha in fatty acid and carbohydrate metabolism. Food intake was significantly reduced in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice when either diet was used. The amount of food intake was negatively associated with serum leptin level. Although mutant mice ate less, body weight and fat content were significantly higher in mutant than wild-type mice. Examination of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha target genes indicated that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-mediated pathway was compromised in the mutant mice, which, in turn, might affect fatty-acid metabolism and result in increased body weight and fat content. Although mutant mice were obese, they demonstrated the same degree of insulin sensitivity and the same level of serum insulin as the wild-type mice. However, these mutant mice have improved glucose tolerance. To explore a mechanism that may be responsible for the improved glucose tolerance, serum IGF-I level was examined. Serum IGF-1 level was significantly increased in mutant mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency increases leptin level and reduces food intake. Those mice also develop obesity, with an unexpected improvement of glucose tolerance. The result also suggests that an increase in serum IGF-I level might be one of the mechanisms leading to improved glucose tolerance in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice.

  10. Increased prepubertal body weight enhances leptin sensitivity in proopiomelanocortin and neuropeptide y neurons before puberty onset in female rats.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, David; Fuente-Martín, Esther; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Pubertal onset may be advanced by obesity, with leptin potentially acting as a permissive factor. We hypothesized that having increased body weight (BW) prepubertally affects the ability of leptin to activate intracellular signaling pathways and modulate the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in reproduction and metabolism. Because being raised in small litters (SLs) tends to increase BW at weaning, female rats were raised in litters of 4 or large litters (LLs) of 12 pups. Leptin (3 μg/g BW) or vehicle (saline) was injected sc at postnatal day (PND) 21 and 30. Rats raised in SLs weighed more at both ages, but relative visceral and subcutaneous fat was increased only on PND21. Serum leptin levels were not different at PND21 or PND30. At PND21, key elements of intracellular leptin signaling (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and phosphorylated Akt [p-Akt]) were lower in SL than in LL rats. Leptin injection stimulated phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in both groups, with a greater increase in LL, whereas p-Akt rose only in SL rats. At PND30, basal leptin signaling did not differ between LL and SL rats. Leptin activation of Akt was similar at 45 minutes, but at 2 hours p-AKT levels were higher in SL than in LL rats, as was the decrease in neuropeptide Y mRNA and increase in pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. No change in the reproductive axis was found. Thus, being raised in SLs increases BW and visceral body fat content, fails to increase plasma leptin concentrations, and increases the leptin responsiveness of both neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin cells in the prepubertal hypothalamus.

  11. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203) and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23), -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7) and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6), -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0). Exposed (medium and highly together) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to combinations of modern

  12. Neural Consequences of Increasing Body Weight: Evidence from Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and the Frequency-Specificity of Brain Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Lhomond, Olivia; Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the control of human balance suggested that increased pressure under the feet, leading to reduced plantar sole mechanoreceptors sensitivity, increases body sway. Although this suggestion is attracting, it is unclear whether increased plantar sole pressure simply reduces the transmission of plantar sole afferent to the cortex or also alters the sensorimotor integrative mechanisms. Here we used electrical stimulation applied under the sole of the foot to probe the sensorimotor mechanisms processing foot mechanoreceptors. Balance control of healthy individuals was assessed either when wearing a loaded vest or in normal-weight condition. In the Loaded condition, we observed decreased cortical activity over the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) for both an early P50-N90 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and for oscillatory brain activity within the gamma band (30–80 Hz). These reductions were interpreted as a disrupted early sensory transmission (i.e., decreased early SEP) leading to a decreased perception of plantar sole sensory information (i.e., decreased gamma band power). These early sensory mechanisms for the Loaded condition were associated with an increase in the late P170-N210 SEP and oscillatory brain activity within the beta band (19–24 Hz). These neural signatures involved areas which are engaged in sensorimotor integrative processes (secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) and right temporoparietal junction). Altered early and late sensory processes may result from the increase pressure on the mechanoreceptors of the foot sole and not from postural instability per se. Indeed, postural instability with normal weight condition did not lead to SEP changes. PMID:27445758

  13. Neural Consequences of Increasing Body Weight: Evidence from Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and the Frequency-Specificity of Brain Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Lhomond, Olivia; Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the control of human balance suggested that increased pressure under the feet, leading to reduced plantar sole mechanoreceptors sensitivity, increases body sway. Although this suggestion is attracting, it is unclear whether increased plantar sole pressure simply reduces the transmission of plantar sole afferent to the cortex or also alters the sensorimotor integrative mechanisms. Here we used electrical stimulation applied under the sole of the foot to probe the sensorimotor mechanisms processing foot mechanoreceptors. Balance control of healthy individuals was assessed either when wearing a loaded vest or in normal-weight condition. In the Loaded condition, we observed decreased cortical activity over the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) for both an early P50-N90 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) and for oscillatory brain activity within the gamma band (30-80 Hz). These reductions were interpreted as a disrupted early sensory transmission (i.e., decreased early SEP) leading to a decreased perception of plantar sole sensory information (i.e., decreased gamma band power). These early sensory mechanisms for the Loaded condition were associated with an increase in the late P170-N210 SEP and oscillatory brain activity within the beta band (19-24 Hz). These neural signatures involved areas which are engaged in sensorimotor integrative processes (secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) and right temporoparietal junction). Altered early and late sensory processes may result from the increase pressure on the mechanoreceptors of the foot sole and not from postural instability per se. Indeed, postural instability with normal weight condition did not lead to SEP changes. PMID:27445758

  14. Skim milk, whey, and casein increase body weight and whey and casein increase the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arnberg, Karina; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Jensen, Signe Marie; Trolle, Ellen; Larnkjær, Anni

    2012-12-01

    In adults, dietary protein seems to induce weight loss and dairy proteins may be insulinotropic. However, the effect of milk proteins in adolescents is unclear. The objective was to test whether milk and milk proteins reduce body weight, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment, plasma insulin, and insulin secretion estimated as the plasma C-peptide concentration in overweight adolescents. Overweight adolescents (n = 203) aged 12-15 y with a BMI of 25.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) (mean ± SD) were randomized to 1 L/d of skim milk, whey, casein, or water for 12 wk. All milk drinks contained 35 g protein/L. Before randomization, a subgroup of adolescents (n = 32) was studied for 12 wk before the intervention began as a pretest control group. The effects of the milk-based test drinks were compared with baseline (wk 0), the water group, and the pretest control group. Diet and physical activity were registered. Outcomes were BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZs), waist circumference, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and plasma C-peptide. We found no change in BAZ in the pretest control and water groups, whereas it was greater at 12 wk in the skim milk, whey, and casein groups compared with baseline and with the water and pretest control groups. The plasma C-peptide concentration increased from baseline to wk 12 in the whey and casein groups and increments were greater than in the pretest control (P < 0.02). There were no significant changes in plasma C-peptide in the skim milk or water group. These data suggest that high intakes of skim milk, whey, and casein increase BAZs in overweight adolescents and that whey and casein increase insulin secretion. Whether the effect on body weight is primary or secondary to the increased insulin secretion remains to be elucidated.

  15. Selective disruption of dopamine D2 receptors in pituitary lactotropes increases body weight and adiposity in female mice.

    PubMed

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Luque, Guillermina Maria; Ramirez, Maria Cecilia; Noain, Daniela; Ornstein, Ana Maria; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia

    2014-03-01

    Prolactin, a pleiotropic hormone secreted by lactotropes, has reproductive and metabolic functions. Chronically elevated prolactin levels increase food intake, but in some hyperprolactinemic states such as in the global dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) knockout mouse, food intake is not increased. Here, we conduct a cell-specific genetic dissection study using conditional mutant mice that selectively lack D2Rs from pituitary lactotropes (lacDrd2KO) to evaluate the role of elevated prolactin levels without any confounding effect of central D2Rs on motor and reward mechanisms related to food intake. LacDrd2KO female mice exhibited chronic hyperprolactinemia, pituitary hyperplasia, and a preserved GH axis. In addition, lacDrd2KO female but not male mice showed increased food intake by 3 months of age, and from 5 months onward their body weights were heavier. Marked increments in fat depots, adipocyte size, serum triglycerides, and nonesterified fatty acid levels and a decrease in lipolytic enzymes in adipose tissue were seen. Furthermore, lacDrd2KO female mice had glucose intolerance but a preserved response to insulin. In the hypothalamus, Npy mRNA expression was increased, and Pomc and Ppo mRNA levels were unaltered (in contrast to results in global D2R knockout mice). Thus, the orexigenic effect of prolactin and its action on hypothalamic Npy expression were fully evidenced, leading to increased food intake and adiposity. Our results highlight the metabolic role of prolactin and illustrate the value of studying cell-specific mutant mice to disentangle the pathophysiological mechanisms otherwise masked in null allele mutants or in animals treated with pervasive pharmacological agents.

  16. Thylakoids suppress appetite by increasing cholecystokinin resulting in lower food intake and body weight in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Köhnke, Rickard; Lindqvist, Andreas; Göransson, Nathanael; Emek, Sinan C; Albertsson, Per-Ake; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hultgårdh-Nilsson, Anna; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2009-12-01

    Thylakoids are membranes isolated from plant chloroplasts which have previously been shown to inhibit pancreatic lipase/colipase catalysed hydrolysis of fat in vitro and induce short-term satiety in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to examine if dietary supplementation of thylakoids could affect food intake and body weight during long-term feeding in mice. Female apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 41% of fat by energy with and without thylakoids for 100 days. Mice fed the thylakoid-enriched diet had suppressed food intake, body weight gain and body fat compared with the high-fat fed control mice. Reduced serum glucose, serum triglyceride and serum free fatty acid levels were found in the thylakoid-treated animals. The satiety hormone cholecystokinin was elevated, suggesting this hormone mediates satiety. Leptin levels were reduced, reflecting a decreased fat mass. There was no sign of desensitization in the animals treated with thylakoids. The results suggest that thylakoids are useful to suppress appetite and body weight gain when supplemented to a high-fat food during long-term feeding.

  17. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    PubMed

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  18. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  19. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  20. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term. PMID:26996228

  1. A diet containing soybean oil heated for three hours increases adipose tissue weight but decreases body weight in C57BL/6 J mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our previous work showed that dietary oxidized linoleic acid given, as a single fatty acid, to LDL receptor knockout mice decreased weight gain as compared to control mice. Other studies have also reported that animals fed oils heated for 24 h or greater showed reduced weight gain. These observations, while important, have limited significance since fried foods in the typical human diet do not contain the extreme levels of oxidized lipids used in these studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a diet containing soybean oil heated for 3 h on weight gain and fat pad mass in mice. Additionally, because PPARγ and UCP-1 mediate adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis, respectively, the effect of this diet on these proteins was also examined. Findings Four to six week old male C57BL/6 J mice were randomly divided into three groups and given either a low fat diet with heated soybean oil (HSO) or unheated soybean oil (USO) or pair fed for 16 weeks. Weight and food intake were monitored and fat pads were harvested upon the study’s termination. Mice consuming the HSO diet had significantly increased fat pad mass but gained less weight as compared to mice in the USO group despite a similar caloric intake and similar levels of PPARγ and UCP1. Conclusion This is the first study to show that a diet containing soybean oil heated for a short time increases fat mass despite a decreased weight gain in C57BL/6 J mice. The subsequent metabolic consequences of this increased fat mass merits further investigation. PMID:23510583

  2. A high-fat diet increases body weight and circulating estradiol concentrations but does not improve bone structural properties in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Gregoire, Brian R

    2016-04-01

    Bone health is influenced by body mass and estrogen. The objective of the study was to determine whether high-fat diet-induced obesity affects bone structure and alters markers of bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase body weight gain and serum estradiol levels in OVX mice but would not improve bone structural parameter in OVX mice. Thirty-five C57BL/6 mice were either sham operated or OVX at the age of 4 months and then fed either a normal-fat diet (10% energy as fat) or a high-fat diet (45% energy as fat with extra fat from lard) ad libitum for 11 weeks. Ovariectomy increased body weight, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase concentration, and expression of cathepsin K in bone; decreased serum estradiol concentration; and induced significant bone loss manifested by decreased bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), connectivity density (Conn.D), trabecular number, and trabecular thickness with increased trabecular separation and structural model index (P < .01). The high-fat diet increased body weight (P < .01) in OVX mice and nonsignificantly decreased BV/TV (P = .08) and Conn.D (P = .10). Despite having similar serum estradiol concentrations and higher body weight, OVX mice consuming the high-fat diet had lower BV/TV, Conn.D, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, and higher structural model index and trabecular separation than did sham mice fed the normal-fat diet. These findings indicate that increased body weight and elevated serum estradiol concentration induced by a high-fat diet do not mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

  3. Web-enabled feedback control over energy balance promotes an increase in physical activity and a reduction of body weight and disease risk in overweight sedentary adults.

    PubMed

    Kraushaar, Lutz Erwin; Krämer, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate whether a Web-based tool will facilitate the adoption of feedback control over calorie balance in overweight individuals, thereby promoting an increase of physical activity and a reduction of body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. This is a prospective exercise intervention study, commencing with a minimum weekly 3 × 20-min requirement of high-intensity interval training and requirement for Web-based self-monitoring and self-reporting of exercise and body weight. Subjects of this study include 83 overweight, sedentary, otherwise healthy adults aged 26-68 years. Anthropometric parameters, body fat, peak oxygen consumption, self-reported physical activity, frequency of use of the Web-based tool are among the characters measured in this study. This 24-week intervention substantially increased time spent for exercise (mean and median of 135 and 170 min/week, respectively) among the 72 % of participants who had adopted cognitive feedback control vs. no increase in the remaining participants of nonadopters. Adopters witnessed significantly improved peak oxygen consumption of >1 metabolic equivalent vs. no improvement among nonadopters. Adopters also reduced body mass index, body weight, and body fat by 1.6 kg/m(2), 4.8 kg, and 3.6 kg, respectively vs. 0.4 kg/m(2), 1.4 kg, and 1.1 kg in the control group. The increase in physical activity came at virtually no intervention effort of the investigators. This study demonstrates for the first time that adoption of cognitive feedback control over energy balance is possible with the help of a simple Web-based tool and that overweight adopters self-regulate exercise volume to significantly reduce body weight and improve biomarkers of fitness and cardiovascular risk. PMID:23636894

  4. Personality disorders and body weight.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  5. The increase in body weight induced by lack of methyl CpG binding protein-2 is associated with altered leptin signalling in the hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Torres-Andrade, Rodrigo; Moldenhauer, Rodrigo; Gutierrez-Bertín, Noemí; Soto-Covasich, Jessica; Mancilla-Medina, Cristian; Ehrenfeld, Carolina; Kerr, Bredford

    2014-09-01

    Methyl CpG binding protein-2 (MECP2) is a chromatin-remodelling factor with a dual role in gene expression. Evidence from patients carrying MECP2 mutations and from transgenic mouse models demonstrates that this protein is involved in the control of body weight. However, the mechanism for this has not been fully elucidated. To address this, we used a previously characterized Mecp2-null mouse model and found that the increase in body weight is associated with an increased amount of adipose tissue and high leptin levels. Appropriate body weight control requires the proper expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and agouti-related peptide (Agrp), two neuropeptides essential for satiety and appetite signals, respectively. Our results show that in the absence of Mecp2, Pomc and Agrp mRNA expression are altered, and the mice are leptin resistant. To determine the mechanism underlying the defective leptin sensing, we evaluated the expression of genes and the post-translational modifications associated with leptin signalling, which are fundamental to Pomc and Agrp transcriptional control and proper leptin response. We found a decrease in the phosphorylation level of Akt and its target protein Foxo1, which indicate an alteration in leptin-induced signal transduction. Our results demonstrate that the absence of Mecp2 disrupted body weight balance by altering post-translational modifications in leptin-signalling components that regulate Pomc and Agrp expression.

  6. Excess body weight increases the burden of age-associated chronic diseases and their associated health care expenditures

    PubMed Central

    Atella, Vincenzo; Kopinska, Joanna; Medea, Gerardo; Belotti, Federico; Tosti, Valeria; Mortari, Andrea Piano; Cricelli, Claudio; Fontana, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Aging and excessive adiposity are both associated with an increased risk of developing multiple chronic diseases, which drive ever increasing health costs. The main aim of this study was to determine the net (non‐estimated) health costs of excessive adiposity and associated age‐related chronic diseases. We used a prevalence‐based approach that combines accurate data from the Health Search CSD‐LPD, an observational dataset with patient records collected by Italian general practitioners and up‐to‐date health care expenditures data from the SiSSI Project. In this very large study, 557,145 men and women older than 18 years were observed at different points in time between 2004 and 2010. The proportion of younger and older adults reporting no chronic disease decreased with increasing BMI. After adjustment for age, sex, geographic residence, and GPs heterogeneity, a strong J‐shaped association was found between BMI and total health care costs, more pronounced in middle‐aged and older adults. Relative to normal weight, in the 45‐64 age group, the per‐capita total cost was 10% higher in overweight individuals, and 27 to 68% greater in patients with obesity and very severe obesity, respectively. The association between BMI and diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease largely explained these elevated costs. PMID:26540605

  7. Increased responses to the actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 on energy balance and body weight in a seasonal model of adiposity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Samms, R; Warner, A; Bolborea, M; Barrett, P; Fowler, M J; Brameld, J M; Tsintzas, K; Kharitonenkov, A; Adams, A C; Coskun, T; Ebling, F J P

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) on energy balance in a natural model of relative fatness, the Siberian hamster. Hamsters were studied under long days (LD) to promote weight gain, or short days to induce weight loss, and treated with rhFGF21 (3 mg/kg/day) via s.c. minipumps for 14 days. On days 7-9, detailed assessments of ingestive behaviour, metabolic gas exchange and locomotor activity were made. FGF21 caused substantial (P < 0.0001) weight loss in the fat LD state but not in the lean SD state: at the end of the study, FGF21-treated hamsters in LD lost 18% of body weight compared to vehicle controls, which is comparable to the natural body weight loss observed in SD. Epididymal fat pads, a correlate of total carcass fat content, were reduced by 19% in FGF21 treated hamsters in LD, whereas no difference was found in SD. Body weight loss in LD was associated with a reduction in food intake (P < 0.001) and a decreased respiratory exchange ratio (P < 0.001), indicating increased fat oxidation. Treatment with FGF21 maintained the normal nocturnal increase in oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production into the early light phase in hamsters in LD, indicating increased energy expenditure, although locomotor activity was unaffected. These data suggest a greater efficacy of FGF21 in hamsters in LD compared to those in SD, which is consistent with both the peripheral and possibly central actions of FGF21 with respect to promoting a lean phenotype. The observed differences in FGF21 sensitivity may relate to day length-induced changes in adipose tissue mass.

  8. Neuromedin U receptor 2 knockdown in the paraventricular nucleus modifies behavioral responses to obesogenic high-fat food and leads to increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Benzon, C R; Johnson, S B; McCue, D L; Li, D; Green, T A; Hommel, J D

    2014-01-31

    Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide which regulates food intake and body weight. Transgenic mice lacking NMU are hyperphagic and obese, making NMU a novel target for understanding and treating obesity. Neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) is a high-affinity receptor for NMU found in discrete regions of the central nervous system, in particular the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), where it may be responsible for mediating the anorectic effects of NMU. We hypothesized that selective knock down of NMUR2 in the PVN of rats would increase their sensitivity to the reinforcing properties of food resulting in increased intake and preference for high-fat obesogenic food. To this end, we used viral-mediated RNAi to selectively knock down NMUR2 gene expression in the PVN. In rats fed a standard chow, NMUR2 knockdown produced no significant effect on food intake or body weight. However, when the same rats were fed a high-fat diet (45% fat), they consumed significantly more food, gained more body weight, and had increased feed efficiency relative to controls. Furthermore, NMUR2 knockdown rats demonstrated significantly greater binge-type food consumption of the high-fat diet and showed a greater preference for higher-fat food. These results demonstrate that NMUR2 signaling in the PVN regulates consumption and preference for high-fat foods without disrupting feeding behavior associated with non-obesogenic standard chow.

  9. THE INCREASE OF DAIRY INTAKE IS THE MAIN DIETARY FACTOR ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCTION OF BODY WEIGHT IN OVERWEIGHT ADULTS AFTER LIFESTYLE CHANGE PROGRAM.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Erick Prado; Diegoli, Ana Carolina Mourão; Corrente, José Eduardo; McLellan, Kátia Cristina Portero; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated which was the main nutritional change associated with weight reduction of overweight adult participants of a lifestyle change program. It was hypothesized that increases in dairy intake could be an important nutrition intervention in a lifestyle change program. 117 individuals, male (19.5%) and female (80.5%), with a minimum age of 36 years (54.2 ± 10.4). All study participants were enrolled in a lifestyle change program consisting of nutritional counseling and physical activity during 20 weeks. All participants were grouped in three groups according to Body Mass Index (BMI) delta median (-0.87 kg/m2) of individuals that showed weight loss: G1 - lost more than 0.87 kg/m2 of BMI (n = 38); G2 - lost 0 to 0.87 kg/m2 of BMI (n = 36); and G3 - increased BMI (n = 43). G1 increased dairy, fruit and vegetables intake and after forward stepwise multiple regression analysis, it was noted that an increase in dairy product intake of 0.40 servings per day had an impact of 9.6% on the loss of one kg/m2 of BMI. In conclusion, an increase in dairy product intake was the main dietary factor associated with reductions in body weight in overweight adults after 20 weeks of lifestyle change program.

  10. Intra-accumbal administration of shRNAs against CART peptides cause increases in body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Job, M O; Licata, J; Hubert, G W; Kuhar, M J

    2012-10-30

    In order to examine the effect of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) peptide depletion in adult rats, CART shRNAs or scrambled control shRNAs were administered bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens (NAc). There was an increase in body weight of the shRNA injected rats compared with the rats injected with the scrambled RNA. This is compatible with the data showing a role for the peptide in body weight and food intake. Also at this time, there was about a two-and-a-half fold increase in cocaine-mediated locomotion in the shRNA injected rats compared to the control rats. This finding is critical support for the hypothesis that endogenous CART peptides in the NAc inhibit the actions of cocaine and other psychostimulants. In immunohistochemical experiments on these same animals, there was a decrease in the staining density of CART peptide in the NAc of the shRNA injected rats. These data show that shRNA can reduce CART peptides in the NAc and that endogenous CART peptides influence body weight and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (LMA).

  11. Gestational Exposure to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Increases Adiposity, but not Body Weight, of Adult Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluoroalkyl acids have numerous industrial and consumer product applications. Studies in mice have demonstrated lower birth weight and higher neonatal mortality in mice after prenatal dosages exceeding 1 mg/kg/day. However, at dosages lo...

  12. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed

  13. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p < 0.01). Mean weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared to control. Single-meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed

  14. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  15. Nature helps: food addition of micronized coconut and onion reduced worm load in horses and sheep and increased body weight in sheep.

    PubMed

    Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Gliem, Günter; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Intense laboratory tests on experimentally infected mice and rats had shown that a mixture of micronized onions and coconut pulp decreases substantially (until disappearance) the worm load (trematodes, cestodes and nematodes) after oral uptake. As a consequence, feeding experiments of naturally infected sheep had been done in Egypt, in Saudi Arabia, and in Germany, which showed that treated animals grow up much better than untreated ones. The mean gain of body weight per animal was up to 6 kg within 4 weeks compared to untreated ones. These experiments were repeated again in the present study with naturally infected sheep and horses in Germany. Two types of professionally produced forage had been used: (1) mixture of 40% micronized onions, 40% coconut flakes, and 20% glucose besides sugar beet treacle; (2) mixture of 25% coconut flakes, 25% micronized onions, and 50% of the so-called muesli forage of Fa. Höveler, Dormagen, Germany consisting of some oils plus 20 different plant extracts and several vitamins. All experiments showed that feeding for 10 days led either to the full disappearance of the previously existing worm load or at least to an enormous reduction. When comparing the body weights of infected sheep before the start of the feeding and 4 weeks later, it was found that there was an increase of 5-8 kg (mean 7.5 kg) body weight in each treated animal, while nontreated ones had only weight increases between 0 and 5 kg (mean 2.37 kg). In the case of the horse treatment, the worm load decreased so enormously that mostly only single eggs or larvae were found in those horses that had accepted the onion-coconut food addition.

  16. Impact of body weight and missed doses on lopinavir concentrations with standard and increased lopinavir/ritonavir doses during late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Cressey, Tim R.; Urien, Saik; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Best, Brookie M.; Buranabanjasatean, Sudanee; Limtrakul, Aram; Rawangban, Boonsong; Sabsanong, Prapan; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Stek, Alice; Lallemant, Marc; Mirochnick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the influence of body weight and missed doses on lopinavir pharmacokinetics with standard and increased doses of lopinavir/ritonavir melt extrusion tablets during late pregnancy. Patients and methods Lopinavir concentration data during the third trimester of pregnancy were pooled from clinical trials in Thailand (NCT00409591) and the USA (NCT00042289). A total of 154 HIV-infected pregnant women receiving either 400/100 mg (standard) or 600/150 mg (increased) twice daily had lopinavir plasma concentration data available. Population parameters were estimated using non-linear mixed-effects regression models. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the probability of achieving target lopinavir trough concentrations (>1.0 mg/L) with standard and increased doses of lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy. Results The median (range) age, weight and gestational age were 28 years (18–43), 62 kg (45–123) and 33 weeks (29–38), respectively. Body weight influenced lopinavir oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F). Population estimates of lopinavir CL/F and V/F were 6.21 L/h/70 kg and 52.6 L/70 kg, respectively. Based on simulations, the highest risk of subtherapeutic trough concentrations was for women weighing >100 kg using the standard dose (∼7%), while the risk was <2% with the 600/150 mg dose for women weighing 40–130 kg. After a missed dose, 61% of women have lopinavir concentrations below target prior to the next dose with the standard dose compared with 42% with the increased dose. Conclusions Standard dosing provides adequate lopinavir trough concentrations for the majority of pregnant women but increased doses may be preferable for women weighing >100 kg and with a history of lopinavir/ritonavir use and/or adherence issues. PMID:25261418

  17. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  18. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay; Singh, Amitabh; Aly, Al S.; Cram, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them. PMID:21713202

  19. Exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod during early life stages increases body weight and alters plasma metabolomic profiles in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Uchiwa, Tatsuhiro; Takai, Yusuke; Tashiro, Ayako; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal photoperiod is an important regulator of physiological phenotype in adulthood. In this study, we demonstrated that postnatal (0-4 weeks old) exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induced persistent increase in body weight until adulthood, compared with the mice maintained under short photoperiod. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, a gene involved in fatty acid metabolism, was decreased in 10-week-old mice exposed to long photoperiod during 0-4 or 4-8 weeks of age. Plasma metabolomic profiles of adult mice exposed to a long photoperiod during the postnatal period (0-4 LD) were compared to those in the mice exposed to short photoperiod during the same period. Cluster analysis revealed that both carbon metabolic pathway and nucleic acid pathway were altered by the postnatal photoperiod. Levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis were significantly upregulated in 0-4 LD, suggesting that the mice in 0-4 LD use the glycolytic pathway for energy expenditure rather than the fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, the mice in 0-4 LD exhibited high levels of purine metabolites, which have a role in neuroprotection. In conclusion, postnatal exposure of C57BL/6J mice to long photoperiod induces increase in body weight and various changes in plasma metabolic profiles during adulthood. PMID:27650252

  20. Diaphragm and body weight in emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Thurlbeck, W M

    1978-01-01

    The weight of the diaphragm has been investigated in 103 male patients and 81 female patients, and the relationship between body weight and emphysema has been assessed in 662 male and 431 female patients. Diaphragm weight is related to body weight in both male (r = + 0.76) and female patients (r = +0.77) and is relatively larger in the former. Dissecting the diaphragm free of fat or freeze drying it does not appreciably improve the relationship between body weight and diaphragm weight. Diaphragm weight is better related to body weight than body length and is diminished in emphysema. Patients with emphysema weigh less. This is apparent with only moderate grades of emphysema, and there is no further loss of body weight as emphysema in the lung becomes more severe. The loss of diaphragm weight not only reflects the loss of body weight that occurs in emphysema, but the diaphragm is also less in weight than predicted from body weight. The diaphragm also appears abnormal on gross inspection in some patients with emphysema. Heart weight and diaphragm weight are related, probably because both are related to body weight. PMID:694801

  1. GSK1614343, a novel ghrelin receptor antagonist, produces an unexpected increase of food intake and body weight in rodents and dogs.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Vivian J A; Vicentini, Elena; Sabbatini, Fabio M; Valerio, Enzo; Lepore, Stefano; Tessari, Michela; Sartori, Matteo; Michielin, Francesca; Melotto, Sergio; Bifone, Angelo; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Corsi, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid polypeptide expressed in the stomach and hypothalamus that stimulates GH secretion, increases food intake (FI) and promotes body weight (BW) gain most likely via activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHSR1a). GSK1614343 is a novel selective and potent GHSR antagonist with no partial agonist properties, recently characterized as GH secretion inhibitor by Sabbatini et al. [Chem Med Chem 2010;5:1450-1455]. In the present study, GSK1614343 (10 mg/kg) was not able to antagonize ghrelin-induced food consumption in rat, but unexpectedly stimulated FI and BW gain in both rats and dogs, a profile associated with decreased ghrelin plasma level. Interestingly, GSK1614343 selectively reduced the pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels in rat hypothalami chronically treated with the compound. To better understand the observed effects, we administered GSK1614343 (30 mg/kg) to Ghsr null mice and measured body mass components (fat, lean and free fluid) by using a NMR spectrometer. The increases of FI and BW were abolished in Ghsr null mice, while fat and lean masses increased in wild-type mice. Taken together, these results indicate that the orexigenic effect of GSK1614343 is mediated by GHSR1a and that the weight gain could be attributed to the increase of both adiposity and muscle mass, but not to fluid retention. The observed dissociation between effects on GH secretion and effects on FI/BW is inconsistent with a simple hormone-receptor model, suggesting unknown underlying regulations of the ghrelin system whose understanding require further investigation. PMID:21778696

  2. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  3. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2007-10-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

  4. Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Monjok, Emmanuel; Kouamou, Ghislaine; Ohia, Sunny E; Bagchi, Debasis; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2007-10-01

    Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO(2)) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO(2) were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. PMID:17503004

  5. Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: what are the concerns?

    PubMed

    Shapses, Sue A; Riedt, Claudia S

    2006-06-01

    Of the U.S. population, 65% is either overweight or obese, and weight loss is recommended to reduce co-morbid conditions. However, bone mobilization and loss may also occur with weight loss. The risk for bone loss depends on initial body weight, age, gender, physical activity, and conditions of dieting such as the extent of energy restriction and specific levels of nutrient intake. Older populations are more prone to bone loss with weight loss; in women, this is due at least in part to a reduced dietary Ca intake and/or efficiency of absorption. Potential hormonal mechanisms regulating bone loss during weight loss are discussed, including decreases in estrogen, leptin, glucagon-like peptide-2, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor-1, or an increase in cortisol. In contrast, the rise in adiponectin and ghrelin with weight reduction should not be detrimental to bone. Combining energy restriction with exercise does not necessarily prevent bone loss, but may attenuate loss as was shown with additional Ca intake or osteoporosis medications. Future controlled weight loss trials should be designed to further address mechanisms influencing the density and quality of bone sites vulnerable to fracture, in the prevention of osteoporosis. PMID:16702302

  6. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  7. A functional variant in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken serotonin transporter gene is associated with increased body weight and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Phi-van, Loc; Holtz, Marlis; Kjaer, Joergen B; van Phi, Valerie D; Zimmermann, Katrin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we identified a polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene. Sequencing analysis revealed that in comparison with the wild-type variant (W), a deleted variant (D) is generated by deletion of four nucleotides (5'-AATT-3') and a single nucleotide change (A→T). Using a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system, we found that the 360-bp DNA fragment containing the W variant with the wild-type sequence 5'-AATTAATT-3' shows intrinsic DNA curvature while the 356-bp fragment containing the D variant lacking the four base pairs AATT is not curved. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and ELISA demonstrated that the expression of 5-HTT in D/D chickens was higher than that in W/W and W/D chickens. In addition, transient transfection experiments with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene constructs revealed increased 5-HTT promoter activity mediated by the D variant and a silencer activity of the W variant. Interestingly, females and males with D/D genotype showed significant greater increase in body weight from 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age, respectively, and higher body mass index. Moreover, we found that D/D chickens of both genders were physically more active than W/W and W/D chickens.

  8. [Surgical options for reducing body weight].

    PubMed

    Vasas, Péter; Pór, Ferenc

    2014-06-22

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing prevalence in adults and children, and authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Sixty-two percent of the Hungarian adult population has overweight and 27% is morbidly obese and, therefore, it is a significant interest to treat this condition. The authors review the diagnosis and the associated diseases of morbid obesity. The initial enthusiasm with the gastric band has settled now, as the long-term outcome showed only very limited reduction in the excess body weight and the complication rate was as high as 50%. The sleeve gastrectomy may induce 60-70% of excess weight loss, however, the long term follow-up data is very limited. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the gold-standard of the bariatric procedures, with proven 60-75% excess weight loss and 80% type 2 diabetes remission. The body image usually changes with weight loss, and frequently a body contouring procedure is required to improve it. Multi-disciplinary team of super-specialised doctors is required to perform these procedures.

  9. Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Omentin-1 is a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue and negatively associated with insulin resistance and obesity. We aimed to study the effects of weight loss-induced improved insulin sensitivity on circulating omentin concentrations. Methods Circulating omentin-1 (ELISA) concentration in association with metabolic variables was measured in 35 obese subjects (18 men, 17 women) before and after hypocaloric weight loss. Results Baseline circulating omentin-1 concentrations correlated negatively with BMI (r = -0.58, p < 0.001), body weight (r = -0.35, p = 0.045), fat mass (r = -0.67, p < 0.001), circulating leptin (r = -0.7, p < 0.001) and fasting insulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03). Circulating omentin-1 concentration increased significantly after weight loss (from 44.9 ± 9.02 to 53.41 ± 8.8 ng/ml, p < 0.001). This increase in circulating omentin after weight loss was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (negatively associated with HOMA value and fasting insulin, r = -0.42, p = 0.02 and r = -0.45, p = 0.01, respectively) and decreased BMI (r = -0.54, p = 0.001). Conclusion As previously described with adiponectin, circulating omentin-1 concentrations increase after weight loss-induced improvement of insulin sensitivity. PMID:20380714

  10. Body weight of hypersonic aircraft, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    The load bearing body weight of wing-body and all-body hypersonic aircraft is estimated for a wide variety of structural materials and geometries. Variations of weight with key design and configuration parameters are presented and discussed. Both hot and cool structure approaches are considered in isotropic, organic composite, and metal matrix composite materials; structural shells are sandwich or skin-stringer. Conformal and pillow-tank designs are investigated for the all-body shape. The results identify the most promising hypersonic aircraft body structure design approaches and their weight trends. Geometric definition of vehicle shapes and structural analysis methods are presented in appendices.

  11. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  12. Effect of caging variables on body weight and weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, D P; Wilson, S P; Gieseking, D

    1976-08-01

    The effects on body weight of mixing litters to attain constant density of mice per cage, as opposed to housing litters in separate cages, was studied. Mixing litters resulted in a decreased weight gain between 21 and 42 da of age and a decreased adult body weight at 63 da of age compared to housing litters in separate cages, whether the separately housed litters were allowed to vary in density or not. Mixed litter housing also increased the variance of the body weight measures among males. Housing litters separately, even if it entails variable density of housing, appears to be the preferred method for studies involving inheritance of body weight.

  13. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  14. Actual Body Weight and the Parent's Perspective of Child's Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; Rennie, Donna C; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A; Pahwa, Punam; The Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Team

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent's perception of their child's weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child's weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child's height and weight and rated their child's weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent's perception of child's weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child's BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child's weight status. PMID:27527235

  15. Mechanisms of Body Weight Fluctuations in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD. PMID:24917848

  16. Mechanisms of body weight fluctuations in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kistner, Andrea; Lhommée, Eugénie; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Typical body weight changes are known to occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Weight loss has been reported in early stages as well as in advanced disease and malnutrition may worsen the clinical state of the patient. On the other hand, an increasing number of patients show weight gain under dopamine replacement therapy or after surgery. These weight changes are multifactorial and involve changes in energy expenditure, perturbation of homeostatic control, and eating behavior modulated by dopaminergic treatment. Comprehension of the different mechanisms contributing to body weight is a prerequisite for the management of body weight and nutritional state of an individual PD patient. This review summarizes the present knowledge and highlights the necessity of evaluation of body weight and related factors, as eating behavior, energy intake, and expenditure in PD.

