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Sample records for increased myc gene

  1. Using myc genes to search for stem cells in the ciliary margin of the Xenopus retina.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao Yan; Harris, William A

    2012-04-01

    The ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of fish and frog retinas contains cells that proliferate throughout postembryonic development as the retina grows with increasing body size, indicating the presence of stem cells in this region. However, neither the location nor the molecular identity of retinal stem cells has been identified. Here, we show in Xenopus that c-myc and n-myc are sequentially expressed both during development and in the post-embryonic retina. The c-myc+/n-myc- cells near the extreme periphery of the CMZ cycle more slowly and preferentially retain DNA label compared to their more central cmyc+/n-myc+ neighbors which cycle rapidly and preferentially dilute DNA label. During retinal development c-myc is functionally required earlier than n-myc, and n-myc expression depends on earlier c-myc expression. The expression of c-myc but not n-myc in the CMZ depends on growth factor signaling. Our results suggest that c-myc+/n-myc- cells in the far peripheral CMZ are candidates for a niche-dependent population of retinal stem cells that give rise to more centrally located and rapidly dividing n-myc+ progenitors of more limited proliferative potential. Analysis of homologues of these genes in the zebrafish CMZ suggests that the transition from c-myc to n-myc expression might be conserved in other lower vertebrates whose retinas growth throughout life.

  2. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of the human N-myc gene

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, L.W.; Schwab, M.; Bishop, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    Human neuroblastomas frequently display amplification and augmented expression of a gene known as N-myc because of its similarity to the protooncogene c-myc. It has therefore been proposed that N-myc is itself a protooncogene, and subsequent tests have shown that N-myc and c-myc have similar biological activities in cell culture. The authors have now detailed the kinship between N-myc and c-myc by determining the nucleotide sequence of human N-myc and deducing the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the gene. The topography of N-myc is strikingly similar to that of c-myc: both genes contain three exons of similar lengths; the coding elements of both genes are located in the second and third exons; and both genes have unusually long 5' untranslated regions in their mRNAs, with features that raise the possibility that expression of the genes may be subject to similar controls of translation. The resemblance between the proteins encoded by N-myc and c-myc sustains previous suspicions that the genes encode related functions.

  4. Zebra fish myc family and max genes: differential expression and oncogenic activity throughout vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber-Agus, N; Horner, J; Torres, R; Chiu, F C; DePinho, R A

    1993-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of Myc family oncoproteins and their associated protein Max in vertebrate growth and development, we sought to identify homologs in the zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio). A combination of a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy and low-stringency hybridization screening allowed for the isolation of zebra fish c-, N-, and L-myc and max genes; subsequent structural characterization showed a high degree of conservation in regions that encode motifs of known functional significance. On the functional level, zebra fish Max, like its mammalian counterpart, served to suppress the transformation activity of mouse c-Myc in rat embryo fibroblasts. In addition, the zebra fish c-myc gene proved capable of cooperating with an activated H-ras to effect the malignant transformation of mammalian cells, albeit with diminished potency compared with mouse c-myc. With respect to their roles in normal developing tissues, the differential temporal and spatial patterns of steady-state mRNA expression observed for each zebra fish myc family member suggest unique functions for L-myc in early embryogenesis, for N-myc in establishment and growth of early organ systems, and for c-myc in increasingly differentiated tissues. Furthermore, significant alterations in the steady-state expression of zebra fish myc family genes concomitant with relatively constant max expression support the emerging model of regulation of Myc function in cellular growth and differentiation. Images PMID:8474440

  5. N-Myc overexpression increases cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma via deregulation of mitochondrial dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Casinelli, Gabriella; LaRosa, Jeff; Sharma, Manika; Cherok, Edward; Banerjee, Swati; Branca, Maria; Edmunds, Lia; Wang, Yudong; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Churley, Luke; Kelly, Samantha; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna; Graves, J Anthony

    2016-01-01

    N-Myc is a global transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in a number of essential cellular processes including: ribosome biogenesis, cell cycle and apoptosis. Upon deregulation, N-Myc can drive pathologic expression of many of these genes, which ultimately defines its oncogenic potential. Overexpression of N-Myc has been demonstrated to contribute to tumorigenesis, most notably for the pediatric tumor, neuroblastoma. Herein, we provide evidence that deregulated N-Myc alters the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics. We found that N-Myc overexpression leads to increased fusion of the mitochondrial reticulum secondary to changes in protein expression due to aberrant transcriptional and post-translational regulation. We believe the structural changes in the mitochondrial network in response to N-Myc amplification in neuroblastoma contributes to two important aspects of tumor development and maintenance—bioenergetic alterations and apoptotic resistance. Specifically, we found that N-Myc overexpressing cells are resistant to programmed cell death in response to exposure to low doses of cisplatin, and demonstrated that this was dependent on increased mitochondrial fusion. We speculate that these changes in mitochondrial structure and function may contribute significantly to the aggressive clinical ph9enotype of N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma. PMID:28028439

  6. Myc

    PubMed Central

    Wasylishen, Amanda R.; Penn, Linda Z.

    2010-01-01

    The iconic history of the Myc oncoprotein encompasses 3 decades of intense scientific discovery. There is no question that Myc has been a pioneer, advancing insight into the molecular basis of cancer as well as functioning as a critical control center for several diverse biological processes and regulatory mechanisms. This narrative chronicles the journey and milestones that have defined the understanding of Myc, and it provides an opportunity to consider future directions in this challenging yet rewarding field. PMID:21779457

  7. Regulation of cyclin D2 gene expression by the Myc/Max/Mad network: Myc-dependent TRRAP recruitment and histone acetylation at the cyclin D2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Caroline; Dittrich, Oliver; Kiermaier, Astrid; Dohmann, Karen; Menkel, Annette; Eilers, Martin; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Myc oncoproteins promote cell cycle progression in part through the transcriptional up-regulation of the cyclin D2 gene. We now show that Myc is bound to the cyclin D2 promoter in vivo. Binding of Myc induces cyclin D2 expression and histone acetylation at a single nucleosome in a MycBoxII/TRRAP-dependent manner. Down-regulation of cyclin D2 mRNA expression in differentiating HL60 cells is preceded by a switch of promoter occupancy from Myc/Max to Mad/Max complexes, loss of TRRAP binding, increased HDAC1 binding, and histone deacetylation. Thus, recruitment of TRRAP and regulation of histone acetylation are critical for transcriptional activation by Myc. PMID:11511535

  8. Kinetics of myc-max-mad gene expression during hepatocyte proliferation in vivo: Differential regulation of mad family and stress-mediated induction of c-myc.

    PubMed

    Mauleon, Itsaso; Lombard, Marie-Noëlle; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cañelles, Matilde; Leon, Javier

    2004-02-01

    Mad proteins (Mad1, Mxi1, Mad3, Mad4, Mnt/Rox) are biochemical and biological antagonists of c-Myc oncoprotein. Mad-Max dimers repress the transcription of the same target genes activated by Myc-Max dimers. Despite the critical role of Max and Mad proteins as modulators of c-Myc functions, there are no comparative data on their regulation in vivo. We carried out a systematic analysis of c-myc, max, and mad family expression in a model of synchronized cell proliferation in vivo in adult tissues, that is, rat hepatocytes after partial hepatectomy. We confirmed the previously reported early peak of c-myc expression after hepatectomy but we show that it did not correlate with hepatocyte proliferation as it also occurred in sham-operated animals as a result of surgical stresses. A second peak of c-myc expression was observed later, at the time of the wave of DNA synthesis. No such expression was detected in sham-operated rat quiescent hepatocytes. max expression increased around 4-16 h after hepatectomy, before the peaks of c-myc and DNA synthesis. mxi1 and mad4 were slightly downregulated during liver regeneration. mnt/rox expression did not change. These expression patterns suggest a role of Myc-Max for efficient mitogenic response of hepatocytes. We also analyzed the effects of Myc and Max ectopic expression on the clonogenic growth of the rat hepatoma cells. Expression of c-Myc and Max increased clonogenic growth, whereas the reduction of c-Myc levels by an antisense vector decreased growth. The results suggest nonredundant roles for mad genes in hepatocyte proliferation and point to c-Myc as a putative target for anticancer therapy of liver cancer.

  9. Drosophila Myc is required for normal DREF gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Dang Thi Phuong Thao; Seto, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila DNA replication-related element-binding factor (dDREF) is required for the expression of many proliferation-related genes carrying the DRE sequence, 5'-TATCGATA. Finding a canonical E-box, 5'-CACGTG, in the dDREF gene promoter prompted us to explore the possibility that the dDREF gene is a target of Drosophila Myc (dMyc). Luciferase transient expression assays combined with RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that knockdown of dmyc reduced dDREF gene promoter activity by 35% to 82%, an effect at least partly mediated by the E-box in the promoter. dm{sup 4}/Y hemizygous mutant larvae demonstrated no maternal dMyc and severe impairment of dDREF mRNA transcription. dMyc loss of function in dm{sup 2}/dm{sup 2} homozygous mutant follicle cell clones also resulted in loss of anti-dDREF immunostaining in nuclei. In contrast, co-expression of dMyc-dMax up-regulated dDREF promoter activity in S2 cells. Furthermore, dMyc over-expressing clones exhibited a high level of dDREF gene expression in wing and eye discs. These results taken together indicate that dMyc is indeed required for dDREF gene expression.

  10. Drosophila Myc is required for normal DREF gene expression.

    PubMed

    Thao, Dang Thi Phuong; Seto, Hirokazu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila DNA replication-related element-binding factor (dDREF) is required for the expression of many proliferation-related genes carrying the DRE sequence, 5'-TATCGATA. Finding a canonical E-box, 5'-CACGTG, in the dDREF gene promoter prompted us to explore the possibility that the dDREF gene is a target of Drosophila Myc (dMyc). Luciferase transient expression assays combined with RNA interference in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that knockdown of dmyc reduced dDREF gene promoter activity by 35% to 82%, an effect at least partly mediated by the E-box in the promoter. dm(4)/Y hemizygous mutant larvae demonstrated no maternal dMyc and severe impairment of dDREF mRNA transcription. dMyc loss of function in dm(2)/dm(2) homozygous mutant follicle cell clones also resulted in loss of anti-dDREF immunostaining in nuclei. In contrast, co-expression of dMyc-dMax up-regulated dDREF promoter activity in S2 cells. Furthermore, dMyc over-expressing clones exhibited a high level of dDREF gene expression in wing and eye discs. These results taken together indicate that dMyc is indeed required for dDREF gene expression.

  11. Organization and expression of the chicken N-myc gene.

    PubMed

    Sawai, S; Kato, K; Wakamatsu, Y; Kondoh, H

    1990-05-01

    We cloned the chicken N-myc gene and analyzed its structure and expression. We found that it consisted of three exons with coding regions in exons 2 and 3. Comparison to mammalian N-myc genomic sequence indicated that nucleotide sequences of the 5'-flanking region, noncoding exon 1, and introns were not conserved, but coding and 3' noncoding sequences showed significant homology to mammalian N-myc. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences of chicken and mammalian N-myc proteins revealed nine conserved domains interrupted by different lengths of nonhomologous sequences. Two of the domains were specific to N-myc proteins, and the other seven were common to c-myc proteins. Northern blot (immunoblot) and in situ hybridization analyses of 3.5-day-old chicken embryos revealed that high-level expression of the N-myc gene was confirmed to certain tissues, e.g., the central nervous system, neural crest derivatives, and mesenchyme of limb buds. In the beak and limb primordia, N-myc expression in the mesenchyme was higher toward the distal end, suggesting possible involvement in positional assignment of the tissue within the rudimentary structures.

  12. Sonic hedgehog elevates N-myc gene expression in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongsheng; Wang, Shouyu; Cui, Yan; Shen, Lun; Du, Yanping; Li, Guilin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Renzhi

    2012-08-05

    Proliferation of neural stem cells is regulated by the secreted signaling molecule sonic hedgehog. In this study, neural stem cells were infected with recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing sonic hedgehog-N-enhanced green fluorescent protein. The results showed that overexpression of sonic hedgehog in neural stem cells induced the increased expression of Gli1 and N-myc, a target gene of sonic hedgehog. These findings suggest that N-myc is a direct downstream target of the sonic hedgehog signal pathway in neural stem cells. Sonic hedgehog and N-myc are important mediators of sonic hedgehog-induced proliferation of neural stem cells.

  13. HMG-I/Y, a New c-Myc Target Gene and Potential Oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lisa J.; Mukherjee, Mita; Dolde, Christine E.; Xu, Yi; Maher, Joseph F.; Bunton, Tracie E.; Williams, John B.; Resar, Linda M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The HMG-I/Y gene encodes the HMG-I and HMG-Y proteins, which function as architectural chromatin binding proteins important in the transcriptional regulation of several genes. Although increased expression of the HMG-I/Y proteins is associated with cellular proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and several human cancers, the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of malignancy remains unclear. To better understand the role of these proteins in cell growth and transformation, we have been studying the regulation and function of HMG-I/Y. The HMG-I/Y promoter was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to mutagenesis analysis. A c-Myc–Max consensus DNA binding site was identified as an element important in the serum stimulation of HMG-I/Y. The oncoprotein c-Myc and its protein partner Max bind to this site in vitro and activate transcription in transfection experiments. HMG-I/Y expression is stimulated by c-Myc in a Myc-estradiol receptor cell line in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating that HMG-I/Y is a direct c-Myc target gene. HMG-I/Y induction is decreased in Myc-deficient fibroblasts. HMG-I/Y protein expression is also increased in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, which are known to have increased c-Myc protein. Like Myc, increased expression of HMG-I protein leads to the neoplastic transformation of both Rat 1a fibroblasts and CB33 cells. In addition, Rat 1a cells overexpressing HMG-I protein form tumors in nude mice. Decreasing HMG-I/Y proteins using an antisense construct abrogates transformation in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These findings indicate that HMG-I/Y is a c-Myc target gene involved in neoplastic transformation and a member of a new class of potential oncogenes. PMID:10891489

  14. INSM1 increases N-myc stability and oncogenesis via a positive-feedback loop in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2015-11-03

    Insulinoma associated-1 (IA-1/INSM1) gene is exclusively expressed during early embryonic development, but has been found to be re-expressed at high levels in neuroendocrine tumors including neuroblastoma. Using over-expression and knockdown experiments in neuroblastoma cells, we showed that INSM1 is critical for cell proliferation, BME-coated invasion, and soft agar colony formation. Here, we identified INSM1 as a novel target gene activated by N-myc in N-myc amplified neuroblastoma cells. The Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway induced INSM1 by increasing N-myc expression. INSM1 activated PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathways to suppress N-myc phosphorylation (Thr-58) and inhibited degradation of N-myc. Inversely, N-myc protein bound to the E2-box region of the INSM1 promoter and activated INSM1 expression. The invasion assay and the xenograft nude mouse tumor model revealed that the INSM1 factor facilitated growth and oncogenesis of neuroblastoma. The current data supports our hypothesis that a positive-feedback loop of sonic hedgehog signaling induced INSM1 through N-myc and INSM1 enhanced N-myc stability contributing to the transformation of human neuroblastoma.

  15. DNA replication origin and transcriptional enhancer in c-myc gene share the c-myc protein binding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, H; Imamura, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, binds to the region upstream of the first exon of the c-myc gene and that this region contains an origin of cellular DNA replication (ori) and also a transcriptional enhancer. Here we show by Southwestern blotting that c-myc protein binds directly to a 7 bp sequence within the above region. Furthermore, we show that the c-myc protein binding sequences are indispensable for both ori and enhancer functions, but that additional sequences are required for maximal ori and enhancer activities. Thus, c-myc protein is a sequence specific factor which is apparently used both in initiation of DNA replication and in regulation of RNA transcription. Images PMID:2686984

  16. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  17. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M; Gregory, Gareth P; Martin, Benjamin P; Kelly, Madison J; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Dickins, Ross A; Hannan, Ross D; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2017-03-06

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis.

  18. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W.; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M.; Gregory, Gareth P.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Kelly, Madison J.; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A.; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hannan, Ross D.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis. PMID:28262675

  19. c-Myc directly regulates the transcription of the NBS1 gene involved in DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Chi; Teng, Shu-Chun; Su, Yi-Ning; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Wu, Kou-Juey

    2003-05-23

    The c-myc proto-oncogene encodes a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in the control of cell growth and implicated in inducing tumorigenesis. Understanding the function of c-Myc and its role in cancer depends upon the identification of c-Myc target genes. Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is a chromosomal-instability syndrome associated with cancer predisposition, radiosensitivity, and chromosomal instability. The NBS gene product, NBS1 (p95 or nibrin), is a part of the hMre11 complex, a central player associated with double-strand break (DSB) repair. NBS1 contains domains characteristic for proteins involved in DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Here we show that c-Myc directly activates NBS1. c-Myc-mediated induction of NBS1 gene transcription occurs in different tissues, is independent of cell proliferation, and is mediated by a c-Myc binding site in the intron 1 region of NBS1 gene. Overexpression of NBS1 in Rat1a cells increased cell proliferation. These results indicate that NBS1 is a direct transcriptional target of c-Myc and links the function of c-Myc to the regulation of DNA DSB repair pathway operating during DNA replication.

  20. Human differentiation-related gene NDRG1 is a Myc downstream-regulated gene that is repressed by Myc on the core promoter region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Suning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xinping; Shi, Hai; Che, Honglei; Wang, Weizhong; Li, Fuyang; Yao, Libo

    2008-07-01

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (ndrg1) is up-regulated in N-Myc knockout mouse embryos. The human NDRG family consists of 4 highly homologous members and human Ndrg1 exhibits approximately 94% homology with mouse ndrg1. However, the regulatory mechanism of NDRG1 via Myc repression is as yet unknown. We previously identified human NDRG2 and demonstrated that this gene is transcriptionally down-regulated by Myc via Miz-1-dependent interaction with the core promoter region of NDRG2. Here, we provide evidence that human NDRG1 is regulated by Myc in a manner similar to NDRG2. We found that Ndrg1 expression levels were enhanced as Myc expression declined in differentiated cells, but were down-regulated following Myc induction. The data revealed that both N-Myc and c-Myc can repress human NDRG1 at the transcriptional level. We further determined that the core promoter region of human NDRG1 is required for Myc repression, and verified the interaction of Myc with the core promoter region. However, the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide could reverse the repression of Myc, indicating the indirect repression of human NDRG1 by Myc. Moreover, we found that c-Myc-mediated repression can be inhibited by TSA, an HDACs inhibitor, which suggests the involvement of HDACs in the repression process. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in common with NDRG2, human NDRG1 can be indirectly transcriptionally down-regulated by Myc via interaction with the NDRG1 core promoter.

  1. Analyzing Myc in Cell Transformation and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Markus; Bister, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The myc oncogene was originally identified as a transduced allele (v-myc) in the genome of a highly oncogenic avian retrovirus. The protein product (Myc) of the cellular c-myc protooncogene represents the key component of a transcription factor network controlling the expression of a large fraction of all human genes. Myc regulates fundamental cellular processes like growth control, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Mutational deregulation of c-myc leading to increased levels of the Myc protein is a frequent event in the etiology of human cancers. In this chapter, we describe cell systems and experimental strategies to monitor and quantify the oncogenic potential of myc alleles, and to isolate and characterize transcriptional targets of Myc that are relevant for the cell transformation process. We also describe experimental procedures to study the evolutionary origin of myc and to analyze structure and function of the ancestral myc protooncogenes. PMID:24006056

  2. Expression analysis of MYC genes from Tamarix hispida in response to different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng; Liu, Guifeng

    2012-01-01

    The MYC genes are a group of transcription factors containing both bHLH and ZIP motifs that play important roles in the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes. In the present study, to investigate the roles of MYC genes under NaCl, osmotic and ABA stress conditions, nine MYC genes were cloned from Tamarix hispida. Real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR showed that all nine MYC genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf tissues, but that the levels of the transcripts of these genes in the various tissues differed notably. The MYC genes were highly induced in the roots in response to ABA, NaCl and osmotic stresses after 3 h; however, in the stem and leaf tissues, MYC genes were highly induced only when exposed to these stresses for 6 h. In addition, most of these MYC genes were highly expressed in roots in comparison with stems and leaves. Furthermore, the MYC genes were more highly induced in roots than in stem and leaf tissues, indicating that these genes may play roles in stress responses mainly in the roots rather than the stems and leaves. The results of this present study suggest that MYCs are involved in salt and osmotic stress tolerances and are controlled by the ABA signal transduction pathway.

  3. The Myc negative autoregulation mechanism requires Myc-Max association and involves the c-myc P2 minimal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Facchini, L M; Chen, S; Marhin, W W; Lear, J N; Penn, L Z

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an important biological role for Myc in the downregulation of specific gene transcription. Recent studies suggest that c-Myc may suppress promoter activity through proteins of the basal transcription machinery. We have previously reported that Myc protein, in combination with additional cellular factors, suppresses transcription initiation from the c-myc promoter. To characterize the cis components of this Myc negative autoregulation pathway, fragments of the human c-myc promoter were inserted upstream of luciferase reporter genes and assayed for responsiveness to inducible MycER activation in Rat-1 fibroblasts. We found four- to fivefold suppression of a c-myc P2 minimal promoter fragment upon induction of wild-type MycER protein activity, while induction of a mutant MycER protein lacking amino acids 106 to 143 required for Myc autosuppression failed to elicit this response. This assay is physiologically significant, as it reflects Myc autosuppression of the endogenous c-myc gene with regard to kinetics, dose dependency, cell type specificity, and c-Myc functional domains. Analysis of mutations within the P2 minimal promoter indicated that the cis components of Myc autosuppression could not be ascribed to any known protein-binding motifs. In addition, to address the trans factors required for Myc negative autoregulation, we expressed MycEG and MaxEG leucine zipper dimerization mutants in Rat-1 cells and found that Myc-Max heterodimerization is obligatory for Myc autosuppression. Two models for the Myc autosuppression mechanism are discussed. PMID:8972190

  4. Different promoter affinities account for specificity in MYC-dependent gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzin, Francesca; Benary, Uwe; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Walz, Susanne; Jung, Lisa Anna; von Eyss, Björn; Kisker, Caroline; Wolf, Jana; Eilers, Martin; Wolf, Elmar

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced expression of the MYC transcription factor is observed in the majority of tumors. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed for its function: one proposes that MYC enhances expression of all genes, while the other model suggests gene-specific regulation. Here, we have explored the hypothesis that specific gene expression profiles arise since promoters differ in affinity for MYC and high-affinity promoters are fully occupied by physiological levels of MYC. We determined cellular MYC levels and used RNA- and ChIP-sequencing to correlate promoter occupancy with gene expression at different concentrations of MYC. Mathematical modeling showed that binding affinities for interactions of MYC with DNA and with core promoter-bound factors, such as WDR5, are sufficient to explain promoter occupancies observed in vivo. Importantly, promoter affinity stratifies different biological processes that are regulated by MYC, explaining why tumor-specific MYC levels induce specific gene expression programs and alter defined biological properties of cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15161.001 PMID:27460974

  5. Expression of c-myc gene in human ovary carcinoma cells treated with vanadate

    SciTech Connect

    Itkes, A.V.; Imamova, L.R.; Alexandrova, N.M.; Favorova, O.O.; Kisselev, L.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The widely accepted hypothesis of vanadate action on cells postulates that this ion inhibits protein phosphatase(s) that dephosphorylates protein phosphotyrosine residues. This inhibition causes tyrosine hyperphosphorylation of cell proteins followed by changes in physiological action of phosphoproteins resulting in stimulation of cell proliferation, expression of protooncogenes, and transient cell transformation. The authors have found that treatment of human ovary carcinoma (CaOv) cells with vanadate causes the increase in total protein phosphorylation from 1.5- to 2.0-fold whereas the ratio between phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, and phosphotyrosine content remains unchanged. At the same time, enhancement of c-myc gene expression (not c-fos) was observed. Hence, the increase in the ratio of phosphotyrosine to phosphoserine and phosphothreonine is not an obligatory intermediate stage before vanadate-dependent activation of c-myc expression.

  6. SKP2 Oncogene Is a Direct MYC Target Gene and MYC Down-regulates p27KIP1 through SKP2 in Human Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Bretones, Gabriel; Acosta, Juan C.; Caraballo, Juan M.; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Gómez-Casares, M. Teresa; Albajar, Marta; Blanco, Rosa; Ruiz, Paula; Hung, Wen-Chun; Albero, M. Pilar; Perez-Roger, Ignacio; León, Javier

    2011-01-01

    SKP2 is the ubiquitin ligase subunit that targets p27KIP1 (p27) for degradation. SKP2 is induced in the G1-S transit of the cell cycle, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer, and displays transformation activity in experimental models. Here we show that MYC induces SKP2 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in human myeloid leukemia K562 cells with conditional MYC expression. Importantly, in these systems, induction of MYC did not activate cell proliferation, ruling out SKP2 up-regulation as a consequence of cell cycle entry. MYC-dependent SKP2 expression was also detected in other cell types such as lymphoid, fibroblastic, and epithelial cell lines. MYC induced SKP2 mRNA expression in the absence of protein synthesis and activated the SKP2 promoter in luciferase reporter assays. With chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, MYC was detected bound to a region of human SKP2 gene promoter that includes E-boxes. The K562 cell line derives from human chronic myeloid leukemia. In a cohort of chronic myeloid leukemia bone marrow samples, we found a correlation between MYC and SKP2 mRNA levels. Analysis of cancer expression databases also indicated a correlation between MYC and SKP2 expression in lymphoma. Finally, MYC-induced SKP2 expression resulted in a decrease in p27 protein in K562 cells. Moreover, silencing of SKP2 abrogated the MYC-mediated down-regulation of p27. Our data show that SKP2 is a direct MYC target gene and that MYC-mediated SKP2 induction leads to reduced p27 levels. The results suggest the induction of SKP2 oncogene as a new mechanism for MYC-dependent transformation. PMID:21245140

  7. SRC-2-mediated coactivation of anti-tumorigenic target genes suppresses MYC-induced liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaorong; Comerford, Sarah A.; York, Brian; O’Donnell, Kathryn A.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common solid tumor in the world and the third leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. A Sleeping Beauty-mediated transposon mutagenesis screen previously identified mutations that cooperate with MYC to accelerate liver tumorigenesis. This revealed a tumor suppressor role for Steroid Receptor Coactivator 2/Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2 (Src-2/Ncoa2) in liver cancer. In contrast, SRC-2 promotes survival and metastasis in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a tissue-specific and context-dependent role for SRC-2 in tumorigenesis. To determine if genetic loss of SRC-2 is sufficient to accelerate MYC-mediated liver tumorigenesis, we bred Src-2-/- mice with a MYC-induced liver tumor model and observed a significant increase in liver tumor burden. RNA sequencing of liver tumors and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a set of direct target genes that are bound by SRC-2 and exhibit downregulated expression in Src-2-/- liver tumors. We demonstrate that activation of SHP (Small Heterodimer Partner), DKK4 (Dickkopf-4), and CADM4 (Cell Adhesion Molecule 4) by SRC-2 suppresses tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo. These studies suggest that SRC-2 may exhibit oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity depending on the target genes and nuclear receptors that are expressed in distinct tissues and illuminate the mechanisms of tumor suppression by SRC-2 in liver. PMID:28273073

  8. [PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shi, Qing-Guo; Qian, Xiao-Long; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Wang, Le-Le; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2010-04-01

    PC-1(Prostate and colon gene 1) gene belongs to TPD52 (Tumor Protein D52) gene family. The expression of PC-1 is found to promote androgen-independent progression. This study was conducted to assess the mechnism of promotion of androgen-independent progression in PC-1 gene. The c-myc gene expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses in the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line. After separation of cytoplasm and nulear proteins of the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line, the beta-catenin protein was detected by Western blotting. C4-2 cell line was used to examine the effects of 10058-F4 on the PC-1 gene expression. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that PC-1 enhanced c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells, PC-1 was also found to enhance beta-catenin expression in nuclear. Furthermore, a small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4 represses PC-1 gene expression in C4-2 cell line. Our findings suggest that PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Meanwhile, c-myc plays a feed-forward role in enhancing PC-1 driven c-myc gene expression, and promotes prostate an-drogen-independent progression.

  9. Posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression by the c-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, G.C.; Cole, M.D. . Dept. of Biology)

    1989-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the development of many different cancers, yet the mechanism by which the c-myc protein alters cellular growth control has proven elusive. The authors used a cDNA hybridization difference assay to isolate two genes, mr1 and mr2, that were constitutively expressed (i.e., deregulated) in rodent fibroblast cell lines immortalized by transfection of a viral promoter-linked c-myc gene. Both cDNAs were serum inducible in quiescent G/sub o/ fibroblasts, suggesting that they are functionally related to cellular proliferative processes. Although there were significant differences in cytoplasmic mRNA levels between myc-immortalized and control cells, the rates of transcription and mRNA turnover of both genes were similar, suggesting that c-myc regulates mr1 and mr2 expression by some nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism. Their results provide evidence that c-myc can rapidly modulate cellular gene expression and suggest that c-myc may function in gene regulation at the level of RNA export, splicing, or nuclear RNA turnover.

  10. Emerging role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Yan, Xiaolong; Di, Shouyin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Tian; Cheng, Yedong; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor and cell stress-related gene. NDRG2 is associated with tumor incidence, progression, and metastasis. NDRG2 regulates tumor-associated genes and is regulated by multiple conditions, treatments, and protein/RNA entities, including hyperthermia, trichostatin A and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, which are promising potential cancer therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the expression as well as the clinical and pathological significance of NDRG2 in cancer. The pathological processes and molecular pathways regulated by NDRG2 are also summarized. Moreover, mechanisms for increasing NDRG2 expression in tumors and the potential directions of future NDRG2 research are discussed. The information reviewed here should assist in experimental design and increase the potential of NDRG2 as a therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:26506239

  11. Transcriptional control of DNA replication licensing by Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valovka, Taras; Schönfeld, Manuela; Raffeiner, Philipp; Breuker, Kathrin; Dunzendorfer-Matt, Theresia; Hartl, Markus; Bister, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    The c-myc protooncogene encodes the Myc transcription factor, a global regulator of fundamental cellular processes. Deregulation of c-myc leads to tumorigenesis, and c-myc is an important driver in human cancer. Myc and its dimerization partner Max are bHLH-Zip DNA binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation of target genes. Non-transcriptional functions have also been attributed to the Myc protein, notably direct interaction with the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) controlling the initiation of DNA replication. A key component of the pre-RC is the Cdt1 protein, an essential factor in origin licensing. Here we present data suggesting that the CDT1 gene is a transcriptional target of the Myc-Max complex. Expression of the CDT1 gene in v-myc-transformed cells directly correlates with myc expression. Also, human tumor cells with elevated c-myc expression display increased CDT1 expression. Occupation of the CDT1 promoter by Myc-Max is demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transactivation by Myc-Max is shown in reporter assays. Ectopic expression of CDT1 leads to cell transformation. Our results provide a possible direct mechanistic link of Myc's canonical function as a transcription factor to DNA replication. Furthermore, we suggest that aberrant transcriptional activation of CDT1 by deregulated myc alleles contributes to the genomic instabilities observed in tumor cells.

  12. Targeted repression of AXIN2 and MYC gene expression using designer TALEs

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Scott, Samantha A.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We designed TALE–SID fusion proteins to target AXIN2 and MYC. • TALE–SIDs bound the chromosomal AXIN2 and MYC genes and repressed their expression. • TALE–SIDs repress β-catenin{sup S45F}-dependent AXIN2 and MYC transcription. - Abstract: Designer TALEs (dTALEs) are chimeric transcription factors that can be engineered to regulate gene expression in mammalian cells. Whether dTALEs can block gene transcription downstream of signal transduction cascades, however, has yet to be fully explored. Here we tested whether dTALEs can be used to target genes whose expression is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TALE DNA binding domains were engineered to recognize sequences adjacent to Wnt responsive enhancer elements (WREs) that control expression of axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) and c-MYC (MYC). These custom DNA binding domains were linked to the mSin3A interaction domain (SID) to generate TALE–SID chimeric repressors. The TALE–SIDs repressed luciferase reporter activity, bound their genomic target sites, and repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in HEK293 cells. We generated a novel HEK293 cell line to determine whether the TALE–SIDs could function downstream of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Treating these cells with doxycycline and tamoxifen stimulates nuclear accumulation of a stabilized form of β-catenin found in a subset of colorectal cancers. The TALE–SIDs repressed AXIN2 and MYC expression in these cells, which suggests that dTALEs could offer an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  13. Gene expression profiling of MYC-driven tumor signatures in porcine liver stem cells by transcriptome sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is now well-established that cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive tumor growth and that the cancer gene, c-Myc, plays a critical role in converting cells to CSCs. However, little is known about the genes that are induced and regulated by c-Myc to generate tumors, and, in particular, tumors of the live...

  14. Two N-myc polypeptides with distinct amino termini encoded by the second and third exons of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, T P; Saksela, K; Alitalo, K

    1989-01-01

    The N-myc and c-myc genes encode closely related nuclear phosphoproteins. We found that the N-myc protein from human tumor cell lines appears as four closely migrating polypeptide bands (p58 to p64) in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This and the recent finding that the c-myc protein is synthesized from two translational initiation sites located in the first and second exons of the gene (S. R. Hann, M. W. King, D. L. Bentley, C. W. Anderson, and R. N. Eisenman, Cell 52:185-195, 1988) prompted us to study the molecular basis of the N-myc protein heterogeneity. Dephosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase reduced the four polypeptide bands to a doublet with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to the two faster-migrating N-myc polypeptides (p58 and p60). When expressed transiently in COS cells, an N-myc deletion construct lacking the first exon produced polypeptides similar to the wild-type N-myc protein, indicating that the first exon of the N-myc gene is noncoding. Furthermore, mutants deleted of up to two thirds of C-terminal coding domains still retained the capacity to produce a doublet of polypeptides, suggesting distinct amino termini for the two N-myc polypeptides. The amino-terminal primary structure of the N-myc protein was studied by site-specific point mutagenesis of the 5' end of the long open reading frame and by N-terminal radiosequencing of the two polypeptides. Our results show that the N-myc polypeptides are initiated from two alternative in-phase AUG codons located 24 base pairs apart at the 5' end of the second exon. Both of these polypeptides are phosphorylated and localized to the nucleus even when expressed separately. Interestingly, DNA rearrangements activating the c-myc gene are often found in the 1.7-kilobase-pair region between the two c-myc translational initiation sites and correlate with the loss of the longer c-myc polypeptide. Thus the close spacing of the two N-myc initiation codons could explain the relative resistance

  15. Dnmt3b is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Vasanthakumar, Aparna; Lepore, Janet B; Zegarek, Matthew H; Kocherginsky, Masha; Singh, Mahi; Davis, Elizabeth M; Link, Petra A; Anastasi, John; Le Beau, Michelle M; Karpf, Adam R; Godley, Lucy A

    2013-03-14

    The drivers of abnormal DNA methylation in human cancers include widespread aberrant splicing of the DNMT3B gene, producing abnormal transcripts that encode truncated proteins that may act as dominant negative isoforms. To test whether reduced Dnmt3b dosage can alter tumorigenesis, we bred Dnmt3b(+/-) mice to Eµ-Myc mice, a mouse model susceptible to B-cell lymphomas. Eµ-Myc/Dnmt3b(+/-) mice showed a dramatic acceleration of lymphomagenesis, greater even than that observed in Eµ-Myc mice that express a truncated DNMT3B isoform found in human tumors, DNMT3B7. This finding indicates that Dnmt3b can act as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Although reduction in both Dnmt3b dosage and expression of DNMT3B7 within the Eµ-Myc system had similar effects on tumorigenesis and DNA hypermethylation, different molecular mechanisms appear to underlie these changes. This study offers insight into how de novo DNA methyltransferases function as tumor suppressors and the sensitivity of Myc-induced lymphomas to DNA methylation.

  16. C-Myc induced compensated cardiac hypertrophy increases free fatty acid utilization for the citric acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Olson, Aaron K; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam) injections. Isolated working hearts and (13)Carbon ((13)C)-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing (13)C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (Cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was assessed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contributions in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus Cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc versus Cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to Cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes for the citric acid cycle did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the

  17. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained

  18. Skin epidermis lacking the c-myc gene is resistant to Ras-driven tumorigenesis but can reacquire sensitivity upon additional lossof the p21Cip1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Thordur; Essers, Marieke Alida Gertruda; Dubois, Nicole; Offner, Sandra; Dubey, Christelle; Roger, Catherine; Metzger, Daniel; Chambon, Pierre; Hummler, Edith; Beard, Peter; Trumpp, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The target gene(s) required for Myc-mediated tumorigenesis are still elusive. Here we show that while endogenous c-Myc is surprisingly dispensable for skin homeostasis and TPA-induced hyperplasia, c-Myc-deficient epidermis is resistant to Ras-mediated DMBA/TPAinduced tumorigenesis. This is mechanistically linked to p21Cip1, which is induced in tumors by the activated Ras–ERK pathway but repressed by c-Myc. Acute elimination of c-Myc in established tumors leads to the up-regulation of p21Cip1, and epidermis lacking both p21Cip1 and c-Myc reacquires normal sensitivity to DMBA/TPA-induced tumorigenesis. This identifies c-Myc-mediated repression of p21Cip1 as a key step for Ras-driven epidermal tumorigenesis. PMID:16882980

  19. Ketogenic HMGCS2 Is a c-Myc target gene expressed in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium and down-regulated in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Camarero, Nuria; Mascaró, Cristina; Mayordomo, Cristina; Vilardell, Felip; Haro, Diego; Marrero, Pedro F

    2006-09-01

    HMGCS2, the gene that regulates ketone body production, is expressed in liver and several extrahepatic tissues, such as the colon. In CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells, the expression of this gene increases with cell differentiation. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies shows that HMGCS2 is expressed mainly in differentiated cells of human colonic epithelium. Here, we used a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to study the molecular mechanism responsible for this expression pattern. The assay revealed that HMGCS2 is a direct target of c-Myc, which represses HMGCS2 transcriptional activity. c-Myc transrepression is mediated by blockade of the transactivating activity of Miz-1, which occurs mainly through a Sp1-binding site in the proximal promoter of the gene. Accordingly, the expression of human HMGCS2 is down-regulated in 90% of Myc-dependent colon and rectum tumors. HMGCS2 protein expression is down-regulated preferentially in moderately and poorly differentiated carcinomas. In addition, it is also down-regulated in 80% of small intestine Myc-independent tumors. Based on these findings, we propose that ketogenesis is an undesirable metabolic characteristic of the proliferating cell, which is down-regulated through c-Myc-mediated repression of the key metabolic gene HMGCS2.

  20. Differential Regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc Synthesis, Degradation, and Transcriptional Activity by the Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kapeli, Katannya; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Myc transcription factors are important regulators of proliferation and can promote oncogenesis when deregulated. Deregulated Myc expression in cancers can result from MYC gene amplification and translocation but also from alterations in mitogenic signaling pathways that affect Myc levels through both transcriptional and post-transcription mechanisms. For example, mutations in Ras family GTPase proteins that cause their constitutive activation can increase cellular levels of c-Myc by interfering with its rapid proteasomal degradation. Although enhanced protein stability is generally thought to be applicable to other Myc family members, here we show that c-Myc and its paralog N-Myc respond to oncogenic H-Ras (H-RasG12V) in very different ways. H-RasG12V promotes accumulation of both c-Myc and N-Myc, but although c-Myc accumulation is achieved by enhanced protein stability, N-Myc accumulation is associated with an accelerated rate of translation that overcomes a surprising H-RasG12V-mediated destabilization of N-Myc. We show that H-RasG12V-mediated degradation of N-Myc functions independently of key phosphorylation sites in the highly conserved Myc homology box I region that controls c-Myc protein stability by oncogenic Ras. Finally, we found that N-Myc and c-Myc transcriptional activity is associated with their proteasomal degradation but that N-Myc may be uniquely dependent on Ras-stimulated proteolysis for target gene expression. Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how oncogenic Ras augments N-Myc levels in cells and suggest that enhanced N-Myc translation and degradation-coupled transactivation may contribute to oncogenesis. PMID:21908617

  1. Myc-Max heterodimers activate a DEAD box gene and interact with multiple E box-related sites in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Grandori, C; Mac, J; Siëbelt, F; Ayer, D E; Eisenman, R N

    1996-01-01

    The c-Myc protein is involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis though heterodimerization with Max to form a transcriptionally active sequence-specific DNA binding complex. By means of sequential immunoprecipitation of chromatin using anti-Max and anti-Myc antibodies, we have identified a Myc-regulated gene and genomic sites occupied by Myc-Max in vivo. Four of 27 sites recovered by this procedure corresponded to the highest affinity 'canonical' CACGTG sequence. However, the most common in vivo binding sites belonged to the group of 'non-canonical' E box-related binding sites previously identified by in vitro selection. Several of the genomic fragments isolated contained transcribed sequences, including one, MrDb, encoding an evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase of the DEAD box family. The corresponding mRNA was induced following activation of a Myc-estrogen receptor fusion protein (Myc-ER) in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor, consistent with this helicase gene being a direct target of Myc-Max. In addition, as for c-Myc, the expression of MrDb is induced upon proliferative stimulation of primary human fibroblasts as well as B cells and down-regulated during terminal differentiation of HL60 leukemia cells. Our results indicate that Myc-Max heterodimers interact in vivo with a specific set of E box-related DNA sequences and that Myc is likely to activate multiple target genes including a highly conserved DEAD box protein. Therefore, Myc may exert its effects on cell behavior through proteins that affect RNA structure and metabolism. Images PMID:8861962

  2. An initiation site of DNA replication with transcriptional enhancer activity present upstream of the c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Okazaki, T; Itani, T; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Ariga, H

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein may promote cellular DNA replication by binding to initiation sites of replication. Here we report that a putative origin of human cellular DNA replication (ori) is present at approximately 2 kb upstream of the coding region of the c-myc gene itself. The c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, bind to the upstream region (approximately 200 bp in length) which has transcriptional enhancer activity as well as autonomously replicating activity in human cells, suggesting that the c-myc protein may be an enhancer binding protein as well as a DNA replication protein. Results with deletion mutants suggest that the sequence essential to the origin of DNA replication may be adjacent to, but cannot be clearly separated from, the sequence responsible for enhancer activity. Furthermore, when cloned DNA containing putative c-myc protein binding sequences was transfected as competitor into HL-60 cells, expression of c-myc was inhibited, suggesting that c-myc protein itself may be necessary for c-myc expression. Images PMID:3053161

  3. Proximity of thyroglobulin and c-myc genes on human chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Rabin, M; Barker, P E; Ruddle, F H; Brocas, H; Targovnik, H; Vassart, G

    1985-07-01

    The human thyroglobulin structural gene (TG) was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 8 by blot hydridization of a TG cDNA probe to DNA from 21 human X mouse somatic cell hybrids containing overlapping subsets of human chromosomes. In situ hybridization of the TG probe to metaphase chromosomes from a karyotypically normal human lymphoblastoid cell line, JS, localized the TG gene to within the region 8q23----q24.3. Thus, the TG and c-myc genes map to the same chromosome band in normal human cells. In a human colon carcinoma cell line (COLO 320 DM) which contains amplified c-myc, the TG gene is not amplified and hence it lies outside the amplification domain.

