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Sample records for increased ethanol yield

  1. Protease increases fermentation rate and ethanol yield in dry-grind ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Johnston, David B; McAloon, Andrew J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of acid protease and urea addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The fermentations were also tested with and without the addition of urea to determine if protease altered the nitrogen requirements of the yeast. Results show that the addition of the protease had a statistically significant effect on the fermentation rate and yield. Fermentation rates and yields were improved with the addition of the protease over the corresponding controls without protease. Protease addition either with or with added urea resulted in a higher final ethanol yield than without the protease addition. Urea addition levels >1200 ppm of supplemental nitrogen inhibited ethanol production. The economic effects of the protease addition were evaluated by using process engineering and economic models developed at the Eastern Regional Research Center. The decrease in overall processing costs from protease addition was as high as $0.01/L (4 ¢/gal) of denatured ethanol produced.

  2. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  3. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; ...

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  4. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  5. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  6. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  7. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  8. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; ...

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe]more » hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.« less

  9. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  10. Activation of futile cycles as an approach to increase ethanol yield during glucose fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semkiv, Marta V; Dmytruk, Kostyantyn V; Abbas, Charles A; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2016-04-02

    An increase in ethanol yield by yeast from the fermentation of conventional sugars such as glucose and sucrose is possible by reducing the production of a key byproduct such as cellular biomass. Previously we have reported that overexpression of PHO8 gene encoding non-specific ATP-hydrolyzing alkaline phosphatase can lead to a decrease in cellular ATP content and to an increase in ethanol yield during glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work we further report on 2 new successful approaches to reduce cellular levels of ATP that increase ethanol yield and productivity. The first approach is based on the overexpression of the heterologous Escherichia coli apy gene encoding apyrase or SSB1 part of the chaperon that exhibit ATPase activity in yeast. In the second approach we constructed a futile cycle by the overexpression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in S. cerevisiae. These genetically engineered strains accumulated more ethanol compared to the wild-type strain during alcoholic fermentation.

  11. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, X.; Moates, G.K.; Elliston, A.; Wilson, D.R.; Coleman, M.J.; Waldron, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210 °C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g−1 substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g−1 substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0 × 107 cells mL−1). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors. PMID:26210138

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam exploded duckweed: Improvement of the ethanol yield by increasing yeast titre.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Elliston, A; Wilson, D R; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the conversion of Lemna minor biomass to bioethanol. The biomass was pre-treated by steam explosion (SE, 210°C, 10 min) and then subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Cellic® CTec 2 (20 U or 0.87 FPU g(-1) substrate) cellulase plus β-glucosidase (2 U g(-1) substrate) and a yeast inoculum of 10% (v/v or 8.0×10(7) cells mL(-1)). At a substrate concentration of 1% (w/v) an ethanol yield of 80% (w/w, theoretical) was achieved. However at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v), the ethanol yield was lowered to 18.8% (w/w, theoretical). Yields were considerably improved by increasing the yeast titre in the inoculum or preconditioning the yeast on steam exploded liquor. These approaches enhanced the ethanol yield up to 70% (w/w, theoretical) at a substrate concentration of 20% (w/v) by metabolising fermentation inhibitors.

  14. Increasing alcohol yield by selected yeast fermentation of sweet sorghum. I. Evaluation of yeast strains for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    de Mancilha, I.M.; Pearson, A.M.; Waller, J.; Hogaboam, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures for inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.

  15. A modified method for calculating practical ethanol yield at high lignocellulosic solids content and high ethanol titer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2012-07-01

    A modified method for calculating practical ethanol yield in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at high lignocellulosic solids content and high ethanol titer is proposed considering the liquid volume change caused by high titer ethanol generation and the water consumed during cellulose degradation. This modified method was applied to determine the practical ethanol yields of several practical SSF operations and the results compared to those using the conventional method. The results show that the liquid volume increase with ethanol formation during SSF was approximately five times greater than the volume decrease duo to water consumption during cellulose degradation. Furthermore, the practical ethanol yields calculating using traditional method were underestimated and the underestimated errors increased with the increasing ethanol titer. The present work may provide a convenient and accurate method for calculating practical ethanol yield in a high solids and high ethanol titer SSF systems.

  16. Estimating ethanol yield from switchgrass strains using NIRS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes requires expensive, complex fermentation tests and extensive laboratory analyses of the biomass sample with costs exceeding $300 per sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-destructive technolo...

  17. Parameter Optimization for Enhancement of Ethanol Yield by Atmospheric Pressure DBD-Treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yulian; Tang, Qian; Dou, Shaohua; Di, Lanbo; Zhang, Xiuling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) was exposed to dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBD) to improve its ethanol production capacity during fermentation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the discharge-associated parameters of DBD for the purpose of maximizing the ethanol yield achieved by DBD-treated S. cerevisiae. According to single factor experiments, a mathematical model was established using Box-Behnken central composite experiment design, with plasma exposure time, power supply voltage, and exposed-sample volume as impact factors and ethanol yield as the response. This was followed by response surface analysis. Optimal experimental parameters for plasma discharge-induced enhancement in ethanol yield were plasma exposure time of 1 min, power voltage of 26 V, and an exposed sample volume of 9 mL. Under these conditions, the resulting yield of ethanol was 0.48 g/g, representing an increase of 33% over control.

  18. Increasing crude tall oil yield

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.

    1983-10-01

    In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

  19. Impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...

  20. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-11-26

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  1. Evaluation of nanoparticle-immobilized cellulase for improved ethanol yield in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lupoi, Jason; Smith, Emily

    2011-12-01

    Ethanol yields were 2.1 (P = 0.06) to 2.3 (P = 0.01) times higher in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) reactions of microcrystalline cellulose when cellulase was physisorbed on silica nanoparticles compared to enzyme in solution. In SSF reactions, cellulose is hydrolyzed to glucose by cellulase while yeast simultaneously ferments glucose to ethanol. The 35 C temperature and the presence of ethanol in SSF reactions are not optimal conditions for cellulase. Immobilization onto solid supports can stabilize the enzyme and promote activity at non-optimum reaction conditions. Mock SSF reactions that did not contain yeast were used to measure saccharification products and identify the mechanism for the improved ethanol yield using immobilized cellulase. Cellulase adsorbed to 40 nm silica nanoparticles produced 1.6 times (P = 0.01) more glucose than cellulase in solution in 96 h at pH 4.8 and 35 C. There was no significant accumulation (<250 {mu}g) of soluble cellooligomers in either the solution or immobilized enzyme reactions. This suggests that the mechanism for the immobilized enzyme's improved glucose yield compared to solution enzyme is the increased conversion of insoluble cellulose hydrolysis products to soluble cellooligomers at 35 C and in the presence of ethanol. The results show that silica-immobilized cellulase can be used to produce increased ethanol yields in the conversion of lignocellulosic materials by SSF.

  2. Improving carbon dioxide yields and cell efficiencies for ethanol oxidation by potential scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2014-12-01

    An ethanol electrolysis cell with aqueous ethanol supplied to the anode and nitrogen at the cathode has been operated under potential cycling conditions in order to increase the yield of carbon dioxide and thereby increase cell efficiency relative to operation at a fixed potential. At ambient temperature, faradaic yields of CO2 as high as 26% have been achieved, while only transient CO2 production was observed at constant potential. Yields increased substantially at higher temperatures, with maximum values at Pt anodes reaching 45% at constant potential and 65% under potential cycling conditions. Use of a PtRu anode increased the cell efficiency by decreasing the anode potential, but this was offset by decreased CO2 yields. Nonetheless, cycling increased the efficiency relative to constant potential. The maximum yields at PtRu and 80 °C were 13% at constant potential and 32% under potential cycling. The increased yields under cycling conditions have been attributed to periodic oxidative stripping of adsorbed CO, which occurs at lower potentials on PtRu than on Pt. These results will be important in the optimization of operating conditions for direct ethanol fuel cells and for the electrolysis of ethanol to produce clean hydrogen.

  3. Sexual deprivation increases ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Shohat-Ophir, G; Kaun, K R; Azanchi, R; Mohammed, H; Heberlein, U

    2012-03-16

    The brain's reward systems reinforce behaviors required for species survival, including sex, food consumption, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse co-opt these neural pathways, which can lead to addiction. Here, we used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the relationship between natural and drug rewards. In males, mating increased, whereas sexual deprivation reduced, neuropeptide F (NPF) levels. Activation or inhibition of the NPF system in turn reduced or enhanced ethanol preference. These results thus link sexual experience, NPF system activity, and ethanol consumption. Artificial activation of NPF neurons was in itself rewarding and precluded the ability of ethanol to act as a reward. We propose that activity of the NPF-NPF receptor axis represents the state of the fly reward system and modifies behavior accordingly.

  4. The metabolic costs of improving ethanol yield by reducing glycerol formation capacity under anaerobic conditions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Finely regulating the carbon flux through the glycerol pathway by regulating the expression of the rate controlling enzyme, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), has been a promising approach to redirect carbon from glycerol to ethanol and thereby increasing the ethanol yield in ethanol production. Here, strains engineered in the promoter of GPD1 and deleted in GPD2 were used to investigate the possibility of reducing glycerol production of Saccharomyces cerevisiae without jeopardising its ability to cope with process stress during ethanol production. For this purpose, the mutant strains TEFmut7 and TEFmut2 with different GPD1 residual expression were studied in Very High Ethanol Performance (VHEP) fed-batch process under anaerobic conditions. Results Both strains showed a drastic reduction of the glycerol yield by 44 and 61% while the ethanol yield improved by 2 and 7% respectively. TEFmut2 strain showing the highest ethanol yield was accompanied by a 28% reduction of the biomass yield. The modulation of the glycerol formation led to profound redox and energetic changes resulting in a reduction of the ATP yield (YATP) and a modulation of the production of organic acids (acetate, pyruvate and succinate). Those metabolic rearrangements resulted in a loss of ethanol and stress tolerance of the mutants, contrarily to what was previously observed under aerobiosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the potential of fine-tuned pathway engineering, particularly when a compromise has to be found between high product yield on one hand and acceptable growth, productivity and stress resistance on the other hand. Previous study showed that, contrarily to anaerobiosis, the resulting gain in ethanol yield was accompanied with no loss of ethanol tolerance under aerobiosis. Moreover those mutants were still able to produce up to 90 gl-1 ethanol in an anaerobic SSF process. Fine tuning metabolic strategy may then open encouraging possibilities for further

  5. Adjustment of trehalose metabolism in wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to modify ethanol yields.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, D; Heyns, E H; Setati, M E; Bosch, S; Bauer, F F

    2013-09-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1Δ and tdh3Δ), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines.

  6. Adjustment of Trehalose Metabolism in Wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains To Modify Ethanol Yields

    PubMed Central

    Rossouw, D.; Heyns, E. H.; Setati, M. E.; Bosch, S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently produce high levels of ethanol through glycolysis has been the focus of much scientific and industrial activity. Despite the accumulated knowledge regarding glycolysis, the modification of flux through this pathway to modify ethanol yields has proved difficult. Here, we report on the systematic screening of 66 strains with deletion mutations of genes encoding enzymes involved in central carbohydrate metabolism for altered ethanol yields. Five of these strains showing the most prominent changes in carbon flux were selected for further investigation. The genes were representative of trehalose biosynthesis (TPS1, encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase), central glycolysis (TDH3, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (ZWF1, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle (ACO1 and ACO2, encoding aconitase isoforms 1 and 2). Two strains exhibited lower ethanol yields than the wild type (tps1Δ and tdh3Δ), while the remaining three showed higher ethanol yields. To validate these findings in an industrial yeast strain, the TPS1 gene was selected as a good candidate for genetic modification to alter flux to ethanol during alcoholic fermentation in wine. Using low-strength promoters active at different stages of fermentation, the expression of the TPS1 gene was slightly upregulated, resulting in a decrease in ethanol production and an increase in trehalose biosynthesis during fermentation. Thus, the mutant screening approach was successful in terms of identifying target genes for genetic modification in commercial yeast strains with the aim of producing lower-ethanol wines. PMID:23793638

  7. Simultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Liang; Papanek, Beth; Olson, Daniel G.; Rydzak, Thomas; Holwerda, Evert K.; Zheng, Tianyong; Zhou, Jilai; Maloney, Marybeth; Jiang, Nannan; Giannone, Richard J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Guss, Adam M.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2016-06-02

    Background Biofuel production from plant cell walls offers the potential for sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to petroleum-based products. Fuels from cellulosic biomass are particularly promising, but would benefit from lower processing costs. Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production, but increases in product yield and titer are still needed. Results We started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol had been deleted. After two stages of adaptive evolution, an evolved strain was selected with improved yield and titer. On chemically defined medium with crystalline cellulose as substrate, the evolved strain produced 22.4 ± 1.4 g/L ethanol from 60 g/L cellulose. Moreover, the resulting yield was about 0.39 gETOH/gGluc eq, which is 75 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Genome resequencing, proteomics, and biochemical analysis were used to examine differences between the original and evolved strains. Conclusions A two step selection method successfully improved the ethanol yield and the titer. Finaly, this evolved strain has the highest ethanol yield and titer reported to date for C. thermocellum, and is an important step in the development of this microbe for industrial applications.

  8. Simultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Tian, Liang; Papanek, Beth; Olson, Daniel G; Rydzak, Thomas; Holwerda, Evert K; Zheng, Tianyong; Zhou, Jilai; Maloney, Marybeth; Jiang, Nannan; Giannone, Richard J; Hettich, Robert L; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel production from plant cell walls offers the potential for sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to petroleum-based products. Fuels from cellulosic biomass are particularly promising, but would benefit from lower processing costs. Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production, but increases in product yield and titer are still needed. Here, we started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol had been deleted. After two stages of adaptive evolution, an evolved strain was selected with improved yield and titer. On chemically defined medium with crystalline cellulose as substrate, the evolved strain produced 22.4 ± 1.4 g/L ethanol from 60 g/L cellulose. The resulting yield was about 0.39 gETOH/gGluc eq, which is 75 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Genome resequencing, proteomics, and biochemical analysis were used to examine differences between the original and evolved strains. A two step selection method successfully improved the ethanol yield and the titer. This evolved strain has the highest ethanol yield and titer reported to date for C. thermocellum, and is an important step in the development of this microbe for industrial applications.

  9. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic

  10. Simultaneous achievement of high ethanol yield and titer in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Liang; Papanek, Beth; Olson, Daniel G.; ...

    2016-06-02

    Background Biofuel production from plant cell walls offers the potential for sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to petroleum-based products. Fuels from cellulosic biomass are particularly promising, but would benefit from lower processing costs. Clostridium thermocellum can rapidly solubilize and ferment cellulosic biomass, making it a promising candidate microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing for biofuel production, but increases in product yield and titer are still needed. Results We started with an engineered C. thermocellum strain where the central metabolic pathways to products other than ethanol had been deleted. After two stages of adaptive evolution, an evolved strain was selected with improved yieldmore » and titer. On chemically defined medium with crystalline cellulose as substrate, the evolved strain produced 22.4 ± 1.4 g/L ethanol from 60 g/L cellulose. Moreover, the resulting yield was about 0.39 gETOH/gGluc eq, which is 75 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Genome resequencing, proteomics, and biochemical analysis were used to examine differences between the original and evolved strains. Conclusions A two step selection method successfully improved the ethanol yield and the titer. Finaly, this evolved strain has the highest ethanol yield and titer reported to date for C. thermocellum, and is an important step in the development of this microbe for industrial applications.« less

  11. Fetal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake by making it smell and taste better.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, Steven L; Glendinning, John I

    2009-03-31

    Human epidemiologic studies reveal that fetal ethanol exposure is highly predictive of adolescent ethanol avidity and abuse. Little is known about how fetal exposure produces these effects. It is hypothesized that fetal ethanol exposure results in stimulus-induced chemosensory plasticity. Here, we asked whether gestational ethanol exposure increases postnatal ethanol avidity in rats by altering its taste and odor. Experimental rats were exposed to ethanol in utero via the dam's diet, whereas control rats were either pair-fed an iso-caloric diet or given food ad libitum. We found that fetal ethanol exposure increased the taste-mediated acceptability of both ethanol and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), but not sucrose (sweet). Importantly, a significant proportion of the increased ethanol acceptability could be attributed directly to the attenuated aversion to ethanol's quinine-like taste quality. Fetal ethanol exposure also enhanced ethanol intake and the behavioral response to ethanol odor. Notably, the elevated intake of ethanol was also causally linked to the enhanced odor response. Our results demonstrate that fetal exposure specifically increases ethanol avidity by, in part, making it taste and smell better. More generally, they establish an epigenetic chemosensory mechanism by which maternal patterns of drug use can be transferred to offspring. Given that many licit (e.g., tobacco products) and illicit (e.g., marijuana) drugs have noteworthy chemosensory components, our findings have broad implications for the relationship between maternal patterns of drug use, child development, and postnatal vulnerability.

  12. Reduction of ethanol yield from switchgrass infected with rust caused by Puccinia emaculata

    DOE PAGES

    Sykes, Virginia R.; Allen, Fred L.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; ...

    2015-10-16

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an important biofuel crop candidate thought to have low disease susceptibility. As switchgrass production becomes more prevalent, monoculture and production fields in close proximity to one another may increase the spread and severity of diseases such as switchgrass rust caused by the pathogen Puccinia emaculata. The objective of this research was to examine the impact of rust on ethanol yield in switchgrass. In 2010 and 2012, naturally infected leaves from field-grown Alamo and Kanlow in Knoxville, TN (2010, 2012) and Crossville, TN (2012) were visually categorized as exhibiting low, medium, or high disease based on themore » degree of chlorosis and sporulation. P. emaculata was isolated from each disease range to confirm infection. Samples from 2010 were acid/heat pretreated and subjected to two runs of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A to measure ethanol yield. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate ethanol yield for 2012 samples. SSF and NIRS data were analyzed separately using ANOVA. Disease level effects were significant within both models (P < 0.05) and both models explained a large amount of variation in ETOH (SSF: R2 = 0.99, NIRS: R2 = 0.99). In the SSF dataset, ethanol was reduced by 35 % in samples exhibiting medium disease symptoms and by 55 % in samples exhibiting high disease symptoms. In the NIRS dataset, estimated ethanol was reduced by 10 % in samples exhibiting medium disease symptoms and by 21 % in samples exhibiting high disease symptoms. Lastly, results indicate that switchgrass rust will likely have a negative impact on ethanol yield in switchgrass grown as a biofuel crop.« less

  13. Yield and Properties of Ethanol Biofuel Produced from Different Whole Cassava Flours

    PubMed Central

    Ademiluyi, F. T.; Mepba, H. D.

    2013-01-01

    The yield and properties of ethanol biofuel produced from five different whole cassava flours were investigated. Ethanol was produced from five different whole cassava flours. The effect of quantity of yeast on ethanol yield, effect of whole cassava flour to acid and mineralized media ratio on the yield of ethanol produced, and the physical properties of ethanol produced from different cassava were investigated. Physical properties such as distillation range, density, viscosity, and flash point of ethanol produced differ slightly for different cultivars, while the yield of ethanol and electrical conductivity of ethanol from the different cassava cultivars varies significantly. The variation in mineral composition of the different whole cassava flours could also lead to variation in the electrical conductivity of ethanol produced from the different cassava cultivars. The differences in ethanol yield are attributed to differences in starch content, protein content, and dry matter of cassava cultivars. High yield of ethanol from whole cassava flour is best produced from cultivars with high starch content, low protein content, and low fiber. PMID:25937983

  14. Impact of cultivar selection and process optimization on ethanol yield from different varieties of sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of ‘energycane’ varieties of sugarcane is underway, targeting the use of both sugar juice and bagasse for ethanol production. The current study evaluated a selection of such ‘energycane’ cultivars for the combined ethanol yields from juice and bagasse, by optimization of dilute acid pretreatment optimization of bagasse for sugar yields. Method A central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of dilute acid pretreatment parameters followed by enzymatic hydrolysis on the combined sugar yield of bagasse samples. The pressed slurry generated from optimum pretreatment conditions (maximum combined sugar yield) was used as the substrate during batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes at different solid loadings and enzyme dosages, aiming to reach an ethanol concentration of at least 40 g/L. Results Significant variations were observed in sugar yields (xylose, glucose and combined sugar yield) from pretreatment-hydrolysis of bagasse from different cultivars of sugarcane. Up to 33% difference in combined sugar yield between best performing varieties and industrial bagasse was observed at optimal pretreatment-hydrolysis conditions. Significant improvement in overall ethanol yield after SSF of the pretreated bagasse was also observed from the best performing varieties (84.5 to 85.6%) compared to industrial bagasse (74.5%). The ethanol concentration showed inverse correlation with lignin content and the ratio of xylose to arabinose, but it showed positive correlation with glucose yield from pretreatment-hydrolysis. The overall assessment of the cultivars showed greater improvement in the final ethanol concentration (26.9 to 33.9%) and combined ethanol yields per hectare (83 to 94%) for the best performing varieties with respect to industrial sugarcane. Conclusions These results suggest that the selection of sugarcane variety to optimize ethanol

  15. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol's flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat's ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver's enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17-20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring's responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the "odor crawling locomotion test" to measure ethanol's odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure.

  16. Engineering topology and kinetics of sucrose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved ethanol yield.

    PubMed

    Basso, Thiago O; de Kok, Stefan; Dario, Marcelo; do Espirito-Santo, Júlio Cézar A; Müller, Gabriela; Schlölg, Paulo S; Silva, Carlos P; Tonso, Aldo; Daran, Jean-Marc; Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T; Stambuk, Boris U

    2011-11-01

    Sucrose is a major carbon source for industrial bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In yeasts, two modes of sucrose metabolism occur: (i) extracellular hydrolysis by invertase, followed by uptake and metabolism of glucose and fructose, and (ii) uptake via sucrose-proton symport followed by intracellular hydrolysis and metabolism. Although alternative start codons in the SUC2 gene enable synthesis of extracellular and intracellular invertase isoforms, sucrose hydrolysis in S. cerevisiae predominantly occurs extracellularly. In anaerobic cultures, intracellular hydrolysis theoretically enables a 9% higher ethanol yield than extracellular hydrolysis, due to energy costs of sucrose-proton symport. This prediction was tested by engineering the promoter and 5' coding sequences of SUC2, resulting in predominant (94%) cytosolic localization of invertase. In anaerobic sucrose-limited chemostats, this iSUC2-strain showed an only 4% increased ethanol yield and high residual sucrose concentrations indicated suboptimal sucrose-transport kinetics. To improve sucrose-uptake affinity, it was subjected to 90 generations of laboratory evolution in anaerobic, sucrose-limited chemostat cultivation, resulting in a 20-fold decrease of residual sucrose concentrations and a 10-fold increase of the sucrose-transport capacity. A single-cell isolate showed an 11% higher ethanol yield on sucrose in chemostat cultures than an isogenic SUC2 reference strain, while transcriptome analysis revealed elevated expression of AGT1, encoding a disaccharide-proton symporter, and other maltose-related genes. After deletion of both copies of the duplicated AGT1, growth characteristics reverted to that of the unevolved SUC2 and iSUC2 strains. This study demonstrates that engineering the topology of sucrose metabolism is an attractive strategy to improve ethanol yields in industrial processes.

  17. Genotype and environment effects on ethanol yield from pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In spite of rising feedstock costs and the grain-deficit status of the southeast, investors have committed to the construction of new ethanol plants in the region. The use of alternative feedstocks will help to alleviate market demand for corn both as a feedgrain and as an ethanol feedstock. As a dr...

  18. Wheat flour exposed to ethanol yields dough with unexpected properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wheat flour may be exposed to ethanol solutions in such a way as to alter the subsequent transformation of the flour into dough. Here, a number of types of wheat flour were exposed to small amounts of ethanol solutions so as to be "wetted" but without the appearance of a separate liquid phase. The...

  19. Alkaline pretreatment improves saccharification and ethanol yield from waste money bills.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Md Mominul Islam; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Park, Hyeon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gyeong-Chul; Lee, Ji-Young; Sim, Sung-Woong; Kim, Jae Won

    2013-01-01

    Waste money bills (WMB) is a by-product of the money making process that consists of rich-cellulosic material for many biotechnological applications. This waste money bills is unusable and usually exhausted. Saccharification was improved using various concentrations of sodium hydroxide, NaOH (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0% v/v) and various reaction times (20, 30, and 40 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. Prior to ethanol fermentation, the highest glucose yield (62.2 mg/mL) was found by pretreatment consisting of 30 min at 2.0% NaOH, and it increased 33.8% as compared to an untreated sample. The highest amount of ethanol was obtained (26.1 mg/mL) during fermentation, and this was increased 95.3 and 22.5% as compared to aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively during pretreatment with 2.0% NaOH for 30 min. Under anaerobic conditions, ethanol fermentation was enhanced by adding 0.4 mmol benzoic acid. Production of ethanol from waste money bills would cut waste management costs and make profitable.

  20. The Role of Acetaldehyde in the Increased Acceptance of Ethanol after Prenatal Ethanol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gaztañaga, Mirari; Angulo-Alcalde, Asier; Spear, Norman E.; Chotro, M. Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite in the oxidation of ethanol, can be responsible for both, the appetitive and the aversive effects produced by ethanol intoxication. More specifically, it has been hypothesized that acetaldehyde produced in the periphery by the liver is responsible for the aversive effects of ethanol, while the appetitive effects relate to the acetaldehyde produced centrally through the catalase system. On the other hand, from studies in our and other laboratories, it is known that ethanol exposure during the last gestational days (GD) consistently enhances the postnatal acceptance of ethanol when measured during early ontogeny in the rat. This increased liking of ethanol is a conditioned appetitive response acquired by the fetus by the association of ethanol’s flavor and an appetitive reinforcer. Although this reinforcer has not yet been fully identified, one possibility points to acetaldehyde produced centrally in the fetus as a likely candidate. This hypothesis is supported by data showing that very early in the rat’s ontogeny brain catalases are functional, while the liver’s enzymatic system is still immature. In this study, rat dams were administered on GD 17–20 with water or ethanol, together with an acetaldehyde-sequestering agent (D-penicillamine). The offspring’s responses to ethanol was then assessed at different postnatal stages with procedures adequate for each developmental stage: on day 1, using the “odor crawling locomotion test” to measure ethanol’s odor attractiveness; on day 5, in an operant conditioning procedure with ethanol as the reinforcer; and on day 14 in an ethanol intake test. Results show that the absence of acetaldehyde during prenatal ethanol exposure impeded the observation of the increased acceptance of ethanol at any age. This seems to confirm the crucial role of acetaldehyde as a reinforcer in the appetitive learning occurring during prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:28197082

  1. Combination of high solids loading pretreatment and ethanol fermentation of whole slurry of pretreated rice straw to obtain high ethanol titers and yields.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-12-01

    In cellulosic ethanol production using lignocellulose, an increase in biomass solids loading during the pretreatment process significantly affects the final ethanol titer and the production cost. In this study, pretreatment using rice straw at high solids loading (20% (w/v)) was evaluated, using maleic acid as a catalyst. After pretreatment at optimal conditions of 190°C, 20 min, and 0.2% or 5% (w/v) maleic acid, the highest enzymatic digestibility obtained was over 80%. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the whole slurry of pretreated rice straw in the presence of activated carbon to separate inhibitory compounds generated a high ethanol yield of 62.8%, based on the initial glucan in unpretreated rice straw. These findings suggest that high solids loading pretreatment using maleic acid and SSF of the whole slurry of pretreated rice straw can be combined to improve the process economics of ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the bioconversion yield of carbohydrates and ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewanick, Shannon M.

    Improving the efficiency of lignocellulosic ethanol production is of the utmost importance if cellulosic bioethanol is to be competitive with fossil fuels and first generation bioethanol from starch and sucrose. Improvements in individual processes (pretreatment, saccharification, fermentation) have been ongoing, but few researchers have considered the effect that the incoming raw biomass can have on the process. It is important to understand how biomass can be altered to provide the maximum yield of hydrolysable and fermentable sugars from whatever is available. Since the moisture content is highly variable and easily altered, the effect of drying and rewetting on bioconversion was studied on switchgrass, sugarcane bagasse and hybrid poplar. For switchgrass and sugarcane bagasse, the ethanol yield after simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was improved 18-24% by increasing the moisture content by soaking prior to pretreatment. It was also found that soaking had no effect when the samples were not catalyzed with SO2 confirming that the effect of moisture content is directly related to SO2 uptake and diffusion into the biomass. In hybrid poplar, the results were similar to herbaceous biomass for chips with less than 2% absorbed SO2. However, when the SO2 uptake was increased to 3% even the air dried chips exhibited high digestibility, indicating that increased SO2 uptake can overcome the poor diffusion in dried biomass. Alongside controlling the biomass moisture content, improving knowledge and control of the processes can also increase efficiency and product yields. By monitoring reactions continuously with accurate, robust, on-line sensors, operators can detect when reactions deviate from the norm, and when they are complete. Avoiding process upsets and contamination could be the difference between an economically viable biorefinery and one that struggles to compete. Real time, continuous Raman spectroscopy was used to continuously monitor both a

  3. Congenital brain serotonin deficiency leads to reduced ethanol sensitivity and increased ethanol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Salahi, A Ayten; Caron, Marc G

    2014-02-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. However, whether congenital serotonin (5-HT) deficiency leads to increased alcohol consumption or affects ethanol-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line that expresses a hypofunctional variant of the 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, to examine the impact of 5-HT deficiency on responses to alcohol. We demonstrate that these 5-HT-deficient transgenic animals (Tph2KI mice) recover their righting reflex more rapidly than wild-type controls following a high dose of ethanol and exhibit blunted locomotor retardation in response to repeated ethanol administration. In addition, compared to WT controls, 5-HT-deficient animals consume significantly more ethanol and exhibit increased preference for ethanol in two-bottle choice tests. Our data also suggest that 5-HT plays a critical role in mediating the effects of ethanol on Akt/GSK3β signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results corroborate previous theories regarding the importance of brain 5-HT levels in mediating responsiveness to alcohol and demonstrate, for the first time, that congenital 5-HT deficiency leads to increased ethanol consumption and decreased sensitivity to the sedative-like effects of ethanol, perhaps in part through modulating Akt/GSK3β signaling.

  4. Estimation methods and parameter assessment for ethanol yields from total soluble solids of sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation methods and evaluation of ethanol yield from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) based on agronomic production traits and juice characteristics is important for developing parents and inbred lines of sweet sorghum that can be used by the bio-ethanol industry. The objectives of th...

  5. Temporal and spatial variation in switchgrass biomass composition and theoretical ethanol yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Information on temporal and spatial variation in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass composition as it affects ethanol yield (L Mg-1) at a biorefinery and ethanol production (L ha-1) at the field scale has previously not been available. Switchgrass biomass samples were collected from a region...

  6. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    PubMed

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  7. HIGH ETHANOL DOSE DURING EARLY ADOLESCENCE INDUCES LOCOMOTOR ACTIVATION AND INCREASES SUBSEQUENT ETHANOL INTAKE DURING LATE ADOLESCENCE

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of ethanol consumption is associated with subsequent heightened probability of ethanol-use disorders. The present study examined the relationship between motivational sensitivity to ethanol initiation in adolescent rats and later ethanol intake. Experiment 1 determined that ethanol induces locomotor activation shortly after administration but not if tested at a later post-administration interval. In Experiment 2, adolescents were assessed for ethanol-induced locomotor activation on postnatal day 28. These animals were then evaluated for ethanol-mediated conditioned taste aversion and underwent a 16-day-long ethanol intake protocol. Ethanol-mediated aversive effects were unrelated to ethanol locomotor stimulation or subsequent ethanol consumption patterns. Ethanol intake during late adolescence was greatest in animals initiated to ethanol earliest at postnatal day 28. Females that were more sensitive to ethanol’s locomotor-activating effects showed a transient increase in ethanol self-administration. Blood ethanol concentrations during initiation were not related to ethanol-induced locomotor activation. Adolescent rats appeared sensitive to the locomotor-stimulatory effects of ethanol. Even brief ethanol exposure during adolescence may promote later ethanol intake. PMID:20373327

  8. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass strains using NIRS analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields from biomass conversion processes such as simultanteous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) requires expensive, complex fermentation assays and extensive compositional analyses of the biomass sample. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS...

  9. Can improvement in photosynthesis increase crop yields?

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen P; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Naidu, Shawna L; Ort, Donald R

    2006-03-01

    The yield potential (Yp) of a grain crop is the seed mass per unit ground area obtained under optimum growing conditions without weeds, pests and diseases. It is determined by the product of the available light energy and by the genetically determined properties: efficiency of light capture (epsilon i), the efficiency of conversion of the intercepted light into biomass (epsilon c) and the proportion of biomass partitioned into grain (eta). Plant breeding brings eta7 and epsilon i close to their theoretical maxima, leaving epsilon c, primarily determined by photosynthesis, as the only remaining major prospect for improving Yp. Leaf photosynthetic rate, however, is poorly correlated with yield when different genotypes of a crop species are compared. This led to the viewpoint that improvement of leaf photosynthesis has little value for improving Yp. By contrast, the many recent experiments that compare the growth of a genotype in current and future projected elevated [CO2] environments show that increase in leaf photosynthesis is closely associated with similar increases in yield. Are there opportunities to achieve similar increases by genetic manipulation? Six potential routes of increasing epsilon c by improving photosynthetic efficiency were explored, ranging from altered canopy architecture to improved regeneration of the acceptor molecule for CO2. Collectively, these changes could improve epsilon c and, therefore, Y p by c. 50%. Because some changes could be achieved by transgenic technology, the time of the development of commercial cultivars could be considerably less than by conventional breeding and potentially, within 10-15 years.

  10. Increased ethanol production by deletion of HAP4 in recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2015-12-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAP4 gene encodes a transcription activator that plays a key role in controlling the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and reductive pathways. This work examines the effect of knockout of the HAP4 gene on aerobic ethanol production in a xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strain. A hap4-deleted recombinant yeast strain (B42-DHAP4) showed increased maximum concentration, production rate, and yield of ethanol compared with the reference strain MA-B42, irrespective of cultivation medium (glucose, xylose, or glucose/xylose mixtures). Notably, B42-DHAP4 was capable of producing ethanol from xylose as the sole carbon source under aerobic conditions, whereas no ethanol was produced by MA-B42. Moreover, the rate of ethanol production and ethanol yield (0.44 g/g) from the detoxified hydrolysate of wood chips was markedly improved in B42-DHAP4 compared to MA-B42. Thus, the results of this study support the view that deleting HAP4 in xylose-utilizing S. cerevisiae strains represents a useful strategy in ethanol production processes.

  11. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Background Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Results Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Conclusion Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding. PMID:19272154

  12. Forage quality and composition measurements as predictors of ethanol yield from maize (Zea mays L.) stover.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Aaron J; Anex, Rob P; Isci, Asli; Coors, James G; de Leon, Natalia; Weimer, Paul J

    2009-03-09

    Improvement of biofeedstock quality for cellulosic ethanol production will be facilitated by inexpensive and rapid methods of evaluation, such as those already employed in the field of ruminant nutrition. Our objective was to evaluate whether forage quality and compositional measurements could be used to estimate ethanol yield of maize stover as measured by a simplified pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assay. Twelve maize varieties selected to be diverse for stover digestibility and composition were evaluated. Variation in ethanol yield was driven by glucan convertibility rather than by glucan content. Convertibility was highly correlated with ruminal digestibility and lignin content. There was no relationship between structural carbohydrate content (glucan and neutral detergent fiber) and ethanol yield. However, when these variables were included in multiple regression equations including convertibility or neutral detergent fiber digestibility, their partial regression coefficients were significant and positive. A regression model including both neutral detergent fiber and its ruminal digestibility explained 95% of the variation in ethanol yield. Forage quality and composition measurements may be used to predict cellulosic ethanol yield to guide biofeedstock improvement through agronomic research and plant breeding.

  13. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE INCREASES ETHANOL INTAKE AND REDUCES C-FOS EXPRESSION IN INFRALIMBIC CORTEX OF ADOLESCENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Exp. 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17–20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake. PMID:23266368

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases ethanol intake and reduces c-Fos expression in infralimbic cortex of adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Maria Carolina; March, Samanta M; Molina, Juan Carlos; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2013-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure significantly increases later predisposition for alcohol intake, but the mechanisms associated with this phenomenon remain hypothetical. This study analyzed (Experiment 1) ethanol intake in adolescent inbred WKAH/Hok Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0g/kg) or vehicle, on gestational days 17-20. Subsequent Experiments (2, 3 and 4) tested several variables likely to underlie the effect of gestational ethanol on adolescent ethanol preference, including ethanol-induced locomotor activation (LMA), ethanol-induced emission of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) after exposure to a rough exteroceptive stimulus, and induction of the immediate early gene C-fos in brain areas associated with processing of reward stimuli and with the retrieval and extinction of associative learning. Prenatal ethanol induced a two-fold increase in ethanol intake. Adolescents exhibited significant ethanol-induced LMA, emitted more aversive than appetitive USVs, and postnatal ethanol administration significantly exacerbated the emission of USVs. These effects, however, were not affected by prenatal ethanol. Adolescents prenatally exposed to ethanol as fetuses exhibited reduced neural activity in infralimbic cortex (but not in prelimbic cortex or nucleus accumbens core or shell), an area that has been implicated in the extinction of drug-mediated associative memories. Ethanol metabolism was not affected by prenatal ethanol. Late gestational exposure to ethanol significantly heightened drinking in the adolescent offspring of an inbred rat strain. Ethanol-induced LMA and USVs were not associated with differential ethanol intake due to prenatal ethanol exposure. Prenatal ethanol, however, altered basal neural activity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex. Future studies should analyze the functionality of medial prefrontal cortex after prenatal ethanol and its potential association with predisposition for heightened ethanol intake.

  15. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  16. Increased carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity after low-level ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Obermeier, F; Siegers, C P; Vöpel, M

    1978-07-01

    Male rats provided with a 5 or 15% (v/v) ethanol solution as the sole source of fluid consumed ethanol at a rate of 11.4 or 24.9% of total calories (4.2 or 8.3 g/kg daily). After ethanol consumption lasting 1, 2 and 3 weeks the hepatotoxicity of CCl4 (0.1 ml/kg i.p.) was elevated by determination of serum activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase ( GPT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) and histological investigations. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage was significantly greater in rats provided with ethanol than in the tap-water consuming controls. This potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicicty was fully developed already after a 1-week exposition to ethanol and was greater in the 15% than in the 5% ethanol group. Ethanol alone did not influence serum enzyme activities but increased microsomal aniline hydroxylation. There was, however, no clear-cut parallelism between potentiation of CCl4 hepatotoxicity and activation of aniline hydroxylation.

  17. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  18. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. Results The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid–liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Conclusion Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic

  19. Improved ethanol yield and reduced minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 2) Techno-economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Chen, Xiaowen; Aden, Andy; Kuhn, Eric; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin; Franden, Mary Ann A; Zhang, Min; Johnson, David K; Dowe, Nancy; Elander, Richard T

    2012-09-11

    Our companion paper discussed the yield benefits achieved by integrating deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing with low acid and low temperature pretreatment. To evaluate the impact of the modified process on the economic feasibility, a techno-economic analysis (TEA) was performed based on the experimental data presented in the companion paper. The cost benefits of dilute acid pretreatment technology combined with the process alternatives of deacetylation, mechanical refining, and pretreated solids washing were evaluated using cost benefit analysis within a conceptual modeling framework. Control cases were pretreated at much lower acid loadings and temperatures than used those in the NREL 2011 design case, resulting in much lower annual ethanol production. Therefore, the minimum ethanol selling prices (MESP) of the control cases were $0.41-$0.77 higher than the $2.15/gallon MESP of the design case. This increment is highly dependent on the carbohydrate content in the corn stover. However, if pretreatment was employed with either deacetylation or mechanical refining, the MESPs were reduced by $0.23-$0.30/gallon. Combing both steps could lower the MESP further by $0.44 ~ $0.54. Washing of the pretreated solids could also greatly improve the final ethanol yields. However, the large capital cost of the solid-liquid separation unit negatively influences the process economics. Finally, sensitivity analysis was performed to study the effect of the cost of the pretreatment reactor and the energy input for mechanical refining. A 50% cost reduction in the pretreatment reactor cost reduced the MESP of the entire conversion process by $0.11-$0.14/gallon, while a 10-fold increase in energy input for mechanical refining will increase the MESP by $0.07/gallon. Deacetylation and mechanical refining process options combined with low acid, low severity pretreatments show improvements in ethanol yields and calculated MESP for cellulosic ethanol production.

  20. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  1. Reduction of ethanol yield from switchgrass infected with rust caused by Puccinia emaculata

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, Virginia R.; Allen, Fred L.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Stewart, Jr., C. Neal; Windham, Mark T.; Hamilton, Choo Y.; Rodriguez, Miguel; Yee, Kelsey L.

    2015-10-16

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an important biofuel crop candidate thought to have low disease susceptibility. As switchgrass production becomes more prevalent, monoculture and production fields in close proximity to one another may increase the spread and severity of diseases such as switchgrass rust caused by the pathogen Puccinia emaculata. The objective of this research was to examine the impact of rust on ethanol yield in switchgrass. In 2010 and 2012, naturally infected leaves from field-grown Alamo and Kanlow in Knoxville, TN (2010, 2012) and Crossville, TN (2012) were visually categorized as exhibiting low, medium, or high disease based on the degree of chlorosis and sporulation. P. emaculata was isolated from each disease range to confirm infection. Samples from 2010 were acid/heat pretreated and subjected to two runs of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A to measure ethanol yield. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to estimate ethanol yield for 2012 samples. SSF and NIRS data were analyzed separately using ANOVA. Disease level effects were significant within both models (P < 0.05) and both models explained a large amount of variation in ETOH (SSF: R2 = 0.99, NIRS: R2 = 0.99). In the SSF dataset, ethanol was reduced by 35 % in samples exhibiting medium disease symptoms and by 55 % in samples exhibiting high disease symptoms. In the NIRS dataset, estimated ethanol was reduced by 10 % in samples exhibiting medium disease symptoms and by 21 % in samples exhibiting high disease symptoms. Lastly, results indicate that switchgrass rust will likely have a negative impact on ethanol yield in switchgrass grown as a biofuel crop.

  2. Carbon dioxide fixation by Calvin-Cycle enzymes improves ethanol yield in yeast.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Medina, Víctor; Wisselink, H Wouter; Luttik, Marijke Ah; de Hulster, Erik; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius Ja

    2013-08-29

    Redox-cofactor balancing constrains product yields in anaerobic fermentation processes. This challenge is exemplified by the formation of glycerol as major by-product in yeast-based bioethanol production, which is a direct consequence of the need to reoxidize excess NADH and causes a loss of conversion efficiency. Enabling the use of CO2 as electron acceptor for NADH oxidation in heterotrophic microorganisms would increase product yields in industrial biotechnology. A hitherto unexplored strategy to address this redox challenge is the functional expression in yeast of enzymes from autotrophs, thereby enabling the use of CO2 as electron acceptor for NADH reoxidation. Functional expression of the Calvin cycle enzymes phosphoribulokinase (PRK) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to a 90% reduction of the by-product glycerol and a 10% increase in ethanol production in sugar-limited chemostat cultures on a mixture of glucose and galactose. Co-expression of the Escherichia coli chaperones GroEL and GroES was key to successful expression of CbbM, a form-II Rubisco from the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans in yeast. Our results demonstrate functional expression of Rubisco in a heterotrophic eukaryote and demonstrate how incorporation of CO2 as a co-substrate in metabolic engineering of heterotrophic industrial microorganisms can be used to improve product yields. Rapid advances in molecular biology should allow for rapid insertion of this 4-gene expression cassette in industrial yeast strains to improve production, not only of 1st and 2nd generation ethanol production, but also of other renewable fuels or chemicals.

  3. 3′ Truncation of the GPD1 Promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Improved Ethanol Yield and Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wen-Tao; Zhang, Guo-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product in bioethanol fermentation by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and decreasing glycerol formation for increased ethanol yield has been a major research effort in the bioethanol field. A new strategy has been used in the present study for reduced glycerol formation and improved ethanol fermentation performance by finely modulating the expression of GPD1 in the KAM15 strain (fps1Δ pPGK1-GLT1 gpd2Δ). The GPD1 promoter was serially truncated from the 3′ end by 20 bp to result in a different expression strength of GPD1. The two engineered promoters carrying 60- and 80-bp truncations exhibited reduced promoter strength but unaffected osmostress response. These two promoters were integrated into the KAM15 strain, generating strains LE34U and LE35U, respectively. The transcription levels of LE34U and LE35U were 37.77 to 45.12% and 21.34 to 24.15% of that of KAM15U, respectively, depending on osmotic stress imposed by various glucose concentrations. In very high gravity (VHG) fermentation, the levels of glycerol for LE34U and LE35U were reduced by 15.81% and 30.66%, respectively, compared to KAM15U. The yield and final concentration of ethanol for LE35U were 3.46% and 0.33% higher, respectively, than those of KAM15U. However, fermentation rate and ethanol productivity for LE35U were reduced. On the other hand, the ethanol yield and final concentration for LE34U were enhanced by 2.28% and 2.32%, respectively, compared to those of KAM15U. In addition, a 2.31% increase in ethanol productivity was observed for LE34U compared to KAM15U. These results verified the feasibility of our strategy for yeast strain development. PMID:23503313

  4. Ethanol increases GABA release in the embryonic avian retina.

    PubMed

    Pohl-Guimarães, Fernanda; Calaza, Karin da Costa; Yamasaki, Edna Nanami; Kubrusly, Regina Célia Cussa; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo

    2010-04-01

    Several mechanisms underlying ethanol action in GABAergic synapses have been proposed, one of these mechanisms is on GABA release. Here, we report that in ovo exposure to ethanol induces an increase on GABA release in the embryonic chick retina. Eleven-day-old chick embryos (E11) received an injection of either phosphate buffer saline (PBS) or ethanol (10%, v/v, diluted in PBS), and were allowed to develop until E16. A single glutamate stimulus (2 mM) showed approximately a 40% increase on GABA release in E16 retinas when compared to controls. The effect was dependent on NMDA receptors and GAD65 mRNA levels, which were increased following the ethanol treatment. However, the numbers of GABA-, GAD-, and NR1-immunoreactive cells, and the expression levels of these proteins, were not affected. We conclude that ethanol treatment at a time point when synapses are being formed during development selectively increases GABA release in the retina via a NMDA receptor-dependent process.

  5. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1) Experimental.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaowen; Tao, Ling; Shekiro, Joseph; Mohaghaghi, Ali; Decker, Steve; Wang, Wei; Smith, Holly; Park, Sunkyu; Himmel, Michael E; Tucker, Melvin

    2012-08-13

    Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20%) enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. The new process shows improved

  6. Identification of multiple interacting alleles conferring low glycerol and high ethanol yield in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanolic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering of industrial microorganisms often suffers from undesirable side effects on essential functions. Reverse engineering is an alternative strategy to improve multifactorial traits like low glycerol/high ethanol yield in yeast fermentation. Previous rational engineering of this trait always affected essential functions like growth and stress tolerance. We have screened Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity for specific alleles causing lower glycerol/higher ethanol yield, assuming higher compatibility with normal cellular functionality. Previous work identified ssk1E330N…K356N as causative allele in strain CBS6412, which displayed the lowest glycerol/ethanol ratio. Results We have now identified a unique segregant, 26B, that shows similar low glycerol/high ethanol production as the superior parent, but lacks the ssk1E330N…K356N allele. Using segregants from the backcross of 26B with the inferior parent strain, we applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis and identified three minor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to low glycerol/high ethanol production. Within these QTLs, we identified three novel alleles of known regulatory and structural genes of glycerol metabolism, smp1R110Q,P269Q, hot1P107S,H274Y and gpd1L164P as causative genes. All three genes separately caused a significant drop in the glycerol/ethanol production ratio, while gpd1L164P appeared to be epistatically suppressed by other alleles in the superior parent. The order of potency in reducing the glycerol/ethanol ratio of the three alleles was: gpd1L164P > hot1P107S,H274Y ≥ smp1R110Q,P269Q. Conclusions Our results show that natural yeast strains harbor multiple specific alleles of genes controlling essential functions, that are apparently compatible with survival in the natural environment. These newly identified alleles can be used as gene tools for engineering industrial yeast strains with multiple subtle changes, minimizing the risk of

  7. Soybean hulls pretreated using thermo-mechanical extrusion--hydrolysis efficiency, fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol yield.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Juhyun; Alavi, Sajid; Vadlani, Praveen; Behnke, Keith C

    2012-02-01

    Soybean hulls were subjected to thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment at various in-barrel moisture contents and screw speeds. Extrusion degraded the lignocellulosic structure and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean hulls, with up to 155% increase in glucose yield as compared to untreated substrate. Greater glucose yields were observed at higher in-barrel moistures (45% and 50%) and lower screw speed (280 and 350 rpm). Maximum 74% cellulose to glucose conversion resulted from using a two-enzyme cocktail consisting of cellulase and β-glucosidase. Conversion increased to 87% when a three-enzyme cocktail having a cell wall degrading enzyme complex was used for hydrolysis. Fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and acetic acid, were found in the extrusion pretreated soybean hulls and hydrolysate. However, their concentrations were below the known thresholds for inhibition. Fermentation of hydrolysate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae led to high yields of ethanol, with concentration ranging from 13.04 to 15.44 g/L.