  17. Control of Body Weight by Eating Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Bergh, Cecilia; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Esfandiari, Maryam; Shield, Julian; Lightman, Stafford; Leon, Michael; Södersten, Per

    2015-01-01

    Diet, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have limited effects in counteracting the worldwide increase in pediatric body weight. Moreover, the promise that individualized drug design will work to induce weight loss appears to be exaggerated. We suggest that the reason for this limited success is that the cause of obesity has been misunderstood. Body weight is mainly under external control; our brain permits us to eat under most circumstances, and unless the financial or physical cost of food is high, eating and body weight increase by default. When energy-rich, inexpensive foods are continually available, people need external support to maintain a healthy body weight. Weight loss can thereby be achieved by continuous feedback on how much and how fast to eat on a computer screen. PMID:26539422

  18. Arkansas Pupils' Body Weights Add Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the body weights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…

  19. Parental perception of preschool child body weight.

    PubMed

    Garrett-Wright, Dawn

    2011-10-01

    Obesity in preschoolers has risen dramatically in the last decade. Although studies have demonstrated that parents of preschoolers have incorrect perceptions of their child's body weight, little is known about the factors that may be associated with these perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental perceptions of preschool child body weight and parental psychosocial factors. Quantitative analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression analyses. More than one third of the children in the sample were at risk for being overweight or were already overweight. However, less than 6% of parents felt that their child had an elevated body weight. Results from univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the parent's health literacy level was a significant predictor of the accuracy of their perceptions regarding their child's body weight (p < .05). Parental concern regarding child weight and perceived level of efficacy did not significantly predict the accuracy of their perceptions. Results from this study indicate that assessing parental perceptions of preschool child body weight can help providers accurately understand how parents view their children and lead to tailored educational interventions. In addition, the results support previous research suggesting that parental health literacy is a key to providing high-quality family-centered care.

  20. [Body contouring procedures for massive weight loss patients and their complications].

    PubMed

    Long, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-jun

    2011-06-01

    An increasing number of patients require body contouring procedures after massive weight loss. Body contouring can bring better quality of life and increase their satisfaction towards weight loss procedures. However, due to the special body status after massive weight loss, the complications of body contouring can be high. This article briefly describes body contouring procedures and summarizes their indications and complications.

  1. The effects of body mass on cremation weight.

    PubMed

    May, Shannon E

    2011-01-01

    Cremains have become increasingly frequent in forensic contexts, while higher body mass in the general population has simultaneously made cremation a more cost-effective mortuary practice. This study analyzed the relationship between body mass and bone mass, as reflected through cremation weight. Antemortem data were recorded for samples used in the multi-regional data set. Each was rendered through commercial crematoriums and reweighed postincineration. Pearson's correlation demonstrates clear association between body mass and cremation weight (r=0.56; p<0.0001). However, multiple linear regression revealed sex and age variables also have a significant relationship (t=7.198; t=-2.5, respectively). Regressed in conjunction, body mass, sex, and age contribute approximately 67% of all variation observed in cremation weight (r=0.668). Analysis of covariance indicates significant regional variation in body and cremation weight. Explanations include bone modification resulting from increased loading stress, as well as glucose intolerance and altered metabolic pathways related to obesity.

  2. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults.

  3. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  4. Excess body weight during pregnancy and offspring obesity: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paliy, Oleg; Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Kozyrskyj, Anita; Celep, Gulcin; Marotta, Francesco; Rastmanesh, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The rates of child and adult obesity have increased in most developed countries over the past several decades. The health consequences of obesity affect both physical and mental health, and the excess body weight can be linked to an elevated risk for developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and depression. Among the factors that can influence the development of obesity are higher infant weights and increased weight gain, which are associated with higher risk for excess body weight later in life. In turn, mother's excess body weight during and after pregnancy can be linked to the risk for offspring overweight and obesity through dietary habits, mode of delivery and feeding, breast milk composition, and through the influence on infant gut microbiota. This review considers current knowledge of these potential mechanisms that threaten to create an intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  5. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  6. Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Bellisle, France

    2007-03-01

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been linked to rising rates of obesity in the United States. The standard explanation is that energy-containing liquids are less satiating than are solid foods. However, purely physiologic mechanisms do not fully account for the proposed links between liquid sugar energy and body weight change. First, a reevaluation of published epidemiologic studies of consumption of sweetened beverages and overweight shows that most such studies either are cross-sectional or are based on passive surveillance of temporal trends and thus permit no conclusions about causal links. Second, research evidence comparing the short-term satiating power of different types of liquids and of solids remains inconclusive. Numerous clinical studies have shown that sugar-containing liquids, when consumed in place of usual meals, can lead to a significant and sustained weight loss. The principal ingredient of liquid meal replacement shakes is sugar, often high-fructose corn syrup, which is present in amounts comparable to those in soft drinks. Far from suppressing satiety, one such liquid shake is marketed on the grounds that it helps control hunger and prevents hunger longer when consumed for the purpose of weight loss. These inconsistencies raise the question whether the issue of sugars and body weight should continue to be framed purely in metabolic or physiologic terms. The effect of sugar consumption on body weight can also depend on behavioral intent, context, and the mode of use, availability, and cost of sweetened liquids. PMID:17344485

  7. Determination of muscle activity during running at reduced body weight.

    PubMed

    Liebenberg, Jaco; Scharf, Jennifer; Forrest, Dana; Dufek, Janet S; Masumoto, K; Mercer, J A

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how lower extremity muscles are influenced by body weight support during running at different speeds. Nine participants (age 24 ± 2 years, height 1.75 ± 0.12 m, mass 73.5 ± 15.7 kg) ran at 100%, 115%, and 125% of preferred speed at 100%, 90%, 80%, 70%, and 60% of body weight on a treadmill that provided body weight support. Preferred speed was self-selected by each participant and represented a speed that he or she could sustain if going for a 30 min run. Electromyography (EMG) data were recorded (1000 Hz, 1 min) from the bicep femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius for each condition together with knee angle (electrogoniometer). Average and root mean square EMG were calculated across 30 s. Muscle patterns were determined by smoothing (low-pass filter, 4 Hz) and extracting patterns for 49 cycles defined by consecutive maximum knee flexion angles. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare average and root mean square across body weight and speeds. Correlations were computed between the 100% speed/100% body weight condition and all other conditions per muscle. There was no interaction between body weight and speed (P > 0.05). Average and root mean square decreased as body weight decreased for all muscles (P < 0.05) and increased across speeds for all muscles (P < 0.05). Correlations for all muscles between conditions were high (range: 0.921-0.999). Although a percent reduction in body weight did not lead to the same reduction in muscle activity, it was clear that reducing body weight leads to a reduction in muscle activity with no changes in muscle activity patterns. PMID:21170806

  8. Body Weight Gain during Altered Gravity: Spaceflight, Centrifugation and Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Harper, J. S.; Daunton, N. G.; Corcoran, M. L.; Morey-Holton, E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Gravity is a force that influences all living systems, and is often disregarded in the study of environment on growth and development. To assess the effect of gravity exposure on growth, immature rats (130-200 g) were evaluated during chronic altered gravity exposure and during transition between gravity fields. The effects of 14 days of spaceflight on body weight gain were evaluated (n=12) and compared to controls. Spaceflight did not affect weight gain. In 6 rats, the transition from spaceflight to 1 G showed a significant (p less than 0.05) post flight weight loss over 48 hr of 13 g compared to controls. Over subsequent days this loss was compensated for with no difference noted after 5 days. Exposure to hypergravity, 2 G for 16 days, was evaluated in groups of n=6 (Control; On Center Control (OCC); Centrifuged). With centrifugation or OCC there was a reduction in body weight within 24 hr. The OCC regained control weights within 13 days. The weight difference, 26 +/- 1 g, persisted with 2 G with no subsequent difference in weight gain over days 3-16 compared to controls; 3.7 +/- 0.1 versus 3.9 +/- 0.1 g/day respectively. Transition from centrifugation to 1 G resulted in a weight increase within 48 hours. Over 16 days the rate of gain was increased 3.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for centrifuge compared to 2.1 +/- 0.1 g/day for controls between Day 3 to 16. However, differences from control were still noted on Day 16. Transition from one gravity field to another causes acute changes in body weight. Transition to microgravity or 1 G, following the acute changes, results in adjustments to attain a normal weight. In hypergravity the acute reduction in body weight persist, but weight gain is normal. Transitioning from hypergravity to 1G results in an increased weight gain to compensate for the persistent reduction during exposure.

  9. Weight loss causes increased mortality: pros.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, T I A

    2003-02-01

    There are many good reasons to expect that weight loss in overweight and obese subjects should lead to reduced mortality, not least because the general risk factor profile of several diseases responsible for the excess mortality associated with overweight and obesity improves with weight loss. However, observational long-term population studies have shown that weight loss in overweight subjects leads to increased long-term mortality, even if the studies are well controlled with regard to known confounding factors, including hazardous behaviour and underlying diseases that may lead to both weight loss and increased mortality. It seems unfeasible to wait for the multiple randomized clinical trials of sufficient quality, size and duration that may resolve this question. Therefore, the recommendations about weight loss must be based on the weaker evidence that can be obtained in short-term clinical trials and the observational population studies. Several studies have tried to address the problem by distinguishing intentional from unintentional weight loss, but only few do so by gathering information about the intention to lose weight before weight loss is observed. These studies suggest that intentional weight loss is associated with increased mortality. Recommendations to healthy overweight and obese subjects to lose weight must be based on an explicit weighing of the short-term well-documented benefits of weight loss, including improvement of quality of life, against the possible risk of an increased mortality in the long-term

  10. The Dynamics of Human Body Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    An imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure will lead to a change in body weight (mass) and body composition (fat and lean masses). A quantitative understanding of the processes involved, which currently remains lacking, will be useful in determining the etiology and treatment of obesity and other conditions resulting from prolonged energy imbalance. Here, we show that a mathematical model of the macronutrient flux balances can capture the long-term dynamics of human weight change; all previous models are special cases of this model. We show that the generic dynamic behavior of body composition for a clamped diet can be divided into two classes. In the first class, the body composition and mass are determined uniquely. In the second class, the body composition can exist at an infinite number of possible states. Surprisingly, perturbations of dietary energy intake or energy expenditure can give identical responses in both model classes, and existing data are insufficient to distinguish between these two possibilities. Nevertheless, this distinction has important implications for the efficacy of clinical interventions that alter body composition and mass. PMID:18369435

  11. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P < 0.001) by age and sex without interaction. Weights varied by year (P < 0.001) on Pools 7 and 8. Mean weights increased (P < 0.01) within age and sex classes by date and averaged 3.6 and 2.7 g daily on Pools 7 and 8 and Pool 19, respectively. Percent fat was highly correlated (P < 0.001) with carcass weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  12. Increased renal net acid excretion in prematures below 1,600 g body weight compared with prematures and small-for-date newborns above 2,100 g on alimentation with a commercial preterm formula.

    PubMed

    Kalhoff, H; Wiese, B; Kunz, C; Diekmann, L; Stock, G J; Manz, F

    1994-01-01

    In 76 low birth weight infants with an actual body weight ranging from 1,210 to 2,540 g and fed a commercial preterm formula, urine samples were collected and blood acid base status was measured on day 38 (+/- 17, mean +/- SD) of life. Infants with an actual body weight below 1,600 g demonstrated a higher daily weight gain (22 +/- 3 vs. 14 +/- 5 g/kg/day), lower blood pCO2 (35.4 +/- 5.0 vs. 38.9 +/- 3.8 mm Hg), lower urine pH (5.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.5 +/- 0.3), higher renal net acid (1.86 +/- 0.38 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.55 mmol/kg/day) and higher phosphorus excretion (0.67 vs. 0.52 mmol/kg/day) than infants with an actual body weight above 2,100 g. Urinary ionogram data of these 2 groups of infants show that the increased renal net acid excretion of the smaller prematures is the result of a lower urinary excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride, due to a higher daily weight gain, probably a higher retention of these minerals, and a higher urinary phosphorus excretion probably due to an age-specific lower intestinal calcium absorption, and therefore a lower rate of calcium and phosphorus retention. Considering the low renal capacity for hydrogen ion excretion, very low birth weight infants still run a considerable risk for disturbances of acid base metabolism due to the high mean level of net acid excretion in nutrition with preterm formulas and an additional age-specific augmentation of renal acid load.

  13. [Gut microbiota, responsible for our body weight?].

    PubMed

    Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Hadengue, Antoine; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain

    2009-03-25

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease and often considered as an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, the gut microbiota could have an impact on the development of excess body weight. According to the type of diet, this black box of the bowel could contribute to modifications of both the caloric extraction and the energy expenditure. The gut microbiota is linked with intermediary metabolism and inflammation, and could be involved in physiopathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Fiber enriched diet and Mediterranean type of diet could induce gut microbiota modifications with consecutive weight loss and improvement of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D F

    1993-10-01

    Data on body weight and weight change collected from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults are reviewed. The body mass index (weight [kg]/height [m2]) has a low correlation with height and is used to compare body weights between persons of differing heights. The BMI varies to a greater degree in women than in men. Below the 75th percentile of the BMI distribution, women have lower BMIs than men, whereas at the 75th percentile and above, women have higher BMIs than men. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 27.8 or more in men and of 27.3 or more in women, corresponding to approximately 20% or more above desirable weight in the 1983 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company tables. For persons of average height (men, 5'9"; women, 5'4") this definition is equivalent to a body weight above 85 kg (187 pounds) in men and above 72 kg (158 pounds) in women. Among adults 20 to 74 years of age, 24% of men and 27% of women are overweight, yielding an estimated total of 34 million persons in the United States. The prevalence of overweight increases with age, for both men and women but to a greater degree in women. Blacks and Hispanics have a higher prevalence of overweight than do whites, especially among women. Between 1960 and 1980, the prevalence of overweight among whites increased by 3% in women and by 6% in men. In blacks, however, the prevalence of overweight increased by 7% in women and by 28% in men. Longitudinal body weight measurements taken 10 years apart show that adults younger than 55 years tend to gain weight, whereas those 55 years and older tend to lose weight. The youngest adults gain the most weight, and the oldest adults lose the most weight. In all age groups, women have substantially greater variation in their 10-year weight change than do men.

  15. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Clare L.; Gratz, Silvia W.; Peinado, Diana I.; Thomson, Lynn M.; Garden, Karen E.; Williams, Patricia A.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Ross, Alexander W.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity. PMID:27224646

  16. Effects of Dietary Fibre (Pectin) and/or Increased Protein (Casein or Pea) on Satiety, Body Weight, Adiposity and Caecal Fermentation in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Adam, Clare L; Gratz, Silvia W; Peinado, Diana I; Thomson, Lynn M; Garden, Karen E; Williams, Patricia A; Richardson, Anthony J; Ross, Alexander W

    2016-01-01

    Dietary constituents that suppress appetite, such as dietary fibre and protein, may aid weight loss in obesity. The soluble fermentable dietary fibre pectin promotes satiety and decreases adiposity in diet-induced obese rats but effects of increased protein are unknown. Adult diet-induced obese rats reared on high fat diet (45% energy from fat) were given experimental diets ad libitum for 4 weeks (n = 8/group): high fat control, high fat with high protein (40% energy) as casein or pea protein, or these diets with added 10% w/w pectin. Dietary pectin, but not high protein, decreased food intake by 23% and induced 23% body fat loss, leading to 12% lower final body weight and 44% lower total body fat mass than controls. Plasma concentrations of satiety hormones PYY and total GLP-1 were increased by dietary pectin (168% and 151%, respectively) but not by high protein. Plasma leptin was decreased by 62% on pectin diets and 38% on high pea (but not casein) protein, while plasma insulin was decreased by 44% on pectin, 38% on high pea and 18% on high casein protein diets. Caecal weight and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the caecum were increased in pectin-fed and high pea protein groups: caecal succinate was increased by pectin (900%), acetate and propionate by pectin (123% and 118%, respectively) and pea protein (147% and 144%, respectively), and butyrate only by pea protein (309%). Caecal branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were decreased by pectin (down 78%) but increased by pea protein (164%). Therefore, the soluble fermentable fibre pectin appeared more effective than high protein for increasing satiety and decreasing caloric intake and adiposity while on high fat diet, and produced a fermentation environment more likely to promote hindgut health. Altogether these data indicate that high fibre may be better than high protein for weight (fat) loss in obesity.

  17. Determinants of body weight regulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Moehlecke, Milene; Canani, Luis Henrique; Silva, Lucas Oliveira Junqueira E; Trindade, Manoel Roberto Maciel; Friedman, Rogerio; Leitão, Cristiane Bauermann

    2016-04-01

    Body weight is regulated by the ability of hypothalamic neurons to orchestrate behavioral, endocrine and autonomic responses via afferent and efferent pathways to the brainstem and the periphery. Weight maintenance requires a balance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Although several components that participate in energy homeostasis have been identified, there is a need to know in more detail their actions as well as their interactions with environmental and psychosocial factors in the development of human obesity. In this review, we examine the role of systemic mediators such as leptin, ghrelin and insulin, which act in the central nervous system by activating or inhibiting neuropeptide Y, Agouti-related peptide protein, melanocortin, transcript related to cocaine and amphetamine, and others. As a result, modifications in energy homeostasis occur through regulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We also examine compensatory changes in the circulating levels of several peripheral hormones after diet-induced weight loss.

  18. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  19. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12-17 years old; 2007-2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a "promotion focus" (to show an attractive body), or a "prevention focus" (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were "Not at all" concerned about weight gain, and girls' percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics.

  20. Weight Self-Regulation Process in Adolescence: The Relationship between Control Weight Attitudes, Behaviors, and Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Jordi; Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents’ self-control weight behaviors were assessed (N = 1961; 12–17 years old; 2007–2008) in the Balearic Islands, Spain. The study analyzed the relationships between body weight status, body image, and self-weight concern, and actual attempts to lose weight by restrained eating and/or increased exercising. In terms of regulatory focus theory (RFT), we considered that efforts to lose or to maintain weight (successful or failed) would be motivated either by a “promotion focus” (to show an attractive body), or a “prevention focus” (to avoid social rejection of fatness), or both. Results showed that 41% of overweight boys and 25% of obese boys stated that they had never made any attempt to lose weight, and 13 and 4% in females. Around half of overweight boys and around a quarter of obese boys stated that they were “Not at all” concerned about weight gain, and girls’ percentages decreased to 13 and 11%, respectively. By contrast, 57% of normal weight girls monitored their weight and stated that they had tried to become slim at least once. Weight self-regulation in females attempted to combine diet and exercise, while boys relied almost exclusively on exercise. Apparent lack of consciousness of body weight status among overweight boys, and more important, subsequent absence of behaviors to reduce their weight clearly challenges efforts to prevent obesity. We argue that several causes may be involved in this outcome, including unconscious, emotional (self-defense), and cognitive (dissonance) mechanisms driven by perceived social stigmatization of obesity. The active participation of social values of male and female body image (strong vs. pretty), and the existence of social habituation to overweight are suggested. A better knowledge of psychosocial mechanisms underlying adolescent weight self-control may improve obesity epidemics. PMID:26284248

  1. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  2. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour), strengthening exercises (15 min/hour) and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour) during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance), waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test), and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI from 30.5 to 29.2 (p < 0.001), body fat percentage from 40.9 to 39.3 (p < 0.001), waist circumference from 99.7 to 95.5 cm (p < 0.001) and blood pressure from 134/85 to 127/80 mmHg (p < 0.001), with significant difference between the intervention and control group (p < 0.001) on all measures. No effect of intervention was found in musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength, but on aerobic fitness. Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness

  3. [Postnatal skeletal and body weight in beagles].

    PubMed

    Salomon, F V; Schulze, A; Böhme, U; Arnold, U; Gericke, A; Gille, U

    1999-08-01

    Growth of beagles is described on the basis of body weight and 14 bone measures. Eighteen male and 19 female dogs were investigated at 14 different ages from birth to the 13th month of life. Characteristics of the growth curves were evaluated using the modified Janoschek growth curve. For the classification into dwarfish, low, normal, big and gigantic growth, the growth curves are presented with percentiles. The arithmetic means and standard deviations for both sexes are presented in tables. Additionally, the degrees of maturity at birth (relative proportion of final weight or bone measure), the point of inflection for the growth curve, the times to grow to 50 and 95% of the final measures, and the asymptotic measures are also presented in tables. Sex differences in growth for the body weight and bone measures are discussed. Growth differences between large and small dog breeds are considered. The conclusion is drawn that the feeding of dogs has to be adapted to the growth course. PMID:10488625

  4. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue. PMID:26244755

  5. Lower-limb amputation and body weight changes in men.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Arterburn, David E; Bouldin, Erin; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.

  6. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity. PMID:20712885

  7. Body weight, metabolism and clock genes.

    PubMed

    Zanquetta, Melissa M; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz; Villares, Sandra Mf

    2010-08-16

    Biological rhythms are present in the lives of almost all organisms ranging from plants to more evolved creatures. These oscillations allow the anticipation of many physiological and behavioral mechanisms thus enabling coordination of rhythms in a timely manner, adaption to environmental changes and more efficient organization of the cellular processes responsible for survival of both the individual and the species. Many components of energy homeostasis exhibit circadian rhythms, which are regulated by central (suprachiasmatic nucleus) and peripheral (located in other tissues) circadian clocks. Adipocyte plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, the signaling of satiety and cellular differentiation and proliferation. Also, the adipocyte circadian clock is probably involved in the control of many of these functions. Thus, circadian clocks are implicated in the control of energy balance, feeding behavior and consequently in the regulation of body weight. In this regard, alterations in clock genes and rhythms can interfere with the complex mechanism of metabolic and hormonal anticipation, contributing to multifactorial diseases such as obesity and diabetes. The aim of this review was to define circadian clocks by describing their functioning and role in the whole body and in adipocyte metabolism, as well as their influence on body weight control and the development of obesity.

  8. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  9. Feeding enrichment and body weight in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Brent, L

    1995-01-01

    Although positive behavioral consequences have been attributed to feeding enrichment, physiological changes may also occur. In this study, the body weight records of a large chimpanzee colony were reviewed to determine if body weight was affected by the implementation of a daily enrichment program, including food items offered three to four times per week. Comparing the mean body weight by age groups indicated that the weight of female chimpanzees was significantly greater after feeding enrichment but that male body weight did not differ.

  10. Independent metabolic costs of supporting body weight and accelerating body mass during walking.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Alena; Farley, Claire T; Kram, Rodger

    2005-02-01

    The metabolic cost of walking is determined by many mechanical tasks, but the individual contribution of each task remains unclear. We hypothesized that the force generated to support body weight and the work performed to redirect and accelerate body mass each individually incur a significant metabolic cost during normal walking. To test our hypothesis, we measured changes in metabolic rate in response to combinations of simulated reduced gravity and added loading. We found that reducing body weight by simulating reduced gravity modestly decreased net metabolic rate. By calculating the metabolic cost per Newton of reduced body weight, we deduced that generating force to support body weight comprises approximately 28% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Similar to previous loading studies, we found that adding both weight and mass increased net metabolic rate in more than direct proportion to load. However, when we added mass alone by using a combination of simulated reduced gravity and added load, net metabolic rate increased about one-half as much as when we added both weight and mass. By calculating the cost per kilogram of added mass, we deduced that the work performed on the center of mass comprises approximately 45% of the metabolic cost of normal walking. Our findings support the hypothesis that force and work each incur a significant metabolic cost. Specifically, the cost of performing work to redirect and accelerate the center of mass is almost twice as great as the cost of generating force to support body weight.

  11. Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa. PMID:22723312

  12. How important are changes in body weight for mass perception?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Helen E.

    It is often assumed that weight judgements depend primarily on the effort experienced in lifting an object against a 1-G force. Changes in effort and in other weight-cues certainly alter apparent heaviness; but there is a tendency towards mass-constancy when such changes are unrelated to mass. Under water or altered G, both the observer's body and other objects change their effective weight: the change in the former probably provides a cue to the latter. Mass-constancy increases with opportunity for adaptation to the change, leaving a negative aftereffect on return to normal circumstances. The discrimination of weight or mass also deteriorates with sudden changes in arm weight, just as it does with other types of maladaptation and with a reduction in sensory cues. The relative importance of arm weight and other factors has not been precisely measured, but experiments in prolonged spaceflight should help to elucidate the issue.

  13. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement.

  14. A prospective study of weight maintenance in obese subjects reduced to normal body weight without weight-loss training.

    PubMed

    Hensrud, D D; Weinsier, R L; Darnell, B E; Hunter, G R

    1994-11-01

    We examined the pattern of weight maintenance in 24 obese women [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) 27.6 +/- 0.4 who were provided foods for a balanced deficit diet until each had lost > or = 10 kg and attained normal body weight (BMI 22.9 +/- 0.4). At 1 y subjects had regained a mean of 42% of their weight loss, which increased to 87% at 4 y. At 4 y 44% of patients had regained < 75%, whereas 37% had regained > or = 100% of the weight originally lost. The amount of weight gained was markedly different from that observed in 24 pair-matched never-obese control subjects over the same length of follow-up. Because the results reported herein were obtained without teaching the subjects weight-control skills, they may be regarded as reflective of the natural history of weight maintenance in this population and may serve as a reference for various weight-intervention programs. The pattern of weight rebound observed in this study is very similar to the pattern observed in combined results from published diet and behavioral-modification programs, which raises important questions regarding the efficacy of these approaches in long-term weight maintenance.

  15. Increased Hydration Can Be Associated with Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review develops the hypothesis that increased hydration leads to body weight loss, mainly through a decrease in feeding, and a loss of fat, through increased lipolysis. The publications cited come from animal, mainly rodent, studies where manipulations of the central and/or the peripheral renin–angiotensin system lead to an increased drinking response and a decrease in body weight. This hypothesis derives from a broader association between chronic hypohydration (extracellular dehydration) and raised levels of the hormone angiotensin II (AngII) associated with many chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms to explain these effects involve an increase in metabolism due to hydration expanding cell volume. The results of these animal studies often can be applied to the humans. Human studies are consistent with this hypothesis for weight loss and for reducing the risk factors in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27376070

  16. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes.

  17. Body weight, anorexia, and undernutrition in older people.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian M

    2013-09-01

    Ideal body weight for maximum life expectancy increases with advancing age. Older people, however, tend to weigh less than younger adults, and old age is also associated with a tendency to lose weight. Weight loss in older people is associated with adverse outcomes, particularly if unintentional, and initial body weight is low. When older people lose weight, more of the tissue lost is lean tissue (mainly skeletal muscle) than in younger people. When excessive, the loss of lean muscle tissue results in sarcopenia, which is associated with poor health outcomes. Unintentional weight loss in older people may be a result of protein-energy malnutrition, cachexia, the physiological anorexia of aging, or a combination of these. The physiological anorexia of aging is a decrease in appetite and energy intake that occurs even in healthy people and is possibly caused by changes in the digestive tract, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and activity, neurotransmitters, and cytokines. A greater understanding of this decrease in appetite and energy intake during aging, and the responsible mechanisms, may aid the search for ways to treat undernutrition and weight loss in older people.

  18. [Body height, body weight and body mass index of German military recruits. Historical retrospect and current status].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, U; Zellner, K; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Lüdde, R; Eisele, R; Hebebrand, J

    2001-09-01

    Surveys of conscripts give a chance to pursue the somatic development and the nourishment situation of young men over long times. At the beginning a historical view is given of the organization and methodological basis of medical examinations of German recruits since the introduction of the general conscription at the beginning of the 19th century. Secular changes of the body height are sketched out for selected regions of Germany until the middle of the 20th century. Data of the body weight hardly exist for this time. Until now the greatest continuous documentation of data for body height and body weight is available for West Germany since 1957 and for East Germany between 1973 and the reunion in 1989. The body height of German conscripts has nearly permanently increased since 1957 and reached in 1994 a maximum with 180.0 cm. In general East German conscripts have body height data which are smaller on an average than those of West German conscripts. But in the last years a catch-up in body height could be seen. The body weight of German conscripts also shows an increase apart from some short-time exceptions. The data of West German conscripts are also higher than those of the East German conscripts. Until the reunion the West-East-differences could partly be due to the different mustering age. But the differences also continue in the nineties despite the now identical mustering age. The Body Mass Index (BMI) of the German conscripts (calculated from the average values of body height and body weight) is characterized by increments in the last years. This indicates greater changes in body weight than in body height. The BMI also shows marked West-East-differences. There is no uniform tendency in differences between urban and country side regions for body height and body weight. On the other hand until now differences between selected professional groups are existing. Especially the over-proportional increase of the number of conscripts in the higher body-weight

  19. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  20. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  1. Diffusion-weighted imaging in pediatric body magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Caro-Dominguez, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI is being increasingly used in pediatric body imaging. Its role is still emerging. It is used for detection of tumors and abscesses, differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, and detection of inflamed bowel segments in inflammatory bowel disease in children. It holds great promise in the assessment of therapy response in body tumors, with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value as a potential biomarker. Significant overlap of ADC values of benign and malignant processes and less reproducibility of ADC measurements are hampering its widespread use in clinical practice. With standardization of the technique, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is likely to be used more frequently in clinical practice. We discuss the principles and technique of DWI, selection of b value, qualitative and quantitative assessment, and current status of DWI in evaluation of disease processes in the pediatric body. PMID:27229502

  2. Measuring internalized weight attitudes across body weight categories: validation of the modified weight bias internalization scale.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate a modified version of the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS-M) that is applicable to individuals across different body weight statuses. One hundred forty-eight men and women completed an online survey that included the WBIS-M and relevant measures of psychopathology. Results indicated that the WBIS-M had high internal consistency and strong construct validity. The WBIS-M also demonstrated significant correlations with body image, eating pathology, self-esteem, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and was associated with these outcomes distinctly from antifat attitudes and body mass index. Implications for the use of this scale in diverse samples are discussed. PMID:24100004

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  4. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  5. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  6. Actual Body Weight and the Parent’s Perspective of Child’s Body Weight among Rural Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Rennie, Donna C.; Hildebrand, Carole; Lawson, Joshua A.; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of being overweight during childhood continues to increase in the USA and Canada and children living in rural areas are more at risk than their urban counterparts. The objectives of this study were to evaluate how well the parent’s perception of their child’s weight status correlated with objectively measured weight status among a group of rural children and to identify predictors of inaccurate parental perceptions of child’s weight status. Participants were children from the Saskatchewan Rural Health Study conducted in 2010. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed through rural schools to parents of children in grades one to eight. Parents reported their child’s height and weight and rated their child’s weight status (underweight, just about the right weight, or overweight). Standardized body mass index (BMI) categories were calculated for clinically measured height and weight and for parental report of height and weight for 584 children. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of misclassification of the parent’s perception of child’s weight status adjusting for potential confounders. Clinically measured overweight was much higher (26.5%) compared to parental perceived overweight (7.9%). The misclassification of the child’s BMI was more likely to occur if the child was a boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.58) or non-Caucasian (OR = 2.03). Overweight was high in this group of rural children and parental perception of weight status underestimated the actual weight status of overweight school-age children. Parental reporting of child weight status has implications for public health policy and prevention strategies. Future research should focus on assessing longitudinal effects of parental misperceptions of child’s weight status. PMID:27527235

  7. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  8. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  9. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    PubMed Central

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    intervention on body weight gain differed by 0.90 kg between BMI groups (p = 0.09; 95% CI -1.95 to 0.14). In addition, we used a physiologically-based model of growth and energy balance to estimate the degree to which children had compensated for the covertly removed sugar kilocalories by increasing their intake of other foods. The model predicts that children with a lower BMI had compensated 65% (95% CI 28 to 102) of the covertly removed sugar kilocalories, whereas children with a higher BMI compensated only 13% (95% CI -37 to 63). Conclusions The children with a BMI above the median might have a reduced tendency to compensate for changes in caloric intake. Differences in these subconscious compensatory mechanisms may be an important cause of differences in the tendency to gain weight. If further research bears this out, cutting down on the intake of sugar-sweetened drinks may benefit a large proportion of children, especially those who show a tendency to become overweight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00893529 PMID:27447721

  10. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p < 0.001), fasting insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD. PMID:27227571

  11. Nutrigenomics of Body Weight Regulation: A Rationale for Careful Dissection of Individual Contributors

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P. M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2014-01-01

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual’s genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available. PMID:25338273

  12. Nutrigenomics of body weight regulation: a rationale for careful dissection of individual contributors.

    PubMed

    Keijer, Jaap; Hoevenaars, Femke P M; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2014-10-21

    Body weight stability may imply active regulation towards a certain physiological condition, a body weight setpoint. This interpretation is ill at odds with the world-wide increase in overweight and obesity. Until now, a body weight setpoint has remained elusive and the setpoint theory did not provide practical clues for body weight reduction interventions. For this an alternative theoretical model is necessary, which is available as the settling point model. The settling point model postulates that there is little active regulation towards a predefined body weight, but that body weight settles based on the resultant of a number of contributors, represented by the individual's genetic predisposition, in interaction with environmental and socioeconomic factors, such as diet and lifestyle. This review refines the settling point model and argues that by taking body weight regulation from a settling point perspective, the road will be opened to careful dissection of the various contributors to establishment of body weight and its regulation. This is both necessary and useful. Nutrigenomic technologies may help to delineate contributors to body weight settling. Understanding how and to which extent the different contributors influence body weight will allow the design of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions, which hopefully are more successful than those that are currently available.

  13. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  14. Modeling of daily body weights and body weight changes of Nordic Red cows.

    PubMed

    Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2015-10-01

    Increased availability of automated weighing systems have made it possible to record massive amounts of body weight (BW) data in a short time. If the BW measurement is unbiased, the changes in BW reflect the energy status of the cow and can be used for management or breeding purposes. The usefulness of the BW data depends on the reliability of the measures. The noise in BW measurements can be smoothed by fitting a parametric or time series model into the BW measurements. This study examined the accuracy of different models to predict BW of the cows based on daily BW measurements and investigated the usefulness of modeling in increasing the value of BW measurements as management and breeding tools. Data included daily BW measurements, production, and intake from 230 Nordic Red dairy cows. The BW of the cows was recorded twice a day on their return from milking. In total, the data included 50,594 daily observations with 98,418 BW measurements. A clear diurnal change was present in the BW of the cows even if they had feed available 24 h. The daily average BW were used in the modeling. Five different models were tested: (1) a cow-wise fixed second-order polynomial regression model (FiX) including the exponential Wilmink term, (2) a random regression model with fixed and random animal lactation stage functions (MiX), (3) MiX with 13 periods of weighing added (PER), (4) natural cubic smoothing splines with 8 equally spaced knots (SPk8), and (5) spline model with no restriction on knots but a smoothing parameter corresponding to a fit of 5 degrees of freedom (SPdf5). In the original measured BW data, the within-animal variation was 6.4% of the total variance. Modeling decreased the within animal variation to levels of 2.9 to 5.1%. The smallest day-to-day variation and thereafter highest day-to-day repeatabilities were with PER and MiX models. The usability of modeled BW as energy balance (EB) indicator were evaluated by estimating relationships between EB, or EB

  15. Body weight and weight change and their health implications for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Seidell, J C; Visscher, T L

    2000-06-01

    After the age of 60 y, body weight on average tends to decrease. The contribution of fat mass to this weight loss is relatively small, but fat tends to be redistributed with advancing age toward more abdominal (particularly visceral) fat. Anthropometric data are relatively poor indicators of these aging processes. This may be one of the explanations why the relationship between high body mass index and mortality is less pronounced in older than in younger people. Reduced lipolysis in the visceral fat depot with aging is among potential explanations why increased visceral fat seems to be less harmful in elderly subjects compared to young adults. Even though the relative contribution of increased fat mass to mortality may be less pronounced in elderly people, the impact on disability and functional limitations is found to be important from both a clinical and a public health point of view. At the other end of the scale studies have shown that low body mass index and weight loss in the elderly are both strong predictors of subsequent mortality. This cannot be explained by effects of smoking and early mortality after baseline. There are only few systematic studies comparing the predictive validity of different anthropometric data for mortality. One recent prospective study showed that a high waist circumference (in nonsmoking men) may be a better predictor of all-cause mortality than high body mass index and waist/hip ratio. Low BMI was a better predictor of mortality than low waist circumference. In conclusion changes in body composition and fat distribution with aging are poorly captured by standard anthropometric data. Low lean body mass is probably better reflected by low BMI, whereas increased (abdominal) fatness is better reflected by increased waist circumference. PMID:11041073

  16. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  17. Body Weight Concerns and Antifat Attitude in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Garousi, Saideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that children are showing body image issues in recent years. Body image disturbances in childhood must be taken seriously. The thin ideal is becoming more prominent in Asian countries; however, there is little research examining how this issue affects Iranian children. This study explores body weight concerns and associated factors among children in Iranian elementary schools. Methods: This study was conducted in 500 elementary schools. An assessment of body image and antifat attitudes was undertaken using the figure rating scale. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and demographic variables were assessed. Results: Nearly, 27.4% of children were underweight, and 13.3% were obese. There was a significant difference between the mean score of body dissatisfaction (BD) between boys and girls (P < 0.05). There were no differences between BD and education of parents, age, and academic grades. In girls, antifat attitudes were significantly related to BMI. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate the paramount importance of undertaking further research in order to identify the predictive factors of body concerns and its consequences among Iranian children. In addition, researchers must plan prevention and educational program for these children. PMID:25709795

  18. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight.

    PubMed

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P

    2011-01-01

    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  19. Correlates of Body Mass Index, Weight Goals, and Weight-Management Practices among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Valois, Robert F.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2004-01-01

    The study examined associations among physical activity, cigarette smoking, body mass index, perceptions of body weight, weight-management goals, and weight-management behaviors of public high school adolescents. The CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey provided a cross-sectional sample (n = 3,089) of public high school students in South Carolina.…

  20. Perceptions of Body Weight, Weight Management Strategies, and Depressive Symptoms among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harring, Holly Anne; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine if inaccurate body weight perception predicts unhealthy weight management strategies and to determine the extent to which inaccurate body weight perception is associated with depressive symptoms among US college students. Participants: Randomly selected male and female college students in the United States (N = 97,357).…

  1. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight <3.3kg than in children with birth weight >3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  2. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  3. Presweetened and nonpresweetened ready-to-eat cereals at breakfast are associated with improved nutrient intake but not with increased body weight of children and adolescents: NHANES 1999-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared nutrient intake and body weight measures in children 4 to 8 (n = 1480) and 9 to 13 (n = 1790) and adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (n = 1826) participating in 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and consuming a presweetened ready-to-eat cereal, a non-presw...