  4. MYC/MIZ1-dependent gene repression inversely coordinates the circadian clock with cell cycle and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Shostak, Anton; Ruppert, Bianca; Ha, Nati; Bruns, Philipp; Toprak, Umut H.; Lawerenz, Chris; Lichter, Peter; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Eils, Jürgen; Brors, Benedikt; Radomski, Sylwester; Scholz, Ingrid; Richter, Gesine; Siebert, Reiner; Wagner, Susanne; Haake, Andrea; Richter, Julia; Aukema, Sietse; Ammerpohl, Ole; Lopez, Christina; Nagel, Inga; Vater, Inga; Wagner, Rabea; Borst, Christoph; Haas, Siegfried; Rohde, Marius; Burkhardt, Birgit; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Claviez, Alexander; Dreyling, Martin; Eberth, Sonja; Trümper, Lorenz; Kube, Dieter; Stadler, Christina; Einsele, Hermann; Frickhofen, Norbert; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Karsch, Dennis; Kneba, Michael; Mantovani-Löffler, Luisa; Staib, Peter; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Ott, German; Küppers, Ralf; Weniger, Marc; Hummel, Michael; Lenze, Dido; Szczepanowski, Monika; Klapper, Wolfram; Kostezka, Ulrike; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Leich, Ellen; Pischimariov, Jordan; Binder, Vera; Borkhardt, Arndt; Hezaveh, Kebria; Hoell, Jessica; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schilhabel, Markus; Schreiber, Stefan; Bernhart, Stephan H.; Doose, Gero; Hoffmann, Steve; Kretzmer, Helene; Langenberger, David; Binder, Hans; Hopp, Lydia; Kreuz, Markus; Loeffler, Markus; Rosolowski, Maciej; Korbel, Jan; Sungalee, Stefanie; Stadler, Peter F.; Zenz, Thorsten; Eils, Roland; Schlesner, Matthias; Diernfellner, Axel; Brunner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The circadian clock and the cell cycle are major cellular systems that organize global physiology in temporal fashion. It seems conceivable that the potentially conflicting programs are coordinated. We show here that overexpression of MYC in U2OS cells attenuates the clock and conversely promotes cell proliferation while downregulation of MYC strengthens the clock and reduces proliferation. Inhibition of the circadian clock is crucially dependent on the formation of repressive complexes of MYC with MIZ1 and subsequent downregulation of the core clock genes BMAL1 (ARNTL), CLOCK and NPAS2. We show furthermore that BMAL1 expression levels correlate inversely with MYC levels in 102 human lymphomas. Our data suggest that MYC acts as a master coordinator that inversely modulates the impact of cell cycle and circadian clock on gene expression. PMID:27339797

  5. Multi-focal control of mitochondrial gene expression by oncogenic MYC provides potential therapeutic targets in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Amanda R.; Adams, Clare M.; Zhang, Xiao-yong; Gennaro, Victoria J.; Pfeiffer, Harla K.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Seidel, Hans E.; Mascioli, Kirsten; Kaplan, Jordan; Gaballa, Mahmoud R.; Shen, Chen; Rigoutsos, Isidore; King, Michael P.; Cotney, Justin L.; Arnold, Jamie J.; Sharma, Suresh D.; Martinez, Ubaldo E.; Vakoc, Christopher R.; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Thompson, James E.; Bradner, James E.; Cameron, Craig E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Eischen, Christine M.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite ubiquitous activation in human cancer, essential downstream effector pathways of the MYC transcription factor have been difficult to define and target. Using a structure/function-based approach, we identified the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) locus as a critical downstream target of MYC. The multifunctional POLRMT enzyme controls mitochondrial gene expression, a process required both for mitochondrial function and mitochondrial biogenesis. We further demonstrate that inhibition of this newly defined MYC effector pathway causes robust and selective tumor cell apoptosis, via an acute, checkpoint-like mechanism linked to aberrant electron transport chain complex assembly and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Fortuitously, MYC-dependent tumor cell death can be induced by inhibiting the mitochondrial gene expression pathway using a variety of strategies, including treatment with FDA-approved antibiotics. In vivo studies using a mouse model of Burkitt's Lymphoma provide pre-clinical evidence that these antibiotics can successfully block progression of MYC-dependent tumors. PMID:27590350

  6. Cell transformation by the v-myc oncogene abrogates c-Myc/Max-mediated suppression of a C/EBP beta-dependent lipocalin gene.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Markus; Matt, Theresia; Schüler, Wolfgang; Siemeister, Gerd; Kontaxis, Georg; Kloiber, Karin; Konrat, Robert; Bister, Klaus

    2003-10-10

    Using differential hybridization techniques, a cDNA clone (Q83) was isolated that corresponds to a highly abundant mRNA in quail embryo fibroblasts transformed by the v-myc oncogene. The deduced 178 amino acid protein product of Q83 contains an N-terminal signal sequence and a lipocalin sequence motif, the hallmark of a family of secretory proteins binding and transporting small hydrophobic molecules of diverse biological function, including retinoids and steroids. The quail Q83 protein displays 87% sequence identity with a developmentally regulated chicken protein, termed p20K or Ch21. Cell transformation specifically by v-myc, but not by other oncogenic agents, induces high-level expression of Q83 mRNA and of the Q83 protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis and transcriptional mapping revealed that the Q83 gene encompasses seven exons with the coding region confined to exons 1 through 6. The promoter region contains consensus binding sites for the transcriptional regulators Myc and C/EBP beta. Transcriptional activation of Q83 is principally dependent on C/EBP beta, but is blocked in normal cells by the endogenous c-Myc/Max/Mad transcription factor network. In v-myc-transformed cells, high-level expression of the v-Myc protein and formation of highly stable v-Myc/Max heterodimers leads to abrogation of Q83 gene suppression and activation by C/EBP beta. A 157 amino acid residue recombinant protein representing the secreted form of Q83 was used for structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Q83 folds into a single globular domain of the lipocalin-type. The central part consists of an eight-stranded up-and-down beta-barrel core flanked by an N-terminal 3(10)-like helix and a C-terminal alpha-helix. The orientation of the C-terminal alpha-helix is partially determined by a disulfide bridge between Cys59 and Cys152. The three-dimensional structure determination of the Q83 protein will facilitate the identification of its authentic ligand and the

  7. MYC-induced apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells is associated with repression of lineage-specific gene signatures

    PubMed Central

    Haikala, Heidi M.; Klefström, Juha; Eilers, Martin; Wiese, Katrin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apoptosis caused by deregulated MYC expression is a prototype example of intrinsic tumor suppression. However, it is still unclear how supraphysiological MYC expression levels engage specific sets of target genes to promote apoptosis. Recently, we demonstrated that repression of SRF target genes by MYC/MIZ1 complexes limits AKT-dependent survival signaling and contributes to apoptosis induction. Here we report that supraphysiological levels of MYC repress gene sets that include markers of basal-like breast cancer cells, but not luminal cancer cells, in a MIZ1-dependent manner. Furthermore, repressed genes are part of a conserved gene signature characterizing the basal subpopulation of both murine and human mammary gland. These repressed genes play a role in epithelium and mammary gland development and overlap with genes mediating cell adhesion and extracellular matrix organization. Strikingly, acute activation of oncogenic MYC in basal mammary epithelial cells is sufficient to induce luminal cell identity markers. We propose that supraphysiological MYC expression impacts on mammary epithelial cell identity by repressing lineage-specific target genes. Such abrupt cell identity switch could interfere with adhesion-dependent survival signaling and thus promote apoptosis in pre-malignant epithelial tissue. PMID:26873145

  8. Sexual Dimorphism of Body Size Is Controlled by Dosage of the X-Chromosomal Gene Myc and by the Sex-Determining Gene tra in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Kristina Wehr; Cavegn, Margrith; Zwicky, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila females are larger than males. In this article, we describe how X-chromosome dosage drives sexual dimorphism of body size through two means: first, through unbalanced expression of a key X-linked growth-regulating gene, and second, through female-specific activation of the sex-determination pathway. X-chromosome dosage determines phenotypic sex by regulating the genes of the sex-determining pathway. In the presence of two sets of X-chromosome signal elements (XSEs), Sex-lethal (Sxl) is activated in female (XX) but not male (XY) animals. Sxl activates transformer (tra), a gene that encodes a splicing factor essential for female-specific development. It has previously been shown that null mutations in the tra gene result in only a partial reduction of body size of XX animals, which shows that other factors must contribute to size determination. We tested whether X dosage directly affects animal size by analyzing males with duplications of X-chromosomal segments. Upon tiling across the X chromosome, we found four duplications that increase male size by >9%. Within these, we identified several genes that promote growth as a result of duplication. Only one of these, Myc, was found not to be dosage compensated. Together, our results indicate that both Myc dosage and tra expression play crucial roles in determining sex-specific size in Drosophila larvae and adult tissue. Since Myc also acts as an XSE that contributes to tra activation in early development, a double dose of Myc in females serves at least twice in development to promote sexual size dimorphism. PMID:28064166

  9. Sexual Dimorphism of Body Size Is Controlled by Dosage of the X-Chromosomal Gene Myc and by the Sex-Determining Gene tra in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wehr Mathews, Kristina; Cavegn, Margrith; Zwicky, Monica

    2017-01-06

    Drosophila females are larger than males. In this paper, we describe how X chromosome dosage drives sexual dimorphism of body size through two means: first, through unbalanced expression of a key X-linked growth regulating gene and second, through female-specific activation of the sex-determination pathway. X-chromosome dosage determines phenotypic sex by regulating the genes of the sex-determining pathway. In the presence of two sets of X-chromosome signal elements (XSEs), Sex-lethal (Sxl) is activated in female (XX) but not male (XY) animals. Sxl activates transformer (tra), a gene that encodes a splicing factor essential for female-specific development. It has previously been shown that null mutations in the tra gene result in only a partial reduction of body size of XX animals, which shows that other factors must contribute to size determination. We tested whether X dosage directly affects animal size by analyzing males with duplications of X chromosomal segments. Upon tiling across the X chromosome, we found four duplications that increase male size by over 9%. Within these, we identified several genes that promote growth as a result of duplication. Only one of these, Myc, was found not to be dosage compensated. Together, our results indicate that both Myc dosage and tra expression play crucial roles in determining sex-specific size in Drosophila larvae and adult tissue. Since Myc also acts as an XSE that contributes to tra activation in early, development, a double dose of Myc in females serves at least twice in development to promote sexual size dimorphism.

  10. Increased mRNA Levels of TCF7L2 and MYC of the Wnt Pathway in Tg-ArcSwe Mice and Alzheimer's Disease Brain

    PubMed Central

    Blom, Elin S.; Wang, Yijing; Skoglund, Lena; Hansson, Anita C.; Ubaldi, Massimo; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Mielke, Matthew; Hyman, Bradley T.; Heilig, Markus; Lannfelt, Lars; Nilsson, Lars N. G.; Ingelsson, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several components in the Wnt pathway, including β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, have been implied in AD pathogenesis. Here, mRNA brain levels from five-month-old tg-ArcSwe and nontransgenic mice were compared using Affymetrix microarray analysis. With surprisingly small overall changes, Wnt signaling was the most affected pathway with altered expression of nine genes in tg-ArcSwe mice. When analyzing mRNA levels of these genes in human brain, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), were increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (P < .05). Furthermore, no clear differences in TCF7L2 and MYC mRNA were found in brains with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, suggesting that altered regulation of these Wnt-related genes could be specific to AD. Finally, mRNA levels of three neurogenesis markers were analyzed. Increased mRNA levels of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 were observed in AD brain, suggesting that altered Wnt pathway regulation may signify synaptic rearrangement or neurogenesis. PMID:21234373

  11. Potential role of the N-MYC downstream-regulated gene family in reprogramming cancer metabolism under hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ga Young; Chun, Yang-Sook; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming toward aerobic glycolysis and lactate fermentation supplies cancer cells with intermediate metabolites, which are used as macromolecule precursors. The oncogene MYC contributes to such aerobic metabolism by activating the expression of numerous genes essential for glycolysis and mitochondrial biogenesis. However, to survive and evolve in a hypoxic tumor milieu, cancer cells must revise MYC-driven metabolism because the mitochondrial respiratory chain provides free electrons to generate oxygen free radicals with inefficient production of ATP due to oxygen depletion. Instead, hypoxia-inducible transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) takes over the role of MYC in glycolysis, but suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis and activity to protect cells from such threats. Recently, the N-MYC downstream-regulated gene (NDRG) family has received attention as potential biomarkers of cancer prognosis. NDRGs are repressed MYC-dependently in various cancers, but induced under hypoxia because HIF-1 directly activates their promoters and indirectly de-represses them by antagonizing MYC. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the reprogramming of cancer metabolism via the counterbalance between MYC and HIF-1, and discuss the proven and putative roles of the NDRG family in adjusting cancer metabolism according to the ambient oxygen level. PMID:27447861

  12. Repression of the c-fms gene in fibroblast cells by c-Myc-MM-1-TIF1beta complex.

    PubMed

    Satou, Akiko; Hagio, Yuko; Taira, Takahiro; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2004-08-13

    MM-1 has been reported to repress the E-box-dependent transcription activity of c-Myc by recruiting histone deacetylase 1 complex via TIF1beta/KAP1. In this study, to identify target genes for c-Myc-MM-1-TIF1beta, we established rat-1 cells harboring the dominant-negative form of TIF1beta to abrogate the pathway from TIF1beta to MM-1-c-Myc. This cell line, in which transcription activity of c-Myc was activated, was found to be tumorigenic. By DNA-microarray analysis of this cell line, expression and promoter activity of the c-fms oncogene were found to be upregulated. Of the two promoters, pE1 and pE2, in the c-fms gene, pE1 promoter activity was found to be activated in an E-box-dependent manner.

  13. Smyd2 is a Myc-regulated gene critical for MLL-AF9 induced leukemogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bagislar, Sevgi; Sabò, Arianna; Kress, Theresia R.; Doni, Mirko; Nicoli, Paola; Campaner, Stefano; Amati, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The Smyd2 protein (Set- and Mynd domain containing protein 2) is a methyl-transferase that can modify both histones and cytoplasmic proteins. Smyd2 is over-expressed in several cancer types and was shown to be limiting for tumor development in the pancreas. However, genetic evidence for a role of Smyd2 in other cancers or in mouse development was missing to date. Using germ line-deleted mouse strains, we now show that Smyd2 and the related protein Smyd3 are dispensable for normal development. Ablation of Smyd2 did not affect hematopoiesis, but retarded the development of leukemia promoted by MLL-AF9, a fusion oncogene associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in humans. Smyd2-deleted leukemic cells showed a competitive disadvantage relative to wild-type cells, either in vitro or in vivo. The Smyd2 gene was directly activated by the oncogenic transcription factor Myc in either MLL9-AF9-induced leukemias, Myc-induced lymphomas, or fibroblasts. However, unlike leukemias, the development of lymphomas was not dependent upon Smyd2. Our data indicate that Smyd2 has a critical role downstream of Myc in AML. PMID:27655694

  14. Targeting c-Myc-activated genes with a correlation method: Detection of global changes in large gene expression network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Remondini, D.; O'Connell, B.; Intrator, N.; Sedivy, J. M.; Neretti, N.; Castellani, G. C.; Cooper, L. N.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the dynamics of a gene expression time series network. The network, which is obtained from the correlation of gene expressions, exhibits global dynamic properties that emerge after a cell state perturbation. The main features of this network appear to be more robust when compared with those obtained with a network obtained from a linear Markov model. In particular, the network properties strongly depend on the exact time sequence relationships between genes and are destroyed by random temporal data shuffling. We discuss in detail the problem of finding targets of the c-myc protooncogene, which encodes a transcriptional regulator whose inappropriate expression has been correlated with a wide array of malignancies. The data used for network construction are a time series of gene expression, collected by microarray analysis of a rat fibroblast cell line expressing a conditional Myc-estrogen receptor oncoprotein. We show that the correlation-based model can establish a clear relationship between network structure and the cascade of c-myc-activated genes. PMID:15867157

  15. WDR5 Supports an N-Myc Transcriptional Complex That Drives a Protumorigenic Gene Expression Signature in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuting; Bell, Jessica L; Carter, Daniel; Gherardi, Samuele; Poulos, Rebecca C; Milazzo, Giorgio; Wong, Jason W H; Al-Awar, Rima; Tee, Andrew E; Liu, Pei Y; Liu, Bing; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Wong, Matthew; Trahair, Toby; Zhao, Quan; Shohet, Jason M; Haupt, Ygal; Schulte, Johannes H; Brown, Peter J; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Vedadi, Masoud; MacKenzie, Karen L; Hüttelmaier, Stefan; Perini, Giovanni; Marshall, Glenn M; Braithwaite, Antony; Liu, Tao

    2015-12-01

    MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma drives a gene expression program that correlates strongly with aggressive disease. Mechanistically, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) at target gene promoters is a strict prerequisite for this transcriptional program to be enacted. WDR5 is a histone H3K4 presenter that has been found to have an essential role in H3K4 trimethylation. For this reason, in this study, we investigated the relationship between WDR5-mediated H3K4 trimethylation and N-Myc transcriptional programs in neuroblastoma cells. N-Myc upregulated WDR5 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that WDR5 target genes included those with MYC-binding elements at promoters such as MDM2. We showed that WDR5 could form a protein complex at the MDM2 promoter with N-Myc, but not p53, leading to histone H3K4 trimethylation and activation of MDM2 transcription. RNAi-mediated attenuation of WDR5 upregulated expression of wild-type but not mutant p53, an effect associated with growth inhibition and apoptosis. Similarly, a small-molecule antagonist of WDR5 reduced N-Myc/WDR5 complex formation, N-Myc target gene expression, and cell growth in neuroblastoma cells. In MYCN-transgenic mice, WDR5 was overexpressed in precancerous ganglion and neuroblastoma cells compared with normal ganglion cells. Clinically, elevated levels of WDR5 in neuroblastoma specimens were an independent predictor of poor overall survival. Overall, our results identify WDR5 as a key cofactor for N-Myc-regulated transcriptional activation and tumorigenesis and as a novel therapeutic target for MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas.

  16. Gain of MYC underlies recurrent trisomy of the MYC chromosome in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Letetia; Wei, Guangwei; Sevcikova, Sabina; Phan, Vernon; Jain, Sachi; Shieh, Angell; Wong, Jasmine C. Y.; Li, Min; Dubansky, Joshua; Maunakea, Mei Lin; Ochoa, Rachel; Zhu, George; Tennant, Thelma R.; Shannon, Kevin M.; Lowe, Scott W.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Gain of chromosome 8 is the most common chromosomal gain in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has been hypothesized that gain of the MYC protooncogene is of central importance in trisomy 8, but the experimental data to support this are limited and controversial. In a mouse model of promyelocytic leukemia in which the MRP8 promoter drives expression of the PML-RARA fusion gene in myeloid cells, a Myc allele is gained in approximately two-thirds of cases as a result of trisomy for mouse chromosome 15. We used this model to test the idea that MYC underlies acquisition of trisomy in AML. We used a retroviral vector to drive expression of wild-type, hypermorphic, or hypomorphic MYC in bone marrow that expressed the PML-RARA transgene. MYC retroviruses cooperated in myeloid leukemogenesis and suppressed gain of chromosome 15. When the PML-RARA transgene was expressed in a Myc haploinsufficient background, we observed selection for increased copies of the wild-type Myc allele concomitant with leukemic transformation. In addition, we found that human myeloid leukemias with trisomy 8 have increased MYC. These data show that gain of MYC can contribute to the pathogenic effect of the most common trisomy of human AML. PMID:21059853

  17. Do products of the myc proto-oncogene play a role in transcriptional regulation of the prothymosin alpha gene?

    PubMed Central

    Mol, P C; Wang, R H; Batey, D W; Lee, L A; Dang, C V; Berger, S L

    1995-01-01

    The Myc protein has been reported to activate transcription of the rat prothymosin alpha gene by binding to an enhancer element or E box (CACGTG) located in the first intron (S. Gaubatz et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:3853-3862, 1994). The human prothymosin alpha gene contains two such motifs: in the promoter region at kb -1.2 and in intron 1, approximately 2 kb downstream of the transcriptional start site in a region which otherwise bears little homology to the rat gene. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs driven either by the 5-kb human prothymosin alpha promoter or by a series of truncated promoters, we showed that removal of the E-box sequence had no effect on transient expression of CAT activity in mouse L cells. When intron 1 of the prothymosin alpha gene was inserted into the most extensive promoter construct downstream of the CAT coding region, a diminution in transcription, which remained virtually unchanged upon disruption of the E boxes, was observed. CAT constructs driven by the native prothymosin alpha promoter or the native promoter and intron were indifferent to Myc; equivalent CAT activity was observed in the presence of ectopic normal or mutant Myc genes. Similarly, expression of a transiently transfected wild-type prothymosin alpha gene as the reporter was not affected by a repertoire of myc-derived genes, including myc itself and dominant or recessive negative myc mutants. In COS-1 cells, equivalent amounts of the protein were produced from transfected prothymosin alpha genes regardless of whether genomic E boxes were disrupted, intron 1 was removed, or a repertoire of myc-derived genes was included in the transfection cocktail. More importantly, cotransfection of a dominant negative Max gene failed to reduce transcription of the endogenous prothymosin alpha gene in COS cells or the wild-type transfected gene in COS or L cells. Taken together, the data do not support the idea that Myc activates transcription of the

  18. Joint Binding of OTX2 and MYC in Promotor Regions Is Associated with High Gene Expression in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Bunt, Jens; Hasselt, Nancy E.; Zwijnenburg, Danny A.; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Kool, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Both OTX2 and MYC are important oncogenes in medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. Much is known about MYC binding to promoter regions, but OTX2 binding is hardly investigated. We used ChIP-on-chip data to analyze the binding patterns of both transcription factors in D425 medulloblastoma cells. When combining the data for all promoter regions in the genome, OTX2 binding showed a remarkable bi-modal distribution pattern with peaks around −250 bp upstream and +650 bp downstream of the transcription start sites (TSSs). Indeed, 40.2% of all OTX2-bound TSSs had more than one significant OTX2-binding peak. This OTX2-binding pattern was very different from the TSS-centered single peak binding pattern observed for MYC and other known transcription factors. However, in individual promoter regions, OTX2 and MYC have a strong tendency to bind in proximity of each other. OTX2-binding sequences are depleted near TSSs in the genome, providing an explanation for the observed bi-modal distribution of OTX2 binding. This contrasts to the enrichment of E-box sequences at TSSs. Both OTX2 and MYC binding independently correlated with higher gene expression. Interestingly, genes of promoter regions with multiple OTX2 binding as well as MYC binding showed the highest expression levels in D425 cells and in primary medulloblastomas. Genes within this class of promoter regions were enriched for medulloblastoma and stem cell specific genes. Our data suggest an important functional interaction between OTX2 and MYC in regulating gene expression in medulloblastoma. PMID:22016811

  19. Myc Function in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila contains a single MYC gene. Like its vertebrate homologs, it encodes a transcription factor that activates many targets, including prominently genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and translation. This activity makes Myc a central regulator of growth and/or proliferation of many cell types, such as imaginal disc cells, polyploid cells, stem cells, and blood cells. Importantly, not only does Myc act cell autonomously but it also affects the fate of adjacent cells and tissues. This potential of Myc is harnessed by many different signaling pathways, involving, among others, Wg, Dpp, Hpo, ecdysone, insulin, and mTOR. PMID:24086064

  20. Surface IgM mediated regulation of RAG gene expression in E mu-N-myc B cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, A; Fisher, P; Dildrop, R; Oltz, E; Rathbun, G; Achacoso, P; Stall, A; Alt, F W

    1992-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying either the c-myc or N-myc oncogene deregulated by the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer element (E mu) develop both pre-B and B cell lymphomas (E mu-c-myc and E mu-N-myc lymphomas). We report here that B cell lines derived from these tumors, as well as a line derived from v-myc retroviral transformation, simultaneously express surface immunoglobulin (a hallmark of mature B cells) as well as a common subset of genes normally restricted to the pre-B stage of development-including the recombinase activating genes RAG-1 and RAG-2. Continued RAG-1 and RAG-2 expression in these lines is associated with VDJ recombinase activity detected with a VDJ recombination substrate. Cross-linking of the surface immunoglobulin on these lines with an anti-mu antibody leads to rapid, specific and reversible down-regulation of RAG-1 and RAG-2 gene expression. We also find that a small but significant percentage of normal surface immunoglobulin bearing bone marrow B cells express the RAG-1 gene. These findings are discussed in the context of their possible implications for the control of specific gene expression during the pre-B to B cell transition. Images PMID:1628630

  1. MYC-repressed long noncoding RNAs antagonize MYC-induced cell proliferation and cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Young-Jun; Fadda, Paolo; Alder, Hansjuerg; Croce, Carlo M.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC is a proto-oncogene regulating cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metabolism. The recent identification of MYC-regulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) expands our knowledge of the role of lncRNAs in MYC functions. Here, we identify MYC-repressed lncRNAs named MYCLo-4, -5 and -6 by comparing 3 categories of lncRNAs (downregulated in highly MYC-expressing colorectal cancer, up-regulated by MYC knockdown in HCT116, upregulated by MYC knockdown in RKO). The MYC-repressed MYCLos are implicated in MYC-modulated cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation. By screening cell cycle-related genes regulated by MYC and the MYC-repressed MYCLos, we identified the MYC-repressed gene GADD45A as a target gene of the MYC-repressed MYCLos such as MYCLo-4 and MYCLo-6. PMID:26003165

  2. A study of myc-related gene expression in small cell lung cancer by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, J.; Linnoila, R. I.; Seibel, N. L.; Gazdar, A. F.; Minna, J. D.; Brooks, B. J.; Hollis, G. F.; Kirsch, I. R.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of myc-related genes (c-myc, N-myc, and L-myc) in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was studied by RNA-RNA tissue in situ hybridization. The tissues investigated included cytospins of ten cell lines derived from patients with SCLC, four corresponding nude mouse xenografts from cell lines, and metastatic tumor tissue obtained by surgical biopsy and at autopsy. The probes were prepared as 35S labeled complementary RNA. The expression of each gene was demonstrated specifically by autoradiography in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cell samples. The average levels of oncogene expression in each specimen corroborated previous data obtained by Northern blot assays. In addition, heterogeneity in gene expression from cell to cell in each sample was noted. This study represents the first attempt to demonstrate oncogene expression in lung cancer cell lines and tissues in situ, and confirms that the expression of these myc related genes can be seen in the primary tumor. The technique of RNA-RNA tissue in situ hybridization has great potential in answering fundamental questions of tumor cell heterogeneity and progression in SCLC. It should be useful in both prospective and retrospective studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2456019

  3. BRCA1 and c-Myc associate to transcriptionally repress psoriasin, a DNA damage-inducible gene.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Richard D; Gorski, Julia J; Quinn, Jennifer E; Stewart, Gail E; James, Colin R; Moore, Stephen; Mulligan, Karl; Emberley, Ethan D; Lioe, Tong F; Morrison, Patrick J; Mullan, Paul B; Reid, George; Johnston, Patrick G; Watson, Peter H; Harkin, D Paul

    2005-11-15

    Evidence is accumulating to suggest that some of the diverse functions associated with BRCA1 may relate to its ability to transcriptionally regulate key downstream target genes. Here, we identify S100A7 (psoriasin), S100A8, and S100A9, members of the S100A family of calcium-binding proteins, as novel BRCA1-repressed targets. We show that functional BRCA1 is required for repression of these family members and that a BRCA1 disease-associated mutation abrogates BRCA1-mediated repression of psoriasin. Furthermore, we show that BRCA1 and c-Myc form a complex on the psoriasin promoter and that BRCA1-mediated repression of psoriasin is dependent on functional c-Myc. Finally, we show that psoriasin expression is induced by the topoisomerase IIalpha poison, etoposide, in the absence of functional BRCA1 and increased psoriasin expression enhances cellular sensitivity to this chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, we identified a novel transcriptional mechanism that is likely to contribute to BRCA1-mediated resistance to etoposide.

  4. Somatic polyploidy is associated with the upregulation of c-MYC interacting genes and EMT-like signature

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Anatskaya, Olga V.; Giuliani, Alessandro; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Huang, Sui; Salmina, Kristine; Inashkina, Inna; Huna, Anda; Nikolsky, Nikolai N.; Vinogradov, Alexander E.

    2016-01-01

    The dependence of cancer on overexpressed c-MYC and its predisposition for polyploidy represents a double puzzle. We address this conundrum by cross-species transcription analysis of c-MYC interacting genes in polyploid vs. diploid tissues and cells, including human vs. mouse heart, mouse vs. human liver and purified 4n vs. 2n mouse decidua cells. Gene-by-gene transcriptome comparison and principal component analysis indicated that c-MYC interactants are significantly overrepresented among ploidy-associated genes. Protein interaction networks and gene module analysis revealed that the most upregulated genes relate to growth, stress response, proliferation, stemness and unicellularity, as well as to the pathways of cancer supported by MAPK and RAS coordinated pathways. A surprising feature was the up-regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) modules embodied by the N-cadherin pathway and EMT regulators from SNAIL and TWIST families. Metabolic pathway analysis also revealed the EMT-linked features, such as global proteome remodeling, oxidative stress, DNA repair and Warburg-like energy metabolism. Genes associated with apoptosis, immunity, energy demand and tumour suppression were mostly down-regulated. Noteworthy, despite the association between polyploidy and ample features of cancer, polyploidy does not trigger it. Possibly it occurs because normal polyploidy does not go that far in embryonalisation and linked genome destabilisation. In general, the analysis of polyploid transcriptome explained the evolutionary relation of c-MYC and polyploidy to cancer. PMID:27655693

  5. Sin3b Interacts with Myc and Decreases Myc Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanz, Pablo; Quintanilla, Andrea; Lafita, M. Carmen; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Gutierrez, Lucia; Tabor, Vedrana; Varela, Ignacio; Shiio, Yuzuru; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Portillo, Francisco; Leon, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myc expression is deregulated in many human cancers. A yeast two-hybrid screen has revealed that the transcriptional repressor Sin3b interacts with Myc protein. Endogenous Myc and Sin3b co-localize and interact in the nuclei of human and rat cells, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay. The interaction is Max-independent. A conserved Myc region (amino acids 186–203) is required for the interaction with Sin3 proteins. Histone deacetylase 1 is recruited to Myc-Sin3b complexes, and its deacetylase activity is required for the effects of Sin3b on Myc. Myc and Sin3a/b co-occupied many sites on the chromatin of human leukemia cells, although the presence of Sin3 was not associated with gene down-regulation. In leukemia cells and fibroblasts, Sin3b silencing led to Myc up-regulation, whereas Sin3b overexpression induced Myc deacetylation and degradation. An analysis of Sin3b expression in breast tumors revealed an association between low Sin3b expression and disease progression. The data suggest that Sin3b decreases Myc protein levels upon Myc deacetylation. As Sin3b is also required for transcriptional repression by Mxd-Max complexes, our results suggest that, at least in some cell types, Sin3b limits Myc activity through two complementary activities: Mxd-dependent gene repression and reduction of Myc levels. PMID:24951594

  6. c-Myc/Max heterodimers bind cooperatively to the E-box sequences located in the first intron of the rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Walhout, A J; Gubbels, J M; Bernards, R; van der Vliet, P C; Timmers, H T

    1997-01-01

    The oncoprotein c-Myc plays an important role in cell proliferation, transformation, inhibition of differentiation and apoptosis. These functions most likely result from the transcription factor activity of c-Myc. As a heterodimer with Max, the c-Myc protein binds to the E-box sequence (CACGTG), which is also recognized by USF dimers. In order to test differences in target gene recognition of c-Myc/Max, Max and USF dimers, we compared the DNA binding characteristics of these proteins in vitro using vaccinia viruses expressing full-length c-Myc and Max proteins. As expected, purified c-Myc/max binds specifically to a consensus E-box. The optimal conditions for DNA binding by either c-Myc/Max, Max or USF dimers differ with respect to ionic strength and Mg2+ ion concentration. Most interestingly, the c-Myc/Max complex binds with a high affinity to its natural target, the rat ODC gene, which contains two adjacent, consensus E-boxes. High affinity binding results from teh ability of c-Myc/Max dimers to bind cooperatively to these E-boxes. We propose that differential cooperative binding by E-box binding transcription factors could contribute to target gene specificity. PMID:9162900

  7. c-Myc/Max heterodimers bind cooperatively to the E-box sequences located in the first intron of the rat ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene

    PubMed Central

    Walhout, AJM; Gubbels, JM; Bernards, R; van der Vliet PC; Timmers, HTM

    1997-01-01

    The oncoprotein c-Myc plays an important role in cell proliferation, transformation, inhibition of differentiation and apoptosis. These functions most likely result from the transcription factor activity of c-Myc. As a heterodimer with Max, the c-Myc protein binds to the E-box sequence (CACGTG), which is also recognized by USF dimers. In order to test differences in target gene recognition of c-Myc/Max, Max and USF dimers, we compared the DNA binding characteristics of these proteins in vitro using vaccinia viruses expressing full-length c-Myc and Max proteins. As expected, purified c-Myc/Max binds specifically to a consensus E-box. The optimal conditions for DNA binding by either c-Myc/Max, Max or USF dimers differ with respect to ionic strength and Mg2+ion concentration. Most interestingly, the c-Myc/Max complex binds with a high affinity to its natural target, the rat ODC gene, which contains two adjacent, consensus E-boxes. High affinity binding results from the ability of c-Myc/Max dimers to bind cooperatively to these E-boxes. We propose that differential cooperative binding by E-box binding transcription factors could contribute to target gene specificity. PMID:9106360

  8. Developmental expression of the N-myc downstream regulated gene (Ndrg) family during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chao; Zhou, Yan-Kuan; Yang, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Jun-Fang; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Chen, Hen-Huang; Chen, Pei-Chao; Huang, Li-Quan; Huang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The N-myc downstream regulated gene (Ndrg) family consists of four main members Ndrg1, 2, 3, and 4. The Ndrg genes are involved in many vital biological events including development. However, comprehensive expression patterns of this gene family during vertebrate embryogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the Ndrg family from the evolutionary perspective and examined the expression patterns of the Ndrg genes during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis. Different Ndrg family members of vertebrates are separated into different homology clusters which can be further classified into two groups and each Ndrg family member is well conserved during evolution. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ndrg1, 2, 3 and 4 are different during early Xenopus tropicalis development. Ndrg1, 2 and 4 are maternally expressed genes while Ndrg3 is a zygotically expressed gene. The Ndrg genes are differentially expressed in the developing central nervous system, the developing sensory organs, and the developing excretory organs. Moreover, they also show other specific expression domains. Our results indicate that the Ndrg genes exhibit specific expression patterns and may play different roles during vertebrate embryogenesis.

  9. Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce advanced prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Kim, Jongchan; Roh, Meejeon; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Wills, Marcia L.; Abdulkadir, Sarki A.

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic PIM1 kinase has been implicated as a cofactor for c-MYC in prostate carcinogenesis. Here we show that in human prostate tumors, coexpression of c-MYC and PIM1 is associated with higher Gleason grades. Using a tissue recombination model coupled with lentiviral-mediated gene transfer we find that Pim1 is weakly oncogenic in naïve adult mouse prostatic epithelium. However, it cooperates dramatically with c-MYC to induce prostate cancer within 6-weeks. Importantly, c-MYC/Pim1 synergy is critically dependent on Pim1 kinase activity. c-MYC/Pim1 tumors showed increased levels of the active serine-62 (S62) phosphorylated form of c-MYC. Grafts expressing a phosphomimetic c-MYCS62D mutant had higher rates of proliferation than grafts expressing wild type c-MYC but did not form tumors like c-MYC/Pim1 grafts, indicating that Pim1 cooperativity with c-MYC in vivo involves additional mechanisms other than enhancement of c-MYC activity by S62 phosphorylation. c-MYC/Pim1-induced prostate carcinomas demonstrate evidence of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Additional studies, including the identification of tumor cells coexpressing androgen receptor and NE cell markers synaptophysin and Ascl1 suggested that NE tumors arose from adenocarcinoma cells through transdifferentiation. These results directly demonstrate functional cooperativity between c-MYC and PIM1 in prostate tumorigenesis in vivo and support efforts for targeting PIM1 in prostate cancer. PMID:20140016

  10. Dynamic expression of N-myc in mouse embryonic development using an enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene in the N-myc locus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming; Zhao, Kai; Wu, Wenting; Sun, Ruilin; Fei, Jian

    2014-02-01

    N-myc belongs to the Myc oncogene family and plays an essential role in mammalian embryonic development. The expression of N-myc is dynamically regulated during embryonic development; however, its expression pattern has not been well characterized due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this paper, a genetically modified mouse model was generated in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) coding sequence was inserted into the N-myc locus, so that endogenous N-myc expression could be traced by the signal of EGFP. The EGFP signal in the transgenic mouse was confirmed to be consistent with the expression pattern of endogenous N-myc by fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal expression of EGFP was observed in the central and peripheral nervous system, heart, lung and kidney, given the known indispensable role of N-myc in their formation. EGFP was also strongly detected in the liver, paranephros and the epithelium of the intestine. The EGFP signal can be used to trace N-myc expression in this transgenic mouse model. N-myc expression was observed in specific locations and cell lineages, and dynamically changed during embryonic development. The changing N-myc expression pattern seen in mouse embryonic development and the animal model described in this paper provide important insights and a new tool to research N-myc function.

  11. Infection by Toxoplasma gondii Specifically Induces Host c-Myc and the Genes This Pivotal Transcription Factor Regulates

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Magdalena; Shastri, Anjali J.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection has previously been described to cause dramatic changes in the host transcriptome by manipulating key regulators, including STATs, NF-κB, and microRNAs. Here, we report that Toxoplasma tachyzoites also mediate rapid and sustained induction of another pivotal regulator of host cell transcription, c-Myc. This induction is seen in cells infected with all three canonical types of Toxoplasma but not the closely related apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum. Coinfection of cells with both Toxoplasma and Neospora still results in an increase in the level of host c-Myc, showing that c-Myc is actively upregulated by Toxoplasma infection (rather than repressed by Neospora). We further demonstrate that this upregulation may be mediated through c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and is unlikely to be a nonspecific host response, as heat-killed Toxoplasma parasites do not induce this increase and neither do nonviable parasites inside the host cell. Finally, we show that the induced c-Myc is active and that transcripts dependent on its function are upregulated, as predicted. Hence, c-Myc represents an additional way in which Toxoplasma tachyzoites have evolved to specifically alter host cell functions during intracellular growth. PMID:24532536

  12. Infection by Toxoplasma gondii specifically induces host c-Myc and the genes this pivotal transcription factor regulates.

    PubMed

    Franco, Magdalena; Shastri, Anjali J; Boothroyd, John C

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection has previously been described to cause dramatic changes in the host transcriptome by manipulating key regulators, including STATs, NF-κB, and microRNAs. Here, we report that Toxoplasma tachyzoites also mediate rapid and sustained induction of another pivotal regulator of host cell transcription, c-Myc. This induction is seen in cells infected with all three canonical types of Toxoplasma but not the closely related apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum. Coinfection of cells with both Toxoplasma and Neospora still results in an increase in the level of host c-Myc, showing that c-Myc is actively upregulated by Toxoplasma infection (rather than repressed by Neospora). We further demonstrate that this upregulation may be mediated through c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and is unlikely to be a nonspecific host response, as heat-killed Toxoplasma parasites do not induce this increase and neither do nonviable parasites inside the host cell. Finally, we show that the induced c-Myc is active and that transcripts dependent on its function are upregulated, as predicted. Hence, c-Myc represents an additional way in which Toxoplasma tachyzoites have evolved to specifically alter host cell functions during intracellular growth.

  13. Cloning of mid-G1 serum response genes and identification of a subset regulated by conditional myc expression.

    PubMed Central

    Tavtigian, S V; Zabludoff, S D; Wold, B J

    1994-01-01

    The emergence of cells from a quiescent G0 arrested state into the cell cycle is a multistep process that begins with the immediate early response to mitogens and extends into a specialized G1 phase. Many immediate early serum response genes including c-fos, c-myc, and c-jun are transcriptional regulators. To understand their roles in regulating cell cycle entry and progression, the identities of their regulatory targets must be determined. In this work we have cloned cDNA copies of messenger RNAs that are either up- or down-regulated at a mid-G1 point in the serum response (midserum-response [mid-SR]). The mid-SR panel is expected to include both direct and indirect targets of immediate early regulators. This expectation was confirmed by the identification of several transcriptional targets of conditional c-myc activity. In terms of cellular function, the mid-SR class is also expected to include execution genes needed for progression through G1 and into S-phase. DNA sequence data showed that the mid-SR panel included several genes already known to be involved in cell cycle progression or growth transformation, suggesting that previously unknown cDNAs in the same group are good candidates for other G1 execution functions. In functional assays of G0-->S-phase progression, c-myc expression can bypass the requirement for serum mitogens and drive a large fraction of G0 arrested cells through G1 into S-phase. However, beyond this general similarity, little is known about the relation of a serum-driven progression to a myc-driven progression. Using the mid-SR collection as molecular reporters, we found that the myc driven G1 differs qualitatively from the serum driven case. Instead of simply activating a subset of serum response genes, as might be expected, myc regulated some genes inversely relative to serum stimulation. This suggests that a myc driven progression from G0 may have novel properties with implications for its action in oncogenesis. Images PMID:8049528

  14. Overexpression of OsMYC2 Results in the Up-Regulation of Early JA-Rresponsive Genes and Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice.

    PubMed

    Uji, Yuya; Taniguchi, Shiduku; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Shishido, Hodaka; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins act as transcriptional repressors of jasmonic acid (JA) responses and play a crucial role in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Here, we report that OsMYC2, a JAZ-interacting transcription factor in rice (Oryza sativa L.), plays an important role in the resistance response against rice bacterial blight, which is one of the most serious diseases in rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). The results showed that OsMYC2 interacted with some OsJAZ proteins in a JAZ-interacting domain (JID)-dependent manner. The up-regulation of OsMYC2 in response to JA was regulated by OsJAZ8. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsMYC2 exhibited a JA-hypersensitive phenotype and were more resistant to Xoo. A large-scale microarray analysis revealed that OsMYC2 up-regulated OsJAZ10 as well as many other defense-related genes. OsMYC2 selectively bound to the G-box-like motif of the OsJAZ10 promoter in vivo and regulated the expression of early JA-responsive genes, but not of late JA-responsive genes. The nuclear localization of OsMYC2 depended on a nuclear localization signal within JID. Overall, we conclude that OsMYC2 acts as a positive regulator of early JA signals in the JA-induced resistance against Xoo in rice.

  15. Down-regulation of c-myc gene expression with induction of high molecular weight DNA fragments by fluorodeoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Li, Z R; Yin, M B; Arredondo, M A; Schöber, C; Rustum, Y M

    1994-07-19

    5-Fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd), a potent inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, induces extensive bulk DNA damage at drug concentrations that produce significant in vitro growth inhibition of human ileocecal carcinoma (HCT-8) cells. Constant- and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (CFGE and PFGE), to detect size distribution of DNA double-strand breaks and repair kinetics, in parallel with northern and western blot analyses, to quantitate c-myc gene and protein expression, were utilized to analyze drug effects. At 24-hr post in vitro drug treatment, when maximum bulk DNA damage was detected, FdUrd produced a broad range of high molecular weight DNA fragments, clustering between 0.1 and 5.7 megabases in size, and resulted in a decrease in the level of c-myc transcripts and protein with no significant effect on the level of v-myc and H-ras. These effects preceded the observed cellular growth inhibition. Addition of the reduced folate leucovorin potentiated the effects induced by FdUrd, indicating that thymidylate synthase inhibition is an important initial step in drug effect followed by DNA fragmentation and suppression of c-myc expression. Changes in the integrity of the genetic materials and regulatory genes occurred prior to the observed cell growth inhibition by FdUrd, suggesting that these molecular alterations by FdUrd may be associated with subsequent FdUrd-induced cell growth inhibition.

  16. Ginkgo biloba extract induces gene expression changes in xenobiotics metabolism and the Myc-centered network.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan; Liao, Wayne; Chan, Po-Chuen; Fu, Peter P

    2010-02-01

    The use of herbal dietary supplements in the United States is rapidly growing, and it is crucial that the quality and safety of these preparations be ensured. To date, it is still a challenge to determine the mechanisms of toxicity induced by mixtures containing many chemical components, such as herbal dietary supplements. We previously proposed that analyses of the gene expression profiles using microarrays in the livers of rodents treated with herbal dietary supplements is a potentially practical approach for understanding the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we utilized microarrays to analyze gene expression changes in the livers of male B6C3F1 mice administered Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) by gavage for 2 years, and to determine pathways and mechanisms associated with GBE treatments. Analysis of 31,802 genes revealed that there were 129, 289, and 2,011 genes significantly changed in the 200, 600, and 2,000 mg/kg treatment groups, respectively, when compared with control animals. Drug metabolizing genes were significantly altered in response to GBE treatments. Pathway and network analyses were applied to investigate the gene relationships, functional clustering, and mechanisms involved in GBE exposure. These analyses indicate alteration in the expression of genes coding for drug metabolizing enzymes, the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway, and the Myc gene-centered network named "cell cycle, cellular movement, and cancer" were found. These results indicate that Ginkgo biloba-related drug metabolizing enzymes may cause herb-drug interactions and contribute to hepatotoxicity. In addition, the outcomes of pathway and network analysis may be used to elucidate the toxic mechanisms of Ginkgo biloba.