  8. Increased Extracellular Glutamate In the Nucleus Accumbens Promotes Excessive Ethanol Drinking in Ethanol Dependent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin III, William C; Haun, Harold L; Hazelbaker, Callan L; Ramachandra, Vorani S; Becker, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    Using a well-established model of ethanol dependence and relapse, this study examined adaptations in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and their role in regulating voluntary ethanol drinking. Mice were first trained to drink ethanol in a free-choice, limited access (2 h/day) paradigm. One group (EtOH mice) received repeated weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure with intervening weeks of test drinking sessions, whereas the remaining mice (CTL mice) were similarly treated but did not receive CIE treatment. Over repeated cycles of CIE exposure, EtOH mice exhibited significant escalation in drinking (up to ∼3.5 g/kg), whereas drinking remained relatively stable at baseline levels (2–2.5 g/kg) in CTL mice. Using in vivo microdialysis procedures, extracellular glutamate (GLUEX) levels in the NAc were increased approximately twofold in EtOH mice compared with CTL mice, and this difference was observed 7 days after final CIE exposure, indicating that this hyperglutamatergic state persisted beyond acute withdrawal. This finding prompted additional studies examining the effects of pharmacologically manipulating GLUEX in the NAc on ethanol drinking in the CIE model. The non-selective glutamate reuptake antagonist, threo-β-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA), was bilaterally microinjected into the NAc and found to dose-dependently increase drinking in nondependent (CTL) mice to levels attained by dependent (EtOH) mice. TBOA also further increased drinking in EtOH mice. In contrast, reducing glutamatergic transmission in the NAc via bilateral injections of the metabotropic glutamate receptor-2/3 agonist LY379268 reduced drinking in dependent (EtOH) mice to nondependent (CTL) levels, whereas having a more modest effect in decreasing ethanol consumption in CTL mice. Taken together, these data support an important role of glutamatergic transmission in the NAc in regulating ethanol drinking. Additionally, these results indicate that

  9. Linking genome content to biofuel production yields: a meta-analysis of major catabolic pathways among select H2 and ethanol-producing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fermentative bacteria offer the potential to convert lignocellulosic waste-streams into biofuels such as hydrogen (H2) and ethanol. Current fermentative H2 and ethanol yields, however, are below theoretical maxima, vary greatly among organisms, and depend on the extent of metabolic pathways utilized. For fermentative H2 and/or ethanol production to become practical, biofuel yields must be increased. We performed a comparative meta-analysis of (i) reported end-product yields, and (ii) genes encoding pyruvate metabolism and end-product synthesis pathways to identify suitable biomarkers for screening a microorganism’s potential of H2 and/or ethanol production, and to identify targets for metabolic engineering to improve biofuel yields. Our interest in H2 and/or ethanol optimization restricted our meta-analysis to organisms with sequenced genomes and limited branched end-product pathways. These included members of the Firmicutes, Euryarchaeota, and Thermotogae. Results Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the absence of genes encoding acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Caldicellulosiruptor, Thermococcus, Pyrococcus, and Thermotoga species coincide with high H2 yields and low ethanol production. Organisms containing genes (or activities) for both ethanol and H2 synthesis pathways (i.e. Caldanaerobacter subterraneus subsp. tengcongensis, Ethanoligenens harbinense, and Clostridium species) had relatively uniform mixed product patterns. The absence of hydrogenases in Geobacillus and Bacillus species did not confer high ethanol production, but rather high lactate production. Only Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus produced relatively high ethanol and low H2 yields. This may be attributed to the presence of genes encoding proteins that promote NADH production. Lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate:formate lyase are not conducive for ethanol and/or H2 production. While the type(s) of encoded hydrogenases appear

  10. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  11. Improving conversion yield of fermentable sugars into fuel ethanol in 1st generation yeast-based production processes.

    PubMed

    Gombert, Andreas K; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2015-06-01

    Current fuel ethanol production using yeasts and starch or sucrose-based feedstocks is referred to as 1st generation (1G) ethanol production. These processes are characterized by the high contribution of sugar prices to the final production costs, by high production volumes, and by low profit margins. In this context, small improvements in the ethanol yield on sugars have a large impact on process economy. Three types of strategies used to achieve this goal are discussed: engineering free-energy conservation, engineering redox-metabolism, and decreasing sugar losses in the process. Whereas the two former strategies lead to decreased biomass and/or glycerol formation, the latter requires increased process and/or yeast robustness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mice lacking adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5) show increased ethanol consumption and reduced ethanol sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Kim, Hannah; Baek, In-Sun; Lee, Ko-Woon; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2011-05-01

    The adenylyl cyclase (AC)/cAMP system is believed to be a key component in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. It was reported that adenylyl cyclase-5 (AC5) is expressed widely in the brain, with a preferential concentration in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens, brain regions which are important for addiction and emotion. AC5 has been shown to be an essential mediator of morphine addiction and dopamine receptor function; however, it remains unknown whether or not AC5 plays a role in ethanol preference and sensitivity in animals. This work was carried out to determine the role of AC5 in alcohol consumption and the hypnotic response to alcohol using AC5 knockout (KO) mice. In the test for ethanol preference employing a two-bottle free-choice paradigm, AC5 KO mice showed increased ethanol consumption and preference compared with the wild-type mice. Ethanol-induced hypothermia was weakly reduced in AC5 KO mice. AC5 KO mice exhibited sedation/behavioral sleep to high-dose ethanol, but their responses were greatly suppressed compared with the wild-type mice. These results suggest that AC5 is an important signaling molecule regulating alcohol sensitivity and preference in animals. These data provide critical information for AC5 activation as a candidate target for the treatment of alcoholism.

  13. Crop Yield Response to Increasing Biochar Rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  14. Growth environment, harvest management and germplasm impacts on potential ethanol and crude protein yield in alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock and stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitab...

  15. Effects of Kernel Composition and Starch Structure on Ethanol Yield Produced from Dry-Grind Corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of kernels (i.e., starch, protein, and lipid contents) and the starch structure of dry-grind corn affected the enzyme hydrolysis of starch and the ethanol yield during yeast fermentation. Four lines of corn, designated, 05GEM06031, 06G...

  16. Increased brain nitric oxide levels following ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Finnerty, Niall; O'Riordan, Saidhbhe L; Klamer, Daniel; Lowry, John; Pålsson, Erik

    2015-05-01

    Nitric oxide is a ubiquitous messenger molecule, which at elevated concentrations has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. Its role in oxidative stress, attributed in particular to the formation of peroxynitrite, proceeds through its high affinity for the superoxide radical. Alcoholism has recently been associated with the induction of oxidative stress, which is generally defined as a shift in equilibrium between pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant species in the direction of the former. Furthermore, its primary metabolite acetaldehyde, has been extensively associated with oxidative damage related toxic effects following alcohol ingestion. The principal objective of this study was the application of long term in vivo electrochemistry (LIVE) to investigate the effect of ethanol (0.125, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde (12.5, 50 and 200 mg kg(-1)) on NO levels in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Systemic administrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde resulted in a dose-dependent increases in NO levels, albeit with very differing time courses. Subsequent to this the effect on accumbal NO levels, of subjecting the animal to different drug combinations, was also elucidated. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg kg(-1)) and acetaldehyde sequestering agent D-penicillamine (50 mg kg(-1)) both attenuated the increase in NO levels following ethanol (1 g kg(-1)) administration. Conversely, the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (25 mg kg(-1)) and catalase inhibitor sodium azide (10 mg kg(-1)) potentiated the increase in NO levels following ethanol administration. Finally, dual inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase and catalase by cyanamide (25 mg kg(-1)) caused an attenuation of ethanol effects on NO levels. Taken together these data highlight a robust increase in brain NO levels following systemic alcohol administration which is dependent on NO synthase activity and may involve both alcohol- and acetaldehyde

  17. DMSO Increases Radioiodination Yield of Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ketai; Adelstein, S. James; Kassis, Amin I.

    2007-01-01

    A high-yield radioiodination method for various types of molecules is described. The approach employs DMSO as precursor solvent, a reaction ratio of 2–5 precursor molecules per iodine atom, 5–10 μg oxidant, and a 10–25-μl reaction volume. The solution is vortexed at room temperature for 1–5 min and progress of the reaction is assessed by HPLC. Radioiodinated products are obtained in ≥95% yield and meet the requirements for radiotracer imaging, biodistribution studies, and molecular and cellular biology research. PMID:17931872

  18. Ethanol preexposure increases ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Camarini, Rosana; Hodge, Clyde W

    2004-12-01

    Genetic variables are thought to interact with environmental factors, such as alcohol exposure history, to produce individual differences in alcohol abuse and alcoholism. The objective of this study was to test the potential interaction between genetic predisposition to consume alcohol and alcohol pretreatment on subsequent self-administration. To accomplish this goal, four groups of mice from the ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J (D2) and ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strains were exposed to saline, acute ethanol (2 g/kg), or chronic intermittent ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections. Locomotor activity was monitored after each injection. After preexposure, animals were given a two-bottle choice test with various concentrations of ethanol/sucrose vs. sucrose or ethanol vs. water for 4 days at each concentration. Then, all animals were challenged with a 2.0 g/kg ethanol i.p. injection and locomotor activity was assessed. Acute and chronic ethanol pretreatment increased locomotor activity in response to a challenge dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) in D2 mice but had no effect on B6 mice. Prior exposure to ethanol altered the amount of ethanol consumed in a mouse strain-dependent manner. D2 mice showed a positive relationship between ethanol intake and dose or duration of ethanol preexposure. B6 mice preexposed to ethanol consumed more ethanol than naive animals, independent of dose or duration of exposure. During the last phase of self-administration testing, D2 mice exposed to chronic ethanol (2 g/kg) consumed as much ethanol as B6 from the same pretreatment condition. After a history of ethanol self-administration, saline control mice from the D2 strain showed equal locomotor activation as compared to D2 mice that were pretreated with ethanol injections. B6 mice showed no change in locomotor activity after ethanol self-administration or injection. These results demonstrate that genetic predisposition to avoid alcohol (D2 mice) can be modified by a

  19. The quantities of nutrients recommended by the NRC support increased ethanol metabolism in rats in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, R.F.; Draves, K. )

    1991-03-11

    The quantities of nutrients recommended by the NRC abate the effects of a toxic ethanol dose administered to rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether recommended amounts of nutrients ingested by rats with the 26% liquid ethanol diet increase the rate of ethanol metabolism over that when ethanol is ingested with the nutritionally inadequate 36% liquid ethanol diet. Rats were fed either the 26% or the 36% liquid ethanol diet for ten days. The rats were continued on their respective diets and their diet intake measured hourly for the next 42 hours. The hourly ethanol intake was used as the input into a physiologic pharmacokinetic model of ethanol metabolism in the rat. The simulation studies show that rats fed the nutritionally inadequate 36% liquid ethanol diet were unable to metabolize ethanol as fast as those fed the nutritionally adequate 26% liquid ethanol diet due to a decreased ability to support high K{sub m} ethanol metabolism.

  20. Analysis of methane potentials of steam-exploded wheat straw and estimation of energy yields of combined ethanol and methane production.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Alexander; Bösch, Peter; Friedl, Anton; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Agrarian biomass as a renewable energy source can contribute to a considerable CO(2) reduction. The overriding goal of the European Union is to cut energy consumption related greenhouse gas emission in the EU by 20% until the year 2020. This publication aims at optimising the methane production from steam-exploded wheat straw and presents a theoretical estimation of the ethanol and methane potential of straw. For this purpose, wheat straw was pretreated by steam explosion using different time/temperature combinations. Specific methane yields were analyzed according to VDI 4630. Pretreatment of wheat straw by steam explosion significantly increased the methane yield from anaerobic digestion by up to 20% or a maximum of 331 l(N)kg(-1) VS compared to untreated wheat straw. Furthermore, the residual anaerobic digestion potential of methane after ethanol fermentation was determined by enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw using cellulase. Based on the resulting glucose concentration the ethanol yield and the residual sugar available for methane production were calculated. The theoretical maximum ethanol yield of wheat straw was estimated to be 0.249 kg kg(-1) dry matter. The achievable maximum ethanol yield per kg wheat straw dry matter pretreated by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis was estimated to be 0.200 kg under pretreatment conditions of 200 degrees C and 10 min corresponding to 80% of the theoretical maximum. The residual methane yield from straw stillage was estimated to be 183 l(N)kg(-1) wheat straw dry matter. Based on the presented experimental data, a concept is proposed that processes wheat straw for ethanol and methane production. The concept of an energy supply system that provides more than two forms of energy is met by (1) upgrading obtained ethanol to fuel-grade quality and providing methane to CHP plants for the production of (2) electric energy and (3) utility steam that in turn can be used to operate distillation columns in the

  1. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  2. Deletion of Type I glutamine synthetase deregulates nitrogen metabolism and increases ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Rydzak, Thomas; Garcia, David; Stevenson, David M; Sladek, Margaret; Klingeman, Dawn M; Holwerda, Evert K; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M

    2017-04-08

    Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. While recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum. To investigate approaches to decrease amino acid secretion, we attempted to reduce ammonium assimilation by deleting the Type I glutamine synthetase (glnA) in an essentially wild type strain of C. thermocellum. Deletion of glnA reduced levels of secreted valine and total amino acids by 53% and 44% respectively, and increased ethanol yields by 53%. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes encoding the RNF-complex were more highly expressed in ΔglnA and may have a role in improving NADH-availability for ethanol production. While a significant up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and urea uptake suggested that deletion of glnA induces a nitrogen starvation response, metabolomic analysis showed an increase in intracellular glutamine levels indicative of nitrogen-rich conditions. We propose that deletion of glnA causes deregulation of nitrogen metabolism, leading to overexpression of nitrogen metabolism genes and, in turn, elevated glutamine levels. Here we demonstrate that perturbation of nitrogen assimilation is a promising strategy to redirect flux from the production of nitrogenous compounds toward biofuels in C. thermocellum.

  3. Short-term selection for high and low ethanol intake yields differential sensitivity to ethanol's motivational effects and anxiety-like responses in adolescent Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Báez, Bárbara; Bordón, Ana; Espinosa, Laura; Martínez, Eliana; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2017-10-03

    Alcohol use disorders are modulated by genetic factors, but the identification of specific genes and their concomitant biological changes that are associated with a higher risk for these disorders has proven difficult. Alterations in the sensitivity to the motivational effects of ethanol may be one way by which genes modulate the initiation and escalation of ethanol intake. Rats and mice have been selectively bred for high and low ethanol consumption during adulthood. However, selective breeding programs for ethanol intake have not focused on adolescence. This phase of development is associated with the initiation and escalation of ethanol intake and characterized by an increase in the sensitivity to ethanol's appetitive effects and a decrease in the sensitivity to ethanol's aversive effects compared with adulthood. The present study performed short-term behavioral selection to select rat lines that diverge in the expression of ethanol drinking during adolescence. A progenitor nucleus of Wistar rats (F0) and filial generation 1 (F1), F2, and F3 adolescent rats were derived from parents that were selected for high (STDRHI) and low (STDRLO) ethanol consumption during adolescence and were tested for ethanol intake and responsivity to ethanol's motivational effects. STDRHI rats exhibited significantly greater ethanol intake and preference than STDRLO rats. Compared with STDRLO rats, STDRHI F2 and F3 rats exhibited a blunted response to ethanol in the conditioned taste aversion test. F2 and F3 STDRHI rats but not STDRLO rats exhibited ethanol-induced motor stimulation. STDRHI rats exhibited avoidance of the white compartment of the light-dark box, a reduction of locomotion, and a reduction of saccharin consumption, suggesting an anxiety-prone phenotype. The results suggest that the genetic risk for enhanced ethanol intake during adolescence is associated with lower sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol, heightened reactivity to ethanol's stimulating effects

  4. Climate change would increase the water intensity of irrigated corn ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Faus, Rosa; Folberth, Christian; Liu, Junguo; Jaffe, Amy M; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-06-04

    Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, temperature, and precipitation affect plant growth and evapotranspiration. However, the interactive effects of these factors are relatively unexplored, and it is important to consider their combined effects at geographic and temporal scales that are relevant to policymaking. Accordingly, we estimate how climate change would affect water requirements for irrigated corn ethanol production in key regions of the U.S. over a 40 year horizon. We used the geographic-information-system-based environmental policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model, coupled with temperature and precipitation predictions from five different general circulation models and atmospheric CO2 concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 emission scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, to estimate changes in water requirements and yields for corn ethanol. Simulations infer that climate change would increase the evaporative water consumption of the 15 billion gallons per year of corn ethanol needed to comply with the Energy Independency and Security Act by 10%, from 94 to 102 trillion liters/year (tly), and the irrigation water consumption by 19%, from 10.22 to 12.18 tly. Furthermore, on average, irrigation rates would increase by 9%, while corn yields would decrease by 7%, even when the projected increased irrigation requirements were met. In the irrigation-intensive High Plains, this implies increased pressure for the stressed Ogallala Aquifer, which provides water to seven states and irrigates one-fourth of the grain produced in the U.S. In the Corn Belt and Great Lakes region, where more rainfall is projected, higher water requirements could be related to less frequent rainfall, suggesting a need for additional water catchment capacity. The projected increases in water intensity (i.e., the liters of water required during feedstock cultivation to produce 1 L of corn ethanol) because of climate change highlight the need

  5. Impact of impregnation time and chip size on sugar yield in pretreatment of softwood for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Monavari, Sanam; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2009-12-01

    Efficient pretreatment is necessary to make the wood-to-ethanol process more feasible. In this study, chips of different sizes were impregnated with SO(2) and steam-pretreated. Dilute-acid pretreatment together with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in solubilization of between 69% and 73% of the fermentable sugars (glucose and mannose) in the raw material for the combinations of impregnation times and chip sizes investigated. Shorter impregnation times resulted in slightly lower mannose yields for the larger chips, probably due to poor diffusion of the catalyst. Small differences in glucose yield after enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the overall glucose yield was slightly higher for the smaller chips, however, whether the increased energy demand and cost of size reduction is compensated for by the higher yield, requires techno-economical evaluations.

  6. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP) by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1) Experimental

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20%) enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. The

  7. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; ...

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect onmore » the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.« less

  8. Engineering electron metabolism to increase ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Jonathan; Olson, Daniel G.; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Tian, Liang; Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony; Guss, Adam M.; Lynd, Lee R.

    2016-10-28

    Here, the NfnAB (NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) and Rnf (Rhodobacter nitrogen fixation) complexes are thought to catalyze electron transfer between reduced ferredoxin and NAD(P)+. Efficient electron flux is critical for engineering fuel production pathways, but little is known about the relative importance of these enzymes in vivo. In this study we investigate the importance of the NfnAB and Rnf complexes in Clostridium thermocellum for growth on cellobiose and Avicel using gene deletion, enzyme assays, and fermentation product analysis. The NfnAB complex does not seem to play a major role in metabolism, since deletion of nfnAB genes had little effect on the distribution of fermentation products. By contrast, the Rnf complex appears to play an important role in ethanol formation. Deletion of rnf genes resulted in a decrease in ethanol formation. Overexpression of rnf genes resulted in an increase in ethanol production of about 30%, but only in strains where the hydG hydrogenase maturation gene was also deleted.

  9. Ethanol-mediated operant learning in the infant rat leads to increased ethanol intake during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Luciano Federico; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the infant rat has high affinity for ethanol ingestion and marked sensitivity to the drug’s reinforcing effects (Spear & Molina, 2005). A novel operant technique was developed to analyze reinforcing effects of ethanol delivery during the third postnatal week. The impact of this ethanol-reinforcement experience upon subsequent ethanol consumption during adolescence (postnatal weeks 5–6 was also examined. In Experiment 1, pups (postnatal days 14–17 were given an explicit contingency between nose-poking behavior and intraoral delivery of either water or 3.75% v/v ethanol (paired groups). Yoked controls (pups receiving either reinforcer independently of their behavior) were also included. Paired subjects reinforced with ethanol exhibited rapid and robust operant conditioning leading to blood ethanol concentrations in the 25–48 mg% range. In Experiment 2, a higher ethanol concentration (7.5% v/v) provided significant reinforcement. During adolescence, animals originally reinforced with 3.75% v/v ethanol exhibited greater ingestion of ethanol than control animals without prior ethanol reinforcement. These results indicate that, without extensive initiation to ethanol, infant rats rapidly learn to gain access to ethanol and that this experience has a significant impact upon later ethanol intake patterns. PMID:18571224

  10. Raising yield potential in wheat: increasing photosynthesis capacity and efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing wheat yields to help to ensure food security is a major challenge. Meeting this challenge requires a quantum improvement in the yield potential of wheat. Past increases in yield potential have largely resulted from improvements in harvest index not through increased biomass. Further large...

  11. Improved saccharification and ethanol yield from field-grown transgenic poplar deficient in cinnamoyl-CoA reductase

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Rebecca; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Aerts, Dirk; Storme, Véronique; Goeminne, Geert; Ivens, Bart; Légée, Frédéric; Lapierre, Catherine; Piens, Kathleen; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Clifton E.; Ralph, John; Soetaert, Wim; Pilate, Gilles; Boerjan, Wout

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is one of the main factors determining recalcitrance to enzymatic processing of lignocellulosic biomass. Poplars (Populus tremula x Populus alba) down-regulated for cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR), the enzyme catalyzing the first step in the monolignol-specific branch of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, were grown in field trials in Belgium and France under short-rotation coppice culture. Wood samples were classified according to the intensity of the red xylem coloration typically associated with CCR down-regulation. Saccharification assays under different pretreatment conditions (none, two alkaline, and one acid pretreatment) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation assays showed that wood from the most affected transgenic trees had up to 161% increased ethanol yield. Fermentations of combined material from the complete set of 20-mo-old CCR–down-regulated trees, including bark and less efficiently down-regulated trees, still yielded ∼20% more ethanol on a weight basis. However, strong down-regulation of CCR also affected biomass yield. We conclude that CCR down-regulation may become a successful strategy to improve biomass processing if the variability in down-regulation and the yield penalty can be overcome. PMID:24379366

  12. Coal liquefaction process with increased naphtha yields

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Daniel F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for liquefying solid carbonaceous materials wherein the solid carbonaceous material is slurried with a suitable solvent and then subjected to liquefaction at elevated temperature and pressure to produce a normally gaseous product, a normally liquid product and a normally solid product. The normally liquid product is further separated into a naphtha boiling range product, a solvent boiling range product and a vacuum gas-oil boiling range product. At least a portion of the solvent boiling-range product and the vacuum gas-oil boiling range product are then combined and passed to a hydrotreater where the mixture is hydrotreated at relatively severe hydrotreating conditions and the liquid product from the hydrotreater then passed to a catalytic cracker. In the catalytic cracker, the hydrotreater effluent is converted partially to a naphtha boiling range product and to a solvent boiling range product. The naphtha boiling range product is added to the naphtha boiling range product from coal liquefaction to thereby significantly increase the production of naphtha boiling range materials. At least a portion of the solvent boiling range product, on the other hand, is separately hydrogenated and used as solvent for the liquefaction. Use of this material as at least a portion of the solvent significantly reduces the amount of saturated materials in said solvent.

  13. Ethanol increases HSP70 concentrations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Hranitz, John M; Abramson, Charles I; Carter, Richard P

    2010-05-01

    Previous research on the honeybee ethanol model established how acute ethanol exposure altered function at different levels of organization: behavior and learning, ecology, and physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether ethanol doses that affect honeybee behavior also induce a significant stress response, measured by heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations, in honeybee brain tissues. Experiment 1 examined how pretreatment handling influenced brain HSP70 concentrations in three pretreatment groups of bees; immediately after being collected, after being harnessed and fed, and after 22-24h in a harness. HSP70 concentrations did not differ among pretreatment groups within replicates, although we observed significantly different HSP70 concentrations between the two replicates. Experiment 2 investigated the relationship between ethanol dose and brain HSP70 concentrations. Bees were placed in seven experimental groups, the three pretreatment groups as in Experiment 1 and four ethanol-fed groups. Bees in ethanol treatments were fed 1.5M sucrose (control) and 1.5M sucrose-ethanol solutions containing 2.5, 5, and 10% ethanol, allowed to sit for 4h, and dissected brains were assayed for HSP70. We observed ethanol-induced increases in honeybee brain HSP70 concentrations from the control group through the 5% ethanol group. Only bees in the 5% ethanol group had HSP70 concentrations significantly higher than the control group. The inverted U-shaped ethanol dose-HSP70 concentration response curve indicated that ingestion of 2.5% ethanol and 5% ethanol stimulated the stress response, whereas ingestion of 10% ethanol inhibited the stress response. Doses that show maximum HSP70 concentration (5% ethanol) or HSP70 inhibition (10% ethanol) correspond to those (> or =5% ethanol) that also impaired honeybees in previous studies. We conclude that acute ethanol intoxication by solutions containing > or =5% ethanol causes significant ethanol-induced stress in brain

  14. Direct and efficient ethanol production from high-yielding rice using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that express amylases.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yamakawa, Syun-Ichi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-04-07

    Efficient ethanol producing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot produce ethanol from raw starch directly. Thus the conventional ethanol production required expensive and complex process. In this study, we developed a direct and efficient ethanol production process from high-yielding rice harvested in Japan by using amylase expressing yeast without any pretreatment or addition of enzymes or nutrients. Ethanol productivity from high-yielding brown rice (1.1g/L/h) was about 5-fold higher than that obtained from purified raw corn starch (0.2g/L/h) when nutrients were added. Using an inoculum volume equivalent to 10% of the fermentation volume without any nutrient supplementation resulted in ethanol productivity and yield reaching 1.2g/L/h and 101%, respectively, in a 24-h period. High-yielding rice was demonstrated to be a suitable feedstock for bioethanol production. In addition, our polyploid amylase-expressing yeast was sufficiently robust to produce ethanol efficiently from real biomass. This is first report of direct ethanol production on real biomass using an amylase-expressing yeast strain without any pretreatment or commercial enzyme addition.

  15. Improved bio-energy yields via sequential ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion of steam exploded oat straw.

    PubMed

    Dererie, Debebe Yilma; Trobro, Stefan; Momeni, Majid Haddad; Hansson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Johanna; Passoth, Volkmar; Schnürer, Anna; Sandgren, Mats; Ståhlberg, Jerry

    2011-03-01

    Using standard laboratory equipment, thermochemically pretreated oat straw was enzymatically saccharified and fermented to ethanol, and after removal of ethanol the remaining material was subjected to biogas digestion. A detailed mass balance calculation shows that, for steam explosion pretreatment, this combined ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion converts 85-87% of the higher heating value (HHV) of holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in the oat straw into biofuel energy. The energy (HHV) yield of the produced ethanol and methane was 9.5-9.8 MJ/(kg dry oat straw), which is 28-34% higher than direct biogas digestion that yielded 7.3-7.4 MJ/(kg dry oat straw). The rate of biogas formation from the fermentation residues was also higher than from the corresponding pretreated but unfermented oat straw, indicating that the biogas digestion could be terminated after only 24 days. This suggests that the ethanol process acts as an additional pretreatment for the biogas process.

  16. Prenatal ethanol increases sucrose reinforcement, an effect strengthened by postnatal association of ethanol and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14-17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy.

  17. Prenatal Ethanol Increases Sucrose Reinforcement, an Effect Strengthened by Postnatal Association of Ethanol and Sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Culleré, Marcela Elena; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Late prenatal exposure to ethanol recruits sensory processing of the drug and of its motivational properties, an experience that leads to heightened ethanol affinity. Recent studies indicate common sensory and neurobiological substrates between this drug and sweet tastants. Using a recently developed operant conditioning technique for infant rats, we examined the effects of prenatal ethanol history upon sucrose self-administration (postnatal days, PDs 14–17). Prior to the last conditioning session, a low (0.5 g/kg) or a high (2.5 g/kg) ethanol dose were paired with sucrose. The intention was to determine if ethanol would inflate or devalue the reinforcing capability of the tastant and if these effects are dependent upon prenatal ethanol history. Male and female pups prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) responded more when reinforced with sucrose than pups lacking this antenatal experience. Independently of prenatal status, a low ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) enhanced the reinforcing capability of sucrose while the highest dose (2.5 g/kg) seemed to ameliorate the motivational properties of the tastant. During extinction (PD 18), two factors were critical in determining persistence of responding despite reinforcement omission. Pups prenatally exposed to ethanol that subsequently experienced the low ethanol dose paired with sucrose, showed higher resistance to extinction. The effects here reported were not associated with differential blood alcohol levels across prenatal treatments. These results indicate that fetal ethanol experience promotes affinity for a natural sweet reinforcer and that low doses of ethanol are also capable of enhancing the positive motivational consequences of sucrose when ethanol and sucrose are paired during infancy. PMID:24398347

  18. Increased ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice concentrated by a membrane separation process.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Sasaki, Daisuke; Teramura, Hiroshi; Wakai, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to attain high ethanol concentration by concentrating sweet sorghum juice using a two-step membrane separation process. Ultrafiltration permeation of the juice was used to remove residues, followed by nanofiltration concentration to increase the sugar concentration. The concentrated juice containing 180.0 g L(-1) sucrose, 59.3 g L(-1) glucose and 49.3 g L(-1) fructose supplemented with nitrogen sources (10 and 20 g L(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 to produce 133.5 g L(-1) of ethanol (87.6% of theoretical yield) after 48 h fermentation. Importantly, the addition of lower concentrations of exogenous nitrogen sources (3 and 6 g L(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) or no exogenous nitrogen sources resulted in the production of 131.4 and 132.8 g L(-1) of ethanol (84.8% and 86.0% of theoretical yield), respectively, after 48 h fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Octagon to Square Wetting Area Transition of Water-Ethanol Droplets on a Micropyramid Substrate by Increasing Ethanol Concentration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huicheng; Chong, Karen Siew-Ling; Ong, Kian-Soo; Duan, Fei

    2017-02-07

    The wettability and evaporation of water-ethanol binary droplets on the substrate with micropyramid cavities are studied by controlling the initial ethanol concentrations. The droplets form octagonal initial wetting areas on the substrate. As the ethanol concentration increases, the side ratio of the initial wetting octagon increases from 1.5 at 0% ethanol concentration to 3.5 at 30% ethanol concentration. The increasing side ratio indicates that the wetting area transforms from an octagon to a square if we consider the octagon to be a square with its four corners cut. The droplets experience a pinning-depinning transition during evaporation. The pure water sessile droplet evaporation demonstrates three stages from the constant contact line (CCL) stage, and then the constant contact angle (CCA) stage, to the mixed stage. An additional mixed stage is found between the CCL and CCA stages in the evaporation of water-ethanol binary droplets due to the anisotropic depinning along the two different axes of symmetry of the octagonal wetting area. Droplet depinning occurs earlier on the patterned surface as the ethanol concentration increases.

  20. Deletion of Type I glutamine synthetase deregulates nitrogen metabolism and increases ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGES

    Rydzak, Thomas; Garcia, David; Stevenson, David M.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Clostridium thermocellum rapidly deconstructs cellulose and ferments resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol and other products, and is thus a promising platform organism for the development of cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. And while recent metabolic engineering strategies have targeted eliminating canonical fermentation products (acetate, lactate, formate, and H2), C. thermocellum also secretes amino acids, which has limited ethanol yields in engineered strains to approximately 70% of the theoretical maximum. To decrease amino acid secretion, we attempted to reduce ammonium assimilation by deleting the Type I glutamine synthetase (glnA) in C. thermocellum. Deletion of glnA reduced levels of secreted valinemore » and total amino acids by 53% and 44% respectively, and increased ethanol yields by 53%. RNA-seq analysis revealed that genes encoding the RNF-complex were more highly expressed in ΔglnA and may have a role in improving NADH-availability for ethanol production. While a significant up-regulation of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and urea uptake suggested that deletion of glnA induces a nitrogen starvation response, metabolomic analysis showed an increase in intracellular glutamine and α-ketoglutarate levels indicative of nitrogen-rich conditions. Here, we propose that deletion of glnA causes deregulation of nitrogen metabolism, leading to overexpression of nitrogen metabolism genes and, in turn, elevated glutamine/α-ketoglutarate levels. Here we demonstrate that perturbation of nitrogen assimilation is a promising strategy to redirect flux from the production of nitrogenous compounds toward biofuels in C. thermocellum.« less

  1. Development of industrial-medium-required elimination of the 2,3-butanediol fermentation pathway to maintain ethanol yield in an ethanologenic strain of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brent E; Yomano, L P; York, S W; Ingram, L O

    2005-01-01

    Fermentation efficiency and nutrient costs are both significant factors in process economics for the microbial conversion of cellulosic biomass to commodity chemicals such as ethanol. In this study, we have developed a more industrial medium (OUM1) composed of 0.5% corn steep liquor (dry weight basis) supplemented with mineral salts (0.2%), urea (0.06%), and glucose (9%). Although the growth of strain P2 was vigorous in this medium, approximately 14% of substrate carbon was diverted into 2,3-butanediol and acetoin under the low pH conditions needed for optimal cellulase activity during simultaneous saccharification. Deleting the central region of the budAB genes encoding alpha-acetolactate synthase and alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase eliminated the butanediol and acetoin coproducts and increased ethanol yields by 12%. In OUM1 medium at pH 5.2, strain BW21 produced over 4% ethanol in 48 h (0.47 g ethanol per g glucose). Average productivity (48 h), ethanol titer, and ethanol yield for BW21 in OUM1 medium (pH 5.2) exceeded that of the parent (strain P2) in rich laboratory medium (Luria broth).

  2. Exploiting natural variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes for increased ethanol resistance.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey A; Elkon, Isaac M; McGee, Mick A; Higbee, Alan J; Gasch, Audrey P

    2010-12-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass holds promise as an alternative fuel. However, industrial stresses, including ethanol stress, limit microbial fermentation and thus prevent cost competitiveness with fossil fuels. To identify novel engineering targets for increased ethanol tolerance, we took advantage of natural diversity in wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We previously showed that an S288c-derived lab strain cannot acquire higher ethanol tolerance after a mild ethanol pretreatment, which is distinct from other stresses. Here, we measured acquired ethanol tolerance in a large panel of wild strains and show that most strains can acquire higher tolerance after pretreatment. We exploited this major phenotypic difference to address the mechanism of acquired ethanol tolerance, by comparing the global gene expression response to 5% ethanol in S288c and two wild strains. Hundreds of genes showed variation in ethanol-dependent gene expression across strains. Computational analysis identified several transcription factor modules and known coregulated genes as differentially expressed, implicating genetic variation in the ethanol signaling pathway. We used this information to identify genes required for acquisition of ethanol tolerance in wild strains, including new genes and processes not previously linked to ethanol tolerance, and four genes that increase ethanol tolerance when overexpressed. Our approach shows that comparative genomics across natural isolates can quickly identify genes for industrial engineering while expanding our understanding of natural diversity.

  3. Exploiting Natural Variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Identify Genes for Increased Ethanol Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jeffrey A.; Elkon, Isaac M.; McGee, Mick A.; Higbee, Alan J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass holds promise as an alternative fuel. However, industrial stresses, including ethanol stress, limit microbial fermentation and thus prevent cost competitiveness with fossil fuels. To identify novel engineering targets for increased ethanol tolerance, we took advantage of natural diversity in wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. We previously showed that an S288c-derived lab strain cannot acquire higher ethanol tolerance after a mild ethanol pretreatment, which is distinct from other stresses. Here, we measured acquired ethanol tolerance in a large panel of wild strains and show that most strains can acquire higher tolerance after pretreatment. We exploited this major phenotypic difference to address the mechanism of acquired ethanol tolerance, by comparing the global gene expression response to 5% ethanol in S288c and two wild strains. Hundreds of genes showed variation in ethanol-dependent gene expression across strains. Computational analysis identified several transcription factor modules and known coregulated genes as differentially expressed, implicating genetic variation in the ethanol signaling pathway. We used this information to identify genes required for acquisition of ethanol tolerance in wild strains, including new genes and processes not previously linked to ethanol tolerance, and four genes that increase ethanol tolerance when overexpressed. Our approach shows that comparative genomics across natural isolates can quickly identify genes for industrial engineering while expanding our understanding of natural diversity. PMID:20855568

  4. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization.

    PubMed

    Mumm, Rita H; Goldsmith, Peter D; Rausch, Kent D; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains with solubles

  5. Land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the United States: sensitivity to technological advances in corn grain yield, ethanol conversion, and co-product utilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the system for producing yellow corn grain is well established in the US, its role among other biofeedstock alternatives to petroleum-based energy sources has to be balanced with its predominant purpose for food and feed as well as economics, land use, and environmental stewardship. We model land usage attributed to corn ethanol production in the US to evaluate the effects of anticipated technological change in corn grain production, ethanol processing, and livestock feeding through a multi-disciplinary approach. Seven scenarios are evaluated: four considering the impact of technological advances on corn grain production, two focused on improved efficiencies in ethanol processing, and one reflecting greater use of ethanol co-products (that is, distillers dried grains with solubles) in diets for dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry. For each scenario, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is estimated for three time horizons: 2011 (current), the time period at which the 15 billion gallon cap for corn ethanol as per the Renewable Fuel Standard is achieved, and 2026 (15 years out). Results Although 40.5% of corn grain was channeled to ethanol processing in 2011, only 25% of US corn acreage was attributable to ethanol when accounting for feed co-product utilization. By 2026, land area attributed to corn ethanol production is reduced to 11% to 19% depending on the corn grain yield level associated with the four corn production scenarios, considering oil replacement associated with the soybean meal substituted in livestock diets with distillers dried grains with solubles. Efficiencies in ethanol processing, although producing more ethanol per bushel of processed corn, result in less co-products and therefore less offset of corn acreage. Shifting the use of distillers dried grains with solubles in feed to dairy cattle, pigs, and poultry substantially reduces land area attributed to corn ethanol production. However, because distillers dried grains

  6. Increased synthesis of folate transporters regulates folate transport in conditions of ethanol exposure and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shilpa; More, Deepti; Rahat, Beenish; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and dietary folate inadequacy are the main contributors leading to folate deficiency (FD). The present study was planned to study regulation of folate transport in conditions of FD and ethanol exposure in human embryonic kidney cell line. Also, the reversible nature of effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD was determined by folate repletion and ethanol removal. For ethanol treatment, HEK293 cells were grown in medium containing 100 mM ethanol, and after treatment, one group of cells was shifted on medium that was free from ethanol. For FD treatment, cells were grown in folate-deficient medium followed by shifting of one group of cells on folate containing medium. FD as well as ethanol exposure resulted in an increase in folate uptake which was due to an increase in expression of folate transporters, i.e., reduced folate carrier, proton-coupled folate transporter, and folate receptor, both at the mRNA and protein level. The effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD were reversible on removal of treatment. Promoter region methylation of folate transporters remained unaffected after FD and ethanol exposure. As far as transcription rate of folate transporters is concerned, an increase in rate of synthesis was observed in both ethanol exposure and FD conditions. Additionally, mRNA life of folate transporters was observed to be reduced by FD. An increased expression of folate transporters under ethanol exposure and FD conditions can be attributed to enhanced rate of synthesis of folate transporters.

  7. Prenatal ethanol increases ethanol intake throughout adolescence, alters ethanol-mediated aversive learning, and affects μ but not δ or κ opioid receptor mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Animal models of prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) have indicated a facilitatory effect of PEE on adolescent ethanol intake, but few studies have assessed the effects of moderate PEE throughout adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this facilitatory effect remain largely unknown. In the present study, we analysed ethanol intake in male and female Wistar rats with or without PEE (2.0 g/kg, gestational days 17-20) from postnatal days 37 to 62. The results revealed greater ethanol consumption in PEE rats than in controls, which persisted throughout adolescence. By the end of testing, ethanol ingestion in PEE rats was nearly 6.0 g/kg. PEE was associated with insensitivity to ethanol-induced aversion. PEE and control rats were further analysed for levels of μ, δ and κ opioid receptor mRNA in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. Similar levels of mRNA were observed across most areas and opioid receptors, but μ receptor mRNA in the ventral tegmental area was significantly increased by PEE. Unlike previous studies that assessed the effects of PEE on ethanol intake close to birth, or in only a few sessions during adolescence, the present study observed a facilitatory effect of PEE that lasted throughout adolescence. PEE was associated with insensitivity to the aversive effect of ethanol, and increased levels of μ opioid receptor transcripts. PEE is a prominent vulnerability factor that probably favors the engagement of adolescents in risky trajectories of ethanol use. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Protective effect of Anzer honey against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Asli; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of Anzer honey on ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in rats. Evan's Blue (EB) dye, administered intracardiacly and extravasation of EB into the stomach, served as an indicator of vascular permeability following exposure to alcohol. Ethanol was given orally to the ethanol group for 90 days, and N-etylmaleimide (NEM) was given subcutaneously to the NEM group, and we observed increased extravasation of EB in the stomach in both groups. For this reason, we used NEM as a positive control for ethanol. Anzer honey, which contains 25.44 mg/g ascorbic acid, was given to the honey+ethanol group orally 30 min before beginning the 90-day ethanol administration. The mean amount of EB that leaked into the stomach of rats in the ethanol group and the NEM group was higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, if compared to the control, EB values in the stomachs were significantly reduced when receiving honey before administration of ethanol in rats. Histopathologically, the incidence and severity of gastric mucosal congestion were significantly reduced in the honey+ethanol group when compared to the ethanol group. These result indicate that Anzer honey is able to protect the stomach of the rat against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability, which may be correlated with the ascorbic acid content.

  9. Ethanol yield and volatile compound content in fermentation of agave must by Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 comparing with Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

    PubMed

    López-Alvarez, Arnoldo; Díaz-Pérez, Alma Laura; Sosa-Aguirre, Carlos; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Campos-García, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    In tequila production, fermentation is an important step. Fermentation determines the ethanol productivity and organoleptic properties of the beverage. In this study, a yeast isolated from native residual agave must was identified as Kluyveromyces marxianus UMPe-1 by 26S rRNA sequencing. This yeast was compared with the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pan1. Our findings demonstrate that the UMPe-1 yeast was able to support the sugar content of agave must and glucose up to 22% (w/v) and tolerated 10% (v/v) ethanol concentration in the medium with 50% cells survival. Pilot and industrial fermentation of agave must tests showed that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 yeast produced ethanol with yields of 94% and 96% with respect to fermentable sugar content (glucose and fructose, constituting 98%). The S. cerevisiae Pan1 baker's yeast, however, which is commonly used in some tequila factories, showed 76% and 70% yield. At the industrial level, UMPe-1 yeast shows a maximum velocity of fermentable sugar consumption of 2.27g·L(-1)·h(-1) and ethanol production of 1.38g·L(-1)·h(-1), providing 58.78g ethanol·L(-1) at 72h fermentation, which corresponds to 96% yield. In addition, the major and minor volatile compounds in the tequila beverage obtained from UMPe-1 yeast were increased. Importantly, 29 volatile compounds were identified, while the beverage obtained from Pan1-yeast contained fewer compounds and in lower concentrations. The results suggest that the K. marxianus UMPe-1 is a suitable yeast for agave must fermentation, showing high ethanol productivity and increased volatile compound content comparing with a S. cerevisiae baker's yeast used in tequila production.

  10. Enhancing digestibility and ethanol yield of Populus wood via expression of an engineered monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Yuanheng; Zhang, Kewei; Kim, Hoon; ...

    2016-06-28

    Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens’ lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in themore » yield of ethanol when the woody biomass is subjected to enzymatic digestion and yeast-mediated fermentation. Furthermore, the cell wall structural changes do not affect growth and biomass production of the trees. Our study provides a useful strategy for tailoring woody biomass for bio-based applications.« less

  11. Enhancing digestibility and ethanol yield of Populus wood via expression of an engineered monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yuanheng; Zhang, Kewei; Kim, Hoon; Hou, Guichuan; Zhang, Xuebin; Yang, Huijun; Feng, Huan; Miller, Lisa; Ralph, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2016-06-28

    Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens' lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in the yield of ethanol when the woody biomass is subjected to enzymatic digestion and yeast-mediated fermentation. Moreover, the cell wall structural changes do not affect growth and biomass production of the trees. Our study provides a useful strategy for tailoring woody biomass for bio-based applications.

  12. Enhancing digestibility and ethanol yield of Populus wood via expression of an engineered monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yuanheng; Zhang, Kewei; Kim, Hoon; Hou, Guichuan; Zhang, Xuebin; Yang, Huijun; Feng, Huan; Miller, Lisa; Ralph, John; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens' lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in the yield of ethanol when the woody biomass is subjected to enzymatic digestion and yeast-mediated fermentation. Moreover, the cell wall structural changes do not affect growth and biomass production of the trees. Our study provides a useful strategy for tailoring woody biomass for bio-based applications. PMID:27349324

  13. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  14. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  15. Baseline measurements of ethene in 2002: Implications for increased ethanol use and biomass burning on air quality and ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.; Blake, Donald R.

    2012-09-01

    While it is well known that combustion of ethanol as a biofuel will lead to enhanced emissions of methane, ethene (ethylene), acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen (primarily NO) when compared to gasoline alone, especially during cold starts or if catalytic converters are not operating properly, the impacts of increases in atmospheric ethene levels from combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content has not received much attention. Ethene is a well known and potent plant growth hormone and exposure to agricultural crops and natural vegetation results in yield reductions especially when combined with higher levels of PAN and ozone also expected from the increased use of ethanol/gasoline blends. We report here some baseline measurements of ethene obtained in 2002 in the southwestern and south central United States. These data indicate that current ethene background levels are less than 1 ppb. Anticipated increases in fuel ethanol content of E30 or greater is expected to lead to higher atmospheric levels of ethene on regional scales due to its atmospheric lifetime of 1.5-3 days. These background measurements are discussed in light of the potential enhancement of ethene levels expected from the anticipated increases in ethanol use as a renewable biofuel.

  16. Application of hemicelluloses precipitated via ethanol treatment of pre-hydrolysis liquor in high-yield pulp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Sadeghi, Soroosh; Ni, Yonghao

    2011-10-01

    Hemicelluloses in industrially produced pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) were precipitated with ethanol. These PHL-derived hemicelluloses (PHL-EH) and a commercial, pure birch wood xylan sample (powder form) (BWX) were bleached using chlorine dioxide (D(0) and D(1)) and hydrogen peroxide (Ep) in the D(0)EpD(1) sequence, and the chemical compositions, molecular weights and charge densities of the treated samples were assessed. When applied to high-yield pulp (HYP) at 50 mg/g, 26 and 20 mg/g of the bleached PHL-EH and BWX, respectively, were adsorbed without significantly affecting paper properties. These results suggest that semi-bleached hemicelluloses could be used to increase the basis weight of paper products. Furthermore, an integrated process was proposed that converts the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process into a biorefinery unit with dissolving pulp, bleached hemicelluloses and lignin as main products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination of enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol organosolv pretreatments: effect on lignin structures, delignification yields and cellulose-to-glucose conversion.

    PubMed

    Obama, Patrick; Ricochon, Guillaume; Muniglia, Lionel; Brosse, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Enzymatic pre-hydrolysis using the industrial enzymatic cocktail Cellulyve® was assessed as a first step in a pretreatment process of Miscanthus biomass involving an aqueous-ethanol organosolv treatment. (13)C and (31)P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and size exclusion chromatography were used to analyze the cellulose and lignin before and after treatment. It was demonstrated that despite a very low impact on the fibre structure (observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy) and composition (in terms of sugars and polyphenolics content), the enzymatic pre-treatment disrupted the lignocellulosic matrix to a considerable extend. This weakening permitted enhanced removal of lignin during organosolv pulping and increased hydrolysability of the residual cellulosic pulp for the production of monomeric glucose. Using this combined treatment, a delignification yield of 93% and an enzymatic cellulose-to-glucose conversion of 75% were obtained.

  18. Increasing yield gap of Brazilian pasturelands and implications for intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, M. H.; Santos, A. B.; Dias, L. C. P.; Pimenta, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has 213 M cattle heads (AUs) and 152 M ha of pasturelands, most with very low yields (average stocking rate in 2013 was 1.39 AU/ha). We merged Landsat imagery with municipal level agricultural census data for the period 1974-2013, to produce 30 arc-second resolution (1 km x 1 km) yearly datasets of pasturelands and cattle stocking rate (see Dias et al poster in this same session). Our analysis of this dataset indicates that, in the period 1993-2013, the total pastureland area in the country has decreased at a rate of 1.4 M ha/yr, while average stocking rate is increasing at the rate of 0.025 AU/(ha.yr). Moreover, we calculated the stocking rate of the top 5% and top 10% hectares, and the yield gap, or the difference between these top rates and the average. The yield gap is the productivity difference between what is largely possible with current technology and climate (top 5% or top 10%) and the typical cattle raiser, represented by the average. Closing the yield gap is often considered as a standard form of increasing agricultural output in general. Our results indicate that, in the same period, the top 10% are increasing at the rate of 0.040 AU/(ha.yr), while the top 5% are increasing at the rate of 0.048 AU/(ha.yr), twice as high as the average. The yield gap is widening and the rate of separation is increasing in recent years. These data suggest that top yield cattle raisers in Brazil are investing in technology significantly more than the average. Regional analysis indicates that this is happening mainly in southern and northern Brazil, while in Central, Southeast and Northeast Brazil, high productivities are not increasing as fast. Since top yields are far from stabilizing, there is a very large potential for intensification, increasing cattle size and total cattle output in Brazil.