  4. The effects of amphetamine on body weight and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jones, J R; Caul, W F; Hill, J O

    1992-03-01

    Although there is evidence suggesting that, in addition to suppressing food consumption, amphetamine reduces body weight by increasing energy expenditure, there is little consistency among the few studies examining that factor. In this experiment, the effect of amphetamine on daily energy consumption, within-day body weights, and hourly measures of metabolic rate (MR) and respiration quotient (RQ) were assessed. Daytime drug injections decreased total energy consumption, produced biphasic changes over time in MR, and persistently lowered RQ values. In contrast, nighttime injections of drug had little effect on energy consumption and MR but did reduce RQ for the first 4 postinjection hours. These effects show that amphetamine effects interact with the circadian organization of behavior and suggest that rodent studies of anorectic agents have more relevance for humans if drugs are given during the night, when rats are normally awake and eating. From this study, it seems clear that amphetamine reduces body weight by altering metabolic rate and fat metabolism in rats when the drug is given during the day.

  5. [Correlations between endogenous intoxication and excessive body weight].

    PubMed

    Abylaĭuly, Zh; Oshakbaev, K P; Kozhabekova, B N; Erdesova, G E; Imantaeva, G M; Uberbaeva, G K

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze correlations between endogenous intoxication (EI) and lipid peroxidation (LP) indices in patients with cardiovascular and endocrine diseases and healthy individuals, taking into account the presence of excessive body weight (EBW), as well as to compare EI and LP indices in practically healthy people with and without excessive body weight (EBW). The subjects were 165 people, including 36 healthy individuals and 129 patients with cardiovascular and endocrine disease. The healthy ones were divided into two groups: 20 with and 16 without EBW. To evaluate the degree of EI, the concentration of middle-molecular-weight peptides (MMWP) was measured by the method offered by N. I. Gabrielyan et al. in 1984. To evaluate LP processes, serum levels of the secondary LP product, malonic dialdehyde, and two antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were measured. The results show that treatment aimed at LP suppression is not appropriate; it should be aimed at the cause of LP activation instead, which is the increase of MMWP level due to EBW. LP activation significantly correlates with increase of MMWP blood level (p < 0.05). EBW worsens EI and activates LP in healthy people, thus being a stress factor to the organism. Increased MMWP level and LP activation in healthy individuals with EBW may be a premorbid diagnostic marker.

  6. Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials

  7. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women.

  8. [Ideal body weight of a young woman--sociocultural and health aspects].

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well.

  9. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  10. Estimating ideal body weight--a new formula.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Harry J M; Brodsky, Jay B; Bernstein, Donald P

    2005-08-01

    A simple formula for estimating ideal body weight (IBW) in kilograms for both men and women is presented. The equation IBW = 22 x H2, where H is equal to patient height in meters, yields weight values midway within the range of weights obtained using published IBW formulae.

  11. Self-perception of body weight status and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Manickam, Mala A; Baharudin, Azli; Omar, Azahadi; Cheong, Siew Man; Ambak, Rashidah; Ahmad, Mohamad Hasnan; Ghaffar, Suhaila Abdul

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents is rising rapidly in many countries, including Malaysia. This article aims to present the associations between body mass index-based body weight status, body weight perception, and weight control practices among adolescents in Malaysia. The Malaysia School Based Nutrition Survey 2012, which included a body weight perception questionnaire and anthropometric measurements, was conducted on a representative sample of 40 011 students from Standard 4 until Form 5, with a 90.5% response rate. Comparing actual and perceived body weight status, the findings show that 13.8% of adolescents underestimated their weight, 35.0% overestimated, and 51.2% correctly judged their own weight. Significantly more normal weight girls felt they were overweight, whereas significantly more overweight boys perceived themselves as underweight. The overall appropriateness of weight control practices to body weight was 72.6%. Adolescents attempting to lose or gain weight need to have better understanding toward desirable behavioral changes. PMID:25070695

  12. Correlated responses in male reproductive traits in mice selected for litter size and body weight.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J; Johnson, B H

    1981-01-01

    Correlated responses in male reproductive traits were determined at 4, 6 and 8 weeks of age in lines of mice selected for large litter size (L+), large 6-week body weight (W+), large litter size and small body weight (L+W-) and small litter size and large body weight (L-W+), and in an unselected control (K). Concentration of serum testosterone and weights of testes, seminal vesicles, epididymides and adrenal glands increased with age. Line differences in testosterone concentration were not detected. L+ and W+ males exhibited positive correlated responses in testes, epididymides and seminal vesicle weights. Testis weight adjusted for body weight was significantly larger for L+ than controls and approached significance for W+. Realized genetic correlation be-testis weight and litter size was 0.60 +/- 0.04, and the realized partial genetic correlation holding body weight constant was 0.42. Therefore, pleiotropic loci, acting via the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, affect testis weight and litter size independently of body weight. Additionally, genes influencing overall growth have a pleiotropic effect on testis weight and litter size in mice; the realized genetic correlations of body weight with testis weight and with litter size were 0.60 +/- 0.03 and 0.52 +/- 0.10. Testis weight increased in both L+W- and L-W+ males. The positive correlated response in L+W- may have resulted from changes in frequency of genes controlling reproductive processes; whereas, in L-W+ it could have been the result of changes in the frequency of genes associated with body weight.

  13. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P < .07) muscle definition (1.8 +/- .6 and 2.5 +/- .6 for 6.25 and 12.5 mg eST/d, respectively) than control mares (.7 +/- .4). Total circulating leukocytes increased (P < .05) in both of the eST-treated groups during the 6-wk injection period, caused by an increase (P < .05) in granulocytes. Lymphocyte numbers were not altered. Granulocyte oxidative burst activity was not altered by eST treatment. Although lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin, pokeweed mitogen, or lipopolysaccharide were not altered during the treatment period, lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen increased twofold in eST-treated horses at 2 wk after eST treatment. In overview, the increased musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares. PMID:9078493

  14. [Body-weight-development of children in Görlitz (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kirbis, U; Grzegorek, R; Richter, J

    1978-04-01

    The different phases of increase of body-weight in boys and girls are studied. The development of body-weight from three anual-sets of children, who are born in the town of Görlitz, from birth to time of school-absolvation is presented. PMID:665422

  15. Sociocultural influences on strategies to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles among ten cultural groups.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Busija, Lucy; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Mussap, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This study determined how sociocultural messages to change one's body are perceived by adolescents from different cultural groups. In total, 4904 adolescents, including Australian, Chilean, Chinese, Indo-Fijian, Indigenous Fijian, Greek, Malaysian, Chinese Malaysian, Tongans in New Zealand, and Tongans in Tonga, were surveyed about messages from family, peers, and the media to lose weight, gain weight, and increase muscles. Groups were best differentiated by family pressure to gain weight. Girls were more likely to receive the messages from multiple sociocultural sources whereas boys were more likely to receive the messages from the family. Some participants in a cultural group indicated higher, and others lower, levels of these sociocultural messages. These findings highlight the differences in sociocultural messages across cultural groups, but also that adolescents receive contrasting messages within a cultural group. These results demonstrate the difficulty in representing a particular message as being characteristic of each cultural group.

  16. Body Weight Perception, Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors, and Suicidal Ideation among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal…

  17. Restricted selection index in mice designed to change body fat without changing body weight: correlated responses.

    PubMed

    Eisen, E J

    1992-07-01

    Correlated responses were studied in lines of mice selected for eight generations based on the criterion of a restricted selection index. Two replicate lines were selected in each treatment as follows: HE, high epididymal fat pad weight (EF) with zero change in body weight (BW) at 12 weeks of age; LE; low EF with zero change in BW; and RS, randomly. Correlated responses showed considerable variation between replicates, suggesting that genetic drift was important. Further, correlated responses for most traits were relatively small, probably because of low selection intensity. The HE line responded as expected in component traits of the restricted index. Associated compositional traits in HE responded as predicted since traits correlated with adiposity increased and hind carcass weight did not change significantly. Feed intake increased and feed efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) decreased in HE, as predicted. In contrast, the LE line did not respond in component traits as predicted since EF did not decrease and BW increased. Consequently, LE exhibited little change in traits associated with adiposity, but hind carcass weight, feed intake and feed efficiency increased. Of the correlated responses scored for fitness traits (littering rate, number of days from pairing of mate to littering, litter size and preweaning pup survival rate), significant effects were found for decreased littering rate in LE and increased prenatal survival rate in HE. In summary, correlated responses to restricted index selection generally agreed with expectation when responses in component traits of the index were considered.

  18. Ribose Accelerates Gut Motility and Suppresses Mouse Body Weight Gaining

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Li, Tong-Ruei R; Xu, Cong; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is closely related to excessive energy consumption. Clinical intervention of energy intake is an attractive strategy to fight obesity. However, the current FDA-approved weight-loss drugs all have significant side effects. Here we show that ribose upregulates gut motility and suppresses mice body weight gain. Ribokinase, which is encoded by Rbks gene, is the first enzyme for ribose metabolism in vivo. Rbks mutation resulted in ribose accumulation in the small intestine, which accelerated gut movement. Ribose oral treatment in wild type mice also enhanced bowel motility and rendered mice resistance to high fat diets. The suppressed weight gain was resulted from enhanced ingested food excretion. In addition, the effective dose of ribose didn't cause any known side effects (i.e. diarrhea and hypoglycemia). Overall, our results show that ribose can regulate gut motility and energy homeostasis in mice, and suggest that administration of ribose and its analogs could regulate gastrointestinal motility, providing a novel therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal dysfunction and weight control. PMID:27194947

  19. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2) Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Rachel; Senin, Pavel; Sarry, Julien; Allain, Charlotte; Tasca, Christian; Ligat, Laeticia; Portes, David; Woloszyn, Florent; Bouchez, Olivier; Tabouret, Guillaume; Lebastard, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Foucras, Gilles; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2015-12-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2). The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host's inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:26658352

  20. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2) Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Rachel; Senin, Pavel; Sarry, Julien; Allain, Charlotte; Tasca, Christian; Ligat, Laeticia; Portes, David; Woloszyn, Florent; Bouchez, Olivier; Tabouret, Guillaume; Lebastard, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Foucras, Gilles; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2015-12-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2). The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host's inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

  1. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2) Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Rachel; Senin, Pavel; Sarry, Julien; Allain, Charlotte; Tasca, Christian; Ligat, Laeticia; Portes, David; Woloszyn, Florent; Bouchez, Olivier; Tabouret, Guillaume; Lebastard, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2). The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host’s inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:26658352

  2. Does this book make me look fat? The effect of protagonist body weight and body esteem on female readers' body esteem.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Melissa J; Magee, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Effects of visual representations of the thin ideal in the media have been widely explored, but textual representations of the thin ideal in novels have received scant attention. The chick literature genre has been criticized for depicting characters who worry about their body weight and who have poor body esteem. Excerpts from two chick lit novels were used to examine the effect of a protagonist's body weight and body esteem on college women's (N=159) perceptions of their sexual attractiveness and weight concern. Two narratives were used to minimize the possibility that idiosyncratic characteristics of one excerpt might influence the study's results. Underweight (vs. healthy weight) protagonists predicted readers' lower perceived sexual attractiveness. Protagonists with low body esteem (vs. control) predicted readers' increased weight concern. Scholars and health officials should be concerned about the effect chick lit novels might have on women's body image. PMID:23219006

  3. [Adrenocortical activity in pigs in relation to nutrition, body weight mycobacteriosis and pre-slaughter stress].

    PubMed

    Dvorák, M; Herzig, I; Gilka, J

    1982-01-01

    In 115 pigs divided into 10 groups, with different nutrition levels or with experimentally evoked atypical mycobacteriosis, during the experiments or at slaughter the concentration of 11-hydroxycorticosteroids (11-OHCS) in blood plasma, relative weight of adrenal glands and liver were determined. The increase in adrenocortical function was proved in the cases when the body weight was significantly influenced by malnutrition, and then in the pigs at slaughter, even after relatively careful handling. No changes were found in the course of mycobacteriosis. The relative weight of adrenal glands in slaughtered pigs of lower body weight was higher than that in the pigs of the same age, but of higher body weight. On the other hand, the slaughtered pigs of higher body weights tended to have higher 11-OHCS concentrations. The prolonged stay of the pigs in slaughter houses before bleeding did not result in the increased 11-OHCS levels. The quality of meat was not affected.

  4. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  5. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  6. Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, S.; Sterne, J.; Montgomery, S.; Azima, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Impaired fetal growth may be a risk factor for asthma although evidence in children is conflicting and there are few data in adults. Little is known about risk factors which may influence asthma in late childhood or early adult life. Whilst there are clues that fatness may be important, this has been little studied in young adults. The relations between birth weight and childhood and adult anthropometry and asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema were investigated in a nationally representative sample of young British adults.
METHODS—A total of 8960 individuals from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) were studied. They had recently responded to a questionnaire at 26 years of age in which they were asked whether they had suffered from asthma, wheeze, hayfever, and eczema in the previous 12 months. Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight.
RESULTS—The prevalence of asthma at 26 years fell with increasing birth weight. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the odds ratio comparing the lowest birth weight group (<2 kg) with the modal group (3-3.5 kg) was 1.99 (95% CI 0.96 to 4.12). The prevalence of asthma increased with increasing adult BMI. After controlling for birth weight and other confounders, the odds ratio comparing highest with lowest quintile was 1.72 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.29). The association between fatness and asthma was stronger in women; odds ratios comparing overweight women (BMI 25-29.99) and obese women (BMI ⩾30) with those of normal weight (BMI <25) were 1.51 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.06) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.19to 2.84), respectively. The BMI at 10 years was not related to adult asthma. Similar associations with birth weight and adult BMI were present for wheeze but not for hayfever or eczema.
CONCLUSIONS—Impaired fetal growth and adult fatness are risk factors for adult asthma.

 PMID:10212102

  7. Body weight, diet and home range area in primates.

    PubMed

    Milton, K; May, M L

    1976-02-12

    Primates show a strong positive relationship between body weight and home range area. Dietary habits also influence home range area. Folivorous primates occupy smaller home range areas for their body weight than do frugivores and omnivores. Primates generally require smaller home range area per individual than solitary terrestrial mammals, but primates living in social groups have much larger total home range than individual solitary mammals. This trend may necessitate higher expenditures of energy in food-gathering or modifications in movement patterns.

  8. Evaluation of body weight, body mass index, and body fat percentage changes in early stages of fixed orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, K. Sai; Singaraju, Gowri Sankar; Reddy, V. Karunakar; Mandava, Prasad; Bhavikati, Venkata N.; Reddy, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage (BFP) during the initial stages of fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The sample for this observational prospective study included 68 individuals with fixed orthodontic appliance in the age group of 18–25 years of both the sexes (25 males and 43 females). The control group consisted of 60 individuals (24 males and 36 females). The weight, BMI, and BFP were measured using a Body Composition Monitor at three points of time “T1” initial; “T2” after 1 month; and “T2” after 3 months. The results were tabulated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The mean changes between different parameters in both the study and control groups and between males and females in the study group was compared by using two-tailed unpaired student's t-test. The statistical significance is set atP ≤ 0.05. Results: There was an overall decrease in the body weight, BMI, and BFP after 1 month in the study cohort, which was statistically significant compared to the control group (P < 0.0001). This was followed by an increase in the parameters after the end of the 3rd month. Comparison of the parameters between the study and control group at the start of the treatment and at the end of the 3rd month had no statistical significance. There was a marked variation in the changes of these parameters between males and females of the study group, which is statistically significant (<0.0001). Conclusion: There is a definite reduction in the weight, BMP, and BMI at the end of the first month followed by a gain of weight, but not at the initial point by the end of the 3rd month. PMID:27583224

  9. Adolescent satisfaction with postpartum contraception and body weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, W L; Story, M

    1998-06-01

    Factors having a potential effect on adolescents' use of and satisfaction with postpartum contraceptive methods were assessed in three focus groups involving 22 adolescent mothers of an infant under 12 months of age recruited from a Minnesota (US) clinic specializing in the prenatal and postpartum care of adolescent women. The average age of study participants was 17 years (range, 13-19 years). All adolescents chose to use contraception after delivery. 16 (73%) were using Depo-Provera, 3 were using oral contraceptives, and 3 were using condoms/foam. Most Depo-Provera users made their decision to accept this method with their prenatal care provider during pregnancy. Many had taken the pill at some point, but reported it was hard for them to take it every day. Despite concerns about side effects (especially increased hunger/weight gain and irregular menstrual bleeding), adolescent Depo-Provera acceptors preferred this method because it did not require daily compliance. 16 women (73%) considered themselves overweight, and they attributed this to both their pregnancy weight gain and their contraceptive method. Skepticism regarding their ability to lose weight through healthy eating and exercise was widespread. However, the desire to prevent another pregnancy through use of an effective method such as Depo-Provera was stronger than the desire to return to one's pre-pregnancy body weight. Overall, these adolescent mothers seemed resigned about their inability as a result of the demands of motherhood to resolve their malaise, fatigue, and sense of not being physically fit. These findings suggest a need for effective weight management and health-promoting programs for adolescent mothers that take into account their multiple role demands and generally limited financial resources.

  10. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, S H F; Pasman, W J; Schaafsma, G; Kardinaal, A F M

    2003-05-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differences in weight loss were observed after use of aspartame as compared to sugar in obese subjects following a controlled energy-restricted diet. However, consumption of aspartame was associated with improved weight maintenance after a year. In two short-term studies in which energy intake was not restricted, substitution of sucrose by artificial sweeteners, investigated mostly in beverages, resulted in lower energy intake and lower body weight. Similarly, two short-term studies, comparing the effect of sucrose and starch on weight loss in obese subjects did not find differences when the total energy intake was equal and reduced. An ad libitum diet with complex carbohydrates resulted in lower energy intake compared to high-sugar diets. In two out of three studies, this was reflected in lower body weight in subjects consuming the complex carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, a limited number of relatively short-term studies suggest that replacing (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or by complex carbohydrates in an ad libitum diet might result in lower energy intake and reduced body weight. In the long term, this might be beneficial for weight maintenance. However, the number of studies is small and overall conclusions, in particular for the long term, cannot be drawn.

  11. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  12. [Method of determining body thickness from weight and height].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kenichi

    2009-01-20

    With attention given to the fact that information on weight and height is available in advance from electronic medical charts, we devised a method for determining body thickness on the basis of a simple calculation. The formula is as follows: body thickness=weight(a) x height(b) xf. In order to obtain body thickness from the above formula, it is necessary to determine optimal factors of a, b, and f. Therefore, the formula is modified to give f=body thickness/weight(a) x height(b). Then, a multiplier of a with b is changed to determine a combination in which f is varied to the smallest extent. Every site of the body is checked to find that an optimal multiplier of a with b is weight(0.6) x height(-0.8). This multiplier is applicable to all sites of the body. Then, f is given as a median of 15 to 74 cases in which calculation is made for each case based on the formula of weight(0.6) x height(-0.8) and the body thickness. A difference between calculation values and measured values is equivalent to the variation of f in which the median is given as 100%. The variation of f at all sites of the body is 3% to 11% in terms of average absolute deviation. The calculation difference is obtained by the formula of body thickness x average absolute deviation. Where the calculation difference is within the above range, clinical practices will be influenced to a small extent. Thus, this study will provide an effective method for determining body thickness.

  13. Body distortions after massive weight loss: lack of updating of the body schema hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Guardia, D; Metral, M; Pigeyre, M; Bauwens, I; Cottencin, O; Luyat, M

    2013-09-01

    Behavioural therapy and bariatric surgery often produce rapid, massive body weight loss that may impact a patient's ability to gauge his/her new body shape. Although the patient is aware of the weight loss, he/she continues to feel obese, as if there was a conflict between the previous body schema and the new one. Here, we report the case of a 40-year-old woman who developed major body distortions after massive weight loss. Psychometric and behavioural assessments revealed strong disturbances in several tasks involving body representation. In particular, we observed abnormal behaviour in a body-scaled action task. Our findings suggest that the rapidity of our patient's weight loss prevented her central nervous system from correctly updating the body schema.

  14. Irregular patterns in the daily weight chart at night predict body weight regain.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2004-10-01

    This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc 75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight.

  15. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  16. Evaluating patterns of weight and body composition change among college women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases as women move from adolescence to young adulthood, and college women have been identified as a population at risk for unhealthy weight gain. Studies of weight gain in college populations have revealed that significant, variable weight change occurs in as few as eight weeks, but few have included participants beyond their freshman year of college or assessed body composition. The aims of the study were to use a repeated measures design to identify patterns of weight change among college women at all grade levels and to evaluate factors that may predict weight change over a one-year period. Undergraduate college women (N=131) completed measures of physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months. Height, weight, and body composition were collected at all assessment periods. Forty-four percent of participants gained at least 3lb, 23% lost at least 3lb, and 33% maintained weight over one year. Weight change was associated with changes in body fat and was not related to baseline BMI or age. There were no significant differences between grade levels, suggesting that future studies should include women at all grade levels. Baseline physical activity, dietary restraint, living conditions, and body dissatisfaction did not predict weight change at one year, nor did they differentiate between individuals in the three weight change categories. Further research is needed to identify the factors associated with weight gain in young adult women, and such studies should not be limited to college freshmen.

  17. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  18. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  19. The Relationship between Body Weight Change and Body Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jui-Fen; Liu, Te-Le; Wang, Ruey-Yun; Ching, Han-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore the relationship between body constitution (BC) types and weight change in patients with schizophrenia and who underwent second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) treatment. Method. Body weight and waist circumference of eighty-five participants were measured for 6 consecutive weeks. Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were assessed using the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Results. Participants with body constitutions Yin-Xu (50.6%), Yang-Xu (49.4%), or Stasis (38.8%) exhibited worse physical condition and unhealthy daily habits, particularly in Stasis constitution. Moreover, Stasis constitution was significantly associated with several factors, including BMI, body weight, waist circumference, perception of stress, perception of health, staying up late, and less physical exercise. However, perception of stress showed significant difference in Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis revealed that significant time effects in body weight increase in the imbalanced BC types and gentleness BC type. SGAs induced weight gain in imbalanced BC type as well as gentleness BC type, especially treated with olanzapine. Conclusions. This is the first study to explore the longitudinal relationship between BC and weight gain in schizophrenia patients undergoing SGAs treatment. Health care providers should focus on weight gain problems in schizophrenia patients who underwent SGAs treatment.

  20. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  1. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  2. Increases in body mass index following initiation of methadone treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Jennifer M.; Laurent, Jennifer S.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clear efficacy of methadone for opioid dependence, one less desirable phenomenon associated with methadone may be weight gain. We examined changes in body mass index (BMI) among patients entering methadone treatment. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 96 patients enrolled in an outpatient methadone clinic for ≥6 months. The primary outcome of BMI was assessed at intake and a subsequent physical examination approximately 1.8±0.95 years later. Demographic, drug use and treatment characteristics were also examined. There was a significant increase in BMI following intake (p < 0.001). Mean BMIs increased from 27.2±6.8 to 30.1±7.7 kg/m2, translating to a 17.8-pound increase (10% increase in body weight) in the overall patient sample. Gender was the strongest predictor of BMI changes (p < 0.001), with significantly greater BMI increases in females than males (5.2 vs. 1.7 kg/m2, respectively). This translates to a 28-pound (17.5%) increase in females vs. a 12-pound (6.4%) increase in males. In summary, methadone treatment enrollment was associated with clinically significant weight gain, particularly among female patients. This study highlights the importance of efforts to help patients mitigate weight gain during treatment, particularly considering the significant health and economic consequences of obesity for individuals and society more generally. PMID:25441923

  3. The effects and underlying mechanism of interferon therapy on body weight and body composition.

    PubMed

    Alam, Ibrar; Ullah, Niamat; Alam, Iftikhar; Ali, Ijaz

    2013-11-01

    Body weight changes in HCV patients on interferon therapy are well documented. However, the underlying mechanism involved in these changes is poorly understood and rarely reported. The main objectives of this review are to 1) discuss changes in body weight and other compartments of body composition, particularly, body fat, and 2) to discuss the underlying mechanism for these changes. The literature review suggests weight loss (12-29%) as a function of interferon therapy is common, affecting up to 90% of HCV patients. Whilst, loss in weight means proportionate loss in other body compartments (lean body mass and body fat, in particular) data on changes in segmented body composition are fragmentary. The possible mechanisms underlying weight loss or changes in other body composition have been reported and these include suppressed appetite due to induction of TNF by IFN, a decrease in serum leptin level, and importantly mitochondrial damage induced by the therapy. It is, therefore, suggested that close monitoring of chronic HCV patients receiving PEG-IFN and/or ribavirin for side effects of these drugs, particularly those related to weight loss, is vitally important from clinical point of view.

  4. Energy intake and body weight in ovo-lacto vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Levin, N; Rattan, J; Gilat, T

    1986-08-01

    Vegetarians have a lower body weight than omnivores. In this study the relationship between the weight/height ratio and food consumption was evaluated in 92 ovo-lacto vegetarians and 113 omnivores in Israel. The average weight of the vegetarians was significantly lower than that of the omnivores (60.8 kg vs. 69.1 kg), even though the vegetarian diet supplied a significantly higher amount of calories than the nonvegetarian diet (3,030.5 cal/day vs. 2,626.8 cal/day). Consumption of fat was similar in both groups. Carbohydrate consumption was higher in the vegetarians while protein consumption was lower. The prevalence of obesity was significantly lower in the vegetarian group (5.4%) as compared to 19.5% among the omnivores. The lower body weight of vegetarians despite a higher caloric intake is of considerable interest.

  5. Association between duration of the sleep and body weight.

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M

    2009-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P < 0.001). This association was found both in males and females and in both districts. Other anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were not associated with the sleep duration.

  6. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account.

  7. [Ideal body weight of a young woman--sociocultural and health aspects].

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Ulla; Dadi, Yasmina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A common question made by a young person attending a practice concerns her/his ideal body weight. Culture and health may result in a conflicting definition of good weight. Discontent with one's own body can motivate for successful weight control, but may also lead to unnecessary dieting or disturbed eating. Too strict dieting and accentuating of weight control increase the risk of eating disorders, but on the other hand, adolescent overweight is a risk factor of obesity in adulthood as well. PMID:26245056

  8. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  9. Body weight changes during the menstrual cycle among university students in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghighizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Karandish, Majid; Ghoreishi, Mahdiye; Soroor, Farshad; Shirani, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    Weight changes during menstrual cycle may be a cause of concern about body weight among most women. Limited data are available linking menstrual cycle and body weight changes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between menstrual cycles and body weight changes among university students in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 Iranian female students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric indices were measured according to standard protocols. During a complete menstrual cycle, weights of participants were measured each morning. Seventy eight percent of participants had normal weight (Body Mass Index: 18.5-24.9 kg m(-2)). Body weight increased only slightly during the three days before beginning of the menstruation. By using repeated-measures ANOVA, no statistically significant differences were found in weigh during menstrual cycle (p-value = 0.301). No statistically significant changes were found in body weight during women's menstrual cycle in a group of healthy non-obese Iranian young women. Further studies on overweight and obese women are suggested.

  10. Body weight perception among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O; bin Zaal, A A; D'Souza, R

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the body image perceptions among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 661 adolescents (324 males; 337 females) aged 12-17 years selected from government schools using a multistage stratified random sampling technique. A pretested validated questionnaire was employed to determine the perception of adolescents toward their weight status. A nine figure silhouette illustration was used to measure perceptions of their ideal body image and how it compares with their current body weight. The results revealed that overweight (18.5%) and obesity (27.2%) were higher among males than in females (13.1% and 20.5% respectively). A high proportion of overweight males and females considered themselves as average (45.0% and 52.3%, respectively). Similarly, 56.9% of obese male and 46.4% of females considered themselves as average weight. Of non-overweight/obese males and females, 27.6% and 39.3% respectively, were pressured by parents to gain weight (p > 0.000). In general overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to face pressure from their parents and teased by friends than non-overweight/obese adolescents. Compared to their current body image, overweight and obese adolescents chose a significantly lighter figure as their ideal (p < 0.000). It is suggested that the current health education curriculum should include information related to healthy body weight and appropriate diet and lifestyle so as to minimize risk of developing distorted body image concerns in adolescence and beyond.

  11. [Rehabilitation features in the prevention of asthma exacerbations in patients with different body weight].

    PubMed

    Galamba, A A; Tovt-Korshyns'ka, M I; Rostoka-Reznikova, M V; Sukhan, V S; Dychka, L V

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial asthma patients with excessive body weight compared to persons with normal weight had more severe course of the disease, associating with more pronounced inflammation (increased level of the proinflammatory interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha). After the rehabilitation treatment including speleotherapy we observed the improvement of clinical manifestation and reduction of the studied immune parameters.

  12. National commissioning guidelines: body contouring surgery after massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Soldin, M; Mughal, M; Al-Hadithy, N

    2014-08-01

    The guidelines for body contouring reconstructive surgery present an evidence-based guide for management of redundant tissue after massive weight loss. A standardised referral pathway to ensure safe and equitable patient care on the National Health Service (NHS) throughout England is recommended. A database of all patients for research purposes is suggested.

  13. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  14. Body Dissatisfaction, Dietary Restraint, Depression, and Weight Status in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfield, Gary S.; Moore, Ceri; Henderson, Katherine; Buchholz, Annick; Obeid, Nicole; Flament, Martine F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adolescence may be a crucial period for developing obesity and associated mental health problems. This study examined the relationship of weight status on body image, eating behavior, and depressive symptoms in youth. Methods: A survey was conducted on 1490 youth attending grades 7-12. Participants completed questionnaires on body…

  15. Associations between Body Weight and Bullying among South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung-Gon; Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on the association between bullying and body weight were performed using North American or White samples from Western countries. The present study is the first empirical endeavor to examine whether such an association exists in a sample of adolescents from East Asia. Specifically, the authors examined the associations between…

  16. Religion and body weight in an underserved population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Religions prominence in some underserved groups that bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic (e.g. rural, Southern, minority) may play an important role in body weight. Data (1662 African American and Caucasian adults aged 18+) from a representative U.S. sample of a predominately rura...

  17. Food shopping and weight concern. Balancing consumer and body normality.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Holm, Lotte

    2014-11-01

    The desire to achieve a normal, culturally acceptable body is often seen as the main driver of food-consumption practices adopted by individuals who are concerned about their body weight. In social research into weight management self-control is therefore often a central theme. Turning the focus towards practices and values related to food shopping, this study adds to our understanding of central features in perceptions of normality among people with weight concerns. In a qualitative study 25 people who participated in a dietary intervention trial in Denmark were interviewed and five people were observed. The study shows that the aim of achieving a normal body does not eclipse the importance of enacting values linked to ideas of the 'normal consumer'. Using empirical examples, the study illuminates how consumer freedom is attained in ways that are both complementary to, and in conflict with, practices and experiences of controlling food intake. The paper suggests that freedom and control are composite and complementary ideals of normality for people with weight concerns. On the basis of this insight, the authors discuss the contribution the paper makes to existing studies of weight management and food consumption.

  18. Body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices of high school students--United States, 1990.

    PubMed

    1991-11-01

    Among adults, overweight is associated with elevated serum cholesterol levels, elevated blood pressure, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes and is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Youth who are overweight and remain overweight as adults may increase their risk for certain chronic diseases in adulthood. However, overemphasis on thinness during adolescence may contribute to potentially harmful weight-management practices and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. This report presents self-reported body-weight perceptions and selected weight-management goals and practices among high school students in the United States. PMID:1921967

  19. GLP-1 receptor signaling is not required for reduced body weight after RYGB in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianping; Hao, Zheng; Mumphrey, Michael B; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Münzberg, Heike; Morrison, Christopher D; Drucker, Daniel J; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    Exaggerated GLP-1 and PYY secretion is thought to be a major mechanism in the reduced food intake and body weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Here, we use complementary pharmacological and genetic loss-of-function approaches to test the role of increased signaling by these gut hormones in high-fat diet-induced obese rodents. Chronic brain infusion of a supramaximal dose of the selective GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin-9-39 into the lateral cerebral ventricle significantly increased food intake and body weight in both RYGB and sham-operated rats, suggesting that, while contributing to the physiological control of food intake and body weight, central GLP-1 receptor signaling tone is not the critical mechanism uniquely responsible for the body weight-lowering effects of RYGB. Central infusion of the selective Y2R-antagonist BIIE0246 had no effect in either group, suggesting that it is not critical for the effects of RYGB on body weight under the conditions tested. In a recently established mouse model of RYGB that closely mimics surgery and weight loss dynamics in humans, obese GLP-1R-deficient mice lost the same amount of body weight and fat mass and maintained similarly lower body weight compared with wild-type mice. Together, the results surprisingly provide no support for important individual roles of either gut hormone in the specific mechanisms by which RYGB rats settle at a lower body weight. It is likely that the beneficial effects of bariatric surgeries are expressed through complex mechanisms that require combination approaches for their identification.

  20. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns. PMID:21500080

  1. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions.

    PubMed

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Garthe, Ina

    2011-01-01

    The use of dieting, rapid weight loss, and frequent weight fluctuation among athletes competing in weight-class and leanness sports have been considered a problem for years, but the extent of the problem and the health and performance consequences have yet to be fully examined. Most studies examining these issues have had weak methodology. However, results from this review indicate that a high proportion of athletes are using extreme weight-control methods and that the rules of some sports might be associated with the risk of continuous dieting, energy deficit, and/or use of extreme weight-loss methods that can be detrimental to health and performance. Thus, preventive strategies are justified for medical as well as performance reasons. The most urgent needs are: (1) to develop sport-specific educational programmes for athletic trainers, coaches, and athletes; (2) modifications to regulations; and (3) research related to minimum percentage body fat and judging patterns.

  2. Weight and Body Composition Changes during the First Three Years of College

    PubMed Central

    Gropper, Sareen S.; Simmons, Karla P.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in weight, body mass index (BMI), percent and absolute body fat, fat-free mass, and waist circumference were investigated in a group of males and females during the first three years (from 2007 to 2010) of college. Significant three-year gains were observed for weight 2.1 ± 4.7 kg, BMI 0.7 ± 1.6 kg/m2, percent body fat 2.7 ± 3.3%, and fat mass 2.3 ± 3.5 kg. A significant loss of fat-free mass, −0.5 kg, was observed among females. Absolute gains in weight, BMI, and percent and absolute body fat were highest during the freshman year, followed by the junior year, and lowest during the sophomore year. Among the 70% of students gaining weight over the three years, weight gain averaged 4.3 kg. The numbers of females with over 30% body fat doubled, and the number of males with over 20% body fat increased fivefold. Initially 15% of students were classified as obese/overweight and 79% normal weight; by the end of the junior year, 24% were obese/overweight and 70% were normal weight. Efforts on college campuses to promote healthy lifestyles among its student population are needed throughout the college years. PMID:23050127

  3. Visual detection of body weight change in young women.

    PubMed

    Alley, T R

    1991-12-01

    To assess whether small changes in body weight can be visually detected, college students (58 women and 42 men) were asked to select the less heavy person shown in two photographs for each of 33 young women. All of these women had been photographed twice in a standardized pose and attire, separated by an 8-wk. interval during which most of them lost weight. These pairs were presented in varying orders to control for the order and side of presentation. One photograph was reliably selected as the lighter person for 64% of the pairs, but the picture selected was in fact lighter only 57% of the time. The accuracy of selecting the lighter photograph was not correlated with the percent weight change for the person shown in the pairs of photographs. The results suggest that small changes in women's weight may not have a significant perceptual effect, particularly for male perceivers.

  4. Dynamic body weight and body composition changes in response to subordination stress

    PubMed Central

    Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Hegeman, Maria A.; Nguyen, Mary M. N.; Melhorn, Susan J.; Ma, Li Yun; Woods, Stephen C.; Sakai, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    Social stress is prevalent in many facets of modern society. Epidemiological data suggest that stress is linked to the development of overweight, obesity and metabolic disease. Although there are strong associations between the incidence of obesity with stress and elevated levels of hormones such as cortisol, there are limited animal models to allow investigation of the etiology of increased adiposity resulting from exposure to stress. Perhaps more importantly, an animal model that mirrors the consequences of stress in humans will provide a vehicle to develop rational clinical therapy to treat or prevent adverse outcomes from exposure to chronic social stress. In the visible burrow system (VBS) model of chronic social stress mixed gender colonies are housed for 2 week periods during which male rats of the colony quickly develop a dominance hierarchy. We found that social stress has significant effects on body weight and body composition such that subordinate rats progressively develop characteristics of obesity that occurs, in part, through neuroendocrine alterations and changes in food intake amount. Although SUB are hyperphagic following social stress they do not increase their intake of sucrose solution as CON and DOM do suggesting that they are anhedonic. Consumption of a high fat diet does not appear to affect development of a social hierarchy and appears to enhance the effect that chronic stress has on body composition. The visible burrow system (VBS) model of social stress may be a potential laboratory model for studying stress-associated metabolic disease, including the metabolic syndrome. PMID:17512562

  5. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  6. Body weight is not always a good predictor of longevity in mice.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Arbeev, Konstantin G; Popovich, Irina G; Zabezhinksi, Mark A; Rosenfeld, Svetlana V; Piskunova, Tatiana S; Arbeeva, Lyubov S; Semenchenko, Anna V; Yashin, Anatoli I

    2004-03-01

    the age of 12 months is a predictor of longevity in female CBA and SAMP mice but not in SHR, SAMR and HER-2/neu mice. Excessive body weight at the ages of 3 or 12 months is not a predictor of increased tumor risk in the strains studied. In general, the existence and direction of a significant correlation between body weight and life span depends upon the animals' age and genotype. PMID:15036390

  7. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  8. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  9. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  10. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  11. Toward a quantitative theory of food consumption choices and body weight.