  17. c-Myc regulates the coordinated transcription of brain disease-related PDCD10-SERPINI1 bidirectional gene pair.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping-Yen; Chang, Wun-Shaing W; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Wu, Cheng-Wen

    2009-09-01

    Two brain disease-related genes, one coding for the protease inhibitor SERPINI1 which is down-regulated in brain tumors, and the other for the PDCD10 programmed cell death gene which is often mutated in cerebral cavernous malformation, are closely adjacent in a head-to-head configuration and separated by only 851 bp on human chromosome 3q26. The 851-bp intergenic region contains a GC-rich 175-bp minimal bidirectional promoter which is essential for transcriptional activation of the two flanking genes. The oncogenic c-Myc transcription factor was identified to bind to a non-canonical E-box element (5'-CATGCG-3') of the minimal bidirectional promoter to drive both gene expressions. Methylation at the specific C nucleotide within the E-box sequence (5'-CATG(m)CG-3'), however, would severely interfere with the binding of c-Myc to the E-box. These results suggest that c-Myc plays an important role in regulating the coordinated transcription of the PDCD10-SERPINI1 bidirectional gene pair, and is possibly involved in differential expressions of these two neighboring genes in central nervous system diseases such as brain cancer.

  18. Survivin enhances telomerase activity via up-regulation of specificity protein 1- and c-Myc-mediated human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Endoh, Teruo; Tsuji, Naoki; Asanuma, Koichi; Yagihashi, Atsuhito; Watanabe, Naoki . E-mail: watanabn@sapmed.ac.jp

    2005-05-01

    Suppression of apoptosis is thought to contribute to carcinogenesis. Survivin, a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis family, blocks apoptotic signaling activated by various cellular stresses. Since elevated expression of survivin observed in human cancers of varied origin was associated with poor patient survival, survivin has attracted growing attention as a potential target for cancer treatment. Immortalization of cells also is required for carcinogenesis; telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. Yet how cancer cells activate telomerase remains unclear. We therefore examined possible interrelationships between survivin expression and telomerase activity. Correlation between survivin and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was observed in colon cancer tissues, and overexpression of survivin enhanced telomerase activity by up-regulation of hTERT expression in LS180 human colon cancer cells. DNA-binding activities of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and c-Myc to the hTERT core promoter were increased in survivin gene transfectant cells. Phosphorylation of Sp1 and c-Myc at serine and threonine residues was enhanced by survivin, while total amounts of these proteins were unchanged. Further, 'knockdown' of survivin by a small inhibitory RNA decreased Sp1 and c-Myc phosphorylation. Thus survivin participates not only in inhibition of apoptosis, but also in prolonging cellular lifespan.

  19. The spliceosome is a therapeutic vulnerability in MYC-driven cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tiffany Y-T.; Simon, Lukas M.; Neill, Nicholas; Marcotte, Richard; Sayad, Azin; Bland, Christopher S.; Echeverria, Gloria V.; Sun, Tingting; Kurley, Sarah J.; Tyagi, Siddhartha; Karlin, Kristen L.; Dominguez-Vidaña, Rocio; Hartman, Jessica D.; Renwick, Alexander; Scorsone, Kathleen; Bernardi, Ronald J.; Skinner, Samuel O.; Jain, Antrix; Orellana, Mayra; Lagisetti, Chandraiah; Golding, Ido; Jung, Sung Y.; Neilson, Joel R.; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Cooper, Thomas A.; Webb, Thomas R.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Shaw, Chad A.; Westbrook, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    c-MYC (MYC) overexpression or hyperactivation is one of the most common drivers of human cancer. Despite intensive study, the MYC oncogene remains recalcitrant to therapeutic inhibition. MYC is a transcription factor, and many of its pro-tumorigenic functions have been attributed to its ability to regulate gene expression programs1–3. Notably, oncogenic MYC activation has also been shown to increase total RNA and protein production in many tissue and disease contexts4–7. While such increases in RNA and protein production may endow cancer cells with pro-tumor hallmarks, this elevation in synthesis may also generate new or heightened burden on MYC-driven cancer cells to properly process these macromolecules8. Herein, we discover the spliceosome as a new target of oncogenic stress in MYC-driven cancers. We identify BUD31 as a MYC-synthetic lethal gene, and demonstrate that BUD31 is a component of the core spliceosome required for its assembly and catalytic activity. Core spliceosomal factors (SF3B1, U2AF1, and others) associated with BUD31 are also required to tolerate oncogenic MYC. Notably, MYC hyperactivation induces an increase in total pre-mRNA synthesis, suggesting an increased burden on the core spliceosome to process pre-mRNA. In contrast to normal cells, partial inhibition of the spliceosome in MYC-hyperactivated cells leads to global intron retention, widespread defects in pre-mRNA maturation, and deregulation of many essential cell processes. Importantly, genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of the spliceosome in vivo impairs survival, tumorigenicity, and metastatic proclivity of MYC-dependent breast cancers. Collectively, these data suggest that oncogenic MYC confers a collateral stress on splicing and that components of the spliceosome may be therapeutic entry points for aggressive MYC-driven cancers. PMID:26331541

  20. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) a differentiation marker of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fotovati, Abbas; Abu-Ali, Samah; Kage, Masayoshi; Shirouzu, Kazuo; Yamana, Hideaki; Kuwano, Michihiko

    2011-09-01

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also called differentiation-related gene-1 (Drg1) and Cap43, is expressed in various normal tissues and suppressed in several malignancies. In this study, whether NDRG1 expression was correlated with differentiation of human breast cancer cells has been investigated. Endogenous expression level of NDRG1 was closely correlated with differentiation status of breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, sodium butyrate (NaB), an inducer of cellular differentiation, increased the expression of β-casein, a milk-related differentiation marker, together with up-regulation of NDRG1 in breast cancer cells. In contrast, inhibition of NDRG1 by its siRNA resulted in reduced accumulation of β-casein. Immunohistochemical analysis showed co-expression of NDRG1 and β-casein or milk fat protein (MFP), another differentiation marker of breast tissue, in the mouse xenograft model of breast cancer. Furthermore, overexpression of NDRG1 expanded the differentiated area in the xenograft model of breast cancer. In human breast cancer, using samples from 45 patients, we also showed close relationship between NDRG1 and β-casein or MFP expression. Altogether, in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated a possible role of NDRG1 in differentiation of breast cancer. We concluded that NDRG1 could be used as a biomarker for differentiation of breast cancer for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  1. Cytoplasmic calcium increase via fusion with inactivated Sendai virus induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells by downregulation of c-Myc oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yingzhe; Saga, Kotaro; Miyamoto, Yasuhide; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Because the emergence of drug resistance is a major limitation of current treatments for multiple myeloma (MM), it is necessary to continuously develop novel anticancer strategies. Here, using an inactivated Sendai virus (Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan; HVJ) envelope (HVJ-E), we discovered that increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ by virus-cell fusion significantly induced apoptosis against human MM cells but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Interaction of F protein of HVJ-E with MM cells increased intracellular Ca2+ level of MMs by the induction of Ca2+ efflux from endoplasmic reticulum but not influx from extracellular region. The elevation of the Ca2+ cytoplasmic level induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus, and SMAD1/5/8 and SMAD4 complex suppressed c-Myc transcription. Meanwhile, HVJ-E decreases S62 phosphorylation of c-Myc and promotes c-Myc protein degradation. Thus, HVJ-E-induced cell death of MM resulted from suppression of c-Myc by both destabilization of c-Myc protein and downregulation of c-Myc transcription. This study indicates that HVJ-E will be a promising tool for MM therapy. PMID:27145280

  2. DNA binding and antigene activity of a daunomycin-conjugated triplex-forming oligonucleotide targeting the P2 promoter of the human c-myc gene

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Giuseppina M.; McGuffie, Eileen; Napoli, Sara; Flanagan, Courtney E.; Dembech, Chiara; Negri, Umberto; Arcamone, Federico; Capobianco, Massimo L.; Catapano, Carlo V.

    2004-01-01

    Triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO) that bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner might be used as selective repressors of gene expression and gene-targeted therapeutics. However, many factors, including instability of triple helical complexes in cells, limit the efficacy of this approach. In the present study, we tested whether covalent linkage of a TFO to daunomycin, which is a potent DNA-intercalating agent and anticancer drug, could increase stability of the triple helix and activity of the oligonucleotide in cells. The 11mer daunomycin-conjugated GT (dauno-GT11) TFO targeted a sequence upstream of the P2 promoter, a site known to be critical for transcription of the c-myc gene. Band-shift assays showed that the dauno-GT11 formed triplex DNA with enhanced stability compared to the unmodified TFO. Band shift and footprinting experiments demonstrated that binding of dauno-GT11 was highly sequence-specific with exclusive binding to the 11 bp target site in the c-myc promoter. The daunomycin-conjugated TFO inhibited transcription in vitro and reduced c-myc promoter activity in prostate and breast cancer cells. The daunomycin-conjugated TFO was taken up by cells with a distinctive intracellular distribution compared to free daunomycin. However, cationic lipid-mediated delivery was required for enhanced cellular uptake, nuclear localization and biological activity of the TFO in cells. Dauno-GT11 reduced transcription of the endogenous c-myc gene in cells, but did not affect expression of non-target genes, such as ets-1 and ets-2, which contained very similar target sequences in their promoters. Daunomycin-conjugated control oligonucleotides unable to form triplex DNA with the target sequence did not have any effect in these assays, indicating that daunomycin was not directly responsible for the activity of daunomycin-conjugated TFO. Thus, attachment of daunomycin resulted in increased triplex stability and biological activity of the 11mer GT-rich TFO without

  3. The regulatory role of c-MYC on HDAC2 and PcG expression in human multipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Dilli Ram; Seo, Kwang-Won; Jung, Ji-Won; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Yang, Se-Ran; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2011-07-01

    Myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-MYC) is a well-known nuclear oncoprotein having multiple functions in cell proliferation, apoptosis and cellular transformation. Chromosomal modification is also important to the differentiation and growth of stem cells. Histone deacethylase (HDAC) and polycomb group (PcG) family genes are well-known chromosomal modification genes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of c-MYC in the expression of chromosomal modification via the HDAC family genes in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). To achieve this goal, c-MYC expression was modified by gene knockdown and overexpression via lentivirus vector. Using the modified c-MYC expression, our study was focused on cell proliferation, differentiation and cell cycle. Furthermore, the relationship of c-MYC with HDAC2 and PcG genes was also examined. The cell proliferation and differentiation were checked and shown to be dramatically decreased in c-MYC knocked-down human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs, whereas they were increased in c-MYC overexpressing cells. Similarly, RT-PCR and Western blotting results revealed that HDAC2 expression was decreased in c-MYC knocked-down and increased in c-MYC overexpressing hMSCs. Database indicates presence of c-MYC binding motif in HDAC2 promoter region, which was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The influence of c-MYC and HDAC2 on PcG expression was confirmed. This might indicate the regulatory role of c-MYC over HDAC2 and PcG genes. c-MYCs' regulatory role over HDAC2 was also confirmed in human adipose tissue-derived MSCs and bone-marrow derived MSCs. From this finding, it can be concluded that c-MYC plays a vital role in cell proliferation and differentiation via chromosomal modification.

  4. Expression of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in central neurocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fotovati, Abbas; Abu-Ali, Samah; Sugita, Yasuo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2011-10-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also known as Cap43, Drg-1, and rit42, is expressed in various normal tissues and cancers, in which it is often associated with a favorable prognosis. It also plays a critical role in central nervous system development, with NDRG1 deficiency resulting in neural defects in mice. Central neurocytoma (CN) is a relatively rare tumor of the neurocytes in the brain, which occurs mainly in young adults. In the present study, we found that tissue samples from four patients with CN had both nuclear and cytoplasmic/membranous expression of NDRG1 protein in highly differentiated CN tumor cells. NDRG1 was also expressed in intratumoral microvessels. Immunohistochemical study of serial sections from the same patients revealed a marked association between the expression pattern of NDRG1 and that of neuron-specific enolase, a tumor differentiation marker. The data presented in this study suggest that NDRG1 could be considered a potential differentiation marker for CN.

  5. Role of DLC1 tumor suppressor gene and MYC oncogene in pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma: potential prospects for combined targeted therapeutics (review).

    PubMed

    Zimonjic, Drazen B; Popescu, Nicholas C

    2012-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death, and its incidence is increasing worldwide in an alarming manner. The development of curative therapy for advanced and metastatic HCC is a high clinical priority. The HCC genome is complex and heterogeneous; therefore, the identification of recurrent genomic and related gene alterations is critical for developing clinical applications for diagnosis, prognosis and targeted therapy of the disease. This article focuses on recent research progress and our contribution in identifying and deciphering the role of defined genetic alterations in the pathogenesis of HCC. A significant number of genes that promote or suppress HCC cell growth have been identified at the sites of genomic reorganization. Notwithstanding the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations, highly recurrent changes on a single chromosome can alter the expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) whose deregulation may be sufficient to drive the progression of normal hepatocytes to malignancy. A distinct and highly recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances in HCC includes the loss of DNA copy number (associated with loss of heterozygosity) of TSG-containing chromosome 8p and gain of DNA copy number or regional amplification of protooncogenes on chromosome 8q. Even though 8p is relatively small, it carries an unusually large number of TSGs, while, on the other side, several oncogenes are dispersed along 8q. Compelling evidence demonstrates that DLC1, a potent TSG on 8p, and MYC oncogene on 8q play a critical role in the pathogenesis of human HCC. Direct evidence for their role in the genesis of HCC has been obtained in a mosaic mouse model. Knockdown of DLC1 helps MYC in the induction of hepatoblast transformation in vitro, and in the development of HCC in vivo. Therapeutic interventions, which would simultaneously target signaling pathways governing both DLC1 and MYC functions in hepatocarcinogenesis, could

  6. Aurora kinase A mediates c-Myc's oncogenic effects in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Longfeng; Han, Han; Tian, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Jinxiang; Feng, Maohui; Li, Youjun

    2015-11-01

    Dysregulation of c-Myc (Myc) has been shown to contribute to progression of hepatocellular carcinoma, however, the detailed molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report that Myc binds to the Aurora kinase A (Aurka) promoter and induces expression of Aurka in HCC cells. Increased expression of Aurka correlates with that of Myc in HCC. Nuclear accumulation of Aurka was confirmed by subcellular protein fractionation and immunoblot experiments in HCC cells. Myc inhibition decreases the nuclear accumulation of Aurka in HCC cells. Also Aurka accumulating in the nucleus up-regulates Myc transcription by binding the Myc promoter containing the highly conserved CCCTCCCCA in the NHE region of the CpG islands. Inhibition of Myc or Aurka diminishes the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells by down-regulating some common target genes. Also Aurka and Myc mediates the effects of each other, at least partially, on proliferation, anchorage-independent soft agar growth, and ATP production. Blocking Aurka in an orthotopic model significantly impairs tumor growth in mice. These results identify a Myc-Aurka feedback loop in which Myc and Aurka regulate expression of each other at the transcriptional level and both play an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  7. Inhibition of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 in in vitro cultured human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Said, Harun M; Polat, Buelent; Stein, Susanne; Guckenberger, Mathias; Hagemann, Carsten; Staab, Adrian; Katzer, Astrid; Anacker, Jelena; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study short dsRNA oligonucleotides (siRNA) as a potent tool for artificially modulating gene expression of N-Myc down regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene induced under different physiological conditions (Normoxia and hypoxia) modulating NDRG1 transcription, mRNA stability and translation. METHODS: A cell line established from a patient with glioblastoma multiforme. Plasmid DNA for transfections was prepared with the Endofree Plasmid Maxi kit. From plates containing 5 × 107 cells, nuclear extracts were prepared according to previous protocols. The pSUPER-NDRG1 vectors were designed, two sequences were selected from the human NDRG1 cDNA (5’-GCATTATTGGCATGGGAAC-3’ and 5’-ATGCAGAGTAACGTGGAAG-3’. reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed using primers designed using published information on β-actin and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mRNA sequences in GenBank. NDRG1 mRNA and protein level expression results under different conditions of hypoxia or reoxygenation were compared to aerobic control conditions using the Mann-Whitney U test. Reoxygenation values were also compared to the NDRG1 levels after 24 h of hypoxia (P < 0.05 was considered significant). RESULTS: siRNA- and iodoacetate (IAA)-mediated downregulation of NDRG1 mRNA and protein expression in vitro in human glioblastoma cell lines showed a nearly complete inhibition of NDRG1 expression when compared to the results obtained due to the inhibitory role of glycolysis inhibitor IAA. Hypoxia responsive elements bound by nuclear HIF-1 in human glioblastoma cells in vitro under different oxygenation conditions and the clearly enhanced binding of nuclear extracts from glioblastoma cell samples exposed to extreme hypoxic conditions confirmed the HIF-1 Western blotting results. CONCLUSION: NDRG1 represents an additional diagnostic marker for brain tumor detection, due to the role of hypoxia in regulating this gene, and it can represent a potential target for tumor treatment in human

  8. c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription of the gene encoding the p27(Kip1) cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Vidyalakshmi; Mineva, Nora D; Burke, Brian; Jeay, Sébastien; Wu, Min; Shen, Jian; Yang, William; Hann, Stephen R; Sonenshein, Gail E

    2008-08-15

    The p27(Kip1) (p27) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and c-Myc oncoprotein play essential roles in control of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Induction of p27 (CDKN1B) gene transcription by Forkhead box O proteins such as FOXO3a leads to growth arrest and apoptosis. Previously, we observed that B cell receptor (surface IgM) engagement of WEHI 231 immature B lymphoma cells with an anti-IgM antibody results in activation of FOXO3a, growth arrest and apoptosis. As ectopic c-Myc expression in these cells prevented anti-IgM induction of p27 and cell death, we hypothesized that c-Myc represses FOXO3a-mediated transcription. Here we show that c-Myc inhibits FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 promoter in multiple cell lines. The mechanism of this repression was explored using a combination of co-immunoprecipitation, oligonucleotide precipitation, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments. The studies demonstrate a functional association of FOXO3a and c-Myc on a proximal Forkhead binding element in the p27 promoter. This association involves the Myc box II domain of c-Myc and the N-terminal DNA-binding portion of FOXO3a. Analysis of publicly available microarray datasets showed an inverse pattern of c-MYC and p27 RNA expression in primary acute myeloid leukemia, prostate cancer and tongue squamous cell carcinoma samples. The inhibition of FOXO3a-mediated activation of the p27 gene by the high aberrant expression of c-Myc in many tumor cells likely contributes to their uncontrolled proliferation and invasive phenotype.

  9. Self-assembly of c-myc DNA promoted by a single enantiomer ruthenium complex as a potential nuclear targeting gene carrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Mei, Wenjie; Zheng, Kangdi; Ding, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy has long been limited in the clinic, due in part to the lack of safety and efficacy of the gene carrier. Herein, a single enantiomer ruthenium(II) complex, Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(p-BEPIP)](ClO4)2 (Λ-RM0627, bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, p-BEPIP = 2-(4-phenylacetylenephenyl)imidazole [4,5f][1, 10] phenanthroline), has been synthesized and investigated as a potential gene carrier that targets the nucleus. In this report, it is shown that Λ-RM0627 promotes self-assembly of c-myc DNA to form a nanowire structure. Further studies showed that the nano-assembly of c-myc DNA that induced Λ-RM0627 could be efficiently taken up and enriched in the nuclei of HepG2 cells. After treatment of the nano-assembly of c-myc DNA with Λ-RM0627, over-expression of c-myc in HepG2 cells was observed. In summary, Λ-RM0627 played a key role in the transfer and release of c-myc into cells, which strongly indicates Λ-RM0627 as a potent carrier of c-myc DNA that targets the nucleus of tumor cells. PMID:27381008

  10. Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis, insect performance, and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Fabian; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Zander, Mark; Diez-Diaz, Monica; Fonseca, Sandra; Glauser, Gaétan; Lewsey, Mathew G; Ecker, Joseph R; Solano, Roberto; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants fend off insect attack by constitutive and inducible production of toxic metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSs). A triple mutant lacking MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are known to additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, was shown to have a highly reduced expression of GS biosynthesis genes. The myc2 myc3 myc4 (myc234) triple mutant was almost completely devoid of GS and was extremely susceptible to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. On the contrary, the specialist Pieris brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and preferred to feed on wild-type plants. In addition, lack of GS in myc234 drastically modified S. littoralis feeding behavior. Surprisingly, the expression of MYB factors known to regulate GS biosynthesis genes was not altered in myc234, suggesting that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 are necessary for direct transcriptional activation of GS biosynthesis genes. To support this, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MYC2 binds directly to the promoter of several GS biosynthesis genes in vivo. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments indicated that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 interact directly with GS-related MYBs. This specific MYC-MYB interaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of defense secondary metabolite production and underlines the importance of GS in shaping plant interactions with adapted and nonadapted herbivores.

  11. Increased β‑catenin and c-myc expression predict aggressive growth of non-functioning pituitary adenomas: An assessment using a tissue microarray-based approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunhui; Wu, Youtu; Yu, Shengyuan; Bai, Jiwei; Li, Chuzhong; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2017-04-01

    Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) account for 80% of pituitary adenomas with the majority of these exhibiting recurrences post-surgery. Overexpression of β-catenin and c‑myc is common in numerous invasive tumors. The present study sought to investigate the correlation of β‑catenin and c‑myc expression levels with aggressive growth and recurrence of NFPAs, using immunohistochemical examination of tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays comprised 212 NFPAs specimens and 10 healthy specimens as controls. NFPAs were categorized as non‑aggressive or aggressive. Immunohistochemical examination was performed to determine the expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc. Correlation of the expression levels of β‑catenin and c‑myc with clinicopathological parameters, including aggressiveness and recurrence, were assessed by univariate, multivariate and logistic regression analysis. Increased expression of β‑catenin and c‑myc was detected in the majority of aggressive NFPAs specimens (71.1 and 88.7%, respectively). There was a significant positive correlation between β‑catenin and c‑myc expression and aggressiveness [P=0.001, Odds Ratio (OR)=4.011; P<0.001, OR=30.833]. Only β‑catenin expression demonstrated a significant correlation with recurrence in NFPAs (P=0.021, OR=2.571). β‑catenin and c‑myc were demonstrated to be potential biomarkers for aggressive NFPAs and in the future, β-catenin may serve as a marker for aggressive behavior and recurrence in NFPAs.

  12. Negative autoregulation of c-myc transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Penn, L J; Brooks, M W; Laufer, E M; Land, H

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of activated c-myc and v-myc genes into a variety of non-established and established cells results in the suppression of endogenous c-myc expression. As measured in Rat-1 fibroblasts, the suppression occurs at the level of transcriptional initiation. Moreover, the extent of the down-regulation is proportional to the cellular concentration of c-myc protein, and the critical concentration range in which the endogenous c-myc RNA is effectively suppressed corresponds to that found in non-transformed cells. In addition, the autoregulatory mechanism is not only dependent on c-myc protein, but also requires additional trans-acting factors. These results support a role for c-myc in the regulation of cellular gene transcription and suggest that a negative feedback mechanism can act as a homeostatic regulator of c-myc expression in vivo. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2182320

  13. Impact of SNPs on CpG Islands in the MYC and HRAS oncogenes and in a wide variety of tumor suppressor genes: A multi-cancer approach.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mohammad D; Yavorski, John M; Mauro, James A; Blanck, George

    2016-06-17

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that occur within CpG Islands may lead to increased hypermethylation if a SNP allele has the potential to form a CpG dinucleotide, as well as potentially lead to hypomethylation if a SNP allele eliminates a CpG dinucleotide. We analyzed CpG-related SNP allele frequencies in whole genome sequences (WGS) across 5 TCGA cancer datasets, thereby exploiting a more recent appreciation for signaling pathway degeneracy in cancer. The cancer data sets were analyzed for SNPs in CpG islands associated with the oncogenes, HRAS and MYC, and in the CpG islands associated with the tumor suppressor genes, APC, DCC, and RB1. We determined that one SNP allele (rs3824120) in a CpG island associated with MYC which eliminated a CpG was more common in the cancer datasets than in the 100Genomes databases (p < 0.01). For HRAS, 2 SNP alleles (rs112690925, rs7939028) that created CpG's occurred significantly less frequently in the cancer data sets than in the general SNP databases (e.g., rs7939028, p < 0.0002, in comparison with AllSNPs(142)). Also, one SNP allele (rs4940177) that created a CpG in a CpG island associated with the DCC tumor suppressor gene, was more common in the cancer datasets (p < 0.0007). To understand a broader picture of the potential of SNP alleles to create CpG's in CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes, we developed a scripted algorithm to assess the SNP alleles associated with the CpG islands of 43 tumor suppressor genes. The following tumor suppressor genes have the possibility of significant, percent increases in their CpG counts, depending on which SNP allele(s) is present: VHL, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, PTEN and RB1.

  14. PIAS1 Promotes Lymphomagenesis Through MYC Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    Rabellino, Andrea; Melegari, Margherita; Tompkins, Van S.; Chen, Weina; Van Ness, Brian G.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Janz, Siegfried; Scaglioni, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The MYC proto-oncogene is a transcription factor implicated in a broad range of cancers. MYC is regulated by several post-translational modifications including SUMOylation, but the functional impact of this post-translational modification is still unclear. Here we report that the SUMO E3 ligase PIAS1 SUMOylates MYC. We demonstrate that PIAS1 promotes, in a SUMOylation-dependent manner, MYC phosphorylation at serine 62 and dephosphorylation at threonine 58. These events reduce the MYC turnover leading to increased transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we find that MYC is SUMOylated in primary B-cell lymphomas and that PIAS1 is required for the viability of MYC-dependent B-cell lymphoma cells as well as several cancer cell lines of epithelial origin. Finally, Pias1 null mice display endothelial defects reminiscent of Myc null mice. Taken together these results indicate that PIAS1 is a positive regulator of MYC. PMID:27239040

  15. The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), upregulates p21 via p53-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sivagurunathan, Sutharshani; Mangs, Helena; Chikhani, Sherin; Zhang, Daohai; Richardson, Des R

    2011-05-01

    The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), has been shown to markedly reduce metastasis of numerous tumors. The current study was focused on further elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the antitumor function of NDRG1. We have identified for the first time that NDRG1 upregulates the potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. This effect was observed in three different cancer cell types, including PC3MM and DU145 prostate cancer cells and H1299 lung carcinoma cells, and occurred independently of p53. In addition, reducing NDRG1 expression using short hairpin RNA in PC3MM and DU145 cells resulted in significantly reduced p21 protein levels. Hence, p21 is closely correlated with NDRG1 expression in these latter cell types. Examining the mechanisms behind the effect of NDRG1 on p21 expression, we found that NDRG1 upregulated p21 via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms in prostate cancer cells, although its effect on H1299 cells was posttranscriptional only. Further studies identified two additional NDRG1 protein targets. The dominant-negative p63 isoform, ΔNp63, which has been found to inhibit p21 transcription, was downregulated by NDRG1. On the other hand, a truncated 50 kDa MDM2 isoform (p50(MDM2)), which may protect p21 from proteasomal degradation, was upregulated by NDRG1. The downregulation of ΔNp63 and upregulation of p50(MDM2) are potential mechanisms by which NDRG1 increases p21 expression in these cells. Additional functional studies identified that NDRG1 inhibits cancer cell migration, suggesting that p21 is a molecular player in its antimetastatic activity.

  16. Long-term cultivation of in vitro Apis mellifera cells by gene transfer of human c-myc proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Yasuko; Okumura, Naoko; Yoshida, Hitomi; Nishimura, Yuri; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Matsuda, Satoru

    2011-08-01

    Establishment of cell lines representative of honeybee character would greatly assist in their analysis. Here, we show that immortalized cell line, designated as MYN9, has been generated from honeybee embryo by the gene transfer of human c-myc proto-oncogene. The morphology of the cell is characteristic of embryonic stem cell, although the cell is stable and does not spontaneously differentiate. Polymerase chain reaction analyses show that the cell is originated from authentic honeybee cell. It is proposed that the integration of human c-myc gene into honeybee precursor populations results in the establishment of stable cell line suitable for cellular and molecular studies.

  17. C-myc gene chromatin of estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Huzel, N J; Davie, J R; Murphy, L C

    1993-02-01

    Expression of the c-myc protooncogene is estrogen regulated in estrogen receptor (ER) positive, hormone-dependent human breast cancer cells, but it is constitutively active in ER negative, hormone-independent breast cancer cells. To determine whether these differences are reflected in c-myc chromatin, DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) were mapped. Six DHS were detected in all cell lines studied, with DHS 3(2) being more prominent than DHS 3(1). The accessibility of DHS 2 was markedly greater in ER negative cells than in ER positive cells, and this relative accessibility remained unchanged when cells were grown in estrogen free medium. DHS 2, 3(1) and 3(2) map near the P0, P1 and P2 promoters, respectively. An analysis of promoter usage demonstrated that P2 was the preferred promoter. Thus, the differences in the accessibility of DHS 2 in c-myc chromatin of ER positive and negative cells likely reflects alterations in DNA-protein interactions in this region.

  18. RUNX3 is oncogenic in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and is transcriptionally regulated by MYC.

    PubMed

    Selvarajan, V; Osato, M; Nah, G S S; Yan, J; Chung, T-H; Voon, D C-C; Ito, Y; Ham, M F; Salto-Tellez, M; Shimizu, N; Choo, S-N; Fan, S; Chng, W-J; Ng, S-B

    2017-02-17

    RUNX3, runt-domain transcription factor, is a master regulator of gene expression in major developmental pathways. It acts as a tumor suppressor in many cancers but is oncogenic in certain tumors. We observed upregulation of RUNX3 mRNA and protein expression in nasal-type extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) patient samples and NKTL cell lines compared to normal NK cells. RUNX3 silenced NKTL cells showed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation. Potential binding sites for MYC were identified in the RUNX3 enhancer region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR revealed binding activity between MYC and RUNX3. Co-transfection of the MYC expression vector with RUNX3 enhancer reporter plasmid resulted in activation of RUNX3 enhancer indicating that MYC positively regulates RUNX3 transcription in NKTL cell lines. Treatment with a small-molecule MYC inhibitor (JQ1) caused significant downregulation of MYC and RUNX3, leading to apoptosis in NKTL cells. The growth inhibition resulting from depletion of MYC by JQ1 was rescued by ectopic MYC expression. In summary, our study identified RUNX3 overexpression in NKTL with functional oncogenic properties. We further delineate that MYC may be an important upstream driver of RUNX3 upregulation and since MYC is upregulated in NKTL, further study on the employment of MYC inhibition as a therapeutic strategy is warranted.Leukemia advance online publication, 17 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.40.

  19. ECA39, a conserved gene regulated by c-Myc in mice, is involved in G1/S cell cycle regulation in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Schuldiner, O; Eden, A; Ben-Yosef, T; Yanuka, O; Simchen, G; Benvenisty, N

    1996-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been shown to play a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. The realization that myc oncogenes may control the level of expression of other genes has opened the field to search for genetic targets for Myc regulation. Recently, using a subtraction/coexpression strategy, a murine genetic target for Myc regulation, called EC439, was isolated. To further characterize the ECA39 gene, we set out to determine the evolutionary conservation of its regulatory and coding sequences. We describe the human, nematode, and budding yeast homologs of the mouse ECA39 gene. Identities between the mouse ECA39 protein and the human, nematode, or yeast proteins are 79%, 52%, and 49%, respectively. Interestingly, the recognition site for Myc binding, located 3' to the start site of transcription in the mouse gene, is also conserved in the human homolog. This regulatory element is missing in the ECA39 homologs from nematode or yeast, which also lack the regulator c-myc. To understand the function of ECA39, we deleted the gene from the yeast genome. Disruption of ECA39 which is a recessive mutation that leads to a marked alteration in the cell cycle. Mutant haploids and homozygous diploids have a faster growth rate than isogenic wild-type strains. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses indicate that the mutation shortens the G1 stage in the cell cycle. Moreover, mutant strains show higher rates of UV-induced mutations. The results suggest that the product of ECA39 is involved in the regulation of G1 to S transition. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8692959

  20. MYC in Regulating Immunity: Metabolism and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Gnanaprakasam, J.N. Rashida; Wang, Ruoning

    2017-01-01

    Myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) family members, including cellular MYC (c-Myc), neuroblastoma derived MYC (MYCN), and lung carcinoma derived MYC (MYCL), have all been implicated as key oncogenic drivers in a broad range of human cancers. Beyond cancer, MYC plays an important role in other physiological and pathological processes, namely immunity and immunological diseases. MYC largely functions as a transcription factor that promotes the expression of numerous target genes to coordinate death, proliferation, and metabolism at the cellular, tissue, and organismal levels. It has been shown that the expression of MYC family members is tightly regulated in immune cells during development or upon immune stimulations. Emerging evidence suggests that MYC family members play essential roles in regulating the development, differentiation and activation of immune cells. Through driving the expression of a broad range of metabolic genes in immune cells, MYC family members coordinate metabolic programs to support immune functions. Here, we discuss our understanding of MYC biology in immune system and how modulation of MYC impacts immune metabolism and responses. PMID:28245597

  1. c-Myc activates multiple metabolic networks to generate substrates for cell-cycle entry.

    PubMed

    Morrish, F; Isern, N; Sadilek, M; Jeffrey, M; Hockenbery, D M

    2009-07-09

    Cell proliferation requires the coordinated activity of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways to provide ATP and building blocks for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Many metabolic pathway genes are targets of the c-myc oncogene and cell-cycle regulator. However, the contribution of c-Myc to the activation of cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic networks during cell-cycle entry is unknown. Here, we report the metabolic fates of [U-(13)C] glucose in serum-stimulated myc(-/-) and myc(+/+) fibroblasts by (13)C isotopomer NMR analysis. We demonstrate that endogenous c-myc increased (13)C labeling of ribose sugars, purines and amino acids, indicating partitioning of glucose carbons into C1/folate and pentose phosphate pathways, and increased tricarboxylic acid cycle turnover at the expense of anaplerotic flux. Myc expression also increased global O-linked N-acetylglucosamine protein modification, and inhibition of hexosamine biosynthesis selectively reduced growth of Myc-expressing cells, suggesting its importance in Myc-induced proliferation. These data reveal a central organizing function for the Myc oncogene in the metabolism of cycling cells. The pervasive deregulation of this oncogene in human cancers may be explained by its function in directing metabolic networks required for cell proliferation.

  2. Cloned origin of DNA replication in c-myc gene can function and be transmitted in transgenic mice in an episomal state.

    PubMed Central

    Sudo, K; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1990-01-01

    The c-myc protein has recently been shown to interact with a region possessing putative origin of DNA replication and enhancer activities located 2 kb upstream of the c-myc gene itself. Transgenic mice were obtained by injecting constructs containing this region, termed pmyc(H-P), into fertilized mouse eggs. The transgenic elements were capable of efficient replication in all mouse tissues examined and were maintained in an episomal state even in highly differentiated cells. Moreover, pmyc(H-P) was transmittable to the progeny throughout several generations, which suggests that the fragment derived from the region upstream of the c-myc gene possesses sequences necessary for partition, stability and DNA replication of the plasmid in the cells. In addition, we have shown that the plasmid might be captured only by eggs, not by sperm. Images PMID:2216716

  3. Cell cycle regulation of the c-Myc transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed Central

    Seth, A; Gupta, S; Davis, R J

    1993-01-01

    The product of the c-myc gene (c-Myc) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that has previously been demonstrated to be required for cell cycle progression. Here we report that the c-Myc DNA binding site confers cell cycle regulation to a reporter gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The observed transactivation was biphasic with a small increase in G1 and a marked increase during the S-to-G2/M transition of the cell cycle. This cell cycle regulation of transactivation potential is accounted for, in part, by regulatory phosphorylation of the c-Myc transactivation domain. Together, these data demonstrate that c-Myc may have an important role in the progression of cells through both the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Images PMID:8321217

  4. A MYC-Driven Change in Mitochondrial Dynamics Limits YAP/TAZ Function in Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    von Eyss, Björn; Jaenicke, Laura A; Kortlever, Roderik M; Royla, Nadine; Wiese, Katrin E; Letschert, Sebastian; McDuffus, Leigh-Anne; Sauer, Markus; Rosenwald, Andreas; Evan, Gerard I; Kempa, Stefan; Eilers, Martin

    2015-12-14

    In several developmental lineages, an increase in MYC expression drives the transition from quiescent stem cells to transit-amplifying cells. We show that MYC activates a stereotypic transcriptional program of genes involved in cell growth in mammary epithelial cells. This change in gene expression indirectly inhibits the YAP/TAZ co-activators, which maintain the clonogenic potential of these cells. We identify a phospholipase of the mitochondrial outer membrane, PLD6, as the mediator of MYC activity. MYC-dependent growth strains cellular energy resources and stimulates AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). PLD6 alters mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics downstream of MYC. This change activates AMPK, which in turn inhibits YAP/TAZ. Mouse models and human pathological data show that MYC enhances AMPK and suppresses YAP/TAZ activity in mammary tumors.

  5. c-Myc Alters Substrate Utilization and O-GlcNAc Protein Posttranslational Modifications without Altering Cardiac Function during Early Aortic Constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.; Olson, Aaron K.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic stimuli cause transcription of the proto-oncogene c-Myc (Myc). Prior work showed that myocardial knockout of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we assessed the interplay between Myc, substrate oxidation and cardiac function during early pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc knockout (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n = 7/group). Additional groups underwent sham surgery (Cont-Sham and MycKO-Sham, n = 5 per group). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. In sham hearts, Myc knockout did not affect cardiac function or substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle. However, Myc knockout altered fractional contributions during TAC. The unlabeled fractional contribution increased in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC, whereas ketone and free fatty acid fractional contributions decreased. Additionally, protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc were significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Cont-Sham and MycKO-TAC. In conclusion, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy, which may regulate Myc-induced metabolic changes. PMID:26266538

  6. Haploinsufficiency of the Myc regulator Mtbp extends survival and delays tumor development in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Grieb, Brian C.; Boyd, Kelli; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Eischen, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of specific genes can modulate aging. Myc, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many genes involved in critical cellular functions was shown to have a role in controlling longevity. Decreased expression of Myc inhibited many of the deleterious effects of aging and increased lifespan in mice. Without altering Myc expression, reduced levels of Mtbp, a recently identified regulator of Myc, limit Myc transcriptional activity and proliferation, while increased levels promote Myc-mediated effects. To determine the contribution of Mtbp to the effects of Myc on aging, we studied a large cohort of Mtbp heterozygous mice and littermate matched wild-type controls. Mtbp haploinsufficiency significantly increased longevity and maximal survival in mice. Reduced levels of Mtbp did not alter locomotor activity, litter size, or body size, but Mtbp heterozygous mice did exhibit elevated markers of metabolism, particularly in the liver. Mtbp+/− mice also had a significant delay in spontaneous cancer development, which was most prominent in the hematopoietic system, and an altered tumor spectrum compared to Mtbp+/+ mice. Therefore, the data suggest Mtbp is a regulator of longevity in mice that mimics some, but not all, of the properties of Myc in aging. PMID:27803394

  7. MYC — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The oncogenic protein MYC, previously known as c-MYC, is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. It participates in the regulation of gene transcription of specific target genes. MYC binds DNA in a non-specific manner, yet also specifically recognizes the core sequence 5'-CAC[GA]TG-3'. Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of the MYC gene have been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma. Evidence shows that alternative translation initiations from an upstream, in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and a downstream AUG start site result in the production of two isoforms with distinct N-termini.

  8. KSHV Latency Locus Cooperates with Myc to Drive Lymphoma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sin, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yongbaek; Eason, Anthony; Dittmer, Dirk P

    2015-09-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to Kaposi sarcoma and B-cell malignancies. Mechanisms of KSHV-induced oncogenesis remain elusive, however, in part due to lack of reliable in vivo models. Recently, we showed that transgenic mice expressing the KSHV latent genes, including all viral microRNAs, developed splenic B cell hyperplasia with 100% penetrance, but only a fraction converted to B cell lymphomas, suggesting that cooperative oncogenic events were missing. Myc was chosen as a possible candidate, because Myc is deregulated in many B cell lymphomas. We crossed KSHV latency locus transgenic (latency) mice to Cα Myc transgenic (Myc) mice. By itself these Myc transgenic mice develop lymphomas only rarely. In the double transgenic mice (Myc/latency) we observed plasmacytosis, severe extramedullary hematopoiesis in spleen and liver, and increased proliferation of splenocytes. Myc/latency mice developed frank lymphoma at a higher rate than single transgenic latency or Myc mice. These data indicate that the KSHV latency locus cooperates with the deregulated Myc pathways to further lymphoma progression.

  9. Nickel compounds induce apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells by activation of c-Myc through ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li Qin; Suen, T.-C.; Sun Hong; Arita, Adriana; Costa, Max

    2009-03-01

    Nickel compounds are carcinogenic to humans and have been shown to alter epigenetic homeostasis. The c-Myc protein controls 15% of human genes and it has been shown that fluctuations of c-Myc protein alter global epigenetic marks. Therefore, the regulation of c-Myc by nickel ions in immortalized but not tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial Beas-2B cells was examined in this study. It was found that c-Myc protein expression was increased by nickel ions in non-tumorigenic Beas-2B and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The results also indicated that nickel ions induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells. Knockout of c-Myc and its restoration in a rat cell system confirmed the essential role of c-Myc in nickel ion-induced apoptosis. Further studies in Beas-2B cells showed that nickel ion increased the c-Myc mRNA level and c-Myc promoter activity, but did not increase c-Myc mRNA and protein stability. Moreover, nickel ion upregulated c-Myc in Beas-2B cells through the MEK/ERK pathway. Collectively, the results demonstrate that c-Myc induction by nickel ions occurs via an ERK-dependent pathway and plays a crucial role in nickel-induced apoptosis in Beas-2B cells.

  10. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  11. TIP30 interacts with an estrogen receptor alpha-interacting coactivator CIA and regulates c-myc transcription.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Ito, Mitsuhiro; Piening, Valerie; Bruck, Kristy; Roeder, Robert G; Xiao, Hua

    2004-06-25

    Deregulation of c-myc expression is implicated in the pathogenesis of many neoplasias. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) can increase the rate of c-myc transcription through the recruitment of a variety of cofactors to the promoter, yet the precise roles of these cofactors in transcription and tumorigenesis are largely unknown. We show here that a putative tumor suppressor TIP30, also called CC3 or Htatip2, interacts with an ERalpha-interacting coactivator CIA. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that TIP30 and CIA are distinct cofactors that are dynamically associated with the promoter and downstream regions of the c-myc gene in response to estrogen. Both TIP30 and CIA are recruited to the c-myc gene promoter by liganded ERalpha in the second transcription cycle. TIP30 overexpression represses ERalpha-mediated c-myc transcription, whereas TIP30 deficiency enhances c-myc transcription in both the absence and presence of estrogen. Ectopic CIA cooperates with TIP30 to repress ERalpha-mediated c-myc transcription. Moreover, virgin TIP30 knockout mice exhibit increased c-myc expression in mammary glands. Together, these results reveal an important role for TIP30 in the regulation of ERalpha-mediated c-myc transcription and suggest a mechanism for tumorigenesis promoted by TIP30 deficiency.

  12. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) promotes metastasis of human scirrhous gastric cancer cells through epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Ureshino, Hiroki; Murakami, Yuichi; Watari, Kosuke; Izumi, Hiroto; Kawahara, Akihiko; Kage, Masayoshi; Arao, Tokuzo; Nishio, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study demonstrated that higher expression of N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is closely correlated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients. In this study, we asked whether NDRG1 has pivotal roles in malignant progression including metastasis of gastric cancer cells. By gene expression microarray analysis expression of NDRG1 showed the higher increase among a total of 3691 up-regulated genes in a highly metastatic gastric cancer cell line (58As1) than their parental low metastatic counterpart (HSC-58). The highly metastatic cell lines showed decreased expression of E-cadherin, together with enhanced expression of vimentin and Snail. This decreased expression of E-cadherin was restored by Snail knockdown in highly metastatic cell lines. We next established stable NDRG1 knockdown cell lines (As1/Sic50 and As1/Sic54) from the highly metastatic cell line, and both of these cell lines showed enhanced expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of vimentin and Snail. And also, E-cadherin promoter-driven luciferase activity was found to be increased by NDRG1 knockdown in the highly metastatic cell line. NDRG1 knockdown in gastric cancer cell showed suppressed invasion of cancer cells into surround tissues, suppressed metastasis to the peritoneum and decreased ascites accumulation in mice with significantly improved survival rates. This is the first study to demonstrate that NDRG1 plays its pivotal role in the malignant progression of gastric cancer through epithelial mesenchymal transition.