  19. REM-sleep deprivation-induced increase in ethanol intake: role of brain monoaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1986-01-01

    The ethanol intake of Long-Evans male rats was recorded before, during and after deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep produced with the flowerpot technique modified by using a cuff pedestal and electrified grid floor instead of water. Ethanol intake increased significantly during REM-sleep deprivation. A rebound decrease in ethanol drinking was then observed during the REM-rebound phase immediately after the termination of REM-sleep deprivation. Because REM-sleep deprivation has been reported to impair the function of central monoamine neuronal systems and because some studies have implicated these systems in the control of voluntary ethanol intake, we studied whether different monoamine uptake blocking agents could antagonize the increase in ethanol intake caused by REM-sleep deprivation. After three days of REM-sleep deprivation, the rats were given uptake blocking agents for serotonin (citalopram, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day, IP), dopamine (GBR 12909, 5 mg/kg/day, IP) and noradrenaline (talsupram, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, IP). Citalopram and GBR 12909 did not modify the increased level of ethanol intake, but talsupram decreased ethanol intake to the levels seen prior to deprivation, and during the REM-rebound phase amplified the decrease found. These effects of talsupram could be antagonized by blocking mg/kg/day, IP). Prazosin alone tended to increase ethanol consumption. These findings suggest that functional alterations in central noradrenergic neurons during REM-sleep deprivation may contribute to the concurrent increase in ethanol intake.

  20. Aurintricarboxylic acid increases yield of HSV-1 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Pechan, Peter; Ardinger, Jeffery; Ketavarapu, Jyothi; Rubin, Hillard; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Scaria, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Production of large quantities of viral vectors is crucial for the success of gene therapy in the clinic. There is a need for higher titers of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) vectors both for therapeutic use as well as in the manufacturing of clinical grade adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. HSV-1 yield increased when primary human fibroblasts were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs like dexamethasone or valproic acid. In our search for compounds that would increase HSV-1 yield, we investigated another anti-inflammatory compound, aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). Although ATA has been previously shown to have antiviral effects, we find that low (micromolar) concentrations of ATA increased HSV-1 vector production yields. Our results showing the use of ATA to increase HSV-1 titers have important implications for the production of certain HSV-1 vectors as well as recombinant AAV vectors. PMID:26015945

  1. Ants and termites increase crop yield in a dry climate

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Theodore A.; Dawes, Tracy Z.; Ward, Philip R.; Lo, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has increased crop yields, but at high economic and environmental cost. Harnessing ecosystem services of naturally occurring organisms is a cheaper but under-appreciated approach, because the functional roles of organisms are not linked to crop yields, especially outside the northern temperate zone. Ecosystem services in soil come from earthworms in these cooler and wetter latitudes; what may fulfill their functional role in agriculture in warmer and drier habitats, where they are absent, is unproven. Here we show in a field experiment that ants and termites increase wheat yield by 36% from increased soil water infiltration due to their tunnels and improved soil nitrogen. Our results suggest that ants and termites have similar functional roles to earthworms, and that they may provide valuable ecosystem services in dryland agriculture, which may become increasingly important for agricultural sustainability in arid climates. PMID:21448161

  2. Materials and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    DOEpatents

    Kirst, Matias

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  3. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    DOEpatents

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  4. Ethanol and agriculture: Effect of increased production on crop and livestock sectors. Agricultural economic report

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.; Peters, M.; Baumes, H.; Disney, W.T.

    1993-05-01

    Expanded ethanol production could increase US farm income by as much as $1 billion (1.4 percent) by 2000. Because corn is the primary feedstock for ethanol, growers in the Corn Belt would benefit most from improved ethanol technology and heightened demand. Coproducts from the conversion process (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and others) compete with soybean meal, soybean growers in the South may see revenues decline. The US balance of trade would improve with increased ethanol production as oil import needs decline.

  5. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security.

  6. Is Yield Increase Sufficient to Achieve Food Security in China?

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  7. Understanding soil organic matter dynamics to ecologically increase crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koorneef, Guusje; Zandbergen, Jelmer; Pulleman, Mirjam; Comans, Rob

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing societal interest to develop farming systems that produce high yields while maintaining or even improving ecosystem functioning. Organic farming is such an ecological-intensive system with generally lower yields but better ecosystem functioning than conventional farming systems. In this project we therefore study how we can accelerate the development of soils in organically managed farming systems to improve yield. We specifically aim to unravel how the quality and quantity of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) drives crop yields. We hypothesize that a higher quality and quantity of different SOM pools leads to enhanced ecosystem functioning (e.g. nutrient availability, water provisioning) through mutual links between soil biota with their physico-chemical environment. To test our hypothesis we will link spatio-temporal variation in crop quality (e.g. leaf-N content) and quantity to variation in biotic and abiotic soil properties in an on-going long-term experiment at the Vredepeel, the Netherlands. We will specifically focus on the possible mechanisms via which SOM dynamics can improve soil functions to achieve high crop yields. We will identify the different SOM pools (e.g. SOM in macro- and microaggregates) and SOM dynamics and link that to soil functioning (e.g. nutrient cycling) and crop yield. Understanding the underlying mechanisms via which SOM influences soil functioning and crop yield will provide tools to accelerate the transition towards a sustainable intensification of farming systems.

  8. Pyrolysis of wood to biochar: increasing yield while maintaining microporosity.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; McLaughlin, Hugh; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if biochar yield could be increased by the deposition of volatile pyrolysis species within the bed during production, without negatively influencing the microporosity and adsorption properties. Aspen (Populus tremuloides) wood chips were loaded into three vertically stacked zones within a reactor and heated in nitrogen to temperatures between 420 and 650°C (i.e., pyrolyzed). The yield did increase from the zone at the reactor inlet to the subsequent zones as volatile species deposited and carbonized, and importantly, the carbonized deposits had a similar microporous structure and organic vapor uptake (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) to that of the primary biochar. Based on these results, bio-oil from previous runs at 600°C was recycled to the bed, which further increased the yield while maintaining the desirable adsorption properties of the biochar.

  9. Ethanol Production by Thermophilic Bacteria: Relationship Between Fermentation Product Yields of and Catabolic Enzyme Activities in Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobium brockii

    PubMed Central

    Lamed, R.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Significant quantitative differences in end-product yields by two strains of Clostridium thermocellum and one strain of Thermoanaerobium brockii were observed during cellobiose fermentation. Most notably, the ethanol/H2 and lactate/acetate ratios were drastically higher for T. brockii as compared with C. thermocellum strains LQRI and AS39. Exogenous H2 addition (0.4 to 1.0 atm) during culture growth increased the ethanol/acetate ratio of both T. brockii and AS39 but had no effect on LQRI. All strains had an operative Embden-Meyerhof glycolytic pathway and displayed catabolic activities of fructose-1,6-diphosphate–activated lactate dehydrogenase, coenzyme A acetylating pyruvate and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, hydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and acetate kinase. Enzyme kinetic properties (apparent Km, Vmax, and Q10 values) and the specificity of electron donors/acceptors for different oxidoreductases involved in pyruvate conversion to fermentation products were compared in the three strains. Both species contained ferredoxin-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. Ferredoxin-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) reductase activity was significantly higher in T. brockii than in AS39 and was not detectable in LQRI. H2 production and hydrogenase activity were inversely related to ferredoxin-NAD reductase activity in the three strains. Ferredoxin-NAD phosphate reductase activity was present in cell extracts of both species. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in C. thermocellum was NAD dependent, unidirectional, and inhibited by low concentrations of NAD and ethanol. Ethanol dehydrogenase activity of T. brockii was both NAD and NADP linked, reversible, and not inhibited by low levels of reaction products. The high lactate yield of T. brockii correlated with increased fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The relation of catabolic enzyme activity and quantitative differences in intracellular electron flow and fermentation product yields of these

  10. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X Q; Xue, C; Ge, X M; Yuan, W J; Wang, J Y; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in the continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast. Zinc sulfate was added at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g l(-1), respectively. Reduced average floc sizes were observed in all the zinc-supplemented cultures. Both the ethanol tolerance and thermal tolerance were significantly improved by zinc supplements, which correlated well with the increased ergosterol and trehalose contents in the yeast flocs. The highest ethanol concentration by 0.05 g l(-1) zinc sulfate supplementation attained 114.5 g l(-1), in contrast to 104.1 g l(-1) in the control culture. Glycerol production was decreased by zinc supplementations, with the lowest level 3.21 g l(-1), about 58% of the control. Zinc content in yeast cells was about 1.4 microMol g(-1) dry cell weight, about sixfold higher than that of control in all the zinc-supplemented cultures, and close correlation of zinc content in yeast cells with the cell viability against ethanol and heat shock treatment was observed. These studies suggest that exogenous zinc addition led to a reprogramming of cellular metabolic network, resulting in enhanced ethanol tolerance and ethanol production.

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  12. Compositions and methods for increased ethanol titer from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jessen, Holly J.; Yi, Jian

    2016-11-15

    The present application discloses the identification of novel I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb genes, and the production and characterization of genetically modified yeast cells in which these genes were altered. Provided herein are isolated I. orientalis ADH1, ADHa, and ADHb polynucleotides and polypeptides, genetically modified yeast cells that overexpress I. orientalis ADH1 and/or contain deletions or disruptions of ADHa and/or ADHb, and methods of using culturing these modified cells to produce ethanol.

  13. Reduction of glycerol production to improve ethanol yield in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae using glycerol as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Kim, Seung Wook; Han, Sung Ok

    2010-10-15

    Ethanol plays an important role in substituting the increasingly limited oil as the high-value, renewable fuel. In our previous studies, we successfully established the conversion of glycerol to ethanol by overexpression of pGcyaDak with pGup1Cas in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition to increasing ethanol production using glycerol as substrate, we minimized the synthesis of glycerol, which is the main by-product in ethanol fermentation processing. The glycerol production pathway was impaired by deletion of the genes FPS1 and GPD2. Strains deleted for both FPS1 and GPD2 reduce glycerol production and become highly sensitive to osmotic stress. We provide osmotic protection in YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ by overexpression of Gup1. In this study, S. cerevisiae using glycerol as substrate was modified through one-step gene disruption for redirection of glycerol carbon flux into ethanol by the deletion of two glycerol production genes, FPS1 and GPD2. The overall ethanol production in the modified strain YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupCas) was about 4.4 gl⁻¹. These results demonstrate the possibility of providing protection against osmotic stress while simultaneously increasing ethanol and reducing glycerol production in S. cerevisiae strains using glycerol as a carbon source.

  14. Increasing the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Politov, Anatoly; Golyazimova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The products of mechanical treatment are surface atoms or molecules, substances with a crystal structure different from their initial one (another polymorph, amorphous), point or linear defects, radicals and new chemical substances. It is often assumed, that to increase the yield of the products of a mechanical treatment, it is necessary to increase the treatment time and the mechanical power input. In view of the low energy yield of many mechanochemical transformations, this leads to high power consumption and contamination of the matter under treatment with the wear products of the material of a mill or reactor, in which the mechanical treatment is carried out. As a result, the technological attractiveness of mechanochemical processes is reduced, so that many mechanochemical transformations that have been discovered recently do not reach the stage of commercialization. In the present paper we describe different examples of increasing successfully the energy yield of mechanochemical processes, by a factor of several times to several orders of magnitude, for inorganic and organic substances. An increase in the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations opens new possibilities for their practical usage. In particular, the methods of preliminary treatment and the modes of conducting enzymatic processes that may find application in the production of second-generation biofuels are discussed using lignocellulose materials as examples.

  15. Expression of protein engineered NADP+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-11-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP(+). In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP(+)-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain.

  16. Ethanol increases matrix metalloproteinase-12 expression via NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Mi Jin; Nepal, Saroj; Lee, Eung-Seok; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2013-11-15

    Matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12), an enzyme responsible for degradation of extracellular matrix, plays an important role in the progression of various diseases, including inflammation and fibrosis. Although most of those are pathogenic conditions induced by ethanol ingestion, the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanol on MMP-12 expression and its potential mechanisms in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that ethanol treatment increased MMP-12 expression in primary murine peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages at both mRNA and protein levels. Ethanol treatment also significantly increased the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH) oxidase and the expression of NADPH oxidase-2 (Nox2). Pretreatment with an anti-oxidant (N-acetyl cysteine) or a selective inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI)) prevented ethanol-induced MMP-12 expression. Furthermore, knockdown of Nox2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) prevented ethanol-induced ROS production and MMP-12 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages, indicating a critical role for Nox2 in ethanol-induced intracellular ROS production and MMP-12 expression in macrophages. We also showed that ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was suppressed by transient transfection with dominant negative IκB-α plasmid or pretreatment with Bay 11-7082, a selective inhibitor of NF-κB, in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition, ethanol-induced Nox2 expression was also attenuated by treatment with a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suggesting involvement of p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway in ethanol-induced Nox2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ethanol treatment elicited increase in MMP-12 expression via increase in ROS production derived from Nox2 in macrophages. - Highlights: • Ethanol increases ROS production through up-regulation of Nox2 in macrophages. • Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to ethanol

  17. Food security: increasing yield and improving resource use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Parry, Martin A J; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2010-11-01

    Food production and security will be a major issue for supplying an increasing world population. The problem will almost certainly be exacerbated by climate change. There is a projected need to double food production by 2050. In recent times, the trend has been for incremental modest yield increases for most crops. There is an urgent need to develop integrated and sustainable approaches that will significantly increase both production per unit land area and the resource use efficiency of crops. This review considers some key processes involved in plant growth and development with some examples of ways in which molecular technology, plant breeding and genetics may increase the yield and resource use efficiency of wheat. The successful application of biotechnology to breeding is essential to provide the major increases in production required. However, each crop and each specific agricultural situation presents specific requirements and targets for optimisation. Some increases in production will come about as new varieties are developed which are able to produce satisfactory crops on marginal land presently not considered appropriate for arable crops. Other new varieties will be developed to increase both yield and resource use efficiency on the best land.

  18. Effect of age increase on metabolism and toxicity of ethanol in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young C; Kim, Sung Y; Sohn, Young R

    2003-12-12

    Age-dependent change in the effects of acute ethanol administration on female rat liver was investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats, each aged 4, 12, or 50 weeks, received ethanol (2 g/kg) via a catheter inserted into a jugular vein. Ethanol elimination rate (EER), most rapid in the 4 weeks old rats, was decreased as the age advanced. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity was not altered by age, but microsomal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase activity was significantly greater in the 4 weeks old rats. Relative liver weight decreased with age increase in proportion to reduction of EER. Hepatic triglyceride and malondialdehyde concentrations increased spontaneously in the 50 weeks old nai;ve rats. Ethanol administration (3 g/kg, ip) elevated malondialdehyde and triglyceride contents only in the 4 and the 12 weeks old rats. Hepatic glutathione concentration was increasingly reduced by ethanol with age increase. Ethanol decreased cysteine concentration in the 4 weeks old rats, but elevated it significantly in the older rats. Inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase activity by ethanol was greater with age increase, which appeared to be responsible for the increase in hepatic cysteine. The results indicate that age does not affect the ethanol metabolizing capacity of female rat liver, but the overall ethanol metabolism is decreased in accordance with the reduction of relative liver size. Accordingly induction of acute alcoholic fatty liver is less significant in the old rats. However, progressively greater depletion of glutathione by ethanol in older rats suggests that susceptibility of liver to oxidative damage would be increased as animals grow old.

  19. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    PubMed

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Modulation of glycerol and ethanol yields during alcoholic fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overexpressed or disrupted for GPD1 encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Michnick, S; Roustan, J L; Remize, F; Barre, P; Dequin, S

    1997-07-01

    The possibility of the diversion of carbon flux from ethanol towards glycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation was investigated. Variations in the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) level and similar trends for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase and glycerol-3-phosphatase were found when low and high glycerol-forming wine yeast strains were compared. GPDH is thus a limiting enzyme for glycerol production. Wine yeast strains with modulated GPD1 (encoding one of the two GPDH isoenzymes) expression were constructed and characterized during fermentation on glucose-rich medium. Engineered strains fermented glucose with a strongly modified [glycerol] : [ethanol] ratio. gpd1delta mutants exhibited a 50% decrease in glycerol production and increased ethanol yield. Overexpression of GPD1 on synthetic must (200 g/l glucose) resulted in a substantial increase in glycerol production ( x 4) at the expense of ethanol. Acetaldehyde accumulated through the competitive regeneration of NADH via GPDH. Accumulation of by-products such as pyruvate, acetate, acetoin, 2,3 butane-diol and succinate was observed, with a marked increase in acetoin production.

  1. Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure Increases Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Bilida, Sarah; Mermel, Leonard A; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2015-06-01

    Alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, are used in clinical practice for disinfection and infection prevention. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that alcohols may enhance biofilm production in Staphylococci. We quantified biofilm formation in the presence of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in six different, well-characterized strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h of biofilm development, each strain was exposed to normal saline (NS), ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol (40%, 60%, 80% and 95%) for additional 24 h incubation. Adherent biofilms were stained and optical density was determined. Viability of strains was also determined after alcohol exposure. Ethanol increased biofilm formation in all six strains compared to normal saline (p < 0.05). There was increased biofilm formation with increasing ethanol concentration. Isopropyl alcohol also increased biofilm formation with increasing alcohol concentration in all six strains (p < 0.01 vs NS). The slime-negative, chemical mutant strain of S. epidermidis increased biofilm formation after exposure to both alcohols, likely reverting back its primary phenotype through modulation of the intercellular adhesin repressor. All strains demonstrated viability after exposure to each alcohol concentration, though viability was decreased. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol exposure increases biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations used in clinical settings. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol did not eradicate viable Staphylococci from formed biofilm.

  2. Chronic ethanol increases systemic TLR3 agonist-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence links systemic inflammation to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. We previously found that systemic endotoxin, a TLR4 agonist or TNFα, increased blood TNFα that entered the brain activating microglia and persistent neuroinflammation. Further, we found that models of ethanol binge drinking sensitized blood and brain proinflammatory responses. We hypothesized that blood cytokines contribute to the magnitude of neuroinflammation and that ethanol primes proinflammatory responses. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ethanol on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration triggered by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist poly I:C. Methods Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) was used to induce inflammatory responses when sensitized with D-galactosamine (D-GalN). Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with water or ethanol (5 g/kg/day, i.g., 10 days) or poly I:C (250 μg/kg, i.p.) alone or sequentially 24 hours after ethanol exposure. Cytokines, chemokines, microglial morphology, NADPH oxidase (NOX), reactive oxygen species (ROS), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), TLR3 and cell death markers were examined using real-time PCR, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and hydroethidine histochemistry. Results Poly I:C increased blood and brain TNFα that peaked at three hours. Blood levels returned within one day, whereas brain levels remained elevated for at least three days. Escalating blood and brain proinflammatory responses were found with ethanol, poly I:C, and ethanol-poly I:C treatment. Ethanol pretreatment potentiated poly I:C-induced brain TNFα (345%), IL-1β (331%), IL-6 (255%), and MCP-1(190%). Increased levels of brain cytokines coincided with increased microglial activation, NOX gp91phox, superoxide and markers of neurodegeneration (activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade B). Ethanol potentiation of poly I:C was associated with ethanol-increased expression of TLR3 and endogenous agonist HMGB1 in the brain. Minocycline and

  3. Hybrid and proximate composition effects on ethanol yield from pearl millet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Investors have committed to the construction of new ethanol plants in the southeast in spite of the grain-deficit status of this region. Pearl millet is likely to be a viable supplemental feedstock. The DDGS has a greater nutritional value, resulting in a lower net cost of ethanol production from pe...

  4. Ethanol yields and cell wall properties in divergently bred switchgrass genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genetic modification of herbaceous plant cell walls to increase biofuels yields from harvested biomass is a primary bioenergy research goal. The focus of much of this research has been on cell wall lignin concentration. Using switchgrass genotypes developed by divergent breeding for ruminant diges...

  5. Ethanol Increases Mechanical Pain Sensitivity in Rats via Activation of GABAA Receptors in Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Geng, Kai-Wen; He, Ting; Wang, Rui-Rui; Li, Chun-Li; Luo, Wen-Jun; Wu, Fang-Fang; Wang, Yan; Li, Zhen; Lu, Yun-Fei; Guan, Su-Min; Chen, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol is widely known for its ability to cause dramatic changes in emotion, social cognition, and behavior following systemic administration in humans. Human neuroimaging studies suggest that alcohol dependence and chronic pain may share common mechanisms through amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) interactions. However, whether acute administration of ethanol in the mPFC can modulate pain perception is unknown. Here we showed that bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the mPFC lowered the bilateral mechanical pain threshold for 48 h without influencing thermal pain sensitivity in adult rats. However, bilateral microinjections of artificial cerebrospinal fluid into the mPFC or bilateral microinjections of ethanol into the dorsolateral PFC (also termed as motor cortex area 1 in Paxinos and Watson's atlas of The Rat Brain. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2005) failed to do so, suggesting regional selectivity of the effects of ethanol. Moreover, bilateral microinjections of ethanol did not change the expression of either pro-apoptotic (caspase-3 and Bax) or anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) proteins, suggesting that the dose was safe and validating the method used in the current study. To determine whether γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors are involved in mediating the ethanol effects, muscimol, a selective GABAA receptor agonist, or bicuculline, a selective GABAA receptor antagonist, was administered alone or co-administered with ethanol through the same route into the bilateral mPFC. The results showed that muscimol mimicked the effects of ethanol while bicuculline completely reversed the effects of ethanol and muscimol. In conclusion, ethanol increases mechanical pain sensitivity through activation of GABAA receptors in the mPFC of rats.

  6. Increased ethanol production from glycerol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with enhanced stress tolerance from the overexpression of SAGA complex components.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Jung, Ju; Ramzi, Ahmad Bazli; Choe, Se Hoon; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2012-09-10

    During the industrial production of ethanol using yeast, the cells are exposed to stresses that affect their growth and productivity; therefore, stress-tolerant yeast strains are highly desirable. To increase ethanol production from glycerol, a greater tolerance to osmotic and ethanol stress was engineered in yeast strains that were impaired in endogenous glycerol production by the overexpression of both SPT3 and SPT15, components of the SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) complex. The engineered strain YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupSpt3.15Cas) formed significantly more biomass compared to the strain YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupCas), and both engineered strains displayed increased biomass when compared to the control YPH499 fps1Δgpd2Δ (pESC-TRP) strain. The trehalose accumulation and ergosterol content of these strains were 2.3-fold and 1.6-fold higher, respectively, than the parent strains, suggesting that levels of cellular membrane components were correlated with the enhanced stress tolerance of the engineered strains. Consequently, the ethanol production of the engineered strain YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupSpt3.15Cas) was 1.8-fold more than that of strain YPH499fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupCas), with about 8.1g/L ethanol produced. In conclusion, we successfully established that the co-expression of SPT3 and SPT15 that improved the fermentation performance of the engineered yeast strains which produced higher ethanol yields than stress-sensitive yeast strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Withdrawal from intermittent ethanol exposure increases probability of burst firing in VTA neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Martin, Miquel; Chen, Billy T; Bowers, M Scott; Mohamedi, Maysha M; Bonci, Antonello

    2007-10-01

    Changing the activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons from pacemaker to burst firing is hypothesized to increase the salience of stimuli, such as an unexpected reward, and likely contributes to withdrawal-associated drug-seeking behavior. Accordingly, pharmacological, behavioral, and electrophysiological data suggest an important role of the VTA in mediating alcohol-dependent behaviors. However, the effects of repeated ethanol exposure on VTA dopamine neuron ion channel function are poorly understood. Here, we repeatedly exposed rats to ethanol (2 g/kg ethanol, ip, twice per day for 5 days), then examined the firing patterns of VTA dopamine neurons in vitro after 7 days withdrawal. Compared with saline-treated animals, the function of the small conductance calcium-dependent potassium channel (SK) was reduced in ethanol-treated animals. Consistent with a role for SK in regulation of burst firing, NMDA applied during firing facilitated the transition to bursting in ethanol-treated but not saline-treated animals; NMDA consistently induced bursting only in saline-treated animals when SK was inhibited. Also, enhanced bursting in ethanol-treated animals was not a result of differences in NMDA-induced depolarization. Further, I(h) was also reduced in ethanol-treated animals, which delayed recovery from hyperpolarization, but did not account for the increased NMDA-induced bursting in ethanol-treated animals. Finally, repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal also enhanced the acute locomotor-activating effect of cocaine (15 mg/kg, ip). Thus withdrawal after repeated ethanol exposure produced several alterations in the physiological properties of VTA dopamine neurons, which could ultimately increase the ability of VTA neurons to produce burst firing and thus might contribute to addiction-related behaviors.

  8. Ethanol increases GABAergic transmission at both pre- and postsynaptic sites in rat central amygdala neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Marisa; Madamba, Samuel G.; Moore, Scott D.; Tallent, Melanie K.; Siggins, George R.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the interaction of ethanol with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in neurons of slices of the rat central amygdala nucleus (CeA), a brain region thought to be critical for the reinforcing effects of ethanol. Brief superfusion of 11–66 mM ethanol significantly increased GABA type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) and currents (IPSCs) in most CeA neurons, with a low apparent EC50 of 20 mM. Acute superfusion of 44 mM ethanol increased the amplitude of evoked GABAA IPSPs and IPSCs in 70% of CeA neurons. The ethanol enhancement of IPSPs and IPSCs occurred to a similar extent in the presence of the GABA type B (GABAB) receptor antagonist CGP 55845A, suggesting that this receptor is not involved in the ethanol effect on CeA neurons. Ethanol superfusion also decreased paired-pulse facilitation of evoked GABAA IPSPs and IPSCs and always increased the frequency and sometimes the amplitude of spontaneous miniature GABAA IPSCs as well as responses to local GABA application, indicating both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites of action for ethanol. Thus, the CeA is the first brain region to reveal, without conditional treatments such as GABAB antagonists, consistent, low-dose ethanol enhancement of GABAergic transmission at both pre- and postsynaptic sites. These findings add further support to the contention that the ethanol–GABA interaction in CeA plays an important role in the reinforcing effects of ethanol. PMID:12566570

  9. Evaluating low lignin mutants of forage sorghum for increased conversion efficiency to sugars and ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reduced lignin near-isogenic lines of Atlas bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12 forage sorghum (Sorghum biocolor (L.)) were evaluated as sources of biomass for conversion to sugars and ethanol. These mutants have the advantage of reduced lignin contents and high biomass yields. Field replicates of wil...

  10. Prospects for increasing starch and sucrose yields for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison M

    2008-05-01

    In the short term, the production of bioethanol as a liquid transport fuel is almost entirely dependent on starch and sugars from existing food crops. The sustainability of this industry would be enhanced by increases in the yield of starch/sugar per hectare without further inputs into the crops concerned. Efforts to achieve increased yields of starch over the last three decades, in particular via manipulation of the enzyme ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase, have met with limited success. Other approaches have included manipulation of carbon partitioning within storage organs in favour of starch synthesis, and attempts to manipulate source-sink relationships. Some of the most promising results so far have come from manipulations that increase the availability of ATP for starch synthesis. Future options for achieving increased starch contents could include manipulation of starch degradation in organs in which starch turnover is occurring, and introduction of starch synthesis into the cytosol. Sucrose accumulation is much less well understood than starch synthesis, but recent results from research on sugar cane suggest that total sugar content can be greatly increased by conversion of sucrose into a non-metabolizable isomer. A better understanding of carbohydrate storage and turnover in relation to carbon assimilation and plant growth is required, both for improvement of starch and sugar crops and for attempts to increase biomass production in second-generation biofuel crops.

  11. Enhancing biomass and ethanol production by increasing NADPH production in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Nam; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    This study demonstrates that increased NADPH production can improve biomass and ethanol production in cyanobacteria. We over-expressed the endogenous zwf gene, which encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of pentose phosphate pathway, in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. zwf over-expression resulted in increased NADPH production, and promoted biomass production compared to the wild type in both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. Ethanol production pathway including NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase was also integrated with and without zwf over-expression. Excessive NADPH production by zwf over-expression could improve both biomass and ethanol production in the autotrophic conditions.

  12. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  13. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    PubMed

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity.

  14. Mechanical milling and membrane separation for increased ethanol production during simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of rice straw by xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Sasaki, Daisuke; Teramura, Hiroshi; Inokuma, Kentaro; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical milling and membrane separation were applied to simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation from hydrothermally pretreated rice straw. Mechanical milling with minimized 4 cycles enabled 37.5±3.4gL(-1) and 45.3±4.4gL(-1) of ethanol production after 48h by xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae from solid fractions (200 and 250gL(-1)) of pretreated rice straw with 5 filter paper unitg-biomass(-1) cellulase (respectively, 77.3±7.1% and 74.7±7.3% of theoretical ethanol yield). Use of a membrane-based process including nanofiltration and ultrafiltration increased the sugar concentrations in the liquid fraction of pretreated rice straw and addition of this liquid fraction to 250gL(-1) solid fraction increased ethanol production to 52.0±0.4gL(-1) (73.8±0.6% of theoretical ethanol yield). Mechanical milling was effective in increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fraction and membrane separation steps increased the ethanol titer during co-fermentation, leading to a proposal for combining these processes for ethanol production from whole rice straw.

  15. Improving ethanol yield in acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae by cofactor engineering of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and deletion of ALD6.

    PubMed

    Papapetridis, Ioannis; van Dijk, Marlous; Dobbe, Arthur P A; Metz, Benjamin; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-04-26

    Acetic acid, an inhibitor of sugar fermentation by yeast, is invariably present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are used or considered as feedstocks for yeast-based bioethanol production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been constructed, in which anaerobic reduction of acetic acid to ethanol replaces glycerol formation as a mechanism for reoxidizing NADH formed in biosynthesis. An increase in the amount of acetate that can be reduced to ethanol should further decrease acetic acid concentrations and enable higher ethanol yields in industrial processes based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The stoichiometric requirement of acetate reduction for NADH implies that increased generation of NADH in cytosolic biosynthetic reactions should enhance acetate consumption. Replacement of the native NADP(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae by a prokaryotic NAD(+)-dependent enzyme resulted in increased cytosolic NADH formation, as demonstrated by a ca. 15% increase in the glycerol yield on glucose in anaerobic cultures. Additional deletion of ALD6, which encodes an NADP(+)-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, led to a 39% increase in the glycerol yield compared to a non-engineered strain. Subsequent replacement of glycerol formation by an acetate reduction pathway resulted in a 44% increase of acetate consumption per amount of biomass formed, as compared to an engineered, acetate-reducing strain that expressed the native 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ALD6. Compared to a non-acetate reducing reference strain under the same conditions, this resulted in a ca. 13% increase in the ethanol yield on glucose. The combination of NAD(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase expression and deletion of ALD6 resulted in a marked increase in the amount of acetate that was consumed in these proof-of-principle experiments, and this concept is ready for further testing in industrial strains as well as in hydrolysates. Altering the cofactor

  16. Increased loss and decreased synthesis of hepatic glutathione after acute ethanol administration. Turnover studies.

    PubMed Central

    Speisky, H; MacDonald, A; Giles, G; Orrego, H; Israel, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on rates of synthesis and utilization of hepatic glutathione (GSH) was studied in rats after a pulse of [35S]cysteine. A 35% decrease in hepatic GSH content 5h after administration of 4 g of ethanol/kg body wt. was accompanied by a 33% increase in the rate of GSH utilization. The decrease occurred without increases in hepatic oxidized glutathione (GSSG) or in the GSH/GSSG ratio. The rate of non-enzymic condensation of GSH with acetaldehyde could account for only 6% of the rate of hepatic GSH disappearance. The increased loss of [35S]GSH induced by ethanol was not accompanied by an increased turnover; rather, a 30% inhibition of GSH synthesis balanced the increased rate of loss, leaving the turnover rate unchanged. The rate of acetaldehyde condensation with cysteine in vitro occurred at about one-third of the rate of GSH loss in ethanol-treated animals. However, ethanol induced only a minor decrease in liver cysteine content, which did not precede, but followed, the decrease in GSH. The characteristics of 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, the condensation product between acetaldehyde and cysteine, were studied and methodologies were developed to determine its presence in tissues. It was not found in the liver of ethanol-treated animals. Ethanol administration led to a marked increase (47%) in plasma GSH in the post-hepatic inferior vena cava, but not in its pre-hepatic segment. Data suggest that an increased loss of GSH from the liver constitutes an important mechanism for the decrease in GSH induced by ethanol. In addition, an inhibition of GSH synthesis is observed. PMID:3977847

  17. Fusion of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lewicka, Aleksandra J; Lyczakowski, Jan J; Blackhurst, Gavin; Pashkuleva, Christiana; Rothschild-Mancinelli, Kyle; Tautvaišas, Dainius; Thornton, Harry; Villanueva, Hugo; Xiao, Weike; Slikas, Justinas; Horsfall, Louise; Elfick, Alistair; French, Christopher

    2014-12-19

    Ethanol is an important biofuel. Heterologous expression of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli. A fusion of PDC and ADH was generated and expressed in E. coli. The fusion enzyme was demonstrated to possess both activities. AdhB activity was significantly lower when fused to PDC than when the two enzymes were expressed separately. However, cells expressing the fusion protein generated ethanol more rapidly and to higher levels than cells coexpressing Pdc and AdhB, suggesting a specific rate enhancement due to the fusion of the two enzymes.

  18. Chronic Ethanol Consumption Increases Myocardial Mitochondrial DNA Mutations: A Potential Contribution by Mitochondrial Topoisomerases

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, D.; Mathew, J.E.; Mitry, M.; Taft, M.; Force, A.; Edwards, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) presents as decreased myocardial contractility, arrhythmias and secondary non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy leading to heart failure. Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to have a significant role in the development and complications of ACM. This study investigated if chronic ethanol feeding promoted myocardial mitochondrial topoisomerase dysfunction as one underlying cause of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in ACM. Methods: The impact of chronic ethanol exposure on the myocardial mitochondria was examined in both neonatal cardiomyocytes using 50 mM ethanol for 6 days and in rats assigned to control or ethanol feeding groups for 4 months. Results: Chronic ethanol feeding led to significant (P < 0.05) decreases in M-mode Fractional Shortening, ejection fraction, and the cardiac output index as well as increases in Tau. Ethanol feeding promoted mitochondrial dysfunction as evidenced by significantly decreased left ventricle cytochrome oxidase activity and decreases in mitochondrial protein content. Both in rats and in cultured cardiomyocytes, chronic ethanol presentation significantly increased mtDNA damage. Using isolated myocardial mitochondria, both mitochondrial topoisomerase-dependent DNA cleavage and DNA relaxation were significantly altered by ethanol feeding. Conclusion: Chronic ethanol feeding compromised cardiovascular and mitochondrial function as a result of a decline in mtDNA integrity that was in part the consequence of mitochondrial topoisomerase dysfunction. Understanding the regulation of the mitochondrial topoisomerases is critical for protection of mtDNA, not only for the management of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, but also for the many other clinical treatments that targets the topoisomerases in the alcoholic patient. PMID:24852753

  19. Increase of ethanol productivity by cell-recycle fermentation of flocculating yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, F Z; Xie, T; Hui, M

    2011-01-01

    Using the recombinant flocculating Angel yeast F6, long-term repeated batch fermentation for ethanol production was performed and a high volumetric productivity resulted from half cells not washed and the optimum opportunity of residual glucose 20 g l(-1) of last medium. The obtained highest productivity was 2.07 g l-(1) h(-1), which was improved by 75.4% compared with that of 1.18 g l(-1) h(-1) in the first batch fermentation. The ethanol concentration reached 8.4% corresponding to the yield of 0.46 g g(-1). These results will contribute greatly to the industrial production of fuel ethanol using the commercial method with the flocculating yeast.

  20. Ethanol- and cocaine-induced locomotion are genetically related to increases in accumbal dopamine.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Paul J; Meshul, Charles K; Phillips, Tamara J

    2009-04-01

    Neuroanatomical research suggests that interactions between dopamine and glutamate within the mesolimbic dopamine system are involved in both drug-induced locomotor stimulation and addiction. Therefore, genetically determined differences in the locomotor responses to ethanol and cocaine may be related to differences in the effects of these drugs on this system. To test this, we measured drug-induced changes in dopamine and glutamate within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a major target of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, using in vivo microdialysis in selectively bred FAST and SLOW mouse lines, which were bred for extreme sensitivity (FAST) and insensitivity (SLOW) to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol. These mice also show a genetically correlated difference in stimulant response to cocaine (FAST > SLOW). Single injections of ethanol (2 g/kg) or cocaine (40 mg/kg) resulted in larger increases in dopamine within the NAcc in FAST compared with SLOW mice. There was no effect of either drug on NAcc glutamate levels. These experiments indicate that response of the mesolimbic dopamine system is genetically correlated with sensitivity to ethanol- and cocaine-induced locomotion. Because increased sensitivity to the stimulating effects of ethanol appears to be associated with greater risk for alcohol abuse, genetically determined differences in the mesolimbic dopamine response to ethanol may represent a critical underlying mechanism for increased genetic risk for alcoholism.

  1. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Inhalation Increases Ethanol Self-administration in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCool, Brian A.; Chappell, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Inbred mouse strains provide significant opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms controlling ethanol-directed behaviors and neurobiology. They have been specifically employed to understand cellular mechanisms contributing to ethanol consumption, acute intoxication, and sensitivities to chronic effects. However, limited ethanol consumption by some strains has restricted our understanding of clinically relevant endpoints such as dependence-related ethanol intake. Previous work with a novel tastant-substitution procedure using monosodium glutamate (MSG or umami flavor) has shown that the procedure greatly enhances ethanol consumption by mouse strains that express limited drinking phenotypes using other methods. In the current study, we employ this MSG-substitution procedure to examine how ethanol dependence, induced with passive vapor inhalation, modifies ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. These strains represent ‘high’ and ‘low’ drinking phenotypes, respectively. We found that the MSG substitution greatly facilitates ethanol drinking in both strains, and likewise, ethanol dependence increased ethanol consumption regardless of strain. However, DBA/2J mice exhibited greater sensitivity dependence-enhanced drinking, as represented by consumption behaviors directed at lower ethanol concentrations and relative to baseline intake levels. DBA/2J mice also exhibited significant withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior while C57BL/6J mice did not. These findings suggest that the MSG-substitution procedure can be employed to examine dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption across a range of drinking phenotypes, and that C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice may represent unique neurobehavioral pathways for developing dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption. PMID:25659650

  2. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management.

  3. Low pH increases the yield of exosome isolation.

    PubMed

    Ban, Jae-Jun; Lee, Mijung; Im, Wooseok; Kim, Manho

    2015-05-22

    Exosomes are the extracellular vesicles secreted by various cells. Exosomes mediate intercellular communication by delivering a variety of molecules between cells. Cancer cell derived exosomes seem to be related with tumor progression and metastasis. Tumor microenvironment is thought to be acidic and this low pH controls exosome physiology, leading to tumor progression. Despite the importance of microenvironmental pH on exosome, most of exosome studies have been performed without regard to pH. Therefore, the difference of exosome stability and yield of isolation by different pH need to be studied. In this research, we investigated the yield of total exosomal protein and RNA after incubation in acidic, neutral and alkaline conditioned medium. Representative exosome markers were investigated by western blot after incubation of exosomes in different pH. As a result, the concentrations of exosomal protein and nucleic acid were significantly increased after incubation in the acidic medium compared with neutral medium. The higher levels of exosome markers including CD9, CD63 and HSP70 were observed after incubation in an acidic environment. On the other hand, no exosomal protein, exosomal RNA and exosome markers have been detected after incubation in an alkaline condition. In summary, our results indicate that the acidic condition is the favorable environment for existence and isolation of exosomes.

  4. Food deprivation increases the low-dose locomotor stimulant response to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2013-10-01

    Acute and chronic states of food deprivation result in increased sensitivity to a variety of natural reinforcers as well as to drugs of abuse. Food deprived animals show increased locomotor activity during periods of food deprivation, as well as increased locomotor stimulant responses to drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamine, morphine, and ethanol, implying that drugs of abuse act in part on neural systems that underlie responses towards food. To determine whether this effect extends to an invertebrate, highly genetically tractable animal, the locomotor stimulant effects of low dose ethanol were assessed under a variety of feeding conditions in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Food deprivation resulted in strain specific increases in ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity in most strains tested, although elevated baseline activity confounded interpretation in some strains. Experiments conducted with Canton S flies found that the effects of food deprivation on the locomotor stimulant response to ethanol increased with the duration of deprivation, and could be blocked by refeeding the flies with standard food or sucrose, but not yeast, immediately prior to the ethanol exposure. Life-span extending dietary depletion procedures or previous periods of food deprivation did not affect the response to ethanol, indicating that only animals in an acutely food deprived state are more sensitive to the stimulant effects of ethanol. These results suggest that increased sensitivity to the stimulant effects of some drugs of abuse might reflect an evolutionarily conserved neural mechanism that underlies behavioral responses to natural reinforcers and drugs of abuse. The identification of this mechanism, and the genes that underlie its development and function, will constitute a novel approach towards the study of alcohol abuse and dependence.

  5. Repeated exposure to moderate doses of ethanol augments hippocampal glutamate neurotransmission by increasing release

    PubMed Central

    Chefer, Vladimir; Meis, Jennifer; Wang, Grace; Kuzmin, Alexander; Bakalkin, Georgy; Shippenberg, Toni

    2013-01-01

    The present study used conventional and quantitative microdialysis to assess glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the hippocampal CA3 area of the rat following a moderate-dose ethanol treatment regimen. Male Wistar rats received 3.4 g/kg of ethanol or water for 6 days via gastric gavage. Microdialysis experiments commenced 2 days later. Basal and depolarization-induced glutamate overflow were significantly elevated in ethanol-treated animals. Basal and depolarization-induced gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) overflow were unaltered. Quantitative no-net-flux microdialysis was used to determine if changes in dialysate glutamate levels following ethanol administration are due to an increase in release or a decrease in uptake.To confirm the validity of this method for quantifying basal glutamate dynamics, extracellular concentrations of glutamate and the extraction fraction, which reflects changes in analyte clearance, were quantified in response to retro-dialysis of the glutamate uptake blocker trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (tPDC). tPDC significantly decreased the extraction fraction for glutamate, resulting in augmented extracellular glutamate concentrations. Repeated ethanol administration did not alter the glutamate extraction fraction. However, extracellular glutamate concentrations were significantly elevated, indicating that glutamate release is increased as a consequence of repeated ethanol administration. These data demonstrate that repeated bouts of moderate ethanol consumption alter basal glutamate dynamics in the CA3 region of the dorsal hippocampus. Basal glutamate release is augmented, whereas glutamate uptake is unchanged. Furthermore, they suggest that dysregulation of glutamate transmission in this region may contribute to the previously documented deficits in cognitive function associated with moderate dose ethanol use. PMID:21182572

  6. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  7. Does Integration Help Adapt to Climate Change? Case of Increased US Corn Yield Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Hertel, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    In absence of of new crop varieties or significant shifts in the geography of corn production, US national corn yields variation could double by the year 2040 as a result of climate change and without adaptation this could lead the variability in US corn prices to quadruple (Diffenbaugh et al. 2012). In addition to climate induced price changes, analysis of recent commodity price spikes suggests that interventionist trade policies are partly to blame. Assuming we cannot much influence the future climate outcome, what policies can we undertake to adapt better? Can we use markets to blunt this edge? Diffenbaugh et al. find that sale of corn- ethanol for use in liquid fuel, when governed by quotas such as US Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), could make US corn prices even more variable; in contrast the same food-fuel market link (we refer to it as intersectoral link) may well dampen price volatility when the sale of corn to ethanol industry is driven by higher future oil prices. The latter however comes at the cost of exposing corn prices to the greater volatility in oil markets. Similarly intervention in corn trade can make US corn prices less or more volatile by distorting international corn price transmission. A negative US corn yield shock shows that domestic corn supply falls and domestic prices to go up irrespective of whether or not markets are integrated. How much the prices go up depends on how much demand adjusts to accommodate the supply shock. Based on the forgoing analysis, one should expect that demand would adjust more readily when markets are integrated and therefore reduce the resulting price fluctuation. Simulation results confirm this response of corn markets. In terms of relative comparisons however a policy driven intersectoral integration is least effective and prices rise much more. Similarly, a positive world oil price shock makes the US oil imports expensive and with oil being used to produce gasoline blends, it increases the price of gasoline

  8. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach.

    PubMed

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-19

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.

  9. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Donaj, Pawel J.; Kaminsky, W.; Buzeto, F.; Yang, W.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta catalyst (Z-N: TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C, respectively. At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained

  10. Impact of deficit irrigation on sorghum physical and chemical properties and ethanol yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of irrigation levels (five levels from 304.8 to 76.2 mm water) on the physical and chemical properties and ethanol fermentation performance of sorghum. Ten sorghum samples grown under semi-arid climatic conditions were harvested in 2011 from the...

  11. Impact of deficit irrigation on maize physical and chemical properties and ethanol yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of irrigation levels (five levels from 102 to 457 mm of water) on the physical and chemical properties and ethanol fermentation performance of maize. Twenty maize samples with two crop rotation systems, grain sorghum–maize and maize–maize, were ...

  12. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H2O2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastric bypass increases ethanol and water consumption in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Subrize, Mike; Delis, Foteini; Cooney, Robert N; Culnan, Derek; Sun, Mingjie; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Hajnal, Andras

    2012-12-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Increased alcohol abuse after RYGB resulted in recommendations to exclude patients with alcohol abuse histories from RYGB. The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of a RYGB on ethanol intake in diet-induced obese rats (high-fat diet). The animals underwent RYGB and were habituated along with their sham-operated obese controls and with lean rats to increasing concentrations of ethanol in a two-bottle choice paradigm. RYGB rats' daily consumption of ethanol averaged 2 g/kg at 2% habituation and 3.8 g/kg at 4% habituation, twice as much as sham-operated obese controls and 50% more than normal-diet lean controls. Obese controls drank on average 1 g/kg of ethanol (2 and 4%), significantly less (50%) than lean controls did. RYGB rats when given higher ethanol concentrations (6 and 8%) or no ethanol drank significantly more water than lean and obese controls did (66 and 100%, respectively), and their enhanced total fluid intake was associated with increased food intake, which was significantly higher than in lean (66% more calories; food + alcohol) and obese controls (44% more calories). The lower alcohol intake in the obese controls than in the lean rats suggests that obesity may interfere with alcohol's rewarding effects and RYGB may remove this protective effect. The overall enhancement of consummatory behaviors (both ethanol and water) suggests that RYGB may facilitate alcohol consumption, which in vulnerable individuals could lead to abuse and addiction.

  14. Methane hydrate synthesis from ice: Influence of pressurization and ethanol on optimizing formation rates and hydrate yield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Po-Chun.; Huang, Wuu-Liang; Stern, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline methane gas hydrate (MGH) was synthesized using an ice-seeding method to investigate the influence of pressurization and ethanol on the hydrate formation rate and gas yield of the resulting samples. When the reactor is pressurized with CH4 gas without external heating, methane hydrate can be formed from ice grains with yields up to 25% under otherwise static conditions. The rapid temperature rise caused by pressurization partially melts the granular ice, which reacts with methane to form hydrate rinds around the ice grains. The heat generated by the exothermic reaction of methane hydrate formation buffers the sample temperature near the melting point of ice for enough time to allow for continuous hydrate growth at high rates. Surprisingly, faster rates and higher yields of methane hydrate were found in runs with lower initial temperatures, slower rates of pressurization, higher porosity of the granular ice samples, or mixtures with sediments. The addition of ethanol also dramatically enhanced the formation of polycrystalline MGH. This study demonstrates that polycrystalline MGH with varied physical properties suitable for different laboratory tests can be manufactured by controlling synthesis procedures or parameters. Subsequent dissociation experiments using a gas collection apparatus and flowmeter confirmed high methane saturation (CH 4·2O, with n = 5.82 ± 0.03) in the MGH. Dissociation rates of the various samples synthesized at diverse conditions may be fitted to different rate laws, including zero and first order.

  15. Vacuum transfer system increases sugar maple sap yield

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters

    1978-01-01

    Yields of sugar maple sap collected from three plastic pipeline systems by gravity, vacuum pump, and a vacuum pump with a transfer tank were compared during 2 years in northern Vermont. The transfer system yielded 27 percent more sap one year and 17 percent more the next year. Higher vacuum levels at the tapholes were observed in the transfer system.

  16. Prenatal exposure to ethanol stimulates hypothalamic CCR2 chemokine receptor system: Possible relation to increased density of orexigenic peptide neurons and ethanol drinking in adolescent offspring.