    PubMed

    Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity.

  12. Dosing obese cats based on body weight spuriously affects some measures of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Reeve-Johnson, M K; Rand, J S; Anderson, S T; Appleton, D J; Morton, J M; Vankan, D

    2016-10-01

    The primary objective was to investigate whether dosing glucose by body weight results in spurious effects on measures of glucose tolerance in obese cats because volume of distribution does not increase linearly with body weight. Healthy research cats (n = 16; 6 castrated males, 10 spayed females) were used. A retrospective study was performed using glucose concentration data from glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests before and after cats were fed ad libitum for 9 to 12 mo to promote weight gain. The higher dose of glucose (0.5 vs 0.3 g/kg body weight) in the glucose tolerance tests increased 2-min glucose concentrations (P < 0.001), and there was a positive correlation between 2-min and 2-h glucose (r = 0.65, P = 0.006). Two-min (P = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), and 2-h (P = 0.057 and 0.003, respectively) glucose concentrations, and glucose half-life (T1/2; P = 0.034 and <0.001 respectively) were positively associated with body weight and body condition score. Glucose dose should be decreased by 0.05 g for every kg above ideal body weight. Alternatively, for every unit of body condition score above 5 on a 9-point scale, observed 2-h glucose concentration should be adjusted down by 0.1 mmol/L. Dosing glucose based on body weight spuriously increases glucose concentrations at 2 h in obese cats and could lead to cats being incorrectly classified as having impaired glucose tolerance. This has important implications for clinical studies assessing the effect of interventions on glucose tolerance when lean and obese cats are compared. PMID:27572923

  13. The effect of job loss on body weight during an economic collapse.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Sif; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1% for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings.

  14. Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1994-01-01

    A review of published data shows that although intense sweeteners have been shown to increase hunger ratings in some studies in humans, this has not been a consistent and reproducible observation. Any slight effect on perceived hunger has not been translated into an increase in food ingestion or effects on blood concentrations of insulin or glucose. Studies on the covert substitution of caloric sweeteners by intense sweeteners have shown either a decrease or no change in body weight. The published database does not support the concept that the consumption of intense sweeteners results in a paradoxical increase in calorie intake and body weight.

  15. G protein-coupled receptors in regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Schiöth, Helgi B

    2006-06-01

    In this issue of CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, we focus on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are involved in regulating body weight. In six reviews, the melanocortins system (including MC4 and MC3 receptors, Agrp, MSH), the NPY receptors (including NPY-Y1, NPY-Y2, and NPY-Y5, PYY3-36), the cannabinoid system (including the development of rimonabant), the ghrelin (GHS, growth hormone secretagogue) system, the monoamine GPCRs (including serotonin, adrenergic and histamine receptors), orexin (hypocretin) system and the galanin receptors are covered. In this overview, an introduction to the GPCRs and the field of central regulation of food intake is provided together with brief mentioning of some other GPCRs that are also implicated in regulation of body weight, such as the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuromedin U, prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP), bombesin, cholecystokinin (CCK), Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (and oxyntomodulin), neuropeptide B (NPB) and neuropeptide W (NPW), opioids peptides, free fatty acid (FFA) receptors (GPR40, GPR41). In total over 40 GPCRs are listed that have been implicated to affect regulation of body weight.

  16. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  17. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    PubMed

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  18. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  19. Predictors of increased body mass index in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wall, Denise; Kennedy, Christine; Unnithan, Viswanath; Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study design was used to examine factors related to change of body mass index (BMI) over a 1-year period in 307 Chinese children, aged 7 and 8 years, in Taiwan. Standardized instruments were used to measure the children's food intake, physical activity/inactivity, and physical fitness, as well as maternal BMI. Results suggested that a high baseline BMI, poor aerobic capacity, and a high maternal BMI were significantly correlated with increased BMI at 12 months' follow-up. A higher baseline BMI, an overweight mother, increased television viewing and computer time, and poorer aerobic capacity were identified as predictors for weight gain in children (F=207.67; P<.001; adjusted R(2)=0.752). These findings suggest that health care providers need to include the family in children's health care visits and incorporate an assessment of maternal weight status and children's BMI status, activity levels, and aerobic capacity into patient care and education.

  20. Clozapine's effects on body weight and resting metabolic rate: a case series.

    PubMed

    Procyshyn, Ric M; Chau, Anthony; Tse, Gordon

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if an association exists between clozapine-associated weight gain and resting metabolic rate (RMR). In doing so, we used a "pretest-posttest" single group design in which we measured resting metabolic rate and total body weight prior to implementing clozapine therapy and then again approximately 1 month after initiating clozapine therapy. The results of three patients treated with clozapine revealed an inverse relationship between resting metabolic rate and total body weight. Resting metabolic rates were notably reduced by 10.3-16.0% whereas total body weights had increased between 2.9 and 9 kg. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of an antipsychotic medication being associated with the reduction in resting metabolic rate. PMID:15061248

  1. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  2. [Body weight, nutritional factors and physical activity--their influence on prognosis after breast cancer diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Weitzen, Rony; Tichler, Thomas; Kaufman, Bella; Catane, Raphael; Shpatz, Yael

    2006-11-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association between body weight, nutritional factors, physical activity and the risk for primary breast cancer. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the associations between these issues and the recurrence of the disease and cure of the primary tumor. Today, three areas of focus are actively being researched for breast cancer survivors: body weight, diet composition and physical activity with specific emphasis on the risk for recurrence, survival and quality of life. Increased body weight or BMI (Body Mass Index) at diagnosis was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrent disease, decreased survival, or both. Overall obesity has been shown to adversely affect prognosis. Appropriate weight control may be particularly beneficial for breast cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors should be encouraged to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Limiting fat intake can reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence. Increasing consumption of vegetables and fruits seems to have possible beneficial effects during and after treatments. To date physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis has been found to reduce the risk of death. The greatest benefit occurred in women who performed the equivalent of walking 3-5 hours per week at an average pace. Safe weight loss via increased physical activity and healthful food choices should be encouraged for normal, overweight or obese breast cancer survivors in order to improve survival and life quality.

  3. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  4. Hydroxycitrate has long-term effects on feeding behavior, body weight regain and metabolism after body weight loss in male rats.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Monika; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2002-07-01

    We examined the long-term effect of hydroxycitrate (HCA) on food intake, meal patterns, body weight regain and energy conversion ratio as well as on different blood and liver variables in rats after substantial body weight loss. Rats were fed a 1% (g/100 g) fat diet (81% carbohydrate, 10% protein, 1% fat) or a 12% (g/100 g) fat diet (76% carbohydrate, 9% protein, 12% fat) in two separate experiments. Supplementing both diets with 3% HCA after 10 d of restrictive feeding reduced body weight regain over the whole subsequent period of ad libitum consumption (22 d) and decreased the energy conversion ratio [body weight regain (g)/energy intake (MJ)] at the end of the experiment. Only in rats fed the 12% fat diet, HCA had a long-term suppression of food intake. The anorectic effect occurred predominately during the light phase, and was due mainly to a reduction in numbers of meals. In rats fed the 12% fat diet, HCA had no effect on plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), but reduced plasma triacylglycerol and increased liver fat concentration. In rats fed the 1% fat diet, HCA did not affect any metabolic variable examined. Thus, the suppressive effect of HCA on body weight regain, which was maintained for at least 3 wk, appears to be independent of the dietary fat content. Yet, the fat content of the diet seemed to be important for the long-term suppressive effect of HCA on feeding. The fact that HCA did not change plasma BHB concentration does not support a role for increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation in the anorectic effect of HCA.

  5. Body Weight Gain and Hyperphagia After Administration of SGLT-2 Inhibitor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Hiromi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 44 Final Diagnosis: Type 2 diabetes Symptoms: Hunger • increased appetite Medication: GLP-1 receptor agonist • SGLT-2 inhibitor Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Internal Medicine/Diabetology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: A detailed description is given of a case we encountered in which unexpectedly marked weight gain occurred following a treatment switch from a GLP-1 receptor agonist to an SGLT-2 inhibitor. Case Report: The patient, a 44-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, had gained about 10 kg in weight in the previous year. Therefore, metformin was replaced with liraglutide to obtain reduction of body weight. Although the patient lost about 8 kg (7%), during the 18-month period on the medication, the weight loss stabilized; therefore, the treatment was again switched to tofogliflozin to obtain further reduction of body weight. However, the patient reported increasing hunger and an exaggerated appetite from week 3 onward after the start of tofogliflozin, and gained about 9 kg in weight within 2 weeks, associated with a tendency towards increased HbA1c; therefore, tofogliflozin was discontinued. Immediate reinstitution of liraglutide resulted in reduction of the increased appetite, weight, and HbA1c level. Conclusions: Caution should be exercised against hyperphagia and weight gain due to hunger that may occur following discontinuation of a GLP-1 receptor agonist and/or initiation of an SGLT-2 inhibitor. PMID:26638727

  6. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  7. Differential effects of multiple short day lengths on body weights of gonadectomized siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) maintained under simulated natural photoperiods exhibit marked reductions in body weight as day lengths decrease in summer and fall. This experiment assessed whether the component of the seasonal body weight rhythm that is independent of gonadal hormones exhibits a graded dependence on decreasing day lengths or whether the entire program of weight loss is triggered by the crossing of a single critical day length in late summer. Male hamsters born into a photoperiod with 13 h light and 11 h dark (i.e., 13L : 11D) were castrated and transferred to simulated natural photoperiod for early April at 40 degrees N latitude. At the summer solstice (15L : 9D) some hamsters remained on that photoperiod whereas others experienced gradual decreases in day length. Three additional groups were moved to static photoperiods when day lengths had subsequently declined to 13L : 11D, 11L : 13D, or 9L : 15D, respectively. Day lengths decreasing to 13L : 11D were sufficient to suppress body weight but were less inhibitory than further decreases in day length. Hamsters identified as photononresponsive on the basis of daily activity rhythms increased body weight monotonically. These results establish that steroid-independent modulation of body weight depends on photoperiod in a graded fashion.

  8. The Relationship of Body Image Perception and Weight Status to Recent Change in Weight Status of the Adolescent Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Barbara Ann

    1989-01-01

    Investigated relationship of body image perception and weight status to recent change in weight status of adolescent females. Nonobese, overweight, and obese girls (N=90) aged 13 through 17 completed Body-Cathexis Scale and self-report recent change in weight status and demographic questionnaire. Results revealed significant positive correlation…

  9. Genetics of Microenvironmental Sensitivity of Body Weight in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Selected for Improved Growth

    PubMed Central

    Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehviläinen, Harri; Järvisalo, Otso

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (−0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its

  10. Phytochemicals in the Control of Human Appetite and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A.

    2010-01-01

    Since obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, its effective management is a very important clinical issue. Despite the great amount of scientific effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms that lead to overconsumption and overweight, at the moment very few approaches to weight management are effective in the long term. On the other hand, modern society is also affected by the growing incidence of eating disorders on the other side of the spectrum such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa which are equally difficult to treat. This review will try to summarise the main findings available in the literature regarding the effect of plants or plant extracts (phytochemicals) on human appetite and body weight. The majority of plant extracts are not single compounds but rather a mixture of different molecules, therefore their mechanism of action usually targets several systems. In addition, since some cellular receptors tend to be widely distributed, sometimes a single molecule can have a widespread effect. This review will attempt to describe the main phytochemicals that have been suggested to affect the homeostatic mechanisms that influence intake and body weight. Clinical data will be summarised and scientific evidence will be reviewed.

  11. Hedonic and incentive signals for body weight control.

    PubMed

    Egecioglu, Emil; Skibicka, Karolina P; Hansson, Caroline; Alvarez-Crespo, Mayte; Friberg, P Anders; Jerlhag, Elisabet; Engel, Jörgen A; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2011-09-01

    Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular 'incentive salience theory' of food reward recognises not only a hedonic/pleasure component ('liking') but also an incentive motivation component ('wanting' or 'reward-seeking'). Central to the neurobiology of the reward mechanism is the mesoaccumbal dopamine system that confers incentive motivation not only for natural rewards such as food but also by artificial rewards (eg. addictive drugs). Indeed, this mesoaccumbal dopamine system receives and integrates information about the incentive (rewarding) value of foods with information about metabolic status. Problematic over-eating likely reflects a changing balance in the control exerted by hypothalamic versus reward circuits and/or it could reflect an allostatic shift in the hedonic set point for food reward. Certainly, for obesity to prevail, metabolic satiety signals such as leptin and insulin fail to regain control of appetitive brain networks, including those involved in food reward. On the other hand, metabolic control could reflect increased signalling by the stomach-derived orexigenic hormone, ghrelin. We have shown that ghrelin activates the mesoaccumbal dopamine system and that central ghrelin signalling is required for reward from both chemical drugs (eg alcohol) and also from palatable food. Future therapies for problematic over-eating and obesity may include drugs that interfere with incentive motivation, such as ghrelin antagonists.

  12. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  13. Characterization of body weight and composition changes during the sophomore year of college

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Holly R; Morrow, Michelle L; Dinger, Mary K; Han, Jennifer L; Fields, David A

    2007-01-01

    Background Years spent in college represents a critical time for obesity development though little information is known regarding how body weight and composition changes beyond the first year of college. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in body weight and composition and the factors influencing those changes among sophomore females. Methods Body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was obtained in participants beginning during their freshman year and continued through their sophomore year. Results No difference was observed between sophomore year fall and spring visits for body weight (60.4 versus 60.6 kg) or fat mass (19.3 versus 18.7 kg). However, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease was observed for body fat (31.9 versus 30.9 %fat) and a significant increase was observed for fat-free mass (37.7 versus 38.4 kg). Participants living off campus significantly (P ≤ 0.05) declined in body fat (33.0 versus 31.0 %fat) and fat mass (19.4 versus 18.2 kg) and increased in fat-free mass (36.1 versus 37.2 kg) with no differences in those living on campus. Conclusion No change in body weight was observed in females during their sophomore year. However, an increase in fat-free mass accompanied with a decrease in fat mass resulted in a decrease in body fat. Participants living off campus had favorable changes in their body composition by means of decreasing %fat and fat mass while increasing fat-free mass. Participants living on campus did not demonstrate these favorable changes. PMID:18028546

  14. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  15. Serum PCT and its Relation to Body Weight Gain in Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rohini, K; Bhat, Surekha; Srikumar, P S; Mahesh Kumar, A

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing alterations in serum PCT in terms of its relation to body weight gain in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients undergoing treatment. Among patients (25-75 years) diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, those that were new smear positive, showed sputum conversion at the end of 2 months and were declared clinically cured at the end of 6 months, were included in the study (n = 40). Serum procalcitonin was determined by BRAHMS PCT-Q kit. Patients were divided into two study groups-Group 1 (n = 21; serum PCT > 2 ng/ml at diagnosis), Group 2 (n = 19; serum PCT > 10 ng/ml at diagnosis). Body weights of all patients were obtained at three different time points, PTB-0 (at diagnosis), PTB-2 (after 2 months of intensive treatment) and PTB-6 (after 6 months of treatment). In both groups, mean body weights at PTB-2 and PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-0 and at PTB-6 were significantly higher than those at PTB-2. However, percentage body weight gain following 2 months of intensive treatment was higher in group 1 (4.05 % gain, p < 0.01) than in group 2 (2.75 % body weight gain, p < 0.05). Thus, the percentage gain in group 1 was tending more towards the desirable minimum gain of 5 % during intensive phase. Increase in serum PCT levels in pulmonary tuberculosis is inversely associated with body weight gain during treatment. Thus, PCT could play a role in regulation of body weight gain in anorectic conditions like tuberculosis.

  16. Body Mass Index Self-Perception and Weight Management Behaviors during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Kyeongra; Turk, Melanie T.; Allison, Virginia L.; James, Khara A.; Chasens, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the relationship between actual body weight and self-perceived weight, and how perception of one's weight affects weight management behaviors among US adolescents. Methods: Adolescents ages 16-19 years with objectively-measured weight and height and self-reported perception of weight, weight-loss efforts, and…

  17. Body Contouring Surgery in the Massive Weight Loss Patient.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele

    2016-08-01

    Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics.

  18. Body Contouring Surgery in the Massive Weight Loss Patient.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele

    2016-08-01

    Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics. PMID:27473807

  19. Effects of Body Weight Reduction on Serum Irisin and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Satoshi; Shinno, Hiromi; Thi Thu, Ha Cao; Takao, Nana; Tsutsumi, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Takaaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kimura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. Methods The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m2) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. Blood parameters, body composition, exercise tolerance, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum irisin were determined before and after intervention, and relationships among changes in these data were examined. Results There were significant decreases in body weight and BMI after the intervention. Irisin before the intervention was significantly positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.434, P<0.05). The mean irisin level showed no significant change after the intervention in all participants. However, improvements in % body fat, subcutaneous fat area, triglycerides, and fasting glucose were significantly greater in patients with an increase in irisin compared to those with a decrease in irisin after the intervention. Patients with an increase in irisin also had significantly lower fasting insulin (9.7±4.8 vs. 16.4±8.2, P<0.05) and HOMA-IR (2.2±1.1 vs. 3.7±1.6, P<0.05) after the intervention, compared to patients with a decrease in irisin. Conclusion Body weight reduction did not alter irisin levels. However, irisin may play important roles in fat and glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, and the effects of body weight reduction on irisin kinetics may be a key for obesity treatment. PMID:27766246

  20. The relationship between chemical-induced kidney weight increases and kidney histopathology in rats.

    PubMed

    Craig, Evisabel A; Yan, Zhongyu; Zhao, Q Jay

    2015-07-01

    The kidney is a major site of chemical excretion, which results in its propensity to exhibit chemically-induced toxicological effects at a higher rate than most other organs. Although the kidneys are often weighed in animal toxicity studies, the manner in which these kidney weight measurements are interpreted and the value of this information in predicting renal damage remains controversial. In this study we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between chemically-induced kidney weight changes and renal histopathological alterations. We also examined the relative utility of absolute and relative (kidney-to-body weight ratio) kidney weight in the prediction of renal toxicity. For this, data extracted from oral chemical exposure studies in rats performed by the National Toxicology Program were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. Our analysis showed a statistically significant correlation between absolute, but not relative, kidney weight and renal histopathology in chemically-treated rats. This positive correlation between absolute kidney weight and histopathology was observed even with compounds that statistically decreased terminal body weight. Also, changes in absolute kidney weight, which occurred at subchronic exposures, were able to predict the presence or absence of kidney histopathology at both subchronic and chronic exposures. Furthermore, most increases in absolute kidney weight reaching statistical significance (irrespective of the magnitude of change) were found to be relevant for the prediction of histopathological changes. Hence, our findings demonstrate that the evaluation of absolute kidney weight is a useful method for identifying potential renal toxicants.

  1. Role of dietary carbohydrate and frequent eating in body-weight control.

    PubMed

    Kirk, T R

    2000-08-01

    Despite widespread interest in body-weight control, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise worldwide. Current public health advice for obesity prevention is clearly failing. The present paper examines the appropriateness of current public health advice for body-weight control, i.e. to reduce consumption of fatty foods, to reduce consumption of sugar and to avoid snacking between meals. An increase in carbohydrate: fat ratio should improve body-weight control, as high-carbohydrate low-fat diets are less likely to lead to overeating, and if overeating does occur, less of the excess energy is likely to be stored as fat. However, it is suggested that for the long-term prevention of weight gain, advice to increase consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods may be more effective than advice which focuses on reducing consumption of fatty food. Moreover, in view of the inverse relationship between fat and sugar intakes, sugar may have a positive role to play in body-weight control in facilitating an increase in carbohydrate: fat ratio. Snacking for most individuals appears not to adversely affect body-weight control, and for some it may improve control. This situation may exist because frequent eating helps appetite control, thus preventing overeating at meals, and as snacks overall tend to be higher in carbohydrate and lower in fat than meals, frequent eating may be a strategy for increasing carbohydrate: fat ratio. It is also suggested that eating 'little and often' may be a more compatible pattern of eating for a physically-active lifestyle than eating large meals. Perhaps the most appropriate advice on food intake that would work synergistically with concurrent advice to increase physical activity is to eat more carbohydrate, and to eat frequently.

  2. [The variance of melphalan doses related to kilogram of body weight and the consequences].

    PubMed

    Vokurka, S

    2010-01-01

    Melphalan is an important cytotoxic drug. The empirical practice of body surface area-based (BSA) dosing (mg/m2) of melphalan has been critically analyzed in several observations. BSA-based dosing leads to significant variability in doses administered per kilogram of body weight (mg/kg), contributes to increased oral toxicity and probably does not have any significant effect on treatment results within equally BSA (mg/m2) dosed melphalan regimens.

  3. Stability of Pigeon Body Weight under Free-Feeding Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Brian D.; Branch, Marc N.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in regulatory oversight of animal research require verification of effects of standard practices. There are no formal guidelines for establishing free-feeding weights in adult pigeons. In the present study, pigeons were obtained from a commercial supplier, weighed upon arrival, and then held in quarantine for 7 days with free access to…

  4. Longitudinal Trajectories of Perceived Body Weight: Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Li, Kaigang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine longitudinal trajectories of perceived weight from adolescence to early adulthood by gender. Methods: We analyzed 9 waves (1997-2005) of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 8302) using Mplus. Results: Perceived overweight increased over time among girls and did not level off until 23 years of age. Blacks…

  5. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat. PMID:25311271

  6. Successful maintenance of body weight reduction after individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Warchoł, Wojciech; Jamka, Małgorzata; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness of individualized dietary counseling in obese subjects based on narrative interview technique on the maintenance of body weight reduction, changes in dietary behaviors, including type of cooking and physical activity. One-hundred subjects out of four-hundred patients met the inclusion criteria. Individually, 45-minute educational program with motivation counseling was performed in 0, 6 and 12 weeks of the study. Patients were advised to follow individually well-balanced diet for 12 weeks. The individuals were asked about the changes in their dietary habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The mean percentage of body weight changes from the baseline were as follows: in 6th week- 5.9%, in 12th week - 10.9% and in 52th week - 9.7% (P < 0.0001), however there were no statistically significant changes while comparing body weight in 12th and 52th week. The maintenance of body weight reduction was connected with the dietary habits changes, mainly the type of cooking and increased consumption of vegetable oils. In conclusion, individualized dietary counseling, based on narrative interview technique is an effective intervention for obesity treatment that may help maintain body weight reduction and adapt the pro-healthy changes in type of cooking and sources of dietary fat.

  7. Mechanism of body weight reducing effect of oral boric Acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  8. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  9. Dietary energy density and body weight in adults and children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Obbagy, Julie E; Altman, Jean M; Essery, Eve V; McGrane, Mary M; Wong, Yat Ping; Spahn, Joanne M; Williams, Christine L

    2012-05-01

    Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.

  10. Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and Decrease Body Size among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents. Findings indicated females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and…

  11. Genotype-Temperature Interaction in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Fontdevila, Antonio

    1973-01-01

    The effect of genotype-temperature interactions on body weight has been studied in a natural population of Drosophila melanogaster using four isogenic strains derived from it, and their hybrid F1 and F2 progenies. Measurements were made at four constant temperatures—25°, 21°, 17° and 13°C—and at a temperature oscillating between 17° and 25°C.—Low, though significant, genotype-temperature interaction exists among the isogenic strains, but not among the F1 nor F2 hybrid progenies. These low interaction values may be due to the fact that all isogenic strains have a common origin and therefore presumably little genic divergence exists among them. F1 and F2 hybrid progenies generally exhibit higher homeostasis than the isogenic strains, although one isogenic line has better homeostasis than the majority of the hybrids.—There is no evidence of heterosis and some evidence of dominance. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that body weight is regulated mainly by additive genetic factors and is subject to stabilizing selection. PMID:4631598

  12. Central transthyretin acts to decrease food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fenping; Kim, Yonwook J.; Moran, Timothy H.; Li, Hong; Bi, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) is a blood and cerebrospinal fluid transporter of thyroxine and retinol. Gene expression profiling revealed an elevation of Ttr expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of rats with exercise-induced anorexia, implying that central TTR may also play a functional role in modulating food intake and energy balance. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the effects of brain TTR on food intake and body weight and have further determined hypothalamic signaling that may underlie its feeding effect in rats. We found that intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of TTR in normal growing rats decreased food intake and body weight. This effect was not due to sickness as icv TTR did not cause a conditioned taste aversion. ICV TTR decreased neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in the DMH and the paraventricular nucleus (P < 0.05). Chronic icv infusion of TTR in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats reversed hyperphagia and obesity and reduced DMH NPY levels. Overall, these results demonstrate a previously unknown anorectic action of central TTR in the control of energy balance, providing a potential novel target for treating obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27053000

  13. The effect of smoking habit changes on body weight: Evidence from the UK.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluates the causal relationship between smoking and body weight through two waves (2004-2006) of the British Household Panel Survey. We model the effect of changes in smoking habits, such as quitting or reducing, and account for the heterogeneous responses of individuals located at different points of the body mass distribution by quantile regression. We test our results by means of a large set of control groups and investigate their robustness by using the changes-in-changes estimator and accounting for different thresholds to define smoking reductions. Our results reveal the positive effect of quitting smoking on weight changes, which is also found to increase in the highest quantiles, whereas the decision to reduce smoking does not affect body weight.

  14. Sugar intake and body weight in Cambodian and Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Shikanai, Saiko; Koung Ry, Ly; Takeichi, Hitomi; Emiko, Suzuki; San, Pann; Sarukura, Nobuko; Kamoshita, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Because of the tastiness of sugars, it is easy to consume more than an adequate amount. There are many research reports that excess sugar intake contributes to dental decay, obesity, diabetes etc. Continuing economic development in Cambodia has made it easier than before for people to consume sugars in their daily life. Currently, isomerized sugar (a mixture of glucose and fructose) made from starches is commonly used in commercial beverages because of its low price. However, in Cambodia and Japan, sugar composition tables that include not only sucrose but also glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose have not been available. Prior to the present nutrition surveys, we made sugar composition tables for both countries. In this study we tried to estimate the intakes of various sugars by children in Cambodia and Japan and to determine the relationship between intake and body weight. Nutrition surveys of children aged 7, 10 and 13 years old were conducted for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method in 89 Cambodian children living in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, and 151 Japanese children living in 3 prefectures from north to south. Height and weight of children in Cambodia and Japan were similar until 10 years old but at 13 years old, the Cambodians were shorter and lighter than the Japanese. We could not observe any differences in BMI in either country. The sugar intakes from beverages and snacks were not different among the different gender and age. Thus we combined the mean total sugar intake for Cambodian and Japanese, 28.42 ± 25.28 g and 25.69 ± 16.16 g respectively. These were within the range of WHO recommendations (less than 10% of energy intakes). Cambodian children consumed about 46% of sugars from commercial beverages and snacks and Japanese children 26%. This means that for Cambodians half of the sugars came from isomerized sugar made from starches. Relationships between sugar intake and body weight were not observed in both countries. In

  15. The Combined Effect of Subjective Body Image and Body Mass Index (Distorted Body Weight Perception) on Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeyong; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Cheon, Sung-Youn; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mental health disorders and suicide are an important and growing public health concern in Korea. Evidence has shown that both globally and in Korea, obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing some psychiatric disorders. Therefore, we examined the association between distorted body weight perception (BWP) and suicidal ideation. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2007-2012 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES), an annual cross-sectional nationwide survey that included 14 276 men and 19 428 women. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the associations between nine BWP categories, which combined body image (BI) and body mass index (BMI) categories, and suicidal ideation. Moreover, the fitness of our models was verified using the Akaike information criterion. Results: Consistent with previous studies, suicidal ideation was associated with marital status, household income, education level, and perceived health status in both genders. Only women were significantly more likely to have distorted BWP; there was no relationship among men. In category B1 (low BMI and normal BI), women (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 3.42) were more likely to express suicidal ideation than women in category B2 (normal BMI and normal BI) were. Women in overweight BWP category C2 (normal BMI and fat BI) also had an increased OR for suicidal ideation (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.42). Those in normal BWP categories were not likely to have suicidal ideation. Among women in the underweight BWP categories, only the OR for those in category A2 (normal BMI and thin BI) was significant (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.59). Conclusions: Distorted BWP should be considered an important factor in the prevention of suicide and for the improvement of mental health among Korean adults, especially Korean women with distorted BWPs. PMID:25857647

  16. The Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Body Weight among Children

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Sik; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gyung Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We performed to reveal the association between the Helicobacter pylori infection and body weight among children. Methods Out retrospective study included patients who underwent the H. pylori immunoglobulin G testing at Konyang University Hospital between March 2011 and June 2014. These patients were classified as seropositive (28 boys, 27 girls; mean age: 9.89±3.28 years) or seronegative (55 boys, 54 girls; mean age: 9.84±3.02 years). Next, we compared various characteristics between the seropositive and negative groups, as well as between obese children (body weight ≥90th percentile) and non-obese children (body weight <90th percentile). Furthermore, we compared the change in body weight after 2 months of treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole among the 55 seropositive children (14 treated children and 41 non-treated children). Results There were no differences in the weights and laboratory data for the 55 seropositive children and 109 seronegative children (weight; 40.96±18.11 kg vs. 36.85±13.72 kg, respectively; p=0.14). And, there was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the 29 obese and 135 non-obese children (p=0.581). However, after 2 months of eradication, the 14 treated patients exhibited a significant weight gain (+0.91±0.52 kg), compared to the 41 non-treated patients (-0.29±1.16 kg, p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings present that obesity was not associated with the H. pylori infection, although H. pylori eradication led to significant increase in body weight. PMID:27437187

  17. BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH FROM EARLY TO MID-ADULTHOOD: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS*

    PubMed Central

    Zajacova, Anna; Burgard, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the influence of body weight in early adulthood, and changes in weight over time, on self rated health (SRH) as people age into mid-adulthood. While prior research focused on cross-sectional samples of older adults, we use longitudinal data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study (NHEFS) and double-trajectory latent growth models to study the association between body mass index (BMI) and SRH trajectories over twenty years. Results indicate that high BMI in early adulthood and gaining more weight over time are both associated with a faster decline in health ratings. Among white women only, those with a higher BMI at the baseline also report lower initial SRH. A small part of the weight-health associations is due to sociodemographic factors, but not baseline health behaviors or medical conditions. The findings provide new support for the cumulative disadvantage perspective, documenting the increasing health inequalities in a cohort of young adults. PMID:20420297

  18. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  19. Diet/Energy Balance Affect Sleep and Wakefulness Independent of Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Isaac J.; Pack, Allan I.; Veasey, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Excessive daytime sleepiness commonly affects obese people, even in those without sleep apnea, yet its causes remain uncertain. We sought to determine whether acute dietary changes could induce or rescue wake impairments independent of body weight. Design: We implemented a novel feeding paradigm that generates two groups of mice with equal body weight but opposing energetic balance. Two subsets of mice consuming either regular chow (RC) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 w were switched to the opposite diet for 1 w. Sleep recordings were conducted at Week 0 (baseline), Week 8 (pre-diet switch), and Week 9 (post-diet switch) for all groups. Sleep homeostasis was measured at Week 8 and Week 9. Participants: Young adult, male C57BL/6J mice. Measurements and Results: Differences in total wake, nonrapid eye movement (NREM), and rapid eye movement (REM) time were quantified, in addition to changes in bout fragmentation/consolidation. At Week 9, the two diet switch groups had similar body weight. However, animals switched to HFD (and thus gaining weight) had decreased wake time, increased NREM sleep time, and worsened sleep/wake fragmentation compared to mice switched to RC (which were in weight loss). These effects were driven by significant sleep/wake changes induced by acute dietary manipulations (Week 8 → Week 9). Sleep homeostasis, as measured by delta power increase following sleep deprivation, was unaffected by our feeding paradigm. Conclusions: Acute dietary manipulations are sufficient to alter sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight and without effects on sleep homeostasis. Citation: Perron IJ, Pack AI, Veasey S. Diet/energy balance affect sleep and wakefulness independent of body weight. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1893–1903. PMID:26158893

  20. Chronic psychological stress alters body weight and blood chemistry in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Awerman, J L; Romero, L M

    2010-05-01

    One hallmark of chronic stress is a decrease in body weight that rebounds once chronic stress is alleviated. We applied chronic psychological stress by exposing European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) to a previously validated chronic stress protocol (CSP) consisting of 4 different randomly applied stressors per day. Experimental design consisted of a 21 day CSP (CSP1), a 60day recovery (R1), a second 14 day CSP (CSP2), and a second 30 day recovery (R2). Body weight decreased by approximately 5% during CSP1, but overshot to 5-10% above initial body weight during R1. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we periodically measured 12 biochemical analytes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), bile acids, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, uric acid, calcium (Ca(++)), phosphorus (PHOS), potassium (K(+)), and sodium (Na(+)). AST and CK increased at the beginning of CSP1, suggesting muscle breakdown. Additionally, decreases in albumin and total protein paired with stable uric acid, but no associated change in glucose, suggested protein breakdown as a secondary energy source. Changes in blood parameters that occurred during CSP1 did not reverse during R1. During CSP2 and R2, weight loss and gain occurred in different proportions. CSP2 produced an approximate 15% decrease in body weight, but R2 resulted in only re-gaining 5% of this weight, although this was equivalent to the pre-CSP1 weight. In summary, protein metabolism appeared to mediate weight loss during chronic stress, but over-gaining weight was not a good indicator of recovery. PMID:20096363

  1. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise, or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Methods Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 minutes. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise, and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. Results The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups following moderate exercise. Following vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72%, and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P<0.05). OW-noWL also significantly overestimated exercise energy expenditure compared to all other groups (P<0.05), and significantly overestimated calories in food compared to both WL groups (P<0.05). However, among all groups there was a considerable range of over and underestimation (−280 kcal to +702 kcal), as reflected by the large and statistically significant absolute error in calorie estimation of exercise and food. Conclusion There was a wide range of under and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss. PMID:26469988

  2. Targeting TRPV1 for Body Weight Control using TRPV1−/− Mice and Electroacupuncture

    PubMed Central

    Choowanthanapakorn, Monchanok; Lu, Kung-Wen; Yang, Jun; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Lin, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20–30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p < 0.05, compared with the control group, n = 7) but not in the sham EA group (109.1 ± 0.63%, p < 0.05, compared with EA group, n = 7). EA did not decrease the gain of body weight in TRPV1 knock mice (107.94 ± 0.41% and 107.79 ± 1.04% for TRPV1−/− and TRPV1−/− with EA, respectively, p > 0.05). The visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) weight was lower in the EA group at 4 weeks after manipulation. Moreover, the protein levels of TRPV1, pPKA, pPKC, and pERK were increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) after EA treatment but not in the sham EA and TRPV1−/− mice. This study suggests that targeting TRPV1 is beneficial in controlling body weight and TRPV1-associated mechanisms in mice. PMID:26621679

  3. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  4. Metabolic consequences of chronic sleep restriction in rats: changes in body weight regulation and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Barf, R P; Van Dijk, G; Scheurink, A J W; Hoffmann, K; Novati, A; Hulshof, H J; Fuchs, E; Meerlo, P

    2012-10-10

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk to develop obesity. In animal studies, however, sleep restriction leads to an attenuation of weight gain that cannot be explained by changes in energy intake. In the present study, we assessed whether the attenuated weight gain under conditions of restricted sleep is a consequence of an overall increase in energy expenditure. Adult male rats were subjected to a schedule of chronic sleep restriction (SR) for 8 days with a 4h window of unrestricted rest per day. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings were performed to quantify the effect of the sleep restriction schedule on sleep-wake patterns. In a separate experiment, we measured sleep restriction-induced changes in body weight, food intake, and regulatory hormones such as glucose, insulin, leptin and corticosterone. To investigate whether a change in energy expenditure underlies the attenuation of weight gain, energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method from day 5 until day 8 of the SR protocol. Results show a clear attenuation of weight gain during sleep restriction but no change in food intake. Baseline plasma glucose, insulin and leptin levels are decreased after sleep restriction which presumably reflects the nutritional status of the rats. The daily energy expenditure during SR was significantly increased compared to control rats. Together, we conclude that the attenuation of body weight gain in sleep restricted rats is explained by an overall increase in energy expenditure together with an unaltered energy intake. PMID:22995976

  5. Body and organ weights of rats exposed to carbon monoxide at high altitude.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J J

    1988-01-01

    Although chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or high altitude produces pronounced cardiovascular changes in humans as well as animals, there is little information on the effects elicited by these stressors combined. Theoretical considerations, as well as data from acute studies, suggest that CO inhaled at high altitude may be more detrimental than CO inhaled at low altitude. The purpose of these studies was to construct a system in which CO and altitude could be controlled precisely, and to investigate the effects of continuous exposure to CO and high altitude on body weights and hematocrit ratios, as well as heart, spleen, adrenals, kidneys, and pituitary weights. Male, laboratory rats were exposed for 6 wk in steel barometric chambers to (1) 100 ppm CO, (2) 15,000 ft simulated high altitude (SHA), and (3) CO at SHA. Altitude was simulated by a system of gate valves and a vacuum pump, and measured by an altimeter. CO, from high-pressure cylinders, was introduced into the air supplying each chamber through a mass flow controller and measured by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. Although SHA had no affect on left ventricle plus septum (LV + S), adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, SHA decreased body weights, and increased hematocrit ratios, as well as right ventricle (RV), total heart (HT), and pituitary weights. CO had no affect on body weights, RV, HT, adrenal, spleen, or kidney weights, but CO increased hematocrit ratios and LV + S weights. There was no significant interaction between SHA and CO on any parameter except kidney weight. These results indicate that, in general, the effects produced by 15,000 ft SHA are not intensified by exposure to 100 ppm CO. PMID:3351978

  6. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction.