  13. MYC-driven inhibition of the glutamate-cysteine ligase promotes glutathione depletion in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Anderton, Brittany; Camarda, Roman; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Balakrishnan, Asha; Kohnz, Rebecca A; Lim, Lionel; Evason, Kimberley J; Momcilovic, Olga; Kruttwig, Klaus; Huang, Qiang; Xu, Guowang; Nomura, Daniel K; Goga, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    How MYC reprograms metabolism in primary tumors remains poorly understood. Using integrated gene expression and metabolite profiling, we identify six pathways that are coordinately deregulated in primary MYC-driven liver tumors: glutathione metabolism; glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism; aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis; cysteine and methionine metabolism; ABC transporters; and mineral absorption. We then focus our attention on glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), as they are markedly decreased in MYC-driven tumors. We find that fewer glutamine-derived carbons are incorporated into GSH in tumor tissue relative to non-tumor tissue. Expression of GCLC, the rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, is attenuated by the MYC-induced microRNA miR-18a. Inhibition of miR-18a in vivo leads to increased GCLC protein expression and GSH abundance in tumor tissue. Finally, MYC-driven liver tumors exhibit increased sensitivity to acute oxidative stress. In summary, MYC-dependent attenuation of GCLC by miR-18a contributes to GSH depletion in vivo, and low GSH corresponds with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress in tumors. Our results identify new metabolic pathways deregulated in primary MYC tumors and implicate a role for MYC in regulating a major antioxidant pathway downstream of glutamine.

  14. Regulation of c-Myc expression by the histone demethylase JMJD1A is essential for prostate cancer cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lingling; Peng, Guihong; Sahgal, Natasha; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Zhang, Yuji; Hussain, Arif; Qi, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    The histone demethylase JMJD1A, which controls gene expression by epigenetic regulation of H3K9 methylation marks, functions in diverse activities, including spermatogenesis, metabolism, and stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Here, we found that JMJD1A knockdown in prostate cancer cells antagonizes their proliferation and survival. Profiling array analyses revealed that JMJD1A-dependent genes function in cellular growth, proliferation and survival, and implicated that the c-Myc transcriptional network is de-regulated following JMJD1A inhibition. Biochemical analyses confirmed that JMJD1A enhances c-Myc transcriptional activity by upregulating c-Myc expression levels. Mechanistically, JMJD1A activity promoted recruitment of androgen receptor (AR) to the c-Myc gene enhancer and induced H3K9 demethylation, increasing AR-dependent transcription of c-Myc mRNA. In parallel, we found that JMJD1A regulated c-Myc stability, likely by inhibiting HUWE1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to target degradation of several substrates including c-Myc. JMJD1A (wild-type or mutant lacking histone demethylase activity) bound to HUWE1, attenuated HUWE1-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of c-Myc, increasing c-Myc protein levels. Furthermore, c-Myc knockdown in prostate cancer cells phenocopied effects of JMJD1A knockdown, and c-Myc re-expression in JMJD1A-knockdown cells partially rescued prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. c-Myc protein levels were positively correlated with those of JMJD1A in a subset of human prostate cancer specimens. Collectively, our findings identify a critical role for JMJD1A in regulating proliferation and survival of prostate cancer cells by controlling c-Myc expression at transcriptional and post-translational levels. PMID:26279298

  15. Stress-induced cleavage of Myc promotes cancer cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Anderson, Sarah; Brabletz, Thomas; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Evasion of apoptosis is critical in Myc-induced tumor progression. Here we report that cancer cells evade death under stress by activating calpain-mediated proteolysis of Myc. This generates Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic, transcriptionally inactive cleavage product of Myc. We found conversion of Myc into Myc-nick in cell lines and tissues derived from multiple cancers. In colon cancer, the production of Myc-nick is enhanced under stress conditions such as hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Under these conditions, ectopic expression of Myc-nick promotes anchorage-independent growth and cell survival at least in part by promoting autophagy. Myc-nick also delays colon cancer cell death after treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs such as etoposide, cisplatin, and imatinib. Furthermore, colon cancer cells expressing a cleavage-resistant form of Myc undergo extensive apoptosis but are rescued by overexpression of Myc-nick. We also found that ectopic expression of Myc-nick results in the induction of the actin-bundling protein fascin, formation of filopodia, and increased cell motility—all mediators of tumor metastasis. Myc-nick-induced survival, autophagy, and motility require Myc box II (MBII), a region of Myc-nick that recruits acetyltransferases that in turn modify cytoplasmic proteins, including α-tubulin and ATG3. Our results suggest that Myc-nick-induced survival and motility contribute to colon cancer progression and metastasis. PMID:24696454

  16. Endothelin-1 enhances the expression of the androgen receptor via activation of the c-Myc pathway in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, June G; Zheng, Rong; McCafferty-Cepero, Jennifer M; Burnstein, Kerry L; Nanus, David M; Shen, Ruoqian

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that androgen independent prostate cancer maintains a functional androgen receptor (AR) pathway despite the low levels of circulating androgen following androgen withdrawal, the molecular mechanisms of which are not well defined yet. To address this question, we investigated the effects of ET-1 on AR expression. Western analysis and RT-PCR revealed that in the presence of ET-1, levels of AR significantly increased in a time- and dose- dependent manner in LNCaP cells. Pre-treatments with inhibitors of Src and Phosphoinositide Kinase 3 (PI-3K) suppressed ET-1-induced AR expression. As ET-1 was reported to cause a transient increase in c-Myc mRNA levels, we examined the involvement of c-Myc in ET-1-mediated AR expression. Transient transfection of c-Myc siRNA neutralized ET-1-induced AR expression, suggesting that AR induction by ET-1 is c-Myc dependent. AR can regulate the transcription of its own gene via a mechanism in which c-Myc plays a crucial role. Therefore, we assessed if ET-1-induced-c-Myc leads to the enhancement of AR transcription. Reporter gene assays using the previously identified AR gene enhancer containing a c-Myc binding site were conducted in LNCaP cells. We found that ET-1 induced reporter gene activity from the construct containing the wild type but not mutant c-Myc binding site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that ET-1 increased interaction between c-Myc and c-Myc binding sites in AR enhancer, suggesting that ET-1-induced AR transcription occurs via c-Myc-mediated AR transcription. Together, these data support the notion that ET-1, via Src/PI-3K signaling, augments c-Myc expression leading to enhanced AR expression in prostate cancer. PMID:18623111

  17. NCYM promotes calpain-mediated Myc-nick production in human MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shoji, Wataru; Suenaga, Yusuke; Kaneko, Yoshiki; Islam, S.M. Rafiqul; Alagu, Jennifer; Yokoi, Sana; Nio, Masaki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2015-06-05

    NCYM is a cis-antisense gene of MYCN and is amplified in human neuroblastomas. High NCYM expression is associated with poor prognoses, and the NCYM protein stabilizes MYCN to promote proliferation of neuroblastoma cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of NCYM in the regulation of cell survival have remained poorly characterized. Here we show that NCYM promotes cleavage of MYCN to produce the anti-apoptotic protein, Myc-nick, both in vitro and in vivo. NCYM and Myc-nick were induced at G2/M phase, and NCYM knockdown induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by Myc-nick downregulation. These results reveal a novel function of NCYM as a regulator of Myc-nick production in human neuroblastomas. - Highlights: • NCYM promotes cleavages of MYC and MYCN to produce Myc-nick in vitro. • NCYM increases Myc-nick production in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. • NCYM knockdown decreases Myc-nick production and induces apoptosis at G2/M phase.

  18. Histone deacetylase class-I inhibition promotes epithelial gene expression in pancreatic cancer cells in a BRD4- and MYC-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Wegwitz, Florian; Kosinsky, Robyn Laura; Sen, Madhobi; Baumgartner, Roland; Wulff, Tanja; Siveke, Jens T; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Najafova, Zeynab; Kari, Vijayalakshmi; Kohlhof, Hella; Hessmann, Elisabeth; Johnsen, Steven A

    2017-03-27

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive cancer with a particularly dismal prognosis. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) are epigenetic modulators whose activity is frequently deregulated in various cancers including PDAC. In particular, class-I HDACs (HDAC 1, 2, 3 and 8) have been shown to play an important role in PDAC. In this study, we investigated the effects of the class I-specific HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) 4SC-202 in multiple PDAC cell lines in promoting tumor cell differentiation. We show that 4SC-202 negatively affects TGFβ signaling and inhibits TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, 4SC-202 markedly induced p21 (CDKN1A) expression and significantly attenuated cell proliferation. Mechanistically, genome-wide studies revealed that 4SC-202-induced genes were enriched for Bromodomain-containing Protein-4 (BRD4) and MYC occupancy. BRD4, a well-characterized acetyllysine reader, has been shown to play a major role in regulating transcription of selected subsets of genes. Importantly, BRD4 and MYC are essential for the expression of a subgroup of genes induced by class-I HDACi. Taken together, our study uncovers a previously unknown role of BRD4 and MYC in eliciting the HDACi-mediated induction of a subset of genes and provides molecular insight into the mechanisms of HDACi action in PDAC.

  19. Myc inhibits JNK-mediated cell death in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiuhong; Feng, Yu; Chen, Xinhong; Li, Wenzhe; Xue, Lei

    2017-04-01

    The proto-oncogene Myc is well known for its roles in promoting cell growth, proliferation and apoptosis. However, in this study, we found from a genetic screen that Myc inhibits, rather than promotes, cell death triggered by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in Drosophila. Firstly, expression of Drosophila Myc (dMyc) suppresses, whereas loss of dMyc enhances, ectopically activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Secondly, dMyc impedes physiologically activated JNK pathway-mediated cell death. Thirdly, loss of dMyc triggers JNK pathway activation and JNK-dependent cell death. Finally, the mammalian cMyc gene, when expressed in Drosophila, impedes activated JNK signaling-induced cell death. Thus, besides its well-studied apoptosis promoting function, Myc also antagonizes JNK-mediated cell death in Drosophila, and this function is likely conserved from fly to human.

  20. Inhibition of c-myc expression induces apoptosis of WEHI 231 murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, M; Arsura, M; Bellas, R E; FitzGerald, M J; Lee, H; Schauer, S L; Sherr, D H; Sonenshein, G E

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of WEHI 231 immature B-lymphoma cells with an antibody against their surface immunoglobulin (anti-Ig) induces apoptosis and has been studied extensively as a model of B-cell tolerance. Anti-Ig treatment of exponentially growing WEHI 231 cells results in an early transient increase in c-myc expression that is followed by a decline to below basal levels; this decrease in c-myc expression immediately precedes the induction of cell death. Here we have modulated NF-kappaB/Rel factor activity, which regulates the rate of c-myc gene transcription, to determine whether the increase or decrease in c-Myc-levels mediates apoptosis in WEHI 231 cells. Addition of the serine/threonine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), which blocks the normally rapid turnover of the specific inhibitor of NF-kappaB/Rel IkappaBalpha in these cells, caused a drop in Rel-related factor binding. TPCK treatment resulted in decreased c-myc expression, preventing the usual increase seen following anti-Ig treatment. Whereas inhibition of the induction of c-myc expression mediated by anti-Ig failed to block apoptosis, reduction of c-myc expression in exponentially growing WEHI 231 cells induced apoptosis even in the absence of anti-Ig treatment. In WEHI 231 clones ectopically expressing c-Myc, apoptosis induced by treatment with TPCK or anti-Ig was significantly diminished and cells continued to proliferate. Furthermore, apoptosis of WEHI 231 cells ensued following enhanced expression of Mad1, which has been found to reduce functional c-Myc levels. These results indicate that the decline in c-myc expression resulting from the drop in NF-kappaB/Rel binding leads to activation of apoptosis of WEHI 231 B cells. PMID:8756660

  1. LeMYC2 acts as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenic growth, and promotes the growth of adult tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arabidopsis ZBF1/MYC2bHLH transcription factor is a repressor of photomorphogenesis, and acts as a point of cross talk in light, abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. MYC2 also functions as a positive regulator of lateral root development and flowering time under long day conditions. However, the function of MYC2 in growth and development remains unknown in crop plants. Results Here, we report the functional analyses of LeMYC2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The amino acid sequence of LeMYC2 showed extensive homology with Arabidopsis MYC2, containing the conserved bHLH domain. To study the function of LeMYC2 in tomato, overexpression and RNA interference (RNAi) LeMYC2 tomato transgenic plants were generated. Examination of seedling morphology, physiological responses and light regulated gene expression has revealed that LeMYC2 works as a negative regulator of blue light mediated photomorphogenesis. Furthermore, LeMYC2 specifically binds to the G-box of LeRBCS-3A promoter. Overexpression of LeMYC2 has led to increased root length with more number of lateral roots. The tomato plants overexpressing LeMYC2 have reduced internode distance with more branches, and display the opposite morphology to RNAi transgenic lines. Furthermore, this study shows that LeMYC2 promotes ABA and JA responsiveness. Conclusions Collectively, this study highlights that working in light, ABA and JA signaling pathways LeMYC2 works as an important regulator for growth and development in tomato plants. PMID:24483714

  2. N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1) mediates pomegranate juice protection from apoptosis in hypoxic BeWo cells but not in primary human trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baosheng; Zaveri, Parul G.; Longtine, Mark S.; Nelson, D. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) expression is increased in placentas of human pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction and in hypoxic cultured primary trophoblasts. We previously showed that elevated NDRG1 decreases trophoblast apoptosis induced by hypoxia. Separately, we found that pomegranate juice (PJ) decreases cell death induced by hypoxia in trophoblasts. Here, we test the hypothesis that PJ protects trophoblasts from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by modulating NDRG1 expression. Methods Quantitative rtPCR was used to investigate the effects of PJ treatment on mRNA levels of 22 candidate genes involved in apoptosis, oxidative stress, and differentiation in trophoblasts. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to analyze NDRG1 protein levels. siRNA-mediated NDRG1 knockdown was used to investigate the role of NDRG1 in response to PJ in hypoxic BeWo choriocarcinoma cells and hypoxic cultured primary human trophoblasts. Results The mRNA levels of eight genes were altered, with NDRG1 showing the largest response to PJ and thus, we pursued the role of NDRG1 here. PJ significantly increased NDRG1 protein expression in primary trophoblasts and in BeWo cells. Knockdown of NDRG1 in hypoxic BeWo cells in the presence of PJ yielded increased apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of NDRG1 in hypoxic primary trophoblasts in the presence of PJ did not increase apoptosis. Discussion We conclude that the PJ-mediated decrease in cell death in hypoxia is partially mediated by NDRG1 in BeWo cells but not in primary trophoblasts. The disparate effects of NDRG1 between BeWo cells and primary trophoblasts indicate caution is required when extrapolating from results obtained with cell lines to primary trophoblasts. PMID:26028238

  3. The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1), is a prognostic biomarker for human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhihai; Sun, Jing; Feng, Bo; Ma, Junjun; Zang, Lu; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Daohai; Zheng, Minhua

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis remains to be one of the most prevalent causes leading to poor long-term survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The clinical significances of tumor metastatic suppressor, N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1), have been inconsistently reported in a variety of cancerous diseases. In this study with 240 CRC clinical specimens, we showed that NDRG1 expression was significantly decreased in most of CRC tissues compared to the paired non-tumor counterparts. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of NDRG1 expression with tumor stage, differentiation status and metastasis. Compared with NDRG1-negative group, NDRG1-positve group had better disease-free/overall survival (p = 0.000) over 5 years' follow-up. Furthermore, NDRG1 was considered to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (p = 0.001) and recurrence (p = 0.003). Our study concludes that NDRG1 is a novel favorable predictor for the prognosis in CRC patients.

  4. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  5. Transcriptional silencing of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Chen, Hong

    2011-02-01

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) plays vital roles in tumor metastasis suppression and is frequently silenced in metastatic colon cancers. NDRG1 is silenced in a highly metastatic colon cancer cell line SW620. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential mechanisms involved in silencing of the NDRG1 gene. SW480 and SW620 are two colon cancer cell lines established from the same patient with different metastatic potentials, making them an ideal model for investigation of metastatic mechanisms. Knockdown of NDRG1 in SW480 to a level that is similar to that in SW620 also modulated cell cycle and proliferation in SW480 towards the status of the highly metastatic SW620. Epigenetic mechanisms of the transcriptional control of NDRG1 were investigated. The silencing of NDRG1 in SW620 was not due to promoter hyper-methylation as bisulfite sequencing of the NDRG1 promoter showed minimal DNA methylation in both cell lines. On the other hand, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed a significantly higher level of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) association with the NDRG1 promoter in SW480 compared to SW620, in agreement with its gene expression level. The low Pol II binding at the NDRG1 promoter in SW620 was associated with gene-wide decrease in histone H4 acetylation and increase in histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the NDRG1 coding region showed much higher histone H3 lysine 4 methylation in SW480. In conclusion we observed unique histone modifications in two colon cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials, indicating possible mechanisms for the down-regulation of NDRG1 in metastatic SW620.

  6. Changes in the phenotype of human small cell lung cancer cell lines after transfection and expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B E; Battey, J; Linnoila, I; Becker, K L; Makuch, R W; Snider, R H; Carney, D N; Minna, J D

    1986-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer growing in cell culture possesses biologic properties that allow classification into two categories: classic and variant. Compared with classic small cell lung cancer cell lines, variant lines have altered large cell morphology, shorter doubling times, higher cloning efficiencies in soft agarose, and very low levels of L dopa decarboxylase production and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. C-myc is amplified and expressed in some small cell lung cancer cell lines and all c-myc amplified lines studied to date display the variant phenotype. To investigate if c-myc amplification and expression is responsible for the variant phenotype, a normal human c-myc gene was transfected into a cloned classic small cell lung cancer cell line not amplified for or expressing detectable c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA). Clones were isolated with one to six copies of c-myc stably integrated into DNA that expressed c-myc mRNA. In addition, one clone with an integrated neo gene but a deleted c-myc gene was isolated and in this case c-myc was not expressed. C-myc expression in transfected clones was associated with altered large cell morphology, a shorter doubling time, and increased cloning efficiency, but no difference in L dopa decarboxylase levels and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. We conclude increased c-myc expression observed here in transfected clones correlates with some of the phenotypic properties distinguishing c-myc amplified variants from unamplified classic small cell lung cancer lines. Images PMID:3016030

  7. Nitric oxide suppresses tumor cell migration through N-Myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) expression: role of chelatable iron.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Jason R; Sahni, Sumit; Mikhed, Yuliya; Bonini, Marcelo G; Thomas, Douglas D

    2011-12-02

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a ubiquitous cellular protein that is up-regulated under a multitude of stress and growth-regulatory conditions. Although the exact cellular functions of this protein have not been elucidated, mutations in this gene or aberrant expression of this protein have been linked to both tumor suppressive and oncogenic phenotypes. Previous reports have demonstrated that NDRG1 is strongly up-regulated by chemical iron chelators and hypoxia, yet its regulation by the free radical nitric oxide ((•)NO) has never been demonstrated. Herein, we examine the chemical biology that confers NDRG1 responsiveness at the mRNA and protein levels to (•)NO. We demonstrate that the interaction of (•)NO with the chelatable iron pool (CIP) and the appearance of dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) are key determinants. Using HCC 1806 triple negative breast cancer cells, we find that NDRG1 is up-regulated by physiological (•)NO concentrations in a dose- and time-dependant manner. Tumor cell migration was suppressed by NDRG1 expression and we excluded the involvement of HIF-1α, sGC, N-Myc, and c-Myc as upstream regulatory targets of (•)NO. Augmenting the chelatable iron pool abolished (•)NO-mediated NDRG1 expression and the associated phenotypic effects. These data, in summary, reveal a link between (•)NO, chelatable iron, and regulation of NDRG1 expression and signaling in tumor cells.

  8. Expression of the woodchuck N-myc2 retroposon in brain and in liver tumors is driven by a cryptic N-myc promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Fourel, G; Transy, C; Tennant, B C; Buendia, M A

    1992-01-01

    The woodchuck intronless proto-oncogene N-myc2 was initially discovered as a frequent target site for hepadnavirus integration in hepatocellular carcinoma. N-myc2 possesses characteristics of a functional retroposon derived from the woodchuck N-myc gene. We have investigated the regulatory signals governing N-myc2 expression and found that a short promoter, including a variant TATA box and potential binding sites for several transcription factors, is localized in the N-myc2 sequences homologous to the 5' untranslated region of the second N-myc exon. The corresponding region in the intron-containing woodchuck N-myc gene also exhibited promoter activity in transient transfection assays. The high evolutionary conservation of these sequences in mammalian N-myc genes suggests that they contain a cryptic N-myc promoter which may be unmasked in the particular context provided by the N-myc2 retroposon. Although N-myc2, like the woodchuck N-myc gene, contributes to an extended CpG island and was found constitutively hypomethylated, it presents a highly restricted expression pattern in adult animals. Whereas the intron-containing N-myc gene is expressed at low levels in different tissues, N-myc2 mRNA was detected only in brain tissue, raising questions about the functional significance of the maintenance of a second N-myc gene in the woodchuck genome. Images PMID:1333041

  9. 8q24 (C-MYC) — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Chromosome region 8q24 contains the gene for MYC, also known as C-MYC. MYC is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. The 8q24 region may contain a locus that influences general cancer susceptibility.

  10. Therapeutic aspects of c-MYC signaling in inflammatory and cancerous colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, Ferenc; Firneisz, Gábor; Műzes, Györgyi

    2016-01-01

    Colonic inflammation is required to heal infections, wounds, and maintain tissue homeostasis. As the seventh hallmark of cancer, however, it may affect all phases of tumor development, including tumor initiation, promotion, invasion and metastatic dissemination, and also evasion immune surveillance. Inflammation acts as a cellular stressor and may trigger DNA damage or genetic instability, and, further, chronic inflammation can provoke genetic mutations and epigenetic mechanisms that promote malignant cell transformation. Both sporadical and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis are multi-step, complex processes arising from the uncontrolled proliferation and spreading of malignantly transformed cell clones with the obvious ability to evade the host’s protective immunity. In cells upon DNA damage several proto-oncogenes, including c-MYC are activated in parelell with the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. The target genes of the c-MYC protein participate in different cellular functions, including cell cycle, survival, protein synthesis, cell adhesion, and micro-RNA expression. The transcriptional program regulated by c-MYC is context dependent, therefore the final cellular response to elevated c-MYC levels may range from increased proliferation to augmented apoptosis. Considering physiological intestinal homeostasis, c-MYC displays a fundamental role in the regulation of cell proliferation and crypt cell number. However, c-MYC gene is frequently deregulated in inflammation, and overexpressed in both sporadic and colitis-associated colon adenocarcinomas. Recent results demonstrated that endogenous c-MYC is essential for efficient induction of p53-dependent apoptosis following DNA damage, but c-MYC function is also involved in and regulated by autophagy-related mechanisms, while its expression is affected by DNA-methylation, or histone acetylation. Molecules directly targeting c-MYC, or agents acting on other genes involved in the c-MYC pathway could be

  11. Cooperation between the polyomavirus Middle-T-antigen gene and the human c-myc oncogene in a rat thyroid epithelial differentiated cell line: Model of in vitro progression

    SciTech Connect

    Berlingieri, M.T.; Portella, G.; Grieco, M.; Santoro, M.; Fusco, A.

    1988-05-01

    Two rat thyroid epithelial differentiated cell lines, PC CI 3 and PC myc, were infected with the polyoma murine leukemia virus (PyMLV) carrying the Middle-T-antigen gene of polyomavirus. After infection, both cell lines acquired the typical markers of neoplastic transformation; however, the PC myc cells showed a greater malignant phenotype. Furthermore, the thyroid differentiated functions were completely suppressed in PC myc cells transformed by PyMLV, whereas they were, at least partially, retained in PC CI 3 cells transformed by PyMLV, and in particular, thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion were not affected at all. Since no differences in the expression of the middle-T-antigen gene were observed in the two PyMLV-transformed cell lines, the different properties shown by these two infected cell lines must be ascribed to the expression of the c-myc oncogene.

  12. RNA Polymerase I Inhibition with CX-5461 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy to Target MYC in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hans C; Wang, Hua; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lin, Heather; He, Jin; Jones, Richard J; Kuiatse, Isere; Gu, Dongmin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Lim, John; O'Brien, Sean; Keats, Jonathan; Yang, Jing; Davis, Richard E; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2017-04-01

    Dysregulation of MYC is frequently implicated in both early and late myeloma progression events, yet its therapeutic targeting has remained a challenge. Among key MYC downstream targets is ribosomal biogenesis, enabling increases in protein translational capacity necessary to support the growth and self-renewal programmes of malignant cells. We therefore explored the selective targeting of ribosomal biogenesis with the small molecule RNA polymerase (pol) I inhibitor CX-5461 in myeloma. CX-5461 induced significant growth inhibition in wild-type (WT) and mutant TP53 myeloma cell lines and primary samples, in association with increases in downstream markers of apoptosis. Moreover, Pol I inhibition overcame adhesion-mediated drug resistance and resistance to conventional and novel agents. To probe the TP53-independent mechanisms of CX-5461, gene expression profiling was performed on isogenic TP53 WT and knockout cell lines and revealed reduction of MYC downstream targets. Mechanistic studies confirmed that CX-5461 rapidly suppressed both MYC protein and MYC mRNA levels. The latter was associated with an increased binding of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) subunits TARBP2 and AGO2, the ribosomal protein RPL5, and MYC mRNA, resulting in increased MYC transcript degradation. Collectively, these studies provide a rationale for the clinical translation of CX-5461 as a novel therapeutic approach to target MYC in myeloma.

  13. The Interplay between Myc and CTP Synthase in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Gabriel N.; Grice, Stuart J.; Liu, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    CTP synthase (CTPsyn) is essential for the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. It has been shown that CTPsyn is incorporated into a novel cytoplasmic structure which has been termed the cytoophidium. Here, we report that Myc regulates cytoophidium formation during Drosophila oogenesis. We have found that Myc protein levels correlate with cytoophidium abundance in follicle epithelia. Reducing Myc levels results in cytoophidium loss and small nuclear size in follicle cells, while overexpression of Myc increases the length of cytoophidia and the nuclear size of follicle cells. Ectopic expression of Myc induces cytoophidium formation in late stage follicle cells. Furthermore, knock-down of CTPsyn is sufficient to suppress the overgrowth phenotype induced by Myc overexpression, suggesting CTPsyn acts downstream of Myc and is required for Myc-mediated cell size control. Taken together, our data suggest a functional link between Myc, a renowned oncogene, and the essential nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme CTPsyn. PMID:26889675

  14. Pim1 promotes human prostate cancer cell tumorigenicity and c-MYC transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The serine/threonine kinase PIM1 has been implicated as an oncogene in various human cancers including lymphomas, gastric, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. In mouse models, Pim1 is known to cooperate with c-Myc to promote tumorigenicity. However, there has been limited analysis of the tumorigenic potential of Pim1 overexpression in benign and malignant human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Methods We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference. Results Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes. Conclusion Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities

  15. The MYC 3′ Wnt-Responsive Element Drives Oncogenic MYC Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Eshelman, Melanie A.; Raup-Konsavage, Wesley M.; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway drive colorectal cancer (CRC) by deregulating expression of downstream target genes including the c-MYC proto-oncogene (MYC). The critical regulatory DNA enhancer elements that control oncogenic MYC expression in CRC have yet to be fully elucidated. In previous reports, we correlated T-cell factor (TCF) and β-catenin binding to the MYC 3′ Wnt responsive DNA element (MYC 3′ WRE) with MYC expression in HCT116 cells. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 to determine whether this element is a critical driver of MYC. We isolated a clonal population of cells that contained a deletion of a single TCF binding element (TBE) within the MYC 3′ WRE. This deletion reduced TCF/β-catenin binding to this regulatory element and decreased MYC expression. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found altered expression of genes that regulate metabolic processes, many of which are known MYC target genes. We found that 3′ WRE-Mut cells displayed a reduced proliferative capacity, diminished clonogenic growth, and a decreased potential to form tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that the MYC 3′ WRE is a critical driver of oncogenic MYC expression and suggest that this element may serve as a therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:27223305

  16. Differential regulation of GLT-1/EAAT2 gene expression by NF-κB and N-myc in male mouse brain during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajaneesh Kumar; Prasad, S

    2014-01-01

    The synaptic glutamate level homeostasis is mainly maintained by the astrocytes membrane bound glutamate transporter type-1 (GLT-1/EAAT2). Alterations in its expression during development and aging and the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Here, we report that NF-κB interaction was highest in both cerebral and cerebellar cortices at day 15 when compared with that at day 0 during development, and it further declined significantly in day 45, and remained unchanged in 20 and 70 weeks mice. On the other hand, N-myc interaction was highest at 0 day which significantly declined at 15-day and interestingly remained unaltered at later ages in both the cortices. This age dependent reciprocal pattern of NF-κB and N-myc interactions with their cognate GLT-1 promoter sequences was further correlated with GLT-1 protein and transcript levels. We found that higher NF-κB interaction with its cognate GLT-1 promoter sequences correlates with up-regulation whereas the higher N-myc interaction correlates with down-regulation of GLT-1 expression during postnatal developmental age up to 15 day, however, such phenomenon was not found in the higher ages from day 45 to 70 weeks. Thus our data suggests a postnatal development- and age dependent differential interaction of transcription factors NF-κB and N-myc to their respective sequences and they act as positive and negative regulator, respectively of GLT-1 gene expression in the brain during early developmental period in both cerebral and cerebellar cortices which might be different in aging of mice.

  17. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  18. Parsing Myc Paralogs in Oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mathsyaraja, Haritha; Eisenman, Robert N

    2016-01-11

    Myc and its paralog MycN are thought to be functionally redundant, but Myc- and MycN-driven medulloblastomas exhibit distinct phenotypes. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Vo and colleagues (2016) show that this phenotypic difference stems from the preferential ability of Myc, relative to MycN, to bind Miz1 and repress transcription.

  19. Growing old with Myc.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Patrick A; Eisenman, Robert N

    2015-01-29

    The Myc proto-oncogene has been intensively studied in tumorigenesis and development. A new paper in Cell reports the role of Myc as a determinant of mammalian longevity. Myc heterozygous mice exhibit extended lifespans resulting from alterations in multiple cellular processes distinct from those observed in other longevity models.

  20. Degrasyn activates proteasomal-dependent degradation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Talpaz, Moshe; Bornmann, William; Kong, Ling-Yuan; Donato, Nicholas J

    2007-04-15

    c-Myc is a highly unstable transcription factor whose deregulation and increased expression are associated with cancer. Degrasyn, a small synthetic molecule, induces rapid degradation of c-Myc protein in MM-1 multiple myeloma and other tumor cell lines. Destruction of c-Myc by degrasyn requires the presence of a region of c-Myc between amino acid residues 316 and 378 that has not previously been associated with c-Myc stability. Degrasyn-induced degradation of c-Myc depends on proteasomes but is independent of the degron regions previously shown to be important for ubiquitin-mediated targeting and proteasomal destruction of the protein. Degrasyn-dependent c-Myc proteolysis is not mediated by any previously identified c-Myc regulatory mechanism, does not require new protein synthesis, and does not depend on the nuclear localization of c-Myc. Degrasyn reduced c-Myc levels in A375 melanoma cells and in A375 tumors in nude mice, and this activity correlated with tumor growth inhibition. Together, these results suggest that degrasyn reduces the stability of c-Myc in vitro and in vivo through a unique signaling process that uses c-Myc domains not previously associated with c-Myc regulation.

  1. The human zinc-finger protein-7 gene is located 90 kb 3' of MYC and is not expressed in Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feduchi, E; Gallego, M I; Lazo, P A

    1994-09-15

    The zinc-finger gene-7 (ZNF7) was located 90 kb 3' of MYC on human chromosome 8 band q24 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This position lies between the MLV14 and BVR1 loci, 2 variant translocation breakpoints in Burkitt lymphomas. The structure of the ZNF7 gene was not altered by translocations in Burkitt-lymphoma cell lines as shown by its germline-restriction map configuration. The chromosomal region surrounding the ZNF7 gene was extensively methylated. The ZNF7 gene was not expressed in 19 BL cell lines. Expression was detected only in the BL41 and BL47 cell lines and in the SW756 cervical-carcinoma cell line. The RNA in each was of a different size. We postulate that the lack of ZNF7 expression in Burkitt lymphomas might contribute to the tumor phenotype.

  2. Deuterium depleted water effects on survival of lung cancer patients and expression of Kras, Bcl2, and Myc genes in mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyi, Zoltán; Budán, Ferenc; Szabó, István; Ember, István; Kiss, István; Krempels, Krisztina; Somlyai, Ildikó; Somlyai, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Although advances in cancer therapies continue to develop, the shortness of the survival of lung cancer patients is still disappointing. Therefore, finding new adjuvant strategies is within the focus of cancer cure. Based on observations that deuterium depletion inhibits the growth of cancer cell lines and suppresses certain proto-oncogenes, we have conducted a clinical study in 129 patients with small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers who consumed deuterium-depleted drinking water (DDW) as a nontoxic agent in addition to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival time (MST) was 25.9 mo in males and 74.1 mo in female patients; the difference between genders was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Median survival of subjects with brain metastasis was 27.1 mo. Cumulative 5-yr survival probabilities were 19%, 52%, and 33% in males, females, and all patients with brain metastasis, respectively. Gene expression analysis in mouse lung indicated that DDW attenuates 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced expression of Bcl2, Kras, and Myc in females. In conclusion, DDW counteracts the DMBA-induced overexpression of Bcl2, Kras and Myc genes in mouse lung, and it may extend survival of lung cancer patients as a nontoxic anticancer dietary supplement, especially for women with tumors overexpressing cancer-related genes, because MST of DDW-consuming group was 2-4 times longer than it is generally observed in lung cancer patients.

  3. Chromatin dynamics at the hTERT promoter during transcriptional activation and repression by c-Myc and Mnt in Xenopus leavis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Therese; Belikov, Sergey; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie

    2013-12-10

    The transcription factors c-Myc and Mnt regulate gene expression through dimerization with Max and binding to E-boxes in target genes. While c-Myc activates gene expression via recruitment of histone modifying complexes, Mnt acts as a transcriptional repressor. Here, we used the Xenopus leavis oocyte system to address the effect of c-Myc and Mnt on transcription and chromatin remodeling over the E-box region in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter. As expected we found elevated and decreased levels of hTERT transcription upon exogenously expressed c-Myc/Max and Mnt/Max, respectively. In addition, we confirmed binding of these heterodimers to both E-boxes already enriched with H3K9ac and H4K16ac. These chromatin marks were further enhanced upon c-Myc/Max binding followed by increased DNA accessibility in the E-box region. In contrast, Mnt/Max inhibited Myc-induced transcription and mediated repression through complete chromatin condensation and deacetylation of H3K9 and H4K16 across the E-box region. Importantly, Mnt was able to counteract c-Myc mediated activation even when expressed at low levels, suggesting Mnt to act as a strong repressor by closing the chromatin structure. Collectively our data demonstrate that the balance between c-Myc and Mnt activity determines the transcriptional outcome of the hTERT promoter by modulation of the chromatin architecture.

  4. B-cell receptor-driven MALT1 activity regulates MYC signaling in mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dai, Beiying; Grau, Michael; Juilland, Mélanie; Klener, Pavel; Höring, Elisabeth; Molinsky, Jan; Schimmack, Gisela; Aukema, Sietse M; Hoster, Eva; Vogt, Niklas; Staiger, Annette M; Erdmann, Tabea; Xu, Wendan; Erdmann, Kristian; Dzyuba, Nicole; Madle, Hannelore; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Trneny, Marek; Dreyling, Martin; Jöhrens, Korinna; Lenz, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Siebert, Reiner; Tzankov, Alexandar; Klapper, Wolfram; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Krappmann, Daniel; Ott, German; Thome, Margot; Lenz, Georg

    2017-01-19

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a mature B-cell lymphoma characterized by poor clinical outcome. Recent studies revealed the importance of B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling in maintaining MCL survival. However, it remains unclear which role MALT1, an essential component of the CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 complex that links BCR signaling to the NF-κB pathway, plays in the biology of MCL. Here we show that a subset of MCLs is addicted to MALT1, as its inhibition by either RNA or pharmacologic interference induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Gene expression profiling following MALT1 inhibition demonstrated that MALT1 controls an MYC-driven gene expression network predominantly through increasing MYC protein stability. Thus, our analyses identify a previously unappreciated regulatory mechanism of MYC expression. Investigating primary mouse splenocytes, we could demonstrate that MALT1-induced MYC regulation is not restricted to MCL, but represents a common mechanism. MYC itself is pivotal for MCL survival because its downregulation and pharmacologic inhibition induced cytotoxicity in all MCL models. Collectively, these results provide a strong mechanistic rationale to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of targeting the MALT1-MYC axis in MCL patients.

  5. Contrasting roles for c-Myc and L-Myc in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Morgenbesser, S D; Schreiber-Agus, N; Bidder, M; Mahon, K A; Overbeek, P A; Horner, J; DePinho, R A

    1995-01-01

    Although myc family genes are differentially expressed during development, their expression frequently overlaps, suggesting that they may serve both distinct and common biological functions. In addition, alterations in their expression occur at major developmental transitions in many cell lineages. For example, during mouse lens maturation, the growth arrest and differentiation of epithelial cells into lens fiber cells is associated with a decrease in L- and c-myc expression and a reciprocal rise in N-myc levels. To determine whether the down-regulation of L- and c-myc are required for mitotic arrest and/or completion of differentiation and whether these genes have distinct or similar activities in the same cell type, we have studied the consequences of forced L- and c-myc expression in the lens fiber cell compartment using the alpha A-crystallin promoter in transgenic mice (alpha A/L-myc and alpha A/c-myc mice). With respect to morphological and molecular differentiation, alpha A/L-myc lenses were characterized by a severely disorganized lens fiber cell compartment and a significant decrease in the expression of a late-stage differentiation marker (MIP26); in contrast, differentiation appeared to be unaffected in alpha A/c-myc mice. Furthermore, an analysis of proliferation indicated that while alpha A/L-myc fiber cells withdrew properly from the cell cycle, inappropriate cell cycle progression occurred in the lens fiber cell compartment of alpha A/c-myc mice. These observations indicate that continued late-stage expression of L-myc affected differentiation processes directly, rather than indirectly through deregulated growth control, whereas constitutive c-myc expression inhibited proliferative arrest, but did not appear to disturb differentiation. As a direct corollary, our data indicate that L-Myc and c-Myc are involved in distinct physiological processes in the same cell type. Images PMID:7882978

  6. c-MYC inhibition impairs hypoxia response in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Falchetti, Maria Laura; Illi, Barbara; Bozzo, Francesca; Valle, Cristiana; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Nasi, Sergio; Levi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The c-MYC oncoprotein is a DNA binding transcription factor that enhances the expression of many active genes. c-MYC transcriptional signatures vary according to the transcriptional program defined in each cell type during differentiation. Little is known on the involvement of c-MYC in regulation of gene expression programs that are induced by extracellular cues such as a changing microenvironment. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of c-MYC in glioblastoma multiforme cells blunts hypoxia-dependent glycolytic reprogramming and mitochondria fragmentation in hypoxia. This happens because c-MYC inhibition alters the cell transcriptional response to hypoxia and finely tunes the expression of a subset of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1-regulated genes. We also show that genes whose expression in hypoxia is affected by c-MYC inhibition are able to distinguish the Proneural subtype of glioblastoma multiforme, thus potentially providing a molecular signature for this class of tumors that are the least tractable among glioblastomas. PMID:27119353

  7. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 promotes tumor inflammatory angiogenesis through JNK activation and autocrine loop of interleukin-1α by human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuichi; Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Uba, Manami; Ureshino, Hiroki; Kawahara, Akihiko; Abe, Hideyuki; Izumi, Hiroto; Mukaida, Naofumi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2013-08-30

    The expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) was significantly correlated with tumor angiogenesis and malignant progression together with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. However, the underlying mechanism for the role of NDRG1 in the malignant progression of gastric cancer remains unknown. Here we examined whether and how NDRG1 could modulate tumor angiogenesis by human gastric cancer cells. We established NU/Cap12 and NU/Cap32 cells overexpressing NDRG1 in NUGC-3 cells, which show lower tumor angiogenesis in vivo. Compared with parental NU/Mock3, NU/Cap12, and NU/Cap32 cells: 1) induced higher tumor angiogenesis than NU/Mock3 cells accompanied by infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages in mouse dorsal air sac assay and Matrigel plug assay; 2) showed much higher expression of CXC chemokines, MMP-1, and the potent angiogenic factor VEGF-A; 3) increased the expression of the representative inflammatory cytokine, IL-1α; 4) augmented JNK phosphorylation and nuclear expression of activator protein 1 (AP-1). Further analysis demonstrated that knockdown of AP-1 (Jun and/or Fos) resulted in down-regulation of the expression of VEGF-A, CXC chemokines, and MMP-1, and also suppressed expression of IL-1α in NDRG1-overexpressing cell lines. Treatment with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) resulted in down-regulation of JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation, and the expression of VEGF-A, CXC chemokines, and MMP-1 in NU/Cap12 and NU/Cap32 cells. Finally, administration of IL-1ra suppressed both tumor angiogenesis and infiltration of macrophages by NU/Cap12 in vivo. Together, activation of JNK/AP-1 thus seems to promote tumor angiogenesis in relationship to NDRG1-induced inflammatory stimuli by gastric cancer cells.

  8. Polyamine-modulated c-Myc expression in normal intestinal epithelial cells regulates p21Cip1 transcription through a proximal promoter region

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lan; Guo, Xin; Rao, Jaladanki N.; Zou, Tongtong; Marasa, Bernard S.; Chen, Jie; Greenspon, Jose; Casero, Robert A.; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of intestinal mucosal epithelial integrity requires cellular polyamines that regulate expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation, growth arrest and apoptosis. Our previous studies have shown that polyamines are essential for expression of the c-myc gene and that polyamine-induced c-Myc plays a critical role in stimulation of normal IEC (intestinal epithelial cell) proliferation, but the exact downstream targets of induced c-Myc are still unclear. The p21Cip1 protein is a major player in cell cycle control, which is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level. The current study was designed to determine whether induced c-Myc stimulates normal IEC proliferation by repressing p21Cip1 transcription following up-regulation of polyamines. Overexpression of the ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) gene increased levels of cellular polyamines, induced c-Myc expression and inhibited p21Cip1 transcription, as indicated by repression of p21Cip1 promoter activity and a decrease in p21Cip1 protein levels. In contrast, depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ODC enzyme activity with α-difluoromethylornithine decreased c-Myc, but increased p21Cip1 transcription. Ectopic expression of wild-type c-myc not only inhibited basal levels of p21Cip1 transcription in control cells, but also prevented increased p21Cip1 in polyamine-deficient cells. Experiments using different p21Cip1 promoter mutants showed that transcriptional repression of p21Cip1 by c-Myc was mediated through Miz-1- and Sp1-binding sites within the proximal region of the p21Cip1 promoter in normal IECs. These findings confirm that p21Cip1 is one of the direct mediators of induced c-Myc following increased polyamines and that p21Cip1 repression by c-Myc is implicated in stimulation of normal IEC proliferation. PMID:16706751

  9. MINCR is a MYC-induced lncRNA able to modulate MYC's transcriptional network in Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Doose, Gero; Haake, Andrea; Bernhart, Stephan H; López, Cristina; Duggimpudi, Sujitha; Wojciech, Franziska; Bergmann, Anke K; Borkhardt, Arndt; Burkhardt, Birgit; Claviez, Alexander; Dimitrova, Lora; Haas, Siegfried; Hoell, Jessica I; Hummel, Michael; Karsch, Dennis; Klapper, Wolfram; Kleo, Karsten; Kretzmer, Helene; Kreuz, Markus; Küppers, Ralf; Lawerenz, Chris; Lenze, Dido; Loeffler, Markus; Mantovani-Löffler, Luisa; Möller, Peter; Ott, German; Richter, Julia; Rohde, Marius; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rosenwald, Andreas; Schilhabel, Markus; Schneider, Markus; Scholz, Ingrid; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Szczepanowski, Monika; Trümper, Lorenz; Weniger, Marc A; Hoffmann, Steve; Siebert, Reiner; Iaccarino, Ingram

    2015-09-22

    Despite the established role of the transcription factor MYC in cancer, little is known about the impact of a new class of transcriptional regulators, the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), on MYC ability to influence the cellular transcriptome. Here, we have intersected RNA-sequencing data from two MYC-inducible cell lines and a cohort of 91 B-cell lymphomas with or without genetic variants resulting in MYC overexpression. We identified 13 lncRNAs differentially expressed in IG-MYC-positive Burkitt lymphoma and regulated in the same direction by MYC in the model cell lines. Among them, we focused on a lncRNA that we named MYC-induced long noncoding RNA (MINCR), showing a strong correlation with MYC expression in MYC-positive lymphomas. To understand its cellular role, we performed RNAi and found that MINCR knockdown is associated with an impairment in cell cycle progression. Differential gene expression analysis after RNAi showed a significant enrichment of cell cycle genes among the genes down-regulated after MINCR knockdown. Interestingly, these genes are enriched in MYC binding sites in their promoters, suggesting that MINCR acts as a modulator of the MYC transcriptional program. Accordingly, MINCR knockdown was associated with a reduction in MYC binding to the promoters of selected cell cycle genes. Finally, we show that down-regulation of Aurora kinases A and B and chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 may explain the reduction in cellular proliferation observed on MINCR knockdown. We, therefore, suggest that MINCR is a newly identified player in the MYC transcriptional network able to control the expression of cell cycle genes.