    PubMed

    Chang, G-Q; Karatayev, O; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-12-03

    Clinical and animal studies indicate that maternal consumption of ethanol during pregnancy increases alcohol drinking in the offspring. Possible underlying mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides, which are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure and themselves promote drinking. Building on evidence that ethanol stimulates neuroimmune factors such as the chemokine CCL2 that in adult rats is shown to colocalize with the orexigenic peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), the present study sought to investigate the possibility that CCL2 or its receptor CCR2 in LH is stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure, perhaps specifically within MCH neurons. Our paradigm of intraoral administration of ethanol to pregnant rats, at low-to-moderate doses (1 or 3g/kg/day) during peak hypothalamic neurogenesis, caused in adolescent male offspring twofold increase in drinking of and preference for ethanol and reinstatement of ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice paradigm under an intermittent access schedule. This effect of prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with an increased expression of MCH and density of MCH(+) neurons in LH of preadolescent offspring. Whereas CCL2(+) cells at this age were low in density and unaffected by ethanol, CCR2(+) cells were dense in LH and increased by prenatal ethanol, with a large percentage (83-87%) identified as neurons and found to colocalize MCH. Prenatal ethanol also stimulated the genesis of CCR2(+) and MCH(+) neurons in the embryo, which co-labeled the proliferation marker, BrdU. Ethanol also increased the genesis and density of neurons that co-expressed CCR2 and MCH in LH, with triple-labeled CCR2(+)/MCH(+)/BrdU(+) neurons that were absent in control rats accounting for 35% of newly generated neurons in ethanol-exposed rats. With both the chemokine and MCH systems believed to promote ethanol consumption, this greater density of CCR2(+)/MCH(+) neurons in the LH of preadolescent rats suggests that

  17. Prenatal exposure to ethanol stimulates hypothalamic CCR2 chemokine receptor system: Possible relation to increased density of orexigenic peptide neurons and ethanol drinking in adolescent offspring

    PubMed Central

    Chang, G.-Q.; Karatayev, O.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and animal studies indicate that maternal consumption of ethanol during pregnancy increases alcohol drinking in the offspring. Possible underlying mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides, which are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure and themselves promote drinking. Building on evidence that ethanol stimulates neuroimmune factors such as the chemokine CCL2 that in adult rats is shown to colocalize with the orexigenic peptide, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), the present study sought to investigate the possibility that CCL2 or its receptor CCR2 in LH are stimulated by prenatal ethanol exposure, perhaps specifically within MCH neurons. Our paradigm of intraoral administration of ethanol to pregnant rats, at low-to-moderate doses (1 or 3 g/kg/day) during peak hypothalamic neurogenesis, caused in adolescent male offspring two-fold increase in drinking of and preference for ethanol and reinstatement of ethanol drinking in a two-bottle choice paradigm under an intermittent access schedule. This effect of prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with an increased expression of MCH and density of MCH+ neurons in LH of preadolescent offspring. Whereas CCL2+ cells at this age were low in density and unaffected by ethanol, CCR2+ cells were dense in LH and increased by prenatal ethanol, with a large percentage (83–87%) identified as neurons and found to colocalize MCH. Prenatal ethanol also stimulated the genesis of CCR2+ and MCH+ neurons in the embryo, which co-labeled the proliferation marker, BrdU. Ethanol also increased the genesis and density of neurons that co-expressed CCR2 and MCH in LH, with triple-labeled CCR2+/MCH+/BrdU+ neurons that were absent in control rats accounting for 35% of newly generated neurons in ethanol-exposed rats. With both the chemokine and MCH systems believed to promote ethanol consumption, this greater density of CCR2+/MCH+ neurons in the LH of preadolescent rats suggests that these systems

  18. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bulwa, Zachary B.; Sharlin, Jordan A.; Clark, Peter J.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Kilby, Chessa N.; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or over-representation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose- dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that over-representation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. PMID:21803530

  19. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  20. Elimination of acetate production to improve ethanol yield during continuous synthesis gas fermentation by engineered biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Vel; Kiriukhin, Michael; Tyurin, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Acetogen strain Clostridum sp. MT653 produced acetate 273 mM (p < 0.005) and ethanol 250 mM (p < 0.005) from synthesis gas blend mixture of 64% CO and 36% H(2). Clostridum sp. MT653 was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst strain Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550. The biocatalyst increased ethanol yield to 590 mM with no acetate production during single-stage continuous syngas fermentation due to expression of synthetic adh cloned in a multi-copy number expression vector. The acetate production was eliminated by inactivation of the pta gene in Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550. Gene introduction and gene elimination were achieved only using Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc. electroporation generator. The electrotransformation efficiencies were 8.0 ± 0.2 × 10(6) per microgram of transforming DNA of the expression vector at cell viability ~15%. The frequency of suicidal vector integration to inactivate pta was ~10(-5) per the number of recipient cells. This is the first report on elimination of acetate production and overexpression of synthetic adh gene to engineer acetogen biocatalyst for selective biofuel ethanol production during continuous syngas fermentation.

  1. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood glow: Role of adenosine

    SciTech Connect

    Orrego, H.; Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Giles, H.G.; Sandrin, S.; Israel, Y. )

    1988-04-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces an increase in portal vein blood flow was studied in rats using radiolabeled microspheres. Ethanol by gavage resulted in an increase of 50-70% in portal vein blood flow. The ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker 8-phenyltheophylline. By itself, 8-phenyltheophylline was without effect on cardiac output or portal blood flow. Adenosine infusion resulted in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This adenosine-induced increase in portal blood flow was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline in a dose-dependent manner. Both alcohol and adenosine significantly reduced preportal vascular resistance by 40% and 60%, respectively. These effects were fully suppressed by 8-phenyltheophylline. It is concluded that adenosine is a likely candidate to mediate the ethanol-induced increase in portal vein blood flow. It is suggested that an increase in circulating acetate and liver hypoxia may mediate the effects of alcohol by increasing tissue and interstitial adenosine levels.

  2. The effect of a combined biological and thermo-mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw on energy yields in coupled ethanol and methane generation.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Blomqvist, Johanna; Lizasoain, Javier; Klietz, Lena; Potthast, Antje; Horn, Svein Jarle; Nilsen, Paal J; Gronauer, Andreas; Passoth, Volkmar; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol and biogas are energy carriers that could contribute to a future energy system independent of fossil fuels. Straw is a favorable bioenergy substrate as it does not compete with food or feed production. As straw is very resistant to microbial degradation, it requires a pretreatment to insure efficient conversion to ethanol and/or methane. This study investigates the effect of combining biological pretreatment and steam explosion on ethanol and methane yields in order to improve the coupled generation process. Results show that the temperature of the steam explosion pretreatment has a particularly strong effect on possible ethanol yields, whereas combination with the biological pretreatment showed no difference in overall energy yield. The highest overall energy output was found to be 10.86 MJ kg VS(-1) using a combined biological and steam explosion pretreatment at a temperature of 200°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Forage yield increased by clearcutting and site preparation

    Treesearch

    John J. Stransky; Lowell K. Halls

    1977-01-01

    Total forage yield (TFY) on a pine-hardwood forest site in east Texas was sampled before and 1 growing season after clearcutting (1972 and 1973), also 1 and 3 growing seasons after planting site preparation by burning, choping, or KG blading (1974 and 1976). Total forage yield was only 359 ka/ha in the uncut forest, but 2217 kg/ha after clearcutting. On control plots (...

  4. Dose-dependent increase and decrease in active glucose uptake in jejunal epithelium of broilers after acute exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Awad, Wageha A; Kröger, Susan; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of ethanol on gastrointestinal tract of chicken. In this study, we investigated the effects of low levels of ethanol on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of commercial broilers. Jejunal tissues from 35- to 39-day-old broilers were exposed to either 0 or 0.1% ethanol in Ussing chambers, and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 40 min. After 40 and 60 min of incubation, glucose (20 mM) and carbamoylcholine (200 μM), respectively, were introduced into the chambers. The absolute and percent increase in short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (Vt) induced by glucose were increased significantly with 0.1% ethanol. There was no significant effect of 0.1% ethanol on carbamoylcholine-induced electrophysiological variables. To investigate if higher levels of ethanol have similar effects, we tested the effects of 0, 0.33, and 0.66% ethanol under similar experimental conditions until the glucose-addition step. Contrary to 0.1% ethanol, both the 0.33 and 0.66% ethanol levels significantly decreased the basal and glucose-induced Isc and Vt. Tissue conductivity remained unaffected in all cases. These results indicate that intestinal epithelia of chicken may be more sensitive to the effects of ethanol as compared with other species. This is the first report indicating dose-dependent increase and decrease in active glucose absorption in intestinal epithelia in the presence of ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective: A comment on "Sexual Deprivation Increases Ethanol Intake in Drosophila".

    PubMed

    Guevara-Fiore, Palestina; Endler, John A

    2014-01-01

    Shohat-Ophir et al. (1) demonstrate a connection between sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption in male Drosophila flies, and how the neuropeptide F system regulates ethanol preference. Their results are rightly discussed only in a physiological context, but this has facilitated erroneous anthropomorphic interpretations by the media. Here we discuss the link between male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective, providing a broader context to interpret their results.

  6. Increased oxygen radical-dependent inactivation of metabolic enzymes by liver microsomes after chronic ethanol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Dicker, E.; Cederbaum, A.I. )

    1988-10-01

    Enzymatic and nonenzymatic mixed-function oxidase systems have been shown to generate an oxidant that catalyzes the inactivation of glutamine synthetase and other metabolic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that microsomes isolated from rats chronically fed ethanol generate reactive oxygen intermediates at elevated rates compared with controls. Microsomes from rats fed ethanol were found to be more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes added to the incubation system. The enzymes studied were alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase. The inactivation process by both types of microsomal preparations was sensitive to catalase and glutathione plus glutathione peroxidase, but was not affected by superoxide dismutase or hydroxyl radical scavengers. Iron was required for the inactivation of added enzymes; microsomes from the rats fed ethanol remained more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes in the absence or presence of several ferric complexes. The inactivation of enzymes was enhanced by the addition of menadione or paraquat to the microsomes, and rates of inactivation were higher with the microsomes from the ethanol-fed rats. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and increased inactivation of enzymes by microsomes may contribute toward the hepatotoxic effects associated with ethanol consumption.

  7. Ethanol increase PGE and thromboxane production in mouse pregnant uterine tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Anton, R.F.; Becker, H.C.; Randall, C.L. )

    1990-01-01

    The teratogenic effect of ethanol in the C57BL/6J mouse can be attenuated by pretreatment with aspirin (ASA). One prominent effect of ASA is to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE) and thromboxane (TXB{sub 2}) production. We examined the effect in vivo ethanol exposure on PGE and TXB{sub 2} production in a uterine-embryo tissue sample of C57BL/6J mice either before or after in vivo ASA pretreatment on day 10 of gestation. Ethanol increase both PGE and TXB{sub 2} production by approximately 20%. ASA caused a marked reduction of PGE and TXB{sub 2} in both control and ethanol groups by approximately 80-90%. The mouse strain, gestation time, and study parameters used in this study were the same as in the previously reported ASA attenuation of the teratogenic effect of ethanol. Therefore, the present data add additional support to the hypothesis that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane production may be involved in at least some aspects of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  8. Ethanol and phenanthrene increase the biomass of fungal assemblages and decrease plant litter decomposition in streams.

    PubMed

    Barros, Diana; Oliveira, Patrícia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Cássio, Fernanda

    2016-09-15

    Fungi, particularly aquatic hyphomycetes, have been recognized as playing a dominant role in microbial decomposition of plant litter in streams. In this study, we used a microcosm experiment with different levels of fungal diversity (species number and identity) using monocultures and combinations with up to five aquatic hyphomycete species (Articulospora tetracladia, Tricladium splendens, Heliscus submersus, Tetrachaetum elegans and Flagellospora curta) to assess the effects of ethanol and phenanthrene on three functional measures: plant litter decomposition, fungal biomass accrual and reproduction. Alder leaves were conditioned by fungi for 7days and then were exposed to phenanthrene (1mgL(-1)) dissolved in ethanol (0.1% final concentration) or ethanol (at the concentration used to solubilise phenanthrene) for further 24days. Exposure to ethanol alone or in combination with phenanthrene decreased leaf decomposition and fungal reproduction, but increased fungal biomass produced. All aspects of fungal activity varied with species number. Fungal activity in polycultures was generally higher than that expected from the sum of the weighted performances of participating species in monoculture, suggesting complementarity between species. However, the activity of fungi in polycultures did not exceed the activity of the most productive species either in the absence or presence of ethanol alone or with phenanthrene.

  9. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  10. Impact of growth environment variability on alfalfa yield, cellulosic ethanol traits, and paper pulp characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa is a promising bioenergy feedstock due to its high yield, nitrogen-fixation capacity, high net energy ratio, potential for planting in rotation with corn, and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on biomass yield, cellulosic e...

  11. The effects of naltrexone on cadmium-induced increases in oral ethanol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Nation, J R; Horger, B A; Pugh, C K; Bratton, G R; Rowe, L D

    1990-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed to a standard laboratory diet (N = 20), or an adulterated diet containing 100 ppm added cadmium (N = 20), for 60 days. On Day 61, half the animals from each dietary condition received subcutaneous implants of two 30 mg naltrexone pellets, and the remaining half the animals received identical implants of 30 mg placebo pellets. One week later, animals from groups created by this interaction (Groups Control-Placebo, Control-Naltrexone, Cadmium-Placebo, Cadmium-Naltrexone) were tested in an ethanol self-administration paradigm that presented a 10% ethanol solution (v/v) in both a choice and nonchoice format. The results indicated that cadmium exposure increased the oral self-administration of ethanol in the choice setting where water was offered as an alternative, and the opiate antagonist naltrexone failed to attenuate this effect.

  12. Ethanol increases p190RhoGAP activity, leading to actin cytoskeleton rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Selva, Javier; Egea, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    We previously reported that cells chronically exposed to ethanol show alterations in actin cytoskeleton organization and dynamics in primary cultures of newborn rat astrocytes, a well-established in vitro model for foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These alterations were attributed to a decrease in the cellular levels of active RhoA (RhoA-GTP), which in turn was produced by an increase in the total RhoGAP activity. We here provide evidence that p190RhoGAPs are the main factors responsible for such increase. Thus, in astrocytes chronically exposed to ethanol we observe: (i) an increase in p190A- and p190B-associated RhoGAP activity; (ii) a higher binding of p190A and p190B to RhoA-GTP; (iii) a higher p120RasGAP-p190A RhoGAP complex formation; and (iv) the recruitment of both p190RhoGAPs to the plasma membrane. The simultaneous silencing of both p190 isoforms prevents the actin rearrangements and the total RhoGAP activity increase triggered both by ethanol. Therefore, our data directly points p190RhoGAPs as ethanol-exposure molecular targets on glial cells of the CNS.

  13. Exposure to ethanol on prenatal days 19-20 increases ethanol intake and palatability in the infant rat: involvement of kappa and mu opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cenzano, Elena; Gaztañaga, Mirari; Gabriela Chotro, M

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestation Days 19-20, but not 17-18, increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. This effect seems to be a conditioned response acquired prenatally, mediated by the opioid system, which could be stimulated by ethanol's pharmacological properties (mu-opioid receptors) or by a component of the amniotic fluid from gestation-day 20 (kappa-inducing factor). The latter option was evaluated administering non-ethanol chemosensory stimuli on gestation Days 19-20 and testing postnatal intake and palatability. However, prenatal exposure to anise or vanilla increased neither intake nor palatability of these tastants on postnatal Day 14. In experiment 2, the role of ethanol's pharmacological effect was tested by administering ethanol and selective antagonists of mu and kappa opioid receptors prenatally. Blocking the mu-opioid receptor system completely reversed the effects on intake and palatability, while antagonizing kappa receptors only partially reduced the effects on palatability. This suggests that the pharmacological effect of ethanol on the fetal mu opioid system is the appetitive reinforcer, which induces the prenatally conditioned preference detected in the preweanling period.

  14. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  15. Are today's automotive technician students ready for the increased use of ethanol fuels: A study of students' perceptions of ethanol and the effects of E20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Gary R.

    As the price of petroleum rises, the use of alternative fuels such as ethanol will continue to increase. As ethanol use increases, consumers are asking automotive technicians questions about the fuel. But how much do automotive technicians know about ethanol? In order to answer this question, a study was conducted to describe automotive technician students' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of ethanol as a vehicle fuel. Automotive students were chosen because they will be tomorrow's generation of technicians who will be working on vehicles that have used ethanol fuels along with flex fuel vehicles. The students were selected from six two-year technical colleges located in southern Minnesota. The six schools were chosen because they are located in areas where ethanol use is prevalent. The study used a 33-question pencil-and-paper survey to measure 184 automotive students' perceptions of ethanol. The survey revealed that students' knowledge of ethanol is very superficial. They know well advertised terms and facts, but lack an in-depth knowledge of the fuel. Also, it was discovered that several myths about ethanol still exist. Because of the lack of knowledge on technical aspects of the fuel, it is recommended that instructors in automotive programs incorporate a one to two hour class covering ethanol fuels into their courses. The second part of this study was a review of several material compatibility studies conducted at Minnesota State University, Mankato on 20% ethanol blends. The studies were conducted on fuel system rubbers, plastics, and metals. Minnesota recently enacted a law that will require all gasoline sold in the state to contain 20% ethanol. These studies were reviewed to see if 20% ethanol, E20, will cause any vehicle fuel system problems that automotive technicians should know about. After reviewing the studies it was determined that the likelihood of fuel system problems from E20 would be very small and isolated. Even though the potential for

  16. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting

  17. Commentary: will analyzing the epigenome yield cohesive principles of ethanol teratology?

    PubMed

    Miranda, Rajesh C

    2011-07-01

    This commentary discusses the impact of the manuscript by Zhou et al., titled "Alcohol Alters DNA Methylation Patterns and Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation," published in the April 2011 issue of Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (volume 35, issue 4, pages 1-12). In this manuscript, the authors present intriguing evidence from a genome scale analysis of promoter DNA methylation patterns in a class of neural crest stem cells associated with dorsal root ganglia, showing that ethanol essentially prevents epigenetic programming associated with neural stem cell differentiation. This manuscript presents several interesting and novel pieces of data and raises important questions for future research. The implications of these data for our understanding of the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are discussed.

  18. Increasing ethanol productivity during xylose fermentation by cell recycling of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Roca, C; Olsson, L

    2003-01-01

    The influence of cell recycling of xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae TMB3001 was investigated during continuous cultivation on a xylose-glucose mixture. By using cell recycling at the dilution rate ( D) of 0.05 h(-1), the cell-mass concentration could be increased from 2.2 g l(-1) to 22 g l(-1). Consequently, the volumetric ethanol productivity increased ten-fold, from 0.5 g l(-1) h(-1) to 5.35 g l(-1) h(-1). By increasing the biomass concentration, the xylose consumption rate increased from 0.75 g xylose l(-1) h(-1) without recycling to 1.9 g l(-1) h(-1) with recycling. The specific ethanol productivity was in the range of 0.23-0.26 g g(-1) h(-1) with or without cell recycling, showing that an increased cell-mass concentration did not influence the efficiency of the yeast.

  19. Chronic social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male Long Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Roeckner, Alyssa R; Bowling, Alexandra; Butler, Tracy R

    2017-02-13

    Chronic stress during adolescence is related to increased prevalence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders in humans. This phenotype has been consistently recapitulated in animal models with male subjects, but models using female subjects are fewer. The aim of these studies was to test the hypothesis that chronic social instability (CSI) during adolescence engenders increased anxiety-like behavior, increased corticosterone, and greater ethanol intake and/or preference than control groups in male and female rats. A chronic social instability (CSI) procedure was conducted in separate cohorts of female and male adolescent Long Evans rats. CSI included daily social isolation for 1h, and then pair housing with a novel cage mate for 23h until the next 1h isolation period from PND 30-46. Control groups included social stability (SS), chronic isolation (ISO), and acute social instability (aSI). At PND 49-50, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze, and on PND 51 tails bloods were obtained for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels. This was followed by 4weeks of ethanol drinking in a home cage intermittent access ethanol drinking paradigm (PND 55-81 for males, PND 57-83 for females). Planned contrast testing showed that the male CSI group had greater anxiety-like behavior compared controls, but group differences were not apparent for CORT. CSI males had significantly higher levels of ethanol preference during drinking weeks 2-3 compared to all other groups and compared to SS and ISO groups in week 4. For the female cohort, we did not observe consistent group differences in anxiety-like behavior, CORT levels were unexpectedly lower in the ISO group only compared to the other groups, and group differences were not apparent for ethanol intake/preference. In conclusion, chronic stress during adolescence in the form of social instability increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol preference in male rats, consistent with other models of

  20. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde increases paracellular drug permeability in vitro and oral bioavailability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Scott J; Swaan, Peter W; Eddington, Natalie D

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to the production of the highly reactive ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, which may affect intestinal tight junctions and increase paracellular permeability. We examined the effects of elevated acetaldehyde within the gastrointestinal tract on the permeability and bioavailability of hydrophilic markers and drug molecules of variable molecular weight and geometry. In vitro permeability was measured unidirectionally in Caco-2 and MDCKII cell models in the presence of acetaldehyde, ethanol, or disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, which causes acetaldehyde formation when coadministered with ethanol in vivo. Acetaldehyde significantly lowered transepithelial resistance in cell monolayers and increased permeability of the low-molecular-weight markers, mannitol and sucrose; however, permeability of high-molecular-weight markers, polyethylene glycol and inulin, was not affected. In vivo permeability was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 6 days with ethanol, disulfiram, or saline alone or in combination. Bioavailability of naproxen was not affected by any treatment, whereas that of paclitaxel was increased upon acetaldehyde exposure. Although disulfiram has been shown to inhibit multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, our data demonstrate that the known P-gp substrate paclitaxel is not affected by coadministration of disulfiram. In conclusion, we demonstrate that acetaldehyde significantly modulates tight junctions and paracellular permeability in vitro as well as the oral bioavailability of low-molecular-weight hydrophilic probes and therapeutic molecules in vivo even when these molecules are substrates for efflux transporters. These studies emphasize the significance of ethanol metabolism and drug interactions outside of the liver.

  1. Phosphatidylethanol accumulation promotes intestinal hyperplasia by inducing ZONAB-mediated cell density increase in response to chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Pannequin, Julie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Darido, Charbel; Maurice, Tangui; Crespy, Philippe; Frohman, Michael A; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl; Joubert, Dominique; Bourgaux, Jean-François; Bali, Jean-Pierre; Hollande, Frédéric

    2007-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer. High concentrations of ethanol trigger mucosal hyperregeneration, disrupt cell adhesion, and increase the sensitivity to carcinogens. Most of these effects are thought to be mediated by acetaldehyde, a genotoxic metabolite produced from ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenases. Here, we studied the role of low ethanol concentrations, more likely to mimic those found in the intestine in vivo, and used intestinal cells lacking alcohol dehydrogenase to identify the acetaldehyde-independent biological effects of ethanol. Under these conditions, ethanol did not stimulate the proliferation of nonconfluent cells, but significantly increased maximal cell density. Incorporation of phosphatidylethanol, produced from ethanol by phospholipase D, was instrumental to this effect. Phosphatidylethanol accumulation induced claudin-1 endocytosis and disrupted the claudin-1/ZO-1 association. The resulting nuclear translocation of ZONAB was shown to mediate the cell density increase in ethanol-treated cells. In vivo, incorporation of phosphatidylethanol and nuclear translocation of ZONAB correlated with increased proliferation in the colonic epithelium of ethanol-fed mice and in adenomas of chronic alcoholics. Our results show that phosphatidylethanol accumulation after chronic ethanol exposure disrupts signals that normally restrict proliferation in highly confluent intestinal cells, thus facilitating abnormal intestinal cell proliferation.

  2. Enhancing digestibility and ethanol yield of Populus wood via expression of an engineered monolignol 4-O-methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yuanheng; Zhang, Kewei; Kim, Hoon; Hou, Guichuan; Zhang, Xuebin; Yang, Huijun; Feng, Huan; Miller, Lisa; Ralph, John; Liu, Chang -Jun

    2016-06-28

    Producing cellulosic biofuels and bio-based chemicals from woody biomass is impeded by the presence of lignin polymer in the plant cell wall. Manipulating the monolignol biosynthetic pathway offers a promising approach to improved processability, but often impairs plant growth and development. Here, we show that expressing an engineered 4-O-methyltransferase that chemically modifies the phenolic moiety of lignin monomeric precursors, thus preventing their incorporation into the lignin polymer, substantially alters hybrid aspens’ lignin content and structure. Woody biomass derived from the transgenic aspens shows a 62% increase in the release of simple sugars and up to a 49% increase in the yield of ethanol when the woody biomass is subjected to enzymatic digestion and yeast-mediated fermentation. Furthermore, the cell wall structural changes do not affect growth and biomass production of the trees. Our study provides a useful strategy for tailoring woody biomass for bio-based applications.

  3. High titer and yield ethanol production from undetoxified whole slurry of Douglas-fir forest residue using pH profiling in SPORL.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, Jy; Gleisner, Rolland

    2015-01-01

    Forest residue is one of the most cost-effective feedstock for biofuel production. It has relatively high bulk density and can be harvested year round, advantageous for reducing transportation cost and eliminating onsite storage. However, forest residues, especially those from softwood species, are highly recalcitrant to biochemical conversion. A severe pretreatment for removing this recalcitrance can result in increased sugar degradation to inhibitors and hence cause difficulties in fermentation at high solid loadings. Here, we presented high titer ethanol production from Douglas-fir forest residue without detoxification. The strong recalcitrance of the Douglas-fir residue was removed by sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). Sugar degradation to inhibitors was substantially reduced using a novel approach of "pH profiling" by delaying acid application in pretreatment, which facilitated the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of undetoxified whole slurry at a solid loading of 21%. "pH profiling" reduced furan production by approximately 70% in using SPORL pretreating Douglas-fir forest residue (FS-10) comparing with the control run while without sacrificing enzymatic saccharification of the resultant substrate. pH profiling also reduced carbohydrate degradation. The improved carbohydrate yield in pretreated solids and reduced fermentation inhibitors with pH profiling resulted in a terminal ethanol titer of 48.9 ± 1.4 g/L and yield of 297 ± 9 L/tonne FS-10, which are substantially higher, i.e., by 27% in titer and by 38% in yield, than those of a control SPORL run without pH profiling. Economical and large-volume production of commodity biofuels requires the utilization of feedstocks with low value (therefore low cost) and sustainably producible in large quantities, such as forest residues. However, most existing pretreatment technologies cannot remove the strong recalcitrance of forest

  4. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield

    PubMed Central

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-01-01

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees. PMID:18595841

  5. Variation Due to Growth Environment in Alfalfa Yield, Cellulosic Ethanol Traits, and Paper Pulp Characteristics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a promising bioenergy and bioproduct feedstock because of its high yield, N-fixation capacity, potential for planting in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.), and valuable protein co-product (leaf meal). Our objective was to examine the effect of growth environment on bio...

  6. Cell recycle batch fermentation of high-solid lignocellulose using a recombinant cellulase-displaying yeast strain for high yield ethanol production in consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Matano, Yuki; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scheme of cell recycle batch fermentation (CRBF) of high-solid lignocellulosic materials. Two-phase separation consisting of rough removal of lignocellulosic residues by low-speed centrifugation and solid-liquid separation enabled effective collection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with decreased lignin and ash. Five consecutive batch fermentation of 200 g/L rice straw hydrothermally pretreated led to an average ethanol titer of 34.5 g/L. Moreover, the display of cellulases on the recombinant yeast cell surface increased ethanol titer to 42.2 g/L. After, five-cycle fermentation, only 3.3 g/L sugar was retained in the fermentation medium, because cellulase displayed on the cell surface hydrolyzed cellulose that was not hydrolyzed by commercial cellulases or free secreted cellulases. Fermentation ability of the recombinant strain was successfully kept during a five-cycle repeated batch fermentation with 86.3% of theoretical yield based on starting biomass.

  7. Estradiol increases expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor after acute administration of ethanol in the neonatal rat cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Firozan, Bita; Goudarzi, Iran; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Rezaei, Arezou; Abrari, Kataneh

    2014-06-05

    Recently it has been shown that estradiol prevents the toxicity of ethanol in developing cerebellum. The neuroprotective effect of estradiol is not due to a single phenomenon but rather encompasses a spectrum of independent proccesses. According to the specific timing of Purkinje cell vulnerability to ethanol and several protective mechanisms of estradiol, we considered the neurotrophin system, as a regulator of differentiation, maturation and survival of neurons during CNS development. Interactions between estrogen and Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, an essential factor in neuronal survival) lead us to investigate involvement of BDNF pathway in neuroprotective effects of estrogen against ethanol toxicity. In this study, 17β-estradiol (300-900μg/kg) was injected subcutaneously in postnatal day (PD) 4, 30min prior to intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (6g/kg) in rat pups. Eight hours after injection of ethanol, BDNF mRNA and protein levels were assayed. Behavioral studies, including rotarod and locomotor activity tests were performed in PD 21-23 and histological study was performed after completion of behavioral tests in PD 23. Our results indicated that estradiol increased BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the presence of ethanol. We also observed that pretreatment with estradiol significantly attenuated ethanol-induced motoric impairment. Histological analysis also demonstrated that estradiol prevented Purkinje cell loss following ethanol treatment. These results provide evidence on the possible mechanisms of estradiol neuroprotection against ethanol toxicity.

  8. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M; McCool, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions.

  9. Voluntary wheel running attenuates ethanol withdrawal-induced increases in seizure susceptibility in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Devaud, Leslie L; Walls, Shawn A; McCulley, Walter D; Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    We recently found that voluntary wheel running attenuated ethanol withdrawal-induced increased susceptibility to chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male rats. Since female rats recover from ethanol withdrawal (EW) more quickly than male rats across several behavioral measures, this study was designed to determine whether the effects of exercise on EW seizures also exhibited sex differences. Animals were maintained under no-wheel, locked-wheel or free-wheel conditions and ethanol was administered by liquid diet for 14 days with control animals pair-fed an isocaloric diet, after which seizure thresholds were determined at 1 day or 3 days of EW. Consistent with previous reports, females ran significantly more than males, regardless of diet condition. Introduction of the ethanol-containing liquid diet dramatically increased running for females during the day (rest) phase, with little impact on night phase activity. Consistent with previous reports, EW increased seizure susceptibility at 1 day in non-exercising males and females and at 3 days in males. These effects were attenuated by access to running wheels in both sexes. We also assessed the effects of sex, ethanol diet and exercise on ethanol clearance following an acute ethanol administration at 1 day EW in a separate set of animals. Blood ethanol concentrations at 30 min post-injection were lower in males, ethanol-exposed animals, and runners, but no interactions among these factors were detected. Interestingly, females displayed more rapid ethanol clearance than males and there were no effects of either diet or wheel access on clearance rates. Taken together, these data suggest that voluntary wheel running during ethanol administration provides protective effects against EW seizures in both males and females. This effect may be mediated, in part, in male, but not in female rat, by effects of exercise on early pharmacokinetic contributions. This supports the idea that encouraging alcoholics to exercise may

  10. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. PMID:26515190

  11. Yield gap analyses to estimate attainable bovine milk yields and evaluate options to increase production in Ethiopia and India.

    PubMed

    Mayberry, Dianne; Ash, Andrew; Prestwidge, Di; Godde, Cécile M; Henderson, Ben; Duncan, Alan; Blummel, Michael; Ramana Reddy, Y; Herrero, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Livestock provides an important source of income and nourishment for around one billion rural households worldwide. Demand for livestock food products is increasing, especially in developing countries, and there are opportunities to increase production to meet local demand and increase farm incomes. Estimating the scale of livestock yield gaps and better understanding factors limiting current production will help to define the technological and investment needs in each livestock sector. The aim of this paper is to quantify livestock yield gaps and evaluate opportunities to increase dairy production in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, using case studies from Ethiopia and India. We combined three different methods in our approach. Benchmarking and a frontier analysis were used to estimate attainable milk yields based on survey data. Household modelling was then used to simulate the effects of various interventions on dairy production and income. We tested interventions based on improved livestock nutrition and genetics in the extensive lowland grazing zone and highland mixed crop-livestock zones of Ethiopia, and the intensive irrigated and rainfed zones of India. Our analyses indicate that there are considerable yield gaps for dairy production in both countries, and opportunities to increase production using the interventions tested. In some cases, combined interventions could increase production past currently attainable livestock yields.

  12. Slaughterhouse fatty waste saponification to increase biogas yield.

    PubMed

    Battimelli, A; Torrijos, M; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2010-05-01

    A thermochemical pretreatment, i.e. saponification, was optimised in order to improve anaerobic biodegradation of slaughterhouse wastes such as aeroflotation grease and flesh fats from cattle carcass. Anaerobic digestion of raw wastes, as well as of wastes saponified at different temperatures (60 degrees C, 120 degrees C and 150 degrees C) was conducted in fed-batch reactors under mesophilic condition and the effect of different saponification temperatures on anaerobic biodegradation and on the long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) relative composition was assessed. Even after increasing loads over a long period of time, raw fatty wastes were biodegraded slowly and the biogas potentials were lower than those of theoretical estimations. In contrast, pretreated wastes exhibited improved batch biodegradation, indicating a better initial bio-availability, particularly obvious for carcass wastes. However, LCFA relative composition was not significantly altered by the pretreatment. Consequently, the enhanced biodegradation should be attributed to an increased initial bio-availability of fatty wastes without any modification of their long chain structure which remained slowly biodegradable. Finally, saponification at 120 degrees C achieved best performances during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastes.

  13. Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Kevin; Wetschler, Matthew H; Cech, Nadja B

    2009-07-12

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures commonly employed by the dietary supplements industry. To accomplish this goal, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was validated for quantitative analysis of several E. purpurea alkylamides. Using this method, at least 15 alkylamides were identified and it was shown that fresh and dry E. purpurea extracts prepared from equivalent amounts (dry weight) of roots, with exceptions, exhibited similar yield of specific alkylamides. However, the amount of total dissolved solids in the dry extract was higher (by 38%) than the fresh extract. Two extracts prepared from dried roots at different ratios of root:solvent (1:5, w:v and 1:11, w:v) were similar in yield of total dissolved solids, but, there were differences in quantities of specific alkylamides extracted using these two root:solvent ratios. In addition, the important bioactive dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides are fully extracted from dry E. purpurea root in 2 days, suggesting that the manufacturing practice of macerating Echinacea extracts for weeks may be unnecessary for optimal alkylamide extraction. Finally, the identification of a new alkylamide has been proposed. These results demonstrate the differences of the described extractions and utility of the analytical methods used to determine the wide-ranging individual alkylamide content of commonly consumed Echinacea extracts.

  14. Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC-ESI-MS

    PubMed Central

    Spelman, Kevin; Wetschler, Matthew H.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2009-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures commonly employed by the dietary supplements industry. To accomplish this goal, a high performance liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was validated for quantitative analysis of several E. purpurea alkylamides. Using this method, at least 15 alkylamides were identified and it was shown that fresh and dry E. purpurea extracts prepared from equivalent amounts (dry weight) of roots, with exceptions, exhibited similar yield of specific alkylamides. However, the amount of total dissolved solids in the dry extract was higher (by 38%) than the fresh extract. Two extracts prepared from dried roots at different ratios of root:solvent (1:5 w:v and 1:11 w:v) were similar in yield of total dissolved solids, but, there were differences in quantities of specific alkylamides extracted using these two root:solvent ratios. In addition, the important bioactive dodecatetraenoic acid isobutylamides are fully extracted from dry E. purpurea root in 2 days, suggesting that the manufacturing practice of macerating Echinacea extracts for weeks may be unnecessary for optimal alkylamide extraction. Finally, the identification of a new alkylamide has been proposed. These results demonstrate the differences of the described extractions and utility of the analytical methods used to determine the wide-ranging individual alkylamide content of commonly consumed Echinacea extracts. PMID:19321283

  15. Gamma-vinyl GABA inhibits methamphetamine, heroin, or ethanol-induced increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, M R; Ashby, C R; Gardner, E L; Mills, M J; Brodie, J D; Dewey, S L

    1999-10-01

    We examined the acute effect of the irreversible GABA-transaminase inhibitor, gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, Sabril((R)), Vigabatrin((R))) on increases in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine (DA) following acute administration of methamphetamine, heroin, or ethanol. Methamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent increase (2, 700%) in NAc DA. GVG preadministration (300 or 600 mg/kg), however, inhibited this response by approximately 39 and 61%, respectively. The lower dose of methamphetamine (1.25 mg/kg), increased DA by 1, 700%. This response was inhibited to a similar extent (44%) regardless of the GVG dose preadministered (300 or 600 mg/kg). In addition, heroin-induced increases in NAc DA (0.5 mg/kg, 170%) were inhibited or completely abolished by GVG (150 or 300 mg/kg, 65 and 100%, respectively). Finally, at half the dose necessary for heroin, GVG (150 mg/kg) also completely abolished ethanol-induced increases in NAc DA following a 0.25 g/kg challenge dose (140%). Taken with our previous findings using nicotine or cocaine as the challenge drug, these results indicate that GVG attenuates increases in NAc DA by a mechanism common to many drugs of abuse. However, it appears unlikely that an acute dose of GVG can completely inhibit increases in NAc DA following challenges with a drug whose mechanism of action is mediated primarily through the DA reuptake site.

  16. Infrared spectroscopy as alternative to wet chemical analysis to characterize Eucalyptus globulus pulps and predict their ethanol yield for a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario Del P; Baeza, Jaime; Rubilar, Joselyn; Rivera, Alvaro; Freer, Juanita

    2012-12-01

    Bioethanol can be obtained from wood by simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation step (SSF). However, for enzymatic process to be effective, a pretreatment is needed to break the wood structure and to remove lignin to expose the carbohydrates components. Evaluation of these processes requires characterization of the materials generated in the different stages. The traditional analytical methods of wood, pretreated materials (pulps), monosaccharides in the hydrolyzated pulps, and ethanol involve laborious and destructive methodologies. This, together with the high cost of enzymes and the possibility to obtain low ethanol yields from some pulps, makes it suitable to have rapid, nondestructive, less expensive, and quantitative methods to monitoring the processes to obtain ethanol from wood. In this work, infrared spectroscopy (IR) accompanied with multivariate analysis is used to characterize chemically organosolv pretreated Eucalyptus globulus pulps (glucans, lignin, and hemicellulosic sugars), as well as to predict the ethanol yield after a SSF process. Mid (4,000-400 cm(-1)) and near-infrared (12,500-4,000 cm(-1)) spectra of pulps were used in order to obtain calibration models through of partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained multivariate models were validated by cross validation and by external validation. Mid-infrared (mid-IR)/NIR PLS models to quantify ethanol concentration were also compared with a mathematical approach to predict ethanol yield estimated from the chemical composition of the pulps determined by wet chemical methods (discrete chemical data). Results show the high ability of the infrared spectra in both regions, mid-IR and NIR, to calibrate and predict the ethanol yield and the chemical components of pulps, with low values of standard calibration and validation errors (root mean square error of calibration, root mean square error of validation (RMSEV), and root mean square error of prediction), high correlation

  17. Chronic ethanol administration increases the binding of sup 3 H Ro-15-4513 in primary cultured spinal cord neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Mlatre, M.; Ticku, M.K. )

    1989-02-09

    Ro 15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5, 6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo (1,5{alpha}), (1,4) benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) is reported to be a selective ethanol antagonist in biochemical and behavioral studies. The effect of chronic ethanol treatment on the binding of ({sup 3}H)Ro 15-4513 was investigated in cultured spinal cord neurons, which are shown to possess all the elements of GABA benzodiazepine receptor complex. Chronic ethanol treatment (50 mM for 6 hr, 12 hr, 18 hr, 3 days, and 5{sub 3} days) produced an increase in the specific binding of ({sub 3}H)Ro 15-4513. The increase in binding in these neurons was due to an increase in the number (B{sub max}) of receptor sites. This effect was specific for Ro 15-4513, since identical ethanol treatment did not alter the binding of benzodiazepine antagonist ({sup 3}H)Ro 15-1788 or agonist ({sup 3}H)flunitrazepam or inverse agonist ({sup 3}H)methyl-{beta}-carboline-3-carboxylate. Similar results have been reported following chronic ethanol treatment to rats. These results suggest that the Ro 15-4513 binding sites on the oligomeric GABA receptor complex are altered following chronic ethanol administration, and support the notion of a unique role of Ro 15-4513 as an ethanol antagonist.

  18. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production

  19. Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure increases basal glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of mice without affecting glutamate transport.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C; Ramachandra, Vorani S; Knackstedt, Lori A; Becker, Howard C

    2015-01-01

    Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure increase voluntary consumption of ethanol in mice. Previous work has shown that extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is significantly elevated in ethanol-dependent mice and that pharmacologically manipulating glutamate concentrations in the NAc will alter ethanol drinking, indicating that glutamate homeostasis plays a crucial role in ethanol drinking in this model. The present studies were designed to measure extracellular glutamate at a time point in which mice would ordinarily be allowed voluntary access to ethanol in the CIE model and, additionally, to measure glutamate transport capacity in the NAc at the same time point. Extracellular glutamate was measured using quantitative microdialysis procedures. Glutamate transport capacity was measured under Na(+)-dependent and Na(+)-independent conditions to determine whether the function of excitatory amino acid transporters (also known as system XAG) or of system Xc (-) (glial cysteine-glutamate exchanger) was influenced by CIE exposure. The results of the quantitative microdialysis experiment confirm increased extracellular glutamate (approximately twofold) in the NAc of CIE exposed mice (i.e., ethanol-dependent) compared to non-dependent mice in the NAc, consistent with earlier work. However, the increase in extracellular glutamate was not due to altered transporter function in the NAc of ethanol-dependent mice, because neither Na(+)-dependent nor Na(+)-independent glutamate transport was significantly altered by CIE exposure. These findings point to the possibility that hyperexcitability of cortical-striatal pathways underlies the increases in extracellular glutamate found in the ethanol-dependent mice.

  20. Roux en Y Gastric Bypass Increases Ethanol Intake in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Andrea L.; Schurdak, Jennifer D.; Magrisso, Irwin J.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is currently the most effective therapy employed to treat obesity and its associated complications. In addition to weight loss and resolution of metabolic syndromes, such as diabetes, the RYGB procedure has been reported to increase alcohol consumption in humans. Using an outbred rodent model, we demonstrate that RYGB increases postsurgical ethanol consumption, that this effect cannot be explained solely by postsurgical weight loss and that it is independent of presurgical body weight or dietary composition. Altered ethanol metabolism and postsurgical shifts in release of ghrelin were also unable to account for changes in alcohol intake. Further investigation of the potential physiological factors underlying this behavioral effect identified altered patterns of gene expression in brain regions associated with reward following RYGB surgery. These findings have important clinical implications as they demonstrate that RYGB surgery leads directly to increased alcohol intake in otherwise alcohol nonpreferring rat and induces neurobiological changes in brain circuits that mediate a variety of appetitive behaviors. PMID:23440511

  1. Increased fermentation activity and persistent methanogenesis in a model aquifer system following source removal of an ethanol blend release.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Rixey, William G; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2015-01-01

    The increased probability of groundwater contamination by ethanol-blended fuel calls for improved understanding of how remediation efforts affect the fate and transport of constituents of concern, including the generation and fate of fermentation byproducts. A pilot-scale (8 m³) model aquifer was used to investigate changes in the concentrations of ethanol and its metabolites (methane and volatile fatty acids) after removal of the contamination source. Following the shut-off of a continuous release of a dissolved ethanol blend (10% v:v ethanol, 50 mg/L benzene, and 50 mg/L toluene), fermentation activity was surprisingly stimulated and the concentrations of ethanol metabolites increased. A microcosm experiment showed that this result was due to a decrease in the dissolved ethanol concentration below its toxicity threshold (∼2000 mg/L for this system). Methane generation (>1.5 mg/L of dissolved methane) persisted for more than 100 days after the disappearance of ethanol, despite clean air-saturated water flowing continuously through the tank at a relative high seepage velocity (0.76 m/day). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that functional genes associated with methane metabolism (mcrA for methanogenesis and pmoA for methanotrophy) also persisted in the aquifer material. Persistent methanogenesis was apparently due to the anaerobic degradation of soil-bound organic carbon (e.g., biomass grown on ethanol and other substrates). Overall, this study reflects the complex plume dynamics following source removal, and suggests that monitoring for increases in the concentration of ethanol metabolites that impact groundwater quality should be considered.

  2. In situ detoxification of dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover by co-culture of xylose-utilizing and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Xia; Qin, Lei; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Hui-Ze; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Co-culture of xylose-utilizing and inhibitor-tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed for bioethanol production from undetoxified pretreated biomass in simultaneously saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) process. Glucose accumulation during late fermentation phase in SSCF using xylose-utilizing strain can be eliminated by the introduction of inhibitor-tolerant strain. Effect of different ratios of two strains was investigated and xylose-utilizing strain to inhibitor-tolerant strain ratio of 10:1 (w/w) showed the best xylose consumption and the highest ethanol yield. Inoculating of xylose-utilizing strain at the later stage of SSCF (24-48h) exhibited lower ethanol yield than inoculating at early stage (the beginning 0-12h), probably due to the reduced enzymatic efficiency caused by the unconsumed xylose and oligomeric sugars. Co-culture SSCF increased ethanol concentration by 21.2% and 41.0% comparing to SSCF using individual inhibitor-tolerant and xylose-utilizing strain (increased from 48.5 and 41.7g/L to 58.8g/L), respectively, which suggest this co-culture system was very promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased susceptibility of ethanol-treated gastric mucosa to naproxen and its inhibition by DA-9601, an Artemisia asiatica extract

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Tae Young; Ahn, Gook Jun; Choi, Seul Min; Ahn, Byoung Ok; Kim, Won Bae

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of DA-9601, a new gastroprotective agent, on the vulnerability of ethanol-treated rat’s stomach to naproxen (NAP). METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with 1 mL of 50% ethanol twice a day for 5 d and then NAP (50 mg/kg) was administered. DA-9601 was administered 1 h before NAP. Four hours after NAP, the rats were killed to examine gross injury index (mm2), histologic change and to determine mucosal levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), glutathione (GSH) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). RESULTS: Pretreatment of ethanol significantly increased NAP-induced gastric lesions, as well as an increase in MDA and MPO. On the contrary, mucosal PGE2 and GSH contents were decreased dramatically by ethanol pretreatment, which were aggravated by NAP. DA-9601 significantly reduced NAP-induced gastric injury grossly and microscopically, regardless of pretreatment with ethanol. DA-9601 preserved, or rather, increased mucosal PGE2 and GSH in NAP-treated rats (P<0.05), with reduction in mucosal MDA and MPO levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that repeated alcohol consumption renders gastric mucosa more susceptible to NSAIDs though, at least in part, reduction of endogenous cytoprotectants including PGE2 and GSH, and increase in MPO activation, and that DA-9601, a new gastroprotectant, can reduce the increased vulnerability of ethanol consumers to NSAIDs-induced gastric damage via the mechanism in which PGE2 and GSH are involved. PMID:16437715

  4. Acute ethanol administration rapidly increases phosphorylation of conventional protein kinase C in specific mammalian brain regions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Mary Beth; Besheer, Joyce; Kelley, Stephen P; Kumar, Sandeep; O'Buckley, Todd K; Morrow, A Leslie; Hodge, Clyde W

    2007-07-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of isoenzymes that regulate a variety of functions in the central nervous system including neurotransmitter release, ion channel activity, and cell differentiation. Growing evidence suggests that specific isoforms of PKC influence a variety of behavioral, biochemical, and physiological effects of ethanol in mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute ethanol exposure alters phosphorylation of conventional PKC isoforms at a threonine 674 (p-cPKC) site in the hydrophobic domain of the kinase, which is required for its catalytic activity. Male rats were administered a dose range of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg, intragastric) and brain tissue was removed 10 minutes later for evaluation of changes in p-cPKC expression using immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods. Immunohistochemical data show that the highest dose of ethanol (2 g/kg) rapidly increases p-cPKC immunoreactivity specifically in the nucleus accumbens (core and shell), lateral septum, and hippocampus (CA3 and dentate gyrus). Western blot analysis further showed that ethanol (2 g/kg) increased p-cPKC expression in the P2 membrane fraction of tissue from the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. Although p-cPKC was expressed in numerous other brain regions, including the caudate nucleus, amygdala, and cortex, no changes were observed in response to acute ethanol. Total PKCgamma immunoreactivity was surveyed throughout the brain and showed no change following acute ethanol injection. These results suggest that ethanol rapidly promotes phosphorylation of cPKC in limbic brain regions, which may underlie effects of acute ethanol on the nervous system and behavior.

  5. Using FACE systems to screen wheat cultivars for yield increases at elevated CO2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of continuing increases in atmospheric CO2, identifying cultivars of crops with larger yield increases at elevated CO2 may provide an avenue to increase crop yield potential in future climates. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) systems have most often been used with multiple replications of ea...

  6. Non-structural carbohydrate partitioning in grass stems: a target to increase yield stability, stress tolerance, and biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Slewinski, Thomas L

    2012-08-01

    A dramatic change in agricultural crops is needed in order to keep pace with the demands of an increasing human population, exponential need for renewable fuels, and uncertain climatic changes. Grasses make up the vast majority of agricultural commodities. How these grasses capture, transport, and store carbohydrates underpins all aspects of crop productivity. Sink-source dynamics within the plant direct how much, where, and when carbohydrates are allocated, as well as determine the harvestable tissue. Carbohydrate partitioning can limit the yield capacity of these plants, thus offering a potential target for crop improvement. Grasses have the ability to buffer this sink-source interaction by transiently storing carbohydrates in stem tissue when production from the source is greater than whole-plant demand. These reserves improve yield stability in grain crops by providing an alternative source when photosynthetic capacity is reduced during the later phases of grain filling, or during periods of environmental and biotic stresses. Domesticated grasses such as sugarcane and sweet sorghum have undergone selection for high accumulation of stem carbohydrates, which serve as the primary sources of sugars for human and animal consumption, as well as ethanol production for fuel. With the enormous expectations placed on agricultural production in the near future, research into carbohydrate partitioning in grasses is essential for maintaining and increasing yields in grass crops. This review highlights the current knowledge of non-structural carbohydrate dynamics in grass stems and discusses the impacts of stem reserves in essential agronomic grasses.