  7. Ideal female body shape: role of body weight and waist-to-hip ratio.

    PubMed

    Singh, D

    1994-11-01

    Interrelationships of female body fat distribution as measured by the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), overall body size, perceived attractiveness, youthfulness, health, and need to lose weight were investigated. Drawings showing thin females with high WHRs and heavier females with low WHRs were presented to college-age women with low and high scores on the Restrained Eating Scale (Herman & Polivy. [1980]. Obesity [pp. 208-225]. Philadelphia: Saunders) and men who ranked figures for various attributes. Female subjects, regardless of their eating style, as well as male subjects, judged heavier female target figures with low WHRs as more attractive and healthier than thinner figures with higher WHRs. The rankings for youthfulness and need to lose weight were not systematically affected by the size of the WHR. Female subjects perceived heavier female target figures with low WHR to represent ideal female figures. Female subjects with a restrained eating style felt their own body was not similar to idealized female figures and expressed unhappiness with their body shape; this was not true of unrestrained eaters. It is proposed that female attractiveness and ideal female shape may be more influenced by WHR than overall body size. PMID:7833962

  8. The potential association between fruit intake and body weight--a review.

    PubMed

    Alinia, S; Hels, O; Tetens, I

    2009-11-01

    Both national and international bodies recommend an increased intake of fruits and vegetables in order to decrease the risk of overweight and obesity. However, there is a rationale to investigate the separate role of fruits. The aim of this paper was to systematically review and analyse published human intervention, prospective observational and cross-sectional studies on fruit intake and body weight in adults. We identified three intervention, eight prospective observational and five cross-sectional studies that explored this relationship. Two of the intervention studies showed that fruit intake reduced body weight, five of the prospective observational studies showed that fruit consumption reduced the risk of developing overweight and obesity, and four of the cross-sectional studies found an inverse association between fruit intake and body weight. Important methodological differences and limitations in the studies make it difficult to compare results. However, the majority of the evidence points towards a possible inverse association between fruit intake and overweight. Future intervention and prospective observational studies examining the direct and independent role of fruit in body-weight management in free-living individuals are needed. Moreover, important determinants such as energy density, energy content, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical form of fruit and preparation methods need to be included in future studies.

  9. Nutraceuticals for body-weight management: The role of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Pilou L H R; Hursel, Rick; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2016-08-01

    Green tea catechins mixed with caffeine have been proposed as adjuvants for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation, in the context of prevention and treatment of obesity. These catechins-caffeine mixtures seem to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that occurs during weight loss. Their effects are of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Other metabolic targets may be fat absorption and the gut microbiota composition, but these effects still need further investigation in combination with weight loss. Limitations for the effects of green tea catechins are moderating factors such as genetic predisposition related to COMT-activity, habitual caffeine intake, and ingestion combined with dietary protein. In conclusion, a mixture of green tea catechins and caffeine has a beneficial effect on body-weight management, especially by sustained energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and preservation of fat free body-mass, after energy restriction induced body-weight loss, when taking the limitations into account. PMID:26836279

  10. Methods for determining healthy body weight in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kathy Schiro

    2006-07-01

    Several formulas for calculating desirable body weight are used in chronic kidney failure patients. Ideal body weight (IBW) derived from Metropolitan Life Insurance tables has been available since the 1950s. The Hamwi formula was proposed in the 1960s as a simple tool for quickly estimating desirable body weight, especially in people with diabetes. Since the 1970s, National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys I, II, and III have provided an in-depth evaluation of the average body weights of Americans. These standard body weights (SBW) are often interpreted to be normal and healthy weight goals. Body mass index (BMI) has also been studied for decades and is used internationally as the standard for determining healthy weight, especially in relationship to obesity. These 4 methods are discussed and compared along with a brief review of the history of using the adjusted body weight (ABW) formulas, followed by recommendations for clinical practice.

  11. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets.

  12. Relationship between Body Weight of Primiparous Sows during Late Gestation and Subsequent Reproductive Efficiency over Six Parities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Soo; Yang, Xiaojian; Baidoo, Samuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of parity 1 gilt body weight during late gestation (d 109) on subsequent reproductive performance of sows and performance of suckling pigs. A total of 2,404 farrowing records over 6 parities were divided into six groups on the basis of body weight (190, 200, 210, 220, 230, and 240 kg) at d 109 of gestation of 585 gilts. Significant effects (p< 0.05) of body weight on sow retention rate was noticed, with the 210 kg group having the lowest culling rate and highest total number of piglets born alive over the 6 parities. With increase of body weight, a linear increase (p<0.05) in losses of body weight and backfat during the lactation period of parity 1 and a linear decrease (p<0.05) in backfat loss for parities 4 and 6 were found. Compared with light sows, heavy sows had higher (p<0.05) litter weight at birth for parities 1 and 2 and at weaning in parity 1. Sow weaning-to-estrus interval of sows was not influenced (p>0.05) by body weight. In conclusion, maintaining optimal body weight during gestation would be beneficial to sows and suckling piglets. PMID:26954198

  13. Neural Vulnerability Factors that Increase Risk for Future Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Yokum, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Theorists have proposed several neural vulnerability factors that may increase overeating and consequent weight gain. Early cross-sectional imaging studies could not determine whether aberrant neural responsivity was a precursor or consequence of overeating. However, recent prospective imaging studies examining predictors of future weight gain and response to obesity treatment, and repeated-measures imaging studies before and after weight gain and loss have advanced knowledge of etiologic processes and neural plasticity resulting from weight change. The present article reviews evidence from prospective studies using imaging and behavioral measures reflecting neural function, as well as randomized experiments with humans and animals that are consistent or inconsistent with five neural vulnerability theories for excessive weight gain. Extant data provide strong support for the incentive sensitization theory of obesity and moderate support for the reward surfeit theory, inhibitory control deficit theory, and dynamic vulnerability model of obesity, which attempted to synthesize the former theories into a single etiologic model. However, existing data provide only minimal support for the reward deficit theory. Findings are synthesized into a new working etiologic model that is based on current scientific knowledge. Important directions for future studies, which have the potential to support or refute this working etiologic model, are delineated. PMID:26854866

  14. Birth weight, early life course BMI, and body size change: Chains of risk to adult inflammation?

    PubMed

    Goosby, Bridget J; Cheadle, Jacob E; McDade, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how body size changes over the early life course to predict high sensitivity C-reactive protein in a U.S. based sample. Using three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we test the chronic disease epidemiological models of fetal origins, sensitive periods, and chains of risk from birth into adulthood. Few studies link birth weight and changes in obesity status over adolescence and early adulthood to adult obesity and inflammation. Consistent with fetal origins and sensitive periods hypotheses, body size and obesity status at each developmental period, along with increasing body size between periods, are highly correlated with adult CRP. However, the predictive power of earlier life course periods is mediated by body size and body size change at later periods in a pattern consistent with the chains of risk model. Adult increases in obesity had effect sizes of nearly 0.3 sd, and effect sizes from overweight to the largest obesity categories were between 0.3 and 1 sd. There was also evidence that risk can be offset by weight loss, which suggests that interventions can reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk, that females are more sensitive to body size changes, and that body size trajectories over the early life course account for African American- and Hispanic-white disparities in adult inflammation.

  15. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  16. Melatonin reduces body weight in goldfish (Carassius auratus): effects on metabolic resources and some feeding regulators.

    PubMed

    De Pedro, Nuria; Martínez-Alvarez, Rosa M; Delgado, María Jesús

    2008-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of chronic melatonin (10 microg/g body weight) on body weight and the main energetic reserves, particularly hepatic and muscle content of proteins, lipids and glycogen in goldfish. In addition, we studied plasma leptin and ghrelin, and hypothalamic content of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and monoamines after chronic melatonin treatment in order to elucidate a possible interplay between melatonin and these feeding regulators on the body weight regulation in this species. Body weight gain and specific growth rate were reduced (74% and 76%, respectively) after chronic (10 days) intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with melatonin. The carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was regulated by melatonin in goldfish, because this indoleamine reduced muscle glycogen stores and increased lipid mobilization. A suppressive trend, but not statistically significant, in circulating ghrelin was observed after chronic treatment with melatonin. Chronic melatonin administration significantly reduced noradrenergic metabolism and increased dihydroxiphenylacetic acid content in the hypothalamus, without significant modifications in the serotoninergic system. Thus, it could be suggested that melatonin may mediate its action on energy balance in fish, at least in part, via interactions with hypothalamic catecholaminergic system. Plasma leptin and hypothalamic NPY remained unaltered after melatonin treatment, suggesting that these feeding regulators may not be involved in the effects of melatonin on energy homeostasis in fish.

  17. Weight-related self-efficacy in relation to maternal body weight from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal body weight and associated health risks. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and weight-related self-efficacy from early pregnancy to 2 years post-partum. Women with live, singleton term infants from a population-based cohort study were included (n = 595). Healthy eating self-efficacy and weight control self-efficacy were assessed prenatally and at 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Body weight was measured at early pregnancy, before delivery, and 6 weeks, 1 year and 2 years post-partum. Behavioural (smoking, breastfeeding) and sociodemographic (age, education, marital status, income) covariates were assessed by medical record review and baseline questionnaires. Multi-level linear regression models were used to examine the longitudinal associations of self-efficacy measures with body weight. Approximately half of the sample (57%) returned to early pregnancy weight at some point by 2 years post-partum, and 9% became overweight or obese at 2 years post-partum. Body weight over time was inversely related to healthy eating (β = -0.57, P = 0.02) and weight control (β = -0.99, P < 0.001) self-efficacy in the model controlling for both self-efficacy measures as well as time and behavioural and sociodemographic covariates. Weight-related self-efficacy may be an important target for interventions to reduce excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight gain.

  18. The Influence of Plaintiff’s Body Weight on Judgments of Responsibility: The Role of Weight Bias

    PubMed Central

    White, Darrell E.; Wott, Carissa B.; Carels, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Problem The current study investigated the influence of a plaintiff’s weight and the location of an accident on a simulated jury’s perceptions of plaintiff’s personal responsibility for an accident. Methods Participants were 185 lean and overweight male and female adults (mean self-reported body mass index: 24.87 ± 5.45) who read one of three vignettes describing an accident that occurred while leaving one of three different establishments (fast food burger restaurant; fitness gym; department store) while viewing one of two silhouettes of the alleged plaintiff (a lean female; an obese female). Results Participants were significantly more likely to report the plaintiff’s weight entered into their perceptions of personal responsibility when they viewed the overweight plaintiff compared to the thin plaintiff. As respondent’s self-reported weight bias increased, participants were more likely to hold the plaintiff responsible and more likely to blame plaintiff characteristics for the accident. Conclusion The weight of a plaintiff may affect juror perceptions of personal responsibility particularly if the juror possesses self-reported weight bias. PMID:25434916

  19. Independent effects of weight and mass on plantar flexor activity during walking: implications for their contributions to body support and forward propulsion

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, C. P.; Neptune, R. R.; Kram, R.

    2008-01-01

    The ankle plantar flexor muscles, gastrocnemius (Gas) and soleus (Sol), have been shown to play important roles in providing body support and forward propulsion during human walking. However, there has been disagreement about the relative contributions of Gas and Sol to these functional tasks. In this study, using independent manipulations of body weight and body mass, we examined the relative contribution of the individual plantar flexors to support and propulsion. We hypothesized that Gas and Sol contribute to body support, whereas Sol is the primary contributor to forward trunk propulsion. We tested this hypothesis by measuring muscle activity while experimentally manipulating body weight and mass by 1) decreasing body weight using a weight support system, 2) increasing body mass alone using a combination of equal added trunk load and weight support, and 3) increasing trunk loads (increasing body weight and mass). The rationale for this study was that muscles that provide body support would be sensitive to changes in body weight, whereas muscles that provide forward propulsion would be sensitive to changes in body mass. Gas activity increased with added loads and decreased with weight support but showed only a small increase relative to control trials when mass alone was increased. Sol activity showed a similar increase with added loads and with added mass alone and decreased in early stance with weight support. Therefore, we accepted the hypothesis that Sol and Gas contribute to body support, whereas Sol is the primary contributor to forward trunk propulsion. PMID:18556431

  20. Antibody-producing cells correlated to body weight in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) acclimated to optimal and elevated temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrahy, L.N.M.; Schreck, C.B.; Maule, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    The immune response of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ranging in weight from approximately 10 to 55 g was compared when the fish were acclimated to either 13 or 21?? C. A haemolytic plaque assay was conducted to determine differences in the number of antibody-producing cells (APC) among fish of a similar age but different body weights. Regression analyses revealed significant increases in the number of APC with increasing body weight when fish were acclimated to either water temperature. These results emphasise the importance of standardising fish weight in immunological studies of salmonids before exploring the possible effects of acclimation temperatures. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  1. Influence of Weight Gain Rate on Early Life Nutritional Status and Body Composition of Children

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Taís Cristina Araújo; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the influence of the weight gain rate at 4–6 months on nutritional status and body composition in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Methods. Retrospective cohort study, sample of 257 children. Data collection was performed in two stages, with the first relating to retrospective data of weight gain from birth to the first 4–6 months of life in the patient records. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, and body composition in children between ages 4 and 7 years were obtained. Nutritional status was assessed by the BMI/age. Control variables, such as pregnancy, breastfeeding, lifestyle, and sociodemographics, were studied. Descriptive analysis and multiple linear regression were performed. Results. In the nutritional status assessment, the prevalence of overweight observed was 24.9%. After adjusting for control variables, it was found that the increase of the WGR at 4–6 months of age explained the occurrence of higher BMI/age, percentage of total body fat, body fat percentage in the android region, and waist circumference in children between 4 and 7 years of age. Conclusion. The increase of the WGR in the first months of life can lead to the occurrence of higher values of parameters of nutritional status and body composition in later life. PMID:25538953

  2. Significance of adjusting salt intake by body weight in the evaluation of dietary salt and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Tomomi; Takase, Hiroyuki; Okado, Tateo; Sugiura, Tomonori; Yamashita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2016-08-01

    The close association between dietary salt and hypertension is well established. However, previous studies generally assessed salt intake without adjustment for body weight. Herein, we investigated the significance of body weight-adjusted salt intake in the general population. The present cross-sectional study included 7629 participants from our yearly physical checkup program, and their salt intake was assessed using a spot urine test to estimate 24-hour urinary salt excretion. Total salt intake increased with increasing body weight. Body weight-adjusted salt intake was greater in participants with hypertension than in those without hypertension. Systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urinary albumin were independently correlated with body weight-adjusted salt intake after adjustment for possible cardiovascular risk factors. Excessive body weight-adjusted salt intake could be related to an increase in blood pressure and hypertensive organ damage. Adjustment for body weight might therefore provide clinically important information when assessing individual salt intake. PMID:27395783

  3. Body image in obese patients before and after stable weight reduction following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Adami, G F; Meneghelli, A; Bressani, A; Scopinaro, N

    1999-03-01

    The role of possessing an abnormal body weight in the body image alterations of obese patients was evaluated in bariatric surgery subjects prior to and at long term after operation, when body weight and shape had become steadily normalized. Body image was assessed by the body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Body Shape Questionnaire, and the Body Attitude Questionnaire. When the individuals were obese, a sharply impaired body image was observed; following operation, weight loss corresponded to normalization of body dissatisfaction, feeling of fatness, and physical attractiveness, whereas body disparagement and salience of shape, although improved in comparison to preoperative data, remained significantly different from that of controls. In the obese patients, some aspects of body image alterations are substantially accounted for by overweight status; other aspects reflect inner feelings, which are partially independent of the actual body weight and shape. PMID:10193918

  4. Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J

    1991-04-01

    The sweet taste of aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K has been reported to increase ratings of hunger and, after saccharin consumption, to increase food intake. However, most investigators have found that aspartame consumption is associated with decreased or unchanged ratings of hunger. Even if aspartame consumption increases ratings of hunger in some situations, it apparently has little impact on the controls of food intake and body weight. Aspartame has not been found to increase food intake; indeed, both short-term and long-term studies have shown that consumption of aspartame-sweetened foods or drinks is associated with either no change or a reduction in food intake. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that aspartame may be useful aid in a complete diet-and-exercise program or in weight maintenance. Intense sweeteners have never been found to cause weight gain in humans.

  5. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  6. Body weight divided by squared knee height as an alternative to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Akiko; Ogawa-Shimokawa, Yoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2011-03-01

    Weight/height(2) (Quetelet's index) is the basis for defining both underweight and obesity. Height, however, is often not precisely measurable in the elderly due to involutional changes such as spinal deformity. Body volume or body surface area are not proportionately decreased even with height loss. Previous reports have shown that Quetelet's index is overestimated in the elderly with height loss. Then we have made a hypothesis described below. Maximal height or height at youth would better represent the subjects' nutritional or clinical status. The distinction of these two heights has not been mentioned before. There have been many publications showing the equations to estimate height from the surrogate parameter(s) such as knee height (KH). Most equations published so far are expressed as estimated height=a + b × KH-c × age, where a, b, and c are constants. Negative correction by age is unexceptionally far greater in women than in men. Apparently, previous researchers have estimated current height by their equations. Maximal height cannot be measurable. It, however, is unaffected by age by its definition. Therefore, maximal height does not have to be corrected by age, and would be almost proportional to KH. Then weight/KH(2) could be a better alternative to the most commonly used weight-height ratio; weight/height(2); the Quetelet's index. Height is the basis for various clinically important indices such as body surface area (BSA) and energy requirement. Employing current height could lead to the underestimation of BSA or energy requirement in the elderly with height loss. Our hypothesis described here would yield a novel and better indices for the clinical assessment of the elderly.

  7. Estrogen receptor–α in medial amygdala neurons regulates body weight

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingwen; Cao, Xuehong; He, Yanlin; Zhu, Liangru; Yang, Yongjie; Saito, Kenji; Wang, Chunmei; Yan, Xiaofeng; Hinton, Antentor Othrell; Zou, Fang; Ding, Hongfang; Xia, Yan; Yan, Chunling; Shu, Gang; Wu, San-Pin; Yang, Bin; Feng, Yuxin; Clegg, Deborah J.; DeMarchi, Richard; Khan, Sohaib A.; Tsai, Sophia Y.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Wu, Qi; Tong, Qingchun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor–α (ERα) activity in the brain prevents obesity in both males and females. However, the ERα-expressing neural populations that regulate body weight remain to be fully elucidated. Here we showed that single-minded–1 (SIM1) neurons in the medial amygdala (MeA) express abundant levels of ERα. Specific deletion of the gene encoding ERα (Esr1) from SIM1 neurons, which are mostly within the MeA, caused hypoactivity and obesity in both male and female mice fed with regular chow, increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity (DIO) in males but not in females, and blunted the body weight–lowering effects of a glucagon-like peptide-1–estrogen (GLP-1–estrogen) conjugate. Furthermore, selective adeno-associated virus-mediated deletion of Esr1 in the MeA of adult male mice produced a rapid body weight gain that was associated with remarkable reductions in physical activity but did not alter food intake. Conversely, overexpression of ERα in the MeA markedly reduced the severity of DIO in male mice. Finally, an ERα agonist depolarized MeA SIM1 neurons and increased their firing rate, and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug–mediated (DREADD-mediated) activation of these neurons increased physical activity in mice. Collectively, our results support a model where ERα signals activate MeA neurons to stimulate physical activity, which in turn prevents body weight gain. PMID:26098212

  8. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  9. High-Normal Arterial Blood Pressure in Children With Excess Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Kolpa, Malgorzata; Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are common causes of metabolic disorders that persist until adulthood. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-normal arterial blood pressure (ABP) in children with excess body weight. Material and Methods A total of 1,093 schoolchildren aged 10 - 12 years (51% girls and 49% boys) participated in the study. The children’s weight, height, body fat percentage (BFP), waist and hip circumference, and ABP were measured. The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI) were calculated and compared to the normative reference values accepted by the International obesity task force (IOTF). Results Excess weight was identified in 20% of the participants, and obesity in 5%. A total of 35.5% of overweight children had above-normal ABP, which implied hypertension. In obese children, that proportion equaled 59.3%. BFP was 6.5% greater in children with hypertension than in those with normal BP. The children with hypertension also had a 7.6-cm larger waist circumference, a 7.6-cm larger hip circumference, and a greater WHtR (by 0.04). Conclusions Excess body weight was identified in 25% of children aged 10 - 12 years, significantly increasing their risk of developing hypertension.

  10. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.

  11. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 – 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents. PMID:22299005

  12. Effects of vagal neuromodulation and vagotomy on control of food intake and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Laskiewicz, J; Królczyk, G; Zurowski, G; Sobocki, J; Matyja, A; Thor, P J

    2003-12-01

    Food induced neurohumoral signals are conduced to data processing brain centers mainly as vagal afferent discharge resulting in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of vagal nerve neuromodulation in control of food intake with fed-pattern microchip (MC) pacing. Experiments were performed on 60 rats divided on 5 groups: I group 0,05Hz left vagal pacing, II - pacing of both vagal nerves with MC 0,05Hz, III- left vagal MC 0,1Hz pacing, IV - pacing of both vagal nerves with MC 0,1 Hz was performed. In group V left vagal pacing was combined with right side abdominal vagotomy. Body weight and total food intake decreased by 12% and 14% (I), 26% and 30%(II), 8% and 21%(III), 14% and 30%(IV), 38% and 41%(IV), respectively (p<0.05). Effects of both vagal nerves stimulation on final body weight and food intake was significantly more effective than only single nerve MC pacing however most effective was stimulation with 0,1Hz combined with right vagotomy. We conclude that vagal stimulation reduce food intake and body weight by increasing vagal afferent signals. Our results suggest that information in vagal afferents can be modulated resulting in changes of feeding behaviour and body weight.

  13. PGC-1α and exercise in the control of body weight.

    PubMed

    Summermatter, S; Handschin, C

    2012-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities represents a major threat to human health globally. Pharmacological treatments exist to achieve weight loss, but the subsequent weight maintenance is prone to fail in the long run. Accordingly, efficient new strategies to persistently control body weight need to be elaborated. Exercise and dietary interventions constitute classical approaches to reduce and maintain body weight, yet people suffering from metabolic diseases are often unwilling or unable to move adequately. The administration of drugs that partially mimic exercise adaptation might circumvent this problem by easing and supporting physical activity. The thermogenic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) largely mediates the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and is a potential target for such interventions. Here, we review the role of PGC-1α in mediating exercise adaptation, coordinating metabolic circuits and enhancing thermogenic capacity in skeletal muscle. We suggest a combination of elevated muscle PGC-1α and exercise as a modified approach for the efficient long-term control of body weight and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  14. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2015-05-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman's Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman's LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  16. Rectal temperature time of death nomogram: dependence of corrective factors on the body weight under stronger thermic insulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Henssge, C

    1992-04-01

    Ninety-eight test coolings were made under various cooling conditions (moving air, two types of both clothing and covering) on dummies of real masses of 1, 3.3, 9.9, 24.5 and 33.4 kg, respectively, which cool under standard conditions (unclothed, uncovered, still air) like human bodies of 14, 33, 41, 83 and 104 kg, respectively. The results provide evidence of a non-linear dependence of corrective factors of body weight upon the body weight. The dynamics of the dependence increases with the thickness of thermic insulation. Transferred to the use of the nomogram method on bodies, cooling conditions requiring corrective factors between 0.75 (moving air) and 1.3 (rather thin clothing/covering), known from experience on bodies of an average weight, can be used as in the past, independent of the body weight. According to experience the dependence of corrective factors on the body weight must be taken into account in bodies of a very high or low body weight. For that purpose both a simplified table and a formula for computing is given.

  17. Effect of nutritional supplements on immune function and body weight in malnourished adults.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Margolick, Joseph; Kahan, Scott; Mitola, Andrea H; Poddar, Kavita H; Nilles, Tricia; Kolge, Sanjivani; Menendez, Frederick; Ridoré, Michelande; Wang, Shing-Jung; Chou, Jacob; Carlson, Eve

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 5% of the population is malnourished or has low body weight, which can adversely affect immune function. Malnutrition is more prevalent in older adults and is often a result of energy imbalance from various causes. Dietary supplementation to promote positive energy balance can reverse malnutrition, but has not been assessed for its effect on immune parameters. This 8-week clinical feeding trial evaluated the effect of a commercially available, high-protein, high-energy formula on body weight and immune parameters in 30 adult volunteers with body-mass indices (BMI) <21 kg/m(2). After the intervention, participants gained a mean of 3.74 lbs and increased BMI by 0.58 kg/m(2). The intervention improved lean body mass and limited body fat accumulation. However, no clinically significant improvements in immune measures were observed. These results support the use of high-protein, high-energy supplements in the treatment of underweight/malnutrition. Further investigation utilizing feeding studies of longer duration, and/or studying severely malnourished individuals may be needed to detect an effect on immune parameters of weight gain promoted by nutritional supplements.

  18. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions. PMID:23726517

  19. Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, M G; Alleva, A M

    1990-06-01

    To examine whether artificial sweeteners aid in the control of long-term food intake and body weight, we gave free-living, normal-weight subjects 1150 g soda sweetened with aspartame (APM) or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) per day. Relative to when no soda was given, drinking APM-sweetened soda for 3 wk significantly reduced calorie intake of both females (n = 9) and males (n = 21) and decreased the body weight of males but not of females. However, drinking HFCS-sweetened soda for 3 wk significantly increased the calorie intake and body weight of both sexes. Ingesting either type of soda reduced intake of sugar from the diet without affecting intake of other nutrients. Drinking large volumes of APM-sweetened soda, in contrast to drinking HFCS-sweetened soda, reduces sugar intake and thus may facilitate the control of calorie intake and body weight.

  20. Associations between dairy consumption and body weight: a review of the evidence and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dougkas, Anestis; Reynolds, Christopher K; Givens, Ian D; Elwood, Peter C; Minihane, Anne M

    2011-06-01

    As the incidence of obesity is reaching 'epidemic' proportions, there is currently widespread interest in the impact of dietary components on body-weight and food intake regulation. The majority of data available from both epidemiological and intervention studies provide evidence of a negative but modest association between milk and dairy product consumption and BMI and other measures of adiposity, with indications that higher intakes result in increased weight loss and lean tissue maintenance during energy restriction. The purported physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of dairy constituents on adiposity are incompletely understood but may include effects on lipolysis, lipogeneis and fatty acid absorption. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates an impact of dairy constituents, in particular whey protein derivatives, on appetite regulation and food intake. The present review summarises available data and provides an insight into the likely contribution of dairy foods to strategies aimed at appetite regulation, weight loss or the prevention of weight gain.

  1. Heterogeneity of income and lifestyle determinants of body weight among adult women in Mexico, 2006.

    PubMed

    Colchero, M A; Sosa-Rubí, S G

    2012-07-01

    In Mexico, the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican women increased from 64% in 2000 to 72% in 2006. In this paper, we report our findings on the relation of women's body mass index (BMI) with income and lifestyles choices using data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2006. The two following approaches were executed. First, we estimated a two-stage least-squares regression to control for the potential endogeneity of income stratified by urban or rural residency. The second approach was aimed at exploring whether the determinants of weight varied among different weight levels using latent class models. Our findings from the two-stage least-squares regression show a positive non-significant association between income and BMI in the overall and urban samples but a significant positive relationship among rural women. Our results suggest that one unit increase in income is associated with 4.1% increase in body weight in rural areas. Estimates from the latent class model (LCM) show a positive but marginally significant association between income and BMI in the overall sample only in the class where there is a greater likelihood that women have normal weight or overweight compared to the class with a higher probability of being obese, but we also found a large association in rural areas for both classes. Lifestyle choices were associated with BMI. Results from the two-stage least-squares regressions reveal that more hours sitting per day and a higher percentage of expenditures in sugary beverages were associated with higher BMI levels. In the LCM, for women who eventually belong to the higher body weight class, lifestyles seem to matter more. Findings from this research suggest that policies to tackle the obesity epidemic among adult women should be different for women living in urban and rural areas and women with different weight levels.

  2. Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M P; Ricciardelli, L A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as the sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents (622 males, 644 females). In particular, it investigated weight gain and increased muscle, as well as weight loss. It was found that females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were more likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and muscle tone. Respondents with higher body mass index (BMI) evidenced greater body dissatisfaction and more weight loss strategies, but there were no differences between BMI groups in weight gain or strategies to increase muscles. Weight gain and strategies to increase muscles were more likely to be undertaken by older adolescents, but there were no grade level differences in weight loss. Media influences to alter weight, as well as feedback from mother, father, and both male and female peers, were greater for females. There were few grade level or BMI differences in regard to any of the sociocultural influences. The importance of these findings in terms of providing a better understanding of factors which may lead to a disturbed body image and body change disorders, particularly among adolescent boys, is discussed.

  3. Blood lead level association with lower body weight in NHANES 1999–2006

    SciTech Connect

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C.; Mevissen, Meike; Portier, Christopher J.

    2013-12-15

    Background: Lead exposure is associated with low birth-weight. The objective of this study is to determine whether lead exposure is associated with lower body weight in children, adolescents and adults. Methods: We analyzed data from NHANES 1999–2006 for participants aged ≥ 3 using multiple logistic and multivariate linear regression. Using age- and sex-standardized BMI Z-scores, overweight and obese children (ages 3–19) were classified by BMI ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentiles, respectively. The adult population (age ≥ 20) was classified as overweight and obese with BMI measures of 25–29.9 and ≥ 30, respectively. Blood lead level (BLL) was categorized by weighted quartiles. Results: Multivariate linear regressions revealed a lower BMI Z-score in children and adolescents when the highest lead quartile was compared to the lowest lead quartile (β (SE) = − 0.33 (0.07), p < 0.001), and a decreased BMI in adults (β (SE) = − 2.58 (0.25), p < 0.001). Multiple logistic analyses in children and adolescents found a negative association between BLL and the percentage of obese and overweight with BLL in the highest quartile compared to the lowest quartile (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.30–0.59; and OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.52–0.88, respectively). Adults in the highest lead quartile were less likely to be obese (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.35–0.50) compared to those in the lowest lead quartile. Further analyses with blood lead as restricted cubic splines, confirmed the dose-relationship between blood lead and body weight outcomes. Conclusions: BLLs are associated with lower body mass index and obesity in children, adolescents and adults. - Highlights: • NHANES analysis of BLL and body weight outcomes • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in children and adolescent • Increased BLL associated with decreased body weight in adults.

  4. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Body Weight Parameters in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Han-Yi; Wu, Shang-Liang; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Auricular acupressure is widely used in complementary and alternative medicine to reduce body weight, but little is known about the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of auricular acupressure on body weight parameters in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Eighty-six inpatients with schizophrenia were recruited from chronic wards in a psychiatric center. The participants were randomly divided into experimental (acupressure at 4 acupuncture sites: hunger, stomach, shenmen and endocrine) and control groups, and body weight parameters were determined weekly for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in mean body weight, waist circumference, or body fat percentage at the pretest or during the entire 8-week study period. Therefore, auricular acupressure did not cause body weight reduction in patients with chronic schizophrenia. PMID:22997527

  5. Perceiving the Black female body: Race and gender in police constructions of body weight

    PubMed Central

    Threadcraft, Shatema

    2015-01-01

    Representations of Black women in United States popular culture and public discourse frequently depict them stereotypically as fat and in need of policing for moral failures. As well, research has shown that Black women are perceived and constructed as non-prototypical for their gender. Taken together, observers within a White dominant social frame could be said to have difficulty correctly seeing Black women’s bodies and gender presentations. In this study we examined how Black women are seen in the context of New York City Police Department (NYPD) stops and searches (known as Stop & Frisk). We examined how officers categorized Black women’s body weight; investigated whether stops took place in public or private space; and assessed the extent to which body weight brought additional sanctions (i.e., being frisked). We used publicly available datasets from the NYPD’s Stop & Frisk program, in which stops numbering in the hundreds of thousands were recorded in yearly databases from 2003 to 2012. For each stop, officers record a number of attributes about the potential suspect and context, including race, gender, physique, date, and precinct. We conducted logistic regressions to model the odds of being categorized as heavy by race and gender, controlling for age, calculated BMI, location in a Black precinct, and season of the year. Results showed that across 10 years of data, Black women were more likely than White women to be labeled heavy. Black women were also much more likely than all other subgroups to be stopped inside rather than outside. Body size showed little association with stop locations or frisks. We interpret these findings as a reflection of Black women’s positioning with regard to racial and gender representations and the disciplinary projects of the state. PMID:26478750

  6. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  7. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  8. Association of Smoking with Body Weight in US High School Students, 1999-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan; Kolbe, Lloyd J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association of current smoking with body mass index (BMI) and perceived body weight among high school students in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999-2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results: Perceived body weight and BMI were associated with adolescents' current smoking. Adjusted odds ratios…

  9. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, reduces body fat without weight rebound like swimming exercise in mice.

    PubMed

    Haramizu, Satoshi; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2011-08-01

    Enhancement of energy expenditure and reducing energy intake are crucial for weight control. Capsiate, a non-pungent capsaicin analog, is known to suppress body fat accumulation and reduce body weight by enhancing of energy expenditure in both mice and humans. However, it is poorly understood whether suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate administration is equal to exercise or not. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of repeated administration of capsiate and exercise and to investigate the weight rebound after repeated capsiate administration and/or exercise. In the present study, we report that 2 weeks treatment of capsiate and exercise increased energy metabolism and suppressed body fat accumulation during 4 more weeks of ad libitum feeding. The body weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. The oxygen consumption was significanlty increased in capsiate and exercise groups than in the vehicle administered mice. In addition, the abdominal adipose tissue weight in capsiate and exercise groups was significantly lower than that of control group. These results indicate that suppressing body fat accumulation by capsiate intake is beneficial for maintaining an ideal body weight as exercise. PMID:21878735

  10. The BODY-Q: A Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Weight Loss and Body Contouring Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Stefan J.; Alderman, Amy; Soldin, Mark; Thoma, Achilles; Robson, Sam; Kaur, Manraj; Papas, Athanasios; Van Laeken, Nancy; Taylor, Valerie H.; Pusic, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test. Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change. Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test–retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales. Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring. PMID:27200241

  11. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  12. Novel monitoring method for the management of heart failure: combined measurement of body weight and bioimpedance index of body fat percentage.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hajime

    2009-11-01

    Although body weight scales are most commonly used to evaluate body fluid status during follow-up of definite heart failure (HF) patients, bioimpedance measurement methods have become increasingly available in the clinical setting. These monitoring methods, however, are typically used separately to evaluate body fluid status in HF patients. Kataoka developed a novel method for monitoring HF patients using a digital weight scale that incorporated a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. This method combines the well-known advantages of body weighing with a refined bioimpedance technique to monitor HF status and provides valid information regarding a change in a patient's body fluid status during follow-up for HF, such as predominant fluid versus fat weight gain or loss. This special report describes examples of the practical use of this method for monitoring and treating definite HF patients.

  13. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Baldock, Paul A; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS. PMID:26726071

  14. Snord116 is critical in the regulation of food intake and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yue; Purtell, Louise; Fu, Melissa; Lee, Nicola J.; Aepler, Julia; Zhang, Lei; Loh, Kim; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Baldock, Paul A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Campbell, Lesley V.; Herzog, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans. Recent clinical reports have suggested that micro-deletion of the Snord116 gene cluster can lead to PWS, however, the extent of the contributions of the encoded snoRNAs is unknown. Here we show that mice lacking Snord116 globally have low birth weight, increased body weight gain, energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Consistent with this, microarray analysis of hypothalamic gene expression revealed a significant alteration in feeding related pathways that was also confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Importantly, selective deletion of Snord116 only from NPY expressing neurons mimics almost exactly the global deletion phenotype including the persistent low birth weight, increased body weight gain in early adulthood, increased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. Mechanistically, the lack of Snord116 in NPY neurons leads to the upregulation of NPY mRNA consistent with the hyperphagic phenotype and suggests a critical role of Snord116 in the control of NPY neuronal functions that might be dysregulated in PWS. PMID:26726071

  15. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  16. Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

    2015-01-01

    Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

  17. Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

    2015-01-01

    Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases.

  18. [Influence of body weight on the prognosis of breast cancer survivors; nutritional approach after diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez San Felipe, María Jesús; Aguilar Martínez, Alicia; Manuel-y-Keenoy, Begoña

    2013-11-01

    Obesity combined with breast cancer is a public health problem, given the high incidence and prevalence of both diseases. The aim of this review is to determine the current status of research on the relationship between the body weight of breast cancer patients and their prognosis. Overweight and obesity at the time of diagnosis are associated with a worse prognosis in breast cancer survivors. Observational studies show that breast cancer mortality is 33% higher in obese than in non-obese survivors. Furthermore, weight gain after diagnosis is common in these patients and is even greater in those receiving chemotherapy. Weight gains of 2-8 kg are observed in 68% of patients 3 years after diagnosis. Each 5 kg increase in body weight is associated with a 13% increase in breast cancer specific mortality. The mechanisms that cause this weight gain are not totally known. A higher weight gain is also associated with higher the risk of co-morbid cardiometabolic diseases, which worsen the quality of life and shorten overall survival. On the other hand, excess adipose tissue is an indirect promoter of tumor cell proliferation and releases circulating estrogens. Hence, preventing excess weight is important in these patients. An important limitation is the small number of randomised controlled trials investigating the type of diet that could be recommended specifically to breast cancer survivors. The evidence from current studies suggests that a healthy diet, low in fat and simple sugars and with a high proportion of fruit, vegetables and wholegrain products, has the potential to reduce morbidity and the risk of recurrence significantly, thus improving prognosis and quality of life in the long term.