  10. Wnt/Myc interactions in intestinal cancer: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Myant, Kevin; Sansom, Owen J

    2011-11-15

    Loss of the APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) gene in colorectal cancer leads to a rapid deregulation of TCF/LEF target genes. Of all these target genes, the transcription factor c-MYC appears the most critical. In this review we will discuss the interplay of Wnt and c-MYC signaling during intestinal homeostasis and transformation. Furthermore, we will discuss recent data showing that further deregulation of c-MYC levels during colorectal carcinogenesis may drive tumor progression. Moreover, understanding these additional control mechanisms may allow targeting of c-MYC during colorectal carcinogenesis.

  11. NM23-H2 may play an indirect role in transcriptional activation of c-myc gene expression but does not cleave the nuclease hypersensitive element III[subscript 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dexheimer, Thomas S.; Carey, Steven S.; Zuohe, Song; Gokhale, Vijay M.; Hu, Xiaohui; Murata, Lauren B.; Maes, Estelle M.; Weichsel, Andrzej; Sun, Daekyu; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Montfort, William R.; Hurley, Laurence H.

    2009-05-13

    The formation of G-quadruplex structures within the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III{sub 1} region of the c-myc promoter and the ability of these structures to repress c-myc transcription have been well established. However, just how these extremely stable DNA secondary structures are transformed to activate c-myc transcription is still unknown. NM23-H2/nucleoside diphosphate kinase B has been recognized as an activator of c-myc transcription via interactions with the NHE III{sub 1} region of the c-myc gene promoter. Through the use of RNA interference, we confirmed the transcriptional regulatory role of NM23-H2. In addition, we find that further purification of NM23-H2 results in loss of the previously identified DNA strand cleavage activity, but retention of its DNA binding activity. NM23-H2 binds to both single-stranded guanine- and cytosine-rich strands of the c-myc NHE III{sub 1} and, to a lesser extent, to a random single-stranded DNA template. However, it does not bind to or cleave the NHE III{sub 1} in duplex form. Significantly, potassium ions and compounds that stabilize the G-quadruplex and i-motif structures have an inhibitory effect on NM23-H2 DNA-binding activity. Mutation of Arg{sup 88} to Ala{sup 88} (R88A) reduced both DNA and nucleotide binding but had minimal effect on the NM23-H2 crystal structure. On the basis of these data and molecular modeling studies, we have proposed a stepwise trapping-out of the NHE III{sub 1} region in a single-stranded form, thus allowing single-stranded transcription factors to bind and activate c-myc transcription. Furthermore, this model provides a rationale for how the stabilization of the G-quadruplex or i-motif structures formed within the c-myc gene promoter region can inhibit NM23-H2 from activating c-myc gene expression.

  12. Stat3 accelerates Myc induced tumor formation while reducing growth rate in a mouse model of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jhan, Jing-Ru; Andrechek, Eran R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated Myc expression has been noted in basal breast cancer but therapies targeting Myc directly are lacking. It is therefore critical to characterize the interaction of Myc with other genes and pathways to uncover future potential therapeutic strategies. In this study, we bioinformatically predicted a role for Stat3 in Myc induced mammary tumors and tested it using mouse models. During normal mammary function, loss of Stat3 in Myc transgenic dams resulted in lethality of pups due to lactation deficiencies. We also observed that deletion of Stat3 in the mammary glands of MMTV-Myc mice unexpectedly resulted in increased and earlier hyperplasia and expedited tumorigenesis. However, despite arising earlier, Myc tumors lacking Stat3 grew more slowly with alterations in the resulting histological subtypes, including a dramatic increase in EMT-like tumors. We also observed that these tumors had impaired angiogenesis and a slight decrease in lung metastases. This metastatic finding is distinct from previously published findings in both MMTV-Neu and MMTV-PyMT mouse models. Together, the literature and our current research demonstrate that Stat3 can function as an oncogene or as a tumor repressor depending on the oncogenic driver and developmental context. PMID:27589562

  13. c-Myc-dependent transcriptional regulation of cell cycle and nucleosomal histones during oligodendrocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Laura; Gacias, Mar; Wu, Muzhou; Swiss, Victoria A; Janssen, William G; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) have the ability to divide or to arrest growth and differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes in the developing brain. Due to their high number and the persistence of their proliferative capacity in the adult brain, OPCs are being studied as potential targets for myelin repair and also as potential source of brain tumors. This study addresses the molecular mechanisms regulating the transcriptional changes occurring at the critical transition between proliferation and cell cycle exit in cultured OPCs. Using bioinformatic analysis of existing datasets, we identified c-Myc as a key transcriptional regulator of this transition and confirmed direct binding of this transcription factor to identified target genes using chromatin immunoprecipitation. The expression of c-Myc was elevated in proliferating OPCs, where it also bound to the promoter of genes involved in cell cycle regulation (i.e. Cdc2) or chromosome organization (i.e. H2afz). Silencing of c-Myc was associated with decreased histone acetylation at target gene promoters and consequent decrease of gene transcripts. c-Myc silencing induced also a global increase of repressive histone methylation and premature nuclear peripheral chromatin compaction and promoted the progression of OPCs towards differentiation. We conclude that c-Myc is an important modulator of the transition between proliferation and differentiation of OPCs, although its decrease is not sufficient to induce progression into a myelinating phenotype. PMID:24502923

  14. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation.

  15. Expression and activity of L-Myc in normal mouse development.

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, K S; Mahon, K; Chin, L; Chiu, F C; Lee, H W; Peng, D; Morgenbesser, S D; Horner, J; DePinho, R A

    1996-01-01

    To determine the role of L-Myc in normal mammalian development and its functional relationship to other members of the Myc family, we determined the normal patterns of L-myc gene expression in the developing mouse by RNA in situ hybridization and assessed the phenotypic impact of L-Myc deficiency produced through standard gene targeting methodology. L-myc transcripts were detected in the developing kidney and lung as well as in both the proliferative and the differentiative zones of the brain and neural tube. Despite significant expression of L-myc in developing mouse tissue, homozygous null L-myc mice were found to be viable, reproductively competent, and represented in expected frequencies from heterozygous matings. A detailed histological survey of embryonic and adult tissues, characterization of an embryonic neuronal marker, and measurement of cellular proliferation in situ did not reveal any congenital abnormalities. The lack of an apparent phenotype associated with L-Myc deficiency indicates that L-Myc is dispensable for gross morphological development and argues against a unique role for L-Myc in early central nervous system development as had been previously suggested. Although overlapping expression patterns among myc family members raise the possibility of complementation of L-Myc deficiency by other Myc oncoproteins, compensatory changes in the levels of c- and/or N-myc transcripts were not detected in homozygous null L-myc mice. PMID:8657155

  16. Antioxidant α-tocopherol checks lymphoma promotion via regulation of expression of protein kinase C-α and c-Myc genes and glycolytic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Renu; Vinayak, Manjula

    2012-06-01

    Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to environmental challenge or metabolic imbalance leads to oxidative stress, causing overactivation of a number of oncogenes that promote cancer development. Therefore, antioxidants should be able to check cancer growth by modulating oncogene activity. The requirement of high energy during unlimited cell proliferation is fulfilled by the switching of cancerous cells to a fast glycolytic pathway bypassing the oxygen dependent respiratory pathway. Almost all cancers exhibit a high expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) to ensure a high energy supply. The present study focused on modulating redox-sensitive oncogenes such as protein kinase C (PKC) and c-Myc by treatment of lymphoma bearing mice with the antioxidant α-tocopherol, the most active component of vitamin E. Further, the impact of α-tocopherol on LDH activity was tested. The results showed down-regulation of expression of stress-activated genes PKC-α, c-Myc and LDH-A by α-tocopherol in cancerous mice. α-Tocopherol contributes to the check of cell proliferation by decreasing the activity of LDH-A.

  17. Frequent co-amplification and co-operation between C-MYC and PVT1 oncogenes promote malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Erick; Suraokar, Milind B.; Rodriguez, Jaime; Mino, Barbara; Lin, Heather Y.; Rice, David C.; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease with poor prognosis and few treatment options. We characterized and elucidate the roles of C-MYC and PVT1 involved in the pathogenesis of MPM. Methods We used siRNA-mediated knockdown in MPM cell lines to determine the effect of C-MYC and PVT1 abrogation on MPM cells undergoing apoptosis, proliferation, and cisplatin sensitivity. We also characterized the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) spanning the PVT1 region in MPM cell lines. Copy number analysis was measured by quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Results Copy number analysis revealed copy number gains (CNGs) in chromosomal region 8q24 in six of twelve MPM cell lines. MicroRNA analysis showed high miR-1204 expression in MSTO-211H cell lines with ≥4 copies of PVT1. Knockdown by siRNA showed increased PARP-C levels in MSTO-211H transfected with siPVT1 but not in cells transfected with siC-MYC. C-MYC and PVT1 knockdown reduced cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Analysis of the expression of apoptosis-related genes in the MSTO-211H cell line suggested that C-MYC maintains a balance between pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic gene expression, whereas PVT1 and to a lesser extent miR-1204, upregulate pro-apoptotic genes and downregulate anti-apoptotic genes. FISH analysis of MPM tumor specimens showed a high frequency of both CNGs (11/75) and trisomy (three copies; 11/75) for the C-MYC locus. Conclusion Our results suggest that C-MYC and PVT1 copy number gain promotes a malignant phenotype of MPM, with C-MYC CNG stimulating cell proliferation and PVT1 both stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:24926545

  18. MYC, FBXW7 and TP53 copy number variation and expression in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MYC deregulation is a common event in gastric carcinogenesis, usually as a consequence of gene amplification, chromosomal translocations, or posttranslational mechanisms. FBXW7 is a p53-controlled tumor-suppressor that plays a role in the regulation of cell cycle exit and reentry via MYC degradation. Methods We evaluated MYC, FBXW7, and TP53 copy number, mRNA levels, and protein expression in gastric cancer and paired non-neoplastic specimens from 33 patients and also in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. We also determined the invasion potential of the gastric cancer cell lines. Results MYC amplification was observed in 51.5% of gastric tumor samples. Deletion of one copy of FBXW7 and TP53 was observed in 45.5% and 21.2% of gastric tumors, respectively. MYC mRNA expression was significantly higher in tumors than in non-neoplastic samples. FBXW7 and TP53 mRNA expression was markedly lower in tumors than in paired non-neoplastic specimens. Moreover, deregulated MYC and FBXW7 mRNA expression was associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis and tumor stage III-IV. Additionally, MYC immunostaining was more frequently observed in intestinal-type than diffuse-type gastric cancers and was associated with MYC mRNA expression. In vitro studies showed that increased MYC and reduced FBXW7 expression is associated with a more invasive phenotype in gastric cancer cell lines. This result encouraged us to investigate the activity of the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 in both cell lines. Both gelatinases are synthesized predominantly by stromal cells rather than cancer cells, and it has been proposed that both contribute to cancer progression. We observed a significant increase in MMP-9 activity in ACP02 compared with ACP03 cells. These results confirmed that ACP02 cells have greater invasion capability than ACP03 cells. Conclusion In conclusion, FBXW7 and MYC mRNA may play a role in aggressive biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells and may be a useful

  19. c-myc and N-myc promote active stem cell metabolism and cycling as architects of the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Wey, Alice; Knoepfler, Paul S

    2010-06-01

    myc genes are associated with a wide variety of human cancers including most types of nervous system tumors. While the mechanisms by which myc overexpression causes tumorigenesis are multifaceted and have yet to be clearly elucidated, they are at least in part related to endogenous myc function in normal cells. Knockout (KO) of either c-myc or N-myc genes in neural stem and precursor cells (NSC) driven by nestin-cre impairs mouse brain growth and mutation of N-myc also causes microcephaly in humans in Feingold Syndrome. To further define myc function in NSC and nervous system development, we created a double KO (DKO) for c- and N-myc using nestin-cre. The DKO mice display profoundly impaired overall brain growth associated with decreased cell cycling and migration of NSC, which are strikingly decreased in number. The DKO brain also exhibits specific changes in gene expression including downregulation of genes involved in protein and nucleotide metabolism, mitosis, and chromatin structure as well as upregulation of genes associated with differentiation. Together these data support a model of nervous system tumorigenesis in which excess myc aberrantly locks in a developmentally active chromatin state characterized by overactive cell cycling, and metabolism as well as blocked differentiation.

  20. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation as a therapy for MYC-overexpressing triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camarda, Roman; Zhou, Zhou; Kohnz, Rebecca A.; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Mahieu, Celine; Anderton, Brittany; Eyob, Henok; Kajimura, Shingo; Tward, Aaron; Krings, Gregor; Nomura, Daniel K.; Goga, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the oncogenic transcription factor MYC is disproportionately elevated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) compared to estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor 2 receptor-positive (RP) breast tumors1,2. We and others have shown that MYC alters metabolism during tumorigenesis3,4. However, the role of MYC in TNBC metabolism remains largely unexplored. We hypothesized that MYC-dependent metabolic dysregulation is essential for MYC-overexpressing (MO) TNBC and may thus identify novel therapeutic targets for this clinically challenging subset of breast cancer. Using a targeted metabolomics approach, we identified fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates as being dramatically upregulated in a MYC-driven model of TNBC. A lipid metabolism gene signature was identified in patients with TNBC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and multiple other clinical datasets, implicating FAO as a dysregulated pathway critical for TNBC metabolism. We find that MO-TNBC displays increased bioenergetic reliance upon fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and that pharmacologic inhibition of FAO catastrophically decreases energy metabolism of MO-TNBC, blocks growth of a MYC-driven transgenic TNBC model and that of MO-TNBC patient-derived xenografts. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of FAO is a novel therapeutic strategy against MO-TNBC. PMID:26950360

  1. A deletion in the N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) gene in Greyhounds with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Drögemüller, Cord; Becker, Doreen; Kessler, Barbara; Kemter, Elisabeth; Tetens, Jens; Jurina, Konrad; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Flagstad, Annette; Perloski, Michele; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2010-06-22

    The polyneuropathy of juvenile Greyhound show dogs shows clinical similarities to the genetically heterogeneous Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease in humans. The pedigrees containing affected dogs suggest monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance and all affected dogs trace back to a single male. Here, we studied the neuropathology of this disease and identified a candidate causative mutation. Peripheral nerve biopsies from affected dogs were examined using semi-thin histology, nerve fibre teasing and electron microscopy. A severe chronic progressive mixed polyneuropathy was observed. Seven affected and 17 related control dogs were genotyped on the 50k canine SNP chip. This allowed us to localize the causative mutation to a 19.5 Mb interval on chromosome 13 by homozygosity mapping. The NDRG1 gene is located within this interval and NDRG1 mutations have been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom in humans (CMT4D). Therefore, we considered NDRG1 a positional and functional candidate gene and performed mutation analysis in affected and control Greyhounds. A 10 bp deletion in canine NDRG1 exon 15 (c.1080_1089delTCGCCTGGAC) was perfectly associated with the polyneuropathy phenotype of Greyhound show dogs. The deletion causes a frame shift (p.Arg361SerfsX60) which alters several amino acids before a stop codon is encountered. A reduced level of NDRG1 transcript could be detected by RT-PCR. Western blot analysis demonstrated an absence of NDRG1 protein in peripheral nerve biopsy of an affected Greyhound. We thus have identified a candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy in Greyhounds and identified the first genetically characterized canine CMT model which offers an opportunity to gain further insights into the pathobiology and therapy of human NDRG1 associated CMT disease. Selection against this mutation can now be used to eliminate polyneuropathy from Greyhound show dogs.

  2. Therapeutic Strategies to Inhibit MYC

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Michael R.; Bradner, James E.

    2014-01-01

    MYC is a master regulator of stem cell state, embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and aging. As in health, in disease MYC figures prominently. Decades of biological research have identified a central role for MYC in the pathophysiology of cancer, inflammation, and heart disease. The centrality of MYC to such a vast breadth of disease biology has attracted significant attention to the historic challenge of developing inhibitors of MYC. This review will discuss therapeutic strategies toward the development of inhibitors of MYC-dependent transcriptional signaling, efforts to modulate MYC stability, and the elusive goal of developing potent, direct-acting inhibitors of MYC. PMID:25274755

  3. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy; Portman, Michael A.; Olson, Aaron K.; Bertrand, Luc

    2015-08-12

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.

  4. c-Myc alters substrate utilization and O-GlcNAc protein posttranslational modifications without altering cardiac function during early aortic constriction

    DOE PAGES

    Ledee, Dolena; Smith, Lincoln; Bruce, Margaret; ...

    2015-08-12

    Pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy alters substrate metabolism. Prior work showed that myocardial inactivation of c-Myc (Myc) attenuated hypertrophy and decreased expression of metabolic genes after aortic constriction. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Myc regulates substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during pressure overload hypertrophy from transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and that these metabolic changes impact cardiac function and growth. To test this hypothesis, we subjected mice with cardiac specific, inducible Myc inactivation (MycKO-TAC) and non-transgenic littermates (Cont-TAC) to transverse aortic constriction (TAC; n=7/group). A separate group underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=5). After two weeks, function was measured in isolated workingmore » hearts along with substrate fractional contributions to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate with 13C labeled mixed fatty acids, lactate, ketone bodies and unlabeled glucose and insulin. Cardiac function was similar between groups after TAC although +dP/dT and -dP/dT trended towards improvement in MycKO-TAC versus Cont-TAC. Compared to Sham, Cont-TAC had increased free fatty acid fractional contribution with a concurrent decrease in unlabeled (predominately glucose) contribution. The changes in free fatty acid and unlabeled fractional contributions were abrogated by Myc inactivation during TAC (MycKO-TAC). Additionally, protein posttranslational modification by O-GlcNAc was significantly greater in Cont-TAC versus both Sham and MycKO-TAC. Lastly, Myc alters substrate preferences for the citric acid cycle during early pressure overload hypertrophy without negatively affecting cardiac function. Myc also affects protein posttranslational modifications by O-GlcNAc during hypertrophy.« less

  5. Role of MYC in B Cell Lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Korać, Petra; Dotlić, Snježana; Matulić, Maja; Zajc Petranović, Matea; Dominis, Mara

    2017-04-04

    B cell lymphomas mainly arise from different developmental stages of B cells in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid tissue. There are a number of signaling pathways that affect the initiation and development of B cell lymphomagenesis. The functions of several key proteins that represent branching points of signaling networks are changed because of their aberrant expression, degradation, and/or accumulation, and those events determine the fate of the affected B cells. One of the most influential transcription factors, commonly associated with unfavorable prognosis for patients with B cell lymphoma, is nuclear phosphoprotein MYC. During B cell lymphomagenesis, oncogenic MYC variant is deregulated through various mechanisms, such as gene translocation, gene amplification, and epigenetic deregulation of its expression. Owing to alterations of downstream signaling cascades, MYC-overexpressing neoplastic B cells proliferate rapidly, avoid apoptosis, and become unresponsive to most conventional treatments. This review will summarize the roles of MYC in B cell development and oncogenesis, as well as its significance for current B cell lymphoma classification. We compared communication networks within transformed B cells in different lymphomas affected by overexpressed MYC and conducted a meta-analysis concerning the association of MYC with tumor prognosis in different patient populations.

  6. Therapeutic Approaches Targeting MYC-Driven Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Richard J.; Pearson, Richard B.; Hannan, Ross D.; Furic, Luc

    2017-01-01

    The transcript encoding the proto-oncogene MYC is commonly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PC). MYC protein abundance is also increased in the majority of cases of advanced and metastatic castrate-resistant PC (mCRPC). Accordingly, the MYC-directed transcriptional program directly contributes to PC by upregulating the expression of a number of pro-tumorigenic factors involved in cell growth and proliferation. A key cellular process downstream of MYC activity is the regulation of ribosome biogenesis which sustains tumor growth. MYC activity also cooperates with the dysregulation of the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway to promote PC cell survival. Recent advances in the understanding of these interactions through the use of animal models have provided significant insight into the therapeutic efficacy of targeting MYC activity by interfering with its transcriptional program, and indirectly by targeting downstream cellular events linked to MYC transformation potential. PMID:28212321

  7. Recombinant interleukin 2 regulates levels of c-myc mRNA in a cloned murine T lymphocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, J C; Sabath, D E; Hoover, R G; Prystowsky, M B

    1985-01-01

    The cellular oncogene c-myc has been implicated in the regulation of growth of normal and neoplastic cells. Recently, it was suggested that c-myc gene expression may control the G0----G1-phase transition in normal lymphocytes that were stimulated to enter the cell cycle by the lectin concanavalin A (ConA). Here we describe the effects of purified recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL2) and of ConA on levels of c-myc mRNA in the noncytolytic murine T-cell clone L2. In contrast to resting (G0) primary cultures of lymphocytes, quiescent L2 cells have a higher RNA content than resting splenocytes and express receptors for interleukin 2 (IL2). Resting L2 cells are therefore best regarded as early G1-phase cells. Purified rIL2 was found to stimulate the rapid accumulation of c-myc mRNA in L2 cells. Levels of c-myc mRNA became maximal within 1 h and declined gradually thereafter. In contrast, ConA induced slower accumulation of c-myc mRNA in L2 cells, with increased levels of c-myc mRNA becoming detectable 4 to 8 h after stimulation. Experiments with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide demonstrated that the increase in levels of c-myc mRNA that were induced by ConA was a direct effect of this lectin and not secondary to IL2 production. Cyclosporin A, an immunosuppressive agent, markedly reduced the accumulation of c-myc mRNA that was induced by ConA but only slightly diminished the accumulation of c-myc mRNA that was induced by rIL2. Taken together, these data provide evidence that (i) c-myc gene expression can be regulated by at least two distinct pathways in T lymphocytes, only one of which is sensitive to cyclosporine A, and (ii) the accumulation of c-myc mRNA can be induced in T cells by IL2 during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Images PMID:3879814

  8. The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), inhibits stress-induced autophagy in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Sumit; Bae, Dong-Hun; Lane, Darius J R; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2014-04-04

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor with an undefined role in the stress response. Autophagy is a pro-survival pathway and can be regulated via the protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eIF2α-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Hence, we investigated the role of NDRG1 in stress-induced autophagy as a mechanism of inhibiting metastasis via the induction of apoptosis. As thiosemicarbazone chelators induce stress and up-regulate NDRG1 to inhibit metastasis, we studied their effects on the ER stress response and autophagy. This was important to assess, as little is understood regarding the role of the stress induced by iron depletion and its role in autophagy. We observed that the chelator, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), which forms redox-active iron and copper complexes, effectively induced ER stress as shown by activation of the PERK/eIF2α pathway. Dp44mT also increased the expression of the autophagic marker, LC3-II, and this was dependent on activation of the PERK/eIF2α axis, as silencing PERK prevented LC3-II accumulation. The effect of Dp44mT on LC3-II expression was at least partially due to iron-depletion, as this effect was also demonstrated with the classical iron chelator, desferrioxamine (DFO), and was not observed for the DFO-iron complex. NDRG1 overexpression also inhibited basal autophagic initiation and the ER stress-mediated autophagic pathway via suppression of the PERK/eIF2α axis. Moreover, NDRG1-mediated suppression of the pro-survival autophagic pathway probably plays a role in its anti-metastatic effects by inducing apoptosis. In fact, multiple pro-apoptotic markers were increased, whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was decreased upon NDRG1 overexpression. This study demonstrates the role of NDRG1 as an autophagic inhibitor that is important for understanding its mechanism of action.

  9. MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates high-risk gene expression signatures: a report from The International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexander; Green, Tina; Wu, Lin; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi; Liu, Wei-min; Visco, Carlo; Li, Yong; Miranda, Roberto N; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L; Hsi, Eric D; Choi, William W L; Zhao, Xiaoying; van Krieken, J Han; Huang, Qin; Huh, Jooryung; Ai, Weiyun; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Zhou, Fan; Slack, Graham W; Gascoyne, Randy D; Tu, Meifeng; Variakojis, Daina; Chen, Weina; Go, Ronald S; Piris, Miguel A; Møller, Michael B; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Young, Ken H

    2013-05-16

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and unfavorable activated B-cell (ABC)-like subtypes based on gene expression signatures. In this study, we analyzed 893 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone). We show that MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression occurred significantly more commonly in the ABC subtype. Patients with the ABC or GCB subtype of DLBCL had similar prognoses with MYC/BCL2 coexpression and without MYC/BCL2 coexpression. Consistent with the notion that the prognostic difference between the 2 subtypes is attributable to MYC/BCL2 coexpression, there is no difference in gene expression signatures between the 2 subtypes in the absence of MYC/BCL2 coexpression. DLBCL with MYC/BCL2 coexpression demonstrated a signature of marked downregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, those involving matrix deposition/remodeling and cell adhesion, and upregulation of proliferation-associated genes. We conclude that MYC/BCL2 coexpression in DLBCL is associated with an aggressive clinical course, is more common in the ABC subtype, and contributes to the overall inferior prognosis of patients with ABC-DLBCL. In conclusion, the data suggest that MYC/BCL2 coexpression, rather than cell-of-origin classification, is a better predictor of prognosis in patients with DLBCL treated with R-CHOP.

  10. Cooperation of Gata3, c-Myc and Notch in malignant transformation of double positive thymocytes.

    PubMed

    van Hamburg, Jan Piet; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Dingjan, Gemma M; Beverloo, H Berna; Diepstraten, Hans; Ling, Kam-Wing; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2008-06-01

    Gata transcription factors are critical regulators of proliferation and differentiation implicated in various human cancers, but specific genes activated by Gata proteins remain to be identified. We previously reported that enforced expression of Gata3 during T cell development in CD2-Gata3 transgenic mice induced CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive (DP) T cell lymphoma. Here, we show that the presence of the DO11.10 T-cell receptor transgene, which directs DP cells towards the CD4 lineage, resulted in enhanced lymphoma development and a dramatic increase in thymocyte cell size in CD2-Gata3 transgenic mice. CD2-Gata3 DP cells expressed high levels of the proto-oncogene c-Myc but the Notch1 signaling pathway, which is known to induce c-Myc, was not activated. Gene expression profiling showed that in CD2-Gata3 lymphoma cells transcription of c-Myc and its target genes was further increased. A substantial fraction of CD2-Gata3 lymphomas had trisomy of chromosome 15, leading to an increased c-Myc gene dose. Interestingly, most lymphomas showed high expression of the Notch targets Deltex1 and Hes1, often due to activating Notch1 PEST domain mutations. Therefore, we conclude that enforced Gata3 expression converts DP thymocytes into a pre-malignant state, characterized by high c-Myc expression, whereby subsequent induction of Notch1 signaling cooperates to establish malignant transformation. The finding that Gata3 regulates c-Myc expression levels, in a direct or indirect fashion, may explain the parallel phenotypes of mice with overexpression or deficiency of either of the two transcription factors.

  11. The c-MYC Protooncogene Expression in Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Palkó, Enikő; Póliska, Szilárd; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Katona, Gábor; Karosi, Tamás; Penyige, András; Sziklai, István

    2014-01-01

    Cholesteatoma is an epidermoid cyst, which is most frequently found in the middle ear. The matrix of cholesteatoma is histologically similar to the matrix of the epidermoid cyst of the skin (atheroma); their epithelium is characterized by hyperproliferation. The c-MYC protooncogene located on chromosome 8q24 encodes a transcription factor involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have found aneuploidy of chromosome 8, copy number variation of c-MYC gene, and the presence of elevated level c-MYC protein in cholesteatoma. In this study we have compared the expression of c-MYC gene in samples taken from the matrix of 26 acquired cholesteatomas (15 children and 11 adults), 15 epidermoid cysts of the skin (atheromas; head and neck region) and 5 normal skin samples (retroauricular region) using RT-qPCR, providing the first precise measurement of the expression of c-MYC gene in cholesteatoma. We have found significantly elevated c-MYC gene expression in cholesteatoma compared to atheroma and to normal skin samples. There was no significant difference, however, in c-MYC gene expression between cholesteatoma samples of children and adults. The significant difference in c-MYC gene expression level in cholesteatoma compared to that of atheroma implies a more prominent hyperproliferative phenotype which may explain the clinical behavior typical of cholesteatoma. PMID:24683550

  12. Deep Sequencing of MYC DNA-Binding Sites in Burkitt Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Volkhard; Butzhammer, Peter; Hirsch, Burkhard; Hecht, Jochen; Gütgemann, Ines; Ehlers, Anke; Lenze, Dido; Oker, Elisabeth; Sommerfeld, Anke; von der Wall, Edda; König, Christoph; Zinser, Christian; Spang, Rainer; Hummel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far. Methodology/Principal Findings ChIP-Seq was performed on 5 BL cell lines with a MYC-specific antibody giving rise to 7,054 MYC-binding sites after bioinformatics analysis of a total of approx. 19 million sequence reads. In line with previous findings, binding sites accumulate in gene sets known to be involved in the cell cycle, ribosomal biogenesis, histone acetyltransferase and methyltransferase complexes demonstrating a regulatory role of MYC in these processes. Unexpectedly, MYC-binding sites also accumulate in many B-cell relevant genes. To assess the functional consequences of MYC binding, the ChIP-Seq data were supplemented with siRNA- mediated knock-downs of MYC in BL cell lines followed by gene expression profiling. Interestingly, amongst others, genes involved in the B-cell function were up-regulated in response to MYC silencing. Conclusion/Significance The 7,054 MYC-binding sites identified by our ChIP-Seq approach greatly extend the knowledge regarding MYC binding in BL and shed further light on the enormous complexity of the MYC regulatory network. Especially our observations that (i) many B-cell relevant genes are targeted by MYC and (ii) that MYC down-regulation leads to an up-regulation of B-cell genes highlight an interesting aspect of BL biology. PMID:22102868

  13. Mouse Genetics Suggests Cell-Context Dependency for Myc-Regulated Metabolic Enzymes during Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Lisa M.; Kreutzer, Christiane; Pretsch, Walter; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Nilsson, Jonas A.

    2012-01-01

    c-Myc (hereafter called Myc) belongs to a family of transcription factors that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Myc initiates the transcription of a large cast of genes involved in cell growth by stimulating metabolism and protein synthesis. Some of these, like those involved in glycolysis, may be part of the Warburg effect, which is defined as increased glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of adequate oxygen supply. In this study, we have taken a mouse-genetics approach to challenge the role of select Myc-regulated metabolic enzymes in tumorigenesis in vivo. By breeding λ-Myc transgenic mice, Apc Min mice, and p53 knockout mice with mouse models carrying inactivating alleles of Lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha), 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (Shmt1), we obtained offspring that were monitored for tumor development. Very surprisingly, we found that these genes are dispensable for tumorigenesis in these genetic settings. However, experiments in fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells expressing oncogenic Ras show that these cells are sensitive to Ldha knockdown. Our genetic models reveal cell context dependency and a remarkable ability of tumor cells to adapt to alterations in critical metabolic pathways. Thus, to achieve clinical success, it will be of importance to correctly stratify patients and to find synthetic lethal combinations of inhibitors targeting metabolic enzymes. PMID:22438825

  14. The relationship between expressions of N-myc and c-myc oncogenes in neuroblastoma: an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhe, X; Chen, J; Liu, T; Zhang, L; Li, P; Wang, D

    1999-06-01

    N-myc gene amplification is the most characteristic feature of neuroblastoma. c-myc oncogene, another member of myc gene family, plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Both of them may contribute to tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma. In this study we use the in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods to test the frequencies of N-myc and c-myc expressions in 20 cases of human neuroblastoma at mRNA and protein levels. The positive rates of the expression of N-myc are 90% and 100% detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods respectively. The positive rates of c-myc are 80% and 85% respectively. Sixty percent of the 20 specimens tested by in situ hybridization and 55% by immunocytochemistry show an inverse relationship between the expressions of these two oncogenes and this may indicate that there are different gene expression controlling mechanisms in different cases.

  15. RB loss contributes to aggressive tumor phenotypes in MYC-driven triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Erik S; McClendon, A Kathleen; Franco, Jorge; Ertel, Adam; Fortina, Paolo; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by multiple genetic events occurring in concert to drive pathogenic features of the disease. Here we interrogated the coordinate impact of p53, RB, and MYC in a genetic model of TNBC, in parallel with the analysis of clinical specimens. Primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMEC) with defined genetic features were used to delineate the combined action of RB and/or p53 in the genesis of TNBC. In this context, the deletion of either RB or p53 alone and in combination increased the proliferation of mMEC; however, the cells did not have the capacity to invade in matrigel. Gene expression profiling revealed that loss of each tumor suppressor has effects related to proliferation, but RB loss in particular leads to alterations in gene expression associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The overexpression of MYC in combination with p53 loss or combined RB/p53 loss drove rapid cell growth. While the effects of MYC overexpression had a dominant impact on gene expression, loss of RB further enhanced the deregulation of a gene expression signature associated with invasion. Specific RB loss lead to enhanced invasion in boyden chambers assays and gave rise to tumors with minimal epithelial characteristics relative to RB-proficient models. Therapeutic screening revealed that RB-deficient cells were particularly resistant to agents targeting PI3K and MEK pathway. Consistent with the aggressive behavior of the preclinical models of MYC overexpression and RB loss, human TNBC tumors that express high levels of MYC and are devoid of RB have a particularly poor outcome. Together these results underscore the potency of tumor suppressor pathways in specifying the biology of breast cancer. Further, they demonstrate that MYC overexpression in concert with RB can promote a particularly aggressive form of TNBC.

  16. Evaluation of Molecular Inhibitors of the c-Myc Oncoprotein

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    cell lung cancer cells transfected with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene containing Myc-Max response elements. Cancer Res 1996; 56:354–8. 12...I, Perkins RS, Bennett R, Feidler KL, Dunn SP, Krueger LJ. c-Myc inhibition negatively impacts lymphoma growth. J Pediatr Surg 2006;41:207–11. 17. Mo

  17. Cooperation of c-raf-1 and c-myc protooncogenes in the neoplastic transformation of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Mark, G E; Malan-Shibley, L; Graziano, S; Amstad, P; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    Overexpression of c-raf-1 and the myc family of protooncogenes is primarily associated with small cell carcinoma, which accounts for approximately 25% of human lung cancer. To determine the functional significance of the c-raf-1 and/or c-myc gene expression in lung carcinogenesis and to delineate the relationship between protooncogene expression and tumor phenotype, we introduced both protooncogenes, alone or in combination, into human bronchial epithelial cells. Two retroviral recombinants, pZip-raf and pZip-myc, containing the complete coding sequences of the human c-raf-1 and murine c-myc genes, respectively, were constructed and transfected into simian virus 40 large tumor antigen-immortalized bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B); this was followed by selection for G418 resistance. BEAS-2B cells expressing both the transfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences formed large cell carcinomas in athymic nude mice with a latency of 4-21 weeks, whereas either pZip-raf- or pZip-myc-transfected cells were nontumorigenic after 12 months. Cell lines established from tumors (designated RMT) revealed the presence of the cotransfected c-raf-1 and c-myc sequences and expressed morphological, chromosomal, and isoenzyme markers, which identified BEAS-2B cells as the progenitor line of the tumors. A significant increase in the mRNA levels of neuron-specific enolase was detected in BEAS-2B cells containing both the c-raf-1 and c-myc genes and derived tumor cell lines. The data demonstrate that the concomitant expression of the c-raf and c-myc protooncogenes causes neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells resulting in large cell carcinomas with certain neuroendocrine markers. The presented model system should be useful in studies of molecular events involved in multistage lung carcinogenesis. Images PMID:2557616

  18. Myc-dependent genome instability and lifespan in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Greer, Christina; Lee, Moonsook; Westerhof, Maaike; Milholland, Brandon; Spokony, Rebecca; Vijg, Jan; Secombe, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The Myc family of transcription factors are key regulators of cell growth and proliferation that are dysregulated in a large number of human cancers. When overexpressed, Myc family proteins also cause genomic instability, a hallmark of both transformed and aging cells. Using an in vivo lacZ mutation reporter, we show that overexpression of Myc in Drosophila increases the frequency of large genome rearrangements associated with erroneous repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). In addition, we find that overexpression of Myc shortens adult lifespan and, conversely, that Myc haploinsufficiency reduces mutation load and extends lifespan. Our data provide the first evidence that Myc may act as a pro-aging factor, possibly through its ability to greatly increase genome instability.

  19. High Temperature Induces Expression of Tobacco Transcription Factor NtMYC2a to Regulate Nicotine and JA Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liming; Li, Junying; Ji, Jianhui; Li, Ping; Yu, Liangliang; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Luo, Yuming; Hu, Liwei; Hu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress elevates the level of jasmonic acid (JA) and activates the biosynthesis of nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) by up-regulating the expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase 1 (NtPMT1), which encodes a putrescine N-methyl transferase that catalyzes nicotine formation. The JA signal suppressor JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN 1 (NtJAZ1) and its target protein, NtMYC2a, also regulate nicotine biosynthesis; however, how these proteins interact to regulate abiotic-induced nicotine biosynthesis is poorly understood. In this study, we found that high-temperature (HT) treatment activated transcription of NtMYC2a, which subsequently stimulated the transcription of genes associated with JA biosynthesis, including Lipoxygenase (LOX), Allene oxide synthase (AOS), Allene oxide cyclase (AOC), and 12-oxophytodienodate reductase (OPR). Overexpression of NtMYC2a increased nicotine biosynthesis by enhancing its binding to the promoter of NtPMT1. Overexpression of either NtJAZ1 or proteasome-resistant NtJAZ1ΔC suppressed nicotine production under normal conditions, but overexpression only of the former resulted in low levels of nicotine under HT treatment. These data suggest that HT induces NtMYC2a accumulation through increased transcription to activate nicotine synthesis; meanwhile, HT-induced NtMYC2a can activate JA synthesis to promote additional NtMYC2a activity by degrading NtJAZ1 at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:27833561

  20. Targeting MYC Dependence by Metabolic Inhibitors in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Himalee S; Somasagara, Ranganatha R; Bunting, Kevin D

    2017-03-31

    Abstract:MYC is a critical growth regulatory gene that is commonly overexpressed in a wide range of cancers. Therapeutic targeting of MYC transcriptional activity has long been a goal, but it has been difficult to achieve with drugs that directly block its DNA-binding ability. Additional approaches that exploit oncogene addiction are promising strategies against MYC-driven cancers. Also, drugs that target metabolic regulatory pathways and enzymes have potential for indirectly reducing MYC levels. Glucose metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation, which can be targeted by multiple agents, promote cell growth and MYC expression. Likewise, modulation of the signaling pathways and protein synthesis regulated by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) can also be an effective route for suppressing MYC translation. Furthermore, recent data suggest that metabolism of nucleotides, fatty acids and glutamine are exploited to alter MYC levels. Combination therapies offer potential new approaches to overcome metabolic plasticity caused by single agents. Although potential toxicities must be carefully controlled, new inhibitors currently being tested in clinical trials offer significant promise. Therefore, as both a downstream target of metabolism and an upstream regulator, MYC is a prominent central regulator of cancer metabolism. Exploiting metabolic vulnerabilities of MYC-driven cancers is an emerging research area with translational potential.

  1. c-Myc and Her2 cooperate to drive a stem-like phenotype with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nair, R; Roden, D L; Teo, W S; McFarland, A; Junankar, S; Ye, S; Nguyen, A; Yang, J; Nikolic, I; Hui, M; Morey, A; Shah, J; Pfefferle, A D; Usary, J; Selinger, C; Baker, L A; Armstrong, N; Cowley, M J; Naylor, M J; Ormandy, C J; Lakhani, S R; Herschkowitz, J I; Perou, C M; Kaplan, W; O'Toole, S A; Swarbrick, A

    2014-07-24

    The HER2 (ERBB2) and MYC genes are commonly amplified in breast cancer, yet little is known about their molecular and clinical interaction. Using a novel chimeric mammary transgenic approach and in vitro models, we demonstrate markedly increased self-renewal and tumour-propagating capability of cells transformed with Her2 and c-Myc. Coexpression of both oncoproteins in cultured cells led to the activation of a c-Myc transcriptional signature and acquisition of a self-renewing phenotype independent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme or regulation of conventional cancer stem cell markers. Instead, Her2 and c-Myc cooperated to induce the expression of lipoprotein lipase, which was required for proliferation and self-renewal in vitro. HER2 and MYC were frequently coamplified in breast cancer, associated with aggressive clinical behaviour and poor outcome. Lastly, we show that in HER2(+) breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy (but not targeted anti-Her2 therapy), MYC amplification is associated with a poor outcome. These findings demonstrate the importance of molecular and cellular context in oncogenic transformation and acquisition of a malignant stem-like phenotype and have diagnostic and therapeutic consequences for the clinical management of HER2(+) breast cancer.

  2. MYC-IG rearrangements are negative predictors of survival in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy: a GELA/LYSA study.