  7. Transgenic Mice with Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6 Show Altered Effects of Acute Ethanol on Synaptic Function

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Ruben V.; Puro, Alana C.; Manos, Jessica C.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Reyes, Kenneth C.; Liu, Kevin; Vo, Khanh; Roberts, Amanda J.; Gruol, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has revealed that resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and particularly the glial cells, comprise a neuroimmune system that serves a number of functions in the normal CNS and during adverse conditions. Cells of the neuroimmune system regulate CNS functions through the production of signaling factors, referred to as neuroimmune factors. Recent studies show that ethanol can activate cells of the neuroimmune system, resulting in the elevated production of neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Here we analyzed the consequences of this CNS action of ethanol using transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 through increased astrocyte expression (IL-6-tg) to model the increased IL-6 expression that occurs with ethanol use. Results show that increased IL-6 expression induces neuroadaptive changes that alter the effects of ethanol. In hippocampal slices from non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice, synaptically evoked dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and somatic population spike (PS) at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapse were reduced by acute ethanol (20 or 60 mM). In contrast, acute ethanol enhanced the fEPSP and PS in hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice. Long-term synaptic plasticity of the fEPSP (i.e., LTP) showed the expected dose-dependent reduction by acute ethanol in non-tg hippocampal slices, whereas LTP in the IL-6 tg hippocampal slices was resistant to this depressive effect of acute ethanol. Consistent with altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function in the IL-6 tg mice, EEG recordings showed a higher level of CNS activity in the IL-6 tg mice than in the non-tg mice during the period of withdrawal from an acute high dose of ethanol. These results suggest a potential role for neuroadaptive effects of ethanol-induced astrocyte production of IL-6 as a mediator or modulator of the actions of ethanol on the CNS, including

  8. Transgenic mice with increased astrocyte expression of IL-6 show altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Ruben V; Puro, Alana C; Manos, Jessica C; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Reyes, Kenneth C; Liu, Kevin; Vo, Khanh; Roberts, Amanda J; Gruol, Donna L

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence has revealed that resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and particularly the glial cells, comprise a neuroimmune system that serves a number of functions in the normal CNS and during adverse conditions. Cells of the neuroimmune system regulate CNS functions through the production of signaling factors, referred to as neuroimmune factors. Recent studies show that ethanol can activate cells of the neuroimmune system, resulting in the elevated production of neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Here we analyzed the consequences of this CNS action of ethanol using transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 through increased astrocyte expression (IL-6-tg) to model the increased IL-6 expression that occurs with ethanol use. Results show that increased IL-6 expression induces neuroadaptive changes that alter the effects of ethanol. In hippocampal slices from non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice, synaptically evoked dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and somatic population spike (PS) at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapse were reduced by acute ethanol (20 or 60 mM). In contrast, acute ethanol enhanced the fEPSP and PS in hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice. Long-term synaptic plasticity of the fEPSP (i.e., LTP) showed the expected dose-dependent reduction by acute ethanol in non-tg hippocampal slices, whereas LTP in the IL-6 tg hippocampal slices was resistant to this depressive effect of acute ethanol. Consistent with altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function in the IL-6 tg mice, EEG recordings showed a higher level of CNS activity in the IL-6 tg mice than in the non-tg mice during the period of withdrawal from an acute high dose of ethanol. These results suggest a potential role for neuroadaptive effects of ethanol-induced astrocyte production of IL-6 as a mediator or modulator of the actions of ethanol on the CNS, including

  9. Ethanol increases plasma Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels and subjective effects after marihuana smoking in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lukas, S E; Orozco, S

    2001-10-01

    Marihuana and alcohol are often used together, yet little is known about why they are combined. Male volunteers were assigned to one marihuana treatment group (placebo, low or moderate dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and, on three separate study days, they also drank a different dose of ethanol (placebo, 0.35 or 0.7 g/kg). Plasma THC levels and changes in subjective mood states were recorded for 90 min after smoking. For many of the drug combinations, when subjects consumed ethanol they detected marihuana effects more quickly, reported more episodes of euphoria and had higher plasma THC levels than when they consumed placebo ethanol. These data suggest that ethanol may increase the absorption of THC resulting in an increase in the positive subjective mood effects of smoked marihuana and contributing to the popularity of this drug combination.

  10. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  11. Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.

    PubMed

    Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

    2013-02-15

    Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements.

  12. Reduction of ethanol yield and improvement of glycerol formation by adaptive evolution of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under hyperosmotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Tilloy, Valentin; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    There is a strong demand from the wine industry for methodologies to reduce the alcohol content of wine without compromising wine's sensory characteristics. We assessed the potential of adaptive laboratory evolution strategies under hyperosmotic stress for generation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains with enhanced glycerol and reduced ethanol yields. Experimental evolution on KCl resulted, after 200 generations, in strains that had higher glycerol and lower ethanol production than the ancestral strain. This major metabolic shift was accompanied by reduced fermentative capacities, suggesting a trade-off between high glycerol production and fermentation rate. Several evolved strains retaining good fermentation performance were selected. These strains produced more succinate and 2,3-butanediol than the ancestral strain and did not accumulate undesirable organoleptic compounds, such as acetate, acetaldehyde, or acetoin. They survived better under osmotic stress and glucose starvation conditions than the ancestral strain, suggesting that the forces that drove the redirection of carbon fluxes involved a combination of osmotic and salt stresses and carbon limitation. To further decrease the ethanol yield, a breeding strategy was used, generating intrastrain hybrids that produced more glycerol than the evolved strain. Pilot-scale fermentation on Syrah using evolved and hybrid strains produced wine with 0.6% (vol/vol) and 1.3% (vol/vol) less ethanol, more glycerol and 2,3-butanediol, and less acetate than the ancestral strain. This work demonstrates that the combination of adaptive evolution and breeding is a valuable alternative to rational design for remodeling the yeast metabolic network.

  13. Inactivation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex increases drinking in ethanol-dependent but not non-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Carolina; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Gilstrap, Meghin; Eaton, Bethany; Fedarovich, Hleb; Motts, Andrew; Woodward, John J

    2016-08-01

    Long-term consumption of ethanol affects cortical areas that are important for learning and memory, cognition, and decision-making. Deficits in cortical function may contribute to alcohol-abuse disorders by impeding an individual's ability to control drinking. Previous studies from this laboratory show that acute ethanol reduces activity of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) neurons while chronic exposure impairs LOFC-dependent reversal learning and induces changes in LOFC excitability. Despite these findings, the role of LOFC neurons in ethanol consumption is unknown. To address this issue, we examined ethanol drinking in adult C57Bl/6J mice that received an excitotoxic lesion or viral injection of the inhibitory DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) into the LOFC. No differences in ethanol consumption were observed between sham and lesioned mice during access to increasing concentrations of ethanol (3-40%) every other day for 7 weeks. Adulterating the ethanol solution with saccharin (0.2%) or quinine (0.06 mM) enhanced or inhibited, respectively, consumption of the 40% ethanol solution similarly in both groups. Using a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure model that produces dependence, we found no difference in baseline drinking between sham and lesioned mice prior to vapor treatments. CIE enhanced drinking in both groups as compared to air-treated animals and CIE treated lesioned mice showed an additional increase in ethanol drinking as compared to CIE sham controls. This effect persisted during the first week when quinine was added to the ethanol solution but consumption decreased to control levels in CIE lesioned mice in the following 2 weeks. In viral injected mice, baseline drinking was not altered by expression of the inhibitory DREADD receptor and repeated cycles of CIE exposure enhanced drinking in DREADD and virus control groups. Consistent with the lesion study, treatment with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) further

  14. INACTIVATION OF THE LATERAL ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX INCREASES DRINKING IN ETHANOL-DEPENDENT BUT NOT NON-DEPENDENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    den Hartog, Carolina; Zamudio-Bulcock, Paula; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Gilstrap, Meghin; Fedarovich, Hleb; Motts, Andrew; Woodward, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term consumption of ethanol affects cortical areas that are important for learning and memory, cognition, and decision-making. Deficits in cortical function may contribute to alcohol-abuse disorders by impeding an individual’s ability to control drinking. Previous studies from this laboratory show that acute ethanol reduces activity of lateral orbitofrontal cortex (LOFC) neurons while chronic exposure impairs LOFC-dependent reversal learning and induces changes in LOFC excitability. Despite these findings, the role of LOFC neurons in ethanol consumption is unknown. To address this issue, we examined ethanol drinking in adult C57Bl/6J mice that received an excitotoxic lesion or viral injection of the inhibitory DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) into the LOFC. No differences in ethanol consumption were observed between sham and lesioned mice during access to increasing concentrations of ethanol (3–40%) every other day for 7 weeks. Adulterating the ethanol solution with saccharin (0.2%) or quinine (0.06 mM) enhanced or inhibited, respectively, consumption of the 40% ethanol solution similarly in both groups. Using a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure model that produces dependence, we found no difference in baseline drinking between sham and lesioned mice prior to vapor treatments. CIE enhanced drinking in both groups as compared to air-treated animals and CIE treated lesioned mice showed an additional increase in ethanol drinking as compared to CIE sham controls. This effect persisted during the first week when quinine was added to the ethanol solution but consumption decreased to control levels in CIE lesioned mice in the following 2 weeks. In viral injected mice, baseline drinking was not altered by expression of the inhibitory DREADD receptor and repeated cycles of CIE exposure enhanced drinking in DREADD and virus control groups. Consistent with the lesion study, treatment with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO

  15. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion to increase the net energy balance of corn grain ethanol.

    PubMed

    Agler, Matthew T; Garcia, Marcelo L; Lee, Eric S; Schlicher, Martha; Angenent, Largus T

    2008-09-01

    U.S. production of fuel ethanol from corn grain has increased considerably over the last 10 years. Intense debate regarding the true environmental impact of the overall production process has been ongoing. The present study evaluated the utilization of thin stillage (a major byproduct of the dry-mill corn grain-to-ethanol process) in laboratory-scale thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactors for conversion to methane. We found that augmentation of cobalt as a growth factor to the thermophilic anaerobic digestion process is required. After reaching sustainable operating performances, the methane potential in the reactors was 0.254 L CH4/g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) fed. Together with a reduction in the mass of solids that needs drying, methane generation translates to a 51% reduction of natural gas consumption at a conventional dry mill, which improves the net energy balance ratio from 1.26 to 1.70. At the design hydraulic retention time of 10 days, the digesters achieved TCOD, biodegradable COD, volatile solids, and total solids removal efficiencies of 90%, 75%, 89%, and 81%, respectively. We also found that struvite precipitation occurred in the thermophilic digesters during the course of the study, resulting in possibilities for nutrient recovery.

  16. Increased estimates of air-pollution emissions from Brazilian sugar-cane ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J. E.; Mena-Carrasco, M.; Spak, S. N.; Carmichael, G. R.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse-gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels on air quality and climate. Sugar-cane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here we use a life-cycle approach to produce spatially and temporally explicit estimates of air-pollutant emissions over the whole life cycle of sugar-cane ethanol in Brazil. We show that even in regions where pre-harvest field burning has been eliminated on half the croplands, regional emissions of air pollutants continue to increase owing to the expansion of sugar-cane growing areas, and burning continues to be the dominant life-cycle stage for emissions. Comparison of our estimates of burning-phase emissions with satellite estimates of burning in São Paulo state suggests that sugar-cane field burning is not fully accounted for in satellite-based inventories, owing to the small spatial scale of individual fires. Accounting for this effect leads to revised regional estimates of burned area that are four times greater than some previous estimates. Our revised emissions maps thus suggest that biofuels may have larger impacts on regional climate forcing and human health than previously thought.

  17. PEGylation of membrane proteins like bacteriorhodopsin as a tool to increase their stability toward ethanol.

    PubMed

    Busch, Annegret P; Neebe, Martin; Hampp, Norbert

    2012-12-20

    Protection of biological compounds, for example, enzymes, viruses, or even whole cells, against degradation is very important for many applications. Embedding of such compounds into polymer matrices is a straightforward common method. However, in biotechnology and medicine there is a great interest to prepare micro- and nanosized shells around the biocomponents in order to protect them and having only a minor increase in size. The PEGylation of biological macromolecules has gained attention because degradation by proteolytic enzymes is significantly retarded and, in turn, their bioavailability is enhanced. We found that PEGylation is also a powerful tool to protect biomaterials from degradation by small organic solvent molecules, in particular, ethanol. Methoxy-polyethylene glycol (MPEG) modified BR survives exposure to significant concentrations of ethanol, up to 30%, and preserves its photochromism, whereas unmodified PM is instantaneously denatured at such concentrations. This is useful for potential technical applications of BR but is of relevance for many other applications where biomaterials and, in particular, biomembranes may be exposed to solvents.

  18. Homologous overexpression of xylanase in Fusarium oxysporum increases ethanol productivity during consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosics.

    PubMed

    Anasontzis, George E; Zerva, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Panagiota M; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Diallinas, George; Karagouni, Amalia D; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G

    2011-03-10

    In an effort to increase ethanol productivity during the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulosics by Fusarium oxysporum, we attempted the constitutive homologous overexpression of one of the key process enzymes, namely an endo-xylanase. The endo-β-1,4-xylanase 2 gene was incorporated into the F. oxysporum genome under the regulation of the gpdA promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. The transformation was effected through Agrobacterium tumefaciens and resulted in 12 transformants, two of which were selected for further study due to their high extracellular xylanase activities under normally repressing conditions (glucose as sole carbon source). During natural induction conditions (growth on xylan) though, the extracellular enzyme levels of the transformants were only marginally higher (5-10%) compared to the wild type despite the significantly stronger xylanase 2 mRNA signals. SDS-PAGE verified enzyme assay results that there was no intracellular xylanase 2 accumulation in the transformants, suggesting the potential regulation in a post transcriptional or translational level. The fermentative performance of the transformants was evaluated and compared to that of the wild type in simple CBP systems using either corn cob or wheat bran as sole carbon sources. Both transformants produced approximately 60% more ethanol compared to the wild type on corn cob, while for wheat bran this picture was repeated for only one of them. This result is attributed to the high extracellular xylanase activities in the transformants' fermentation broths that were maintained 2-2.5-fold higher compared to the wild type.

  19. Commensal symbiosis between a Lactococcus lactis strain and an Enterococcus mundtii strain increases cell yield in constituted broth.

    PubMed

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Ohmori, H; Suzuki, C

    2012-11-01

    To exert their beneficial effects, probiotics need to survive in the stringent conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Symbiosis between different bacteria is a potential way of enhancing this survival. In developing new probiotic cultures, we investigated the synergic effect between Enterococcus mundtii IFO 13712 and 7 strains of Lactococcus lactis, many of which are widely used as starter bacteria for making dairy products and have probiotic properties. The growth yield of a mixed culture of L. lactis strain Y and IFO 13712 in de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth was greater than that of a single culture. Supernatant from culture of strain IFO 13712 enhanced the growth of strain Y, but that of strain Y did not enhance the growth of strain IFO 13712. This commensalism phenomenon was confirmed by using a simpler tryptone-yeast extract-glucose (TYG) broth. Increased cell yield in mixed culture of the 2 strains compared with single cultures was observed in TYG broth in the presence of both Tween 80 and citrate but not in TYG broth alone or TYG broth containing either Tween 80 or citrate. Thus, the Tween 80 and citrate in the broth contributed to the commensalism. Metabolite analysis revealed that ethanol production in the co-metabolism of glucose and citrate by strain Y was suppressed by mixed culture in TYG broth containing Tween 80 and citrate, compared with that in TYG broth containing citrate alone. The mechanism supporting the observed commensal symbiosis between strains Y and IFO 13712 was the increase in availability of glucose for lactate production by strain Y because, in glycolysis, the pathway from glucose to lactate is energic, whereas the pathway from glucose to ethanol is not. Whether growth stimulation of strain Y by mixing it with IFO 13712 in milk products will enhance the survival of strain Y in the intestine remains to be elucidated.

  20. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  1. Increased ethanol productivity in xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a randomly mutagenized xylose reductase.

    PubMed

    Runquist, David; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) has been genetically engineered to ferment the pentose sugar xylose present in lignocellulose biomass. One of the reactions controlling the rate of xylose utilization is catalyzed by xylose reductase (XR). In particular, the cofactor specificity of XR is not optimized with respect to the downstream pathway, and the reaction rate is insufficient for high xylose utilization in S. cerevisiae. The current study describes a novel approach to improve XR for ethanol production in S. cerevisiae. The cofactor binding region of XR was mutated by error-prone PCR, and the resulting library was expressed in S. cerevisiae. The S. cerevisiae library expressing the mutant XR was selected in sequential anaerobic batch cultivation. At the end of the selection process, a strain (TMB 3420) harboring the XR mutations N272D and P275Q was enriched from the library. The V(max) of the mutated enzyme was increased by an order of magnitude compared to that of the native enzyme, and the NADH/NADPH utilization ratio was increased significantly. The ethanol productivity from xylose in TMB 3420 was increased ∼40 times compared to that of the parent strain (0.32 g/g [dry weight {DW}] × h versus 0.007 g/g [DW] × h), and the anaerobic growth rate was increased from ∼0 h(-1) to 0.08 h(-1). The improved traits of TMB 3420 were readily transferred to the parent strain by reverse engineering of the mutated XR gene. Since integrative vectors were employed in the construction of the library, transfer of the improved phenotype does not require multicopy expression from episomal plasmids.

  2. Corrigendum to "Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improving carbon dioxide yields" [J. Power Sources 268 (5 December 2014) 439-442

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.

    2016-09-01

    The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  3. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  4. Do increases in cigarette prices lead to increases in sales of cigarettes with high tar and nicotine yields?

    PubMed

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Loomis, Brett R; Mann, Nathan H

    2007-10-01

    We used scanner data on cigarette prices and sales collected from supermarkets across the United States from 1994 to 2004 to test the hypothesis that cigarette prices are positively correlated with sales of cigarettes with higher tar and nicotine content. During this period the average inflation-adjusted price for menthol cigarettes increased 55.8%. Price elasticities from multivariate regression models suggest that this price increase led to an increase of 1.73% in sales-weighted average tar yields and a 1.28% increase in sales-weighted average nicotine yields for menthol cigarettes. The 50.5% price increase of nonmenthol varieties over the same period yielded an estimated increase of 1% in tar per cigarette but no statistically significant increase in nicotine yields. An ordered probit model of the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette strength (ultra-light, light, full flavor, unfiltered) offers an explanation: As cigarette prices increase, the probability that stronger cigarette types will be sold increases. This effect is larger for menthol than for nonmenthol cigarettes. Our results are consistent with earlier population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that higher cigarette prices and taxes are associated with increasing consumption of higher-yield cigarettes by smokers.

  5. Persistent loss of hippocampal neurogenesis and increased cell death following adolescent, but not adult, chronic ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Margaret A; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Spear, Linda P

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescence is a common age to initiate alcohol consumption, the long-term consequences of exposure to alcohol at this time of considerable brain maturation are largely unknown. In studies utilizing rodents, behavioral evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that the hippocampus may be persistently affected by repeated ethanol exposure during adolescence, but not by comparable alcohol exposure in adulthood. The purpose of this series of experiments was to explore a potential mechanism of hippocampal dysfunction in adults exposed to ethanol during adolescence. Given that disruption in adult neurogenesis has been reported to impair performance on tasks thought to be hippocampally related, we used immunohistochemistry to assess levels of doublecortin (DCX), an endogenous marker of immature neurons, in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus 3-4 weeks after adolescent (postnatal day, PD28-48) or adult (PD70-90) intermittent ethanol exposure to 4 g/kg ethanol administered intragastrically. We also investigated another neurogenic niche, the subventricular zone (SVZ), to determine if the effects of ethanol exposure were region specific. Levels of cell proliferation and cell death were also examined in the DG via assessing Ki67 and cleaved caspase-3 immunoreactivity, respectively. Significantly less DCX was observed in the DG of adolescent (but not adult) ethanol-exposed animals about 4 weeks after exposure when these animals were compared to control age-mates. The effects of adolescent ethanol on DCX immunoreactivity were specific to the hippocampus, with no significant exposure effects emerging in the SVZ. In both the DG and the SVZ there was a significant age-related decline in neurogenesis as indexed by DCX. The persistent effect of adolescent ethanol exposure on reduced DCX in the DG appears to be related to significant increases in cell death, with significantly more cleaved caspase-3-positive immunoreactivity observed in the adolescent ethanol group

  6. Immobilization-induced increases of systolic blood pressure and dysregulation of electrolyte balance in ethanol-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Farzana; Haque, Zeba; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and experimental studies revealed that alcohol drinking and life event stresses are predisposing factors to hypertension. Intra and extra cellular levels of electrolytes may play important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension. Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is suggested to have a role in the regulation of blood pressure. The present study was designed to monitor the effects of acute exposure to 2h immobilization stress and ethanol administration at a dose of 2.5 g/kg body weight (i.p.) and combined effect of acute administration of ethanol and immobilization stress on systolic blood pressure (SBP), intraerythrocyte, serum and tissue electrolytes in rats. Results showed that acute exposure to 2h immobilization increased SBP, intraerythrocyte sodium and decreased intraerythrocyte potassium in water as well as in ethanol injected rats. The concentration of Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ increased while that of K⁺ and Mg²⁺ decreased in the heart and kidney tissue. Ethanol administration also increased Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ levels and decreased K⁺ and Mg²⁺ levels in the heart and kidney tissue. Restraint stress decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. Ethanol administration also decreased serum levels of Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, P, and Cl⁻ and increased serum Mg²⁺, glucose and haematocrit. The effects of ethanol and stress on the changes of blood and tissues electrolytes were additive and may be involved in the greater occurrence of hypertension in alcoholics. Our results suggested an important role of intra and extra cellular electrolytes in both stress and ethanol-induced hypertension. The findings may help to develop strategies for the treatment of hypertension in alcoholics.

  7. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  8. Ethanol Dose- and Time-dependently Increases α and β Subunits of Mitochondrial ATP Synthase of Cultured Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Keiko; Arthur, Peter G; Ohno, Youkichi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are target subcellular organelles of ethanol. In this study, the effects of ethanol on protein composition was examined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis of protein extracts from cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to 100 mM ethanol for 24 hours. A putative β subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase was increased, which was confirmed by Western blot. The cellular protein abundances in the α and β subunits of ATP synthase increased in dose (0, 10, 50, and 100 mM) - and time (0.5 hour and 24 hours) -dependent manners. The DNA microarray analysis of total RNA extract demonstrated that gene expression of the corresponding messenger RNAs of these subunit proteins did not significantly alter due to 24-hour ethanol exposure. Therefore, protein expression of these nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins may be regulated at the translational, rather than the transcriptional, level. Alternatively, degradation of these subunit proteins might be decreased. Additionally, cellular ATP content of cardiomyocytes scarcely decreased following 24-hour exposure to any examined concentrations of ethanol. Previous studies, together with this study, have demonstrated that protein abundance of the α subunit or β subunit or both subunits of ATP synthase after ethanol exposure or dysfunctional conditions might differ according to tissue: significant increases in heart but decreases in liver and brain. Thus, it is suggested that the abundance of subunit proteins of mitochondrial ATP synthase in the ethanol-exposed heart, being different from that in the liver and brain, should increase dose-dependently through either translational upregulation or decreased degradation or both to maintain ATP production, as the heart requires much more energy than other tissues for continuing sustained contractions.

  9. Impairment of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 increases accumulation of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the esophagus after ethanol ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Shinya; Amanuma, Yusuke; Nakai, Yukie; Tsurumaki, Mihoko; Kikuchi, Osamu; Miyamoto, Shin’ichi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Chiba, Tsutomu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Muto, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol and its metabolite, acetaldehyde, are the definite carcinogens for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and reduced catalytic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which detoxifies acetaldehyde, increases the risk for ESCC. However, it remains unknown whether the ALDH2 genotype influences the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage in the esophagus after ethanol ingestion. In the present study, we administered ethanol orally or intraperitoneally to Aldh2-knockout and control mice, and we quantified the level of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage, especially N2-ethylidene-2’-deoxyguanosine (N2-ethylidene-dG), in the esophagus. In the model of oral ethanol administration, the esophageal N2-ethylidene-dG level was significantly higher in Aldh2-knockout mice compared with control mice. Similarly, in the model of intraperitoneal ethanol administration, in which the esophagus is not exposed directly to the alcohol solution, the esophageal N2-ethylidene-dG level was also elevated in Aldh2-knockout mice. This result indicates that circulating ethanol-derived acetaldehyde causes esophageal DNA damage, and that the extent of damage is influenced by knockout of Aldh2. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest the importance of acetaldehyde-derived DNA damage which is induced in the esophagus of individuals with ALDH2 gene impairment. This provides a physiological basis for understanding alcohol-related esophageal carcinogenesis. PMID:24959382

  10. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  11. Enhancing ethanol yields through d-xylose and l-arabinose co-fermentation after construction of a novel high efficient l-arabinose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Antonio; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulose contains two pentose sugars, l-arabinose and d-xylose, neither of which is naturally fermented by first generation (1G) ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Since these sugars are inaccessible to 1G yeast, a significant percentage of the total carbon in bioethanol production from plant residues, which are used in second generation (2G) ethanol production, remains unused. Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains capable of fermenting d-xylose are available on the market; however, there are few examples of l-arabinose-fermenting yeasts, and commercially, there are no strains capable of fermenting both d-xylose and l-arabinose because of metabolic incompatibilities when both metabolic pathways are expressed in the same cell. To attempt to solve this problem we have tested d-xylose and l-arabinose co-fermentation. To find efficient alternative l-arabinose utilization pathways to the few existing ones, we have used stringent methodology to screen for new genes (metabolic and transporter functions) to facilitate l-arabinose fermentation in recombinant yeast. We demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in a successfully constructed yeast strain capable of using l-arabinose as the sole carbon source and capable of fully transforming it to ethanol, reaching the maximum theoretical fermentation yield (0.43 g g-1). We demonstrate that efficient co-fermentation of d-xylose and l-arabinose is feasible using two different co-cultured strains, and observed no fermentation delays, yield drops or accumulation of undesired byproducts. In this study we have identified a technically efficient strategy to enhance ethanol yields by 10 % in 2G plants in a process based on C5 sugar co-fermentation.

  12. Developmental exposure to ethanol increases the neuronal vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation in cerebellar granule cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Le Duc, Diana; Spataru, Ana; Ceanga, Mihai; Zagrean, Leon; Schöneberg, Torsten; Toescu, Emil C; Zagrean, Ana-Maria

    2015-07-21

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with microencephaly, cognitive and behavioral deficits, and growth retardation. Some of the mechanisms of ethanol-induced injury, such as high level oxidative stress and overexpression of pro-apoptotic genes, can increase the sensitivity of fetal neurons towards hypoxic/ischemic stress associated with normal labor. Thus, alcohol-induced sequelae may be the cumulative result of direct ethanol toxicity and increased neuronal vulnerability towards metabolic stressors, including hypoxia. We examined the effects of ethanol exposure on the fetal cerebellar granular neurons' susceptibility to hypoxic/hypoglycemic damage. A chronic ethanol exposure covered the entire prenatal period and 5 days postpartum through breastfeeding, a time interval partially extending into the third-trimester equivalent in humans. After a binge-like alcohol exposure at postnatal day 5, glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons were cultured and grown for 7 days in vitro, then exposed to a 3-h oxygen-glucose deprivation to mimic a hypoxic/ischemic condition. Cellular viability was monitored by dynamic recording of propidium iodide fluorescence over 20 h reoxygenation. We explored differentially expressed genes on microarray data from a mouse embryonic ethanol-exposure model and validated these by real-time PCR on the present model. In the ethanol-treated cerebellar granule neurons we find an increased expression of genes related to apoptosis (Mapk8 and Bax), but also of genes previously described as neuroprotective (Dhcr24 and Bdnf), which might suggest an actively maintained viability. Our data suggest that neurons exposed to ethanol during development are more vulnerable to in vitro hypoxia/hypoglycemia and have higher intrinsic death susceptibility than unexposed neurons.

  13. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  14. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Linzy M.; Garwood, Grant M.; Toungate, Kelsey M.; Nania, Christina V.; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3–4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity. PMID:28859110

  15. Ethanol intake increases during continuous administration of amphetamine and nicotine, but not several other drugs.

    PubMed

    Potthoff, A D; Ellison, G; Nelson, L

    1983-04-01

    Groups of rats, acclimated to drinking both water and 10% v/v ethanol were implanted with a variety of slow-release devices containing d-amphetamine (d-amp), nicotine, caffeine, phencyclidine (PCP), secobarbital, LSD, mescaline or haloperidol. Ethanol intake was elevated only during treatment with d-amp or nicotine; none of the other drugs affected ethanol consumption even though the amounts of all drugs released were pharmacologically sufficient to affect behavior. Nicotine treated rats were not simply seeking calories provided by the EtOH solution, since nicotine treatment did not enhance intake of a distinctively flavored solution isocaloric to 10% ethanol. These results support a self-medication model of ethanol intake.

  16. Character-marked furniture: potential for lumber yield increase in crosscut-first rough mills

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; E. Earl Kline; E. Earl Kline

    1999-01-01

    Including character marks in dimension parts of the furniture, cabinet, and dimension industries offers an opportunity to increase lumber yield substantially. However, little quantitative knowledge exists as to how the incorporation of character marks in parts influences yield when processing lumber in a crosscut-first rough mill. Using computer simulation, this study...

  17. Character-marked furniture: potential for lumber yield increase in rip-first rough mills

    Treesearch

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; D. Earl Kline; D. Earl Kline

    1998-01-01

    The inclusion of character marks in furniture parts increases part yield at least as much as previously estimated by industrial practitioners and scientists specializing in yield efficiency. However, character-marked furniture is uncommon in the more popular North American furniture species and designs. Opportunities for extending the hardwood resource associated with...

  18. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining availability in Asia, due to lower yields and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quali...

  19. African crop yield reductions due to increasingly unbalanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus consumption.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Marijn; Folberth, Christian; Balkovič, Juraj; Ciais, Philippe; Fritz, Steffen; Janssens, Ivan A; Obersteiner, Michael; See, Linda; Skalský, Rastislav; Xiong, Wei; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-04-01

    The impact of soil nutrient depletion on crop production has been known for decades, but robust assessments of the impact of increasingly unbalanced nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application rates on crop production are lacking. Here, we use crop response functions based on 741 FAO maize crop trials and EPIC crop modeling across Africa to examine maize yield deficits resulting from unbalanced N : P applications under low, medium, and high input scenarios, for past (1975), current, and future N : P mass ratios of respectively, 1 : 0.29, 1 : 0.15, and 1 : 0.05. At low N inputs (10 kg ha(-1)), current yield deficits amount to 10% but will increase up to 27% under the assumed future N : P ratio, while at medium N inputs (50 kg N ha(-1)), future yield losses could amount to over 40%. The EPIC crop model was then used to simulate maize yields across Africa. The model results showed relative median future yield reductions at low N inputs of 40%, and 50% at medium and high inputs, albeit with large spatial variability. Dominant low-quality soils such as Ferralsols, which are strongly adsorbing P, and Arenosols with a low nutrient retention capacity, are associated with a strong yield decline, although Arenosols show very variable crop yield losses at low inputs. Optimal N : P ratios, i.e. those where the lowest amount of applied P produces the highest yield (given N input) where calculated with EPIC to be as low as 1 : 0.5. Finally, we estimated the additional P required given current N inputs, and given N inputs that would allow Africa to close yield gaps (ca. 70%). At current N inputs, P consumption would have to increase 2.3-fold to be optimal, and to increase 11.7-fold to close yield gaps. The P demand to overcome these yield deficits would provide a significant additional pressure on current global extraction of P resources.

  20. CB1 receptor knockout mice display reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and increased striatal dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Houchi, Hakim; Babovic, Daniela; Pierrefiche, Olivier; Ledent, Catherine; Daoust, Martine; Naassila, Mickaël

    2005-02-01

    Cannabinoids and ethanol activate the same reward pathways, and recent advances in the understanding of the neurobiological basis of alcoholism suggest that the CB1 receptor system may play a key role in the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in modulating ethanol intake. In the present study, male CB1 receptors knockout mice generated on a CD1 background displayed decreased ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) compared to wild-type (CB1(+/+)) mice. Ethanol (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg) induced significant CPP in CB1(+/+) mice at all doses tested, whereas it induced significant CPP only at the highest dose of ethanol (2.0 g/kg) in CB1(-/-) mice. However, there was no genotypic difference in cocaine (20 mg/kg)-induced CPP. There was also no genotypic difference, neither in cocaine (10-50 mg/kg) nor in D-amphetamine (1.2-5 mg/kg)-induced locomotor effects. In addition, mutant and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol (1.5 g/kg) when tested using the elevated plus maze. Interestingly, this decrease in ethanol efficacy to induce CPP in CB1(-/-) mice was correlated with an increase in D2/D3 receptors, as determined by [3H]raclopride binding, whereas there was no difference in D1-like receptors, as determined by [3H]SCH23390 binding, measured in the striatum from drug-naive mice. This increase in D2/D3 binding sites observed in CB1 knockout mice was associated with an altered locomotor response to the D2/D3 agonist quinpirole (low doses 0.02-0.1 mg/kg) but not to an alteration of quinpirole (0.1-1.0 mg/kg)-induced CPP compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, the present results indicate that lifelong deletion of CB1 receptors reduced ethanol-induced CPP and that these reduced rewarding effects of ethanol are correlated to an overexpression of striatal dopamine D2 receptors.

  1. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  2. Chronic Social Stress and Ethanol Increase Expression of KLF11, a Cell Death Mediator, in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Jeremy; Wang, Niping; Zhang, Xiao; Johnson, Shakevia; Harris, Sharonda; Zheng, Baoying; Zhang, Qinli; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Sittman, Donald; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Stockmeier, Craig A; Wang, Jun Ming

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder and alcoholism are significant health burdens that can affect executive functioning, cognitive ability, job responsibilities, and personal relationships. Studies in animal models related to depression or alcoholism reveal that the expression of Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11, also called TIEG2) is elevated in frontal cortex, which suggests that KLF11 may play a role in stress- or ethanol-induced psychiatric conditions. KLF11 is a transcriptional activator of monoamine oxidase A and B, but also serves other functions in cell cycle regulation and apoptotic cell death. In the present study, immunohistochemistry was used to quantify intensity of nuclear KLF11, combined with an unbiased stereological approach to assess nuclei in fronto-limbic, limbic, and other brain regions of rats exposed chronically to social defeat or ethanol. KLF11 immunoreactivity was increased significantly in the medial prefrontal cortex, frontal cortex, and hippocampus of both stressed rats and rats fed ethanol. However, expression of KLF11 protein was not significantly affected in the thalamus, hypothalamus, or amygdala in either treatment group compared to respective control rats. Triple-label immunofluorescence revealed that KLF11 protein was localized in nuclei of neurons and astrocytes. KLF11 was also co-localized with the immunoreactivity of cleaved caspase-3. In addition, Western blot analysis revealed a significant reduction in anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, but an increase of caspase-3 expression in the frontal cortex of ethanol-treated rats compared to ethanol-preferring controls. Thus, KLF11 protein is up-regulated following chronic exposure to stress or ethanol in a region-specific manner and may contribute to pro-apoptotic signaling in ethanol-treated rats. Further investigation into the KLF11 signaling cascade as a mechanism for neurotoxicity and cell death in depression and alcoholism may provide novel pharmacological targets to lessen brain damage and

  3. Increasing cell biomass in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases recombinant protein yield: the use of a respiratory strain as a microbial cell factory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant protein production is universally employed as a solution to obtain the milligram to gram quantities of a given protein required for applications as diverse as structural genomics and biopharmaceutical manufacture. Yeast is a well-established recombinant host cell for these purposes. In this study we wanted to investigate whether our respiratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TM6*, could be used to enhance the productivity of recombinant proteins over that obtained from corresponding wild type, respiro-fermentative strains when cultured under the same laboratory conditions. Results Here we demonstrate at least a doubling in productivity over wild-type strains for three recombinant membrane proteins and one recombinant soluble protein produced in TM6* cells. In all cases, this was attributed to the improved biomass properties of the strain. The yield profile across the growth curve was also more stable than in a wild-type strain, and was not further improved by lowering culture temperatures. This has the added benefit that improved yields can be attained rapidly at the yeast's optimal growth conditions. Importantly, improved productivity could not be reproduced in wild-type strains by culturing them under glucose fed-batch conditions: despite having achieved very similar biomass yields to those achieved by TM6* cultures, the total volumetric yields were not concomitantly increased. Furthermore, the productivity of TM6* was unaffected by growing cultures in the presence of ethanol. These findings support the unique properties of TM6* as a microbial cell factory. Conclusions The accumulation of biomass in yeast cell factories is not necessarily correlated with a proportional increase in the functional yield of the recombinant protein being produced. The respiratory S. cerevisiae strain reported here is therefore a useful addition to the matrix of production hosts currently available as its improved biomass properties do lead to increased

  4. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification

    PubMed Central

    Pywell, Richard F.; Heard, Matthew S.; Woodcock, Ben A.; Hinsley, Shelley; Ridding, Lucy; Nowakowski, Marek; Bullock, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological intensification has been promoted as a means to achieve environmentally sustainable increases in crop yields by enhancing ecosystem functions that regulate and support production. There is, however, little direct evidence of yield benefits from ecological intensification on commercial farms growing globally important foodstuffs (grains, oilseeds and pulses). We replicated two treatments removing 3 or 8% of land at the field edge from production to create wildlife habitat in 50–60 ha patches over a 900 ha commercial arable farm in central England, and compared these to a business as usual control (no land removed). In the control fields, crop yields were reduced by as much as 38% at the field edge. Habitat creation in these lower yielding areas led to increased yield in the cropped areas of the fields, and this positive effect became more pronounced over 6 years. As a consequence, yields at the field scale were maintained—and, indeed, enhanced for some crops—despite the loss of cropland for habitat creation. These results suggested that over a 5-year crop rotation, there would be no adverse impact on overall yield in terms of monetary value or nutritional energy. This study provides a clear demonstration that wildlife-friendly management which supports ecosystem services is compatible with, and can even increase, crop yields. PMID:26423846

  5. Wildlife-friendly farming increases crop yield: evidence for ecological intensification.

    PubMed

    Pywell, Richard F; Heard, Matthew S; Woodcock, Ben A; Hinsley, Shelley; Ridding, Lucy; Nowakowski, Marek; Bullock, James M

    2015-10-07

    Ecological intensification has been promoted as a means to achieve environmentally sustainable increases in crop yields by enhancing ecosystem functions that regulate and support production. There is, however, little direct evidence of yield benefits from ecological intensification on commercial farms growing globally important foodstuffs (grains, oilseeds and pulses). We replicated two treatments removing 3 or 8% of land at the field edge from production to create wildlife habitat in 50-60 ha patches over a 900 ha commercial arable farm in central England, and compared these to a business as usual control (no land removed). In the control fields, crop yields were reduced by as much as 38% at the field edge. Habitat creation in these lower yielding areas led to increased yield in the cropped areas of the fields, and this positive effect became more pronounced over 6 years. As a consequence, yields at the field scale were maintained--and, indeed, enhanced for some crops--despite the loss of cropland for habitat creation. These results suggested that over a 5-year crop rotation, there would be no adverse impact on overall yield in terms of monetary value or nutritional energy. This study provides a clear demonstration that wildlife-friendly management which supports ecosystem services is compatible with, and can even increase, crop yields. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Ambavaram, Madana M R; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-10-31

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions.

  7. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulatory network and identified a transcription factor HYR (HIGHER YIELD RICE) associated with PCM, which on expression in rice enhances photosynthesis under multiple environmental conditions, determining a morpho-physiological programme leading to higher grain yield under normal, drought and high-temperature stress conditions. We show HYR is a master regulator, directly activating photosynthesis genes, cascades of transcription factors and other downstream genes involved in PCM and yield stability under drought and high-temperature environmental stress conditions. PMID:25358745

  8. Increase of ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by error-prone whole genome amplification.

    PubMed

    Luhe, Annette Lin; Tan, Lily; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhao, Hua

    2011-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed for higher ethanol tolerance by error-prone whole genome amplification. The resulting PCR products were transformed back to the parental strain for homologous recombination to create a library of mutants with the perturbed genomic networks. A few rounds of transformation led to the isolation of mutants that grew in 9% (v/v) ethanol and 100 g glucose l(-1) compared to untransformed yeast which grew only at 6% (v/v) ethanol and 100 g glucose l(-1). © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

  9. Reflective and black mulch increase yield in pumpkins under virus disease pressure.

    PubMed

    Brust, G E

    2000-06-01

    Experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period that examined the effect reflective, black, and no-mulch had on aphid populations, incidence of virus infected pumpkin plants, and yield of pumpkin. Three different planting dates and their effect on viral infection and yield were also investigated. The use of reflective mulches significantly reduced the number of alates landing in these rows compared with black- or no-mulch rows. The reduction in aphid numbers resulted in a reduction in the percent of plants infected with virus. Approximately 10 times more plants were infected with virus in the black and no-mulch plots than in the reflective mulch plots in mid- to late July. However, by the end of August, all treatments had near 100% of plants infected with virus. This delay in viral infection in reflective mulch plots resulted in a 45 and 120% increase in pumpkin yield compared with black mulch and no-mulch plots, respectively. First plantings always had greater yields than later plantings. The interaction between mulch type and planting time was significant. Reflective mulches increased yields overall, but significantly increased yields compared with black or no-mulch in second and third plantings. The use of reflective mulch combined with timely planting is a cost effective way of delaying virus problems and increasing pumpkin yields in midwestern United States.

  10. Increased presynaptic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens core following chronic ethanol self-administration in female macaques

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Cody A.; Calipari, Erin S.; Yorgason, Jordan T.; Lovinger, David M.; Mateo, Yolanda; Jimenez, Vanessa A.; Helms, Christa M.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Hypofunction of striatal dopamine neurotransmission, or hypodopaminergia, is a consequence of excessive ethanol use, and is hypothesized to be a critical component of alcoholism, driving alcohol intake in an attempt to restore dopamine levels; however, the neurochemical mechanisms involved in these dopaminergic deficiencies are unknown. Objective Here we examined the specific dopaminergic adaptations that produce hypodopaminergia and contribute to alcohol use disorders using direct, sub-second measurements of dopamine signaling in nonhuman primates following chronic ethanol self-administration. Methods Female rhesus macaques completed one year of daily (22 hr/day) ethanol self-administration. Subsequently, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used in nucleus accumbens core brain slices to determine alterations in dopamine terminal function, including release and uptake kinetics, and sensitivity to quinpirole (D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist) and U50,488 (kappa-opioid receptor agonist) induced inhibition of dopamine release. Results Ethanol drinking greatly increased uptake rates, which were positively correlated with lifetime ethanol intake. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors and kappa-opioid receptors, which both act as negative regulators of presynaptic dopamine release, were moderately and robustly enhanced in ethanol drinkers. Conclusions Greater uptake rates and sensitivity to D2-type autoreceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonists could converge to drive a hypodopaminergic state, characterized by reduced basal dopamine and an inability to mount appropriate dopaminergic responses to salient stimuli. Together, we outline the specific alterations to dopamine signaling that may drive ethanol-induced hypofunction of the dopamine system, and suggest that the dopamine and dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems may be efficacious pharmcotherapeutic targets in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26892380

  11. Improving yield of industrial biomass propagation by increasing the Trx2p dosage.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Matallana, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The beneficial effect of improving yeast redox response by increasing thioredoxin levels has been shown. Decreased lipid and protein oxidation is reflected in an increased biomass yield. In addition, increased redox defenses like glutathione and ROS scavenging enzymes are observed. Furthermore, the wine produced with the modified strain presented more aromatic compounds than the control strain, and its organoleptic properties increased. Here, we hypothesize that reduced glycolytic enzyme carbonylation can increase not only the glycolytic flux but also, and consequently, the biomass yield in the industrial biomass propagation process. The commercial use of the thioredoxin bioengineered yeast as an antioxidant dietetic supplement is also discussed.

  12. Reduction of Ethanol Yield and Improvement of Glycerol Formation by Adaptive Evolution of the Wine Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Hyperosmotic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tilloy, Valentin; Ortiz-Julien, Anne

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong demand from the wine industry for methodologies to reduce the alcohol content of wine without compromising wine's sensory characteristics. We assessed the potential of adaptive laboratory evolution strategies under hyperosmotic stress for generation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains with enhanced glycerol and reduced ethanol yields. Experimental evolution on KCl resulted, after 200 generations, in strains that had higher glycerol and lower ethanol production than the ancestral strain. This major metabolic shift was accompanied by reduced fermentative capacities, suggesting a trade-off between high glycerol production and fermentation rate. Several evolved strains retaining good fermentation performance were selected. These strains produced more succinate and 2,3-butanediol than the ancestral strain and did not accumulate undesirable organoleptic compounds, such as acetate, acetaldehyde, or acetoin. They survived better under osmotic stress and glucose starvation conditions than the ancestral strain, suggesting that the forces that drove the redirection of carbon fluxes involved a combination of osmotic and salt stresses and carbon limitation. To further decrease the ethanol yield, a breeding strategy was used, generating intrastrain hybrids that produced more glycerol than the evolved strain. Pilot-scale fermentation on Syrah using evolved and hybrid strains produced wine with 0.6% (vol/vol) and 1.3% (vol/vol) less ethanol, more glycerol and 2,3-butanediol, and less acetate than the ancestral strain. This work demonstrates that the combination of adaptive evolution and breeding is a valuable alternative to rational design for remodeling the yeast metabolic network. PMID:24532067

  13. Alcohol fat clearing increases lymph node yield after surgery for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Duldulao, Marjun; Booth, Cassie; Denham, Laura; Choi, Audrey; Friedman, Garrett; Kazanjian, Kevork

    2014-10-01

    Lymph node (LN) yield is associated with oncologic outcome in patients who undergo surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRC). Standards to maximize LN yield have been initiated to enhance treatment of patients with CRC. This study evaluates the impact of a simple alcohol-based preparation protocol on LN yield. Surgical specimens from patients with CRC were prepared using either the alcohol protocol or standard formalin fixation and LN yield was compared. In total, 80 consecutive patients (n = 40 formalin, n = 40 alcohol) were examined. Overall, median LN yield increased from 17 to 29 (P < 0.01) with the alcohol fat clearance protocol. For patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent proctectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, LN yield increased from 15 to 23 (P = 0.02). The frequency of need for additional sampling to achieve a minimum 12 LN count was also reduced. Initiation of a standardized alcohol fat-clearing protocol increased LN yield after surgery for CRC. This simple, cost-effective measure may improve the efficiency of LN assessment and accurate staging, which may impact oncologic outcomes.

  14. Influence of nitrogen sources on ethanol fermentation in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Lei

    2012-09-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. In the integrated system, wastewater originating from ethanol distillation was treated by two-stage anaerobic digestion and then used in medium for the next batch of ethanol fermentation. Ammonium and other components in the effluent promoted yeast growth and fermentation rate but did not increase the yield of ethanol. Fermentations with the effluent as the nitrogen source showed higher growth and ethanol production rates (0.215 h(-1) and 1.276 g/L/h, respectively) than urea that resulted in corresponding rates of 0.176 h(-1) and 0.985 g/L/h, respectively. Results indicated that anaerobic digestion effluent can be used as nitrogen source for the ethanol fermentation instead of urea in the ethanol-methane fermentation system.