  19. Effects of chronic forced circadian desynchronization on body weight and metabolism in male mice.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Leandro P; Alzamendi, Ana; Giovambattista, Andrés; Chiesa, Juan J; Golombek, Diego A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic functions are synchronized by the circadian clock setting daily patterns of food intake, nutrient delivery, and behavioral activity. Here, we study the impact of chronic jet-lag (CJL) on metabolism, and test manipulations aimed to overcome potential alterations. We recorded weight gain in C57Bl/6 mice under chronic 6 h advances or delays of the light-dark cycle every 2 days (ChrA and ChrD, respectively). We have previously reported ChrA, but not ChrD, to induce forced desynchronization of locomotor activity rhythms in mice (Casiraghi et al. 2012). Body weight was rapidly increased under ChrA, with animals tripling the mean weight gain observed in controls by day 10, and doubling it by day 30 (6% vs. 2%, and 15% vs. 7%, respectively). Significant increases in retroperitoneal and epidydimal adipose tissue masses (172% and 61%, respectively), adipocytes size (28%), and circulating triglycerides (39%) were also detected. Daily patterns of food and water intake were abolished under ChrA In contrast, ChrD had no effect on body weight. Wheel-running, housing of animals in groups, and restriction of food availability to hours of darkness prevented abnormal increase in body weight under ChrA Our findings suggest that the observed alterations under ChrA may arise either from a direct effect of circadian disruption on metabolism, from desynchronization between feeding and metabolic rhythms, or both. Direction of shifts, timing of feeding episodes, and other reinforcing signals deeply affect the outcome of metabolic function under CJL Such features should be taken into account in further studies of shift working schedules in humans. PMID:27125665

  20. Caloric Restriction Induces Changes in Insulin and Body Weight Measurements That Are Inversely Associated with Subsequent Weight Regain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Monica H. T.; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A.; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Saris, Wim H. M.; McNicholas, Paul D.; Mutch, David M.; DiOGenes, on behalf of

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. Methodology The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Principal Findings Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman’s ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. Conclusions/Significance LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss. PMID:22905179

  1. Baseline anandamide levels and body weight impact the weight loss effect of CB1 receptor antagonism in male rats.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Karpefors, Martin; Hansson, Göran I; Carlsson, Björn

    2015-04-01

    The individual weight loss response to obesity treatment is diverse. Here we test the hypothesis that the weight loss response to the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant is influenced by endogenous levels of receptor agonists. We show that baseline anandamide levels and body weight independently contribute to predict the treatment response to rimonabant in rodents, demonstrating that addition of biomarkers related to mode of action is relevant for a personalized health care approach to obesity treatment.

  2. Neuropeptides and anticipatory changes in behaviour and physiology: seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Julian G; Tups, Alexander

    2003-11-01

    The Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is a powerful model of physiological body weight regulation. This seasonal model offers the potential to distinguish between the compensatory neuroendocrine systems that defend body weight against imposed negative energy balance, and those that are involved in the programming of the level of body weight that will be defended-a seasonally appropriate body weight. Of the known, studied, components of the hypothalamic energy balance system, the anorexogenic peptide, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), is the only candidate where gene expression changes in a manner consistent with a role in initiating or sustaining photoperiod-induced differences in body weight trajectory. Siberian hamsters effect a reversible biannual switch in leptin sensitivity in which only short day (SD)-acclimated hamsters that have undergone a reduction in body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin are sensitive to peripheral exogenous leptin. The suppressor of cytokine signalling protein, SOCS3, appears to be the molecular correlate of this seasonal sensitivity.

  3. Body weight prediction in early fossil hominids: towards a taxon-"independent" approach.

    PubMed

    Hartwig-Scherer, S

    1993-09-01

    The choice of a model taxon is crucial when investigating fossil hominids that clearly do not resemble any extant species (such as Australopithecus) or show significant differences from modern human proportions (such as Homo habilis OH 62). An "interhominoid" combination is not adequate either, as scaling with body weight is strongly divergent in African apes and humans for most skeletal predictors investigated here. Therefore, in relation to a study of seven long bone dimensions, a new taxon-"independent" approach is suggested. For a given predictor, its taxonomic "independence" is restricted to the size range over which the body weight-predictor relationship for African apes and humans converges. Different predictors produce converging body weight estimates (BWEs) for different size ranges: taxon-"independent" estimates can be calculated for small- and medium-sized hominids (e.g., for weights below 50 kg) using femoral and tibial dimensions, whereas upper limb bones provide converging results for large hominids (above 50 kg). If the remains of Australopithecus afarensis really belong to one species, the relationship of male (above 60 kg) to female body weight (approximately 30 kg) does not fall within the observed range of modern hominoids. Considering Sts 14 (22 kg) to represent a small-sized Australopithecus africanus, the level of encephalization lies well above that of extant apes. If OH 62 (approximately 25 kg), with limb proportions less human-like than those of australopithecines, indeed represents Homo habilis (which has been questioned previously), an increase in relative brain size would have occurred well before full bipedality, an assumption running counter to current assumptions concerning early human evolution. PMID:8238289

  4. Abdominal fat weight and thickness as predictors of total body fat in broilers.

    PubMed

    Sonaiya, E B

    1985-10-01

    In two experiments broilers of both sexes from two strains were reared to 16 weeks of age to determine how total body fat could be estimated and predicted from some carcase traits. In the first experiment, age, carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness were found to be significant factors in the prediction of total body fat weight estimated from abdominal fat weight. In the second experiment abdominal fat weight was the best predictor of total body fat weight, obtained by ether extraction of the minced whole carcase. Inclusion of abdominal fat weight in the prediction equation after carcase weight and abdominal fat thickness significantly improved the regression. If the carcase cannot be weighed and abdominal fat weight is not available, because of the more laborious nature of its determination, then the measurement of abdominal fat thickness can be useful in predicting the total body fat content.

  5. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  6. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  7. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-07

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch.

  8. Overground walking speed changes when subjected to body weight support conditions for nonimpaired and post stroke individuals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that body weight support (BWS) has the potential to improve gait speed for individuals post-stroke. However, body weight support also reduces the optimal walking speed at which energy use is minimized over the gait cycle indicating that BWS should reduce walking speed capability. Methods Nonimpaired subjects and subjects post-stroke walked at a self-selected speed over a 15 m walkway. Body weight support (BWS) was provided to subjects at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of the subject's weight while they walked overground using a robotic body weight support system. Gait speed, cadence, and average step length were calculated for each subject using recorded data on their time to walk 10 m and the number of steps taken. Results When subjected to greater levels of BWS, self-selected walking speed decreased for the nonimpaired subjects. However, subjects post-stroke showed an average increase of 17% in self-selected walking speed when subjected to some level of BWS compared to the 0% BWS condition. Most subjects showed this increase at the 10% BWS level. Gait speed increases corresponded to an increase in step length, but not cadence. Conclusions The BWS training environment results in decreased self-selected walking speed in nonimpaired individuals, however self-selected overground walking speed is facilitated when provided with a small percentage of body weight support for people post-stroke. PMID:20149244

  9. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  10. Estimation of body weight and development of a body weight score for adult equids using morphometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Martinson, K L; Coleman, R C; Rendahl, A K; Fang, Z; McCue, M E

    2014-05-01

    Excessive BW has become a major health issue in the equine (Equus caballus) industry. The objectives were to determine if the addition of neck circumference and height improved existing BW estimation equations, to develop an equation for estimation of ideal BW, and to develop a method for assessing the likelihood of being overweight in adult equids. Six hundred and twenty-nine adult horses and ponies who met the following criteria were measured and weighed at 2 horse shows in September 2011 in Minnesota: age ≥ 3 yr, height ≥ 112 cm, and nonpregnant. Personnel assessed BCS on a scale of 1 to 9 and measured wither height at the third thoracic vertebra, body length from the point of shoulder to the point of the buttock, neck and girth circumference, and weight using a portable livestock scale. Individuals were grouped into breed types on the basis of existing knowledge and were confirmed with multivariate ANOVA analysis of morphometric measurements. Equations for estimated and ideal BW were developed using linear regression modeling. For estimated BW, the model was fit using all individuals and all morphometric measurements. For ideal BW, the model was fit using individuals with a BCS of 5; breed type, height, and body length were considered as these measurements are not affected by adiposity. A BW score to assess the likelihood of being overweight was developed by fitting a proportional odds logistic regression model on BCS using the difference between ideal and estimated BW, the neck to height ratio, and the girth to height ratio as predictors; this score was then standardized using the data from individuals with a BCS of 5. Breed types included Arabian, stock, and pony. Mean (± SD) BCS was 5.6 ± 0.9. BW (kg) was estimated by taking [girth (cm)(1.48)6 × length (cm)(0.554) × height (cm)(0.599) × neck (cm)(0.173)]/3,596, 3,606, and 3,441 for Arabians, ponies, and stock horses, respectively (R(2) = 0.92; mean-squared error (MSE) = 22 kg). Ideal BW (kg) was

  11. The role of high-protein diets in body weight management and health.

    PubMed

    Te Morenga, Lisa; Mann, Jim

    2012-08-01

    Studies examining the health benefits of high-protein diets typical of most affluent and many developing countries are not consistent. Prospective epidemiological studies relating dietary protein to clinical and metabolic endpoints suggest increased weight gain and increased risk of diabetes amongst those with a high protein intake and an increased risk of cancer with high intakes of red meat, but lower blood pressure and possibly a reduced risk of heart disease with higher protein intakes. The potential for high-protein diets to confer greater benefit than other diets has been examined using ad libitum and energy restricted diets. Of greatest interest have been the comparisons between high-protein and high-carbohydrate diets. Many trials have reported greater weight loss especially in the context of ad libitum diets over the short-to medium-term, sparing of lean body mass, lowering of triglyceride levels, improved HDL: total cholesterol ratio and improved glycaemic control. Limited data regarding insulin sensitivity are less consistent. A major difficulty in interpreting the results of these studies is that carbohydrate quality has not been taken into account. Furthermore, longer term comparisons of weight reducing diets differing in macronutrient composition have reported similar outcomes, suggesting that compliance is a more important consideration. Nevertheless dietary patterns with high-protein intakes are appropriate for weight reduction and weight maintenance and may be useful for those who have high triglyceride levels and other features of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Relationships between fertility and postpartum changes in body condition and body weight in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Amundson, M C; Hackbart, K S; Fuenzalida, M J; Herlihy, M M; Ayres, H; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Guenther, J N; Grummer, R R; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy status and fertility in dairy cattle was retrospectively analyzed by comparing fertility with body condition score (BCS) near artificial insemination (AI; experiment 1), early postpartum changes in BCS (experiment 2), and postpartum changes in body weight (BW; experiment 3). To reduce the effect of cyclicity status, all cows were synchronized with Double-Ovsynch protocol before timed AI. In experiment 1, BCS of lactating dairy cows (n = 1,103) was evaluated near AI. Most cows (93%) were cycling at initiation of the breeding Ovsynch protocol (first GnRH injection). A lower percentage pregnant to AI (P/AI) was found in cows with lower (≤ 2.50) versus higher (≥ 2.75) BCS (40.4 vs. 49.2%). In experiment 2, lactating dairy cows on 2 commercial dairies (n = 1,887) were divided by BCS change from calving until the third week postpartum. Overall, P/AI at 70-d pregnancy diagnosis differed dramatically by BCS change and was least for cows that lost BCS, intermediate for cows that maintained BCS, and greatest for cows that gained BCS [22.8% (180/789), 36.0% (243/675), and 78.3% (331/423), respectively]. Surprisingly, a difference existed between farms with BCS change dramatically affecting P/AI on one farm and no effect on the other farm. In experiment 3, lactating dairy cows (n = 71) had BW measured weekly from the first to ninth week postpartum and then had superovulation induced using a modified Double-Ovsynch protocol. Cows were divided into quartiles (Q) by percentage of BW change (Q1 = least change; Q4 = most change) from calving until the third week postpartum. No effect was detected of quartile on number of ovulations, total embryos collected, or percentage of oocytes that were fertilized; however, the percentage of fertilized oocytes that were transferable embryos was greater for cows in Q1, Q2, and Q3 than Q4 (83.8, 75.2, 82.6, and 53.2%, respectively). In addition, percentage of degenerated embryos was least for cows in Q1, Q2

  13. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors. PMID:26965769

  14. Measurements and profiles of body weight misperceptions among Taiwanese teenagers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Liou, Yiing Mei; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Chien, Li-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study between December 1, 2006 and February 15, 2007. A total of 29,313 children and adolescents studying in grades 4-12 were enrolled in this nationwide, cross-sectional survey, and they were asked to complete questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression using maximum likelihood estimates was used. The prevalence of body weight misperception was 43.2% (26.4% overestimation and 16.8% underestimation). Factors associated with the underestimated perception of weight among overweight children were parental obesity, dietary control for weight loss, breakfast consumption, self-induced vomiting as a weight control strategy, fried food consumption, engaging in vigorous physical activities, and sleeping for >8 hours per day (odds ratios=0.86, 0.42, 0.88, 1.37, 1.13, 1.11, and 1.17, respectively). In conclusion, the early establishment of an accurate perception of body weight may mitigate unhealthy behaviors.

  15. Vaccination and triploidy increase relative heart weight in farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Fraser, T W K; Mayer, I; Hansen, T; Poppe, T T; Skjaeraasen, J E; Koppang, E O; Fjelldal, P G

    2015-02-01

    Heart morphology is particularly plastic in teleosts and differs between farmed and wild Atlantic salmon. However, little is known about how different culture practices and sex affect heart morphology. This study investigated how vaccination, triploidy and sex affected heart size and heart morphology (ventricle shape, angle of the bulbus arteriosus) in farmed Atlantic salmon for 18 months following vaccination (from c. 50-3000 g body weight). In addition, hearts were examined histologically after 7 months in sea water. All fish sampled were sexually immature. Vaccinated fish had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight and a more triangular ventricle than unvaccinated fish, suggesting a greater cardiac workload. Irrespective of time, triploids had significantly heavier hearts relative to body weight, a more acute angle of the bulbus arteriosus and less fat deposition in the epicardium than diploids. The ventricle was also more triangular in triploids than diploids at seawater transfer. Sex had transient effects on the angle of the bulbus arteriosus, but no effect on relative heart weight or ventricle shape. From a morphological perspective, the results indicate that vaccination and triploidy increase cardiac workload in farmed Atlantic salmon.

  16. Overestimation of own body weights in female university students: associations with lifestyles, weight control behaviors and depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miso; Lee, Hongmie

    2010-12-01

    The study aimed to analyze the lifestyles, weight control behavior, dietary habits, and depression of female university students. The subjects were 532 students from 8 universities located in 4 provinces in Korea. According to percent ideal body weight, 33 (6.4%), 181 (34.0%), 283 (53.2%), 22 (4.1%) and 13 (2.5%) were severely underweight, underweight, normal, overweight and obese, respectively, based on self-reported height and weight. As much as 64.1% and only 2.4%, respectively, overestimated and underestimated their body weight status. Six overweight subjects were excluded from overestimation group for the purpose of this study, resulting in overestimation group consisting of only underweight and normal weight subjects. Compared to those from the normal perception group, significantly more subjects from the overestimation group were currently smoking (P = 0.017) and drank more often than once a week (P = 0.015), without any significant differences in dietary habits. Despite similar BMIs, subjects who overestimated their own weight statuses had significantly higher weight dissatisfaction (P = 0.000), obesity stress (P = 0.000), obsession to lose weight (P = 0.007) and depression (P = 0.018). Also, more of them wanted to lose weight (P = 0.000), checked their body weights more often than once a week (P = 0.025) and had dieting experiences using 'reducing meal size' (P = 0.012), 'reducing snacks' (P = 0.042) and 'taking prescribed pills' (P = 0.032), and presented 'for a wider range of clothes selection' as the reason for weight loss (P = 0.039), although none was actually overweight or obese. Unlike the case with overestimating one's own weight, being overweight was associated with less drinking (P = 0.035) and exercising more often (P = 0.001) and for longer (P = 0.001) and healthier reasons for weight control (P = 0.002), despite no differences in frequency of weighing and depression. The results showed that weight overestimation, independent of weight status

  17. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars.

  18. Treatment with iron increases weight gain and psychomotor development.

    PubMed Central

    Aukett, M A; Parks, Y A; Scott, P H; Wharton, B A

    1986-01-01

    Previous work at this hospital and elsewhere has shown that anaemia in toddlers is common and is associated with psychomotor delay. It seemed unclear, however, whether this association was cause and effect or merely due to the same underprivileged environment. A double blind randomised intervention study was, therefore, performed. After an initial assessment 97 children with anaemia (haemoglobin 8-11 g/dl) aged 17-19 months received either iron and vitamin C or vitamin C only (control group) for two months and were then reassessed. The children who received the iron had an increased rate of weight gain and more of them achieved the expected rate of development. While iron deficiency anaemia is unlikely to be the only factor in the slower development of children living in underprivileged circumstances, it can at least be easily identified and treated. Routine child health surveillance in such areas should include a haemoglobin determination. PMID:2429622

  19. Perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women: a qualitative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Befort, Christie A; Thomas, Janet L; Daley, Christine M; Rhode, Paula C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and beliefs about body size, weight, and weight loss among obese African American women in order to form a design of weight loss intervention with this target population. Six focus groups were conducted at a community health clinic. Participants were predominantly middle-aged with a mean Body Mass Index of 40.3 +/- 9.2 kg/m(2). Findings suggest that participants (a) believe that people can be attractive and healthy at larger sizes; (b) still feel dissatisfied with their weight and self-conscious about their bodies; (c) emphasize eating behavior as the primary cause for weight gain; (d) view pregnancy, motherhood, and caregiving as major precursors to weight gain; (e) view health as the most important reason to lose weight; (f) have mixed experiences and expectations for social support for weight loss; and (g) prefer treatments that incorporate long-term lifestyle modification rather than fad diets or medication.

  20. Increased Body Mass Index may lead to Hyperferritinemia Irrespective of Body Iron Stores

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Faiza; Memon, Abdul Shakoor; Fatima, Syeda Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obesity causes subclinical inflammation which results in the secretion of various bioactive peptides that are key players in metabolic regulation of iron homeostasis. We sought to establish correlation of one such peptide (ferritin) with marker of subclinical inflammation (CRP) in various BMI. Methods: Total 150 subjects between the ages of 20-60 years were included in the cross-sectional study conducted at Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Post Graduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Pakistan. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by weight (kg) /height (m2). The given values were used as reference for Group A: normal weight (18.0-22.9 kg/m2), Group B: overweight (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), Group C: obese (>25.0 kg/m2) according to South Asian criteria. Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, serum Transferrin Saturation, serum Ferritin and C-reactive protein were measured by commercially available kits. ANNOVA with Tukey’s minimum significant difference and Spearman Rho correlation were used considering p<0.05 significant. Results: The results identified an increased serum Ferritin and CRP in obese versus lean subjects (p < 0.001). BMI showed significantly positive correlation with serum CRP (r = 0.815; p-value < 0.01) and Ferritin (r = 0.584; p-value < 0.01). However, serum Iron levels and Transferrin saturation decreased in obese versus normal weight individuals (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This integrated new data reveals that individuals with high BMI had high levels of Serum Ferritin despite low levels of iron with high levels of C- reactive protein. This might be caused due to inflammatory conditions prevailing in the presence of increased adipose tissue. PMID:26870128

  1. Older Subjects without Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis: Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Fahlman, Lissa; Sangeorzan, Emmeline; Chheda, Nimisha

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, conservatively affects 27 million American adults. While nearly all joints can be affected, knee osteoarthritis is of particular interest as it has the potential to severely limit mobility. Despite its ubiquity, not everyone is affected. Few studies on the characteristics of these persons exist. This descriptive paper examined older subjects without radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA) at age 78, describing their height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Oldest subjects without RKOA at age 78 (n=143) were selected from the parent Clearwater Osteoarthritis Study, conducted from 1988–2009. Recalled weight and height for ages 25 and 45, as well as current weight and height were collected via questionnaire. Current measurements were also taken. BMI was derived. Absence of RKOA was determined using Kellgren-Lawrence criteria. Demographics: mostly female (72%), all Caucasian, better educated than the average US citizen, and more subjects lived with others. At all three life-stages, weights and BMI were lower, while heights were comparable to US 2000 figures. BMI was in the “normal” category at age 25 and in the “overweight” category at age 78. Weight was under reported and height was over reported, but by less than the general population. Both the increase in weight and decrease in height with age were statistically significant. Absence of RKOA appears to be related to lower weights, average heights, and lower BMI, relative to population norms at all three life-stages. These findings also suggest that the relationship may be more complicated. Higher BMI is ubiquitously recognized as a risk factor for RKOA, yet the average BMI of the subjects without RKOA was in the “overweight” category at age 78. A possible explanation may be an “inflated” BMI based on decrease in height, not just increase in weight. PMID:23936744

  2. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight.

  3. Body weight and health-related quality of life in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; Gil-Lacruz, Ana

    2013-02-01

    Obesity poses important burdens not only on the individuals whose quality of life is reduced but on national welfare systems that have to face growing premature mortality rates, increase healthcare expenditures to treat obesity-related diseases, and earmark vast amounts of healthcare resources for prevention. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the relationship between excess body weight and different dimensions of health-related quality of life for people 16 years and older and to identify the health dimensions most affected by excess weight. We have drawn data from the Catalonia Health Survey (2006). Our results reveal a relationship between excess weight and health-related quality of life. Even after controlling for socio-economic status and objective health variables, excess weight is shown to have a significant negative effect on health-related quality of life. Subjects responses revealed that the negative effect of excess weight was felt the strongest in the health-related quality of life dimensions of mobility and pain/discomfort. Our results indicate there are important differences among gender and age groups. Women and older people are more likely to suffer from the negative consequences of excess weight. PMID:21853339

  4. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    PubMed

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, P<0.001) and a quadratic trend (β=0.02, P<0.01) over time, but no group difference (β=-0.23, P=0.08). Analysis of the 365 days of self-reported body weight for each participant determined that weight loss was greater over the study period in the WEV+ group than in the WEV group, corresponding to weight changes of -0.67 kg and 1.00 kg, respectively, and an 87% greater weight loss (β=-0.01, P<0.01). Overall compliance to daily tracking was 76%±5%. Daily self-monitoring of weight, physical activity, and F/V consumption is a feasible and effective approach for maintaining weight loss for 12 months, and daily self-monitoring of increased water consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits.

  5. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 12, and 18 mo. Fasting serum lipid panel, insulin, glucose, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 mo. Both groups lost weight after 3 mo (P=0.0087 for high vegetable diet and P<0.0001 for energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pweight loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight. PMID:19234056

  6. Strategies to increase vegetable or reduce energy and fat intake induce weight loss in adults.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Valentine, Ashley R; Zhang, Zhumin; Whigham, Leah D; Lai, HuiChuan J; Atkinson, Richard L

    2009-05-01

    For obese individuals seeking to optimize health and well-being, healthy dietary strategies are important. Vegetables and fruits contribute to a healthy diet, and increased consumption may cause weight reduction by displacing foods high in energy and fat. The objective of this study was to determine if advising high vegetable (8 servings) and moderate fruit (2-3 servings) consumption would result in weight reduction in obese individuals. We compared this to advising a more traditional strategy of reducing daily energy intake by 500 kcal (2.1 MJ)/d and limiting energy from fat to Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and after 3, 12, and 18 mo. Fasting serum lipid panel, insulin, glucose, hematocrit, and C-reactive protein were measured at baseline, 3, and 12 mo. Both groups lost weight after 3 mo (P=0.0087 for high vegetable diet and P<0.0001 for energy reduction diet), and the energy and fat reduction diet resulted in lower weight over time (P<0.0001, treatment effect). Total cholesterol and cholesterol:HDL decreased after 3 mo in both groups (Pweight loss at 3 mo, but only the group following the caloric and fat reduction advice maintained weight loss at the 12- and 18-mo follow-up assessments. Nonetheless, the group following the high vegetable advice did not regain weight above baseline. In conclusion, traditional messages to reduce calories and fat are important, and increasing vegetable intake can assist individuals to maintain weight.

  7. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P<0.01). Moreover, these two estimates were basically the same and showed no significant differences from each other ( P>0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  8. Accurate measurement of body weight and food intake in environmentally enriched male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Beale, Kylie E L; Murphy, Kevin G; Harrison, Eleanor K; Kerton, Angela J; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory animals are crucial in the study of energy homeostasis. In particular, rats are used to study alterations in food intake and body weight. To accurately record food intake or energy expenditure it is necessary to house rats individually, which can be stressful for social animals. Environmental enrichment may reduce stress and improve welfare in laboratory rodents. However, the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake and thus experimental outcome is unknown. We aimed to determine the effect of environmental enrichment on food intake, body weight, behavior and fecal and plasma stress hormones in male Wistar rats. Singly housed 5-7-week-old male rats were given either no environmental enrichment, chew sticks, a plastic tube of 67 mm internal diameter, or both chew sticks and a tube. No differences in body weight or food intake were seen over a 7-day period. Importantly, the refeeding response following a 24-h fast was unaffected by environmental enrichment. Rearing, a behavior often associated with stress, was significantly reduced in all enriched groups compared to controls. There was a significant increase in fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) in animals housed with both forms of enrichment compared to controls at the termination of the study, suggesting enrichment reduces hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in singly housed rats. In summary, environmental enrichment does not influence body weight and food intake in singly housed male Wistar rats and may therefore be used to refine the living conditions of animals used in the study of energy homeostasis without compromising experimental outcome.

  9. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  10. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon

    2015-11-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress.

  11. The Association between Body Weight Misperception and Psychosocial Factors in Korean Adult Women Less than 65 Years Old with Normal Weight

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonhee; Choi, Eunjoo; Shin, Doosup; Park, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    With society's increasing interest in weight control and body weight, we investigated the association between psychological factors and body image misperception in different age groups of adult Korean women with a normal weight. On a total of 4,600 women from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2009, a self-report questionnaire was used to assess body weight perception and 3 psychological factors: self-rated health status, stress recognition, and depressed mood. Through logistic regression analysis, a poor self-rated health status (P = 0.001) and a higher recognition of stress (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with body image misperception and this significance remained after controlling for several sociodemographic (Model 1: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.00), health behavior and psychological factors (Model 2: aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.29-1.96; Model 3: aOR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.84). Especially, highly stressed middle-aged (50-64 yr) women were more likely to have body image misperception (Model 2: aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.30-6.26). However, the correlation between depressed mood and self-reported body weight was inconsistent between different age groups. In conclusion, self-rated health status and a high recognition rate of severe stress were related to body weight misperception which could suggest tailored intervention to adult women especially women in younger age or low self-rated health status or a high recognition rate of severe stress. PMID:26538998

  12. Adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pittler, M H; Schmidt, K; Ernst, E

    2005-05-01

    Herbal weight-loss supplements are marketed with claims of effectiveness. Our earlier systematic review identified data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials for a number of herbal supplements. The aim of this systematic review was to assess all clinical evidence of adverse events of herbal food supplements for body weight reduction for which effectiveness data from rigorous clinical trials exist. We assessed Ephedra sinica, Garcinia cambogia, Paullinia cupana, guar gum, Plantago psyllium, Ilex paraguariensis and Pausinystalia yohimbe. Literature searches were conducted on Medline, Embase, Amed and The Cochrane Library. Data were also requested from the spontaneous reporting scheme of the World Health Organization. We hand-searched relevant medical journals and our own files. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. The results show that adverse events including hepatic injury and death have been reported with the use of some herbal food supplements. For herbal ephedra and ephedrine-containing food supplements an increased risk of psychiatric, autonomic or gastrointestinal adverse events and heart palpitations has been reported. In conclusion, adverse events are reported for a number of herbal food supplements, which are used for reducing body weight. Although the quality of the data does not justify definitive attribution of causality in most cases, the reported risks are sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use of most of the reviewed herbal weight-loss supplements. Exceptions are Garcinia cambogia and yerba mate, which merit further investigation.

  13. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  14. Considering the factors of gender and body weight in the promotion of healthy behavior among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Yang, Rea-Jane

    2005-09-01

    Obesity among adolescents is increasing in both developed and developing countries. However, previous studies have paid little attention to the roles that gender and body weight variables play in health-related behavior. This article examines the effects of these two variables on health-related behavior in Taiwanese adolescents. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used with three body weight categories (underweight, average and overweight) and two gender categories (female and male). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Student's t test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc test. The results showed that average weight adolescents scored significantly higher than their overweight peers in the three dimensions of social support, health responsibility, and exercise behavior. Average weight adolescents also scored higher than the underweight group in the dimension of health responsibility. Girls scored significantly better than boys in five out of the total six health-related behavior - scoring lower only in the exercise dimension. These findings should sound an alarm for all public health professionals to take heed to what is happening to our youth. School and family health promotion counseling should be encouraged for overweight adolescents to improve their exercise and lifestyle habits. Based on the findings, school health promotion programs should focus on gender differences. Girls, in particular, need encouragement to improve their exercise habits.

  15. Sensitivity of joint moments to changes in walking speed and body-weight-support are interdependent and vary across joints.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Saryn R; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the effect of simultaneous changes in body-weight-support level and walking speed on mean peak internal joint moments at the ankle, knee and hip. We hypothesized that observed changes in these joint moments would be approximately linear with both body-weight-support and walking speed and would be similar across joints. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 8 unimpaired adult subjects walking on an instrumented treadmill while wearing a dynamically controlled overhead support harness. Subjects walked with four levels of body-weight-support (0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of bodyweight) at three walking speeds (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 statures/s, ranging on average from 0.7 to 1.4m/s). Data were used to calculate mean peak joint moments across subjects for each condition. In general, subjects' mean peak joint moments decreased linearly with decreasing walking speed and with increasing body-weight-support, except the knee extension moment, which showed a quadratic relationship with walking speed and no significant change with body-weight-support. All joint moments, with the exception of knee extension, showed a significant interaction effect between walking speed and body-weight-support, indicating that the sensitivity of these joint moments to changes in these variables was interdependent. In most cases, the ankle and hip extension moments showed the largest sensitivity to walking speed. The ankle moment was observed to have the greatest sensitivity to body-weight-support. This finding, that altering walking speed and body-weight-support level results in non-uniform changes in peak moments across joints, suggests that further research is warranted to establish the set of combined speed and support conditions that produce motor patterns supportive of normal gait retraining.

  16. Outcome of low body weight (<2.2 kg) infants undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Akhter; Ismail, Sameh R.; Kabbani, Mohamed S.; Abu-Sulaiman, Riyadh M.; Najm, Hani K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Infants with low body weight (LBW) following cardiac surgery are a major challenge for the post cardiac surgery care unit. It has been observed that post surgery outcome for LBW infants is worse compared to the outcome of normal body weight infants. A study was conducted to compare post operative course and outcome of infants with body weight of 2.2 kg or less against infants with normal body weight who underwent similar cardiac surgeries. Methods A retrospective review was performed for all infants below 2.2 kg who underwent cardiac operations at King Abdulaziz Cardiac Center from January 2001 to October 2011. Cases with LBW (Group A) were compared with matching group (Group B) of normal body weight infants who had similar cardiac surgeries and matching surgical risk category. The demographic, ICU parameters, complications, and short-term outcome of both groups were analyzed. Results Two groups were formed, with 37 patients in Group A, and 39 patients in Group B. Except for weight (2.13 ± 0.08 kg in Group A vs 3.17 ± 0.2 kg in Group B), there was no statistical difference in demographic data between both groups. Cardiac procedures included coarctation repair, arterial switch, ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, tetralogy of Fallot repair, systemic to pulmonary shunt and Norwood procedures. Patients in Group A had statistically significant difference from Group B in terms of bypass time (p = 0.01), duration of inotropes (p = 0.01), duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.004), number of re-intubations (p = 0.015), PCICU length of stay (p = 0.007), and hospital mortality: 13.5% in Group A vs 0% in Group B (p value 0.02). Conclusion Patients with LBW (<2.2 kg) underwent cardiac surgery with overall satisfactory results, but with increased risk of ICU morbidity and mortality. PMID:24954985

  17. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  18. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F; Soldin, Mark

    2014-03-27

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  19. Weight-bearing, aerobic exercise increases markers of bone formation during short-term weight loss in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Pamela S; Rector, R Scott; Thomas, Tom R

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the impact of weight-bearing, aerobic exercise- and diet-induced weight loss on markers of bone turnover during a larger study of changes in metabolic fitness during short-term weight reduction using a repeated-measures, within-subject experimental design. Subjects (N = 19) underwent 6 weeks of energy restriction (reduced by approximately 3140 kJ/d) and aerobic exercise ( approximately 1675 kJ/d, walking or jogging at 60% maximum oxygen consumption) to induce a 5% reduction in body weight. Bone turnover markers and hormones were measured in serum collected at baseline and after 6 weeks of weight loss. Despite a 5% reduction in body weight at week 6, markers of bone formation, osteocalcin, and bone alkaline phosphatase, were significantly increased, and resorption markers, C-terminal cross-links of type I collagen and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, were unchanged after 6 weeks of energy restriction and exercise. The concentration of leptin was significantly reduced after weight loss, but insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol levels were unaffected. In conclusion, weight-bearing, aerobic exercise training may favorably affect the balance between bone resorption and formation during weight loss.

  20. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  1. Progress in the molecular understanding of central regulation of body weight by estrogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens can act in the brain to prevent body weight gain. Tremendous research efforts have been focused on estrogen physiology in the brain in the context of body weight control; estrogen receptors and the related signals have been attractive targets for development of new obesity therapies. The o...

  2. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  3. Change in Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Female College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Black, David R.; Blue, Carolyn L.; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine diet, physical activity, and body-weight changes associated with relocation from home to university. Methods: Diet, fitness/physical activity, body-weight parameters and self-efficacy were assessed among 54 freshman women upon college entry and 5 months later. Results: Although caloric intake significantly decreased, a…

  4. Effects of altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth.

    PubMed

    Giussani, D A; Phillips, P S; Anstee, S; Barker, D J

    2001-04-01

    The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. This study tested the hypothesis that in highland regions, high altitude rather than maternal economic status is associated with reduced and altered fetal growth by investigating the effects of high altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth in Bolivia. Bolivia is geographically and socioeconomically unique. It contains several highland (>3500 m above sea level) and lowland (<500 m) cities that are inhabited by very economically divergent populations. Birth weight, body length, and head circumference were compared between a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of La Paz (3649 m; largest high-altitude city) and a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of Santa Cruz (437 m; largest low-altitude city). In addition, the frequency distribution across the continuum of birth weights was plotted for babies born from high- and low-income families in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Mean birth weights were lower in babies from La Paz than in babies from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. The cumulative frequency curve across all compiled birth weights was shifted to the left in babies from La Paz compared with those from Santa Cruz, regardless of economic status. The frequency of low birth weight (<2500 g) was higher in babies from La Paz than from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. In addition, at high altitude but not at low altitude, high income was associated with an increase in the head circumference:birth weight ratio. These findings suggest that high altitude rather than economic status is associated with low birth weight and altered body shape at birth in

  5. Effect of cigarette smoke on body weight, food intake and reproductive organs in adult albino rats.

    PubMed

    Audi, Sumedha S; Abraham, Marjorie E; Borker, Abhaya S

    2006-07-01

    One hour daily exposure to cigarette smoke for two months significantly decreased the body weight and food intake in male and female albino rats. The latency for conception increased significantly and the litter size decreased. Mortality rate per litter increased and grayish discoloration of the skin in the experimental group was the only congenital anomaly seen. Testes and ovaries showed a significant decrease in weight. The stroma of the ovaries were occupied by very few Graafian follicles. Testes showed disruption of the normal orderly progression of the spermatogonia. The tubules showed only one layer of spermatogonia and very few germinal cells. The number of sperms was less in the testes. The results show that exposure to cigarette smoke is detrimental to the reproductivity in both, male and female albino rats.

  6. Mid-winter food use and body weights of mallards and wood ducks in Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delnicki, D.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    We obtained esophageal food samples from 311 mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 94 wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and body weights from 2,118 mallards and 315 wood ducks in western Mississippi during December and January 1979-83. On average, mallards ingested 3.0% animal food, principally aquatic invertebrates, and 97.0% plant food. Rice, soybeans, and seeds of 'moist soil' plants provided 41.3, 41.6, and 10-11% of the total food intake. Wood ducks ingested nearly 100% plant food, of which 23.4% was soybeans and 74.3% was acorns from Nuttall (Quercus nuttallii), water (Q. nigra), and willow oaks (Q. phellos). Mallard food use varied with water conditions; the use of rice decreased and soybeans increased during 1980-81 when cumulative November-January precipitation was < 50% of normal. Wood duck food use varied with habitat; the diet included more acorns at sites having larger acreages of intact bottomland hardwood forest. Mallard and wood duck body weights varied within and among winters. Mallard weights decreased by about 2% from December to January each year. We considered this a regulated loss, whereas we attributed increases and decreases of 4-5% in average weights during wet and dry winters to changes in feeding opportunities associated with winter precipitation. Wood duck weights followed similar trends. We concluded that continued drainage in the Mississippi Delta will adversely affect waterfowl foraging opportunities, and that research on winter feeding ecology will progress more rapidly if we develop an understanding of the foraging efficiencies associated with alternate food resources.