    PubMed

    Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Cuillière-Dartigues, Peggy; Baia, Maryse; Briere, Josette; Delarue, Richard; Canioni, Danielle; Salles, Gilles; Parrens, Marie; Belhadj, Karim; Fabiani, Bettina; Recher, Christian; Petrella, Tony; Ketterer, Nicolas; Peyrade, Frederic; Haioun, Corinne; Nagel, Inga; Siebert, Reiner; Jardin, Fabrice; Leroy, Karen; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Tilly, Herve; Molina, Thierry Jo; Gaulard, Philippe

    2015-11-26

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MYC rearrangement (MYC-R) carries an unfavorable outcome. We explored the prognostic value of the MYC translocation partner gene in a series of MYC-R de novo DLBCL patients enrolled in first-line prospective clinical trials (Groupe d'Etudes des Lymphomes de l'Adulte/Lymphoma Study Association) and treated with rituximab-anthracycline-based chemotherapy. A total of 774 DLBCL cases characterized for cell of origin by the Hans classifier were analyzed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with BCL2, BCL6, MYC, immunoglobulin (IG)K, and IGL break-apart and IGH/MYC, IGK/MYC, and IGL/MYC fusion probes. MYC-R was observed in 51/574 (8.9%) evaluable DLBCL cases. MYC-R cases were predominantly of the germinal center B-cell-like subtype 37/51 (74%) with no distinctive morphologic and phenotypic features. Nineteen cases were MYC single-hit and 32 cases were MYC double-hit (MYC plus BCL2 and/or BCL6) DLBCL. MYC translocation partner was an IG gene in 24 cases (MYC-IG) and a non-IG gene (MYC-non-IG) in 26 of 50 evaluable cases. Noteworthy, MYC-IG patients had shorter overall survival (OS) (P = .0002) compared with MYC-negative patients, whereas no survival difference was observed between MYC-non-IG and MYC-negative patients. In multivariate analyses, MYC-IG predicted poor progression-free survival (P = .0051) and OS (P = .0006) independently from the International Prognostic Index and the Hans classifier. In conclusion, we show in this prospective randomized trial that the adverse prognostic impact of MYC-R is correlated to the MYC-IG translocation partner gene in DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy. These results may have an important impact on the clinical management of DLBCL patients with MYC-R who should be routinely characterized according to MYC partner gene. These trials are individually registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00144807, #NCT01087424, #NCT00169143, #NCT00144755, #NCT00140660, #NCT00140595, and

  3. Strategically targeting MYC in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Posternak, Valeriya; Cole, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    MYC is a major driver of cancer cell growth and mediates a transcriptional program spanning cell growth, the cell cycle, metabolism, and cell survival. Many efforts have been made to deliberately target MYC for cancer therapy. A variety of compounds have been generated to inhibit MYC function or stability, either directly or indirectly. The most direct inhibitors target the interaction between MYC and MAX, which is required for DNA binding. Unfortunately, these compounds do not have the desired pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics for in vivo application. Recent studies report the indirect inhibition of MYC through the development of two compounds, JQ1 and THZ1, which target factors involved in unique stages of transcription. These compounds appear to have significant therapeutic value for cancers with high levels of MYC, although some effects are MYC-independent. These approaches serve as a foundation for developing novel compounds to pharmacologically target MYC-driven cancers. PMID:27081479

  4. Molecular cloning of MSSP-2, a c-myc gene single-strand binding protein: characterization of binding specificity and DNA replication activity.

    PubMed Central

    Takai, T; Nishita, Y; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously reported the human cDNA encoding MSSP-1, a sequence-specific double- and single-stranded DNA binding protein [Negishi, Nishita, Saëgusa, Kakizaki, Galli, Kihara, Tamai, Miyajima, Iguchi-Ariga and Ariga (1994) Oncogene, 9, 1133-1143]. MSSP-1 binds to a DNA replication origin/transcriptional enhancer of the human c-myc gene and has turned out to be identical with Scr2, a human protein which complements the defect of cdc2 kinase in S.pombe [Kataoka and Nojima (1994) Nucleic Acid Res., 22, 2687-2693]. We have cloned the cDNA for MSSP-2, another member of the MSSP family of proteins. The MSSP-2 cDNA shares highly homologous sequences with MSSP-1 cDNA, except for the insertion of 48 bp coding 16 amino acids near the C-terminus. Like MSSP-1, MSSP-2 has RNP-1 consensus sequences. The results of the experiments using bacterially expressed MSSP-2, and its deletion mutants, as histidine fusion proteins suggested that the binding specificity of MSSP-2 to double- and single-stranded DNA is the same as that of MSSP-1, and that the RNP consensus sequences are required for the DNA binding of the protein. MSSP-2 stimulated the DNA replication of an SV40-derived plasmid containing the binding sequence for MSSP-1 or -2. MSSP-2 is hence suggested to play an important role in regulation of DNA replication. Images PMID:7838710

  5. Biological characterization of adult MYC-translocation-positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Aukema, Sietse M; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W; Rosolowski, Maciej; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Küppers, Ralf; Lenze, Dido; Ott, German; Pott, Christiane; Richter, Julia; Rosenwald, Andreas; Szczepanowski, Monika; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trautmann, Heiko; Wessendorf, Swen; Trümper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Spang, Rainer; Kluin, Philip M; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    2014-04-01

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biological hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation-positive (MYC(+)) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biological features of these MYC(+) lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation-positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit and 3 MYC(+)-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-cell-like gene expression profile and had higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6(+)/MYC(+) and BCL2(+)/MYC(+) double-hit lymphomas. BCL2(+)/MYC(+) double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast to the outcome of molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without the MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC(+) lymphomas are biologically quite homogeneous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC(+) lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics.

  6. Biological characterization of adult MYC-translocation-positive mature B-cell lymphomas other than molecular Burkitt lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Aukema, Sietse M.; Kreuz, Markus; Kohler, Christian W; Rosolowski, Maciej; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hummel, Michael; Küppers, Ralf; Lenze, Dido; Ott, German; Pott, Christiane; Richter, Julia; Rosenwald, Andreas; Szczepanowski, Monika; Schwaenen, Carsten; Stein, Harald; Trautmann, Heiko; Wessendorf, Swen; Trümper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Spang, Rainer; Kluin, Philip M.; Klapper, Wolfram; Siebert, Reiner

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biological hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation-positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biological features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation-positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit and 3 MYC+-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-cell-like gene expression profile and had higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas. BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas more frequently showed a germinal center B-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast to the outcome of molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without the MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC+ lymphomas are biologically quite homogeneous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC+ lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics. PMID:24179151

  7. Reversible linkage of two distinct small molecule inhibitors of Myc generates a dimeric inhibitor with improved potency that is active in myc over-expressing cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Jutta; Romashko, Darlene; Werner, Douglas S; May, Earl W; Peng, Yue; Schulz, Ryan; Foreman, Kenneth W; Russo, Suzanne; Arnold, Lee D; Pingle, Maneesh; Bergstrom, Donald E; Barany, Francis; Thomson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    We describe the successful application of a novel approach for generating dimeric Myc inhibitors by modifying and reversibly linking two previously described small molecules. We synthesized two directed libraries of monomers, each comprised of a ligand, a connector, and a bioorthogonal linker element, to identify the optimal dimer configuration required to inhibit Myc. We identified combinations of monomers, termed self-assembling dimeric inhibitors, which displayed synergistic inhibition of Myc-dependent cell growth. We confirmed that these dimeric inhibitors directly bind to Myc blocking its interaction with Max and affect transcription of MYC dependent genes. Control combinations that are unable to form a dimer do not show any synergistic effects in these assays. Collectively, these data validate our new approach to generate more potent and selective inhibitors of Myc by self-assembly from smaller, lower affinity components. This approach provides an opportunity for developing novel therapeutics against Myc and other challenging protein:protein interaction (PPI) target classes.

  8. Reversible Linkage of Two Distinct Small Molecule Inhibitors of Myc Generates a Dimeric Inhibitor with Improved Potency That Is Active in Myc Over-Expressing Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Jutta; Romashko, Darlene; Werner, Douglas S.; May, Earl W.; Peng, Yue; Schulz, Ryan; Foreman, Kenneth W.; Russo, Suzanne; Arnold, Lee D.; Pingle, Maneesh; Bergstrom, Donald E.; Barany, Francis; Thomson, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    We describe the successful application of a novel approach for generating dimeric Myc inhibitors by modifying and reversibly linking two previously described small molecules. We synthesized two directed libraries of monomers, each comprised of a ligand, a connector, and a bioorthogonal linker element, to identify the optimal dimer configuration required to inhibit Myc. We identified combinations of monomers, termed self-assembling dimeric inhibitors, which displayed synergistic inhibition of Myc-dependent cell growth. We confirmed that these dimeric inhibitors directly bind to Myc blocking its interaction with Max and affect transcription of MYC dependent genes. Control combinations that are unable to form a dimer do not show any synergistic effects in these assays. Collectively, these data validate our new approach to generate more potent and selective inhibitors of Myc by self-assembly from smaller, lower affinity components. This approach provides an opportunity for developing novel therapeutics against Myc and other challenging protein:protein interaction (PPI) target classes. PMID:25875098

  9. The adenoviral E1A N-terminal domain represses MYC transcription in human cancer cells by targeting both p300 and TRRAP and inhibiting MYC promoter acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M.; Green, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers frequently arise from increased expression of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC and HER2. Understanding the cellular pathways regulating the transcription and expression of proto-oncogenes is important for targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Adenoviral (Ad) E1A 243R (243 aa residues) is a viral oncoprotein that interacts with key regulators of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We have shown previously that the 80 amino acid N-terminal transcriptional repression domain of E1A 243R (E1A 1-80) can target the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 and repress HER2 in the HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell line SKBR3. Expression of E1A 1-80 induces death of SKBR3 and other cancer cell lines. In this study, we performed total cell RNA sequence analysis and identified MYC as the regulatory gene for cellular proliferation most strongly repressed by E1A 1-80. By RT-quantitative PCR analysis we show that repression of MYC in SKBR3 cells occurs early after expression of E1A 1-80, suggesting that MYC may be an early responder of E1A 1-80-mediated transcriptional repression. Of interest, while E1A 1-80 repression of MYC occurs in all eight human cancer cell lines examined, repression of HER2 is cell-type dependent. We demonstrate by ChIP analysis that MYC transcriptional repression by E1A 1-80 is associated with inhibition of acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16 on the MYC promoter, as well as inhibition of RNA Pol II binding to the MYC promoter. Deletion mutant analysis of E1A 1-80 suggests that both p300/CBP and TRRAP are involved in E1A 1-80 repression of MYC transcription. Further, E1A 1-80 interaction with p300/CBP and TRRAP is correlated with inhibition of H3K18 and H4K16 acetylation on the MYC promoter, respectively. Our results indicate that E1A 1-80 may target two important pathways for histone modification to repress transcription in human cancer cells. PMID:27382434

  10. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Myc Oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Steven; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    The c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein is among the most attractive of cancer targets given that is deregulated in the majority of tumors and that its inhibition profoundly affects their growth and/or survival. However, its role as a seldom-mutated transcription factor, its lack of enzymatic activity for which suitable pharmaceutical inhibitors could be crafted and its expression by normal cells have largely been responsible for its being viewed as “undruggable”. Work over the past several years, however, has begun to reverse this idea by allowing us to view Myc within the larger context of global gene regulatory control. Thus, Myc and its obligate heterodimeric partner, Max, are integral to the coordinated recruitment and post-translational modification of components of the core transcriptional machinery. Moreover, Myc over-expression re-programs numerous critical cellular functions and alters the cell’s susceptibility to their inhibition. This new knowledge has therefore served as a framework upon which to develop new pharmaceutical approaches. These include the continuing development of small molecules which act directly to inhibit the critical Myc-Max interaction, those which act indirectly to prevent Myc-directed post-translational modifications necessary to initiate productive transcription and those which inhibit vital pathways upon which the Myc-transformed cell is particularly reliant. PMID:24657798

  11. C-Myc dysregulation is a co-transforming event for NF-κB activated B-cells.

    PubMed

    David, Amandine; Arnaud, Nicolas; Fradet, Magali; Lascaux, Hélène; Ouk-Martin, Catherine; Gachard, Nathalie; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Feuillard, Jean; Faumont, Nathalie

    2017-02-23

    While c-Myc dysregulation is constantly associated with highly proliferating B-cell tumors, NF-κB addiction is found in indolent lymphomas as well as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas either with an activated B-cell like phenotype or associated with Epstein-Barr virus. We raised the question of the effect of c-Myc in B-cells with NF-κB activated by three different inducers: Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III program, TLR-9 and CD40. Induction of c-Myc overexpression increased proliferation of Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III immortalized B-cells, an effect that was dependent on NF-κB. Results from transcriptomic signatures and functional studies showed that c-Myc over-expression increased Epstein-Barr Virus-latency III driven proliferation depending on NF-κB. In vitro, induction of c-Myc increased proliferation of B-cell with TLR9 dependant activation of Myd88, with decreased apoptosis. In the transgenic λc-Myc mouse model with c-Myc over expression in B-cells, in vivo activation of Myd88 by TLR9 induced splenomegaly related to increased S-phase entry of B-cells. Transgenic mice with both continuous CD40 signaling in B-cells and the λc-Myc transgene developed very aggressive lymphomas with characteristics of activated diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The main characteristic gene expression profile signatures of these tumors were those of proliferation and energetic metabolism. These results suggest that c-Myc is an NF-κB co-transforming event in aggressive lymphomas with an activated phenotype, activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This would explain why NF-κB is associated with both indolent and aggressive lymphomas and opens new perspectives on the possibility of combinatory therapies targeting both c-Myc proliferating program and NF-κB activation pathways in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

  12. The activities of MYC, MNT and the MAX-interactome in lymphocyte proliferation and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Link, Jason M; Hurlin, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    The MYC family of proteins plays essential roles in embryonic development and in oncogenesis. Efforts over the past 30 years to define the transcriptional activities of MYC and how MYC functions to promote proliferation have produced evolving models of MYC function. One picture that has emerged of MYC and its partner protein MAX is of a transcription factor complex with a seemingly unique ability to stimulate the transcription of genes that are epigenetically poised for transcription and to amplify the transcription of actively transcribed genes. During lymphocyte activation, MYC is upregulated and stimulates a pro-proliferative program in part through the upregulation of a wide variety of metabolic effector genes that facilitate cell growth and cell cycle progression. MYC upregulation simultaneously sensitizes cells to apoptosis and activated lymphocytes and lymphoma cells have pro-survival attributes that allow MYC-driven proliferation to prevail. For example, the MAX-interacting protein MNT is upregulated in activated lymphocytes and was found to protect lymphocytes from MYC-dependent apoptosis. Here we review the activities of MYC, MNT and other MAX interacting proteins in the setting of T and B cell activation and oncogenesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology.

  13. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 expression is associated with glucose transport and correlated with prognosis in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a novel tumour suppressor and cell stress-related gene, is involved in many cell metabolic processes, such as hormone, ion and fluid metabolism. We investigated whether NDRG2 is involved in any glucose-dependent energy metabolism, as well as the nature of its correlation with breast carcinoma. Methods The correlations between NDRG2 expression and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression in clinical breast carcinoma tissues were analysed. The effects of NDRG2 on glucose uptake were assessed in breast cancer cells and xenograft tumours. The consequences of NDRG2-induced regulation of GLUT1 at the transcription and translation levels and the interaction between NDRG2 and GLUT1 were examined. Results Data derived from clinical breast carcinoma specimens revealed that (1) patients with high NDRG2 expression had better disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low NDRG2 expression and (2) NDRG2 expression was negatively correlated with GLUT1 expression in these breast carcinoma tissues. NDRG2 inhibited glucose uptake by promoting GLUT1 protein degradation without affecting GLUT1 transcription in both breast cancer cells and xenograft tumours. In addition, NDRG2 protein interacted and partly colocalised with GLUT1 protein in cell cytoplasm areas. Conclusions The results of our study support the notion that NDRG2 plays an important role in tumour glucose metabolism, in which GLUT1 is a likely candidate contributor to glucose uptake suppression and tumour growth. Targeting the actions of NDRG2 in cell glucose-dependent energy delivery may provide an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention in human breast carcinoma. PMID:24636131

  14. Overexpression of c-Myc alters G(1)/S arrest following ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Joon-Ho; Dickson, Robert B

    2002-03-01

    Study of the mechanism(s) of genomic instability induced by the c-myc proto-oncogene has the potential to shed new light on its well-known oncogenic activity. However, an underlying mechanism(s) for this phenotype is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of c-Myc overexpression on the DNA damage-induced G(1)/S checkpoint, in order to obtain mechanistic insights into how deregulated c-Myc destabilizes the cellular genome. The DNA damage-induced checkpoints are among the primary safeguard mechanisms for genomic stability, and alterations of cell cycle checkpoints are known to be crucial for certain types of genomic instability, such as gene amplification. The effects of c-Myc overexpression were studied in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) as one approach to understanding the c-Myc-induced genomic instability in the context of mammary tumorigenesis. Initially, flow-cytometric analyses were used with two c-Myc-overexpressing, nontransformed immortal lines (184A1N4 and MCF10A) to determine whether c-Myc overexpression leads to alteration of cell cycle arrest following ionizing radiation (IR). Inappropriate entry into S phase was then confirmed with a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay measuring de novo DNA synthesis following IR. Direct involvement of c-Myc overexpression in alteration of the G(1)/S checkpoint was then confirmed by utilizing the MycER construct, a regulatable c-Myc. A transient excess of c-Myc activity, provided by the activated MycER, was similarly able to induce the inappropriate de novo DNA synthesis following IR. Significantly, the transient expression of full-length c-Myc in normal mortal HMECs also facilitated entry into S phase and the inappropriate de novo DNA synthesis following IR. Furthermore, irradiated, c-Myc-infected, normal HMECs developed a sub-G(1) population and a >4N population of cells. The c-Myc-induced alteration of the G(1)/S checkpoint was also compared to the effects of expression of MycS (N

  15. A c-myc antisense oligonucleotide inhibits human retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capeáns, C; Piñeiro, A; Domínguez, F; Loidi, L; Buceta, M; Carneiro, C; Garcia-Caballero, T; Sanchez-Salorio, M

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate if MYC-dependent intracellular mitogenic pathway is active in cultures of human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells and whether myc antisense phosphorotioate oligonucleotides (c-myc-AS-ODN) are useful tools for inhibiting the proliferation of hRPE cells. Cultures of hRPE cells were established from adult human corneal donors. These cells were positively stained for cytokeratins and vimentin. Myc mRNA expression was determined by Northern blot analysis and it was determined by means of immunofluorescence if MYC was expressed. C-myc-AS-ODN effect on cell proliferation was estimated by evaluating the incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine into cellular DNA. Cell number was estimated by using a tetrazolium bromide based colorimetric method. Human RPE cells in culture expressed MYC and myc mRNA as well as prothymosin alpha mRNA--a gene whose transcription is under MYC control--indicating that MYC-dependent intracellular mitogenic pathway is active in these cells. In accordance with this, we found that blocking the expression of myc by the addition of c-myc-AS-ODN to the culture medium inhibited hRPE cell proliferation. The effect of the c-myc-AS-ODN was found to be sequence specific (the use of a control oligonucleotide with the same sequence but in an opposite direction had no effect) and dose-dependent (4 microM was the lowest effective dose tested). By using RT-PCR we found that the c-myc-AS-ODN inhibition of cell proliferation was related to a diminution in c-myc mRNA expression, and by immunofluorescence we detected a diminution in c-MYC protein staining in RPE cells after 48 hr of treatment with c-myc-AS-ODN. Furthermore, growth inhibition remained for at least 5 days after addition of a single dose of the c-myc-AS-ODN to the culture. We conclude that hRPE cell proliferation is under MYC control. Blocking the expression of myc by c-myc-AS-ODN inhibited hRPE cell proliferation. These findings establish a rationale

  16. A Novel Intron Element Operates Posttranscriptionally To Regulate Human N-myc Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sivak, Louise E.; Pont-Kingdon, Geneviève; Le, Kim; Mayr, Gabriele; Tai, Kuei-Fang; Stevens, Ben T.; Carroll, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Precisely regulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is essential for normal development, and deregulated expression can lead to cancer. The human N-myc gene normally is expressed in only a subset of fetal epithelial tissues, and its expression is extinguished in all adult tissues except transiently in pre-B lymphocytes. The N-myc gene is overexpressed due to genomic amplification in the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. In previous work to investigate mechanisms of regulation of human N-myc gene expression, we observed that N-myc promoter–chloramphemicol acelyltransferase reporter constructs containing sequences 5′ to exon 1 were active in all cell types examined, regardless of whether endogenous N-myc RNA was detected. In contrast, inclusion of the first exon and a portion of the first intron allowed expression only in those cell types with detectable endogenous N-myc transcripts. We investigated further the mechanisms by which this tissue-specific control of N-myc expression is achieved. Using nuclear run-on analyses, we determined that the N-myc gene is actively transcribed in all cell types examined, indicating a posttranscriptional mode of regulation. Using a series of N-myc intron 1 deletion constructs, we localized a 116-bp element (tissue-specific element [TSE]) within the first intron that directs tissue-specific N-myc expression. The TSE can function independently to regulate expression of a heterologous promoter-reporter minigene in a cell-specific pattern that mirrors the expression pattern of the endogenous N-myc gene. Surprisingly, the TSE can function in both sense and antisense orientations to regulate gene expression. Our data indicate that the human N-myc TSE functions through a posttranscriptional mechanism to regulate N-myc expression. PMID:9858540

  17. Genomic binding by the Drosophila Myc, Max, Mad/Mnt transcription factor network

    PubMed Central

    Orian, Amir; van Steensel, Bas; Delrow, Jeffrey; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Li, Ling; Sawado, Tomoyuki; Williams, Eleanor; Loo, Lenora W.M.; Cowley, Shaun M.; Yost, Cynthia; Pierce, Sarah; Edgar, Bruce A.; Parkhurst, Susan M.; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2003-01-01

    The Myc/Max/Mad transcription factor network is critically involved in cell behavior; however, there is relatively little information on its genomic binding sites. We have employed the DamID method to carry out global genomic mapping of the Drosophila Myc, Max, and Mad/Mnt proteins. Each protein was tethered to Escherichia coli DNA adenine-methyltransferase (Dam) permitting methylation proximal to in vivo binding sites in Kc cells. Microarray analyses of methylated DNA fragments reveals binding to multiple loci on all major Drosophila chromosomes. This approach also reveals dynamic interactions among network members as we find that increased levels of dMax influence the extent of dMyc, but not dMnt, binding. Computer analysis using the REDUCE algorithm demonstrates that binding regions correlate with the presence of E-boxes, CG repeats, and other sequence motifs. The surprisingly large number of directly bound loci (∼15% of coding regions) suggests that the network interacts widely with the genome. Furthermore, we employ microarray expression analysis to demonstrate that hundreds of DamID-binding loci correspond to genes whose expression is directly regulated by dMyc in larvae. These results suggest that a fundamental aspect of Max network function involves widespread binding and regulation of gene expression. PMID:12695332

  18. A Gly98Val mutation in the N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in Alaskan Malamutes with polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bruun, Camilla S; Jäderlund, Karin H; Berendt, Mette; Jensen, Kristine B; Spodsberg, Eva H; Gredal, Hanne; Shelton, G Diane; Mickelson, James R; Minor, Katie M; Lohi, Hannes; Bjerkås, Inge; Stigen, Oyvind; Espenes, Arild; Rohdin, Cecilia; Edlund, Rebecca; Ohlsson, Jennie; Cizinauskas, Sigitas; Leifsson, Páll S; Drögemüller, Cord; Moe, Lars; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    The first cases of early-onset progressive polyneuropathy appeared in the Alaskan Malamute population in Norway in the late 1970s. Affected dogs were of both sexes and were ambulatory paraparetic, progressing to non-ambulatory tetraparesis. On neurologic examination, affected dogs displayed predominantly laryngeal paresis, decreased postural reactions, decreased spinal reflexes and muscle atrophy. The disease was considered eradicated through breeding programmes but recently new cases have occurred in the Nordic countries and the USA. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG1) is implicated in neuropathies with comparable symptoms or clinical signs both in humans and in Greyhound dogs. This gene was therefore considered a candidate gene for the polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. The coding sequence of the NDRG1 gene derived from one healthy and one affected Alaskan Malamute revealed a non-synonymous G>T mutation in exon 4 in the affected dog that causes a Gly98Val amino acid substitution. This substitution was categorized to be "probably damaging" to the protein function by PolyPhen2 (score: 1.000). Subsequently, 102 Alaskan Malamutes from the Nordic countries and the USA known to be either affected (n = 22), obligate carriers (n = 7) or healthy (n = 73) were genotyped for the SNP using TaqMan. All affected dogs had the T/T genotype, the obligate carriers had the G/T genotype and the healthy dogs had the G/G genotype except for 13 who had the G/T genotype. A protein alignment showed that residue 98 is conserved in mammals and also that the entire NDRG1 protein is highly conserved (94.7%) in mammals. We conclude that the G>T substitution is most likely the mutation that causes polyneuropathy in Alaskan Malamutes. Our characterization of a novel candidate causative mutation for polyneuropathy offers a new canine model that can provide further insight into pathobiology and therapy of human polyneuropathy. Furthermore, selection against this mutation can

  19. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amirak, Emre; Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  20. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Cap43 enhances portal vein invasion and intrahepatic metastasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Jun; Ogasawara, Sachiko; Kawahara, Akihiko; Nishida, Naoyo; Sanada, Sakiko; Moriya, Fukuko; Kuwano, Michihiko; Nakashima, Osamu; Yano, Hirohisa

    2008-12-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Cap43 is a 43 kDa protein that is widely distributed in the body. Its expression is regulated by nickel, cobalt, hypoxic condition and others; it is reported to be weaker in tumors than normal tissues; and NDRG1/Cap43 is considered to act suppressively to tumor metastasis. This current study immunohistochemically examined NDRG1/Cap43 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and analyzed its relationship to clinicopathologic factors and prognosis. The samples were 105 surgically resected HCC tissue blocks, i.e., 18 well-differentiated HCC, 61 moderately differentiated HCC, 10 poorly differentiated HCC, 9 'nodule-in-nodule' type HCC, and 7 sarcomatous HCC. In all cases, NDRG1/Cap43 was not expressed in normal liver cells. Strong expression was found in 65 of the 105 cases (62%), i.e., in 11.1% of well-differentiated HCC, 72.1% of moderately differentiated HCC, 80.0% of poorly differentiated HCC, and 71.4% of sarcomatous HCC. In the 'nodule-in-nodule' type, its expression was found in 55.6% of their well-differentiated component, and this frequency was significantly higher than that in well-differentiated HCC (11.1%). In the cases showing strong NDRG1/Cap43 expression, frequency of portal vein invasion and of intrahepatic metastasis was significantly high. No clear relationship between the expression and prognosis was observed. NDRG1/Cap43 expression that was found in advanced HCC was thought to accelerate tumor invasion and metastasis. NDRG1/Cap43 could act as a useful biomarker of HCC.

  1. N-Myc knockdown and apigenin treatment controlled growth of malignant neuroblastoma cells having N-Myc amplification

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Md. Motarab; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant neuroblastomas mostly occur in children and are frequently associated with N-Myc amplification. Oncogene amplification, which is selective increase in copy number of the oncogene, provides survival advantages in solid tumors including malignant neuroblastoma. We have decreased expression of N-Myc oncogene using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid to increase anti-tumor efficacy of the isoflavonoid apigenin (APG) in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-DZ and SK-N-BE2 cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification. N-Myc knockdown induced morphological and biochemical features of neuronal differentiation. Combination of N-Myc knockdown and APG most effectively induced morphological and biochemical features of apoptotic death. This combination therapy also prevented cell migration and decreased N-Myc driven survival, angiogenic, and invasive factors. Collectively, N-Myc knockdown and APG treatment is a promising strategy for controlling the growth of human malignant neuroblastoma cell lines that harbor N-Myc amplification. PMID:23941992

  2. C-myc proto-oncogene amplification detected by polymerase chain reaction in archival human ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, G.; Dubeau, L.

    1990-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology was used to examine the state of amplification of the proto-oncogene c-myc in archival ovarian carcinomas. Sequences from the c-myc gene and from a control gene were amplified simultaneously by PCR and the ratios of the two products measured. The results provided an accurate measurement of the relative number of copies of the two genes in each tumor genome if the control and test sequences amplified by PCR were of equal lengths. The results were not affected by the number of PCR cycles used. This technique should facilitate gene amplification studies in clinical medicine. Increased c-myc copy number was found in 17% of the 30 cases examined when a control from the same chromosome as c-myc was used, but in 37% of cases if a control from another chromosome was used. This underlines the importance of the genetic location of the selected control genes for such studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:2205100

  3. Sensitivity to myc-induced apoptosis is retained in spontaneous and transplanted lymphomas of CD2-mycER mice.

    PubMed

    Blyth, K; Stewart, M; Bell, M; James, C; Evan, G; Neil, J C; Cameron, E R

    2000-02-10

    To study the effects of the Myc oncoprotein in a regulatable in vivo system, we generated lines of transgenic mice in which a tamoxifen inducible Myc fusion protein (c-mycER) is expressed under the control of the CD2 locus control region. Activation of the Myc oncoprotein resulted in both proliferation and apoptosis in vivo. Lines with a high transgene copy number developed spontaneous lymphomas at low frequency, but the tumour incidence was significantly increased with tamoxifen treatment. Surprisingly, we found that cellular sensitivity to Myc-induced apoptosis was retained in tumours from these mice and in most lymphoma cell lines, even when null for p53. Resistance to Myc-induced apoptosis could be conferred on these cells by co-expression of Bcl-2. However, acquired resistance is clearly not an obligatory progression event as sensitivity to apoptosis was retained in transplanted tumours in athymic mice. In conclusion, lymphomas arising in CD2-mycER mice retain the capacity to undergo apoptosis in response to Myc activation and show no phenotypic evidence of the presence of an active dominant inhibitor.

  4. ROCK inhibitor reduces Myc-induced apoptosis and mediates immortalization of human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dakic, Aleksandra; DiVito, Kyle; Fang, Shuang; Suprynowicz, Frank; Gaur, Anirudh; Li, Xin; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Simic, Vera; Choudhury, Sujata; Yu, Songtao; Simbulan-Rosenthal, Cynthia M.; Rosenthal, Dean; Schlegel, Richard; Liu, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    The Myc/Max/Mad network plays a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and c-Myc is overexpressed in many cancers, including HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Despite the tolerance of cervical cancer keratinocytes to high Myc expression, we found that the solitary transduction of the Myc gene into primary cervical and foreskin keratinocytes induced rapid cell death. These findings suggested that the anti-apoptotic activity of E7 in cervical cancer cells might be responsible for negating the apoptotic activity of over-expressed Myc. Indeed, our earlier in vitro studies demonstrated that Myc and E7 synergize in the immortalization of keratinocytes. Since we previously postulated that E7 and the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, were members of the same functional pathway in cell immortalization, we tested whether Y-27632 would inhibit apoptosis induced by the over-expression of Myc. Our findings indicate that Y-27632 rapidly inhibited Myc-induced membrane blebbing and cellular apoptosis and, more generally, functioned as an inhibitor of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of cell death. Most important, Y-27632 cooperated with Myc to immortalize keratinocytes efficiently, indicating that apoptosis is a major barrier to Myc-induced immortalization of keratinocytes. The anti-apoptotic activity of Y-27632 correlated with a reduction in p53 serine 15 phosphorylation and the consequent reduction in the expression of downstream target genes p21 and DAPK1, two genes involved in the induction of cell death. PMID:27556514

  5. Lack of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibits c-myc tumorigenic activities in epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Macias, Everardo; Rounbehler, Robert; Sicinski, Piotr; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Johnson, David G; Conti, Claudio J; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2004-09-01

    The proto-oncogene c-myc encodes a transcription factor that is implicated in the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and that has also been found to be deregulated in several forms of human and experimental tumors. We have shown that forced expression of c-myc in epithelial tissues of transgenic mice (K5-Myc) resulted in keratinocyte hyperproliferation and the development of spontaneous tumors in the skin and oral cavity. Although a number of genes involved in cancer development are regulated by c-myc, the actual mechanisms leading to Myc-induced neoplasia are not known. Among the genes regulated by Myc is the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) gene. Interestingly, previous studies from our laboratory showed that the overexpression of CDK4 led to keratinocyte hyperproliferation, although no spontaneous tumor development was observed. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that CDK4 may be one of the critical downstream genes involved in Myc carcinogenesis. Our results showed that CDK4 inhibition in K5-Myc transgenic mice resulted in the complete inhibition of tumor development, suggesting that CDK4 is a critical mediator of tumor formation induced by deregulated Myc. Furthermore, a lack of CDK4 expression resulted in marked decreases in epidermal thickness and keratinocyte proliferation compared to the results obtained for K5-Myc littermates. Biochemical analysis of the K5-Myc epidermis showed that CDK4 mediates the proliferative activities of Myc by sequestering p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 and thereby indirectly activating CDK2 kinase activity. These results show that CDK4 mediates the proliferative and oncogenic activities of Myc in vivo through a mechanism that involves the sequestration of specific CDK inhibitors.

  6. AMBRA1 links autophagy to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by promoting c-Myc dephosphorylation and degradation.

    PubMed

    Cianfanelli, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Lorente, Mar; Salazar, Maria; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Gherardini, Pier Federico; De Zio, Daniela; Nazio, Francesca; Antonioli, Manuela; D'Orazio, Melania; Skobo, Tatjana; Bordi, Matteo; Rohde, Mikkel; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Gretzmeier, Christine; Dengjel, Joern; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Velasco, Guillermo; Cecconi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of a main regulator of cell metabolism, the protein kinase mTOR, induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways involved in the cross-talk between these two mTOR-dependent cell processes are largely unknown. Here we show that the scaffold protein AMBRA1, a member of the autophagy signalling network and a downstream target of mTOR, regulates cell proliferation by facilitating the dephosphorylation and degradation of the proto-oncogene c-Myc. We found that AMBRA1 favours the interaction between c-Myc and its phosphatase PP2A and that, when mTOR is inhibited, it enhances PP2A activity on this specific target, thereby reducing the cell division rate. As expected, such a de-regulation of c-Myc correlates with increased tumorigenesis in AMBRA1-defective systems, thus supporting a role for AMBRA1 as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene.

  7. AMBRA1 links autophagy to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by promoting c-MYC dephosphorylation and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Cianfanelli, Valentina; Fuoco, Claudia; Lorente, Mar; Salazar, Maria; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Gherardini, Pier Federico; De Zio, Daniela; Nazio, Francesca; Antonioli, Manuela; D’Orazio, Melania; Skobo, Tatjana; Bordi, Matteo; Rohde, Mikkel; Dalla Valle, Luisa; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Gretzmeier, Christine; Dengjel, Joern; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro; Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina; Velasco, Guillermo; Cecconi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of a main regulator of cell metabolism, the protein kinase mTOR, induces autophagy and inhibits cell proliferation. However, the molecular pathways involved in the cross-talk between these two mTOR-dependent cell processes are largely unknown. Here we show that the scaffold protein AMBRA1, a member of the autophagy signalling network and a downstream target of mTOR, regulates cell proliferation by facilitating the dephosphorylation and degradation of the proto-oncogene C-MYC. We found that AMBRA1 favors the interaction between C-MYC and its phosphatase PP2A and that, when mTOR is inhibited, it enhances PP2A activity on this specific target, thereby reducing the cell division rate. As expected, such a de-regulation of C-MYC correlates with increased tumorigenesis in AMBRA1-defective systems, thus supporting a role for AMBRA1 as a haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene. PMID:25438055

  8. BPTF is required for c-MYC transcriptional activity and in vivo tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Richart, Laia; Carrillo-de Santa Pau, Enrique; Río-Machín, Ana; de Andrés, Mónica P.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Lobo, Víctor J. Sánchez-Arévalo; Real, Francisco X.

    2016-01-01

    c-MYC oncogene is deregulated in most human tumours. Histone marks associated with transcriptionally active genes define high-affinity c-MYC targets. The mechanisms involved in their recognition by c-MYC are unknown. Here we report that c-MYC interacts with BPTF, a core subunit of the NURF chromatin-remodelling complex. BPTF is required for the activation of the full c-MYC transcriptional programme in fibroblasts. BPTF knockdown leads to decreased c-MYC recruitment to DNA and changes in chromatin accessibility. In Bptf-null MEFs, BPTF is necessary for c-MYC-driven proliferation, G1–S progression and replication stress, but not for c-MYC-driven apoptosis. Bioinformatics analyses unveil that BPTF levels correlate positively with c-MYC-driven transcriptional signatures. In vivo, Bptf inactivation in pre-neoplastic pancreatic acinar cells significantly delays tumour development and extends survival. Our findings uncover BPTF as a crucial c-MYC co-factor required for its biological activity and suggest that the BPTF-c-MYC axis is a potential therapeutic target in cancer. PMID:26729287

  9. Effects of alcohol on c-Myc protein in the brain.

    PubMed

    Akinyeke, Tunde; Weber, Sydney J; Davenport, April T; Baker, Erich J; Daunais, James B; Raber, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholism is a disorder categorized by significant impairment that is directly related to persistent and extreme use of alcohol. The effects of alcoholism on c-Myc protein expression in the brain have been scarcely studied. This is the first study to investigate the role different characteristics of alcoholism have on c-Myc protein in the brain. We analyzed c-Myc protein in the hypothalamus and amygdala from five different animal models of alcohol abuse. c-Myc protein was increased following acute ethanol exposure in a mouse knockout model and following chronic ethanol consumption in vervet monkeys. We also observed increases in c-Myc protein exposure in animals that are genetically predisposed to alcohol and methamphetamine abuse. Lastly, c-Myc protein was increased in animals that were acutely exposed to methamphetamine when compared to control treated animals. These results suggest that in substance abuse c-Myc plays an important role in the brain's response.

  10. Nucleolar localization of myc transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, V C; Wold, B

    1993-01-01

    In situ hybridization has revealed a striking subnuclear distribution of c-myc RNA transcripts. A major fraction of the sense-strand nuclear c-myc transcripts was localized to the nucleoli. myc intron 1-containing RNAs were noticeably absent from nucleoli, accumulating instead in the nucleoplasm. The localization of myc RNA to nucleoli was shown to be common to a number of diverse cell types, including primary Sertoli cells and several cell lines. Furthermore, nucleolar localization was not restricted to c-myc and N-myc and myoD transcripts also displayed this phenomenon. In contrast, gamma-actin or lactate dehydrogenase transcripts did not display nucleolar localization. These observations suggest a new role for the nucleolus in transport and/or turnover of potential mRNAs. Images PMID:7684491

  11. Interferon modulation of c-myc expression in cloned Daudi cells: relationship to the phenotype of interferon resistance.

    PubMed

    Dron, M; Modjtahedi, N; Brison, O; Tovey, M G

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of interferon-sensitive Daudi cell with electrophoretically pure human interferon alpha markedly reduced the level of c-myc mRNA, increased the level of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mRNA, and did not affect the level of actin mRNA within the same cells. In contrast, the level of c-myc mRNA or HLA mRNA did not change significantly following interferon treatment in different clones of Daudi cells selected for resistance to the antiproliferative action of interferon. These cells possessed interferon receptors, however, and responded to interferon modulation of other genes, including 2',5' oligoisoadenylate synthetase (M. G. Tovey, M. Dron, K. E. Mogensen, B. Lebleu, N. Metchi, and J. Begon-Lours, Guymarho, J. Gen. Virol., 64:2649-2653, 1983; M. Dron, M. G. Tovey, and P. Eid, J. Gen. Virol., 66:787-795, 1985). A clone of interferon-resistant Daudi cells which had reverted to almost complete sensitivity to both the antiproliferative action of interferon and the interferon-enhanced expression of HLA mRNA remained refractory, however, to interferon modulation of c-myc expression, suggesting that a reduced level of c-myc mRNA may not be a prerequisite for inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Our results do not exclude the possibility, however, that posttranscriptional modification(s) of c-myc expression may precede an inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells.

  12. Interferon modulation of c-myc expression in cloned Daudi cells: relationship to the phenotype of interferon resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Dron, M; Modjtahedi, N; Brison, O; Tovey, M G

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of interferon-sensitive Daudi cell with electrophoretically pure human interferon alpha markedly reduced the level of c-myc mRNA, increased the level of class I histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mRNA, and did not affect the level of actin mRNA within the same cells. In contrast, the level of c-myc mRNA or HLA mRNA did not change significantly following interferon treatment in different clones of Daudi cells selected for resistance to the antiproliferative action of interferon. These cells possessed interferon receptors, however, and responded to interferon modulation of other genes, including 2',5' oligoisoadenylate synthetase (M. G. Tovey, M. Dron, K. E. Mogensen, B. Lebleu, N. Metchi, and J. Begon-Lours, Guymarho, J. Gen. Virol., 64:2649-2653, 1983; M. Dron, M. G. Tovey, and P. Eid, J. Gen. Virol., 66:787-795, 1985). A clone of interferon-resistant Daudi cells which had reverted to almost complete sensitivity to both the antiproliferative action of interferon and the interferon-enhanced expression of HLA mRNA remained refractory, however, to interferon modulation of c-myc expression, suggesting that a reduced level of c-myc mRNA may not be a prerequisite for inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Our results do not exclude the possibility, however, that posttranscriptional modification(s) of c-myc expression may precede an inhibition of cell proliferation in interferon-treated cells. Images PMID:3785169

  13. Myc is a Notch1 transcriptional target and a requisite for Notch1-induced mammary tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Klinakis, Apostolos; Szabolcs, Matthias; Politi, Katerina; Kiaris, Hippokratis; Artavanis-Tsakonas, Spyros; Efstratiadis, Argiris

    2006-06-13

    To explore the potential involvement of aberrant Notch1 signaling in breast cancer pathogenesis, we have used a transgenic mouse model. In these animals, mouse mammary tumor virus LTR-driven expression of the constitutively active intracellular domain of the Notch1 receptor (N1(IC)) causes development of lactation-dependent mammary tumors that regress upon gland involution but progress to nonregressing, invasive adenocarcinomas in subsequent pregnancies. Up-regulation of Myc in these tumors prompted a genetic investigation of a potential Notch1/Myc functional relationship in breast carcinogenesis. Conditional ablation of Myc in the mammary epithelium prevented the induction of regressing N1(IC) neoplasms and also reduced the incidence of nonregressing carcinomas, which developed with significantly increased latency. Molecular analyses revealed that both the mouse and human Myc genes are direct transcriptional targets of N1(IC) acting through its downstream Cbf1 transcriptional effector. Consistent with this mechanistic link, Notch1 and Myc expression is positively correlated by immunostaining in 38% of examined human breast carcinomas.

  14. A pan-cancer analysis of MYC-PVT1 reveals CNV-unmediated deregulation and poor prognosis in renal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Posa, Ioana; Carvalho, Silvia; Tavares, Joana; Grosso, Ana Rita

    2016-01-01

    The PVT1 lncRNA has recently been involved in tumorigenesis by affecting the protein stability of the MYC proto-oncogene. Both MYC and PVT1 reside in a well-known cancer-risk locus and enhanced levels of their products have been reported in different human cancers. Nonetheless, the extension and relevance of the MYC-PVT1 deregulation in tumorigenesis has not yet been systematically addressed. Here we performed a pan-cancer analysis of matched copy number, transcriptomic, methylation, proteomic and clinicopathological profiles for almost 7000 patients from 17 different cancers represented in the TCGA cohorts. Among all cancers types, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) showed the strongest upregulation of PVT1 and increased levels of both MYC and PVT1 correlated with the clinical outcome. PVT1 misregulation in KIRC is mostly associated to promoter hypomethylation rather than locus amplification. Furthermore, we found an association between MYC levels and PVT1 expression, which impacted on MYC-target genes. Collectively, our study discloses the role of PVT1 as a novel prognostic factor and as a molecular target for novel therapeutic interventions in renal carcinoma. PMID:27366943

  15. Myc is required for the maintenance of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency.

    PubMed

    Li, Xudong; Chen, Shijia; Feng, Jun; Deng, Hongyu; Sun, Ren

    2010-09-01

    Myc is deregulated by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latent proteins, but its role in KSHV latency is not clear. We found that Myc knockdown with RNA interference (RNAi) induced KSHV reactivation and increased the protein and mRNA levels of RTA, a key viral regulator of KSHV reactivation. Myc knockdown increased, whereas Myc overexpression inhibited, RTA promoter activity. KSHV reactivation and the activation of the RTA promoter induced by Myc depletion were inhibited by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 inhibitors but not by a MEK1 inhibitor. Myc knockdown inhibited primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis and G(1) cell cycle arrest. Thus, Myc may be a key cellular node coupling cellular transformation and KSHV latency.