  15. Chronic ethanol treatment of human hepatocytes inhibits the activation of the insulin signaling pathway by increasing cytosolic free calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Min; Zhao, Jin-Fang; Liu, Yong-Lin; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Rong-Lin

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ethanol treatment on the induction of intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) levels and the inhibition of the activation of the insulin signaling pathway in human hepatocytes. L‑02 cells were treated with various concentrations of ethanol for different periods of time. Cell viability and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage in the culture supernatant were evaluated. Changes in [Ca(2+)](i) levels were detected by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Total RNA and protein were extracted to examine the mRNA and protein levels of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. Furthermore, insulin was added to the ethanol‑treated L‑02 cells, and the phosphorylation levels of PI3K and protein kinase B (PKB) were determined by western blot analysis before and after Ca(2+) blockage. No significant changes were observed in cell viability, [Ca(2+)](i) levels and in the expression and phosphorylation levels of insulin signal transduction molecules when the L‑02 cells were treated with 0.5 or 1% ethanol. However, treatment with 2 or 4% ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability and in the mRNA levels of IRS1, IRS2, PI3K (p85α) and GLUT2, as well as in an increase in ALT/AST leakage and in the [Ca(2+)](i) levels (P<0.05). The expression and phosphorylation levels of PI3K (p85α) and PKB were also inhibited by treatment with 2 or 4% ethanol. These cytological effects induced by ethanol treatment were partially reversed by Ca(2+) blockage. These results suggest that ethanol treatment inhibits the activation of the insulin signal transduction pathway in a dose‑, time‑ and Ca(2+)‑dependent manner. The inhibition of IRS1/2, PI3K (p85α), PKB and GLUT2 expression and of PI3K (p85

  16. Increase in extraction yields of coals by water treatment: Beulah-Zap lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Masashi Iino; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito; Haruo Kumagai

    2007-01-15

    In a previous paper, we have reported that water pretreatments of Argonne premium coals, Pocahontas No. 3 (PO), Upper Freeport (UF), and Illinois No. 6 (IL) at 600 K increased greatly the room-temperature extraction yields with a 1:1 carbon disulfide/N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent. In this paper, the water treatment of Beulah-Zap (BZ) lignite has been carried out and the results obtained were compared with those for the three bituminous coals above. The extraction yields of BZ with CS{sub 2}/NMP increased from 5.5% for the raw coal to 21.7% by the water treatment at 600 K. Similar to the other three coals, the water treatments at 500 K gave little increase in the yields. The larger decrease in oxygen content and hydrogen-bonded OH and the increase in the methanol swelling ratio by the water treatment suggest that the yield enhancements for BZ are attributed to the removal of oxygen functional groups and the breaking of hydrogen bonds to a greater extent than that for IL. From the characterizations of the treated coals and the extraction temperature dependency of their extraction yields, it is suggested that, for high-coal-rank coals, PO and UF, the breaking of noncovalent bonds such as {pi}-{pi} interactions between aromatic layers and hydrogen bonds is responsible for the extraction yield enhancements. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. β-Lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, attenuates ethanol intake and increases glial glutamate transporters expression in alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Sari, Youssef

    2017-09-14

    Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression. We found that clavulanic acid, at 5mg/kg (i.p.) dose, significantly attenuated ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in P rats as compared to vehicle-treated group. This effect was associated with a significant increase in water intake in clavulanic acid treated group. Importantly, we found that clavulanic acid increased the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in nucleus accumbens. However, there was no effect of clavulanic acid on GLAST expression in the nucleus accumbens. Clavulanic acid treatment did not upregulate the expression of GLT-1, xCT and GLAST in prefrontal cortex. These findings revealed that clavulanic acid at 20-40 fold lower dose than ceftriaxone can attenuate ethanol consumption, in part through upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, we suggest that clavulanic acid might be used as an alternative option to ceftriaxone to attenuate ethanol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  19. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  20. Landuse Carbon Implications of a Drawdown of Ethanol Production and an Increase in Well-Managed Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwinckel, C. M.; Phillips, J.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, commodity grain prices have doubled, and world commodity prices have reached their highest levels in over 30 years. The rise in prices culminated in the food price spikes of 2008 and 2011, where food riots erupted in 40 countries. Although studies have pointed to a number of factors leading to the increased food prices, the ethanol industry, whether deservingly or not, is seen as the major factor behind the price spikes. Several recent studies have contributed to the poor public opinion of ethanol by concluding that ethanol is neither a net energy source nor a net reducer of carbon emissions. The impact of these research reports combined with recent spikes in commodity prices has led to fierce political efforts to reduce or eliminate subsidies for ethanol. Opponents of ethanol subsidization won a significant battle with Congress recently voting to eliminate federal blender's tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. If another sharp spike in commodity prices occurs in the near future, some have speculated that ethanol production mandates could be scaled back or eliminated. In the span of less than three years the expected role of ethanol in the agricultural sector has gone from one of rapid growth and longevity, to one of which the societal benefits are being strongly questioned. In light of the rapidly changing expectations regarding the future of ethanol, we believe it is an appropriate time to evaluate the landuse and carbon implications of a scaling down of ethanol production and investigating permanent managed pasture as an alternative land use that could provide carbon benefits. Various USDA programs to promote conservation of, or conversion to, permanent pasture or grassland exist primarily based on the value of decreasing the potential for soil erosion as well as improving water quality. Although grazing systems have long been associated with land degradation in the arid and semi-arid west, new management approaches utilizing some form

  1. Linking large-scale bean-rice rotation with increased rice yield in remote sensing experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ling; Zhu, Zesheng

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the two different treatments are continuous rice and rice in rotation with bean, and the response is the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of rice or the rice yield. This study is to determine whether the rice in rotation with bean results in a significant effect—increasing the rice yield. In this completely randomized experiment, we randomly assigned 40 samples to the continuous rice and 40 samples to the rice in rotation with bean. Then the rice NDVIs of all 80 samples were computed. Because the statistical significance of the rice NDVI of the rotation treatment was observed in the experiment, we can be confident in the conclusion that it was the difference in treatments that resulted in the difference in the rice yield. That is, we can be confident that a cause-and-effect relationship between the rice in rotation with bean and the rice yield increase has been found.

  2. Acute Ethanol Exposure Increases the Susceptibility of the Donor Hearts to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Transplantation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sivakkanan; Weymann, Alexander; Radovits, Tamás; Barnucz, Enikő; Hirschberg, Kristóf; Hegedüs, Peter; Zhou, Yan; Tao, Liang; Páli, Szabolcs; Veres, Gábor; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Background Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1) to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2) to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. Methods Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip). We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (−34±9%) and load-independent (−33±12%) contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47±10%), elongated QT-interval (+38±4%), enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial contractility and relaxation

  3. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiliang; Korkmaz, Sevil; Loganathan, Sivakkanan; Weymann, Alexander; Radovits, Tamás; Barnucz, Enikő; Hirschberg, Kristóf; Hegedüs, Peter; Zhou, Yan; Tao, Liang; Páli, Szabolcs; Veres, Gábor; Karck, Matthias; Szabó, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1) to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2) to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip). We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (-34 ± 9%) and load-independent (-33 ± 12%) contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47 ± 10%), elongated QT-interval (+38 ± 4%), enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial contractility and relaxation, oxidative stress and

  4. Decreasing, not increasing, leaf area will raise crop yields under global atmospheric change.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Venkatraman; Kumar, Praveen; Long, Stephen P

    2017-04-01

    Without new innovations, present rates of increase in yields of food crops globally are inadequate to meet the projected rising food demand for 2050 and beyond. A prevailing response of crops to rising [CO2 ] is an increase in leaf area. This is especially marked in soybean, the world's fourth largest food crop in terms of seed production, and the most important vegetable protein source. Is this increase in leaf area beneficial, with respect to increasing yield, or is it detrimental? It is shown from theory and experiment using open-air whole-season elevation of atmospheric [CO2 ] that it is detrimental not only under future conditions of elevated [CO2 ] but also under today's [CO2 ]. A mechanistic biophysical and biochemical model of canopy carbon exchange and microclimate (MLCan) was parameterized for a modern US Midwest soybean cultivar. Model simulations showed that soybean crops grown under current and elevated (550 [ppm]) [CO2 ] overinvest in leaves, and this is predicted to decrease productivity and seed yield 8% and 10%, respectively. This prediction was tested in replicated field trials in which a proportion of emerging leaves was removed prior to expansion, so lowering investment in leaves. The experiment was conducted under open-air conditions for current and future elevated [CO2 ] within the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment facility (SoyFACE) in central Illinois. This treatment resulted in a statistically significant 8% yield increase. This is the first direct proof that a modern crop cultivar produces more leaf than is optimal for yield under today's and future [CO2 ] and that reducing leaf area would give higher yields. Breeding or bioengineering for lower leaf area could, therefore, contribute very significantly to meeting future demand for staple food crops given that an 8% yield increase across the USA alone would amount to 6.5 million metric tons annually.

  5. Will selenium increase lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) yield and seed quality?

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, Dil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Vial, Eric; Gebhardt, Mary; Lacher, Craig; Kumar, Shiv; Combs, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik), a nutritious traditional pulse crop, has been experiencing a declining area of production in South East Asia, due to lower yields, and marginal soils. The objective of this study was to determine whether selenium (Se) fertilization can increase lentil yield, productivity, and seed quality (both seed Se concentration and speciation). Selenium was provided to five lentil accessions as selenate or selenite by foliar or soil application at rates of 0, 10, 20, or 30 kg Se/ha and the resulting lentil biomass, grain yield, seed Se concentration, and Se speciation was determined. Seed Se concentration was measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after acid digestion. Seed Se speciation was measured using ICP-mass spectrometry with a high performance liquid chromatography (ICP-MS-LC) system. Foliar application of Se significantly increased lentil biomass (5586 vs. 7361 kg/ha), grain yield (1732 vs. 2468 kg /ha), and seed Se concentrations (0.8 vs. 2.4 μg/g) compared to soil application. In general, both application methods and both forms of Se increased concentrations of organic Se forms (selenocysteine and selenomethionine) in lentil seeds. Not surprisingly, the high yielding CDC Redberry had the highest levels of biomass and grain yield of all varieties evaluated. Eston, ILL505, and CDC Robin had the greatest responses to Se fertilization with respect to both grain yield, seed Se concentration and speciation; thus, use of these varieties in areas with low-Se soils might require Se fertilization to reach yield potentials. PMID:26042141

  6. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  7. Does increasing milk yield per cow reduce greenhouse gas emissions? A system approach.

    PubMed

    Zehetmeier, M; Baudracco, J; Hoffmann, H; Heißenhuber, A

    2012-01-01

    Milk yield per cow has continuously increased in many countries over the last few decades. In addition to potential economic advantages, this is often considered an important strategy to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of milk produced. However, it should be considered that milk and beef production systems are closely interlinked, as fattening of surplus calves from dairy farming and culled dairy cows play an important role in beef production in many countries. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of increasing milk yield per cow on GHG emissions and on other side effects. Two scenarios were modelled: constant milk production at the farm level and decreasing beef production (as co-product; Scenario 1); and both milk and beef production kept constant by compensating the decline in beef production with beef from suckler cow production (Scenario 2). Model calculations considered two types of production unit (PU): dairy cow PU and suckler cow PU. A dairy cow PU comprises not only milk output from the dairy cow, but also beef output from culled cows and the fattening system for surplus calves. The modelled dairy cow PU differed in milk yield per cow per year (6000, 8000 and 10 000 kg) and breed. Scenario 1 resulted in lower GHG emissions with increasing milk yield per cow. However, when milk and beef outputs were kept constant (Scenario 2), GHG emissions remained approximately constant with increasing milk yield from 6000 to 8000 kg/cow per year, whereas further increases in milk yield (10 000 kg milk/cow per year) resulted in slightly higher (8%) total GHG emissions. Within Scenario 2, two different allocation methods to handle co-products (surplus calves and beef from culled cows) from dairy cow production were evaluated. Results showed that using the 'economic allocation method', GHG emissions per kg milk decreased with increasing milk yield per cow per year, from 1.06 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2eq) to 0.89 kg CO2eq for the 6000 and

  8. Microwave Energy Increases Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Yield in Human Whole Blood Due to Increased Sphingomyelin Transesterification.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Ciobanu, Flaviu; Taha, Ameer Y; Stark, Ken D

    2015-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) by fingertip prick collection for fatty acid profiling are becoming increasingly popular due to ease of collection, minimal invasiveness and its amenability to high-throughput analyses. Herein, we assess a microwave-assisted direct transesterification method for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from DBS. Technical replicates of human whole blood were collected and 25-μL aliquots were applied to chromatography strips prior to analysis by a standard 3-h transesterification method or microwave-assisted direct transesterification method under various power (variable vs constant), time (1-5 min) and reagent (1-10% H2SO4 in methanol) conditions. In addition, a standard method was compared to a 5-min, 30-W power microwave in 1% H2SO4 method for FAME yield from whole blood sphingomyelin, and sphingomyelin standards alone and spiked in whole blood. Microwave-assisted direct transesterification yielded no significant differences in both quantitative (nmol/100 µL) and qualitative (mol%) fatty acid assessments after as little as 1.5- and 1-min reaction times, respectively, using the variable power method and 5% H2SO4 in methanol. However, 30-W power for 5 min increased total FAME yield of the technical replicates by 14%. This increase appears largely due to higher sphingomyelin-derived FAME yield of up to 109 and 399% compared to the standard method when determined from whole blood or pure standards, respectively. In conclusion, microwave-assisted direct transesterification of DBS achieved in as little as 1-min, and 5-min reaction times increase total fatty acids primarily by significantly improving sphingomyelin-derived fatty acid yield.

  9. Irrigation with desalinated water: A step toward increasing water saving and crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Avner; Israeli, Yair; Elingold, Idan; Levi, Menashe; Levkovitch, Irit; Russo, David; Assouline, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of two different approaches to managing irrigation water salinity: salt leaching from the field ("conventional" management) and water desalination before field application ("alternative" management). Freshwater commonly used for irrigation (FW) and desalinated water (DS) were applied to the high-water-demanding crop banana at four different rates. Both irrigation rate and water salinity significantly affected yield. DS application consistently produced higher yields than FW, independently of irrigation rate. The highest yield for FW-irrigation was achieved with the highest irrigation rate, whereas the same yield was obtained in the case of DS-irrigation with practically half the amount of water. Yield decreased with FW-irrigation, even when the water salinity, ECi, was lower than the limit considered safe for soil and crops. Irrigating with FW provided a massive amount of salt which accumulated in the rhizosphere, inducing increased osmotic potential of the soil solution and impairing plant water uptake. Furthermore, applying the "conventional" management, a significant amount of salt is leached from the rhizosphere, accumulating in deeper soil layers, and eventually reaching groundwater reservoirs, thus contributing to the deterioration of both soil and water quality. Removal of salt excess from the water before it reaches the field by means of DS-irrigation may save significant amounts of irrigation water by reducing the salt leaching requirements while increasing yield and improving fruit quality, and decreasing salt load in the groundwater.

  10. Increased yield of endothelial cells from peripheral blood for cell therapies and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Kang, Sa Do; Rodriguez, AnnMarie K; Haseltine, Justin M; Galinat, Lauren J; Jantzen, Alexandra E; Carlon, Tim A; Darrabie, Marcus D; Arciniegas, Antonio J; Mantilla, Jose G; Haley, N Rebecca; Noviani, Maria; Allen, Jason D; Stabler, Thomas V; Frederiksen, James W; Alzate, Oscar; Keil, Lukas G; Liu, Siyao; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Truskey, George A; Achneck, Hardean E

    2015-05-01

    Peripheral blood-derived endothelial cells (pBD-ECs) are an attractive tool for cell therapies and tissue engineering, but have been limited by their low isolation yield. We increase pBD-EC yield via administration of the chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist AMD3100, as well as via a diluted whole blood incubation (DWBI). Porcine pBD-ECs were isolated using AMD3100 and DWBI and tested for EC markers, acetylated LDL uptake, growth kinetics, metabolic activity, flow-mediated nitric oxide production and seeded onto titanium tubes implanted into vessels of pigs. DWBI increased the yield of porcine pBD-ECs 6.6-fold, and AMD3100 increased the yield 4.5-fold. AMD3100-mobilized ECs were phenotypically indistinguishable from nonmobilized ECs. In porcine implants, the cells expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase, reduced thrombin-antithrombin complex systemically and prevented thrombosis. Administration of AMD3100 and the DWBI method both increase pBD-EC yield.

  11. Boosting seed development as a new strategy to increase cotton fiber yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2013-07-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important textile crop worldwide due to its cellulosic mature fibers, which are single-celled hairs initiated from the cotton ovule epidermis at anthesis. Research to improve cotton fiber yield and quality in recent years has been largely focused on identifying genes regulating fiber cell initiation, elongation and cellulose synthesis. However, manipulating some of those candidate genes has yielded no effect or only a marginally positive effect on fiber yield or quality. On the other hand, evolutionary comparison and transgenic studies have clearly shown that cotton fiber growth is intimately controlled by seed development. Therefore, I propose that enhancing seed development could be a more effective and achievable strategy to increase fiber yield and quality. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Increased water yield due to the hemlock woolly adelgid infestation in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihyun; Hwang, Taehee; Schaaf, Crystal L.; Orwig, David A.; Boose, Emery; Munger, J. William

    2017-03-01

    Over the past few decades, a hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) infestation has significantly affected eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in the eastern U.S., and warmer winters are expected to promote a continued northward expansion in the future. Here we report a water yield increase due to the HWA infestation in New England, U.S. Since the first observation in 2002, peak growing season evapotranspiration over a hemlock-dominated area has decreased by 24-37% in 2012 and 2013. Over the same time period, the water yield from the study catchment significantly increased as compared to an adjacent catchment with less hemlock cover. The net increase was estimated to be as much as 15.6% of annual water yield in 2014 based on an ecohydrological modeling analysis. This study indicates that the ongoing hemlock decline is also largely altering hydrological regimes in the northeastern U.S.

  13. Increasing temperature cuts back crop yields in Hungary over the last 90 years.

    PubMed

    Pinke, Zsolt; Lövei, Gábor L

    2017-07-12

    The transformation of climatic regime has an undeniable impact on plant production, but we rarely have long enough date series to examine the unfolding of such effects. The clarification of the relationship between crop plants and climate has a near-immediate importance due to the impending human-made global change. This study investigated the relationship between temperature, precipitation, drought intensity and the yields of four major cereals in Hungary between 1921 and 2010. The analysis of 30-year segments indicated a monotonously increasing negative impact of temperature on crop yields. A 1°C temperature increase reduced the yield of the four main cereals by 9.6%-14.8% in 1981-2010, which revealed the vulnerability of Eastern European crop farming to recent climate change. Climate accounted for 17%-39% of yield variability over the past 90 years, but this figure reached 33%-67% between 1981 and 2010. Our analysis supports the claim that the mid-20th century green revolution improved yields "at the mercy of the weather": during this period, the impact of increasing fertilization and mechanisation coincided with climatic conditions that were more favourable than today. Crop yields in Eastern Europe have been stagnating or decreasing since the mid-1980s. Although usually attributed to the large socio-economic changes sweeping the region, our analysis indicates that a warming climate is at least partially responsible for this trend. Such a robust impact of increasing temperatures on crop yields also constitutes an obvious warning for this core grain-growing region of the world. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  15. Maize ARGOS1 (ZAR1) transgenic alleles increase hybrid maize yield.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei; Rupe, Mary A; Wei, Jun; Winkler, Chris; Goncalves-Butruille, Marymar; Weers, Ben P; Cerwick, Sharon F; Dieter, Jo Ann; Duncan, Keith E; Howard, Richard J; Hou, Zhenglin; Löffler, Carlos M; Cooper, Mark; Simmons, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement for yield and drought tolerance is challenging due to the complex genetic nature of these traits and environmental dependencies. This study reports that transgenic over-expression of Zea mays AR GOS1 (ZAR1) enhanced maize organ growth, grain yield, and drought-stress tolerance. The ZAR1 transgene exhibited environmental interactions, with yield increase under Temperate Dry and yield reduction under Temperate Humid or High Latitude environments. Native ZAR1 allele variation associated with drought-stress tolerance. Two founder alleles identified in the mid-maturity germplasm of North America now predominate in Pioneer's modern breeding programme, and have distinct proteins, promoters and expression patterns. These two major alleles show heterotic group partitioning, with one predominant in Pioneer's female and the other in the male heterotic groups, respectively. These two alleles also associate with favourable crop performance when heterozygous. Allele-specific transgene testing showed that, of the two alleles discussed here, each allele differed in their impact on yield and environmental interactions. Moreover, when transgenically stacked together the allelic pair showed yield and environmental performance advantages over either single allele, resembling heterosis effects. This work demonstrates differences in transgenic efficacy of native alleles and the differences reflect their association with hybrid breeding performance.

  16. Maize ARGOS1 (ZAR1) transgenic alleles increase hybrid maize yield

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement for yield and drought tolerance is challenging due to the complex genetic nature of these traits and environmental dependencies. This study reports that transgenic over-expression of Zea mays ARGOS1 (ZAR1) enhanced maize organ growth, grain yield, and drought-stress tolerance. The ZAR1 transgene exhibited environmental interactions, with yield increase under Temperate Dry and yield reduction under Temperate Humid or High Latitude environments. Native ZAR1 allele variation associated with drought-stress tolerance. Two founder alleles identified in the mid-maturity germplasm of North America now predominate in Pioneer’s modern breeding programme, and have distinct proteins, promoters and expression patterns. These two major alleles show heterotic group partitioning, with one predominant in Pioneer’s female and the other in the male heterotic groups, respectively. These two alleles also associate with favourable crop performance when heterozygous. Allele-specific transgene testing showed that, of the two alleles discussed here, each allele differed in their impact on yield and environmental interactions. Moreover, when transgenically stacked together the allelic pair showed yield and environmental performance advantages over either single allele, resembling heterosis effects. This work demonstrates differences in transgenic efficacy of native alleles and the differences reflect their association with hybrid breeding performance. PMID:24218327

  17. Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Andrew J.; McAusland, Lorna; Headland, Lauren R.; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the next 40 years it has been estimated that a 50% increase in the yield of grain crops such as wheat and rice will be required to meet the food and fuel demands of the increasing world population. Transgenic tobacco plants have been generated with altered combinations of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and the cyanobacterial putative-inorganic carbon transporter B, ictB, of which have all been identified as targets to improve photosynthesis based on empirical studies. It is shown here that increasing the levels of the three proteins individually significantly increases the rate of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, leaf area, and biomass yield. Furthermore, the daily integrated measurements of photosynthesis showed that mature plants fixed between 12–19% more CO2 than the equivalent wild-type plants. Further enhancement of photosynthesis and yield was observed when sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and ictB were over-expressed together in the same plant. These results demonstrate the potential for the manipulation of photosynthesis, using multigene-stacking approaches, to increase crop yields. PMID:25956882

  18. Multigene manipulation of photosynthetic carbon assimilation increases CO2 fixation and biomass yield in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Andrew J; McAusland, Lorna; Headland, Lauren R; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A

    2015-07-01

    Over the next 40 years it has been estimated that a 50% increase in the yield of grain crops such as wheat and rice will be required to meet the food and fuel demands of the increasing world population. Transgenic tobacco plants have been generated with altered combinations of sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and the cyanobacterial putative-inorganic carbon transporter B, ictB, of which have all been identified as targets to improve photosynthesis based on empirical studies. It is shown here that increasing the levels of the three proteins individually significantly increases the rate of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, leaf area, and biomass yield. Furthermore, the daily integrated measurements of photosynthesis showed that mature plants fixed between 12-19% more CO2 than the equivalent wild-type plants. Further enhancement of photosynthesis and yield was observed when sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, and ictB were over-expressed together in the same plant. These results demonstrate the potential for the manipulation of photosynthesis, using multigene-stacking approaches, to increase crop yields. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Increased apoptosis and reduced neuronal and glial densities in the hippocampus due to nicotine and ethanol exposure in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-da-Silva, Andreia; Vieira, Fernanda B; Cristina-Rodrigues, Fabiana; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C; Abreu-Villaça, Yael

    2009-10-01

    It has been recently shown that nicotine and ethanol interact during adolescence affecting memory/learning and anxiety levels. Considering the role of the hippocampus in both anxiety and memory/learning, we investigated whether adolescent nicotine and/or ethanol administration elicit apoptotic cell death and whether this results in neuronal and/or glial density alterations in the following regions of the hippocampus: granular layer of the dentate gyrus (GrDG), molecular layer (Mol), CA1, CA2 and CA3. From the 30th to the 45th postnatal day, C57BL/6 male and female mice were exposed to nicotine free base (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH). Four groups were analyzed: (1) concomitant NIC (50mug/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; (2) NIC exposure; (3) ETOH exposure; (4) vehicle. We evaluated cell degeneration (TUNEL assay), neuronal and glial densities (optical disector) and region thicknesses at the end of the period of exposure. Our results demonstrate that ETOH elicited an increase in TUNEL-positive cells relative to the vehicle group in all hippocampal regions. NIC elicited less severe region-dependent effects: the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly increased in the Mol and CA1 when compared to the vehicle group. These results were paralleled by reductions in neuronal and glial cells densities, which indicate that both cell types are sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of these drugs. There were no effects on region thicknesses. On the other hand, concomitant NIC and ETOH reduced the adverse effects of the drugs when administered separately. This ability of nicotine and ethanol co-exposure to lessen the adverse effects of nicotine and ethanol may contribute to adolescents co-use and co-abuse of tobacco and alcoholic beverages.

  20. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Causes Glucose Intolerance with Increased Hepatic Gluconeogenesis and Histone Deacetylases in Adult Rat Offspring: Reversal by Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xing-Hai; Nguyen, Hoa K.; Nyomba, B. L. Grégoire

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure results in increased glucose production in adult rat offspring and this may involve modulation of protein acetylation by cellular stress. We used adult male offspring of dams given ethanol during gestation days 1–7 (early), 8–14 (mid) and 15–21 (late) compared with those from control dams. A group of ethanol offspring was treated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) for 3 weeks. We determined gluconeogenesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase, hepatic free radicals, histone deacetylases (HDAC), acetylated foxo1, acetylated PEPCK, and C/EBP homologous protein as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Prenatal ethanol during either of the 3 weeks of pregnancy increased gluconeogenesis, gluconeogenic genes, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses, sirtuin-2 and HDAC3, 4, 5, and 7 in adult offspring. Conversely, prenatal ethanol reduced acetylation of foxo1 and PEPCK. Treatment of adult ethanol offspring with TUDCA reversed all these abnormalities. Thus, prenatal exposure of rats to ethanol results in long lasting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses explaining increased expression of gluconeogenic genes and HDAC proteins which, by deacetylating foxo1 and PEPCK, contribute to increased gluconeogenesis. These anomalies occurred regardless of the time of ethanol exposure during pregnancy, including early embryogenesis. As these anomalies were reversed by treatment of the adult offspring with TUDCA, this compound has therapeutic potentials in the treatment of glucose intolerance associated with prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:23544086

  1. Chronic pain causes a persistent anxiety state leading to increased ethanol intake in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    González-Sepúlveda, Marta; Pozo, Oscar J; Marcos, Josep; Valverde, Olga

    2016-02-01

    Mood disorders and chronic pain are closely linked, but limited progress has been made in understanding the role of chronic and neuropathic pain in the aetiopathogenesis of depression. To explore the pathological mechanisms that mediate the association between pain and depressive-like behaviours, we studied the time-dependent effect of neuropathic pain on the development of anxiety-like and despair behaviours in CD1 mice. We analysed behavioural data, neuroinflammation reactions and changes in neurotransmitter (glutamate and serotonin) levels in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Sciatic-operated mice displayed long-lasting anxiety-like and despair behaviours, starting 5 and 20 days after partial sciatic nerve ligation, respectively. Glutamatergic neurotransmission and IL-1β cytokine expression were enhanced in the prefrontal cortex of mice with neuropathic pain. We found no change in serotonin metabolism, cytokine IL-6 or brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. While sciatic-operated mice exposed to intermittent ethanol intake (20% v/v) using the drinking in the dark procedure consumed higher amounts of ethanol than sham-operated mice, thermal allodynia and despair behaviour were not attenuated by ethanol consumption. Our findings reveal an association between glutamatergic neurotransmission and pain-induced mood disorders, and indicate that moderate ethanol consumption does not relieve nociceptive and depressive behaviours associated with chronic pain in mice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Behavioral momentum and relapse of ethanol seeking: nondrug reinforcement in a context increases relative reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-02-01

    Drug-related stimuli seem to contribute to the persistence of drug seeking and relapse. Behavioral momentum theory is a framework for understanding how the discriminative-stimulus context in which operant behavior occurs governs the persistence of that behavior. The theory suggests that both resistance to change and relapse are governed by the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation between a stimulus context and all sources of reinforcement obtained in that context. This experiment examined the role of the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation in reinstatement of ethanol seeking of rats by including added response-independent nondrug reinforcement in the self-administration context. Although rates of ethanol-maintained responding were lower in a context with added nondrug reinforcement than a context with ethanol alone, relative resistance to extinction and relative reinstatement were greater in the context previously associated with the nondrug reinforcer. Thus, both relative resistance to extinction and relative relapse of ethanol seeking depended on the Pavlovian stimulus-reinforcer relation between a context and all sources of reinforcement in that context. These findings suggest that to understand how drug-related contexts contribute to relapse, it may be necessary to consider not only the history of drug reinforcement in a context, but also the wide variety of other reinforcers obtained in such contexts.

  3. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety.

    PubMed

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat's place as one of the world's most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield.

  4. Food security: the challenge of increasing wheat yield and the importance of not compromising food safety

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, T; Halford, N G

    2014-01-01

    Current wheat yield and consumption is considered in the context of the historical development of wheat, from early domestication through to modern plant breeding, the Green Revolution and wheat’s place as one of the world’s most productive and important crops in the 21st Century. The need for further improvement in the yield potential of wheat in order to meet current and impending challenges is discussed, including rising consumption and the demand for grain for fuel as well as food. Research on the complex genetics underlying wheat yield is described, including the identification of quantitative trait loci and individual genes, and the prospects of biotechnology playing a role in wheat improvement in the future are discussed. The challenge of preparing wheat to meet the problems of drought, high temperature and increasing carbon dioxide concentration that are anticipated to come about as a result of climate change is also reviewed. Wheat yield must be increased while not compromising food safety, and the emerging problem of processing contaminants is reviewed, focussing in particular on acrylamide, a contaminant that forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during high temperature cooking and processing. Wheat breeders are strongly encouraged to consider the contaminant issue when breeding for yield. PMID:25540461

  5. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  6. Long-term oral melatonin administration reduces ethanol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability and motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, A; Yamskova, O; Schiöth, H B; Nylander, O; Sjöblom, M

    2014-10-01

    Increased intestinal epithelial permeability is associated with intestinal inflammation and dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of long-term oral melatonin administration on ethanol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability and hypermotility. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered melatonin in their tap water (0.1 mg mL(-1) or 0.5 mg mL(-1) ) for 2 or 4 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were anaesthetized with Inactin(®) , and a 30-mm duodenal segment was perfused in situ. The effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, bicarbonate secretion, fluid flux and motor activity were studied. The expression levels of the tight junction components, zona occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and myosin light chain kinase and of the melatonin receptors MT1 and MT2 were assessed using qRT-PCR. Melatonin administration for 2 weeks significantly reduced the basal paracellular permeability, an effect that was absent after 4 weeks. Perfusing the duodenal segment with 15% ethanol induced marked increases in duodenal paracellular permeability, bicarbonate secretion and motor activity. Melatonin for 2 weeks dose-dependently reduced ethanol-induced increases in permeability and motor activity. Four weeks of melatonin administration reduced the ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motility and bicarbonate secretion but had no effect on the increases in permeability. Two weeks of melatonin administration upregulated the expression of MT1 and MT2 , although both were downregulated after 4 weeks. Melatonin downregulated the expression of ZO-3 and upregulated the expression of claudin-2, even as all other mRNA-levels investigated were unaffected. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that melatonin administration markedly improves duodenal barrier functions, suggesting its utility in clinical applications when intestinal barrier functions are compromised.

  7. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa

    PubMed Central

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m-2, i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  8. Increased Night Temperature Negatively Affects Grain Yield, Biomass and Grain Number in Chilean Quinoa.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Jurka; Calderini, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa high nutritive value increases interest worldwide, especially as a crop that could potentially feature in different cropping systems, however, climate change, particularly rising temperatures, challenges this and other crop species. Currently, only limited knowledge exists regarding the grain yield and other key traits response to higher temperatures of this crop, especially to increased night temperatures. In this context, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased night temperature on quinoa yield, grain number, individual grain weight and processes involved in crop growth under the environmental conditions (control treatment) and night thermal increase at two phases: flowering (T1) and grain filling (T2) in southern Chile. A commercial genotype, Regalona, and a quinoa accession (Cod. BO5, N°191, grain bank from Semillas Baer, hereby referred to as Accession) were used, due to their adaptability to Southern Chilean conditions and contrasting grain yield potential, grain weight and size of plants. Temperature was increased ≈4°C above the ambient from 8 pm until 9 am the next morning. Control treatments reached a high grain yield (600 and 397 g m(-2), i.e., Regalona and Accession). Temperature increase reduced grain yield by 31% under T1 treatment and 12% when under T2 in Regalona and 23 and 26% in Accession, respectively. Aboveground biomass was negatively affected by the thermal treatments and a positive linear association was found between grain yield and aboveground biomass across treatments. By contrast, the harvest index was unaffected either by genotype, or by thermal treatments. Grain number was significantly affected between treatments and this key trait was linearly associated with grain yield. On the other hand, grain weight showed a narrow range of variation across treatments. Additionally, leaf area index was not affected, but significant differences were found in SPAD values at the end of T1 treatment, compared

  9. Varenicline, a partial agonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, reduces nicotine-induced increases in 20% ethanol operant self-administration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bito-Onon, Jade J; Simms, Jeffrey A; Chatterjee, Susmita; Holgate, Joan; Bartlett, Selena E

    2011-07-01

    Alcohol and nicotine use disorders are often treated as separate diseases, despite evidence that approximately 80-90% of alcohol dependent individuals are also heavy smokers. Both nicotine and ethanol have been shown to interact with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), suggesting these receptors are a common biological target for the effects of nicotine and ethanol in the brain. There are few studies that have examined the effects of co-administered nicotine and ethanol on the activity of nAChRs in rodents. In the present study, we show that Sprague-Dawley rats, a strain often used for nicotine studies but not as often for voluntary ethanol intake studies, will consume 20% ethanol using both the intermittent-access two-bottle-choice and operant self-administration models without the need for sucrose fading. We show that nicotine (0.2 mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increases operant 20% ethanol self-administration and varenicline (2 mg/kg, s.c), a partial agonist at nAChRs, significantly decreases operant ethanol self-administration and nicotine-induced increases in ethanol self-administration. This suggests that nAChRs play an important role in increasing ethanol self-administration and that varenicline may be an efficacious treatment for alcohol and nicotine co-dependencies.

  10. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline increases the ataxic and sedative-hypnotic effects of acute ethanol administration in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamens, Helen M.; Andersen, Jimena; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The costs associated with alcohol abuse are staggering, therefore much effort has been put into developing new pharmacological strategies to decrease alcohol abuse. Recently, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist varenicline has been shown to decrease ethanol consumption in both humans and animal models. Methods We examined the effects of varenicline on the ataxic and sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. First, varenicline was administered prior to placement in a locomotor activity chamber to determine if varenicline influenced baseline locomotor activity. To determine the effect of nicotinic modulation on ethanol-induced motor incoordination, varenicline was administered 30 min prior to an acute ethanol injection and then mice were tested on the balance beam, dowel test or fixed-speed rotarod. To examine ethanol's sedative-hypnotic effects, varenicline was administered 30 min prior to 4 g/kg ethanol and the duration of loss of righting reflex (LORR) was measured. Results Varenicline markedly reduced baseline locomotor activity in C57BL/6J mice. Varenicline increased ethanol-induced ataxia when measured on the balance beam and dowel test, but had no effect when measured on the fixed-speed rotarod. Pretreatment with varenicline increased the duration of LORR. Conclusions These data provide evidence that nAChRs may be involved in the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol. It is possible that one mechanism which could contribute to the ability of varenicline to decrease ethanol consumption may be through increasing negative behavioral effects of alcohol. PMID:20946306

  11. Varenicline, a Partial Agonist at Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors, Reduces Nicotine-Induced Increases in 20% Ethanol Operant Self-Administration in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bito-Onon, Jade J.; Simms, Jeffrey A.; Chatterjee, Susmita; Holgate, Joan; Bartlett, Selena E.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine use disorders are often treated as separate diseases, despite evidence that approximately 80–90% of alcohol dependent individuals are also heavy smokers. Both nicotine and ethanol have been shown to interact with neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), suggesting these receptors are a common biological target for the effects of nicotine and ethanol in the brain. There are few studies that have examined the effects of co-administered nicotine and ethanol on the activity of nAChRs in rodents. In the present study, we show that Sprague-Dawley rats, a strain often used for nicotine studies but not as often for voluntary ethanol intake studies, will consume 20% ethanol using both the intermittent-access two-bottle-choice and operant self-administration models without the need for sucrose fading. We show that nicotine (0.2mg/kg and 0.8mg/kg, s.c.) significantly increases operant 20% ethanol self-administration and varenicline (2mg/kg, s.c), a partial agonist at nAChRs, significantly decreases operant ethanol self-administration and nicotine-induced increases in ethanol self-administration. This suggests that nAChRs play an important role in increasing ethanol self-administration and that varenicline may be an efficacious treatment for alcohol and nicotine co-dependencies. PMID:21392178

  12. Male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective: A comment on “Sexual Deprivation Increases Ethanol Intake in Drosophila”

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Shohat-Ophir et al.1 demonstrate a connection between sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption in male Drosophila flies, and how the neuropeptide F system regulates ethanol preference. Their results are rightly discussed only in a physiological context, but this has facilitated erroneous anthropomorphic interpretations by the media. Here we discuss the link between male sexual behaviour and ethanol consumption from an evolutionary perspective, providing a broader context to interpret their results. PMID:25970263

  13. Using C4 photosynthesis to increase the yield of rice-rationale and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Julian M; Sheehy, John E; Langdale, Jane A

    2008-04-01

    90% of the world's rice is grown and consumed in Asia, with each hectare of rice-producing land providing food for 27 people. By 2050, because of population growth and increasing urbanisation, each remaining hectare will have to feed at least 43 people. This means that yields must be increased by at least 50% over the next 40 years to prevent mass malnutrition for the 700 million Asians that currently rely on rice for more than 60% of their daily calorific intake. Since predictive models suggest that yield increases of this magnitude can only be achieved by improving photosynthesis, and because evolution has increased photosynthetic efficiency by 50% in the form of the C4 pathway, one solution is to generate C4 rice. However, this is an ambitious goal that requires proof of concept before any major investment of time and money. Here, we discuss approaches that should allow proof of concept to be tested.

  14. Temperature increase reduces global yields of major crops in four independent estimates.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuang; Liu, Bing; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Lobell, David B; Huang, Yao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Bassu, Simona; Ciais, Philippe; Durand, Jean-Louis; Elliott, Joshua; Ewert, Frank; Janssens, Ivan A; Li, Tao; Lin, Erda; Liu, Qiang; Martre, Pierre; Müller, Christoph; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Ruane, Alex C; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Tao; Wu, Donghai; Liu, Zhuo; Zhu, Yan; Zhu, Zaichun; Asseng, Senthold

    2017-08-29

    Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments. Results from the different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield at the global scale, generally underpinned by similar impacts at country and site scales. Without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields of wheat by 6.0%, rice by 3.2%, maize by 7.4%, and soybean by 3.1%. Results are highly heterogeneous across crops and geographical areas, with some positive impact estimates. Multimethod analyses improved the confidence in assessments of future climate impacts on global major crops and suggest crop- and region-specific adaptation strategies to ensure food security for an increasing world population.

  15. Temperature Increase Reduces Global Yields of Major Crops in Four Independent Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Liu, Bing; Piao, Shilong; Wang, Xuhui; Lobell, David B.; Huang, Yao; Huang, Mengtian; Yao, Yitong; Bassu, Simona; Ciais, Philippe; hide

    2017-01-01

    Wheat, rice, maize, and soybean provide two-thirds of human caloric intake. Assessing the impact of global temperature increase on production of these crops is therefore critical to maintaining global food supply, but different studies have yielded different results. Here, we investigated the impacts of temperature on yields of the four crops by compiling extensive published results from four analytical methods: global grid-based and local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments. Results from the different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield at the global scale, generally underpinned by similar impacts at country and site scales. Without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields of wheat by 6.0%, rice by 3.2%, maize by 7.4%, and soybean by 3.1%. Results are highly heterogeneous across crops and geographical areas, with some positive impact estimates. Multi-method analyses improved the confidence in assessments of future climate impacts on global major crops and suggest crop- and region-specific adaptation strategies to ensure food security for an increasing world population.

  16. Constitutive expression of cell wall invertase genes increases grain yield and starch content in maize.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yue; Kang, Tao; Zhang, Li; Tong, Jianhua; Xiao, Langtao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2013-12-01

    Grain size, number and starch content are important determinants of grain yield and quality. One of the most important biological processes that determine these components is the carbon partitioning during the early grain filling, which requires the function of cell wall invertase. Here, we showed the constitutive expression of cell wall invertase-encoding gene from Arabidopsis, rice (Oryza sativa) or maize (Zea mays), driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, all increased cell wall invertase activities in different tissues and organs, including leaves and developing seeds, and substantially improved grain yield up to 145.3% in transgenic maize plants as compared to the wild-type plants, an effect that was reproduced in our 2-year field trials at different locations. The dramatically increased grain yield is due to the enlarged ears with both enhanced grain size and grain number. Constitutive expression of the invertase-encoding gene also increased total starch content up to 20% in the transgenic kernels. Our results suggest that cell wall invertase gene can be genetically engineered to improve both grain yield and grain quality in crop plants. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The enemy as ally: herbivore-induced increase in crop yield.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Katja; Jímenez, Maria Isabel Gómez; Kessler, André

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing global concern over the risk of food shortage and instability, and a concomitant demand for an increase in food production. However, the continuing expansion of agricultural areas threatens natural habitats as well as human and ecosystem health. One option for increasing food production is to maximize yields from existing farmland. Here we demonstrate that larval feeding by the Guatemalan potato moth (Tecia solanivora), considered one of the most economically important potato pests in Latin America, leads to a dramatic increase in potato tuber production. Field-grown potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) in the Colombian Andes attacked by low numbers of potato moth larvae produce a 2.5-fold higher marketable potato yield than undamaged plants. Greenhouse experiments demonstrate that this effect is induced by larval regurgitant, rather than by mechanical tissue damage. Our results indicate that compounds from the foregut of T. solanivora are necessary and sufficient to induce an increased yield in potato. Our study suggests that using (1) herbivore-derived chemical cues and (2) induced compensatory plant responses to herbivory can provide viable new tools to increase per area crop productivity.

  18. Increased yield surplus of vetch-wheat rotations under drought in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Dalias, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents results of a plot-scale field experiment aiming at the comparative evaluation of agricultural practices and agricultural systems as far as their performance in very-low-rainfall conditions is concerned. Wheat was seeded after common vetch, treated in three different ways, after fallow or after the incorporation of dried sewage sludge or straw. Grain and straw yields and grain characteristics were always compared with conventional wheat monoculture without any additional organic inputs. Results showed a clear positive effect of vetch on next year's wheat yield and an increase in grain protein. Not only did the exceptionally dry season mask this effect, but also vetch-wheat systems were proved to be more effective in restraining wheat yield reductions, which are unavoidable under drought, marking these systems the most promising for improving sustainability and stability of rainfed agriculture.

  19. Transgenic alteration of ethylene biosynthesis increases grain yield in maize under field drought-stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Habben, Jeffrey E; Bao, Xiaoming; Bate, Nicholas J; DeBruin, Jason L; Dolan, Dennis; Hasegawa, Darren; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lafitte, Renee H; Lovan, Nina; Mo, Hua; Reimann, Kellie; Schussler, Jeffrey R

    2014-08-01

    A transgenic gene-silencing approach was used to modulate the levels of ethylene biosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) and determine its effect on grain yield under drought stress in a comprehensive set of field trials. Commercially relevant transgenic events were created with down-regulated ACC synthases (ACSs), enzymes that catalyse the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. These events had ethylene emission levels reduced approximately 50% compared with nontransgenic nulls. Multiple, independent transgenic hybrids and controls were tested in field trials at managed drought-stress and rain-fed locations throughout the US. Analysis of yield data indicated that transgenic events had significantly increased grain yield over the null comparators, with the best event having a 0.58 Mg/ha (9.3 bushel/acre) increase after a flowering period drought stress. A (genotype × transgene) × environment interaction existed among the events, highlighting the need to better understand the context in which the down-regulation of ACSs functions in maize. Analysis of secondary traits showed that there was a consistent decrease in the anthesis-silking interval and a concomitant increase in kernel number/ear in transgene-positive events versus nulls. Selected events were also field tested under a low-nitrogen treatment, and the best event was found to have a significant 0.44 Mg/ha (7.1 bushel/acre) yield increase. This set of extensive field evaluations demonstrated that down-regulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway can improve the grain yield of maize under abiotic stress conditions.

  20. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W

    2015-01-01

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolate catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits. Expressing the photorespiratory bypass genes in camelina reduced photorespiration and increased photosynthesis in both partial and full bypass expressing lines. Expression of partial bypass increased seed yield by 50-57 %, while expression of full bypass increased seed yield by 57-73 %, with no loss in seed quality. The transgenic plants also showed increased vegetative biomass and faster development; they flowered, set seed and reached seed maturity about 1 week earlier than WT. At the transcriptional level, transgenic plants showed differential expression in categories such as respiration, amino acid biosynthesis and fatty acid metabolism. The increased growth of the bypass transgenics compared to WT was only observed in ambient or low CO

  1. Workshop on the Increased Use of Ethanol and Alkylates in Automotive Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D W

    2001-05-04

    The goals of the Workshop are to: (1) Review the existing state of knowledge on (a) physicochemical properties, multi-media transport and fate, exposure mechanisms and (b) release scenarios associated with the production, distribution, and use of ethanol and alkylates in gasoline; (2) Identify key regulatory, environmental, and resource management issues and knowledge gaps associated with anticipated changes in gasoline formulation in California; and (3) Develop a roadmap for addressing issues/knowledge gaps.

  2. Reactive oxygen species production induced by ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases because of a dysfunctional mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly system.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gallardo, Rocio V; Briones, Luis S; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L; Gutiérrez, Sergio; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Campos-García, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Ethanol accumulation during fermentation contributes to the toxic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, impairing its viability and fermentative capabilities. The iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster biogenesis is encoded by the ISC genes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is associated with iron release from Fe-S-containing enzymes. We evaluated ethanol toxicity, ROS generation, antioxidant response and mitochondrial integrity in S. cerevisiae ISC mutants. These mutants showed an impaired tolerance to ethanol. ROS generation increased substantially when ethanol accumulated at toxic concentrations under the fermentation process. At the cellular and mitochondrial levels, ROS were increased in yeast treated with ethanol and increased to a higher level in the ssq1∆, isa1∆, iba57∆ and grx5∆ mutants - hydrogen peroxide and superoxide were the main molecules detected. Additionally, ethanol treatment decreased GSH/GSSG ratio and increased catalase activity in the ISC mutants. Examination of cytochrome c integrity indicated that mitochondrial apoptosis was triggered following ethanol treatment. The findings indicate that the mechanism of ethanol toxicity occurs via ROS generation dependent on ISC assembly system functionality. In addition, mutations in the ISC genes in S. cerevisiae contribute to the increase in ROS concentration at the mitochondrial and cellular level, leading to depletion of the antioxidant responses and finally to mitochondrial apoptosis.

  3. Both protein adsorption and aggregation contribute to shear yielding and viscosity increase in protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Pathak, Jai A; Colby, Ralph H

    2014-01-07

    A combination of sensitive rotational rheometry and surface rheometry with a double-wall ring were used to identify the origins of the viscosity increase at low shear rates in protein solutions. The rheology of two high molecular weight proteins is discussed: Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in a Phosphate Buffered Saline solution and an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a formulation buffer containing small quantities of a non-ionic surfactant. For surfactant-free BSA solutions, the interfacial viscosity dominates the low shear viscosity measured in rotational rheometers, while the surfactant-laden mAb solution has an interfacial viscosity that is small compared to that from aggregation in the bulk. A viscoelastic film forms at the air/water interface in the absence of surfactant, contributing to an apparent yield stress (thus a low shear viscosity increase) in conventional bulk rheology measurements. Addition of surfactant eliminates the interfacial yield stress. Evidence of a bulk yield stress arising from protein aggregation is presented, and correlated with results from standard characterization techniques used in the bio-pharmaceutical industry. The protein film at the air/water interface and bulk aggregates both lead to an apparent viscosity increase and their contributions are quantified using a dimensionless ratio of the interfacial and total yield stress. While steady shear viscosities at shear rates below ∼1 s(-1) contain rich information about the stability of protein solutions, embodied in the measured yield stress, such low shear rate data are regrettably often not measured and reported in the literature.