  7. Anthropometry and Body Composition Status during Ramadan among Higher Institution Learning Centre Staffs with Different Body Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Rozano, Nurismalina; Abd Hadi, Norhayati; Mat Nor, Mohd Nasir; Dandinasivara Venkateshaiah, Muralidhara

    2013-01-01

    This study was done to observe the anthropometry and body composition changes before, during, and after the holy month of Ramadan. This study was carried out on 46 staff from one of the local universities, which comprised of 14 males and 32 females ranging in age from 25 to 40 years old. There were four sessions done to complete this study, namely, a week before Ramadan (T1), 1st week of Ramadan (T2), 3rd week of Ramadan (T3), and a month after Ramadan (T4). All subjects were assessed according to weight, body circumference, and body composition status. It was found that subjects with different weight status showed a significant reduction in weight (P < 0.01) but no significant reduction in body fat percentage (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that weight reduction does not promise a reduction in body fat. Changes in neck circumference were only found in normal subjects. Hence, it can be said that overweight and obese subjects showed no changes in anthropometry status during Ramadan. No changes in body composition were reported in all three weight groups except for trunk body fat. In conclusion, normal subjects showed significant changes in various anthropometry parameters, but overweight and obese subjects showed no obvious difference. PMID:24311975

  8. Weight gain and body mass index following change from daytime to night shift - a panel study with nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Siqueria, Kali; Griep, Rosane; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the association between change in work schedule and modifications in nutritional status. We performed a panel study with nursing professionals based on two surveys seven year apart (n = 372). Groups with no change in work schedule, change from daytime to night shift, and change from night to daytime shift were analyzed. Outcomes were weight gain and body mass index (BMI) category increase. Participants who changed from daytime to night shift showed about twice increase in odds of more than 5 kg weight gain and BMI category increase. Changing from daytime to night work seems to influence weight and BMI. PMID:27159160

  9. Weight gain and body mass index following change from daytime to night shift - a panel study with nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Siqueria, Kali; Griep, Rosane; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the association between change in work schedule and modifications in nutritional status. We performed a panel study with nursing professionals based on two surveys seven year apart (n = 372). Groups with no change in work schedule, change from daytime to night shift, and change from night to daytime shift were analyzed. Outcomes were weight gain and body mass index (BMI) category increase. Participants who changed from daytime to night shift showed about twice increase in odds of more than 5 kg weight gain and BMI category increase. Changing from daytime to night work seems to influence weight and BMI.

  10. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  11. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  12. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles.

  13. Social Stress Increases Cortisol and Hampers Attention in Adolescents with Excess Weight

    PubMed Central

    Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Moreno-Padilla, Maria; Garcia-Rios, M. Carmen; Lopez-Torrecillas, Francisca; Delgado-Rico, Elena; Schmidt-Rio-Valle, Jacqueline; Fernandez-Serrano, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition. Design and Methods We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42) and Excess weight (n=42). Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task --participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability) and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making). Results Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups. Conclusion Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills. PMID:25898204

  14. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  15. LOCATION OF BODY FAT AMONG WOMEN WHO ACCURATELY OR INACCURATELY PERCEIVE THEIR WEIGHT STATUS.

    PubMed

    Rote, Aubrianne E; Klos, Lori A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated location of body fat, with specific focus on abdominal fat, among normal weight and overweight women who accurately or inaccurately perceived their weight status. Young, adult women (N = 120; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.2) were asked to classify their weight status using the Self-Classified Weight subscale from the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Actual weight status was operationalized via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Overweight women who thought they were normal weight had an average of 19 pounds more fat than normal weight women with 1.5 pounds of excess abdominal fat. Interventions to raise awareness among overweight women unaware of their fat level are warranted. However, these interventions should balance consideration of potential detriments to body image among these women. PMID:26474442

  16. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the ‘best’, ‘getting respect’ and being the ‘happiest’, while the obese silhouette was associated with the ‘worst’ and the ‘unhappiest’, and the underweight silhouette with the “weakest”. Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  17. Changes in eating attitudes, body esteem and weight control behaviours during adolescence in a South African cohort.

    PubMed

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years; and, to describe perceptions around body shape at age 17 years. A total of 1435 urban South African black and mixed ancestry boys and girls, who had data at both age 13 and 17 years from the Birth to Twenty cohort were included. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires on eating attitudes (EAT-26), body esteem and weight control behaviours for either weight loss or muscle gain attempts. Height and weight were measured at both time points and BMI was calculated. Black females had a higher BMI (p<0.001) and an increased risk of developing eating disorders as well as significant increase in the prevalence of weight loss practices between the ages 13 and 17 years. At age 17 years both Mixed ancestry adolescents had lower body-esteem compared to black adolescents. The prevalence of possible eating disorders was 11% and 13.1% in early and late adolescents respectively. Males and females shared similar opinions on normal silhouettes being the 'best', 'getting respect' and being the 'happiest', while the obese silhouette was associated with the 'worst' and the 'unhappiest', and the underweight silhouette with the "weakest". Black females had a higher BMI and an increased risk of developing eating disorders. Adolescent females engaged more in weight loss practices whereas, males in muscle gain practices indicating that Western norms of thinness as the ideal are becoming more common in South Africa. PMID:25310343

  18. Single rapamycin administration induces prolonged downward shift in defended body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Mark; Licursi, Maria; Jensen, Brittany; Baker, Ashley; Milway, Steve; Malsbury, Charles; Grant, Virginia L; Adamec, Robert; Hirasawa, Michiru; Blundell, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of body weight set point may be an effective weight loss and maintenance strategy as the homeostatic mechanism governing energy balance remains intact even in obese conditions and counters the effort to lose weight. However, how the set point is determined is not well understood. We show that a single injection of rapamycin (RAP), an mTOR inhibitor, is sufficient to shift the set point in rats. Intraperitoneal RAP decreased food intake and daily weight gain for several days, but surprisingly, there was also a long-term reduction in body weight which lasted at least 10 weeks without additional RAP injection. These effects were not due to malaise or glucose intolerance. Two RAP administrations with a two-week interval had additive effects on body weight without desensitization and significantly reduced the white adipose tissue weight. When challenged with food deprivation, vehicle and RAP-treated rats responded with rebound hyperphagia, suggesting that RAP was not inhibiting compensatory responses to weight loss. Instead, RAP animals defended a lower body weight achieved after RAP treatment. Decreased food intake and body weight were also seen with intracerebroventricular injection of RAP, indicating that the RAP effect is at least partially mediated by the brain. In summary, we found a novel effect of RAP that maintains lower body weight by shifting the set point long-term. Thus, RAP and related compounds may be unique tools to investigate the mechanisms by which the defended level of body weight is determined; such compounds may also be used to complement weight loss strategy.

  19. Maternal low-dose estradiol-17β exposure during pregnancy impairs postnatal progeny weight development and body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Werner Fürst, Rainer; Pistek, Veronika Leopoldine; Kliem, Heike; Skurk, Thomas; Hauner, Hans; Meyer, Heinrich Herman Dietrich; Ulbrich, Susanne Ernestine

    2012-09-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity play an important role as obesogens. However, studies investigating the most potent natural estrogen, estradiol-17β (E2), at low dose are lacking. We examined endocrine and physiological parameters in gilts receiving distinct concentrations of E2 during pregnancy. We then investigated whether adverse effects prevail in progeny due to a potential endocrine disruption. E2 was orally applied to gilts during the entire period of pregnancy. The concentrations represented a daily consumption at the recommended ADI level (0.05 μg/kg body weight/day), at the NOEL (10 μg/kg body weight/day) and at a high dosage (1000 μg/kg body weight/day). Plasma hormone concentrations were determined using enzyme immuno assays. Offspring body fat was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning. In treated gilts receiving 1000 μg E2/kg body weight/day we found significantly elevated plasma E2 levels during pregnancy, paralleled by an increased weight gain. While offspring showed similar weight at birth, piglets exhibited a significant reduction in weight at weaning even though their mothers had only received 0.05 μg E2/kg body weight/day. At 8 weeks of age, specifically males showed a significant increase in overall body fat percentage. In conclusion, prenatal exposure to low doses of E2 affected pig offspring development in terms of body weight and composition. In line with findings from other obesogens, our data suggest a programming effect during pregnancy for E2 causative for the depicted phenotypes. Therefore, E2 exposure may imply a possible contribution to childhood obesity. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the potential role of estradiol-17β (E2) as an obesogen. ► We orally apply E2 at the ADI, NOEL and a high dose to gilts during pregnancy. ► Offspring weight is similar at birth but reduced at weaning even after ADI treatment. ► Male offspring only exhibit an increase in overall body fat percentage

  20. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  1. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  2. Resveratrol does not increase body fat loss induced by energy restriction.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Goiuri; Macarulla, M Teresa; Portillo, María P; Rodríguez, Víctor M

    2014-06-01

    Resveratrol (RSV) is known to have an antiobesogenic effect because it mimics energy restriction. However, hardly any evidence exists concerning the combined effects of RSV and energy restriction on body fat reduction. So, the aim of the present study was to determine whether RSV increases body fat reduction induced by energy restriction. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks to obtain a diet-induced obesity model. Then they were submitted to a mild energy restriction (25%) without or with RSV supplementation (30 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. Final body weight, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal white adipose tissues weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, glucose, and insulin were assessed. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities, as well as their genetic expressions, were measured in white adipose tissue. Final body weight, white adipose tissue weights, Adipose Index, and serum triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and insulin were reduced in both groups, but no differences were found among them. FAS, ACC, and LPL activities and expressions were also similar in both groups. These results suggest a lack of any adjuvant effect of RSV on energy restriction for obesity treatment purposes.

  3. Effects of added inertia and body weight support on lateral balance control during walking.

    PubMed

    Pennycott, Andrew; Wyss, Dario; Vallery, Heike; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A robot-driven gait orthosis which allows balance training during gait would further enhance the capabilities of robotic treadmill training in gait rehabilitation. In this paper, additional mass is attached to walking able-bodied subjects to simulate the effects of additional inertia and body weight support on the lateral balance task. The combination of additional inertia and body weight support led to reduced step widths, suggesting a stabilising effect which may reduce the challenge of the lateral balance task. PMID:22275618

  4. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Chinese Professional Athletes of Strength Sports with Different Body Weight Categories

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Ling; Guo, Yan; Xie, Minhao

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing concern on cardiometabolic health in young professional athletes at heavy-weight class. Objective Our cross-sectional survey aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of metabolic risk factors in a population of young and active professional athletes of strength sports in China. Methods From July 2006 to December 2008, a total of 131 male and 130 female athletes of strength sports were enrolled. We used two criteria provided by the Chinese Diabetes Society (2004) and the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (2002) to define the metabolic syndrome and its individual components, respectively. Results Regardless of their similar ages (mean: 21 years) and exercise levels, athletes in the heaviest-weight-class with unlimited maximum body weight (UBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 130 kg and 38 kg/m2 for men, 110 kg and 37 kg/m2 for women) had significantly higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome than did those in all other body-weight-class with limited body weight (LBW) boundaries (mean weight and BMI: 105 kg and 32 kg/m2 for men, 70 kg and 26 kg/m2 for women). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome using CDS criteria (UBW vs. LBW: 89% vs. 18% for men, 47% vs. 0% for women) and its individual components, including central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and impaired fasting glucose, were all significantly higher in athletes at the heaviest weight group with UBW than all other weight groups with LBW. Conclusions Our study suggests that professional athletes of strength sports at the heaviest-weight-class are at a significant increased risk of cardiometabolic disease compared with those at all other weight categories. The findings support the importance of developing and implementing the strategy of early screening, awareness, and interventions for weight-related health among young athletes. PMID:24255714

  5. Contributions of body fat and effort in the 5K run: age and body weight handicap.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Vanderburgh, Paul M; Laubach, Lloyd L

    2008-09-01

    The 5K handicap (5KH), designed to eliminate the body weight (BW) and age biases inherent in the 5K run time (RT), yields an adjusted RT (RTadj) that can be compared between runners of different BW and age. As hypothesized in a validation study, however, not all BW bias may be removed, because of the influences of body fatness (BF) and effort (run speed; essentially the inverse as measured by rating of perceived exertion (RPE)). This study's purpose was to determine the effects of BF and RPE on BW bias in the 5KH. For 99 male runners in a regional 5K race (age = 43.9 +/- 12.1 years; BW = 83.4 +/- 12.9 kg), BF was determined via sum of three skinfolds just before the race. RPE, on the 20-point Borg scale, was used to assess overall race effort on race completion. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop a new adjusted RT (NRTadj, the RTadj corrected for BF and RPE), which was computed for each runner and then correlated with BW to determine bias. Indicative of slight bias, BW was correlated with RTadj (r = 0.220, p = 0.029). Both BF (p = 0.00002) and RPE (p = 0.0005) were significant, independent predictors of RTadj. NRTadj was not significantly correlated with BW (r = 0.051, p = 0.61), but BF explained 90%, and RPE explained only 6%, of the remaining BW bias evidenced in the 5KH. The previous finding that the 5KH does not remove all BW bias is apparently accounted for by BF and not RPE. Because no handicap should be awarded for higher BF, this finding suggests that the 5KH, for men, appropriately adjusts for the age and BW vs. RT biases previously noted.

  6. The Relationship Between Waterpipe Smoking and Body Weight: Population-Based Findings From Syria

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Mzayek, Fawaz; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Asfar, Taghrid; Fouad, Fouad; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoking has well known effects on body weight, with current smokers weighing less than never-smokers, and cessation producing weight gain. Use of waterpipe (or “hookah”) is increasing in many parts of the world but its effects on body weight are not known. Methods: We compared body mass index (BMI) among 2,536 adults (age ≥18 years old), who were never, former, current nondaily, or current daily waterpipe smokers, drawn from 2 representative, population-based household surveys of adults in Aleppo, Syria. Results: Overall, 84.1% (n = 2,134) never-smoked waterpipe, 4.6% (n = 116) were former smokers, 9.9% (n = 251) were current nondaily smokers, and 1.4% (n = 35) were current daily smokers. Mean BMI of the sample was 30.2kg/m2 (SD = 6.3). Adjusted for cigarette smoking, number of chronic diseases, age, gender, income, and marital status, daily waterpipe users were 2.26 BMI units greater than never-smokers (beta = 2.26, 95% CI = 0.79–3.72), and had nearly threefold odds of being obese (odds ratio = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.06–7.76). Nondaily and former waterpipe users were similar to never-smokers in terms of BMI and obesity risk. Conclusion: Results indicate that daily waterpipe users, compared to never-users, have higher BMI, translating into 6 extra kilograms of weight on average, and are 3 times as likely to be obese. PMID:25096252

  7. Dose-dependent impact of larval Ascaris suum on host body weight in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R; Behnke, J M; Stafford, P; Holland, C V

    2009-03-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are important helminth parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. Although it is now well established that the presence of mature adult worms in the host intestine contributes to significant nutritional morbidity, the impact of larval migratory ascariasis is far less well understood. The development of a mouse model to explore susceptibility and resistance to larval ascariasis in the lungs provided an opportunity to observe the impact of larval migration on host growth during the course of infection. Changes in body weight were monitored in two strains of inbred mice, the susceptible C57BL/6j and the resistant CBA/Ca. Groups of mice received one of four doses: 100, 500, 1000 and 3000 fully embryonated A. suum ova. Infected mice underwent post-mortem on days 6, 7 and 8 post-infection. Control mice received a placebo dose of intubation medium and underwent post-mortem on day 7 post-infection. Mice were weighed pre-infection (day 0) and post-infection on the day of post-mortem. At post-mortem, the lungs of each mouse were removed for enumeration of Ascaris larval burdens by means of the modified Baermann method. Control mice of each strain showed an increase in weight from pre-infection to post-infection day. Within the C57BL/6j strain, mice infected with higher doses of Ascaris eggs experienced a reduction in body weight; for those given 3000 eggs this was on all three post-mortem days, and for those given 1000, on days 7 and 8. For CBA/Ca mice, only mice receiving the 3000 dose demonstrated a reduction in body weight. These findings suggest that larval migratory ascariasis has a significant negative impact upon host growth and that this is related to infective dose and larval burden.

  8. Effects of high dietary sulphur on enzyme activities, selenium concentrations and body weights of cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, A A; Lovejoy, D; Sharma, A K; Sharma, R M; Prior, M G; Lillie, L E

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of a moderate increase in dietary sulphur (S) in cattle. Twelve animals were initially fed a basal concentrate (S = 0.2%) and then divided into two groups; one fed basal and the other high S (S = 0.75%) concentrates. Health, body weight gains, and activities of erythrocyte enzymes-glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), plasma- asparate aminotransferase (AST), and whole blood concentrations of selenium (Se) were monitored at various stages of the study. Marked increases in the activities of GSH-Px, SOD and G6PD from the pretrial values were observed upon initial feeding of basal concentrate diet. Sex related differences were not evident in enzyme activities and Se concentrations of the blood. A high linear correlation (r = 0.92) between averages of GSH-Px activity and Se concentration of blood was observed in both sexes. Increasing the amount of S in the concentrate diet (from 0.2 to 0.75%) did not produce any statistically significant change in enzyme activities and Se concentrations, body weight gains, and health of the cattle during the 85 days feeding period. The results indicate that a moderate increase in the dietary S would not impair Se and copper status or cause related disorders in cattle. PMID:3607649

  9. Migrant Asian Indians in New Zealand; prediction of metabolic syndrome using body weights and measures.

    PubMed

    Jowitt, Ljiljana M; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand was to determine cut-off points for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio that best discriminate for increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seventy-five (90F, 85M) Asian Indian volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index were derived. Total and percent body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Three measures of metabolic risk were determined: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, the McAuley score for insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Body mass index, percent body fat and anthropometric measurements of central adiposity generally did not perform well as indicators of metabolic risk in this high risk population of Asian Indian migrants. Our data support the use of lower ethnic specific body mass index and waist circumference for Asian Indian women and men. The discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio was similar to that of body mass index. Hence, waist-to-height ratio could be used as a simple screening tool. A recommendation, of a waist-to- height ratio of less than 0.5 that would underpin the simple public health message of "your waist circumference should be less than half your height". PMID:25164448

  10. Migrant Asian Indians in New Zealand; prediction of metabolic syndrome using body weights and measures.

    PubMed

    Jowitt, Ljiljana M; Lu, Louise Weiwei; Rush, Elaine C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand was to determine cut-off points for body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio that best discriminate for increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One hundred and seventy-five (90F, 85M) Asian Indian volunteers (aged >50 y) were recruited from urban Auckland, New Zealand. Body weight, height and waist and hip circumferences were measured using standard techniques. Waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index were derived. Total and percent body fat by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting glucose, insulin and lipids were measured. Three measures of metabolic risk were determined: the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, the McAuley score for insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation criteria. Body mass index, percent body fat and anthropometric measurements of central adiposity generally did not perform well as indicators of metabolic risk in this high risk population of Asian Indian migrants. Our data support the use of lower ethnic specific body mass index and waist circumference for Asian Indian women and men. The discriminatory power of waist-to-height ratio was similar to that of body mass index. Hence, waist-to-height ratio could be used as a simple screening tool. A recommendation, of a waist-to- height ratio of less than 0.5 that would underpin the simple public health message of "your waist circumference should be less than half your height".

  11. Changes in water and sugar-containing beverage consumption and body weight outcomes in children.

    PubMed

    Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Gortmaker, Steven L; Libuda, Lars; Kersting, Mathilde; Clausen, Kerstin; Adelberger, Bettina; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    An intervention study showed that promoting water consumption in schoolchildren prevented overweight, but a mechanism linking water consumption to overweight was not substantiated. We investigated whether increased water consumption replaced sugar-containing beverages and whether changes in water or sugar-containing beverages influenced body weight outcomes. In a secondary analysis of the intervention study in Germany, we analysed combined longitudinal data from the intervention and control groups. Body weight and height were measured and beverage consumption was self-reported by a 24-h recall questionnaire at the beginning and end of the school year 2006/2007. The effect of a change in water consumption on change in sugar-containing beverage (soft drinks and juices) consumption, change in BMI (kg/m2) and prevalence of overweight and obesity at follow-up was analysed using regression analyses. Of 3220 enroled children, 1987 children (mean age 8·3 (sd 0·7) years) from thirty-two schools were analysed. Increased water consumption by 1 glass/d was associated with a reduced consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 0·12 glasses/d (95 % CI -0·16, -0·08) but was not associated with changes in BMI (P=0·63). Increased consumption of sugar-containing beverages by 1 glass/d was associated with an increased BMI by 0·02 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·03) kg/m2 and increased prevalence of obesity (OR 1·22; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·44) but not with overweight (P=0·83). In conclusion, an increase in water consumption can replace sugar-containing beverages. As sugar-containing beverages were associated with weight gain, this replacement might explain the prevention of obesity through the promotion of water consumption. PMID:27040694

  12. Weight Loss Leads to Strong Increase in Appetite

    MedlinePlus

    ... Those people were not directly aware of that calorie loss, which caused a gradual decrease in weight ... during the study. They found no long-term calorie intake changes in the 89 people who got ...

  13. Long-term associations of nut consumption with body weight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Chandra L; Hu, Frank B

    2014-07-01

    There is some concern that the high-fat, energy-dense content of nuts may promote weight gain. Nuts, however, are rich in protein and dietary fiber, which are associated with increased satiety. They also contain high amounts of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and phytoesterols that may confer health benefits for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes delay and prevention. Therefore, it is important to determine the association between nut consumption and long-term weight change and disease risk to reach scientific consensus and to make evidence-based public health recommendations. Several cross-sectional analyses have shown an inverse association between higher nut consumption and lower body weight. In addition, several independent prospective studies found that increasing nut consumption was associated with lower weight gain over relatively long periods of time. Moreover, high consumption of nuts (especially walnuts) has been associated with lower diabetes risk. Therefore, regular consumption (approximately one handful daily) of nuts over the long term, as a replacement to less healthful foods, can be incorporated as a component of a healthy diet for the prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  14. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions. PMID:26758710

  15. Association of increased monetary cost of dietary intake, diet quality and weight management in Spanish adults.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Helmut; Serra-Majem, Luis; Subirana, Isaac; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Fitó, Montserrat; Elosua, Roberto

    2016-03-14

    Higher monetary diet cost is associated with healthier food choices and better weight management. How changes in diet cost affect changes in diet quality and weight remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of changes in individual monetary diet cost on changes in diet quality, measured by the modified Mediterranean diet score recommendations (MDS-rec) and by energy density (ED), as well as changes in weight and BMI. We conducted a prospective, population-based study of 2181 male and female Spaniards aged between 25 and 74 years, who were followed up to the 2009-2010 academic year. We measured weight and height and recorded dietary data using a validated FFQ. Average food cost was calculated from official Spanish government data. We fitted multivariate linear and logistic regression models. The average daily diet cost increased from 3·68(SD0.0·89)€/8·36 MJ to 4·97(SD1·16)€/8·36 MJ during the study period. This increase was significantly associated with improvement in diet quality (Δ ED and Δ MDS-rec; P<0·0001). Each 1€ increase in monetary diet cost per 8·36 MJ was associated with a decrease of 0·3 kg in body weight (P=0·02) and 0·1 kg/m(2) in BMI (P=0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for changes in diet quality indicators. An improvement in diet quality and better weight management were both associated with an increase in diet cost; this could be considered in food policy decisions.

  16. The effect of dietary and exercise interventions on body weight in prostate cancer patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Hamdan; McNeill, Geraldine; Haseen, Farhana; N'Dow, James; Craig, Leone C A; Heys, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer prognosis may therefore be improved by maintaining healthy weight through diet and physical activity. This systematic review looked at the effect of diet and exercise interventions on body weight among men treated for prostate cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the earliest record to August 2013. Randomized controlled trials of diet and exercise interventions in prostate cancer patients that reported body weight or body composition changes were included. A total of 20 trials were included in the review. Because of the heterogeneity of intervention components, a narrative review was conducted. Interventions were categorized as diet (n = 6), exercise (n = 8), or a combination of both diet and exercise (n = 6). The sample size ranged from 8 to 155 and the duration from 3 wk to 4 yr. Four diet interventions and 1 combined diet and exercise intervention achieved significant weight loss with mean values ranging from 0.8 kg to 6.1 kg (median 4.5 kg). Exercise alone did not lead to weight loss, though most of these trials aimed to increase fitness and quality of life rather than decrease body weight. Diet intervention, alone or in combination with exercise, can lead to weight loss in men treated for prostate cancer.

  17. The effects of four arthropod diets on the body and organ weights of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, during vitellogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lehman, G C

    1978-12-01

    Wild-caught adult Rana pipiens females were captured in midsummer and fed diets of crickets, flies sowbugs or wax moth larvae during a three-month period of active vitellogenesis. The cricket diet supported the most extensive body weight gain during this time and promoted a prolonged period of weight increase in an additional long-term study. Synchronous growth of the oocytes occurred in all four groups, but the ovaries and oviducts of cricket-fed animals were significantly larger than those of frogs on the other three diets. The significantly higher liver weights of frogs fed wax moth larvae may have reflected an augmentation of hepatic energy stores. Fat body weights were also highest in this group of animals. Frogs fed crickets and wax moth larvae possessed larger fat bodies than did the midsummer control animals killed immediately after their arrival in the laboratory. In contrast, frogs fed flies and sowbugs had smaller fat bodies than did the initial controls, suggesting that animals on these diets had utilized fat body lipid during vitellogenesis. Gastrocnemius and final body weights were lowest in frogs fed wax moth larvae. These findings may have reflected the nutritional content of the diet or the reduction in appetite frequently noted in these animals during observations of feeding behavior.

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Their Adolescent Daughters' Shape, Weight, and Body Esteem: Are They Accurate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Josie; Srikameswaran, Suja; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Cockell, Sarah J.; Poole, Gary D.

    2003-01-01

    Examined parents' awareness of their daughters' attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about their bodies. Sixty-six adolescent daughters completed an eating disorder scale, a body figure rating scale, and made ratings of their shape and weight. Greater discrepancies between parents' estimates of daughters' body esteem and daughters' self-reported body…

  19. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  20. Depressed Mood and Body Weight: Exploring Race Differences in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Christie-Mizell, C. Andre

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1994-1998 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged Mother and Young Adult file, this article examines the relationship between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in adolescence. The authors also examine whether this relationship varies by race and gender. Their findings indicate that over a 4-year…

  1. The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

    A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

  2. Difference of Body Compositional Changes According to the Presence of Weight Cycling in a Community-based Weight Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Park, Yong-Woo; Park, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Chan-Won

    2010-01-01

    Many obese people who try to control body weight experience weight cycling (WC). The present study evaluated the importance of WC in a community-based obesity intervention program. We analyzed the data of 109 Korean participants (86% women) among 177 subjects who had completed a 12-week intervention program at two public health centers in Korea from April to December, 2007. Completion of a self-administrated questionnaire at baseline was used to obtain anthropometric measurements, and laboratory testing was done before and after the program. Differences in body composition change and obesity-related life style between the two groups were compared with respect to WC and non-weight cycling (NWC). After 12 weeks, both groups showed reductions in weight, waist circumference, and body mass index. The group differences were not significant. However, significant differences were evident for the WC group compared to the NWC group in fat percent mass (WC vs. NWC, -3.49±2.31% vs. -4.65±2.59%, P=0.01), fat free mass (WC vs. NWC, -0.95±1.37 kg vs. -0.38±1.05 kg, P=0.01), and total cholesterol (WC vs. NWC, -3.32±14.63 vs. -16.54±32.39, P=0.005). In conducting a community-based weight control program that predominantly targets women, changes of body composition and total cholesterol may be less effective in weight cyclers than in non-weight cyclers. PMID:20052347

  3. Effects of body weight at, and lighting regimen and growth curve to, 20 weeks on laying performance in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Gous, R M; Cherry, P

    2004-08-01

    1. A total of 4000 Ross broiler breeders were reared to a 20-week target body weight of 1.55, 2.16 (standard), 2.50 or 2.84 kg, using either a convex or concave growth curve. Each treatment group was either exposed to a conventional broiler breeder lighting regimen, with a series of weekly one-hour increments in photoperiod from 8h at 19 weeks to a 16-h maximum, or maintained from 4d on a 17-h photoperiod. 2. Each 100 g increment in body weight at 20 weeks was associated with a significant increase of 0.55 kg in cumulative food intake, and a 1.5-d advance in sexual maturity. However, leaner body weights at 20 weeks resulted in smaller body weight gains between 20 and 60 weeks (-2.4 g/d/kg body weight at 20 weeks), and an increased production of double-yolked eggs. Neither egg production nor mean egg weight was affected by 20-week body weight. 3. Birds fed to produce more rapid early growth had higher feed intakes to 20 weeks, but reached sexual maturity 7 d later than birds permitted accelerated growth from 15 weeks. Growth curve did not influence body weight gain in lay, egg production or mean egg weight. 4. Birds maintained on 17-h photoperiods reached sexual maturity 27 d later, produced 7 fewer eggs to 60 weeks, and had a mean egg weight 1.2 g heavier than birds photostimulated at 19 weeks. Lighting treatment did not affect food intake to 20 weeks, the proportion of double-yolked eggs or body weight gain between 20 and 60 weeks. 5. Birds fed to have a faster growth early in the rearing phase and maintained on 17-h photoperiods produced 11 fewer eggs than those fed to have accelerated growth at the end of the rearing phase, yet there was only one egg difference between the growth-curve groups for the conventionally lighted birds, which was not significant. 6. The earlier sexual maturity of the conventionally lighted birds compared with those maintained on 17-h photoperiods either indicates that broiler breeders require an increment in photoperiod to stimulate

  4. Body image and weight concerns among Southwestern American Indian preadolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Davis, S M; Lambert, L C

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perceptions about body image and size vary by body mass index (BMI) and demographic factors among American Indian children in the Southwestern United States. We surveyed 1,996 American Indian schoolchildren in the fifth grade (mean age 10.5 +/- 0.7 years) at eleven rural elementary schools. Heights and weights were measured using standard protocol. Multiple linear regression models were developed for preferred body shape, desired body shape, and body satisfaction to determine association with demographic and physical factors. Results from multiple linear regression modeling indicated that BMI and gender influence body satisfaction, with heavier children and girls being less satisfied with their bodies (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Geographic isolation and lack of amenities in the home did not appear to affect body satisfaction or messages from others about being too fat or thin; however, geographically isolated students were more likely to choose a larger body shape as best looking. Girls of appropriate weight were 2.2 times more likely than boys to have been told they were too fat. Sixty-one percent of all students surveyed had tried to lose weight. These findings, although similar to those for non-Hispanic Whites of the same age, are contrary to prevailing ideas that American Indians value obesity. In fact, we observed a high level of body dissatisfaction among children of appropriate weight, particularly girls, and prevalent dieting across all weight categories and both genders.

  5. Eating attitudes and body shape perceptions among elite rowers: effects of age, gender and weight category.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Waite, J

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and weight category upon measures associated with eating disorders. Elite rowers (N = 124) participating in the 1994 Great Britain National Squad trials, completed the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Subjects were grouped according to whether they competed in the Lightweight (Female: < 59 kg, N = 31; Male: < 72.5 kg, N = 31) or Heavyweight (Female: N = 31; Male: N = 31) category. Results revealed significantly higher EAT and BSQ scores among the Lightweight group, 16.2% of whom showed EAT scores above the threshold associated with eating disorders. Females showed significantly higher BSQ scores than males. The interaction effect was significant for BSQ, indicating a much greater increase in scores from heavyweight to lightweight for females than for males. EAT and BSQ scores were inversely correlated with age. These results suggest that the risk of eating disorders among elite rowers is mediated by age, gender and weight category.

  6. Efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program of Menz sheep under smallholder farming system.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, S; Getachew, T; Goshme, S; Valle-Zárate, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Kemp, S; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-08-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of selection for body weight in a cooperative village breeding program for Menz sheep of Ethiopia under smallholder farming system. The design of the program involved organizing villagers in a cooperative breeding group to implement selective breeding of their sheep. The program was jump-started through a one-time provision of elite rams from a central nucleus flock, but subsequent replacement rams were selected from within the village flocks. We also evaluated body weight trends in a village where cooperative breeding was not implemented and individual farmers managed their flocks under traditional breeding practices. Under traditional breeding practices, genetic progress over 8 years either stagnated or declined in all the weights recorded. In the cooperative villages, selection differentials of 2.44 and 2.45 kg were achieved in 2010 and 2011 selection seasons, respectively. Birth weight, 3-month weight and 6-month weight increased, respectively, by 0.49, 2.29 and 2.46 kg in the third-generation lambs over the base generation. Improved rams supplied from the central nucleus flock gave an initial genetic lift of 14.4% in the 6-month weight. This was higher than the gain achieved from selection in the village flocks, which was 5.2%. Our results showed that village-based genetic improvement in body weights under smallholder conditions could be feasible if appropriate designs are adopted and that commencing with elite central nucleus rams help jump-start village-based programs.

  7. Gender differences between hypocretin/orexin knockout and wild type mice: age, body weight, body composition, metabolic markers, leptin and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2014-12-01

    Female hypocretin knockout (Hcrt KO) mice have increased body weight despite decreased food intake compared to wild type (WT) mice. In order to understand the nature of the increased body weight, we carried out a detailed study of Hcrt KO and WT, male, and female mice. Female KO mice showed consistently higher body weight than WT mice, from 4 to 20 months (20-60%). Fat, muscle, and free fluid levels were all significantly higher in adult (7-9 months) as well as old (18-20 months) female KO mice compared to age-matched WT mice. Old male KO mice showed significantly higher fat content (150%) compared to age-matched WT mice, but no significant change in body weight. Respiratory quotient (-19%) and metabolic rates (-14%) were significantly lower in KO mice compared to WT mice, regardless of gender or age. Female KO mice had significantly higher serum leptin levels (191%) than WT mice at 18-20 months, but no difference between male mice were observed. Conversely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in both male (73%) and female (93%) KO mice compared to age- and sex-matched WT mice. We conclude that absence of the Hcrt peptide has gender-specific effects. In contrast, Hcrt-ataxin mice and human narcoleptics, with loss of the whole Hcrt cell, show weight gain in both sexes.

  8. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild. PMID:25823966

  9. Effects of seasonal changes in dietary energy on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kouhei; Mitsutsuka, Syuuhei; Yamazaki, Ato; Nagai, Kazumi; Tezuka, Atsuko; Tsuji, Yamato

    2015-01-01

    Food availability varies seasonally for wild animals, and body weight fluctuates accordingly in the wild. In contrast, controlling availability of diet under captive condition is difficult from keepers' standpoint, and monotonous diet often causes health problems in captive animals. We evaluated the effects of a seasonally controlled diet on body weight of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in an outside enclosure at Ueno Zoo, Tokyo, Japan. We fed a high-energy diet in spring and fall, and a more restricted diet in summer and winter for 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal changes in body weight were similar to those that occur in wild macaques: for both sexes, body weight was higher in spring and fall and lower in winter. A decrease in body weight between fall and winter occurred only in adults, which implied that reducing dietary intake in winter had a more severe effect on adults than on juveniles. Different from wild populations, the body weight of captive macaques did not decrease between spring and summer, which we attributed to a lack of movement within the enclosure and to excess energy intake in summer. In addition to controlling dietary composition, providing large enclosure with complex structure and making efforts of giving unpredictability in feeding are necessary to motivate the captive animals to be more active, which would cause the macaques to show seasonal change in body weight, which is found in wild.

  10. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress.