  16. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  17. Small Molecules Targeting c-Myc Oncogene: Promising Anti-Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing-Jia; Wu, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transcription factor c-Myc is a member of the Myc gene family with multiple functions and located on band q24.1 of chromosome 8. The c-Myc gene is activated by chromosomal translocation, rearrangement, and amplification. Its encoded protein transduces intracellular signals to the nucleus, resulting in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has the ability to transform cells and bind chromosomal DNA. c-Myc also plays a critical role in malignant transformation. The abnormal over-expression of c-Myc is frequently observed in some tumors, including carcinomas of the breast, colon, and cervix, as well as small-cell lung cancer, osteosarcomas, glioblastomas, and myeloid leukemias, therefore making it a possible target for anticancer therapy. In this minireview, we summarize unique characteristics of c-Myc and therapeutic strategies against cancer using small molecules targeting the oncogene, and discuss the prospects in the development of agents targeting c-Myc, in particular G-quadruplexes formed in c-Myc promoter and c-Myc/Max dimerization. Such information will be of importance for the research and development of c-Myc-targeted drugs. PMID:25332683

  18. The Role of c-MYC in B-Cell Lymphomas: Diagnostic and Molecular Aspects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lynh; Papenhausen, Peter; Shao, Haipeng

    2017-04-05

    c-MYC is one of the most essential transcriptional factors, regulating a diverse array of cellular functions, including proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of c-MYC is essential in the pathogenesis of a number of B-cell lymphomas, but is rarely reported in T-cell lymphomas. c-MYC dysregulation induces lymphomagenesis by loss of the tight control of c-MYC expression, leading to overexpression of intact c-MYC protein, in contrast to the somatic mutations or fusion proteins seen in many other oncogenes. Dysregulation of c-MYC in B-cell lymphomas occurs either as a primary event in Burkitt lymphoma, or secondarily in aggressive lymphomas such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, or double-hit lymphoma. Secondary c-MYC changes include gene translocation and gene amplification, occurring against a background of complex karyotype, and most often confer aggressive clinical behavior, as evidenced in the double-hit lymphomas. In low-grade B-cell lymphomas, acquisition of c-MYC rearrangement usually results in transformation into highly aggressive lymphomas, with some exceptions. In this review, we discuss the role that c-MYC plays in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas, the molecular alterations that lead to c-MYC dysregulation, and their effect on prognosis and diagnosis in specific types of B-cell lymphoma.

  19. Small molecules targeting c-Myc oncogene: promising anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Jia; Wu, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transcription factor c-Myc is a member of the Myc gene family with multiple functions and located on band q24.1 of chromosome 8. The c-Myc gene is activated by chromosomal translocation, rearrangement, and amplification. Its encoded protein transduces intracellular signals to the nucleus, resulting in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has the ability to transform cells and bind chromosomal DNA. c-Myc also plays a critical role in malignant transformation. The abnormal over-expression of c-Myc is frequently observed in some tumors, including carcinomas of the breast, colon, and cervix, as well as small-cell lung cancer, osteosarcomas, glioblastomas, and myeloid leukemias, therefore making it a possible target for anticancer therapy. In this minireview, we summarize unique characteristics of c-Myc and therapeutic strategies against cancer using small molecules targeting the oncogene, and discuss the prospects in the development of agents targeting c-Myc, in particular G-quadruplexes formed in c-Myc promoter and c-Myc/Max dimerization. Such information will be of importance for the research and development of c-Myc-targeted drugs.

  20. Down-regulation of Myc is essential for terminal erythroid maturation.

    PubMed

    Jayapal, Senthil Raja; Lee, Kian Leong; Ji, Peng; Kaldis, Philipp; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-12-17

    Terminal differentiation of mammalian erythroid progenitors involves 4-5 cell divisions and induction of many erythroid important genes followed by chromatin and nuclear condensation and enucleation. The protein levels of c-Myc (Myc) are reduced dramatically during late stage erythroid maturation, coinciding with cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase and enucleation, suggesting possible roles for c-Myc in either or both of these processes. Here we demonstrate that ectopic Myc expression affects terminal erythroid maturation in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of Myc at physiological levels did not affect erythroid differentiation or cell cycle shutdown but specifically blocked erythroid nuclear condensation and enucleation. Continued Myc expression prevented deacetylation of several lysine residues in histones H3 and H4 that are normally deacetylated during erythroid maturation. The histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 was up-regulated by Myc, and ectopic Gcn5 expression partially blocked enucleation and inhibited the late stage erythroid nuclear condensation and histone deacetylation. When overexpressed at levels higher than the physiological range, Myc blocked erythroid differentiation, and the cells continued to proliferate in cytokine-free, serum-containing culture medium with an early erythroblast morphology. Gene expression analysis demonstrated the dysregulation of erythropoietin signaling pathway and the up-regulation of several positive regulators of G(1)-S cell cycle checkpoint by supraphysiological levels of Myc. These results reveal an important dose-dependent function of Myc in regulating terminal maturation in mammalian erythroid cells.

  1. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  2. B Lymphocyte commitment program is driven by the proto-oncogene c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Vallespinós, Mireia; Fernández, David; Rodríguez, Lorena; Alvaro-Blanco, Josué; Baena, Esther; Ortiz, Maitane; Dukovska, Daniela; Martínez, Dolores; Rojas, Ana; Campanero, Miguel R; Moreno de Alborán, Ignacio

    2011-06-15

    c-Myc, a member of the Myc family of transcription factors, is involved in numerous biological functions including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in various cell types. Of all of its functions, the role of c-Myc in cell differentiation is one of the least understood. We addressed the role of c-Myc in B lymphocyte differentiation. We found that c-Myc is essential from early stages of B lymphocyte differentiation in vivo and regulates this process by providing B cell identity via direct transcriptional regulation of the ebf-1 gene. Our data show that c-Myc influences early B lymphocyte differentiation by promoting activation of B cell identity genes, thus linking this transcription factor to the EBF-1/Pax-5 pathway.

  3. Effects of c-myc expression on cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, K D; Shichiri, M; Follansbee, M R; Sedivy, J M

    1994-01-01

    We used targeted homologous recombination to disrupt one c-myc gene copy in a diploid fibroblast cell line and found that a twofold reduction in Myc expression resulted in lower exponential growth rates and a lengthening of the G0-to-S-phase transition (M. Shichiri, K. D. Hanson and J. M. Sedivy, Cell Growth Differ. 4:93-104, 1993). Myc is a transcription factor, and the number of target genes whose regulation could result in differential growth rates may be very large. We have approached this problem by examining effects of reduced c-myc expression in three broad areas: (i) secretion of growth factors, (ii) expression of growth factor receptors, and (iii) intracellular signal transduction between Myc and components of the intrinsic cell cycle clock. We have found no evidence that differential medium conditioning can account for the growth phenotypes. Likewise, the expression of receptors for platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor I was the same in diploid and heterozygous cells (platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor are the sole growth factors required by these cells for growth in serum-free medium). In contrast, expression of cyclin E, cyclin A, and Rb phosphorylation were delayed when quiescent c-myc heterozygous cells were stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3, and Cdk2 was not affected. The timing of cyclin E induction was the earliest observable effect of reduced Myc expression. Our data indicate that Myc contributes to regulation of proliferation by a cell-autonomous mechanism that involves the modulation of cyclin E expression and, consequently, progression through the restriction point of the cell cycle. Images PMID:8065309

  4. Compensatory induction of MYC expression by sustained CDK9 inhibition via a BRD4-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huasong; Xue, Yuhua; Yu, Guoying K; Arias, Carolina; Lin, Julie; Fong, Susan; Faure, Michel; Weisburd, Ben; Ji, Xiaodan; Mercier, Alexandre; Sutton, James; Luo, Kunxin; Gao, Zhenhai; Zhou, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    CDK9 is the kinase subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) that enables RNA polymerase (Pol) II's transition from promoter-proximal pausing to productive elongation. Although considerable interest exists in CDK9 as a therapeutic target, little progress has been made due to lack of highly selective inhibitors. Here, we describe the development of i-CDK9 as such an inhibitor that potently suppresses CDK9 phosphorylation of substrates and causes genome-wide Pol II pausing. While most genes experience reduced expression, MYC and other primary response genes increase expression upon sustained i-CDK9 treatment. Essential for this increase, the bromodomain protein BRD4 captures P-TEFb from 7SK snRNP to deliver to target genes and also enhances CDK9's activity and resistance to inhibition. Because the i-CDK9-induced MYC expression and binding to P-TEFb compensate for P-TEFb's loss of activity, only simultaneously inhibiting CDK9 and MYC/BRD4 can efficiently induce growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells, suggesting the potential of a combinatorial treatment strategy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06535.001 PMID:26083714

  5. IS THE AMPLIFICATION OF c-MYC, MLL AND RUNX1 GENES IN AML AND MDS PATIENTS WITH TRISOMY 8, 11 AND 21 A FACTOR FOR A CLONAL EVOLUTION IN THEIR KARYOTYPE?

    PubMed

    Angelova, S; Spassov, B; Nikolova, V; Christov, I; Tzvetkov, N; Simeonova, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was 1) to define if the amplification of c-MYC, MLL and RUNX1 genes is related to the progressive changes of the karyotype in patients with AML and MDS with trisomy 8, 11 and 21 (+8, +11 and +21) in bone marrow and 2) can that amplification be accepted as part of the clonal evolution (CE). Karyotype analysis was performed in 179 patients with AML or MDS with the different chromosomal aberrations (CA) aged 16-81. The findings were distributed as follow: initiating balanced CA (n = 60), aneuploidia (n = 55), unbalanced CA (n = 64). Amplification of c-MYC, MLL and RUNX1 genes by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was found in 35% (7 out of 20) of AML and MDS patients with +8, +11 u +21 as single CA in their karyotype; in 63.6% of pts (7 out of 11)--with additional numerical or structural CA and in 75% (9 out of 12)--with complex karyotype. We assume that the amplification of the respective chromosomal regions in patients with +8, +11 and +21 is related to CE. Considering the amplification as a factor of CE, we established 3 patterns of karyotype development depending on the type of the initiating CA in it. Significant statistical differences were found between the three patterns regarding the karyotype distribution in the different stages of progression (p < 0.001).

  6. High p27 protein levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated to low Myc and Skp2 expression, confer resistance to apoptosis and antagonize Myc effects on cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo, Juan M.; Acosta, Juan C.; Cortés, Miguel A.; Albajar, Marta; Gómez-Casares, M. Teresa; Batlle-López, Ana; Cuadrado, M. Angeles; Onaindia, Arantza; Bretones, Gabriel; Llorca, Javier; Piris, Miguel A.; Colomer, Dolors; León, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myc (c-Myc) counteracts p27 effects, and low p27 usually correlates with high Myc expression in human cancer. However there is no information on the co-expression of both genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found a lack of correlation between RNA and protein levels of p27 and Myc in CLL cells, so we determined the protein levels by immunoblot in 107 cases of CLL. We observed a high p27 protein expression in CLL compared to normal B cells. Ectopic p27 expression in a CLL-derived cell line resulted in cell death resistance. Surprisingly, Myc expression was very low or undetectable in most CLL cases analyzed, with a clear correlation between high p27 and low Myc protein levels. This was associated with low Skp2 expression, which is consistent with the Skp2 role in p27 degradation and with SKP2 being a Myc target gene. High Myc expression did not correlate with leukemia progression, despite that cell cycle-related Myc target genes were upregulated. However, biochemical analysis showed that the high p27 levels inhibited cyclin-Cdk complexes even in Myc expressing CLL cells. Our data suggest that the combination of high p27 and low Myc is a marker of CLL cells which is mediated by Skp2. PMID:25051361

  7. CUDR promotes liver cancer stem cell growth through upregulating TERT and C-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hu; Zheng, Qidi; Li, Haiyan; Wu, Mengying; An, Jiahui; Gui, Xin; Li, Tianming; Lu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer up-regulated drug resistant (CUDR) is a novel non-coding RNA gene. Herein, we demonstrate excessive CUDR cooperates with excessive CyclinD1 or PTEN depletion to accelerate liver cancer stem cells growth and liver stem cell malignant transformation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we reveal the decrease of PTEN in cells may lead to increase binding capacity of CUDR to CyclinD1. Therefore, CUDR-CyclinD1 complex loads onto the long noncoding RNA H19 promoter region that may lead to reduce the DNA methylation on H19 promoter region and then to enhance the H19 expression. Strikingly, the overexpression of H19 increases the binding of TERT to TERC and reduces the interplay between TERT with TERRA, thus enhancing the cell telomerase activity and extending the telomere length. On the other hand, insulator CTCF recruits the CUDR-CyclinD1 complx to form the composite CUDR-CyclinD1-insulator CTCF complex which occupancied on the C-myc gene promoter region, increasing the outcome of oncogene C-myc. Ultimately, excessive TERT and C-myc lead to liver cancer stem cell and hepatocyte-like stem cell malignant proliferation. To understand the novel functions of long noncoding RNA CUDR will help in the development of new liver cancer therapeutic and diagnostic approaches. PMID:26513297

  8. Hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated renal tubular mitogenesis: effects on expression of c-myc, c-fos, c-met, VEGF and the VHL tumour-suppressor and related genes.

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, S. C.; Czapla, K.; Richards, F. M.; O'Donoghue, D. J.; Maher, E. R.

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF/SF) is a potent renal proximal tubular cell (PTEC) mitogen involved in renal development. HGF/SF is the functional ligand for the c-met proto-oncogene, and germline c-met mutations are associated with familial papillary renal cell carcinoma. Somatic von Hippel-Lindau disease tumour-suppressor gene (VHL) mutations are frequently detected in sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), and germline VHL mutations are the commonest cause of familial clear cell RCC. pVHL binds to the positive regulatory components of the trimeric elongin (SIII) complex (elongins B and C) and has been observed to deregulate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene. HGF/SF has similarly been reported to up-regulate expression of the VEGF gene in non-renal experimental systems. To investigate the mechanism of HGF/SF action in PTECs and, specifically, to examine potential interactions between the HGF/c-met and the VHL-mediated pathways for renal tubular growth control, we have isolated untransformed PTECs from normal kidneys, developed conditions for their culture in vitro and used these cells to investigate changes in mRNA levels of the VHL, elongin A, B and C, VEGF, c-myc, c-fos and c-met genes after HGF/SF exposure. Significant elevations in the mRNA levels of VEGF, c-myc, c-fos, c-met and elongins A, B and C, but not VHL, were detected after HGF/SF stimulation of human PTECs (P < 0.02), with a consistent order of peak levels observed over successive replicates (c-fos at 1 h, VEGF at 2-4 h, c-myc, at 4 h, followed by c-met and all three elongin subunits at 8 h). This study highlights the spectrum of changes in gene expression observed in PTECs after HGF/SF stimulation and has identified possible candidate mediators of the HGF/SF-induced mitogenic response. Our evidence would suggest that the changes in PTEC VEGF expression induced by HGF/SF are mediated by a VHL-independent pathway. Images Figure 1 PMID:9652757

  9. Distinct DNA binding preferences for the c-Myc/Max and Max/Max dimers.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, D L; Amati, B; Land, H

    1993-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Myc and its dimerisation partner Max are members of the basic/helix-loop-helix/leucine-zipper (bHLH-Z) family and bind to the DNA core sequence CACGTG. Using a site-selection protocol, we determined the complete 12 base pair consensus binding sites of c-Myc/Max (RACCACGTGGTY) and Max/Max (RANCACGTGNTY) dimers. We find that the c-Myc/Max dimer fails to bind the core when it is flanked by a 5'T or a 3'A, while the Max/Max dimer readily binds such sequences. Furthermore we show that inappropriate flanking sequences preclude transactivation by c-Myc in vivo. In conclusion, Max/Max dimers are less discriminatory than c-Myc/Max and may regulate other genes in addition to c-Myc/Max targets. PMID:8265351

  10. The iron chelators Dp44mT and DFO inhibit TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via up-regulation of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Daohai; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2012-05-18

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step for cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) regulates the EMT and the metastasis suppressor gene, N-myc downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1), could play a role in regulating the TGF-β pathway. NDRG1 expression is markedly increased after chelator-mediated iron depletion via hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-dependent and independent pathways (Le, N. T. and Richardson, D. R. (2004) Blood 104, 2967-2975). Moreover, novel iron chelators show marked and selective anti-tumor activity and are a potential new class of anti-metabolites. Considering this, the current study investigated the relationship between NDRG1 and the EMT to examine if iron chelators can inhibit the EMT via NDRG1 up-regulation. We demonstrated that TGF-β induces the EMT in HT29 and DU145 cells. Further, the chelators, desferrioxamine (DFO) and di-2-pyridylketone-4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT), inhibited the TGF-β-induced EMT by maintaining E-cadherin and β-catenin, at the cell membrane. We then established stable clones with NDRG1 overexpression and knock-down in HT29 and DU145 cells. These data showed that NDRG1 overexpression maintained membrane E-cadherin and β-catenin and inhibited TGF-β-stimulated cell migration and invasion. Conversely, NDRG1 knock-down caused morphological changes from an epithelial- to fibroblastic-like phenotype and also increased migration and invasion, demonstrating NDRG1 knockdown induced the EMT and enhanced TGF-β effects. We also investigated the mechanisms involved and showed the TGF-β/SMAD and Wnt pathways were implicated in NDRG1 regulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression and translocation. This study demonstrates that chelators inhibit the TGF-β-induced EMT via a process consistent with NDRG1 up-regulation and elucidates the mechanism of their activity.

  11. MYC regulates the core pre-mRNA splicing machinery as an essential step in lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Cheryl M; Bezzi, Marco; Low, Diana H P; Ang, Wei Xia; Teo, Shun Xie; Gay, Florence P H; Al-Haddawi, Muthafar; Tan, Soo Yong; Osato, Motomi; Sabò, Arianna; Amati, Bruno; Wee, Keng Boon; Guccione, Ernesto

    2015-07-02

    Deregulated expression of the MYC transcription factor occurs in most human cancers and correlates with high proliferation, reprogrammed cellular metabolism and poor prognosis. Overexpressed MYC binds to virtually all active promoters within a cell, although with different binding affinities, and modulates the expression of distinct subsets of genes. However, the critical effectors of MYC in tumorigenesis remain largely unknown. Here we show that during lymphomagenesis in Eµ-myc transgenic mice, MYC directly upregulates the transcription of the core small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly genes, including Prmt5, an arginine methyltransferase that methylates Sm proteins. This coordinated regulatory effect is critical for the core biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, effective pre-messenger-RNA splicing, cell survival and proliferation. Our results demonstrate that MYC maintains the splicing fidelity of exons with a weak 5' donor site. Additionally, we identify pre-messenger-RNAs that are particularly sensitive to the perturbation of the MYC-PRMT5 axis, resulting in either intron retention (for example, Dvl1) or exon skipping (for example, Atr, Ep400). Using antisense oligonucleotides, we demonstrate the contribution of these splicing defects to the anti-proliferative/apoptotic phenotype observed in PRMT5-depleted Eµ-myc B cells. We conclude that, in addition to its well-documented oncogenic functions in transcription and translation, MYC also safeguards proper pre-messenger-RNA splicing as an essential step in lymphomagenesis.

  12. p53, c-myc p62 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Korkolopoulou, P; Oates, J; Kittas, C; Crocker, J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and its relation to that of c-myc p62 oncoprotein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). METHODS--Paraffin wax embedded tissue from 90 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (72 B cell and 18 T cell) was stained immunohistochemically for p53 protein, c-myc p62 oncoprotein, and PCNA using the monoclonal antibodies DO7, c-myc 1-9 E10, and PC-10, respectively. RESULTS--Of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas studied, 55 (61%) stained positively for p53 protein. The proportion of positive cases increased from low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was higher in tumours of T cell origin. The percentage of positive cells (labelling index or LI) was significantly lower in low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but no difference was established between intermediate and high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In a large proportion of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the LI was below 1%. c-myc p62 immunoreactivity was identified in all cases. A significant positive correlation was established between p53 LI and c-myc p62 LI (rs = 0.453) as well as between p53 LI and PCNA LI (rs = 0.338). CONCLUSIONS--p53 immunoreactivity was present in about half the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was related to the grade of malignancy and possibly to the B or T cell origin of the tumour. It was also associated with the proliferation state as expressed by PCNA LI and c-myc p62 expression, indicating that the expression of these three cell cycle-related genes might be interrelated. Images PMID:7907610

  13. The enforced expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts triggers mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) via F-actin reorganization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jun-Wen; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Sheng-Chun; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Li, Jing; Jia, Jun-Shuang; Sheng, Hong-Fen; Yao, Zhi-Fang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Zhao, Zun-Lan; Xie, Rao-Ying; Yang, Sheng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Quan-Rong; Zhang, Meng-Ya; Yue, Min; Yuan, Jin; Gu, Wei-Wang; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2013-04-01

    In previous studies from other labs it has been well demonstrated that the ectopic expression of c-Myc in mammary epithelial cells can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereas in our pilot experiment, epithelial-like morphological changes were unexpectedly observed in c-Myc-expressing pig fibroblasts [i.e., porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and porcine dermal fibroblasts (PDFs)] and pig mesenchymal stem cells, suggesting that the same c-Myc gene is entitled to trigger EMT in epithelial cells and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) in fibroblasts. This prompted us to characterize the existence of a MET in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs at the molecular level. qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and western blot analysis illustrated that epithelial-like morphological changes were accompanied by the increased expression of epithelial markers [such as cell adhesion proteins (E-cadherin, α-catenin and Bves), tight junction protein occludin and cytokeratins (Krt8 and Krt18)], the reduced expression of mesenchymal markers [vimentin, fibronectin 1 (FN1), snail1, collagen family of proteins (COL1A1, COL5A2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (MMP12 and MMP14)] and the decreased cell motility and increased cell adhesion in c-Myc-expressing PEFs and PDFs. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of c-Myc in pig fibroblasts disrupted the stress fiber network, suppressed the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia, and resulted in RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation, which finally participates in epithelial-like morphological conversion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that the enforced expression of c-Myc in fibroblasts can trigger MET, to which cytoskeleton depolymerization and RhoA/Rock pathway inactivation contribute.

  14. In silico identification of novel ligands for G-quadruplex in the c- MYC promoter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Jin; Park, Hyun-Ju

    2015-04-01

    G-quadruplex DNA formed in NHEIII1 region of oncogene promoter inhibits transcription of the genes. In this study, virtual screening combining pharmacophore-based search and structure-based docking screening was conducted to discover ligands binding to G-quadruplex in promoter region of c- MYC. Several hit ligands showed the selective PCR-arresting effects for oligonucleotide containing c- MYC G-quadruplex forming sequence. Among them, three hits selectively inhibited cell proliferation and decreased c- MYC mRNA level in Ramos cells, where NHEIII1 is included in translocated c- MYC gene for overexpression. Promoter assay using two kinds of constructs with wild-type and mutant sequences showed that interaction of these ligands with the G-quadruplex resulted in turning-off of the reporter gene. In conclusion, combined virtual screening methods were successfully used for discovery of selective c- MYC promoter G-quadruplex binders with anticancer activity.

  15. Growth suppression by MYC inhibition in small cell lung cancer cells with TP53 and RB1 inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Francesco Paolo; Tokgün, Elvan; Solé-Sánchez, Sònia; Giampaolo, Sabrina; Tokgün, Onur; Jauset, Toni; Kohno, Takashi; Perucho, Manuel; Soucek, Laura; Yokota, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive type of lung cancer with high mortality. One of the MYC family genes, MYC, MYCL or MYCN, is amplified in ~20% of the SCLCs; therefore, MYC proteins are potential therapeutic targets in SCLC patients. We investigated the therapeutic impact of Omomyc, a MYC dominant negative, in a panel of SCLC cell lines. Strikingly, Omomyc suppressed the growth of all tested cell lines by inducing cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis. Induction of G1 arrest by Omomyc was found to be dependent on the activation of CDKN1A, in part, through the TP73 pathway. Our results strongly indicate that SCLC cells carrying amplification of MYC, MYCL or MYCN are addicted to MYC function, suggesting that MYC targeting would be an efficient therapeutic option for SCLC patients. PMID:27105536

  16. c-myc as a mediator of accelerated apoptosis and involution in mammary glands lacking Socs3.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Kate D; Vaillant, François; Alexander, Warren S; Wintermantel, Tim M; Forrest, Natasha C; Holroyd, Sheridan L; McManus, Edward J; Schutz, Gunther; Watson, Christine J; Chodosh, Lewis A; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Visvader, Jane E

    2006-12-13

    Suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins are critical attenuators of cytokine-mediated signalling in diverse tissues. To determine the importance of Socs3 in mammary development, we generated mice in which Socs3 was deleted in mammary epithelial cells. No overt phenotype was evident during pregnancy and lactation, indicating that Socs3 is not a key physiological regulator of prolactin signalling. However, Socs3-deficient mammary glands exhibited a profound increase in epithelial apoptosis and tissue remodelling, resulting in precocious involution. This phenotype was accompanied by augmented Stat3 activation and a marked increase in the level of c-myc. Moreover, induction of c-myc before weaning using an inducible transgenic model recapitulated the Socs3 phenotype, and elevated expression of likely c-myc target genes, E2F-1, Bax and p53, was observed. Our data establish Socs3 as a critical attenuator of pro-apoptotic pathways that act in the developing mammary gland and provide evidence that c-myc regulates apoptosis during involution.

  17. Gene expression profiling of patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenografts predicts sensitivity to the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1: implications for individualized medicine efforts.

    PubMed

    Bian, Benjamin; Bigonnet, Martin; Gayet, Odile; Loncle, Celine; Maignan, Aurélie; Gilabert, Marine; Moutardier, Vincent; Garcia, Stephane; Turrini, Olivier; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Giovannini, Marc; Grandval, Philippe; Gasmi, Mohamed; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Secq, Veronique; Poizat, Flora; Nicolle, Rémy; Blum, Yuna; Marisa, Laetitia; Rubis, Marion; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Bradner, James E; Qi, Jun; Lomberk, Gwen; Urrutia, Raul; Saul, Andres; Dusetti, Nelson; Iovanna, Juan

    2017-03-08

    c-MYC controls more than 15% of genes responsible for proliferation, differentiation, and cellular metabolism in pancreatic as well as other cancers making this transcription factor a prime target for treating patients. The transcriptome of 55 patient-derived xenografts show that 30% of them share an exacerbated expression profile of MYC transcriptional targets (MYC-high). This cohort is characterized by a high level of Ki67 staining, a lower differentiation state, and a shorter survival time compared to the MYC-low subgroup. To define classifier expression signature, we selected a group of 10 MYC target transcripts which expression is increased in the MYC-high group and six transcripts increased in the MYC-low group. We validated the ability of these markers panel to identify MYC-high patient-derived xenografts from both: discovery and validation cohorts as well as primary cell cultures from the same patients. We then showed that cells from MYC-high patients are more sensitive to JQ1 treatment compared to MYC-low cells, in monolayer, 3D cultured spheroids and in vivo xenografted tumors, due to cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis. Therefore, these results provide new markers and potentially novel therapeutic modalities for distinct subgroups of pancreatic tumors and may find application to the future management of these patients within the setting of individualized medicine clinics.

  18. MYC amplification and overexpression in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma: a fluorescence in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shon, Wonwoo; Sukov, William R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Folpe, Andrew L

    2014-04-01

    MYC, a proto-oncogene located on chromosome 8q24, is involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have documented high-level MYC gene amplification and MYC overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-irradiation angiosarcomas, but not in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS-C) or in other radiation-associated vascular proliferations, such as atypical vascular lesions. Prompted by our recent finding of MYC amplification in a primary hepatic AS, we analyzed a large number of well-characterized AS-C for MYC amplification and protein overexpression. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 38 AS-C were retrieved from our archives and were examined by IHC analysis and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), using a commercially available antibody and probe. For FISH analysis, the number of copies of MYC was compared with the control gene, CEN8 (MYC/CEN8 ratio). All cases occurred on sun-exposed skin; no patient was known to have a history of therapeutic irradiation. Possible associations between survival and a wide variety of clinicopathological variables were evaluated using the log-rank test. By IHC analysis, MYC overexpression was present in 9/38 (24%) AS-C (2-3+: 6 cases, 16%; 1+: 3 cases, 8%). By FISH analysis, 2/5 (40%) informative cases with 2-3+ immunostaining showed high-level gene amplification. One additional case with 3+ immunostaining showed higher level aneusomy of chromosome 8 (5-8 MYC and CEN8). Two out of fourteen (14%) IHC-negative cases also carried MYC amplification (one high level and one lower level). Low copy number gain of chromosome 8 (3-5 MYC and CEN8) was observed in AS-C with or without MYC expression. MYC amplification and MYC protein overexpression were not correlated with clinical outcome. We have shown, for the first time, MYC gene amplification and protein overexpression in primary (non-radiation-associated) AS of the skin. MYC protein overexpression in cases lacking gene

  19. LMO2-negative Expression Predicts the Presence of MYC Translocations in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Colomo, Luis; Vazquez, Ivonne; Papaleo, Natalia; Espinet, Blanca; Ferrer, Anna; Franco, Catalina; Comerma, Laura; Hernandez, Silvia; Calvo, Xavier; Salar, Antonio; Climent, Fina; Mate, José Luis; Forcada, Pilar; Mozos, Anna; Nonell, Lara; Martinez, Antonio; Carrio, Anna; Costa, Dolors; Dlouhy, Ivan; Salaverria, Itziar; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Valera, Alexandra; Campo, Elias

    2017-03-10

    MYC translocation is a defining feature of Burkitt lymphoma (BL), and the new category of high-grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations, and occurs in 6% to 15% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). The low incidence of MYC translocations in DLBCL makes the genetic study of all these lymphomas cumbersome. Strategies based on an initial immunophenotypic screening to select cases with a high probability of carrying the translocation may be useful. LMO2 is a germinal center marker expressed in most lymphomas originated in these cells. Mining gene expression profiling studies, we observed LMO2 downregulation in BL and large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) with MYC translocations, and postulated that LMO2 protein expression could assist to identify such cases. We analyzed LMO2 protein expression in 46 BLs and 284 LBCL. LMO2 was expressed in 1/46 (2%) BL cases, 146/268 (54.5%) DLBCL cases, and 2/16 (12.5%) high-grade B-cell lymphoma cases with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 translocations. All BLs carried MYC translocation (P<0.001), whereas LMO2 was only positive in 6/42 (14%) LBCL with MYC translocation (P<0.001). The relationship between LMO2 negativity and MYC translocation was further analyzed in different subsets of tumors according to CD10 expression and cell of origin. Lack of LMO2 expression was associated with the detection of MYC translocations with high sensitivity (87%), specificity (87%), positive predictive value and negative predictive value (74% and 94%, respectively), and accuracy (87%) in CD10 LBCL. Comparing LMO2 and MYC protein expression, all statistic measures of performance of LMO2 surpassed MYC in CD10 LBCL. These findings suggest that LMO2 loss may be a good predictor for the presence of MYC translocation in CD10 LBCL.

  20. Deregulation of MYC and TP53 through genetic and epigenetic alterations in gallbladder carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Geraldo; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Dos Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Demachki, Samia; Nunes, Caroline Aquino Moreira; do Nascimento Borges, Barbara; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2015-08-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy and presents a poor prognosis. MYC and p53 have been implicated in gallbladder carcinogenesis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in their regulation in this neoplasia. Here, we evaluated the MYC and TP53 copy numbers in gallbladder tumors and their possible association with protein expression. We also investigated whether MYC may be controlled by mutations and DNA promoter methylation. In the present study, 15 samples of invasive gallbladder carcinomas and six control samples were analyzed. On the other hand, the expression of MYC and p53 was more frequent in gallbladder carcinomas than in control samples (p = 0.002, p = 0.046, respectively). Gain of copies of the MYC and TP53 genes was detected in 86.7 and 50 % of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively. MYC and TP53 amplifications were associated with immunoreactivity of their protein (p = 0.029, p = 0.001, respectively). MYC hypomethylation was only detected in tumoral samples and was associated with its protein expression (p = 0.029). MYC mutations were detected in 80 % of tumor samples. The G allele at rs117856857 was associated with the presence of gallbladder tumors (p = 0.019) and with MYC expression (p = 0.044). Moreover, two tumors presented a pathogenic mutation in MYC exon 2 (rs28933407). Our study highlights that the gain of MYC and TP53 copies seems to be a frequent finding in gallbladder cancer. In addition, gain of copies, hypomethylation and point mutations at MYC may contribute to overexpression of its protein in this type of cancer.

  1. Six lysine residues on c-Myc are direct substrates for acetylation by p300.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangling; Faiola, Francesco; Martinez, Ernest

    2005-10-14

    The c-Myc oncoprotein (Myc) functions as a transcription regulator in association with an obligatory partner, Max, to control cell growth and differentiation. The Myc:Max complex regulates specific genes by recognizing "E-box" DNA sequences and promoter-bound factors such as Miz-1. Myc recruits histone acetyltransferases (HATs) to modify chromatin and is, itself, acetylated in mammalian cells by several of these HATs including p300/CBP, GCN5, and Tip60. The Myc residues that are directly modified by these different HATs remain unknown. Here, we have analyzed the acetylation of recombinant Myc:Max complexes by purified p300 HAT in vitro by using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry. These analyses identify six lysine residues in human Myc (K143, K157, K275, K317, K323, and K371) as direct substrates for p300. Our results further indicate that p300 can acetylate DNA-bound Myc:Max complexes and that acetylated Myc:Max heterodimers efficiently interact with Miz-1.

  2. Low molecular weight inhibitors of Myc-Max interaction and function.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoying; Giap, Christine; Lazo, John S; Prochownik, Edward V

    2003-09-18

    c-Myc is helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (HLH-ZIP) oncoprotein that is frequently deregulated in human cancers. In order to bind DNA, regulate target gene expression, and function in a biological context, c-Myc must dimerize with another HLH-ZIP protein, Max. A large number of c-Myc target genes have been identified, and many of the encoded proteins are transforming. Such functional redundancy, however, complicates therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting any single target gene product. Given this consideration, we have instead attempted to identify ways by which c-Myc itself could be effectively disabled. We have used a yeast two-hybrid approach to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that inhibit c-Myc-Max association. All of the compounds prevented transactivation by c-Myc-Max heterodimers, inhibited cell cycle progression, and prevented the in vitro growth of fibroblasts in a c-Myc-dependent manner. Several of the compounds also inhibited tumor growth in vivo. These results show that the yeast two-hybrid screen is useful for identifying compounds that can be exploited in mammalian cells. More specifically, they provide a means by which structural analogs, based upon these first-generation Myc-Max inhibitors, can be developed to enhance antitumor efficacy.

  3. CT120: A New Potential Target for c-Myc in Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Baltaci, Elif; Seyhan, Betül; Baykara, Onur; Buyru, Nur

    2017-01-01

    Background: CT120 is a universally expressed protein with seven transmembrane domains. It functions in cell proliferation, survival and apoptosis by activating Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Evidence suggests that CT120 plays important roles in lung carcinogenesis and oncogenic pathway activation. c-Myc is an important transcription factor modulating cell progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. Previous studies have shown that MYC gene is amplified in many types of cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Myc can regulate expression of many genes by binding to E-boxes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between c-Myc protein and CT120 gene. Methods: Tumor and normal tissue samples from 50 patients with HNSCC were investigated with chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP), Illumina MiSeq, bisulphite sequencing and qRT-PCR. Results: c-Myc binds to all E-boxes except E-box 5 on CT120 promoter. The CpG dinucleotides were found to be partially methylated in all tumor and normal tissue samples. Bisulphite sequencing showed a 10% down-regulation in the methylation levels of the tumor tissues. CT120 gene was hypomethylated and up-regulated in 56% of the tumor tissue samples. Expression of c-Myc was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in non-cancerous tissue samples. MYC was overexpressed in 68% of the tumor tissue samples compared to normal tissues. The mean MYC levels were 2.42-fold higher in the tumor tissue samples. In 48% of the tumor tissues, MYC and CT120A mRNA were up- or down-regulated simultaneously (p<0.001). Conclusion: We show that CT120 gene is a target of c-Myc and it contributes to cancer progression in HNSCC. PMID:28382151

  4. Novel Thiosemicarbazones Inhibit Lysine-Rich CEACAM1 Co-isolated (LYRIC) and the LYRIC-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Up-Regulation of N-Myc Downstream-Regulated Gene 1 (NDRG1).

    PubMed

    Xi, Ruxing; Pun, Ivan Ho Yuen; Menezes, Sharleen V; Fouani, Leyla; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Huang, Michael L H; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Richardson, Des R; Kovacevic, Zaklina

    2017-03-08

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) plays a vital role in cancer progression, being associated with inflammation and promotion of cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The effects of TNFα are mediated by its down-stream target, the oncogene, lysine-rich CEACAM1 co-isolated protein (LYRIC; also known as metadherin or astrocyte elevated gene-1). LYRIC plays an important role in activating the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which controls multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, etc. In contrast, the metastasis suppressor, N-myc down-stream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), has the opposite effect on the NF-κB pathway, being able to inhibit NF-κB activation and reduce angiogenesis, proliferation, migration and cancer cell invasion. These potent anti-cancer properties make NDRG1 an ideal therapeutic target. Indeed, a novel class of thiosemicarbazone anti-cancer agents that target this molecule have been developed, with the lead agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC), recently entering clinical trials for advanced and resistant cancers. To further elucidate the interaction between NDRG1 and oncogenic signaling, this study for the first time assessed the effects of NDRG1 on the tumorigenic properties of TNFα and its down-stream target, LYRIC. We demonstrate that NDRG1 inhibits the TNFα-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Further, NDRG1 also potently inhibited LYRIC expression, with a negative feedback loop existing between these two molecules. Examining the mechanism involved, we demonstrated that NDRG1 inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling, leading to reduced levels of the LYRIC transcriptional activator, c-Myc. Finally, we demonstrate that novel thiosemicarbazones that up-regulate NDRG1 also inhibit LYRIC expression, further highlighting their marked potential for cancer treatment.

  5. MYC-dependent recruitment of RUNX1 and GATA2 on the SET oncogene promoter enhances PP2A inactivation in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Pippa, Raffaella; Dominguez, Ana; Malumbres, Raquel; Endo, Akinori; Arriazu, Elena; Marcotegui, Nerea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Odero, María D

    2016-06-06

    The SET (I2PP2A) oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) that regulates many cell processes and important signaling pathways. Despite the importance of SET overexpression and its prognostic impact in both hematologic and solid tumors, little is known about the mechanisms involved in its transcriptional regulation. In this report, we define the minimal promoter region of the SET gene, and identify a novel multi-protein transcription complex, composed of MYC, SP1, RUNX1 and GATA2, which activates SET expression in AML. The role of MYC is crucial, since it increases the expression of the other three transcription factors of the complex, and supports their recruitment to the promoter of SET. These data shed light on a new regulatory mechanism in cancer, in addition to the already known PP2A-MYC and SET-PP2A. Besides, we show that there is a significant positive correlation between the expression of SET and MYC, RUNX1, and GATA2 in AML patients, which further endorses our results. Altogether, this study opens new directions for understanding the mechanisms that lead to SET overexpression, and demonstrates that MYC, SP1, RUNX1 and GATA2 are key transcriptional regulators of SET expression in AML.

  6. FOXM1 allows human keratinocytes to bypass the oncogene-induced differentiation checkpoint in response to gain of MYC or loss of p53

    PubMed Central

    Molinuevo, R; Freije, A; de Pedro, I; Stoll, S W; Elder, J T; Gandarillas, A

    2017-01-01

    Tumour suppressor p53 or proto-oncogene MYC is frequently altered in squamous carcinomas, but this is insufficient to drive carcinogenesis. We have shown that overactivation of MYC or loss of p53 via DNA damage triggers an anti-oncogenic differentiation-mitosis checkpoint in human epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in impaired cell division and squamous differentiation. Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) is a transcription factor recently proposed to govern the expression of a set of mitotic genes. Deregulation of FOXM1 occurs in a wide variety of epithelial malignancies. We have ectopically expressed FOXM1 in keratinocytes of the skin after overexpression of MYC or inactivation of endogenous p53. Ectopic FOXM1 rescues the proliferative capacity of MYC- or p53-mutant cells in spite of higher genetic damage and a larger cell size typical of differentiation. As a consequence, differentiation induced by loss of p53 or MYC is converted into increased proliferation and keratinocytes displaying genomic instability are maintained within the proliferative compartment. The results demonstrate that keratinocyte oncogene-induced differentiation is caused by mitosis control and provide new insight into the mechanisms driving malignant progression in squamous cancer. PMID:27452522

  7. Potential effect of spliceosome inhibition in small cell lung cancer irrespective of the MYC status

    PubMed Central

    Rozeboom, Leslie; Yu, Hui; Ellison, Kim; Rivard, Christopher J.; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive malignancy with few therapeutic advances in the treatment in recent decades. Based on a recent study that identified the spliceosome as a therapeutic vulnerability in MYC-driven breast cancers, we evaluated the efficacy of a spliceosome inhibitor in SCLC cell lines and analyzed the correlation with MYC status. Among 23 SCLC cell lines examined, eight showed high MYC protein expression (> 80% positive cells) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while 10 cell lines demonstrated no staining for MYC. The remaining five cell lines showed weak staining (< 40% positive cells). All four cell lines that were previously demonstrated to have MYC gene amplification were positive for MYC by IHC. Four cell lines with high MYC expression and four with low MYC expression were used in further analysis. A spliceosome inhibitor, pladienolide B, showed high efficacy (IC50 < 12nM) in all eight cell lines tested, irrespective of the MYC IHC or MYC gene amplification status. We observed that the four cell lines with higher sensitivity to the spliceosome inhibitor were established from patients with prior chemotherapy. Therefore we chronically treated H1048 cells, that were established from a treatment-naïve patient, with cisplatin for 4 weeks, and found that H1048-cisplatin treated cells became more sensitive to pladienolide B. In conclusion, our in vitro results indicate that spliceosome inhibitors would be promising molecular target drugs in SCLC irrespective of the MYC status, especially in the second-line settings after an effective front-line chemotherapy. PMID:28192473

  8. Id2 leaves the chromatin of the E2F4–p130-controlled c-myc promoter during hepatocyte priming for liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, José L.; Sandoval, Juan; Serviddio, Gaetano; Sastre, Juan; Morante, María; Perrelli, Maria-Giulia; Martínez-Chantar, María L.; Viña, José; Viña, Juan R.; Mato, José M.; Ávila, Matías A.; Franco, Luis; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Torres, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation) helix–loop–helix proteins are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and cancer. The fact that the molecular mechanisms of liver regeneration are not completely understood prompted us to study the fate of Id2 in proliferating liver. Id2 increases in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, following the early induction of its gene. Co-immunoprecipitation shows that Id2 forms a complex with E2F4, p130 and mSin3A in quiescent liver and all these components are present at the c-myc promoter as shown using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation). Activation of c-myc during hepatocyte priming (G0–G1 transition) correlates with the dissociation of Id2 and HDAC (histone deacetylase), albeit p130 remains bound at least until 6 h. Moreover, as the G0–G1 transition progresses, Id2 and HDAC again bind the c-myc promoter concomitantly with the repression of this gene. The time course of c-myc binding to the Id2 promoter, as determined by ChIP assays is compatible with a role of the oncoprotein as a transcriptional inducer of Id2 in liver regeneration. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that Id2 also increases in proliferating hepatocytes after bile duct ligation. In this case, the pattern of Id2 presence in the c-myc promoter parallels that found in regenerating liver. Our results may suggest a control role for Id2 in hepatocyte priming, through a p130 dissociation-independent regulation of c-myc. PMID:16776654

  9. Rictor regulates FBXW7-dependent c-Myc and cyclin E degradation in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Zheng; Zhou, Yuning; Evers, B. Mark; Wang, Qingding

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor decreases ubiquitination of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of rictor increases protein levels of c-Myc and cylin E. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. -- Abstract: Rictor (Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR) forms a complex with mTOR and phosphorylates and activates Akt. Activation of Akt induces expression of c-Myc and cyclin E, which are overexpressed in colorectal cancer and play an important role in colorectal cancer cell proliferation. Here, we show that rictor associates with FBXW7 to form an E3 complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E degradation. The Rictor-FBXW7 complex is biochemically distinct from the previously reported mTORC2 and can be immunoprecipitated independently of mTORC2. Moreover, knocking down of rictor in serum-deprived colorectal cancer cells results in the decreased ubiquitination and increased protein levels of c-Myc and cyclin E while overexpression of rictor induces the degradation of c-Myc and cyclin E proteins. Genetic knockout of FBXW7 blunts the effects of rictor, suggesting that rictor regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E requires FBXW7. Our findings identify rictor as an important component of FBXW7 E3 ligase complex participating in the regulation of c-Myc and cyclin E protein ubiquitination and degradation. Importantly, our results suggest that elevated growth factor signaling may contribute to decrease rictor/FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination of c-Myc and cyclin E, thus leading to accumulation of cyclin E and c-Myc in colorectal cancer cells.