  4. Short-Term Complete Submergence of Rice at the Tillering Stage Increases Yield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Zhensheng; Li, Lei; Zhou, Qun; Xiao, Yao; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is a major threat to agricultural production. Most studies have focused on the lower water storage limit in rice fields, whereas few studies have examined the upper water storage limit. This study aimed to explore the effect of waterlogging at the rice tillering stage on rice growth and yield. The early-ripening late japonica variety Yangjing 4227 was selected for this study. The treatments included different submergence depths (submergence depth/plant height: 1/2 (waist submergence), 2/3 (neck submergence), and 1/1 (complete submergence)) and durations (1, 3, and 5 d). The control group was treated with the conventional alternation of drying and wetting. The effects of waterlogging at the tillering stage on root characteristics, dry matter production, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation, yield, yield components, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) gene expression were explored. Compared with the control group, the 1/1 group showed significant increases in yield, seed-setting rate, photosynthetically efficient leaf area, and OS-ACS3 gene expression after 1 d of submergence. The grain number per panicle, dry weight of the aboveground and belowground parts, and number of adventitious roots also increased. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the panicle number and nitrogen content; however, no significant correlation was found for phosphorus content. If a decrease in rice yield of less than 10% is acceptable, half, 2/3, and complete submergence of the plants can be performed at the tillering stage for 1-3 d; this treatment will increase the space available for rice field water management/control and will improve rainfall resource utilization. PMID:26001084

  5. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBX32 Gene in Soybean Increases Grain Yield

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Sasha B.; Meister, Robert; Xu, Qingzhang; Urwin, Carl P.; Tripodi, Federico A.; Screen, Steven E.; Anil, Veena S.; Zhu, Shuquan; Morrell, James A.; Liu, Grace; Ratcliffe, Oliver J.; Reuber, T. Lynne; Khanna, Rajnish; Goldman, Barry S.; Bell, Erin; Ziegler, Todd E.; McClerren, Amanda L.; Ruff, Thomas G.; Petracek, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Crop yield is a highly complex quantitative trait. Historically, successful breeding for improved grain yield has led to crop plants with improved source capacity, altered plant architecture, and increased resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. To date, transgenic approaches towards improving crop grain yield have primarily focused on protecting plants from herbicide, insects, or disease. In contrast, we have focused on identifying genes that, when expressed in soybean, improve the intrinsic ability of the plant to yield more. Through the large scale screening of candidate genes in transgenic soybean, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana B-box domain gene (AtBBX32) that significantly increases soybean grain yield year after year in multiple transgenic events in multi-location field trials. In order to understand the underlying physiological changes that are associated with increased yield in transgenic soybean, we examined phenotypic differences in two AtBBX32-expressing lines and found increases in plant height and node, flower, pod, and seed number. We propose that these phenotypic changes are likely the result of changes in the timing of reproductive development in transgenic soybean that lead to the increased duration of the pod and seed development period. Consistent with the role of BBX32 in A. thaliana in regulating light signaling, we show that the constitutive expression of AtBBX32 in soybean alters the abundance of a subset of gene transcripts in the early morning hours. In particular, AtBBX32 alters transcript levels of the soybean clock genes GmTOC1 and LHY-CCA1-like2 (GmLCL2). We propose that through the expression of AtBBX32 and modulation of the abundance of circadian clock genes during the transition from dark to light, the timing of critical phases of reproductive development are altered. These findings demonstrate a specific role for AtBBX32 in modulating soybean development, and demonstrate the validity of expressing single genes in crops to

  6. Ethanol Withdrawal Increases Glutathione Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2-Hexenal but not 4-Hydroxyl-2-Nonenal in the Rat Cerebral Cortex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanol withdrawal increases lipid peroxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoate (DHA; 22:6; n-3) in the CNS. In order to further define the role of oxidative damage of PUFA during ethanol withdrawal, we measured levels of glutathione adducts of 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (GSHHE) a...

  7. Increasing yield of nanocrystalline cellulose preparation process by a cellulase pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Beltramino, Facundo; Roncero, M Blanca; Vidal, Teresa; Torres, Antonio L; Valls, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    In this work the introduction of a cellulase treatment prior to NCC isolation was assessed. NCC was produced using sulfuric acid at two different concentrations (62 and 64% wt.). The effect of pore size for filtration step was also assessed. The smaller acid dose leaded to yields up to 65-70% and average size up to 160 nm. It also produced crystals with reduced sulfur content (0.6-1%). Cellulase pretreatment influenced NCC characteristics, as it increased overall yield a 12%, increased average particle size around 35 nm and reduced NCC sulfur content up to a 0.8%. We found that different conditions of enzymatic treatments led to quantitative differences on their effects on NCC. Acetate buffer used for enzymatic treatments was found to counteract effects of acid. The evidence presented in this work suggested that pretreating fibers with this cellulase represents a very interesting option to partially replace chemicals on NCC isolation.

  8. Salt-induced increase in the yield of enzymatically synthesized phosphatidylinositol and the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Michiko; Damnjanović, Jasmina; Nakano, Hideo; Iwasaki, Yugo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the efficiency of enzymatic synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and myo-inositol in a phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated transphosphatidylation. A conventional biphasic reaction system consisting of ethyl acetate and an aqueous buffer afforded PI with a yield of 14 mol%. In contrast, the reaction performed in the presence of high concentration (0.8-4.3 M) of NaCl in the aqueous phase showed improved PI yield in a NaCl concentration-dependent manner. At 4.3 M NaCl, PI yield of as much as 35 mol% was achieved. The increase in the PI yield offered by other tested salts varied; however, we observed that some salts caused inactivation of the enzyme when used at high concentrations. Although NaCl at high concentration increased the apparent hydrolytic activity on aggregated PC, it decreased the activity towards monomeric PC, indicating that high concentration of salt intrinsically inhibits the enzyme. Binding assays revealed that PLD re-localized from the aqueous phase to the solvent-buffer interface, where the enzymatic reaction takes place, in the presence of both, the salt and PC. Hence, we concluded that improvement of the PI synthesis in the presence of salt occurs mainly due to the accumulation of the enzyme at the interface by strengthening the hydrophobic interactions, by which the apparent activation outweighs the salt-induced inhibitory effect. Using this improved system, several PI with defined structures, namely sn-1, 2-dioleoyl-PI, sn-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PI, and sn-1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-PI, were successfully synthesized with overall yields of 25-37%, and PI isomeric purities of 91-96%. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  10. Moderate excess of dietary protein increases breast meat yield of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Bartov, I; Plavnik, I

    1998-05-01

    Two factorial experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary protein level, expressed as energy to protein (E:P) ratio, on yields of carcass and breast and on abdominal fat pad weight of male broiler chicks at 43 and 57 d of age. Two diets similar in their energy content and differing markedly in their protein content, in which the E:P ratios were lower and identical to the NRC (1994) recommendations, were used in Experiment 1. Four diets, the combination of two energy and two protein levels, in which the E:P ratios were lower and identical to the recommendations, were used in Experiment 2. There were no differences in feed intake or weight gain until 42 d of age between broilers fed the diets with the low and those fed the recommended E:P ratio. However, feed efficiency of the former was consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher. The high-energy diets did not affect feed intake but significantly improved weight gain between 7 and 28 d of age and feed efficiency until 42 d of age. In both experiments, carcass yield was not affected by dietary E:P ratio at 43 d of age; however, at 57 d of age it was increased significantly by the low E:P ratio in Experiment 1 and in birds fed the high energy diet in Experiment 2. On a factorial basis, the effect of the low E:P ratio on increasing yield was significant only in Experiment 1. The high dietary energy level increased carcass yield only at 43 d of age, but on a factorial basis its effect was significant. Carcass yield was significantly (P < 0.001) higher at 57 than at 43 d of age. In both experiments, breast meat yield was negatively correlated with dietary E:P ratio, a significant factorial effect. The difference in this variable between broilers fed the diets containing the low and the recommended E:P ratio was significant, at both ages in Experiment 1, and only at 57 d of age in Experiment 2. Breast meat yield was not affected by dietary energy level, and it was significantly (P < 0.001) higher

  11. Pistil Smut Infection Increases Ovary Production, Seed Yield Components, and Pseudosexual Reproductive Allocation in Buffalograss

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Ambika; Huff, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex expression of dioecious buffalograss [Bouteloua dactyloides Columbus (syn. Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.)] is known to be environmentally stable with approximate 1:1, male to female, sex ratios. Here we show that infection by the pistil smut fungus [Salmacisia buchloëana Huff & Chandra (syn. Tilletia buchloëana Kellerman and Swingle)] shifts sex ratios of buffalograss to be nearly 100% phenotypically hermaphroditic. In addition, pistil smut infection decreased vegetative reproductive allocation, increased most seed yield components, and increased pseudosexual reproductive allocation in both sex forms compared to uninfected clones. In female sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in a 26 fold increase in ovary production and a 35 fold increase in potential harvest index. In male sex forms, pistil smut infection resulted in 2.37 fold increase in floret number and over 95% of these florets contained a well-developed pistil. Although all ovaries of infected plants are filled with fungal teliospores and hence reproductively sterile, an average male-female pair of infected plants exhibited an 87 fold increase in potential harvest index compared to their uninfected clones. Acquiring an ability to mimic the effects of pistil smut infection would enhance our understanding of the flowering process in grasses and our efforts to increase seed yield of buffalograss and perhaps other grasses. PMID:27135522

  12. Increased Yield of High Purity Recombinant Human Interferon-γ Utilizing Reversed Phase Column Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Praveen K.; Reddy, Srinivasa G.; Narala, Venkata R.; Majee, Sangita S.; Konda, Sudhakar; Gunwar, Sripad; Reddy, Raju C.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing therapeutic applications for recombinant human interferon-γ (rhIFN-γ), an antiviral proinflammatory cytokine, has broadened interest in optimizing methods for its production and purification. We describe a reversed phase chromatography (RPC) procedure using Source-30™ matrix in the purification of rhIFN-γ from Escherichia coli that results in a higher yield than previously reported. The purified rhIFN-γ monomer from the RPC column is refolded in Tris buffer. Optimal refolding occurs at protein concentrations between 50–100 μg/ml. This method yields greater than 90% of the dimer form with a yield of 40 mg g−1 cell mass. Greater than 99% purity is achieved with further purification over a Superdex G-75 column to obtain specific activities of from 2 to 4 × 107 IU/mg protein as determined via cytopathic antiviral assay. The improved yield of rhIFN-γ in a simple chromatographic purification procedure promises to enhance the development and therapeutic application of this biologically potent molecule. PMID:17049266

  13. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, Lisa M; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches.

  14. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia

    PubMed Central

    McFadyen, Lisa M.; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. Methods In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. Key Results In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches. PMID:21325025

  15. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  16. Selectable traits to increase crop photosynthesis and yield of grain crops.

    PubMed

    Richards, R A

    2000-02-01

    The grain yield of cereals has almost doubled this century as a result of genetic manipulation by plant breeding. Surprisingly, there has been no change in the rate of photosynthesis per unit leaf area to accompany these increases. However, total photosynthesis has increased as a result of an increase in leaf area, daily duration of photosynthesis or leaf area duration. There remain substantial opportunities to continue to improve total photosynthesis and crop yield genetically using conventional breeding practices. Selectable traits are discussed here in the context of increasing total above-ground biomass under favourable conditions. Opportunities exist to alter crop duration and the timing of crop development to match it better to radiation, temperature and vapour pressure during crop growth, and to increase the rate of development of early leaf area to achieve rapid canopy closure. The importance of these traits will depend on the environment in which the crop is grown. Increases in crop photosynthesis through breeding are also likely to come via indirect means. Selection for a high and sustained stomatal conductance during the period of stem elongation is one way. Increasing assimilate allocation to the reproductive primordia so as to establish a large potential sink should also indirectly increase total crop photosynthesis. Evidence in the major grain crops suggests that by anthesis the capacity for photosynthesis is high and that photosynthesis is not limiting during grain filling. To use this surplus capacity it is suggested that carbon and nitrogen partitioning to the reproductive meristem be increased so as to establish a high potential grain number and the potential for a large grain size. It is then expected that additional photosynthesis will follow, either by a longer daily duration of photosynthesis or by an extended leaf area duration.

  17. Precision-cut liver slices from diet-induced obese rats exposed to ethanol are susceptible to oxidative stress and increased fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Willis, Monte S; Schaffert, Courtney S; Reidelberger, Roger D; Dusad, Anand; Anderson, Daniel R; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress from fat accumulation in the liver has many deleterious effects. Many believe that there is a second hit that causes relatively benign fat accumulation to transform into liver failure. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on ex vivo precision-cut liver slice cultures (PCLS) from rats fed a high-fat diet resulting in fatty liver. Age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat (obese) (45% calories from fat, 4.73 kcal/g) or control diet for 13 mo. PCLS were prepared, incubated with 25 mM ethanol for 24, 48, and 72 h, harvested, and evaluated for ethanol metabolism, triglyceride production, oxidative stress, and cytokine expression. Ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde production decreased in PCLS from obese rats compared with age-matched controls (AMC). Increased triglyceride and smooth muscle actin production was observed in PCLS from obese rats compared with AMC, which further increased following ethanol incubation. Lipid peroxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, increased in response to ethanol, whereas GSH and heme oxygenase I levels were decreased. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were increased in the PCLS from obese rats and increased further with ethanol incubation. Diet-induced fatty liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to toxins such as ethanol, possibly by the increased oxidative stress and cytokine production. These findings support the concept that the development of fatty liver sensitizes the liver to the effects of ethanol and leads to the start of liver failure, necrosis, and eventually cirrhosis.

  18. Inoculant of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus clarus) Increase Yield of Soybean and Cotton under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cely, Martha V. T.; de Oliveira, Admilton G.; de Freitas, Vanessa F.; de Luca, Marcelo B.; Barazetti, André R.; dos Santos, Igor M. O.; Gionco, Barbara; Garcia, Guilherme V.; Prete, Cássio E. C.; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species of AMF domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for nutrient supply in soybean (Glycine max L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) when compared with conventional chemical fertilization under field conditions. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: Fertilizer, AMF, AMF with Fertilizer, AMF with 1/2 Fertilizer, and the Control with non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth, nutrient absorption and yield. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased around 20 % of root colonization in both soybean and cotton; nutrients analyses in vegetal tissues showed increase of P and nitrogen content in inoculated plants, these results reflect in a higher yield. Our results showed that, AMF inoculation increase the effectiveness of fertilizer application in soybean and reduce the fertilizer dosage in cotton. PMID:27303367

  19. Inoculant of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Rhizophagus clarus) Increase Yield of Soybean and Cotton under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Cely, Martha V T; de Oliveira, Admilton G; de Freitas, Vanessa F; de Luca, Marcelo B; Barazetti, André R; Dos Santos, Igor M O; Gionco, Barbara; Garcia, Guilherme V; Prete, Cássio E C; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species of AMF domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for nutrient supply in soybean (Glycine max L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) when compared with conventional chemical fertilization under field conditions. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: Fertilizer, AMF, AMF with Fertilizer, AMF with 1/2 Fertilizer, and the Control with non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth, nutrient absorption and yield. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased around 20 % of root colonization in both soybean and cotton; nutrients analyses in vegetal tissues showed increase of P and nitrogen content in inoculated plants, these results reflect in a higher yield. Our results showed that, AMF inoculation increase the effectiveness of fertilizer application in soybean and reduce the fertilizer dosage in cotton.

  20. Phosphoketolase overexpression increases biomass and lipid yield from methane in an obligate methanotrophic biocatalyst

    DOE PAGES

    Henard, Calvin A.; Smith, Holly K.; Guarnieri, Michael T.

    2017-04-02

    Microbial conversion of methane to high-value bio-based chemicals and materials offers a path to mitigate GHG emissions and valorize this abundant-yet -underutilized carbon source. In addition to fermentation optimization strategies, rational methanotrophic bacterial strain engineering offers a means to reach industrially relevant titers, carbon yields, and productivities of target products. The phosphoketolase pathway functions in heterofermentative bacteria where carbon flux through two sugar catabolic pathways to mixed acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) increases cellular ATP production. Importantly, this pathway also serves as an alternative route to produce acetyl-CoA that bypasses the CO2 lost through pyruvate decarboxylation in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnasmore » pathway. Thus, the phosphoketolase pathway can be leveraged for carbon efficient biocatalysis to acetyl-CoA-derived intermediates and products. Here, we show that the industrially promising methane biocatalyst, Methylomicrobium buryatense, encodes two phosphoketolase isoforms that are expressed in methanol- and methane-grown cells. Overexpression of the PktB isoform led to a 2-fold increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration, and a 2.6-fold yield enhancement from methane to microbial biomass and lipids compared to wild-type, increasing the potential for methanotroph lipid-based fuel production. Off-gas analysis and metabolite profiling indicated that global metabolic rearrangements, including significant increases in post-translational protein acetylation and gene expression of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked pathway, along with decreases in several excreted products, coincided with the superior biomass and lipid yield observed in the engineered strain. Further, these data suggest that phosphoketolase may play a key regulatory role in methanotrophic bacterial metabolism. As a result, given that acetyl-CoA is a key intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways, phosphoketolase

  1. Phosphoketolase overexpression increases biomass and lipid yield from methane in an obligate methanotrophic biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Henard, Calvin A; Smith, Holly K; Guarnieri, Michael T

    2017-04-01

    Microbial conversion of methane to high-value bio-based chemicals and materials offers a path to mitigate GHG emissions and valorize this abundant-yet -underutilized carbon source. In addition to fermentation optimization strategies, rational methanotrophic bacterial strain engineering offers a means to reach industrially relevant titers, carbon yields, and productivities of target products. The phosphoketolase pathway functions in heterofermentative bacteria where carbon flux through two sugar catabolic pathways to mixed acids (lactic acid and acetic acid) increases cellular ATP production. Importantly, this pathway also serves as an alternative route to produce acetyl-CoA that bypasses the CO2 lost through pyruvate decarboxylation in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway. Thus, the phosphoketolase pathway can be leveraged for carbon efficient biocatalysis to acetyl-CoA-derived intermediates and products. Here, we show that the industrially promising methane biocatalyst, Methylomicrobium buryatense, encodes two phosphoketolase isoforms that are expressed in methanol- and methane-grown cells. Overexpression of the PktB isoform led to a 2-fold increase in intracellular acetyl-CoA concentration, and a 2.6-fold yield enhancement from methane to microbial biomass and lipids compared to wild-type, increasing the potential for methanotroph lipid-based fuel production. Off-gas analysis and metabolite profiling indicated that global metabolic rearrangements, including significant increases in post-translational protein acetylation and gene expression of the tetrahydromethanopterin-linked pathway, along with decreases in several excreted products, coincided with the superior biomass and lipid yield observed in the engineered strain. Further, these data suggest that phosphoketolase may play a key regulatory role in methanotrophic bacterial metabolism. Given that acetyl-CoA is a key intermediate in several biosynthetic pathways, phosphoketolase overexpression offers a viable

  2. Metabolic engineering of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii yields increased hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Minseok; Chung, Daehwan; Elkins, James G; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Members of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are emerging candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) because they are capable of efficiently growing on biomass without conventional pretreatment. C. bescii produces primarily lactate, acetate and hydrogen as fermentation products, and while some Caldicellulosiruptor strains produce small amounts of ethanol C. bescii does not, making it an attractive background to examine the effects of metabolic engineering. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation has set the stage for rational engineering of this genus for improved biofuel production. Here, we report the first targeted gene deletion, the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), for metabolic engineering of a member of this genus. Results: A deletion of the C. bescii L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) was constructed on a non-replicating plasmid and introduced into the C. bescii chromosome by marker replacement. The resulting strain failed to produce detectable levels of lactate from cellobiose and maltose, instead increasing production of acetate and H2 by 21-34% relative to the wild type and pyrFA parent strains. The same phenotype was observed on a real-world substrate switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Furthermore, the ldh deletion strain grew to a higher maximum optical density than the wild type on maltose and cellobiose, consistent with the prediction that the mutant would gain additional ATP with increased acetate production. Conclusions: Deletion of ldh in C. bescii is the first use of recently developed genetic methods for metabolic engineering of these bacteria. This deletion resulted in a redirection of electron flow from production of lactate to acetate and hydrogen. New capabilities in metabolic engineering combined with intrinsic utilization of lignocellulosic materials position these organisms to provide a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing of fuels and other products from

  3. Metabolic engineering of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii yields increased hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Members of the anaerobic thermophilic bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are emerging candidates for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) because they are capable of efficiently growing on biomass without conventional pretreatment. C. bescii produces primarily lactate, acetate and hydrogen as fermentation products, and while some Caldicellulosiruptor strains produce small amounts of ethanol C. bescii does not, making it an attractive background to examine the effects of metabolic engineering. The recent development of methods for genetic manipulation has set the stage for rational engineering of this genus for improved biofuel production. Here, we report the first targeted gene deletion, the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), for metabolic engineering of a member of this genus. Results A deletion of the C. bescii L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) was constructed on a non-replicating plasmid and introduced into the C. bescii chromosome by marker replacement. The resulting strain failed to produce detectable levels of lactate from cellobiose and maltose, instead increasing production of acetate and H2 by 21-34% relative to the wild type and ΔpyrFA parent strains. The same phenotype was observed on a real-world substrate – switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Furthermore, the ldh deletion strain grew to a higher maximum optical density than the wild type on maltose and cellobiose, consistent with the prediction that the mutant would gain additional ATP with increased acetate production. Conclusions Deletion of ldh in C. bescii is the first use of recently developed genetic methods for metabolic engineering of these bacteria. This deletion resulted in a redirection of electron flow from production of lactate to acetate and hydrogen. New capabilities in metabolic engineering combined with intrinsic utilization of lignocellulosic materials position these organisms to provide a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing of fuels and other products from

  4. Holographic lens spectrum splitting photovoltaic system for increased diffuse collection and annual energy yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorndran, Shelby D.; Wu, Yuechen; Ayala, Silvana; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2015-09-01

    Concentrating and spectrum splitting photovoltaic (PV) modules have a limited acceptance angle and thus suffer from optical loss under off-axis illumination. This loss manifests itself as a substantial reduction in energy yield in locations where a significant portion of insulation is diffuse. In this work, a spectrum splitting PV system is designed to efficiently collect and convert light in a range of illumination conditions. The system uses a holographic lens to concentrate shortwavelength light onto a smaller, more expensive indium gallium phosphide (InGaP) PV cell. The high efficiency PV cell near the axis is surrounded with silicon (Si), a less expensive material that collects a broader portion of the solar spectrum. Under direct illumination, the device achieves increased conversion efficiency from spectrum splitting. Under diffuse illumination, the device collects light with efficiency comparable to a flat-panel Si module. Design of the holographic lens is discussed. Optical efficiency and power output of the module under a range of illumination conditions from direct to diffuse are simulated with non-sequential raytracing software. Using direct and diffuse Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) irradiance measurements, annual energy yield of the module is calculated for several installation sites. Energy yield of the spectrum splitting module is compared to that of a full flat-panel Si reference module.

  5. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  6. SLUDGE BATCH SUPPLEMENTAL SRAT RUNS EFFECTS OF YIELD STRESS AND CYCLE TIME INCREASE

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-08-10

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has transitioned from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing. Phase III-Tank 40 Chemical Process Cell (CPC) flowsheet simulations have been completed to determine the initial processing conditions for the DWPF transition. The impact of higher yield stress (SB-25) and cycle time extension (SB6-26) on the physical and chemical effects of SB6 processing during the SRAT (Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank) cycle were evaluated. No significant impacts on the SRAT chemistry were noted during the higher yield stress run. In particular, no impact on mercury stripping was noted, indicating that settling of elemental mercury was not the primary factor in the low mercury recovery noted in the flowsheet testing. The SRAT product from this run retained the higher yield stress of the starting sludge. The run indicated that ultrasonication is an effective tool to increase the yield stress of simulants to targeted values and the chemistry of downstream processing is not impacted. Significant differences were noted in the cycle time extension test compared to the Phase III flowsheet baseline runs. Large decreases in the ammonia and hydrogen generation rates were noted along with reduced mercury stripping efficiency. The latter effect is similar to that of operating under a high acid stoichiometry. It is conceivable that, under the distinctly different conditions of high formic acid concentration (high acid run) or slow formic acid addition (extended run), that mercury could form amalgams with noble metals, possibly rendering both inert. Thus, the removal of free mercury and noble metals could decrease the rate of catalytic formic acid reactions which would decrease generation of ammonium and hydrogen. The potential underlying reasons for the behavior noted during this run would require additional testing.

  7. Hot Hole Transfer Increasing Polaron Yields in Hybrid Conjugated Polymer/PbS Blends.

    PubMed

    Strein, Elisabeth; deQuilettes, Dane W; Hsieh, Stephen T; Colbert, Adam E; Ginger, David S

    2014-01-02

    We use quasi-steady-state photoinduced absorption (PIA) to study charge generation in blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) with PbS nanocrystal quantum dots as a function of excitation energy. We find that, per photon absorbed, the yield of photogenerated holes present on the conjugated polymer increases with pump energy, even at wavelengths where only the quantum dots absorb. We interpret this result as direct evidence for transfer of hot holes in these conjugated polymer/quantum dot blends. These results help understand the operation of hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaics.

  8. Experimental Evidence of Impact Ignition: 100-Fold Increase of Neutron Yield by Impactor Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azechi, H.; Sakaiya, T.; Watari, T.; Karasik, M.; Saito, H.; Ohtani, K.; Takeda, K.; Hosoda, H.; Shiraga, H.; Nakai, M.; Shigemori, K.; Fujioka, S.; Murakami, M.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Gardner, J.; Colombant, D. G.; Bates, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Weaver, J.; Obenschain, S.; Eliezer, S.; Kodama, R.; Norimatsu, T.; Fujita, H.; Mima, K.; Kan, H.

    2009-06-01

    We performed integrated experiments on impact ignition, in which a portion of a deuterated polystyrene (CD) shell was accelerated to about 600km/s and was collided with precompressed CD fuel. The kinetic energy of the impactor was efficiently converted into thermal energy generating a temperature of about 1.6 keV. We achieved a two-order-of-magnitude increase in the neutron yield by optimizing the timing of the impact collision, demonstrating the high potential of impact ignition for fusion energy production.

  9. Experimental Evidence of Impact Ignition: 100-Fold Increase of Neutron Yield by Impactor Collision

    SciTech Connect

    Azechi, H.; Sakaiya, T.; Watari, T.; Saito, H.; Ohtani, K.; Takeda, K.; Hosoda, H.; Shiraga, H.; Nakai, M.; Shigemori, K.; Fujioka, S.; Murakami, M.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Fujita, H.; Mima, K.; Karasik, M.; Gardner, J.; Colombant, D. G.

    2009-06-12

    We performed integrated experiments on impact ignition, in which a portion of a deuterated polystyrene (CD) shell was accelerated to about 600 km/s and was collided with precompressed CD fuel. The kinetic energy of the impactor was efficiently converted into thermal energy generating a temperature of about 1.6 keV. We achieved a two-order-of-magnitude increase in the neutron yield by optimizing the timing of the impact collision, demonstrating the high potential of impact ignition for fusion energy production.

  10. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield.

    PubMed

    Vanklompenberg, M K; Manjarin, R; Trott, J F; McMicking, H F; Hovey, R C

    2013-03-01

    The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P < 0.001). Piglets reared by DOM-treated gilts gained 21% more BW during lactation than controls (P = 0.03) because of increased milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P < 0.001) of lactation. Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P < 0.001), whereas epithelial proliferation was unaffected by treatment. Exposure to DOM during late gestation augmented the postpartum increase in mRNA expression within the MG for β-casein (P < 0.03), acetyl CoA carboxylase-α (P < 0.01), lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.06), α-lactalbumin (P < 0.08), and glucose transporter 1 (P < 0.06). These findings demonstrate that late gestational hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

  11. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L; Metz, Ryan A E; Kamber, Rinya; McGehee, Daniel S; McDaid, John

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse.

  12. Tolerance to Ethanol or Nicotine Results in Increased Ethanol Self-Administration and Long-Term Depression in the Dorsolateral Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Abburi, Chandrika; Wolfman, Shannon L.; Metz, Ryan A. E.; Kamber, Rinya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol (EtOH) and nicotine are the most widely coabused drugs. Tolerance to EtOH intoxication, including motor impairment, results in greater EtOH consumption and may result in a greater likelihood of addiction. Previous studies suggest that cross-tolerance between EtOH and nicotine may contribute to the abuse potential of these drugs. Here we demonstrate that repeated intermittent administration of either EtOH or nicotine in adult male Sprague Dawley rats results in tolerance to EtOH-induced motor impairment and increased EtOH self-administration. These findings suggest that nicotine and EtOH cross-tolerance results in decreased aversive and enhanced rewarding effects of EtOH. Endocannabinoid signaling in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) has been implicated in both EtOH tolerance and reward, so we investigated whether nicotine or EtOH pretreatment might modulate endocannabinoid signaling in this region. Using similar EtOH and nicotine pretreatment methods resulted in increased paired-pulse ratios of evoked EPSCs in enkephalin-positive medium spiny neurons in DLS slices. Thus, EtOH and nicotine pretreatment may modulate glutamatergic synapses in the DLS presynaptically. Bath application of the CB1 receptor agonist Win 55,2-212 increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs in control slices, while Win 55,2-212 had no effect on paired-pulse ratio in slices from either EtOH- or nicotine-pretreated rats. Consistent with these effects, nicotine pretreatment occluded LTD induction by high-frequency stimulation of the corticostriatal inputs to the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that nicotine and EtOH pretreatment modulates striatal synapses to induce tolerance to the motor-impairing effects of EtOH, which may contribute to nicotine and EtOH coabuse. PMID:27517088

  13. Application of Bioorganic Fertilizer Significantly Increased Apple Yields and Shaped Bacterial Community Structure in Orchard Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Li, Jing; Yang, Fang; E, Yaoyao; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2017-02-01

    Application of bioorganic fertilizers has been reported to improve crop yields and change soil bacterial community structure; however, little work has been done in apple orchard soils where the biological properties of the soils are being degraded due to long-term application of chemical fertilizers. In this study, we used Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community in the 0-60-cm soil profile under different fertilizer regimes in the Loess Plateau. The experiment includes three treatments: (1) control without fertilization (CK); (2) application of chemical fertilizer (CF); and (3) application of bioorganic fertilizer and organic-inorganic mixed fertilizer (BOF). The results showed that the treatment BOF increased the apple yields by 114 and 67 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The treatment BOF also increased the soil organic matter (SOM) by 22 and 16 % compared to the CK and CF treatments, respectively. The Illumina-based sequencing showed that Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla and Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant classes in the soil profile. The bacterial richness for ACE was increased after the addition of BOF. Compared to CK and CF treatments, BOF-treated soil revealed higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Xanthomonadales while Acidobacteria, Gp7, Gp17, and Sphaerobacter were found in lower abundance throughout the soil profile. Bacterial community structure varied with soil depth under different fertilizer treatments, e.g., the bacterial richness, diversity, and the relative abundance of Verruccomicrobia, Candidatus Brocadiales, and Skermanella were decreased with the soil depth in all three treatments. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the fertilizer regime was the major factor than soil depth in the variations of the bacterial community composition. Two groups, Lysobacter

  14. Increasing cancer detection yield of breast MRI using a new CAD scheme of mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Maxine; Aghaei, Faranak; Hollingsworth, Alan B.; Stough, Rebecca G.; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although breast MRI is the most sensitive imaging modality to detect early breast cancer, its cancer detection yield in breast cancer screening is quite low (< 3 to 4% even for the small group of high-risk women) to date. The purpose of this preliminary study is to test the potential of developing and applying a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme of digital mammograms to identify women at high risk of harboring mammography-occult breast cancers, which can be detected by breast MRI. For this purpose, we retrospectively assembled a dataset involving 30 women who had both mammography and breast MRI screening examinations. All mammograms were interpreted as negative, while 5 cancers were detected using breast MRI. We developed a CAD scheme of mammograms, which include a new quantitative mammographic image feature analysis based risk model, to stratify women into two groups with high and low risk of harboring mammography-occult cancer. Among 30 women, 9 were classified into the high risk group by CAD scheme, which included all 5 women who had cancer detected by breast MRI. All 21 low risk women remained negative on the breast MRI examinations. The cancer detection yield of breast MRI applying to this dataset substantially increased from 16.7% (5/30) to 55.6% (5/9), while eliminating 84% (21/25) unnecessary breast MRI screenings. The study demonstrated the potential of applying a new CAD scheme to significantly increase cancer detection yield of breast MRI, while simultaneously reducing the number of negative MRIs in breast cancer screening.

  15. Vacuolar deposition of recombinant proteins in plant vegetative organs as a strategy to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Marin Viegas, Vanesa Soledad; Ocampo, Carolina Gabriela; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2017-05-04

    Delivery of recombinant proteins to vegetative tissue vacuoles was considered inconvenient since this compartment was expected to be hydrolytic; nevertheless there is growing evidence that certain foreign proteins accumulate at high yields in vacuoles. For example avidin, cellulolytic enzymes, endolysin, and transglutaminases were produced at high yields when were sorted to leaf central vacuole avoiding the detrimental effect of these proteins on plant growth. Also, several secretory mammalian proteins such as collagen, α1-proteinase inhibitor, complement-5a, interleukin-6 and immunoglobulins accumulated at higher yields in leaf vacuoles than in the apoplast or cytosol. To reach this final destination, fusions to sequence specific vacuolar sorting signals (ssVSS) typical of proteases or proteinase inhibitors and/or Ct-VSS representative of storage proteins or plant lectins were used and both types of motifs were capable to increase accumulation. Importantly, the type of VSSs or position, either the N or C-terminus, did not alter protein stability, levels or pos-translational modifications. Vacuolar sorted glycoproteins had different type of oligosaccharides indicating that foreign proteins reached the vacuole by 2 different pathways: direct transport from the ER, bypassing the Golgi (high mannose oligosaccharides decorated proteins) or trafficking through the Golgi (Complex oligosaccharide containing proteins). In addition, some glycoproteins lacked of paucimannosidic oligosaccharides suggesting that vacuolar trimming of glycans did not occur. Enhanced accumulation of foreign proteins fused to VSS occurred in several plant species such as tobacco, Nicotiana benthamiana, sugarcane, tomato and in carrot and the obtained results were influenced by plant physiological state. Ten different foreign proteins fused to vacuolar sorting accumulated at higher levels than their apoplastic or cytosolic counterparts. For proteins with cytotoxic effects vacuolar sorted forms

  16. Climatic Warming Increases Winter Wheat Yield but Reduces Grain Nitrogen Concentration in East China

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat. PMID:24736557

  17. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunlu; Zheng, Chengyan; Chen, Jin; Chen, Changqing; Deng, Aixing; Song, Zhenwei; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Weijian

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI) facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming) were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05), respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05) higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  18. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  19. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    DOE PAGES

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our study is aimed at increasing camelina seed yield by reducing carbon loss from photorespiration via a photorespiratory bypass. Genes encoding three enzymes of the Escherichia coli glycolatemore » catabolic pathway were introduced: glycolate dehydrogenase (GDH), glyoxylate carboxyligase (GCL) and tartronic semialdehyde reductase (TSR). These enzymes compete for the photorespiratory substrate, glycolate, convert it to glycerate within the chloroplasts, and reduce photorespiration. As a by-product of the reaction, CO2 is released in the chloroplast, which increases photosynthesis. Camelina plants were transformed with either partial bypass (GDH), or full bypass (GDH, GCL and TSR) genes. Furthermore, transgenic plants were evaluated for physiological and metabolic traits.« less

  20. Increased saccharification yields from aspen biomass upon treatment with enzymatically generated peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Shona; Jing, Qing; Katona, Adrian; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Schilling, Jonathan; Tschirner, Ulrike; Aldajani, Waleed Wafa

    2010-03-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic release of sugars (saccharification) currently limits its use as feedstock for biofuels. Enzymatic hydrolysis of untreated aspen wood releases only 21.8% of the available sugars due primarily to the lignin barrier. Nature uses oxidative enzymes to selectively degrade lignin in lignocellulosic biomass, but thus far, natural enzymes have been too slow for industrial use. In this study, oxidative pretreatment with commercial peracetic acid (470 mM) removed 40% of the lignin (from 19.9 to 12.0 wt.% lignin) from aspen and enhanced the sugar yields in subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to about 90%. Increasing the amount of lignin removed correlated with increasing yields of sugar release. Unfortunately, peracetic acid is expensive, and concentrated forms can be hazardous. To reduce costs and hazards associated with using commercial peracetic acid, we used a hydrolase to catalyze the perhydrolysis of ethyl acetate generating 60-70 mM peracetic acid in situ as a pretreatment to remove lignin from aspen wood. A single pretreatment was insufficient, but multiple cycles (up to eight) removed up to 61.7% of the lignin enabling release of >90% of the sugars during saccharification. This value corresponds to a predicted 581 g of fermentable sugars from 1 kg of aspen wood. Improvements in the enzyme stability are needed before the enzymatically generated peracetic acid is a commercially viable alternative.

  1. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio.

  2. Exposure to nicotine increases nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the reward pathway and binge ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J adolescent female mice.

    PubMed

    Locker, Alicia R; Marks, Michael J; Kamens, Helen M; Klein, Laura Cousino

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 80% of adult smokers begin smoking during adolescence. Binge alcohol consumption is also common during adolescence. Past studies report that nicotine and ethanol activate dopamine neurons in the reward pathway and may increase synaptic levels of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens through nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) stimulation. Activation of the reward pathway during adolescence through drug use may produce neural alterations affecting subsequent drug consumption. Consequently, the effect of nicotine exposure on binge alcohol consumption was examined along with an assessment of the neurobiological underpinnings that drive adolescent use of these drugs. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice (postnatal days 35-44) were exposed to either water or nicotine (200μg/ml) for ten days. On the final four days, ethanol intake was examined using the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm. Nicotine-exposed mice consumed significantly more ethanol and displayed higher blood ethanol concentrations than did control mice. Autoradiographic analysis of nAChR density revealed higher epibatidine binding in frontal cortical regions in mice exposed to nicotine and ethanol compared to mice exposed to ethanol only. These data show that nicotine exposure during adolescence increases subsequent binge ethanol consumption, and may affect the number of nAChRs in regions of the brain reward pathway, specifically the frontal cortex.

  3. Increase in the positronium emission yield from polycrystalline tungsten surfaces by sodium coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabe, Hiroki; Iida, Shimpei; Yamashita, Takashi; Tachibana, Takayuki; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Yagishita, Akira; Hyodo, Toshio; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2015-11-01

    The study of positronium emission from metal surfaces bombarded by slow positrons provides information on the topmost layer of the metals such as electron and positron energy levels because positronium atoms are formed as the result of the interactions between the positrons and the electrons there. In the present work, time-of-flight spectra of ortho-positronium atoms emitted from polycrystalline tungsten surfaces with and without a sodium coating have been measured. The data shows a significant increase on coating in the yield of the 5 eV component due to positronium formed from thermalized positrons and conduction electrons. An attempt is made to explain the increase by an emission model based on the formation of positronium in a low electron density surface layer extended by the coating.

  4. Increased dry season water yield in burned watersheds in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Alicia M.; Hogue, Terri S.

    2015-01-01

    The current work evaluates the effects of the 2003 Old Fire on semi-arid systems in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Pre- and post-fire daily streamflow are used to analyze flow regimes in two burned watersheds. The average pre-fire runoff ratios in Devil Canyon and City Creek are 0.14 and 0.26, respectively, and both increase to 0.34 post-fire. Annual flow duration curves are developed for each watershed and the low flow is characterized by a 90% exceedance probability threshold. Post-fire low flow is statistically different from the pre-fire values (α = 0.05). In Devil Canyon the annual volume of pre-fire low flow increases on average from 2.6E + 02 to 3.1E + 03 m3 (1090% increase) and in City Creek the annual low flow volume increases from 2.3E + 03 to 5.0E + 03 m3 (118% increase). Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability and ultimately may provide an opportunity to utilize extended and increased water yield.

  5. Continuous Collection of Adeno-Associated Virus from Producer Cell Medium Significantly Increases Total Viral Yield.

    PubMed

    Benskey, Matthew J; Sandoval, Ivette M; Manfredsson, Fredric P

    2016-02-01

    The ability to efficiently produce large amounts of high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a prerequisite to the continued success of AAV as a gene therapy tool targeted toward large-animal preclinical studies or human clinical therapeutics. Current manufacturing procedures necessitate laborious and time-consuming purification procedures to obtain AAV particles of sufficient titer and purity for these demanding biomedical applications. The finding that AAV can be harvested and purified from producer cell medium may represent an efficient alternative to purifying AAV from cellular lysates. Here we sought to determine the maximum duration of time, and frequency within which AAV can be harvested from producer cell medium, in order to maximize the yield obtained from a single transfection preparation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with polyethylenimine to produce AAV2/5 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cellular medium was harvested every 2 days until a maximum duration of 19 days posttransfection. AAV2/5-GFP was released into producer cell medium at a steady state until 7 days posttransfection, at which time titers dropped dramatically. Harvesting medium every two days resulted in the maximum yield of AAV from a single preparation, and the cumulative yield of AAV harvested from the producer cell medium was 4-fold higher than the yield obtained from a traditional purification of AAV from cellular lysates. The AAV2/5 harvested from medium within the 7-day collection time-course mediated high levels of transduction in vivo, comparable to AAV2/5 harvested from cellular lysates. AAV purified from cell lysates showed increasing amounts of empty particles at 5 and 7 days posttransfection, whereas AAV purified from cell medium did not show an increase in the amount of empty particles throughout the 7-day time course. Finally, we extended these findings to AAV2/9, demonstrating that a comparable ratio of AAV2/9 particles are

  6. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.

  7. Pedestrian gestures increase driver yielding at uncontrolled mid-block road crossings.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiangling; Wu, Changxu

    2014-09-01

    To protect pedestrians, many countries give them priority at uncontrolled mid-block crosswalks or pedestrian crossings. However, the actual driver yielding rate is not always satisfactory (only 3.5% in this study). To increase the yielding rate, this study proposed eleven pedestrian gestures to inform drivers of their intent to cross. The gestures were evaluated based on the process of human interaction with environment. Four gestures were selected as candidates to test in field experiments based on scores for visibility, clarity, familiarity and courtesy (see illustration in Fig. 2): (1) right elbow bent with hands erect and palm facing left (R-bent-erect), (2) left elbow bent with hands level and palm facing left (L-bent-level), (3) left arm extended straight to left side with palm erect facing left (L-straight-erect), and (4) a 'T' gesture for "Time-out". In the experiment, confederate pedestrians waiting at the roadside displayed the gestures (baseline: no gesture) to 420 vehicles at 5 sites in Beijing, China. When pedestrians used the L-bent-level gesture, the vehicle yielding rate more than tripled of that in the baseline condition. The L-bent-level gesture also resulted in a significant decrease in driving with unchanged speed (63.5-38.8%) and had no significant side effects in terms of drivers' horn use or lane changing. The effects of such gestures in other contexts such as when pedestrians are in the crosswalk and when they are interacting with turning vehicles are discussed, together with the applications in training vulnerable pedestrian groups (children or elderly) and facilitating pedestrian detection by drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute Ethanol Increases IGF-I-Induced Phosphorylation of ERKs by Enhancing Recruitment of p52-Shc to the Grb2/Shc Complex.

    PubMed

    Dean, Matthew; Lassak, Adam; Wilk, Anna; Zapata, Adriana; Marrero, Luis; Molina, Patricia; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    Ethanol plays a detrimental role in the development of the brain. Multiple studies have shown that ethanol inhibits insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) function. Because the IGF-IR contributes to brain development by supporting neural growth, survival, and differentiation, we sought to determine the molecular mechanism(s) involved in ethanol's effects on this membrane-associated tyrosine kinase. Using multiple neuronal cell types, we performed Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and GST-pulldowns following acute (1-24 h) or chronic (3 weeks) treatment with ethanol. Surprisingly, exposure of multiple neuronal cell types to acute (up to 24 h) ethanol (50 mM) enhanced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs), without affecting IGF-IR tyrosine phosphorylation itself, or Akt phosphorylation. This acute increase in ERKs phosphorylation was followed by the expected inhibition of the IGF-IR signaling following 3-week ethanol exposure. We then expressed a GFP-tagged IGF-IR construct in PC12 cells and used them to perform fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis. Using these fluorescently labeled cells, we determined that 50 mM ethanol decreased the half-time of the IGF-IR-associated FRAP, which implied that cell membrane-associated signaling events could be affected. Indeed, co-immunoprecipitation and GST-pulldown studies demonstrated that the acute ethanol exposure increased the recruitment of p52-Shc to the Grb2-Shc complex, which is known to engage the Ras-Raf-ERKs pathway following IGF-1 stimulation. These experiments indicate that even a short and low-dose exposure to ethanol may dysregulate function of the receptor, which plays a critical role in brain development. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1275-1286, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. INCREASING YIELDS AND BROADENING MARKETS: PROCESS INNOVATIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF ENERGY-SAVING WINDOW GLAZINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and implement advanced thin film process technology which would significantly improve the manufacturability of both static and dynamic high performance energy saving coatings for windows. The work done has been aimed at improvements to the process that will result in increases in yield, and this was divided into four main areas, dealing with improvements in substrate preparation methods, reductions in the incidence of problems caused by particulate contamination, use of in-situ optical monitoring to improve process control, and overall system integration to enable simplified, and therefore lower cost operation. Significant progress has been made in each of the areas. In the area of substrate preparation, the enhanced washing techniques which have been developed, in combination with a new inspection technique, have resulted in significant reductions in the number of EC devices which are rejected because of substrate problems. Microscopic inspection of different defects in electrochromic devices showed that many were centered on particles. As a result, process improvements aimed at reducing the incidence of particles throughout the entire process have been implemented. As a result, the average number of defects occurring per unit area has been significantly reduced over the period of this project. The in-situ monitoring techniques developed during this project have become an indispensable part of the processing for EC devices. The deposition of several key layers is controlled as a result of in-situ monitoring, and this has facilitated significant improvements in uniformity and repeatability. Overall system integration has progressed to the stage where the goal of a closed-loop monitoring and control system in within reach, and it is anticipated that this will be achieved during the scale-up phase. There has been a clear increase in the yield occurring over the period of this project (Sept 1999 to September 2003), which is

  10. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p < 0.0001), 23% in milk (p < 0.05), and 35% in piglet serum (p < 0.05) compared with the control group. Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p < 0.05), even though there was no difference in daily feed intake between the treatments. Milk fat content was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during

  11. Chronic ethanol potentiates the effect of neuropeptide s in the basolateral amygdala and shows increased anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Johan; Ferwerda, Madeline; Madhavan, Anuradha; Hok, Derek; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-10-01

    Alleviating anxiety and depression is pivotal for reducing the risk of relapse in alcoholics. Currently available anxiolytic treatments are limited by side effects, including reduced efficacy in alcoholics, addiction, and sedation. We examined whether the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) was effective at controlling ethanol consumption and the anxiety and depression produced by forced abstinence from ethanol. We found that the anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects of NPS are enhanced in acute ethanol abstinent mice. In addition, we found that NPS reduced ethanol consumption and is not in and of itself rewarding. We also provide evidence that ethanol consumption increases the ability of NPS to modulate neuronal activity in the basolateral amygdala. Finally, we found that local injection of NPS in the basolateral amygdala promotes anxiolysis after chronic ethanol consumption, thereby providing insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the changes in behavioral response to NPS. In light of the improved anxiolytic efficacy and benign side effects of NPS in ethanol-withdrawn animals, the NPSR may prove a suitable target for reducing relapse in alcoholism.

  12. Overexpression of the RieskeFeS Protein Increases Electron Transport Rates and Biomass Yield.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Andrew J; McAusland, Lorna; Lawson, Tracy; Raines, Christine A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants overexpressing the Rieske FeS protein (PetC), a component of the cytochrome b6f (cyt b6f) complex. Increasing the levels of this protein resulted in concomitant increases in the levels of cyt f (PetA) and cyt b6 (PetB), core proteins of the cyt b6f complex. Interestingly, an increase in the levels of proteins in both the photosystem I (PSI) and PSII complexes also was seen in the Rieske FeS overexpression plants. Although the mechanisms leading to these changes remain to be identified, the transgenic plants presented here provide novel tools to explore this. Importantly, overexpression of the Rieske FeS protein resulted in substantial and significant impacts on the quantum efficiency of PSI and PSII, electron transport, biomass, and seed yield in Arabidopsis plants. These results demonstrate the potential for manipulating electron transport processes to increase crop productivity. © 2017 The author(s). All Rights Reserved.

  13. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  14. A single locus confers tolerance to continuous light and allows substantial yield increase in tomato.

    PubMed

    Velez-Ramirez, Aaron I; van Ieperen, Wim; Vreugdenhil, Dick; van Poppel, Pieter M J A; Heuvelink, Ep; Millenaar, Frank F

    2014-08-05

    An important constraint for plant biomass production is the natural day length. Artificial light allows for longer photoperiods, but tomato plants develop a detrimental leaf injury when grown under continuous light--a still poorly understood phenomenon discovered in the 1920s. Here, we report a dominant locus on chromosome 7 of wild tomato species that confers continuous light tolerance. Genetic evidence, RNAseq data, silencing experiments and sequence analysis all point to the type III light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein 13 (CAB-13) gene as a major factor responsible for the tolerance. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this protein is thought to have a regulatory role balancing light harvesting by photosystems I and II. Introgressing the tolerance into modern tomato hybrid lines, results in up to 20% yield increase, showing that limitations for crop productivity, caused by the adaptation of plants to the terrestrial 24-h day/night cycle, can be overcome.

  15. Predator richness increases the effect of prey diversity on prey yield.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Muhammad; Fetzer, Ingo; Dormann, Carsten F; Harms, Hauke; Chatzinotas, Antonis

    2012-01-01

    Positive biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships are generally attributed to two mechanisms: complementarity and selection. These mechanisms have been primarily examined using plant communities, whereas bacterial communities remain largely unexplored. Moreover, it remains uncertain how predation by single or multiple predators affects these mechanisms. Here using 465 bacterial microcosms, we show that multiple predation by protists results in positive bacterial diversity effects on bacterial yields (colony-forming units) possibly due to an increased complementarity and evenness among bacterial species. By mathematically partitioning the biodiversity effects, we demonstrate that competitive interactions in diverse communities are reduced and the growth of subdominant species is enhanced. We envisage that, including diversity gradients at other trophic levels, in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research is a key to understanding and managing ecosystem processes. Such level of manipulation can be achieved best in microbial model systems, which are powerful tools for fundamental hypothesis-driven experiments and the investigation of general ecological theories.