  11. Associations between body weight and depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jia-In; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations between body weight and mental health indicators including depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem among Taiwanese adolescents in Grades 7-12. The body mass index (BMI) of 5254 adolescents was calculated based on self-reported weight and height measurements. Body weight status was determined by the age- and gender-specific International Obesity Task Force reference tables. By using participants of average weight as the reference group, the association between body weight status (underweight, overweight, and obesity) and mental health indicators (depression, social phobia, insomnia, and self-esteem) were examined by using multiple regression analysis. The possible moderating effects of sociodemographic characteristics on the association were also examined. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic characteristics, both overweight (p < 0.05) and obese adolescents (p < 0.001) had a lower level of self-esteem than did those of average weight; however, no significant differences in depression, social phobia, or insomnia were found between those who were overweight/obese and those of average weight. No significant differences in the four mental health indicators were found between those who were underweight and those of average weight. Sociodemographic characteristics had no moderating effect on the association between body weight and mental health indicators. In conclusion, mental health and school professionals must take the association between overweight/obesity and self-esteem into consideration when approaching the issue of mental health among adolescents.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  13. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  14. Increase in body cell mass and decrease in wasting are associated with increasing potency of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Stephen J; Rabkin, Judith G; Lin, Shu-Hsing; McElhiney, Martin

    2005-04-01

    With the advent of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a reduction in the incidence of wasting. However, few studies have investigated specific body composition changes associated with these treatments. This study aimed to investigate longitudinally the association of increasingly potent ART with changes in body cell mass and wasting utilizing bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). In this longitudinal cohort study, 159 HIV-positive men were assessed semiannually from 1995 to 1997 for body composition utilizing BIA, CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, medical and depressive symptoms. Wasting was defined as body cell mass/height below the 90th percentile based on HIV positive norms. ART potency at each visit was scored utilizing published clinical guidelines, ranging from 1 (0-1 antiretrovirals) to 5 (3 or more antiretrovirals including a potent protease inhibitor). Viral resistance testing was not used. The mixed-effects model and the generalized estimating equations approaches were used to determine longitudinal correlates of body cell mass and of wasting, respectively. Over the 2 years of follow-up, potent combination ART use increased from 6% to 79%. Concurrently, a significant increase in mean body cell mass and a reduction in prevalence of wasting were seen, while total body weight, fat mass, and total body water did not change. Increasingly potent ART was associated with significant increases in body cell mass and reduction in wasting. Other significant correlates of increased body cell mass included higher CD4 count and decreased severity of HIV-related symptoms, fatigue and depression. The current study found that higher potency ART taken for relatively short term (2 years) was associated with an increase in body cell mass and a reduction in wasting and that these changes were associated with both medical (CD4, HIV symptoms) and behavioral (fatigue, depression) improvements. One caveat is this study did not distinguish among

  15. Sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels control energy expenditure determining body weight.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, Alexey E; Reyes, Santiago; Yamada, Satsuki; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Sattiraju, Srinivasan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Gerbin, Marina; Coetzee, William A; Goldhamer, David J; Terzic, Andre; Zingman, Leonid V

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic processes that regulate muscle energy use are major determinants of bodily energy balance. Here, we find that sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, which couple membrane excitability with cellular metabolic pathways, set muscle energy expenditure under physiological stimuli. Disruption of K(ATP) channel function provoked, under conditions of unaltered locomotor activity and blood substrate availability, an extra energy cost of cardiac and skeletal muscle performance. Inefficient fuel metabolism in K(ATP) channel-deficient striated muscles reduced glycogen and fat body depots, promoting a lean phenotype. The propensity to lesser body weight imposed by K(ATP) channel deficit persisted under a high-fat diet, yet obesity restriction was achieved at the cost of compromised physical endurance. Thus, sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels govern muscle energy economy, and their downregulation in a tissue-specific manner could present an antiobesity strategy by rendering muscle increasingly thermogenic at rest and less fuel efficient during exercise.

  16. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and fatness is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight gain and fat deposit a...

  17. Body Weight Dynamics Following Intentional Weight Loss and Physical Performance: The Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Beavers, Kristen M.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Houston, Denise K.; Bray, George A.; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of body weight change following intentional weight loss on measures of physical performance in adults with diabetes. Design and methods 450 individuals with type 2 diabetes (age: 59.0±6.9 years, BMI: 35.5±5.9 kg/m2) who participated in the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study and lost weight one year after being randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention were assessed. Body weight was measured annually, and participants were categorized as continued losers/maintainers, regainers, or cyclers based on a ±5% annual change in weight. Objective measures of physical performance were measured at the year 8/9 visit. Results Forty-four, 38 and 18% of participants were classified as regainers, cyclers, and continued losers/maintainers. In women, weight cycling and regain was associated with worse follow-up expanded physical performance battery score (1.46±0.07 and 1.48±0.07 vs. 1.63±0.07, both p≤0.02) and slower 20-meter walking speed (1.10±0.04 and 1.08±0.04 m/s vs. 1.17±0.04 m/s, both p<0.05) compared to continued or maintained weight loss. Male cyclers presented with weaker grip strength compared to regainers or continued losers/maintainers (30.12±2.21 kg versus 34.46±2.04 and 37.39±2.26 kg; both p<0.01). Conclusions Weight cycling and regain following intentional weight loss in older adults with diabetes was associated with worse physical function in women and grip strength in men. PMID:27453790

  18. Social engagement in adolescence moderates the association between weight status and body image.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction.

  19. Social engagement in adolescence moderates the association between weight status and body image.

    PubMed

    Caccavale, Laura J; Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J

    2012-03-01

    This study examined whether the association between adolescent weight status and body image varies by social engagement. A nationally representative sample of 6909 students in grades 6-10 completed the 2006 HBSC survey. Separate linear regressions for boys and girls, controlling for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were conducted with an interaction term (weight status×social engagement). Adolescents' overweight/obese status was related to body dissatisfaction. Social engagement moderated the relationship between weight status and body image for girls but not for boys. Overweight/obese boys had more body dissatisfaction compared to their normal/underweight peers, regardless of their social engagement. However, overweight/obese girls with more social engagement were more likely to have body satisfaction compared to overweight/obese girls with less social engagement. Encouraging adolescent girls to develop healthy relationships with peers may prevent them from developing body dissatisfaction. PMID:22325852

  20. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation of Zimbabwean women in Zimbabwe and Britain.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Mada, Rujeko; Tovée, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have investigated a cultural group's corporeal experiences in both its country of origin and a host, Western country using the same methodology. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study examined body image among 140 women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and an age-matched sample of 138 Zimbabwean migrants in Britain. Participants completed measures of actual-ideal weight discrepancy, body appreciation, and lifetime exposure to Western and Zimbabwean media. Preliminary analyses showed that there were no significant differences in body mass index between the two groups. Further analyses showed that Zimbabwean women in Britain had significantly greater weight discrepancy and lower body appreciation than their counterparts in Zimbabwe. In addition, weight discrepancy and body appreciation among both samples were significantly associated with exposure to Western media, but not Zimbabwean media. These findings support the contention that transcultural migration may place individuals at risk for symptoms of negative body image.

  1. Comparison between lung weight and blood strontium in bodies found in seawater.

    PubMed

    Azparren, J E; Cubero, C; Perucha, E; Martínez, P; Vallejo, G

    2007-05-24

    This paper examines the use of lung weight increase as an indicator of seawater drowning compared to the amount of Sr absorbed by the blood. The study population was limited to male victims older than 20 years. Significant differences between cases of drowning and "non-drowning" were detected in terms of the lung-heart weight ratio (L/H) (p<0.001) or lung-body weight ratio (L/B) (p=0.005). However, using lung weight (L), L/H or L/B to distinguish between seawater drownings and saltwater non-drownings some overlap was produced. The factor rendering least overlap was L/B, which also appeared to be non-dependent on the victim's age. Our findings suggest that a value of L/B higher than 19.5 g/kg could be a useful indicator of death by drowning, but that when a lower value is found, additional drowning diagnoses would be needed to establish the manner of death.

  2. Excess body weight and obesity--the link with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary cancer.

    PubMed

    Kant, Prashant; Hull, Mark A

    2011-04-01

    Excess body weight (EBW) is an independent risk factor for many human malignancies, including cancers throughout the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tract from the esophagus to the colorectum. The relative risk of gastrointestinal cancer in obese individuals is approximately 1.5-2.0 times that for normal weight individuals, with organ-specific and gender-specific differences for specific cancers. The association between EBW and risk of premalignant stages of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, such as colorectal adenoma and Barrett esophagus, is similar, implying a role for EBW during the early stages of carcinogenesis that could be relevant to preventative strategies. EBW also impacts negatively on gastrointestinal cancer outcomes. The mechanistic basis of the association between EBW and carcinogenesis remains incompletely understood. Postulated mechanisms include increased insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling and chronic inflammation (both linked to the metabolic syndrome), as well as signaling via adipokines, such as leptin. The role of obesity-related changes in the intestinal microbiome in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis deserves further attention. Whether weight loss leads to reduced future gastrointestinal and liver cancer risk has yet to be fully explored. There is some support for the idea that weight loss negatively regulates colorectal carcinogenesis. In addition, data suggest a reduction in risk of several cancers in the first 10 years after bariatric surgery.

  3. Muscle-specific interleukin-6 deletion influences body weight and body fat in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Beatriz; Navia, Belén; Giralt, Mercedes; Comes, Gemma; Carrasco, Javier; Molinero, Amalia; Quintana, Albert; Señarís, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling not only the immune system but also basic physiological variables such as body weight and metabolism. While central IL-6 is clearly implicated in the latter, the putative role of peripheral IL-6 controlling body weight remains unclear. We herewith report results obtained in muscle-specific IL-6 KO (mIL-6 KO) mice. mIL-6 KO male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) gained less weight and body fat than littermate floxed male mice, while the opposite pattern was observed in female mice. Food intake was not affected by muscle IL-6 deficiency, but male and female mIL-6 KO mice were more and less active, respectively, in the hole-board test. Moreover, female mIL-6 KO mice did not control adequately their body temperature upon exposure to 4°C, suggesting a role of muscle IL-6 in energy expenditure. At least part of this regulatory role of muscle IL-6 may be mediated by the hypothalamus, as IL-6 deficiency regulated the expression of critical hypothalamic neuropeptides (NPY, AgRP, POMC, CRH and preproOX). Leptin and insulin changes cannot explain the phenotype of these mice. In summary, the present results demonstrate that muscle IL-6 controls body weight and body fat in a sex-specific fashion, influencing the expression of the main neuropeptides involved in energy homeostasis.

  4. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude.

  5. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R.; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation on animals with regard to the 3Rs principles (replacement, reduction, refinement) in animal science. Abstract In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights

  6. Association between change in body weight after midlife and risk of hip fracture—the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ang, L.-W.; Yuan, J.-M.; Koh, W.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The relationship between change in body weight and risk of fractures is inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. In this cohort of middle-aged to elderly Chinese in Singapore, compared to stable weight, weight loss ≥10%over an average of 6 years is associated with nearly 40%increase in risk of hip fracture. Introduction Findings on the relationship between change in body weight and risk of hip fracture are inconsistent. In this study, we examined this association among middle-aged and elderly Chinese in Singapore. Methods We used prospective data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45–74 years at recruitment in 1993–1998. Body weight and height were self-reported at recruitment and reassessed during follow-up interview in 1999–2004. Percent in weight change was computed based on the weight difference over an average of 6 years, and categorized as loss ≥10 %, loss 5 to <10 %, loss or gain <5 % (stable weight), gain 5 to <10 %, and gain ≥10 %. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied with adjustment for risk factors for hip fracture and body mass index (BMI) reported at follow-up interview. Results About 12 % experienced weight loss ≥10 %, and another 12% had weight gain ≥10 %. After a mean follow-up of 9.0 years, we identified 775 incident hip fractures among 42,149 eligible participants. Compared to stable weight, weight loss ≥10 % was associated with 39 % increased risk (hazard ratio 1.39; 95%confidence interval 1.14, 1.69). Such elevated risk with weight loss ≥10%was observed in both genders and age groups at follow-up (≤65 and >65 years) and in those with baseline BMI ≥20 kg/m2. There was no significant association with weight gain. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that substantial weight loss is an important risk factor for osteoporotic hip fractures among the middle-aged to elderly Chinese. PMID:25868509

  7. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution.

    PubMed

    Powers, Michael E.; Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. DESIGN AND SETTING: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. SUBJECTS: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 +/- 3.01 years, height = 179.8 +/- 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 +/- 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 +/- 2.51 years, height = 163.4 +/- 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 +/- 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. MEASUREMENTS: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. RESULTS: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. CONCLUSIONS: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed.

  8. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water Without Altering Fluid Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Brent L.; Weltman, Arthur L.; Perrin, David H.; Mistry, Dilawaar; Kahler, David M.; Kraemer, William; Volek, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of oral creatine (Cr) monohydrate supplementation on muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and total body water (TBW), extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) volumes. Design and Setting: After an overnight fast, urinary Cr and creatinine concentrations, muscle Cr concentration, body mass, TBW, ECW, and ICW were measured, and subjects were randomly assigned to either a Cr or a placebo (P) group. The Cr group ingested 25 g/d of Cr for 7 days (loading phase) and 5 g/d for the remaining 21 days (maintenance phase), whereas the P group ingested a sucrose P using the same protocol. All the measures were reassessed immediately after the loading and maintenance phases. Subjects: Sixteen men (age = 22.8 ± 3.01 years, height = 179.8 ± 7.1 cm, body mass = 84.8 ± 11.2 kg) and 16 women (age = 21.8 ± 2.51 years, height = 163.4 ± 5.9 cm, body mass = 63.6 ± 14.0 kg) involved in resistance training volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: Muscle Cr concentration was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle using a percutaneous needle-biopsy technique. Total body water, ECW, and ICW volumes were assessed using deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution analyses. Results: The Cr group experienced a significant increase in muscle Cr concentration, body mass, and TBW. The P group experienced a small but significant increase in TBW only. Conclusions: The Cr supplementation protocol was effective for increasing muscle Cr concentrations, body mass, and TBW; however, fluid distribution was not changed. PMID:12937471

  9. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  10. Lean rats gained more body weight from a high-fructooligosaccharide diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoting; Yingyi, Gu; Chen, Long; Lijuan, Gao; Ou, Shiyi; Peng, Xichun

    2015-07-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are believed to be beneficial to the host growth and its gut health. This article is intended to investigate the different influences of a high-fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet on the growth and gut microbiota of lean and obese rats. Diet-induced lean and obese rats were fed a high-FOS diet for 8 weeks. Rats' body weight (BW) and feed intake were recorded weekly, and their gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that the lean rats gained more BW than the obese ones from the high-FOS diet. In the meanwhile, the gut microbiota in both lean and obese rats was altered by this diet. The abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the lean rats, while no significant alteration in Firmicutes was observed in all rats after the consumption of a high-FOS diet. In conclusion, this study first reported that the lean rats gained more body weight from a high-FOS diet than the obese ones, and the increase of Bacteroidetes might help rats harvest more energy from the high-FOS diet.

  11. Dim light at night increases body mass of female mice.

    PubMed

    Aubrecht, Taryn G; Jenkins, Richelle; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-05-01

    During the past century, the prevalence of light at night has increased in parallel with obesity rates. Dim light at night (dLAN) increases body mass in male mice. However, the effects of light at night on female body mass remain unspecified. Thus, female mice were exposed to a standard light/dark (LD; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dark at ∼0 lux) cycle or to light/dim light at night (dLAN; 16 h light at ∼150 lux/8 h dim light at ∼5 lux) cycles for six weeks. Females exposed to dLAN increased the rate of change in body mass compared to LD mice despite reduced total food intake during weeks five and six, suggesting that dLAN disrupted circadian rhythms resulting in deranged metabolism.

  12. Obesity, Body Image, Depression, and Weight-control Behaviour Among Female University Students in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Eun Mi; Choi, Seung Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become epidemic worldwide and 31.0% of Korean adults are obese. Obesity is the main cause of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, and cancer. The purpose of the study was to examine obesity, body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour among Korean female university students and investigate the differences in body image, depression, and weight-control behaviour with respect to obesity. Methods: This study examined obesity, body image, depression, and weight control in 700 female university students from 4 universities in South Korea. To evaluate obesity, both objective obesity (body mass index [BMI]) and subjective obesity (subjectively perceived) were measured. Results: There was a significant difference between objective and subjective obesity (χ2 = 231.280, P < 0.001). In addition, the objective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 19.867, P < 0.001) and difference in weight-control behaviour (F = 3.145, P = 0.045). Further, the subjective obesity group had the lowest body image score (F = 58.281, P < 0.001). The results revealed a statistically significant difference in body image and weight-control behaviour with respect to objective obesity. Conclusion: Objective and subjective obesity was negatively associated with body image, and no relationships between objective or subjective obesity and depression. PMID:25337594

  13. L-ascorbic acid addition to chitosan reduces body weight in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Jung, Eun Young; Jun, Sung Chul; Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have found that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan enhanced the reduction in body weight gain in guinea pigs fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the addition of L-ascorbic acid to chitosan would accelerate the reduction of body weight in humans, similar to the animal model. Overweight subjects administered chitosan with or without L-ascorbic acid for 8 weeks, were assigned to three groups: Control group (N=26, placebo, vehicle only), Chito group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan), and Chito-vita group (N=27, 3 g/day chitosan plus 2 g/day L-ascorbic acid). The body weights and body mass index (BMI) of the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the Control group. The BMI of the Chito-vita group decreased significantly compared to the Chito group (Chito: -1.0 kg/m2 vs. Chito-vita: -1.6 kg/m2, p<0.05). The results showed that the chitosan enhanced reduction of body weight and BMI was accentuated by the addition of L-ascorbic acid. The fat mass, percentage body fat, body circumference, and skinfold thickness in the Chito and Chito-vita groups decreased more than the Control group; however, these parameters were not significantly different between the three groups. Chitosan combined with L-ascorbic acid may be useful for controlling body weight.

  14. Effects of chronic nicotine administration on body weight, food intake and nitric oxide concentration in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Ijomone, Omamuyovwi Meashack; Olaibi, Olayemi Kafilat; Nwoha, Polycarp Umunna

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine is readily consumed through cigarettes; however it is also easily consumed through the various forms of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy. It has been shown to possess potential therapeutic value for the management of neurologic and neurodegenerative diseases in the last decade. Hence, this study examined the effects of chronic subcutaneous nicotine administration on food intake and body weight as well as on nitric oxide concentrations and total antioxidant capacity in female and male rats. Nicotine was administered to rats via subcutaneous injections at doses of 0.25, 2 and 4mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Control groups received normal saline; the vehicle for nicotine. Food intake by each group was monitored daily and body weight of the animals was measured twice weekly. At the end of drug administration, blood was obtained from each animal via cardiac puncture for biochemical determination of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric (NO) concentrations using standard assay kits. Results show significant loss (p<0.05) of body weight in all nicotine treated female rats. In contrast, male rats showed weight gain, though this was significantly lower (p<0.001) in nicotine treated groups compared to control. Nicotine significantly reduced (p<0.001) food consumed in both female and male rats; however dose related changes were observed in only male rats. No significant difference was observed in TAC following nicotine treatments for both female and male rats. Furthermore, only males exhibited changes in NO concentrations following nicotine treatment, as it significantly increased (p<0.01) NO concentrations in all male treated groups. In conclusion, this study has shown that modulation of body weight, food consumption and nitric oxide formation by nicotine is sexually dimorphic. Also, the study suggests that nicotine modulation of food intake and body weight and its modulation of NO may be independent of each other.

  15. Comparison of ideal body weight equations and published height-weight tables with body mass index tables for healthy adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhumika; Sucher, Kathryn; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the ideal body weight (IBW) formulas and published height-weight tables for healthy adults in the United States with the body mass index (BMI) of 22 kg/m2, which is associated with lowest mortality. There are numerous formulas and published height-weight tables available to determine IBW, but there are no published studies comparing the validity of formulas with each other or comparing formulas with BMIs. Data from height-weight tables, weight for specific heights determined by IBW formulas, and weight for BMIs of 20, 22, 25, and 30 kg/m2 at different heights were plotted for both men and women. Slopes based on a range of heights were determined for each formula using relational database software. The value for each slope obtained by linear regression was compared with the BMIs to determine which fit best with BMI of 22 kg/m2. Most height-weight tables and formulas predicted IBWs within the range of BMI of 20-25 kg/m2. However, for shorter heights the formulas were closer to BMI 20 kg/m2 and for taller heights, were closer to BMI 25 kg/m2. Height-weight tables' slopes were closer to the BMI slopes than formula slopes. Robinson's formula appears to be the best equation for calculating desirable/healthy weights in men; however, no formula predicted close to a BMI of 22 kg/m2 for women. Thus, in practice it might be more useful to use BMI ranges instead of IBW formulas for men and women.

  16. [Relationship between MC4R gene polymorphyism and body weight trait in beagle dogs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Bo; Ba, Cai-Feng; Su, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Rui-Xia

    2006-10-01

    The relationship between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in beagle dogs was analyzed. Using gene-specific primers based on canine MC4R exonic sequences a gene fragment was PCR amplified, cloned and sequenced to identify potential polymorphisms. The relationship between a MC4R gene polymorphism detected by PCR-RFLP and canine body weight was analyzed. Three variants were found in beagle dog MC4R DNA sequence, of which two were deletions and one was a transversion which created a PshA I site that could be detected by PCR-RFLP. A statistically significant relationship between this polymorphism and body weight was found. MC4R gene could be a candidate modifier gene for canine body weight. PMID:17035178

  17. Assessing stability of body weight in the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Kristie E; Bizo, Lewis A; Starkey, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    When conducting controlled laboratory studies with non-traditional laboratory animals it is important that methods for determining body weight stability are reliable. This helps ensure the health and welfare of animals when they are maintained during periods of free feeding or food restriction. This study compared different methods for determining body weight stability in six common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) maintained on a free-feeding diet under laboratory conditions. A criterion of five consecutive weighings with less than ±2.5% change across days and no more than two consecutive days of weight loss or weight gain was judged to be the most suitable criteria for determining stability. It is important to study non-traditional animals, especially endangered or pest species, under controlled laboratory conditions and to have robust methods for establishing body weight stability.

  18. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  19. Body weight changes in breast cancer patients following adjuvant chemotherapy and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; Cai, Hui; Wang, Chang-Yan; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Ming-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Weight gain commonly occurs in breast cancer patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. Weight gain may cause psychosocial stress and is associated with patient prognosis and survival. Several factors contributing to weight gain have been identified in Western populations. However, there was lack of information associated with body weight changes following adjuvant chemotherapy in Chinese breast cancer patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such study to be conducted in the Chinese population. A total of 98 patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy following a modified radical mastectomy were included in this study. Their weight was measured prior to the first and following the last cycle of chemotherapy. A weight gain, or loss, of >1 kg following adjuvant chemotherapy was considered to be significant. Cancer stage, treatment modalities, menopausal status and other clinical information were obtained through medical record review. The results revealed that the weight changes ranged from -11 to +9 kg, with a mean value of -0.4±4.4 kg. A total of 66.7% of the patients exhibited weight changes (34.6% gained >1 kg and 32.1% lost weight), whereas 33.3% of the patients maintained a stable weight (P<0.001). Patients aged ≤40 years [odds ratio (OR)=1.429, P=0.028], with a weight of ≥60 kg at diagnosis (OR=2.211, P=0.023), who received ≥4 cycles of chemotherapy (OR=1.591, P=0.039) and a total hormone dose of ≥200 mg (OR=2.75, P=0.013) exhibited a higher risk of weight gain. In conclusion, the body weight changes observed in Chinese breast cancer patient post-adjuvant chemotherapy were different from those observed among Western populations, represented predominantly by weight gain and were reflected by approximately equal percentages of weight gain, stable weight and weight loss. PMID:24649316

  20. Influence of Serum Leptin on Weight and Body Fat Growth in Children at High Risk for Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Agarwal, Neha; Roberts, Mary D.; Han, Joan C.; Theim, Kelly R.; Vexler, Albert; Troendle, James; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to examine serum leptin prospectively as a predictor of weight and body fat growth in children at high risk for adult obesity. We hypothesized that leptin measurements would be positively associated with increased growth of adipose tissue because children with high baseline leptin for their body fat mass have greater leptin resistance and thus would have greater susceptibility to weight gain. Methods Children ages 6–12 yr at high risk for adult obesity because of early-onset childhood overweight and/or parental overweight were recruited from 1996–2004. Growth in body mass index (BMI) was studied in 197 children, and growth in total body fat mass was examined in 149 children over an average follow-up interval of 4.4 yr (range, 1–8 yr). Longitudinal analyses accounted for sex, race, socioeconomic status, initial body composition, age, skeletal age, and physical activity and included all available interim visits for each individual so that a total of 982 subject visits were included in the analysis. Results At baseline, 43% of children studied were overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile); during follow-up, an additional 14% became overweight. Independent of initial body composition, baseline leptin was a statistically significant positive predictor of increased BMI (P = 0.0147) and increased total body fat mass (P < 0.007). Conclusions High serum leptin, independent of body fat, may be an indicator of increased leptin resistance, which predisposes children at high risk for adult obesity to somewhat greater growth in weight and body fat during childhood. PMID:17179198

  1. Perceived and desired body weight among female university students in relation to BMI-based weight status and socio-economic factors.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona; Suliga, Edyta; Pawlińska-Chmara, Romana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify if the accuracy of weight perception among young women depends on their socio-economic status and BMI-based weight status. In addition, the survey contained questions whether women were satisfied with their weight and tested if the desire to change weight is affected by real body weight and weight perception. The sample consisted of 1,129 female university students, aged 20-24. BMI was calculated from measured weight and height. The questionnaire contained questions about socio-economic status, weight perception and desired body weight. 71.9% of the surveyed students correctly estimated, 24.2% overestimated and 3.9% underestimated their body weight. Underweight women tended to incorrectly assess their body weight more often than normal weight women or overweight women (43.2% vs. 75.4% vs. 77.2%). Students from families of high socio-economic status slightly more often estimated their weight status correctly than students with average and low status, but the difference was statistically significant only in the case of the factor "mother's education". Most of surveyed women expressed the desire to weigh less or/and to have thinner waist, hips or thighs. The desire to be thinner was associated with body weight status and body weight perception.

  2. Familial resemblance of blood pressure and body weight.

    PubMed

    André, J L; Deschamps, J P; Gueguen, R

    1986-01-01

    Familial resemblance of blood pressure (BP) was studied in 545 families of which 370 included natural children, 24 adopted children and 151 both natural and adopted children. Mean values of four automatic BP measurements (Dinamap 845) were converted into age (adult) or height (children) and sex adjusted scores. BP was compared between parents and randomly chosen index children. A significant resemblance of BP was observed between natural children and their parents: r = 0.24 for systolic BP, r = 0.29 for diastolic BP, (n = 272 p greater than 0.05). BP of adopted children did not resemble that of their foster parents except for a significant correlation to BP of the adopting mothers (n = 46). Weight, heart rate, age and time of common life shared did not influence the results. The relative contribution of genetic and common environmental factors to BP correlation between family members could not be evaluated in this study. BP of children whose parents have high BP should be monitored regularly.

  3. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Anam J.; Hun, Lewis V.; Quicke, Kendra; Piatt, Michael; Ziegler, Rolf; Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Badgandi, Hemant; Riehle, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Akt signaling regulates diverse physiologies in a wide range of organisms. We examine the impact of increased Akt signaling in the fat body of 2 mosquito species, the Asian malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of a myristoylated and active form of A. stephensi and Ae. aegypti Akt in the fat body of transgenic mosquitoes led to activation of the downstream signaling molecules forkhead box O (FOXO) and p70 S6 kinase in a tissue and blood meal–specific manner. In both species, increased Akt signaling in the fat body after blood feeding significantly increased adult survivorship relative to nontransgenic sibling controls. In A. stephensi, survivorship was increased by 15% to 45%, while in Ae. aegypti, it increased 14% to 47%. Transgenic mosquitoes fed only sugar, and thus not expressing active Akt, had no significant difference in survivorship relative to nontransgenic siblings. Expression of active Akt also increased expression of fat body vitellogenin, but the number of viable eggs did not differ significantly between transgenic and nontransgenic controls. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism of enhanced survivorship through increased Akt signaling in the fat bodies of multiple mosquito genera and provides new tools to unlock the molecular underpinnings of aging in eukaryotic organisms.—Arik, A. J., Hun, L. V., Quicke, K., Piatt, M., Ziegler, R., Scaraffia, P. Y., Badgandi H., Riehle, M. A. Increased Akt signaling in the mosquito fat body increases adult survivorship. PMID:25550465

  4. [Heritability of body weight and fork length for Oncorhynchus masou masou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Yong; Jia, Zhi-Ying; Bai, Qing-Li; Chen, Shu-Qiang; Shi, Lian-Yu; Wang, Bing-Qian

    2013-02-01

    Body weight and body length have been considered as the most important production traits for the fish genetic improvement. For cold-water fish, body length was usually substituted by fork length. In order to estimate the heritability of body weight and fork length of the sixth generation Oncorhynchus masou masou, which was introduced into China, the method of unbalanced nest design and an artificial insemination technigue were used. Twenty-nine full-sib families and fourteen half-sib families were obtained. Body weight and fork length of O. masou masou were measured in 12 and 24 months after fertilization. Based on full-sib and half-sib families data, the causal components of phenotypic variance were calculated. The results showed that, (1) during the whole growth phase of O. masou masou, the coefficient variation (CV) of fork length was higher than body weight, and CV of 12-month old was higher than that of 24-month old; (2) body weight and fork length of O. masou masou among sires and dams among sires were significant difference (P<0.01) both at 12 months and at 24 months; (3) the maternal component estimates were significantly larger than those of paternal ones for body weight and fork length traits both at 12 months and at 24 months; (4) for 12 months of O. masou masou the heritabilities of body weight and fork length were 0.41~0.51 and 0.46~0.54, respectively. For 24 months the values were 0.55~0.60 and 0.53~0.59, respectively; and (5) it was concluded that the heritability of growth traits in O. masou masou was relatively high and this highlights the potential to improve its growth through selective breeding. This study shows important data supporting for further genetic improvement of O. masou masou. PMID:23448933

  5. The impact of migration on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Goulão, Beatriz; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do

    2015-02-01

    Immigrants may be more vulnerable to obesity as a result of the immigration process. The aim of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the impact of immigration on body mass index (BMI). A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines through a database search of scientific articles (last updated in August 2014). Thirty-nine articles were included and assessed. Results varied according to ethnic background, country of origin and host country. A consistent positive association between BMI and time since immigration was found among Hispanic, European and African immigrants. Less than half of the studies observed a positive association among Asian immigrants. The quality of the majority of the studies assessed was poor, reflecting a need to improve methodology and concept definition. Immigration appears to have a deteriorative effect on BMI. Underlying causes may include changes in nutrition and physical activity, psychological and social factors, and genetic susceptibility and these aspects should be included as moderator variables in future studies. PMID:25760158

  6. The impact of migration on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Goulão, Beatriz; Santos, Osvaldo; Carmo, Isabel do

    2015-02-01

    Immigrants may be more vulnerable to obesity as a result of the immigration process. The aim of this article is to summarize current knowledge about the impact of immigration on body mass index (BMI). A systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines through a database search of scientific articles (last updated in August 2014). Thirty-nine articles were included and assessed. Results varied according to ethnic background, country of origin and host country. A consistent positive association between BMI and time since immigration was found among Hispanic, European and African immigrants. Less than half of the studies observed a positive association among Asian immigrants. The quality of the majority of the studies assessed was poor, reflecting a need to improve methodology and concept definition. Immigration appears to have a deteriorative effect on BMI. Underlying causes may include changes in nutrition and physical activity, psychological and social factors, and genetic susceptibility and these aspects should be included as moderator variables in future studies.

  7. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  8. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts.

  9. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents’ weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents’ weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. PMID:25863424

  10. Genetics of body weight in the LXS recombinant inbred mouse strains

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Beth; Carosone-Line, Phyllis; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This is the first phenotypic analysis of 75 new recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from ILS and ISS progenitors. We analyzed body weight in two independent cohorts of female mice at various ages and in males at 60 days. Body weight is a complex trait which has been mapped in numerous crosses in rodents. The LXS RI strains displayed a large range of weights, transgressing those of the inbred progenitors, supporting the utility of this large panel for mapping traits not selected in the progenitors. Numerous QTLs for body weight mapped in singleand multilocus scans. We assessed replication between these and previously reported QTLs based on overlapping confidence intervals of published QTLs for body weight at 60 days and used meta-analyses to determine combined p values for three QTL regions located on Chromosomes 4, 5, and 11. Strain distribution patterns of microsatellite marker genotypes, weight, and other phenotypes are available on Web- QTL (http://www.webqtl.org/search.html) and allow genetic mapping of any heritable quantitative phenotype measured in these strains. We report one such analysis, correlating brain and body weights. Large reference panels of RI strains, such as the LXS, are invaluable for identifying genetic correlations, GXE (Gene X Environment) interactions, and replicating previously identified QTLs.

  11. Patterns and associations of body weight among older adults in two Asian societies.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Kristi Rahrig; Johnson, Nan E; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

    2007-03-01

    Body weight has important health implications across the lifespan. Most recent attention has focused on the obesity epidemic that is occurring in many parts of the world. However, underweight is also a concern, particularly in less developed countries. For most health outcomes there is a curvilinear association with body weight, with underweight and overweight (compared to normal weight) being associated with a higher prevalence of chronic debilitating and life-threatening conditions and ultimately mortality. This paper uses data from two nationally-representative surveys of older adults (aged 60 and older) in the Philippines (1996) and Taiwan (1999) to assess the prevalence of underweight and overweight and examine associations between body weight and demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in these populations. Older Filipinos have a modest prevalence of underweight (29.9%) and low prevalence of overweight (12.2%), whereas the reverse is observed in Taiwan (6.4 and 29.3%, respectively). Results show generally expected associations between body weight and demographic characteristics, health conditions and behaviors. We find little evidence of socioeconomic differences in body weight, except in the Philippines where higher SES is associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of healthy weight maintenance among critical subgroups to potentially reduce the prevalence of disease and improve quality of life.

  12. The SNPs of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Associated with Body Weight in Beagle Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ruixia; Zhang, YiBo; Du, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), which is associated with inherited human obesity, is involoved in food intake and body weight of mammals. To study the relationships between MC4R gene polymorphism and body weight in Beagle dogs, we detected and compared the nucleotide sequence of the whole coding region and 3′- and 5′- flanking regions of the dog MC4R gene (1214 bp). In 120 Beagle dogs, two SNPs (A420C, C895T) were identified and their relation with body weight was analyzed with RFLP-PCR method. The results showed that the SNP at A420C was significantly associated with canine body weight trait when it changed amino acid 101 of the MC4R protein from asparagine to threonine,while canine body weight variations were significant in female dogs when MC4R nonsense mutation at C895T. It suggested that the two SNPs might affect the MC4R gene’s function which was relative to body weight in Beagle dogs. Therefore, MC4R was a candidate gene for selecting different size dogs with the MC4R SNPs (A420C, C895T) being potentially valuable as a genetic marker. PMID:24521865

  13. Evaluation of body weight of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus by computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    A postichopus japonicus (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata) is an ecological and economic species in East Asia. Conventional biometric monitoring method includes diving for samples and weighing above water, with highly variable in weight measurement due to variation in the quantity of water in the respiratory tree and intestinal content of this species. Recently, video survey method has been applied widely in biometric detection on underwater benthos. However, because of the high flexibility of A. japonicus body, video survey method of monitoring is less used in sea cucumber. In this study, we designed a model to evaluate the wet weight of A. japonicus, using machine vision technology combined with a support vector machine (SVM) that can be used in field surveys on the A. japonicus population. Continuous dorsal images of free-moving A. japonicus individuals in seawater were captured, which also allows for the development of images of the core body edge as well as thorn segmentation. Parameters that include body length, body breadth, perimeter and area, were extracted from the core body edge images and used in SVM regression, to predict the weight of A. japonicus and for comparison with a power model. Results indicate that the use of SVM for predicting the weight of 33 A. japonicus individuals is accurate ( R 2=0.99) and compatible with the power model ( R 2 =0.96). The image-based analysis and size-weight regression models in this study may be useful in body weight evaluation of A. japonicus in lab and field study.

  14. Whole grain intake in relation to body weight: from epidemiological evidence to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Giacco, R; Della Pepa, G; Luongo, D; Riccardi, G

    2011-12-01

    This viewpoint aims to 1) review the available scientific literature on the relationship between whole grain consumption and body weight regulation; 2) evaluate the potential mechanisms whereby whole grain intake may help reduce overweight and 3) try to understand why epidemiological studies and clinical trials provide diverging results on this topic. All the prospective epidemiological studies demonstrate that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower BMI and body weight gain. However, these results do not clarify whether whole grain consumption is simply a marker of a healthier lifestyle or a factor favoring "per se" lower body weight. Habitual whole grain consumption seems to cause lower body weight by multiple mechanisms such as lower energy density of whole grain based products, lower glycemic index, fermentation of non digestible carbohydrates (satiety signals) and finally by modulating intestinal microflora. In contrast with epidemiological evidence, the results of few clinical trials do not confirm that a whole grain low-calorie diet is more effective in reducing body weight than a refined cereal diet, but their results may have been affected by small sample size or short duration of the intervention. Therefore, further intervention studies with adequate methodology are needed to clarify this question. For the time being, whole grain consumption can be recommended as one of the features of the diet that may help control body weight but also because is associated with a lower risk to develop type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. PMID:22036468

  15. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection.

  16. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis. PMID:26977813

  17. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis.

  18. Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Chikara; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Shiba, Kumiko; Miyachi, Yasutaka; Furuke, Shunsaku; Shimazu, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Shinobu; Kanno, Kazuo; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a high incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related to obesity and insulin resistance. Currently, medical interventions for NAFLD have focused on diet control and exercise to reduce body weight, and there is a requirement for effective pharmacological therapies. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote the urinary excretion of glucose by blocking its reabsorption in renal proximal tubules. SGLT2 inhibitors lower blood glucose independent of insulin action and are expected to reduce body weight because of urinary calorie loss. Here we show that an SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin improves hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-induced and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice irrespective of body weight reduction. In the obese mice, ipragliflozin-induced hyperphagia occurred to increase energy intake, attenuating body weight reduction with increased epididymal fat mass. There is an inverse correlation between weights of liver and epididymal fat in ipragliflozin-treated obese mice, suggesting that ipragliflozin treatment promotes normotopic fat accumulation in the epididymal fat and prevents ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. Despite increased adiposity, ipragliflozin ameliorates obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance in epididymal fat. Clinically, ipragliflozin improves liver dysfunction in patients with T2DM irrespective of body weight reduction. These findings provide new insight into the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on energy homeostasis and fat accumulation and indicate their potential therapeutic efficacy in T2DM-associated hepatic steatosis. PMID:26977813