  16. Chronic ethanol exposure increases goosecoid (GSC) expression in human embryonic carcinoma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halder, Debasish; Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Mi Ran; Chai, Jin Choul; Lee, Young Seek; Mandal, Chanchal; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental malformations caused by excess alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Using an in vitro system, we examined the role that chronic ethanol (EtOH) exposure plays in gene expression changes during the early stage of embryonic differentiation. We demonstrated that EtOH affected the cell morphology, cell cycle progression and also delayed the down-regulation of OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis demonstrated that EtOH deregulates many genes and pathways that are involved in early embryogenesis. Follow-up analyzes revealed that EtOH exposure to embryoid bodies (EBs) induced the expression of an organizer-specific gene, goosecoid (GSC), in comparison to controls. Moreover, EtOH treatment altered several important genes that are involved in embryonic structure formation, nervous system development, and placental and embryonic vascularization, which are all common processes that FASD can disrupt. Specifically, EtOH treatment let to a reduction in ALDOC, ENO2 and CDH1 expression, whereas EtOH treatment induced the expression of PTCH1, EGLN1, VEGFA and DEC2 in treated EBs. We also found that folic acid (FA) treatment was able to correct the expression of the majority of genes deregulated by EtOH exposure during early embryo development. Finally, the present study identified a gene set including GSC, which was deregulated by EtOH exposure that may contribute to the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We also reported that EtOH-induced GSC expression is mediated by Nodal signaling, which may provide a new avenue for analyzing the molecular mechanisms behind EtOH teratogenicity in FASD individuals.

  17. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane.

  18. A new biocompatible microemulsion increases extraction yield and bioavailability of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Yan; Niu, Xin; Feng, Qian-Jin; Yang, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Dan-Wei; Zhao, Tong; Li, Lei; DU, Hong

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and prepare a biocompatible microemulsion of Andrographis paniculata (BMAP) containing both fat-soluble and water-soluble constituents. We determined the contents of active constituents of BMAP and evaluated its bioavailability. The biocompatible microemulsion (BM), containing lecithin and bile salts, was optimized in the present study, showing a good physical stability. The mean droplet size was 19.12 nm, and the average polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.153. The contents of andrographolide and dehydroandrographolide in BMAP, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were higher than that in ethanol extraction. The pharmacokinetic results of BMAP showed that the AUC0-7 and AUC0→∞ values of BMAP were 2.267 and 27.156 μg·mL(-1)·h(-1), respectively, and were about 1.41-fold and 6.30-fold greater than that of ethanol extraction, respectively. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of and rographolide extracted by BMAP was significantly higher than that extracted by ethanol. In conclusion, the BMAP preparation displayed ann improved dose form for future clinical applications.

  19. Increasing influence of heat stress on French maize yields from the 1960s to the 2030s.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Ed; Fricker, Thomas E; Challinor, Andrew J; Ferro, Christopher A T; Ho, Chun Kit; Osborne, Tom M

    2013-03-01

    Improved crop yield forecasts could enable more effective adaptation to climate variability and change. Here, we explore how to combine historical observations of crop yields and weather with climate model simulations to produce crop yield projections for decision relevant timescales. Firstly, the effects on historical crop yields of improved technology, precipitation and daily maximum temperatures are modelled empirically, accounting for a nonlinear technology trend and interactions between temperature and precipitation, and applied specifically for a case study of maize in France. The relative importance of precipitation variability for maize yields in France has decreased significantly since the 1960s, likely due to increased irrigation. In addition, heat stress is found to be as important for yield as precipitation since around 2000. A significant reduction in maize yield is found for each day with a maximum temperature above 32 °C, in broad agreement with previous estimates. The recent increase in such hot days has likely contributed to the observed yield stagnation. Furthermore, a general method for producing near-term crop yield projections, based on climate model simulations, is developed and utilized. We use projections of future daily maximum temperatures to assess the likely change in yields due to variations in climate. Importantly, we calibrate the climate model projections using observed data to ensure both reliable temperature mean and daily variability characteristics, and demonstrate that these methods work using retrospective predictions. We conclude that, to offset the projected increased daily maximum temperatures over France, improved technology will need to increase base level yields by 12% to be confident about maintaining current levels of yield for the period 2016-2035; the current rate of yield technology increase is not sufficient to meet this target.

  20. Increasing influence of heat stress on French maize yields from the 1960s to the 2030s

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Ed; Fricker, Thomas E; Challinor, Andrew J; Ferro, Christopher A T; Kit Ho, Chun; Osborne, Tom M

    2013-01-01

    Improved crop yield forecasts could enable more effective adaptation to climate variability and change. Here, we explore how to combine historical observations of crop yields and weather with climate model simulations to produce crop yield projections for decision relevant timescales. Firstly, the effects on historical crop yields of improved technology, precipitation and daily maximum temperatures are modelled empirically, accounting for a nonlinear technology trend and interactions between temperature and precipitation, and applied specifically for a case study of maize in France. The relative importance of precipitation variability for maize yields in France has decreased significantly since the 1960s, likely due to increased irrigation. In addition, heat stress is found to be as important for yield as precipitation since around 2000. A significant reduction in maize yield is found for each day with a maximum temperature above 32 °C, in broad agreement with previous estimates. The recent increase in such hot days has likely contributed to the observed yield stagnation. Furthermore, a general method for producing near-term crop yield projections, based on climate model simulations, is developed and utilized. We use projections of future daily maximum temperatures to assess the likely change in yields due to variations in climate. Importantly, we calibrate the climate model projections using observed data to ensure both reliable temperature mean and daily variability characteristics, and demonstrate that these methods work using retrospective predictions. We conclude that, to offset the projected increased daily maximum temperatures over France, improved technology will need to increase base level yields by 12% to be confident about maintaining current levels of yield for the period 2016–2035; the current rate of yield technology increase is not sufficient to meet this target. PMID:23504849

  1. Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2006-01-01

    Excess activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex following ethanol withdrawal is considered to contribute to significant behavioural disturbances, and to alcohol craving. Astrocytes may play a role in these manifestations because astrocytes are essential in the regulation of released glutamate and its conversion to glutamine through the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). However, it is unclear if withdrawal from free-choice ethanol drinking causes changes in the numbers of astrocytes expressing GS or the cytoskeletal protein of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed to free-choice ethanol drinking were either maintained without forced interruption of ethanol drinking, subjected to a 3-day withdrawal period at the end of 2 months, or subjected to three 3-day withdrawal periods along 6 months. At 2 months, P rats were also compared with alcohol-naïve alcohol non-preferring rats (NP) rats. Packing density of GS and GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes was measured in sections from the prelimbic cortex (PLC) using the optical disector probe. An alcohol deprivation effect was observed in P rats with withdrawals during a 6-month ethanol drinking period. Ethanol withdrawal significantly increased the packing density of GS- and GFAP-IR astrocytes in the PLC of P rats as compared with P rats with continuous access to ethanol. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the pre-withdrawal ethanol consumption and the packing density of GS-IR astrocytes. The present results suggest the involvement of astrocytes in the regulation of the glutamatergic activation associated with withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption and point to differential adaptations of GS and GFAP to prolonged alcohol drinking in the PLC of P rats.

  2. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 for the high-yield production of a biofuel composed of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture.

    PubMed

    Dusséaux, Simon; Croux, Christian; Soucaille, Philippe; Meynial-Salles, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum was metabolically engineered to produce a biofuel consisting of an isopropanol/butanol/ethanol mixture. For this purpose, different synthetic isopropanol operons were constructed and introduced on plasmids in a butyrate minus mutant strain (C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 Δcac15ΔuppΔbuk). The best strain expressing the isopropanol operon from the thl promoter was selected from batch experiments at pH 5. By further optimizing the pH of the culture, a biofuel mixture with almost no by-products was produced at a titer, a yield and productivity never reached before, opening the opportunities to develop an industrial process for alternative biofuels with Clostridial species. Furthermore, by performing in vivo and in vitro flux analysis of the synthetic isopropanol pathway, this flux was identified to be limited by the [acetate](int) and the high Km of CoA-transferase for acetate. Decreasing the Km of this enzyme using a protein engineering approach would be a good target for improving isopropanol production and avoiding acetate accumulation in the culture medium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Repeated exposure of the posterior ventral tegmental area to nicotine increases the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Katner, Simon N; Rodd, Zachary A; Truitt, William; Hauser, Sheketha R; Deehan, Gerald A; Engleman, Eric A; McBride, William J

    2012-05-01

    Clinical evidence indicates a frequent co-morbidity of nicotine and alcohol abuse and dependence. The posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) appears to support the reinforcing and dopamine-stimulating effects of both drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that repeated exposure of the pVTA to one drug would increase the sensitivity of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of the other drug. Female Wistar rats received repeated daily microinjections of either 100 μM nicotine or vehicle directly into the pVTA for 7 days. On the 8th day, rats received microinjections of either vehicle or ethanol (100 or 200 mg%) into the pVTA while extracellular dopamine samples were collected from the ipsilateral nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh) with microdialysis. Another experiment tested the effects of challenge microinjections of 200 μM nicotine in the pVTA on extracellular dopamine levels in the NACsh following 7 daily pretreatments with 200 mg% ethanol in the pVTA. Nicotine pretreatments increased the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol in the pVTA (100 mg% ethanol: 115% vs 160% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05; 200 mg% ethanol: 145% vs 190% of baseline in the vehicle and nicotine groups, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, ethanol pretreatments did not alter the stimulating effects of nicotine in the pVTA. The results suggest that repeated exposure of the pVTA to nicotine increased the response of local dopamine neurons to the stimulating effects of ethanol, whereas repeated exposure of the pVTA to ethanol did not alter the responses of pVTA dopamine neurons to nicotine.

  4. Inhibition of microsomal oxidation of ethanol by pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole in vitro. Increased effectiveness after induction by pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole.

    PubMed Central

    Feierman, D E; Cederbaum, A I

    1986-01-01

    Pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole, which are inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, were also found to be effective inhibitors of the oxidation of ethanol by liver microsomes (microsomal fractions) in vitro. Ethanol oxidation by microsomes from rats previously treated for 2 or 3 days with either pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole appeared to be especially sensitive to inhibition in vitro by pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole. The kinetics of inhibition by pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole in all microsomal preparations were mixed, as the Km for ethanol was elevated while Vmax was lowered. However, Ki values for pyrazole (about 0.35 mM) and especially 4-methylpyrazole (about 0.03-0.10 mM) were much lower than those found with the saline controls (about 0.7-1.1 mM). In contrast, Ki values for dimethyl sulphoxide as an inhibitor of microsomal ethanol oxidation were similar in all microsomal preparations. Pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole reacted with microsomes to produce type II spectral changes whose magnitude increased after treatment with either pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole. Thus the increased inhibitory effectiveness of pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole appears to be associated with increased interactions with the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme(s) induced by these compounds. These isoenzymes have properties similar to those of the isoenzyme induced by chronic ethanol treatment. Therefore, caution is needed in the use of pyrazole or 4-methylpyrazole to assess pathways of ethanol metabolism, especially after chronic ethanol treatment, since these agents, besides inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase, are also effective inhibitors of microsomal ethanol oxidation. PMID:3827819

  5. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1). While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1)at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1). In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage.

  6. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  7. Increased Synaptic Excitation and Abnormal Dendritic Structure of Prefrontal Cortex Layer V Pyramidal Neurons following Prolonged Binge-Like Consumption of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Klenowski, Paul M.; Fogarty, Matthew J.; Shariff, Masroor; Belmer, Arnauld

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Long-term alcohol use causes a multitude of neurochemical changes in cortical regions that facilitate the transition to dependence. Therefore, we used a model of long-term, binge-like ethanol consumption in rats to determine the effects on morphology and synaptic physiology of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) layer V pyramidal neurons. Following 10 weeks of ethanol consumption, we recorded synaptic currents from mPFC neurons and used neurobiotin filling to analyze their morphology. We then compared these data to measurements obtained from age-matched, water-drinking control rats. We found that long-term ethanol consumption caused a significant increase in total dendrite arbor length of mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons. Dendritic restructuring was primarily observed in basal dendrite arbors, with mPFC neurons from animals engaged in long-term ethanol drinking having significantly larger and more complex basal arbors compared with controls. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased total spine densities and spontaneous postsynaptic excitatory current frequency, suggesting that long-term binge-like ethanol consumption enhances basal excitatory synaptic transmission in mPFC layer V pyramidal neurons. Our results provide insights into the morphological and functional changes in mPFC layer V pyramidal neuronal physiology following prolonged exposure to ethanol and support changes in mPFC activity during the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:28032119

  8. Overexpression of a pH-sensitive nitrate transporter in rice increases crop yields.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Tang, Zhong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Bingbing; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Shen, Qirong; Miller, Anthony John; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-28

    Cellular pH homeostasis is fundamental for life, and all cells adapt to maintain this balance. In plants, the chemical form of nitrogen supply, nitrate and ammonium, is one of the cellular pH dominators. We report that the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3 is transcribed into two spliced isoforms with a natural variation in expression ratio. One splice form, OsNRT2.3b is located on the plasma membrane, is expressed mainly in the phloem, and has a regulatory motif on the cytosolic side that acts to switch nitrate transport activity on or off by a pH-sensing mechanism. High OsNRT2.3b expression in rice enhances the pH-buffering capacity of the plant, increasing N, Fe, and P uptake. In field trials, increased expression of OsNRT2.3b improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 40%. These results indicate that pH sensing by the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3b is important for plant adaption to varied N supply forms and can provide a target for improving NUE.

  9. Overexpression of a pH-sensitive nitrate transporter in rice increases crop yields

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaorong; Tang, Zhong; Tan, Yawen; Zhang, Yong; Luo, Bingbing; Yang, Meng; Lian, Xingming; Shen, Qirong; Miller, Anthony John; Xu, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Cellular pH homeostasis is fundamental for life, and all cells adapt to maintain this balance. In plants, the chemical form of nitrogen supply, nitrate and ammonium, is one of the cellular pH dominators. We report that the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3 is transcribed into two spliced isoforms with a natural variation in expression ratio. One splice form, OsNRT2.3b is located on the plasma membrane, is expressed mainly in the phloem, and has a regulatory motif on the cytosolic side that acts to switch nitrate transport activity on or off by a pH-sensing mechanism. High OsNRT2.3b expression in rice enhances the pH-buffering capacity of the plant, increasing N, Fe, and P uptake. In field trials, increased expression of OsNRT2.3b improved grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by 40%. These results indicate that pH sensing by the rice nitrate transporter OsNRT2.3b is important for plant adaption to varied N supply forms and can provide a target for improving NUE. PMID:27274069

  10. Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 Increases Potato Yield and Reduces Common Scab Symptoms in the Field.

    PubMed

    Arseneault, Tanya; Goyer, Claudia; Filion, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Common scab of potato, caused by pathogenic Streptomyces spp., is an important disease not efficiently controlled by current methods. We previously demonstrated that Pseudomonas fluorescens LBUM223 reduces common scab development under controlled conditions through phenazine-1-carboxylic (PCA) production, leading to reduced thaxtomin A production by the pathogen, a key pathogenicity and virulence factor. Here, we aimed at determining if LBUM223 is able to increase potato yield and control common scab under field conditions, while characterizing the biocontrol mechanisms involved. We investigated if a reduction in pathogen soil populations, activation of induced systemic resistance in potato, and/or changes in txtA gene expression, involved in thaxtomin A biosynthesis in pathogenic Streptomyces spp. were involved in common scab control by LBUM223. Common scab symptoms were significantly reduced and total tuber weight increased by 46% using biweekly applications of LBUM223. LBUM223 did not reduce pathogen soil populations, nor was potato systemic defense-related gene expression significantly altered between treatments. However, a significant down-regulation of txtA expression occurred in the geocaulosphere. This is the first demonstration that a Pseudomonas strain can directly alter the transcriptional activity of a key pathogenesis gene in a plant pathogen under field conditions, contributing to disease control.

  11. Viral-mediated knockdown of mGluR7 in the nucleus accumbens mediates excessive alcohol drinking and increased ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-10-01

    Whether metabotropic glutamate 7 (mGluR7) -activation enhances or diminishes the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants remains unclear. We have previously shown that systemic mGluR7 activation reduced alcohol consumption and preference as well as locomotor-stimulating and rewarding properties of ethanol. In this study, we further examined the contribution of mGluR7 on the effect of ethanol within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a neural target for many drugs of abuse. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing lentiviral vectors (LV) to alter locally the activity of mGluR7 in male rats, we have shown that blocking mGluR7 expression increased ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm with no effect either on saccharin or on quinine used for taste discrimination. In addition, mGluR7 knockdown increases preference for environments previously paired with low doses of ethanol in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test, as it shifted the dose-response curve for ethanol CPP to the left, indicating alterations in the rewarding effects of alcohol. More importantly, mGluR7 blockade in the dorsal striatum (DS) neither affected ethanol consumption nor ethanol-elicited CPP. These results show that levels of mGluR7 in the NAcc regulate responsiveness to alcohol. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate that mGluR7 signaling within the NAcc is a key modulator of functional responses to ethanol and offer an important target for regulating the addictive effects of alcohol.

  12. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate reduce ethanol intake and increase GLT-1 expression as well as AKT phosphorylation in mesocorticolimbic regions.

    PubMed

    Goodwani, Sunil; Rao, P S S; Bell, Richard L; Sari, Youssef

    2015-10-05

    Studies have shown that administration of the β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CEF) attenuates ethanol consumption and cocaine seeking behavior as well as prevents ethanol-induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in central reward brain regions. However, it is not known if these effects are compound-specific. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of two other β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMOX) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, AUG), on ethanol drinking, as well as GLT-1 and phosphorylated-AKT (pAKT) levels in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. P rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) for five weeks and were given five consecutive daily i.p. injections of saline vehicle, 100 mg/kg AMOX or 100mg/kg AUG. Both compounds significantly decreased ethanol intake and significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the Acb. AUG also increased GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Results for changes in pAKT levels matched those for GLT-1, indicating that β-lactam antibiotic-induced reductions in ethanol intake are negatively associated with increases in GLT-1 and pAKT levels within two critical brains regions mediating drug reward and reinforcement. These findings add to a growing literature that pharmacological increases in GLT-1 expression are associated with decreases in ethanol intake and suggest that one mechanism mediating this effect may be increased phosphorylation of AKT. Thus, GLT-1 and pAKT may serve as molecular targets for the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse/dependence.

  13. Amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanate reduce ethanol intake and increase GLT-1 expression as well as AKT phosphorylation in mesocorticolimbic regions

    PubMed Central

    Goodwani, Sunil; Rao, P.S.S.; Bell, Richard L.; Sari, Youssef

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that administration of the β-lactam antibiotic, ceftriaxone (CEF) attenuates ethanol consumption and cocaine seeking behavior as well as preventing ethanol-induced downregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) expression in central reward brain regions. However, it is not known if these effects are compound-specific. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of two other β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMOX) and amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin, AUG), on ethanol drinking, as well as GLT-1 and phosphorylated-AKT (pAKT) levels in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. P rats were exposed to free-choice of ethanol (15% and 30%) for five weeks and were given five consecutive daily i.p. injections of saline vehicle, 100 mg/kg AMOX or 100 mg/kg AUG. Both compounds significantly decreased ethanol intake and significantly increased GLT-1 expression in the Acb. AUG also increased GLT-1 expression in the mPFC. Results for changes in pAKT levels matched those for GLT-1, indicating that β-lactam antibiotic-induced reductions in ethanol intake are negatively associated with increases in GLT-1 and pAKT levels within two critical brains regions mediating drug reward and reinforcement. These findings add to a growing literature that pharmacological increases in GLT-1 expression are associated with decreases in ethanol intake and suggest that one mechanism mediating this effect may be increased phosphorylation of AKT. Thus, GLT-1 and pAKT may serve as molecular targets for the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse/dependence. PMID:26168897

  14. Cover crops alter the soil microbial community and increase potato tuber yield and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An on-going study at a commercial farm operation in the San Luis Valley, CO is examining the effect of various summer cover crops (mustard, canola, sorghum-sudangrass, and a wet fallow control) on potato tuber yield and quality. In four of the five years, potato tuber yield and quality has shown si...

  15. Ethanol metabolism, cirrhosis and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1997-01-03

    Alcohol-induced tissue damage results from associated nutritional deficiencies as well as some direct toxic effects, which have now been linked to the metabolism of ethanol. The main pathway involves liver alcohol dehydrogenase which catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, with a shift to a more reduced state, and results in metabolic disturbances, such as hyperlactacidemia, acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia and fatty liver. More severe toxic manifestations are produced by an accessory pathway, the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system involving an ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (2E1). After chronic ethanol consumption, there is a 4- to 10-fold induction of 2E1, associated not only with increased acetaldehyde generation but also with production of oxygen radicals that promote lipid peroxidation. Most importantly, 2E1 activates many xenobiotics to toxic metabolites. These include solvents commonly used in industry, anaesthetic agents, medications such as isoniazid, over the counter analgesics (acetaminophen), illicit drugs (cocaine), chemical carcinogens, and even vitamin A and its precursor beta-carotene. Furthermore, enhanced microsomal degradation of retinoids (together with increased hepatic mobilization) promotes their depletion and associated pathology. Induction of 2E1 also yields increased acetaldehyde generation, with formation of protein adducts, resulting in antibody production, enzyme inactivation, decreased DNA repair, impaired utilization of oxygen, glutathione depletion, free radical-mediated toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and increased collagen synthesis. New therapies include adenosyl-L-methionine which, in baboons, replenishes glutathione, and attenuates mitochondrial lesions. In addition, polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fully prevents ethanol-induced septal fibrosis and cirrhosis, opposes ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, decreased phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and activation of hepatic

  16. Increasing the yield of Eimeria tenella oocysts in primary chicken kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wilson, E; Yang, S; Healey, M C

    1996-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to increase the yield of Eimeria tenella oocysts in primary chicken kidney cells (PCKCs) using a comparatively inexpensive cell-culture system. PCKCs growing on coverslips positioned on the bottoms of individual wells in 24-well tissue-culture plates were infected with sporozoites of E. tenella. The effects of changing the culture medium (RPMI 1640), medium pH, serum type, and serum concentration in the wells were determined by counting newly produced oocysts at 7 days postinoculation. There were significantly more (P < 0.01) oocysts produced when the medium was supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and changed either daily or every other day compared with not changing the medium. When the same medium was changed daily, significantly more (P < 0.05) oocysts were produced at pH 7.4 than at pH 8.0 but not at pH 6.0. If the medium was changed daily, significantly more (P < 0.05) oocysts were produced when medium was supplemented with 10% FBS only rather than 5% and 10% chicken serum. The cell-culture system described in this study offers a convenient and efficient method for investigating the biological, biochemical, and immunological relationships between E. tenella and the host cell.

  17. Light-mediated self-organization of sunflower stands increases oil yield in the field.

    PubMed

    López Pereira, Mónica; Sadras, Victor O; Batista, William; Casal, Jorge J; Hall, Antonio J

    2017-07-25

    Here, we show a unique crop response to intraspecific interference, whereby neighboring sunflower plants in a row avoid each other by growing toward a more favorable light environment and collectively increase production per unit land area. In high-density stands, a given plant inclined toward one side of the interrow space, and the immediate neighbors inclined in the opposite direction. This process started early as an incipient inclination of pioneer plants, and the arrangement propagated gradually as a "wave" of alternate inclination that persisted until maturity. Measurements and experimental manipulation of light spectral composition indicate that these responses are mediated by changes in the red/far-red ratio of the light, which is perceived by phytochrome. Cellular automata simulations reproduced the patterns of stem inclination in field experiments, supporting the proposition of self-organization of stand structure. Under high crop population densities (10 and 14 plants per m(2)), as yet unachievable in commercial farms with current hybrids due to lodging and diseases, self-organized crops yielded between 19 and 47% more oil than crops forced to remain erect.

  18. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  19. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  20. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  1. Zinc, Iron, Manganese and Copper Uptake Requirement in Response to Nitrogen Supply and the Increased Grain Yield of Summer Maize

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yanfang; Yue, Shanchao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Cui, Zhenling; Chen, Xinping; Ye, Youliang; Zou, Chunqin

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) in maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain). Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N) levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1and 5.3 g, respectively) were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60%) and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease) and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg−1) rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively). The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield. PMID:24705926

  2. Swimming training increases the post-yield energy of bone in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tsang-Hai; Hsieh, Sandy S; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Shang-Chih; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of non-weight-bearing exercise on growing bone. Male Wistar rats (7 week-old) were assigned to one baseline control group, one control group and two swimming training groups, which were trained with 2 and 4% body-weight mass added, respectively. After an 8-week training period, three groups showed significant development compared to the baseline control group. Among the three 15-week-old groups, swimming-trained rats were lower in body weight (BW), densitometry and size-related measurements. In femoral biomechanical testing, swimming training groups were significantly lower in yield moment and ultimate moment, which may be due to a significantly lower long bone cross-sectional moment of inertia. However, the two swimming groups were higher in post-yield energy absorption and displacement. Further, in estimated tissue-level biomaterial properties, no differences were shown in yield stress, strain or toughness among the three groups. Using BW as a covariate, results of ANCOVA showed no differences in size-related parameters among the three groups, and some parameters were even higher in the two swimming groups. Regarding Pearson's correlation, size-related parameters correlated well to BW and whole bone strength but not to tissue post-yield behaviors. In conclusion, when compared to age-matched control group, swimming rats showed lower bone strength and lower yield energy absolutely at the structural level, but similar yield stress and yield toughness at the tissue level. Moreover, swimming training benefited growing bone in post-yield behaviors. Further studies should investigate the parameters that contribute to this exercise-induced post-yield behavior.

  3. Nicotine decreases ethanol-induced dopamine signaling and increases self-administration via stress hormones.

    PubMed

    Doyon, William M; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M; Zhang, Tao A; Dani, John A

    2013-08-07

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement.

  4. Nicotine Decreases Ethanol-induced Dopamine Signaling and Increases Self-administration via Stress Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Doyon, William M.; Dong, Yu; Ostroumov, Alexey; Thomas, Alyse M.; Zhang, Tao A.; Dani, John A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases alcohol-induced dopamine responses. The blunted dopamine response was due to increased inhibitory synaptic transmission onto dopamine neurons. Blocking stress hormone receptors prior to nicotine exposure prevented all interactions with alcohol that we measured, including the increased inhibition onto dopamine neurons, the decreased dopamine responses, and the increased alcohol self-administration. These results indicate that nicotine recruits neuroendocrine systems to influence neurotransmission and behavior associated with alcohol reinforcement. PMID:23871233

  5. Effect of air supplement on the performance of continuous ethanol fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Ryu, D D; Kim, Y J; Kim, J H

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of improving ethanol productivity, the effect of air supplement on the performance of continuous ethanol fermentation system was studied. The effect of oxygen supplement on yeast concentration, cell yield, cell viability, extracellular ethanol concentration, ethanol yield, maintenance coefficient, specific rates of glucose assimilation, ethanol production, and ethanol productivity have been evaluated, using a high alcohol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae STV89 strain and employing a continuous fermentor equipped with an accurate air metering system in the flow rate range 0-11 mL air/L/h. It was found that, when a small amount of oxygen up to about 80mu mol oxygen/L/h was supplied, the ethanol productivity was significantly enhanced as compared to the productivity of the culture without any air supplement. It was also found that the oxygen supplement improved cell viability considerably as well as the ethanol tolerance level of yeast. As the air supply rate was increased, from 0 to 11 mL air/L/h while maintaining a constant dilution rate at about 0.06 h(-1), the cell concentration increased from 2.3 to 8.2 g/L and the ethanol productivity increased from 1.7 to 4.1 g ethanol/L/h, although the specific ethanol production rate decreased slightly from 0.75 to 0.5 g ethanol/g cell/h. The ethanol yield was slightly improved also with an increase in air supply rate, from about 0.37 to 0.45 ethanol/g glucose. The maintenance coefficient increased by only a small amount with the air supplement. This kind of air supplement technique may very well prove to be of practical importance to a development of a highly productive ethanol fermentation process system especially as a combined system with a high density cell culture technique.

  6. Increased susceptibility to liver injury after hemorrhagic shock in rats chronically fed ethanol: role of nuclear factor-kappa B, interleukin-6, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masafumi; Yu, Bi; Hardison, Edith G; Mastrangelo, Mary-Ann A; Tweardy, David J

    2004-06-01

    Chronic ethanol use preceding severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with an increased incidence of multiorgan failure (MOF) and death; however, the molecular basis for this increased susceptibility is unknown. We previously demonstrated that production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), mediated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), each make essential contributions to organ injury and inflammation in a rodent model of controlled HS, and we proposed in this study to examine the hypothesis that the increased susceptibility to MOF after shock/trauma in the setting of chronic ethanol use is due to an exaggerated activation of NF-kappa B and production of these proinflammatory cytokines. We observed increased HS-induced liver injury 4 h after resuscitation in rats fed the ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 8 weeks compared with rats fed the control liquid diet (3-fold increase in serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], P = 0.008, and 2-fold increase in focal liver necrosis, P = 0.005). The increased liver injury in the ethanol-fed HS rats was accompanied by a 70% increase in liver NF-kappa B activation (P < 0.05), a 3- to 5-fold increase in hepatocyte and Kupffer cell production of IL-6 and G-CSF (P < 0.05 for each), and a 2-fold increase in neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.005) compared with the control diet-fed HS rats. Thus, increased susceptibility to HS-induced liver injury in the setting of chronic ethanol use may be mediated, at least in part, by increased NF-kappa B activation resulting in increased local production of IL-6 and G-CSF and increased infiltration of neutrophils, which can damage liver cells directly and contribute to impaired sinusoidal blood flow.

  7. Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis increase ABCA1 expression and promote cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iio, Akio; Ohguchi, Kenji; Maruyama, Hiroe; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Ichihara, Kenji; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Ito, Masafumi

    2012-03-15

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a membrane transporter that directly contributes to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis by regulating the cellular efflux of cholesterol. Since ABCA1 plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis and HDL metabolism, identification of a novel substance that is capable of increasing its expression would be beneficial for the prevention and therapy of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we studied the effects of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis (EERP) on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. EERP enhanced PPARγ and liver X receptor (LXR) transcriptional activity at 5-15μg/ml, which was associated with upregulation of PPARγ and LXRα expression. It was also found that EERP increase the activity of the ABCA1 promoter, which is positively regulated by LXR. Consistent with these findings, treatment with EERP increased both mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1. Finally, EERP upregulated ApoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. Our results showed that EERP promote ApoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages by increasing ABCA1 expression via induction of PPARγ/LXR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat tolerance around flowering in wheat identified as a key trait for increased yield potential in Europe under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Stratonovitch, Pierre; Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    To deliver food security for the 9 billon population in 2050, a 70% increase in world food supply will be required. Projected climatic and environmental changes emphasize the need for breeding strategies that delivers both a substantial increase in yield potential and resilience to extreme weather events such as heat waves, late frost, and drought. Heat stress around sensitive stages of wheat development has been identified as a possible threat to wheat production in Europe. However, no estimates have been made to assess yield losses due to increased frequency and magnitude of heat stress under climate change. Using existing experimental data, the Sirius wheat model was refined by incorporating the effects of extreme temperature during flowering and grain filling on accelerated leaf senescence, grain number, and grain weight. This allowed us, for the first time, to quantify yield losses resulting from heat stress under climate change. The model was used to optimize wheat ideotypes for CMIP5-based climate scenarios for 2050 at six sites in Europe with diverse climates. The yield potential for heat-tolerant ideotypes can be substantially increased in the future (e.g. by 80% at Seville, 100% at Debrecen) compared with the current cultivars by selecting an optimal combination of wheat traits, e.g. optimal phenology and extended duration of grain filling. However, at two sites, Seville and Debrecen, the grain yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes were substantially lower (by 54% and 16%) and more variable compared with heat-tolerant ideotypes, because the extended grain filling required for the increased yield potential was in conflict with episodes of high temperature during flowering and grain filling. Despite much earlier flowering at these sites, the risk of heat stress affecting yields of heat-sensitive ideotypes remained high. Therefore, heat tolerance in wheat is likely to become a key trait for increased yield potential and yield stability in southern Europe in the

  9. Increased Furfural Tolerance Due to Overexpression of NADH-Dependent Oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli Strains Engineered for the Production of Ethanol and Lactate▿

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Miller, E. N.; Yomano, L. P.; Zhang, X.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Ingram, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low Km for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms. PMID:21685167

  10. Increased furfural tolerance due to overexpression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli strains engineered for the production of ethanol and lactate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Miller, E N; Yomano, L P; Zhang, X; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low K(m) for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms.

  11. Incorporation of deoxyuridine monophosphate into DNA increases the sister-chromatid exchange yield

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, E.G.; Hernandez, P.; Gutierrez, C.

    1987-02-01

    The effect of a treatment with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) in combination with 2'-deoxyuridine (dUrd) on cell proliferation, incorporation of DNA precursors into DNA and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been analyzed in Allium cepa meristem cells. FdUrd in the range 10/sup -9/-5 x 10/sup -7/ M produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the amount of cells in mitosis. This inhibitory effect could be reversed by 70-80% in short-term (6 h) experiments, by exogenously supplied dUrd at a concentration of 10/sup -1/ M. However, at the highest FdUrd dose tested (10/sup -7/ M), 10/sup -4/ M dUrd could not reverse the FdUrd effect in long-term experiments as shown by analyzing the kinetics of synchronous cell populations. DNA extracted from cells pulsed with (6-/sup 3/H)dUrd in the presence of FdUrd and 6-amino-uracil (6-AU), an inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase, contained a small amount of label in the form of (6-/sup 3/H)dUMP. Thus the authors conclude that under the experimental conditions, exogenously supplied dUrd may be metabolized intracellularly to 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and that this deoxynucleotide may eventually be mis-incorporated into DNA. By analyzing SCE levels in third division chromosomes of cells treated with FdUrd and dUrd during their second cycle, they has scored a 6-fold increase in the reciprocal SCE level which demonstrates that the replication of a dUMP-containing DNA template leads to a higher SCE yield.

  12. Green tea increases the survival yield of Bifidobacteria in simulated gastrointestinal environment and during refrigerated conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The well–known prebiotics are carbohydrates but their effects may not always be beneficial, as they can also encourage the growth of non-probiotic bacteria such as Eubacterium biforme and Clostridium perfringens. Therefore, new alternatives such as non-carbohydrate sources to stimulate the growth of probiotics are needed. The aim of this work was to evaluate (I) the green tea polyphenols by HPLC-LC/MS and (II) the protective effect of green tea extract on viability and stability of B. infantis ATCC 15697 and B. breve ATCC 15700 microencapsulated in chitosan coated alginate microcapsules during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. Results The major compound identified by HPLC-LC/MS in green tea was epigallocatechin gallate followed by caffeine and epigallocatechin. The survival yield of probiotic bacteria in microcapsules with 10% GT during storage at 4°C, demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of survival bacteria. Microencapsulated B.infantis and B. breve with 5% and 10% GT showed a significantly (P < 0.05) improved survival under simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2 h) and bile solution (3%, 2 h) when they were compared with microencapsulation without GT addition. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that green tea coencapsulated with B. infantis or B. breve exert a protective effect of bacteria during exposure to gastrointestinal conditions and refrigerated storage. For a health perspective, the results confirm the growing interest probiotic bacteria and the perceived benefit of increasing their numbers in the gastrointestinal tract by microencapsulation. PMID:22727242

  13. Midkine Increases Diagnostic Yield in AFP Negative and NASH-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vongsuvanh, Roslyn; van der Poorten, David; Iseli, Tristan; Strasser, Simone I; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Robust biomarkers for population-level hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance are lacking. We compared serum midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK1), osteopontin (OPN) and AFP for HCC diagnosis in 86 HCC patients matched to 86 cirrhotics, 86 with chronic liver disease (CLD) and 86 healthy controls (HC). Based on the performance of each biomarker, we assessed a separate longitudinal cohort of 28 HCC patients, at and before cancer diagnosis. Serum levels of MDK and OPN were higher in HCC patients compared to cirrhosis, CLD and HC groups. DKK1 was not different between cases and controls. More than half of HCC patients had normal AFP. In this AFP-negative HCC cohort, 59.18% (n = 29/49) had elevated MDK, applying the optimal cut-off of 0.44 ng/ml. Using AFP ≥ 20 IU/ml or MDK ≥ 0.44 ng/ml, a significantly greater number (76.7%; n = 66/86) of HCC cases were detected. The area under the receiver operating curve for MDK was superior to AFP and OPN in NASH-HCC diagnosis. In the longitudinal cohort, MDK was elevated in 15/28 (54%) of HCC patients at diagnosis, of whom 67% had elevated MDK 6 months prior. AFP and MDK have a complementary role in HCC detection. MDK increases the diagnostic yield in AFP-negative HCC and has greater diagnostic performance than AFP, OPN and DKK-1 in the diagnosis of NASH-HCC. Additionally, MDK has a promising role in the pre-clinical diagnosis of HCC.

  14. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  15. [Role of store-operated Ca2+ channels in ethanol-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase in HepG2 cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-min; Yan, Li-hui; Luo, Zheng; Sun, Xiao-meng; Cui, Rui-bing; Li, Xue-hui; Yan, Ming

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the mechanism of ethanol-induced calcium overload in hepatocytes and the related role of store-operated calcium channels (SOCs). HepG2 cells were treated an ethanol concentration gradient with or without intervention treatment with the extracellular calcium chelator EGTA or the SOCs inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB). Effects on cell viability were assessed by the CCK8 assay. Effects on leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer measurements of the culture supernatants. Effects on cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were accessed by detecting fluorescence intensity of the calcium indicator Fluo-3/AM with a flow cytometer. Effects on mRNA and protein expression levels of SOCs, stromal interacting factor 1 (STIM1), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) were evaluated by qPCR and western blotting. The ethanol treatment produced dose-dependent reduction in cell viability (r = -0.985, P less than 0.01) and increases in leakage of ALT (F = 15.286, P less than 0.01) and AST (F = 39.674, P less than 0.01). Compared to untreated controls, the ethanol treatments of 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mM induced significant increases in [Ca2+]i level (1.25+/-0.36, 1.31+/-0.15, 1.41+/-0.18, 2.29+/-0.25, 2.58+/-0.19; F = 15.286, P less than 0.01). Both intervention treatments, EGTA and 2-APB, significantly reduced the 200 mM ethanol treatment-induced [Ca2+]i increase (2.32+/-0.08 reduced to 1.79+/-0.15 (t = 7.201, P less than 0.01) and 1.86+/-0.09 (t = 8.183, P less than 0.01) respectively). EGTA and 2-APB also increased the ethanol-treated cells' viability and reduced the ALT and AST leakage. The 200 mM ethanol treatment stimulated both gene and protein expression of STIM1 and Orai1, and the up-regulation effect lasted at least 72 h after treatment. Ethanol-induced dysregulation of SOCs may be an important molecular mechanism of ethanol

  16. Accelerating the domestication of a bioenergy crop: identifying and modelling morphological targets for sustainable yield increase in Miscanthus

    PubMed Central

    Farrar, Kerrie

    2013-01-01

    To accelerate domestication of Miscanthus, an important energy crop, 244 replicated genotypes, including two different species and their hybrids, were analysed for morphological traits and biomass yield over three growing seasons following an establishment phase of 2 years in the largest Miscanthus diversity trial described to date. Stem and leaf traits were selected that contributed both directly and indirectly to total harvested biomass yield, and there was variation in all traits measured. Morphological diversity within the population was correlated with dry matter yield (DMY) both as individual traits and in combination, in order to determine the respective contributions of the traits to biomass accumulation and to identify breeding targets for yield improvement. Predictive morphometric analysis was possible at year 3 within Miscanthus sinensis genotypes but not between M. sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and interspecific hybrids. Yield is a complex trait, and no single simple trait explained more than 33% of DMY, which varied from 1 to 5297g among genotypes within this trial. Associating simple traits increased the power of the morphological data to predict yield to 60%. Trait variety, in combination, enabled multiple ideotypes, thereby increasing the potential diversity of the crop for multiple growth locations and end uses. Both triploids and interspecific hybrids produced the highest mature yields, indicating that there is significant heterosis to be exploited within Miscanthus that might be overlooked in early selection screens within years 1–3. The potential for optimizing biomass yield by selecting on the basis of morphology is discussed. PMID:24064927

  17. Accelerating the domestication of a bioenergy crop: identifying and modelling morphological targets for sustainable yield increase in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Robson, Paul; Jensen, Elaine; Hawkins, Sarah; White, Simon R; Kenobi, Kim; Clifton-Brown, John; Donnison, Iain; Farrar, Kerrie

    2013-11-01

    To accelerate domestication of Miscanthus, an important energy crop, 244 replicated genotypes, including two different species and their hybrids, were analysed for morphological traits and biomass yield over three growing seasons following an establishment phase of 2 years in the largest Miscanthus diversity trial described to date. Stem and leaf traits were selected that contributed both directly and indirectly to total harvested biomass yield, and there was variation in all traits measured. Morphological diversity within the population was correlated with dry matter yield (DMY) both as individual traits and in combination, in order to determine the respective contributions of the traits to biomass accumulation and to identify breeding targets for yield improvement. Predictive morphometric analysis was possible at year 3 within Miscanthus sinensis genotypes but not between M. sinensis, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, and interspecific hybrids. Yield is a complex trait, and no single simple trait explained more than 33% of DMY, which varied from 1 to 5297 g among genotypes within this trial. Associating simple traits increased the power of the morphological data to predict yield to 60%. Trait variety, in combination, enabled multiple ideotypes, thereby increasing the potential diversity of the crop for multiple growth locations and end uses. Both triploids and interspecific hybrids produced the highest mature yields, indicating that there is significant heterosis to be exploited within Miscanthus that might be overlooked in early selection screens within years 1-3. The potential for optimizing biomass yield by selecting on the basis of morphology is discussed.

  18. Chronic ethanol feeding increases the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections by altering local host defenses

    PubMed Central

    Parlet, Corey P.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Schlueter, Annette J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholics are at increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and serious sequelae, such as bacteremia and death. Despite the association between alcoholism and severe S. aureus skin infection, the impact of EtOH on anti-S. aureus cutaneous immunity has not been investigated in a model of chronic EtOH exposure. To test the hypothesis that EtOH enhances the severity of S. aureus skin infection, mice were fed EtOH for ≥12 weeks via the Meadows-Cook model of alcoholism and inoculated with S. aureus following epidermal abrasion. Evidence of exacerbated staphylococcal disease in EtOH-fed mice included: skin lesions that were larger and contained more organisms, greater weight loss, and increased bacterial dissemination. Infected EtOH-fed mice demonstrated poor maintenance and induction of PMN responses in skin and draining LNs, respectively. Additionally, altered PMN dynamics in the skin of these mice corresponded with reduced production of IL-23 and IL-1β by CD11b+ myeloid cells and IL-17 production by γδ T cells, with the latter defect occurring in the draining LNs as well. In addition, IL-17 restoration attenuated S. aureus-induced dermatopathology and improved bacterial clearance defects in EtOH-fed mice. Taken together, the findings show, in a novel model system, that the EtOH-induced increase in S. aureus-related injury/illness corresponds with defects in the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis and poor PMN accumulation at the site of infection and draining LNs. These findings offer new information about the impact of EtOH on cutaneous host-defense pathways and provide a potential mechanism explaining why alcoholics are predisposed to S. aureus skin infection. PMID:25605871

  19. Chronic ethanol feeding increases the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infections by altering local host defenses.

    PubMed

    Parlet, Corey P; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S; Horswill, Alexander R; Schlueter, Annette J

    2015-04-01

    Alcoholics are at increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and serious sequelae, such as bacteremia and death. Despite the association between alcoholism and severe S. aureus skin infection, the impact of EtOH on anti-S. aureus cutaneous immunity has not been investigated in a model of chronic EtOH exposure. To test the hypothesis that EtOH enhances the severity of S. aureus skin infection, mice were fed EtOH for ≥12 weeks via the Meadows-Cook model of alcoholism and inoculated with S. aureus following epidermal abrasion. Evidence of exacerbated staphylococcal disease in EtOH-fed mice included: skin lesions that were larger and contained more organisms, greater weight loss, and increased bacterial dissemination. Infected EtOH-fed mice demonstrated poor maintenance and induction of PMN responses in skin and draining LNs, respectively. Additionally, altered PMN dynamics in the skin of these mice corresponded with reduced production of IL-23 and IL-1β by CD11b(+) myeloid cells and IL-17 production by γδ T cells, with the latter defect occurring in the draining LNs as well. In addition, IL-17 restoration attenuated S. aureus-induced dermatopathology and improved bacterial clearance defects in EtOH-fed mice. Taken together, the findings show, in a novel model system, that the EtOH-induced increase in S. aureus-related injury/illness corresponds with defects in the IL-23/IL-17 inflammatory axis and poor PMN accumulation at the site of infection and draining LNs. These findings offer new information about the impact of EtOH on cutaneous host-defense pathways and provide a potential mechanism explaining why alcoholics are predisposed to S. aureus skin infection.

  20. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE+ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE+HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE+HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a "two-programming" hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is "the first programming", and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as "the second programming".

  2. Energy use efficiency is characterized by an epigenetic component that can be directed through artificial selection to increase yield.

    PubMed

    Hauben, Miriam; Haesendonckx, Boris; Standaert, Evi; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Akpo, Hervé; Van Breusegem, Frank; Guisez, Yves; Bots, Marc; Lambert, Bart; Laga, Benjamin; De Block, Marc

    2009-11-24

    Quantitative traits, such as size and weight in animals and seed yield in plants, are distributed normally, even within a population of genetically identical individuals. For example, in plants, various factors, such as local soil quality, microclimate, and sowing depth, affect growth differences among individual plants of isogenic populations. Besides these physical factors, also epigenetic components contribute to differences in growth and yield. The network that regulates crop yield is still not well understood. Although this network is expected to have epigenetic elements, it is completely unclear whether it would be possible to shape the epigenome to increase crop yield. Here we show that energy use efficiency is an important factor in determining seed yield in canola (Brassica napus) and that it can be selected artificially through an epigenetic feature. From an isogenic canola population of which the individual plants and their self-fertilized progenies were recursively selected for respiration intensity, populations with distinct physiological and agronomical characteristics could be generated. These populations were found to be genetically identical, but epigenetically different. Furthermore, both the DNA methylation patterns as well as the agronomical and physiological characteristics of the selected lines were heritable. Hybrids derived from parent lines selected for high energy use efficiencies had a 5% yield increase on top of heterosis. Our results demonstrate that artificial selection allows the increase of the yield potential by selecting populations with particular epigenomic states.

  3. Energy use efficiency is characterized by an epigenetic component that can be directed through artificial selection to increase yield

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, Miriam; Haesendonckx, Boris; Standaert, Evi; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Azmi, Abdelkrim; Akpo, Hervé; Van Breusegem, Frank; Guisez, Yves; Bots, Marc; Lambert, Bart; Laga, Benjamin; De Block, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative traits, such as size and weight in animals and seed yield in plants, are distributed normally, even within a population of genetically identical individuals. For example, in plants, various factors, such as local soil quality, microclimate, and sowing depth, affect growth differences among individual plants of isogenic populations. Besides these physical factors, also epigenetic components contribute to differences in growth and yield. The network that regulates crop yield is still not well understood. Although this network is expected to have epigenetic elements, it is completely unclear whether it would be possible to shape the epigenome to increase crop yield. Here we show that energy use efficiency is an important factor in determining seed yield in canola (Brassica napus) and that it can be selected artificially through an epigenetic feature. From an isogenic canola population of which the individual plants and their self-fertilized progenies were recursively selected for respiration intensity, populations with distinct physiological and agronomical characteristics could be generated. These populations were found to be genetically identical, but epigenetically different. Furthermore, both the DNA methylation patterns as well as the agronomical and physiological characteristics of the selected lines were heritable. Hybrids derived from parent lines selected for high energy use efficiencies had a 5% yield increase on top of heterosis. Our results demonstrate that artificial selection allows the increase of the yield potential by selecting populations with particular epigenomic states. PMID:19897729

  4. Ethanol-induced erectile dysfunction and increased expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle are mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Leite, Letícia N; do Vale, Gabriel T; Simplicio, Janaina A; De Martinis, Bruno S; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2017-06-05

    Ethanol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the molecular mechanisms through which ethanol causes ED remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species are described as mediators of ethanol-induced cell toxicity/damage in distinctive tissues. The enzyme NADPH oxidase is the main source of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and ethanol is described to increase NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species generation. This study evaluated the contribution of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species to ethanol-induced ED, endothelial dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory and redox-sensitive proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM). Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol (20% v/v) or ethanol plus apocynin (30mg/kg/day; p.o. gavage) for six weeks. Apocynin prevented both the decreased in acetylcholine-induced relaxation and intracavernosal pressure induced by ethanol. Ethanol increased superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation and catalase activity in CSM, and treatment with apocynin prevented these responses. Similarly, apocynin prevented the ethanol-induced decreased of nitrate/nitrite (NOx), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and SOD activity. Treatment with ethanol increased p47phox translocation to the membrane as well as the expression of Nox2, COX-1, catalase, iNOS, ICAM-1 and p65. Apocynin prevented the effects of ethanol on protein expression and p47phox translocation. Finally, treatment with ethanol increased both TNF-α production and neutrophil migration in CSM. The major new finding of this study is that NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species play a role on chronic