  10. Overexpressed microRNA-182 promotes proliferation and invasion in prostate cancer PC-3 cells by down-regulating N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ranlu; Li, Jing; Teng, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhihong; Xu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs, non-coding 20-22 nucleotide single-stranded RNAs, result in translational repression or degradation and gene silencing of their target genes, and significantly contribute to the regulation of gene expression. In the current study, we report that miR-182 expression was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer tissues and four cell lines, compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues and normal prostatic epithelial (RWPE-1) cells. Ectopic overexpression of miR-182 significantly promotes the proliferation, increases the invasion, promotes the G1/S cell cycle transition and reduces early apotosis of PC-3 cells, while suppression of miR-182 decreased the proliferation and invasion, inhibits the G1/S cell cycle transition and increase early apotosis of PC-3 cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that miR-182 could downregulate expression of NDRG1 by directly targeting the NDRG1 3'-untranslated region. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-182 plays an important role in the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells by directly suppressing the tumor supressor gene NDRG1. We uncovered a new epigenetic regulation of NDRG1.

  11. The mitochondrial translation machinery as a therapeutic target in Myc-driven lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    D'Andrea, Aleco; Gritti, Ilaria; Nicoli, Paola; Giorgio, Marco; Doni, Mirko; Conti, Annalisa; Bianchi, Valerio; Casoli, Lucia; Sabò, Arianna; Mironov, Alexandre; Beznoussenko, Galina V.; Amati, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor Myc is required for the progression and maintenance of diverse tumors. This has led to the concept that Myc itself, Myc-activated gene products, or associated biological processes might constitute prime targets for cancer therapy. Here, we present an in vivo reverse-genetic screen targeting a set of 241 Myc-activated mRNAs in mouse B-cell lymphomas, unraveling a critical role for the mitochondrial ribosomal protein (MRP) Ptcd3 in tumor maintenance. Other MRP-coding genes were also up regulated in Myc-induced lymphoma, pointing to a coordinate activation of the mitochondrial translation machinery. Inhibition of mitochondrial translation with the antibiotic Tigecycline was synthetic-lethal with Myc activation, impaired respiratory activity and tumor cell survival in vitro, and significantly extended lifespan in lymphoma-bearing mice. We have thus identified a novel Myc-induced metabolic dependency that can be targeted by common antibiotics, opening new therapeutic perspectives in Myc-overexpressing tumors. PMID:27635472

  12. AID-dependent activation of a MYC transgene induces multiple myeloma in a conditional mouse model of post-germinal center malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chesi, Marta; Robbiani, Davide F; Sebag, Michael; Chng, Wee Joo; Affer, Maurizio; Tiedemann, Rodger; Valdez, Riccardo; Palmer, Stephen E; Haas, Stephanie S; Stewart, A Keith; Fonseca, Rafael; Kremer, Richard; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Bergsagel, P Leif

    2008-02-01

    By misdirecting the activity of Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) to a conditional MYC transgene, we have achieved sporadic, AID-dependent MYC activation in germinal center B cells of Vk*MYC mice. Whereas control C57BL/6 mice develop benign monoclonal gammopathy with age, all Vk*MYC mice progress to an indolent multiple myeloma associated with the biological and clinical features highly characteristic of the human disease. Furthermore, antigen-dependent myeloma could be induced by immunization with a T-dependent antigen. Consistent with these findings in mice, more frequent MYC rearrangements, elevated levels of MYC mRNA, and MYC target genes distinguish human patients with multiple myeloma from individuals with monoclonal gammopathy, implicating a causal role for MYC in the progression of monoclonal gammopathy to multiple myeloma.

  13. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes.

    PubMed

    Smetanina, Mariya A; Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Kurinna, Svitlana M; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P; Moore, David D; Merkulova, Tatyana I

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car(-/-)) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car(-/-) livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor.

  14. Elevated c-myc protooncogene expression in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, B.D. Jr.; Smardo, F.L. Jr.; Grantham, J.J.; Calvet, J.P.

    1987-12-01

    The polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are a group of disorders characterized by the growth of epithelial cysts from the nephrons and collecting ducts of kidney tubules. The diseases can be inherited or can be provoked by environmental factors. To investigate the molecular basis of the abnormal cell growth associated with PKD, c-myc protooncogene expression was studied in a mouse model for autosomal recessive PKD. Homozygous recessive C57BL/6J (cpk/cpk) mice develop massively enlarged cystic kidneys and die from renal failure shortly after 3 weeks of age. Quantitative dot blot and RNA blot hybridization experiments in which whole kidney poly(A)/sup +/ RNA was hybridized with a c-myc RNA probe showed a 2- to 6-fold increase in c-myc mRNA at 2 weeks, and a 25- to 30-fold increase in c-myc mRNA at 3 weeks of age in polycystic mice, as compared to normal littermates. c-myc expression was also examined under two conditions in which kidney cell growth was experimentally induced in normal adult mice: compensatory renal hypertrophy and tubule regeneration following folic acid-induced renal cell injury. While compensatory hypertrophy resulted in only a small increase in c-myc, folic acid treatment gave rise after 24 hr to a 12-fold increase in c-myc RNA. The induction of c-myc by folic acid is consistent with increased cellular proliferation regenerating tubules. In contrast, polycystic kidneys show only a minimal increase in cellular proliferation over that seen in normal kidneys, while c-myc levels were found to be markedly elevated. Thus, the level of c-myc expression in cystic kidneys appears to be out of proportion to the rate of cell division, suggesting that elevated and potentially abnormal c-myc expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of PKD.

  15. A novel Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. MYC-type ICE-like transcription factor gene ZmmICE1, enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiang; Yang, Lei; Yu, Mengyuan; Lai, Jianbin; Wang, Chao; McNeil, David; Zhou, Meixue; Yang, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    The annual Zea mays ssp. mexicana L., a member of the teosinte group, is a close wild relative of maize and thus can be effectively used in maize improvement. In this study, an ICE-like gene, ZmmICE1, was isolated from a cDNA library of RNA-Seq from cold-treated seedling tissues of Zea mays ssp. mexicana L. The deduced protein of ZmmICE1 contains a highly conserved basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and C-terminal region of ICE-like proteins. The ZmmICE1 protein localizes to the nucleus and shows sumoylation when expressed in an Escherichia coli reconstitution system. In addition, yeast one hybrid assays indicated that ZmmICE1 has transactivation activities. Moreover, ectopic expression of ZmmICE1 in the Arabidopsis ice1-2 mutant increased freezing tolerance. The ZmmICE1 overexpressed plants showed lower electrolyte leakage (EL), reduced contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression of downstream cold related genes of Arabidopsis C-repeat-binding factors (AtCBF1, AtCBF2 and AtCBF3), cold-responsive genes (AtCOR15A and AtCOR47), kinesin-1 member gene (AtKIN1) and responsive to desiccation gene (AtRD29A) was significantly induced when compared with wild type under low temperature treatment. Taken together, these results indicated that ZmmICE1 is the homolog of Arabidopsis inducer of CBF expression genes (AtICE1/2) and plays an important role in the regulation of freezing stress response.

  16. Critical Role of Shp2 in Tumor Growth Involving Regulation of c-Myc

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yuan; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Liwei; Fang, Bin; Win-Piazza, Hla; Haura, Eric; Koomen, John M.; Wu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutants of Shp2 protein tyrosine phosphatase, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, are linked to leukemia. In solid tumors, however, PTPN11 mutations occur at low frequencies, while the wild-type Shp2 is activated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in cancer cells and mediates PTK signaling. Therefore, it is important to address whether the wild-type Shp2 plays a functional role critical for tumor growth. Using shRNAs and a PTP-inactive mutant to inhibit Shp2, we find here that tumor growth of DU145 prostate cancer and H292 lung cancer cells depends on Shp2. Suppression of Shp2 inhibited cell proliferation, decreased c-Myc, and increased p27 expression in cell cultures. In H292 tumor tissues, c-Myc–positive cells coincided with Ki67-positive cells, and smaller tumors from Shp2 knockdown cells had less c-Myc–positive cells and more nuclear p27. Shp2-regulated c-Myc expression was mediated by Src and Erk1/2. Down-regulation of c-Myc reduced cell proliferation, while up-regulation of c-Myc in Shp2 knockdown H292 cells partially rescued the inhibitory effect of Shp2 suppression on cell proliferation. Tyrosine phosphoproteomic analysis of H292 tumor tissues showed that Shp2 could both up-regulate and down-regulate tyrosine phosphorylation on cellular proteins. Among other changes, Shp2 inhibition increased phosphorylation of Src Tyr-530 and Cdk1 Thr-14/Tyr-15 and decreased phosphorylation of Erk1- and Erk2-activating sites in the tumors. Significantly, we found that Shp2 positively regulated Gab1 Tyr-627/Tyr-659 phosphorylation. This finding reveals that Shp2 can autoregulate its own activating signal. Shp2 Tyr-62/Tyr-63 phosphorylation was observed in tumor tissues, indicating that Shp2 is activated in the tumors. PMID:21442024

  17. Direct inhibition of c-Myc-Max heterodimers by celastrol and celastrol-inspired triterpenoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huabo; Teriete, Peter; Hu, Angela; Raveendra-Panickar, Dhanya; Pendelton, Kelsey; Lazo, John S; Eiseman, Julie; Holien, Toril; Misund, Kristine; Oliynyk, Ganna; Arsenian-Henriksson, Marie; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Sundan, Anders; Prochownik, Edward V

    2015-10-20

    Many oncogenic signals originate from abnormal protein-protein interactions that are potential targets for small molecule inhibitors. However, the therapeutic disruption of these interactions has proved elusive. We report here that the naturally-occurring triterpenoid celastrol is an inhibitor of the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein, which is over-expressed in many human cancers. Most Myc inhibitors prevent the association between Myc and its obligate heterodimerization partner Max via their respective bHLH-ZIP domains. In contrast, we show that celastrol binds to and alters the quaternary structure of the pre-formed dimer and abrogates its DNA binding. Celastrol contains a reactive quinone methide group that promiscuously forms Michael adducts with numerous target proteins and other free sulfhydryl-containing molecules. Interestingly, triterpenoid derivatives lacking the quinone methide showed enhanced specificity and potency against Myc. As with other Myc inhibitors, these analogs rapidly reduced the abundance of Myc protein and provoked a global energy crisis marked by ATP depletion, neutral lipid accumulation, AMP-activated protein kinase activation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. They also inhibited the proliferation of numerous established human cancer cell lines as well as primary myeloma explants that were otherwise resistant to JQ1, a potent indirect Myc inhibitor. N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma cells showed similar responses and, in additional, underwent neuronal differentiation. These studies indicate that certain pharmacologically undesirable properties of celastrol such as Michael adduct formation can be eliminated while increasing selectivity and potency toward Myc and N-Myc. This, together with their low in vivo toxicity, provides a strong rationale for pursuing the development of additional Myc-specific triterpenoid derivatives.

  18. Direct inhibition of c-Myc-Max heterodimers by celastrol and celastrol-inspired triterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huabo; Teriete, Peter; Hu, Angela; Raveendra-Panickar, Dhanya; Pendelton, Kelsey; Lazo, John S.; Eiseman, Julie; Holien, Toril; Misund, Kristine; Oliynyk, Ganna; Arsenian-Henriksson, Marie; Cosford, Nicholas D. P; Sundan, Anders; Prochownik, Edward V.

    2015-01-01

    Many oncogenic signals originate from abnormal protein-protein interactions that are potential targets for small molecule inhibitors. However, the therapeutic disruption of these interactions has proved elusive. We report here that the naturally-occurring triterpenoid celastrol is an inhibitor of the c-Myc (Myc) oncoprotein, which is over-expressed in many human cancers. Most Myc inhibitors prevent the association between Myc and its obligate heterodimerization partner Max via their respective bHLH-ZIP domains. In contrast, we show that celastrol binds to and alters the quaternary structure of the pre-formed dimer and abrogates its DNA binding. Celastrol contains a reactive quinone methide group that promiscuously forms Michael adducts with numerous target proteins and other free sulfhydryl-containing molecules. Interestingly, triterpenoid derivatives lacking the quinone methide showed enhanced specificity and potency against Myc. As with other Myc inhibitors, these analogs rapidly reduced the abundance of Myc protein and provoked a global energy crisis marked by ATP depletion, neutral lipid accumulation, AMP-activated protein kinase activation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. They also inhibited the proliferation of numerous established human cancer cell lines as well as primary myeloma explants that were otherwise resistant to JQ1, a potent indirect Myc inhibitor. N-Myc amplified neuroblastoma cells showed similar responses and, in additional, underwent neuronal differentiation. These studies indicate that certain pharmacologically undesirable properties of celastrol such as Michael adduct formation can be eliminated while increasing selectivity and potency toward Myc and N-Myc. This, together with their low in vivo toxicity, provides a strong rationale for pursuing the development of additional Myc-specific triterpenoid derivatives. PMID:26474287

  19. The Trithorax group protein Lid is a trimethyl histone H3K4 demethylase required for dMyc-induced cell growth.

    PubMed

    Secombe, Julie; Li, Ling; Carlos, Leni; Eisenman, Robert N

    2007-03-01

    The Myc oncoprotein is a potent inducer of cell growth, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. While many direct Myc target genes have been identified, the molecular determinants of Myc's transcriptional specificity remain elusive. We have carried out a genetic screen in Drosophila and identified the Trithorax group protein Little imaginal discs (Lid) as a regulator of dMyc-induced cell growth. Lid binds to dMyc and is required for dMyc-induced expression of the growth regulatory gene Nop60B. The mammalian Lid orthologs, Rbp-2 (JARID1A) and Plu-1 (JARID1B), also bind to c-Myc, indicating that Lid-Myc function is conserved. We demonstrate that Lid is a JmjC-dependent trimethyl H3K4 demethylase in vivo and that this enzymatic activity is negatively regulated by dMyc, which binds to Lid's JmjC domain. Because Myc binding is associated with high levels of trimethylated H3K4, we propose that the Lid-dMyc complex facilitates Myc binding to, or maintenance of, this chromatin context.

  20. Allantoin, a stress-related purine metabolite, can activate jasmonate signaling in a MYC2-regulated and abscisic acid-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Ishiga, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Shunsuke; Konishi, Tomokazu; Egusa, Mayumi; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C.; Hirayama, Takashi; Kaminaka, Hironori; Shimada, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Allantoin is a metabolic intermediate of purine catabolism that often accumulates in stressed plants. Recently, we used Arabidopsis knockout mutants (aln) of ALLANTOINASE to show that this purine metabolite activates abscisic acid (ABA) production, thereby stimulating stress-related gene expression and enhancing seedling tolerance to abiotic stress. A detailed re-examination of the microarray data of an aln mutant (aln-1) confirmed the increased expression of ABA-related genes and also revealed altered expression of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) responses, probably under the control of MYC2, a master switch in the JA signaling pathway. Consistent with the transcriptome profiles, the aln-1 mutant displayed increased JA levels and enhanced responses to mechanical wounding and exogenous JA. Moreover, aln mutants demonstrated modestly increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum, probably reflecting the antagonistic action of MYC2 on the defense against these bacterial phytopathogens. Exogenously administered allantoin elicited the expression of JA-responsive genes, including MYC2, in wild-type plants, supporting the idea that allantoin might be responsible for the observed JA-related phenotypes of aln mutants. However, mutants deficient in bioactive JA (jar1-1), insensitive to JA (myc2-3), or deficient in ABA (aba2-1 and bglu18) suppressed the effect of exogenous allantoin. The suppression was further confirmed in aln-1 jar1-1 and aln-1 bglu18 double mutants. These results indicate that allantoin can activate the MYC2-regulated JA signaling pathway through ABA production. Overall, this study suggests a possible connection of purine catabolism with stress hormone homeostasis and signaling, and highlights the potential importance of allantoin in these interactions. PMID:26931169

  1. PAD4 regulates proliferation of multipotent haematopoietic cells by controlling c-myc expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Arai, Satoko; Suzuki, Akari; Nariai, Yuko; Urano, Takeshi; Nakayama, Manabu; Ohara, Osamu; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) functions as a transcriptional coregulator by catalyzing the conversion of histone H3 arginine residues to citrulline residues. Although the high level of PAD4 expression in bone marrow cells suggests its involvement in haematopoiesis, its precise contribution remains unclear. Here we show that PAD4, which is highly expressed in lineage− Sca-1+ c-Kit+ (LSK) cells of mouse bone marrow compared with other progenitor cells, controls c-myc expression by catalyzing the citrullination of histone H3 on its promoter. Furthermore, PAD4 is associated with lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 and histone deacetylase 1 at the upstream region of the c-myc gene. Supporting these findings, LSK cells, especially multipotent progenitors, in PAD4-deficient mice show increased proliferation in a cell-autonomous fashion compared with those in wild-type mice. Together, our results strongly suggest that PAD4 regulates the proliferation of multipotent progenitors in the bone marrow by controlling c-myc expression. PMID:23673621

  2. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B.; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C.; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  3. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30(II) accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30(II)/c-MYC.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Megan M; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30(II) protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30(II) interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30(II) and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30(II) induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30(II) in c-myc(-/-) HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30(II) is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30(II) inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30(II)/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. A combined gene expression and functional study reveals the crosstalk between N-Myc and differentiation-inducing microRNAs in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenze; Ma, Xiuye; Shelton, Spencer D.; Sung, Derek C.; Li, Monica; Hernandez, Daniel; Zhang, Maggie; Losiewicz, Michael D.; Chen, Yidong; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Yu, Xiaojie; Liu, Yuanhang; Du, Liqin

    2016-01-01

    MYCN amplification is the most common genetic alteration in neuroblastoma and plays a critical role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. MYCN regulates neuroblastoma cell differentiation, which is one of the mechanisms underlying its oncogenic function. We recently identified a group of differentiation-inducing microRNAs. Given the demonstrated inter-regulation between MYCN and microRNAs, we speculated that MYCN and the differentiation-inducing microRNAs might form an interaction network to control the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we found that eight of the thirteen differentiation-inducing microRNAs, miR-506-3p, miR-124-3p, miR-449a, miR-34a-5p, miR-449b-5p, miR-103a-3p, miR-2110 and miR-34b-5p, inhibit N-Myc expression by either directly targeting the MYCN 3′UTR or through indirect regulations. Further investigation showed that both MYCN-dependent and MYCN-independent pathways play roles in mediating the differentiation-inducing function of miR-506-3p and miR-449a, two microRNAs that dramatically down-regulate MYCN expression. On the other hand, we found that N-Myc inhibits the expression of multiple differentiation-inducing microRNAs, suggesting that these miRNAs play a role in mediating the function of MYCN. In examining the published dataset collected from clinical neuroblastoma specimens, we found that expressions of two miRNAs, miR-137 and miR-2110, were significantly anti-correlated with MYCN mRNA levels, suggesting their interactions with MYCN play a clinically-relevant role in maintaining the MYCN and miRNA expression levels in neuroblastoma. Our findings altogether suggest that MYCN and differentiation-inducing miRNAs form an interaction network that play an important role in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis through regulating cell differentiation. PMID:27764804

  5. Xenopus myc proto-oncogene during development: expression as a stable maternal mRNA uncoupled from cell division.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M V; Gusse, M; Evan, G I; Dathan, N; Mechali, M

    1986-01-01

    A Xenopus cDNA clone highly homologous to the proto-oncogene c-myc has been isolated and used to derive a homologous probe to study myc expression during embryonic development. Myc RNA is identified as a member of the class of maternal mRNAs expressed before fertilisation. It is highly accumulated from early oogenesis and an unfertilised egg contains 8 pg, about 10(5)-fold the myc content of proliferative somatic cells. After fertilisation a post-transcriptional regulation of the gene is induced and the accumulated myc RNA is degraded (t1/2 = 4 h 20 min) to reach a level at gastrula of 10 transcripts per cell; a value maintained during subsequent embryonic development. The Xenopus myc protein has also been identified by both myc-specific antibodies and hybrid selection experiments. Translation in vitro of Xenopus myc RNA shows that it encodes a 62-kd protein which is also recognised by myc antibodies in oocyte extracts. This protein is accumulated in late oogenesis. The results indicate an unusual uncoupling of myc expression and cell proliferation linked to a stabilisation of the RNA product. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:3549280

  6. Impact of dual expression of MYC and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry on the risk of CNS relapse in DLBCL.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kerry J; Slack, Graham W; Mottok, Anja; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Kansara, Roopesh; Kridel, Robert; Steidl, Christian; Ennishi, Daisuke; Tan, King L; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Johnson, Nathalie A; Connors, Joseph M; Farinha, Pedro; Scott, David W; Gascoyne, Randy D

    2016-05-05

    Dual expression of MYC and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) is associated with poor outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Dual translocation of MYC and BCL2, so-called "double-hit lymphoma," has been associated with a high risk of central nervous system (CNS) relapse; however, the impact of dual expression of MYC and BCL2 (dual expressers) on the risk of CNS relapse remains unknown. Pretreatment formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL biopsies derived from patients subsequently treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) were assembled on tissue microarrays from 2 studies and were evaluated for expression of MYC and BCL2 by IHC. In addition, cell of origin was determined by IHC and the Lymph2Cx gene expression assay in a subset of patients. We identified 428 patients who met the inclusion criteria. By the recently described CNS risk score (CNS-International Prognostic Index [CNS-IPI]), 34% were low risk (0 to 1), 45% were intermediate risk (2 to 3), and 21% were high risk (4 or greater). With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the risk of CNS relapse was higher in dual expressers compared with non-dual expressers (2-year risk, 9.7% vs 2.2%; P = .001). Patients with activated B-cell or non-germinal center B-cell type DLBCL also had an increased risk of CNS relapse. However, in multivariate analysis, only dual expresser status and CNS-IPI were associated with CNS relapse. Dual expresser MYC(+) BCL2(+) DLBCL defines a group at high risk of CNS relapse, independent of CNS-IPI score and cell of origin. Dual expresser status may help to identify a high-risk group who should undergo CNS-directed evaluation and consideration of prophylactic strategies.

  7. Endogenous c-Myc is essential for p53-induced apoptosis in response to DNA damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phesse, T J; Myant, K B; Cole, A M; Ridgway, R A; Pearson, H; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Vousden, K H; Sears, R; Vassilev, L T; Clarke, A R; Sansom, O J

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC function for DNA damage signalling in vivo. In this study, we have conditionally deleted the c-Myc gene in the adult murine intestine and investigated the apoptotic response of intestinal enterocytes to DNA damage. Remarkably, c-Myc deletion completely abrogated the immediate wave of apoptosis following both ionizing irradiation and cisplatin treatment, recapitulating the phenotype of p53 deficiency in the intestine. Consistent with this, c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes did not upregulate p53. Mechanistically, this was linked to an upregulation of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which targets p53 for degradation in c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes. Further, low level overexpression of c-Myc, which does not impact on basal levels of apoptosis, elicited sustained apoptosis in response to DNA damage, suggesting c-Myc activity acts as a crucial cell survival rheostat following DNA damage. We also identify the importance of MYC during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in several other tissues, including the thymus and spleen, using systemic deletion of c-Myc throughout the adult mouse. Together, we have elucidated for the first time in vivo an essential role for endogenous c-Myc in signalling DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of the p53 tumour suppressor protein.

  8. Estrogen increases renal oxytocin receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, N L; Young, W S; Lolait, S J

    1995-04-01

    Estrogens have been implicated in the sodium and fluid imbalances associated with the menstrual cycle and late pregnancy. An estrogen-dependent role for renal oxytocin receptors in fluid homeostasis is suggested by the present findings which demonstrate that estradiol benzoate treatment increases the expression of the oxytocin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and 125I-OTA binding to oxytocin receptors in the renal cortex and medullary collecting ducts of ovariectomized female rats. Moreover, estradiol induced high levels of oxytocin receptor expression in outer stripe proximal tubules of ovariectomized female and adrenalectomized male rats. Proximal tubule induction was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the antiestrogen tamoxifen, but cortical expression of oxytocin receptors in macula densa cells was unaffected by tamoxifen. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of oxytocin receptor expression in macula densa and proximal tubule cells, and suggest a important role for these receptors in mediating estrogen-induced alterations in renal fluid dynamics by possibly affecting glomerular filtration and water and solute reabsorption during high estrogen states.

  9. Downregulation of N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 caused by the methylation of CpG islands of NDRG1 promoter promotes proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yalin; Pan, Pan; Qiao, Pengfei; Liu, Ranlu

    2015-09-01

    Current studies tend to consider N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a tumor suppressor gene, inhibiting cell proliferation and invasion. NDRG1 expression in cancer cells is generally low, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands (CGIs) in gene promoter was able to inactivate tumor suppressor genes and activate oncogenes, disordering cell proliferation and apoptosis, playing a promotion role in tumor occurrence and progression. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of epigenetic modification of NDRG1 on prostate cancer (PCa) cells. The protein expression in human specimens was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The expression level of NDRG1 was changed by plasmid vectors in PCa cells. These cells were used to study proliferation and invasiveness. NDRG1 expression in normal prostate cells was higher than that in PCa cells. Downregulation of NDRG1 expression enhanced cell proliferation and invasiveness. In contrast, its upregulation could reduce cell proliferation and invasiveness. In PCa cells, the methylation rate of CGIs in the promoter region of NDRG1 was higher than that in normal prostate cells. 5-Aza-CdR, a methylation inhibitor, was able to effectively reverse the aberrant methylation of NDRG1, enhancing its expression, inhibiting cell growth. NDRG1 can inhibit the cell proliferation and invasion of PCa, but its expression level is low. The aberrant methylation of NDRG1 promoter is an important mechanism for gene silencing, playing an important role in tumor occurrence and progression. Therefore, reversing the aberrant methylation of NDRG1 may be used for PCa treatment.

  10. SUMOylation of Myc-Family Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sabò, Arianna; Doni, Mirko; Amati, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Myc-family proteins are key controllers of the metabolic and proliferative status of the cell, and are subjected to a complex network of regulatory events that guarantee their efficient and fast modulation by extracellular stimuli. Hence, unbalances in regulatory mechanisms leading to altered Myc levels or activities are often reported in cancer cells. Here we show that c- and N-Myc are conjugated to SUMO proteins at conserved lysines in their C-terminal domain. No obvious effects of SUMOylation were detected on bulk N-Myc stability or activities, including the regulation of transcription, proliferation or apoptosis. N-Myc SUMOylation could be induced by cellular stresses, such as heat shock and proteasome inhibition, and in all instances concerned a small fraction of the N-Myc protein. We surmise that, as shown for other substrates, SUMOylation may be part of a quality-control mechanism acting on misfolded Myc proteins. PMID:24608896

  11. Tumor cell-specific inhibition of MYC function using small molecule inhibitors of the HUWE1 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Stefanie; Bultinck, Jennyfer; Myant, Kevin; Jaenicke, Laura A; Walz, Susanne; Müller, Judith; Gmachl, Michael; Treu, Matthias; Boehmelt, Guido; Ade, Carsten P; Schmitz, Werner; Wiegering, Armin; Otto, Christoph; Popov, Nikita; Sansom, Owen; Kraut, Norbert; Eilers, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated expression of MYC is a driver of colorectal carcinogenesis, necessitating novel strategies to inhibit MYC function. The ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 (HECTH9, ARF-BP1, MULE) associates with both MYC and the MYC-associated protein MIZ1. We show here that HUWE1 is required for growth of colorectal cancer cells in culture and in orthotopic xenograft models. Using high-throughput screening, we identify small molecule inhibitors of HUWE1, which inhibit MYC-dependent transactivation in colorectal cancer cells, but not in stem and normal colon epithelial cells. Inhibition of HUWE1 stabilizes MIZ1. MIZ1 globally accumulates on MYC target genes and contributes to repression of MYC-activated target genes upon HUWE1 inhibition. Our data show that transcriptional activation by MYC in colon cancer cells requires the continuous degradation of MIZ1 and identify a novel principle that allows for inhibition of MYC function in tumor cells. See also: FX Schaub & JL Cleveland (December 2014) PMID:25253726

  12. Microcystin-LR stabilizes c-myc protein by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huihui; Cai, Yan; Xie, Ping; Xiao, Wuhan; Chen, Jun; Ji, Wei; Zhao, Sujuan

    2014-05-07

    Microcystin-LR is the most toxic and the most frequently encountered toxin produced by the cyanobacteria in the contaminated aquatic environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that Microcystin-LR is a potential carcinogen for animals and humans, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Microcystin-LR as a possible human carcinogen. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of Microcystin-LR-induced carcinogenesis remain a mystery. C-myc is a proto-oncogene, abnormal expression of which contributes to the tumor development. Although several studies have demonstrated that Microcystin-LR could induce c-myc expression at the transcriptional level, the exact connection between Microcystin-LR toxicity and c-myc response remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the c-myc protein increased in HEK293 cells after exposure to Microcystin-LR. Coexpression of protein phosphatase 2A and two stable c-myc protein point mutants (either c-myc(T58A) or c-myc(S62A)) showed that Microcystin-LR increased c-myc protein level mainly through inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A activity which altered the phosphorylation status of serine 62 on c-myc. In addition, we also showed that Microcystin-LR could increase c-myc promoter activity as revealed by luciferase reporter assay. And the TATA box for P1 promoter of c-myc might be involved. Our results suggested that Microcystin-LR can stimulate c-myc transcription and stabilize c-myc protein, which might contribute to hepatic tumorigenesis in animals and humans.

  13. The Trithorax group protein Lid is a trimethyl histone H3K4 demethylase required for dMyc-induced cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Secombe, Julie; Li, Ling; Carlos, Leni; Eisenman, Robert N.

    2007-01-01

    The Myc oncoprotein is a potent inducer of cell growth, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. While many direct Myc target genes have been identified, the molecular determinants of Myc’s transcriptional specificity remain elusive. We have carried out a genetic screen in Drosophila and identified the Trithorax group protein Little imaginal discs (Lid) as a regulator of dMyc-induced cell growth. Lid binds to dMyc and is required for dMyc-induced expression of the growth regulatory gene Nop60B. The mammalian Lid orthologs, Rbp-2 (JARID1A) and Plu-1 (JARID1B), also bind to c-Myc, indicating that Lid–Myc function is conserved. We demonstrate that Lid is a JmjC-dependent trimethyl H3K4 demethylase in vivo and that this enzymatic activity is negatively regulated by dMyc, which binds to Lid’s JmjC domain. Because Myc binding is associated with high levels of trimethylated H3K4, we propose that the Lid–dMyc complex facilitates Myc binding to, or maintenance of, this chromatin context. PMID:17311883

  14. Generation of Osteosarcomas From a Combination of Rb Silencing and c-Myc Overexpression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jir-You; Wu, Po-Quei; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Lee, Chia-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ming; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-09-07

    : Osteosarcoma (OS) was a malignant tumor occurring with unknown etiology that made prevention and early diagnosis difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were found in bone marrow, were claimed to be a possible origin of OS but with little direct evidence. We aimed to characterize OS cells transformed from human MSCs (hMSCs) and identify their association with human primary OS cells and patient survival. Genetic modification with p53 or retinoblastoma (Rb) knockdown and c-Myc or Ras overexpression was applied for hMSC transformation. Transformed cells were assayed for proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenecity, and gene expression profile. Only the combination of Rb knockdown and c-Myc overexpression successfully transformed hMSCs derived from four individual donors, with increasing cell proliferation, decreasing cell senescence rate, and increasing ability to form colonies and spheres in serum-free medium. These transformed cells lost the expression of certain surface markers, increased in osteogenic potential, and decreased in adipogenic potential. After injection in immunodeficient mice, these cells formed OS-like tumors, as evidenced by radiographic analyses and immunohistochemistry of various OS markers. Microarray with cluster analysis revealed that these transformed cells have gene profiles more similar to patient-derived primary OS cells than their normal MSC counterparts. Most importantly, comparison of OS patient tumor samples revealed that a combination of Rb loss and c-Myc overexpression correlated with a decrease in patient survival. This study successfully transformed human MSCs to OS-like cells by Rb knockdown and c-Myc overexpression that may be a useful platform for further investigation of preventive and target therapy for human OS.

  15. Generation of Osteosarcomas from a Combination of Rb Silencing and c-Myc Overexpression in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jir-You; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Lee, Chia-Wen; Chen, Wei-Ming; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) was a malignant tumor occurring with unknown etiology that made prevention and early diagnosis difficult. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were found in bone marrow, were claimed to be a possible origin of OS but with little direct evidence. We aimed to characterize OS cells transformed from human MSCs (hMSCs) and identify their association with human primary OS cells and patient survival. Genetic modification with p53 or retinoblastoma (Rb) knockdown and c-Myc or Ras overexpression was applied for hMSC transformation. Transformed cells were assayed for proliferation, differentiation, tumorigenecity, and gene expression profile. Only the combination of Rb knockdown and c-Myc overexpression successfully transformed hMSCs derived from four individual donors, with increasing cell proliferation, decreasing cell senescence rate, and increasing ability to form colonies and spheres in serum-free medium. These transformed cells lost the expression of certain surface markers, increased in osteogenic potential, and decreased in adipogenic potential. After injection in immunodeficient mice, these cells formed OS-like tumors, as evidenced by radiographic analyses and immunohistochemistry of various OS markers. Microarray with cluster analysis revealed that these transformed cells have gene profiles more similar to patient-derived primary OS cells than their normal MSC counterparts. Most importantly, comparison of OS patient tumor samples revealed that a combination of Rb loss and c-Myc overexpression correlated with a decrease in patient survival. This study successfully transformed human MSCs to OS-like cells by Rb knockdown and c-Myc overexpression that may be a useful platform for further investigation of preventive and target therapy for human OS. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:512-526.

  16. Evolutionarily conserved regions of the human c-myc protein can be uncoupled from transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarid, J.; Halazonetis, T.D.; Murphy, W.; Leder, P.

    1987-01-01

    The myc family of oncogenes contains coding sequences that have been preserved in different species for over 400 million years. This conservation (which implies functional selection) is broadly represented throughout the C-terminal portion of the human c-myc protein but is largely restricted to three cluster of amino acid sequences in the N-terminal region. The authors have examined the role that the latter three regions of the c-myc protein might play in the transforming function of the c-myc gene. Several mutations, deletions and frameshifts, were introduced into the c-myc gene, and these mutant genes were tested for their ability to collaborate with the EJ-ras oncogene to transform rat embryo fibroblasts. Complete elimination of the first two N-terminal conserved segments abolished transforming activity. In contrast, genes altered in a portion of the second or the entire third conserved segment retained their transforming activity. Thus, the latter two segments are not required for the transformation process, suggesting that they serve another function related only to the normal expression of the c-myc gene.

  17. Functional interconnections of HY1 with MYC2 and HY5 in Arabidopsis seedling development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis seedling development is controlled by many regulatory genes involved in multiple signaling pathways. The functional relationships of these genes working in multiple signaling cascades have started to be unraveled. Arabidopsis HY1/HO1 is a rate-limiting enzyme involved in biosynthesis of phytochrome chromophore. HY5 (a bZIP protein) promotes photomorphogenesis, however ZBF1/MYC2 (a bHLH protein) works as a negative regulator of photomorphogenic growth and light regulated gene expression. Further, MYC2 and HY1 have been shown to play important roles in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Here, we show the genetic interactions of HY1 with two key transcription factor genes of light signaling, HY5 and MYC2, in Arabidopsis seedling development. Our studies reveal that although HY1 acts in an additive manner with HY5, it is epistatic to MYC2 in light-mediated seedling growth and gene expression. This study further demonstrates that HY1 additively or synergistically functions with HY5, however it works upstream to MYC2 in JA signaling pathways. Taken together, this study demonstrates the functional interrelations of HY1, MYC2 and HY5 in light and JA signaling pathways. PMID:22424472

  18. Ortho-aminoazotoluene activates mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) and increases expression of mCAR target genes

    SciTech Connect

    Smetanina, Mariya A.; Pakharukova, Mariya Y.; Kurinna, Svitlana M.; Dong, Bingning; Hernandez, Juan P.; Moore, David D.; Merkulova, Tatyana I.

    2011-08-15

    2'-3-dimethyl-4-aminoazobenzene (ortho-aminoazotoluene, OAT) is an azo dye and a rodent carcinogen that has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible (class 2B) human carcinogen. Its mechanism of action remains unclear. We examined the role of the xenobiotic receptor Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a mediator of the effects of OAT. We found that OAT increases mouse CAR (mCAR) transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is specific because another closely related azo dye, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'MeDAB), did not activate mCAR. Real-time Q-PCR analysis in wild-type C57BL/6 mice revealed that OAT induces the hepatic mRNA expression of the following CAR target genes: Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11, Ugt1a1, Mrp4, Mrp2 and c-Myc. CAR-null (Car{sup -/-}) mice showed no increased expression of these genes following OAT treatment, demonstrating that CAR is required for their OAT dependent induction. The OAT-induced CAR-dependent increase of Cyp2b10 and c-Myc expression was confirmed by Western blotting. Immunohistochemistry analysis of wild-type and Car{sup -/-} livers showed that OAT did not acutely induce hepatocyte proliferation, but at much later time points showed an unexpected CAR-dependent proliferative response. These studies demonstrate that mCAR is an OAT xenosensor, and indicate that at least some of the biological effects of this compound are mediated by this nuclear receptor. - Highlights: > The azo dye and mouse carcinogen OAT is a very effective mCAR activator. > OAT increases mCAR transactivation in a dose-dependent manner. > OAT CAR-dependently increases the expression of a specific subset of CAR target genes. > OAT induces an unexpectedly deferred, but CAR-dependent hepatocyte proliferation.

  19. Experimental evidence for 60 Hz magnetic fields operating through the signal transduction cascade. Effects on calcium influx and c-MYC mRNA induction.

    PubMed

    Liburdy, R P; Callahan, D E; Harland, J; Dunham, E; Sloma, T R; Yaswen, P

    1993-11-22

    We tested the hypothesis that early alterations in calcium influx induced by an imposed 60 Hz magnetic field are propagated down the signal transduction (ST) cascade to alter c-MYC mRNa induction. To test this we measured both ST parameters in the same cells following 60 Hz magnetic field exposures in a specialized annular ring device (220 G (22 mT), 1.7 mV/cm maximal E(induced), 37 degrees C, 60 min). Ca2+ influx is a very early ST marker that precedes the specific induction of mRNA transcripts for the proto-oncogene c-MYC, an immediate early response gene. In three experiments influx of 45Ca2+ in the absence of mitogen was similar to that in cells treated with suboptimal levels of Con-A (1 micrograms/ml). However, calcium influx was elevated 1.5-fold when lymphocytes were exposed to Con-A plus magnetic fields; this co-stimulatory effect is consistent with previous reports from our laboratory [FEBS Lett. 301 (1992) 53-59; FEBS Lett. 271 (1990) 157-160; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 649 (1992) 74-95]. The level of c-MYC mRNA transcript copies in non-activated cells and in suboptimally-activated cells was also similar, which is consistent with the above calcium influx findings. Significantly, lymphocytes exposed to the combination of magnetic fields plus suboptimal Con-A responded with an approximate 3.0-fold increase in band intensity of c-MYC mRNA transcripts. Importantly, transcripts for the housekeeping gene GAPDH were not influenced by mitogen or magnetic fields. We also observed that lymphocytes that failed to exhibit increased calcium influx in response to magnetic fields plus Con-A, also failed to exhibit an increase in total copies of c-MYC mRNA. Thus, calcium influx and c-MYC mRNA expression, which are sequentially linked via the signal transduction cascade in contrast to GAPDH, were both increased by magnetic fields. These findings support the above ST hypothesis and provide experimental evidence for a general biological framework for understanding magnetic field

  20. Role of MYC-Regulated Long Noncoding RNAs in Cell Cycle Regulation and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taewan; Jeon, Young-Jun; Cui, Ri; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Peng, Yong; Kim, Sung-Hak; Tili, Esmerina; Alder, Hansjuerg

    2015-01-01

    Background: The functions of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in several cancers, but the roles of lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) are less well understood. The transcription factor MYC is known to regulate lncRNAs and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Methods: CRC cells and tissues were profiled to identify lncRNAs differentially expressed in CRC, from which we further selected MYC-regulated lncRNAs. We used luciferase promoter assay, ChIP, RNA pull-down assay, deletion mapping assay, LC-MS/MS and RNA immunoprecipitation to determine the mechanisms of MYC regulation of lncRNAs. Moreover, soft agar assay and in vivo xenograft experiments (four athymic nude mice per group) provided evidence of MYC-regulated lncRNAs in cancer cell transformation and tumorigenesis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: We identified lncRNAs differentially expressed in CRC (P < .05, greater than two-fold) and verified four lncRNAs upregulated and two downregulated in CRC cells and tissues. We further identified MYC-regulated lncRNAs, named MYCLos. The MYC-regulated MYCLos may function in cell proliferation and cell cycle by regulating MYC target genes such as CDKN1A (p21) and CDKN2B (p15), suggesting new regulatory mechanisms of MYC-repressed target genes through lncRNAs. RNA binding proteins including HuR and hnRNPK are involved in the function of MYCLos by interacting with MYCLo-1 and MYCLo-2, respectively. Knockdown experiments also showed that MYCLo-2, differentially expressed not only in CRC but also in prostate cancer, has a role in cancer transformation and tumorigenesis. Conclusions: Our results provide novel regulatory mechanisms in MYC function through lncRNAs and new potential lncRNA targets of CRC. PMID:25663692

  1. SIRT1 Limits Adipocyte Hyperplasia through c-Myc Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Abdesselem, Houari; Madani, Aisha; Hani, Ahmad; Al-Noubi, Muna; Goswami, Neha; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Billing, Anja M; Pasquier, Jennifer; Bonkowski, Michael S; Halabi, Najeeb; Dalloul, Rajaa; Sheriff, Mohamed Z; Mesaeli, Nasrin; ElRayess, Mohamed; Sinclair, David A; Graumann, Johannes; Mazloum, Nayef A

    2016-01-29

    The expansion of fat mass in the obese state is due to increased adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The molecular mechanism that drives adipocyte hyperplasia remains unknown. The NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a key regulator of mammalian metabolism, maintains proper metabolic functions in many tissues, counteracting obesity. Here we report that differentiated adipocytes are hyperplastic when SIRT1 is knocked down stably in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. This phenotype is associated with dysregulated adipocyte metabolism and enhanced inflammation. We also demonstrate that SIRT1 is a key regulator of proliferation in preadipocytes. Quantitative proteomics reveal that the c-Myc pathway is altered to drive enhanced proliferation in SIRT1-silenced 3T3-L1 cells. Moreover, c-Myc is hyperacetylated, levels of p27 are reduced, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) is activated upon SIRT1 reduction. Remarkably, differentiating SIRT1-silenced preadipocytes exhibit enhanced mitotic clonal expansion accompanied by reduced levels of p27 as well as elevated levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) and c-Myc, which is also hyperacetylated. c-Myc activation and enhanced proliferation phenotype are also found to be SIRT1-dependent in proliferating mouse embryonic fibroblasts and differentiating human SW872 preadipocytes. Reducing both SIRT1 and c-Myc expression in 3T3-L1 cells simultaneously does not induce the adipocyte hyperplasia phenotype, confirming that SIRT1 controls adipocyte hyperplasia through c-Myc regulation. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of adipocyte hyperplasia will open new avenues toward understanding obesity.

  2. Characterization of rat c-myc and adjacent regions.

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, K; Makino, R; Kawamura, H; Arisawa, A; Yoneda, K

    1987-01-01

    Rat genomic regions covering c-myc were cloned from the DNA of both normal liver and two lines of Morris hepatomas, one of which had c-myc amplification. The three restriction maps showed perfect agreement within the overlapping regions. The 7 kb regions, which included the entire normal rat c-myc and the region 2.2 kb upstream, and one from the hepatomas, were sequenced and found to be identical. The coding regions of exons 2 and 3 were highly conserved between rat, mouse and man, but some differences in amino acids were noted. Exon 1 and the non-coding region of exon 3 showed limited homology between the three species. Rat exon 1 contained several nonsense codons in each frame and no ATG codon, indicating there to be no coding capacity in this exon. The 2.2 kb upstream regions and the introns compared showed unusual conservation between the rat and human genes. Some motifs, previously proposed as having a functional role in human c-myc, were also found in equivalent positions of the rat sequence. Nucleas S1 protection mapping revealed the second promoter to be preferentially used in most tissues or in hepatoma cells, and the second poly A addition signal to be the only one functional in all the RNA sources examined. Images PMID:3306601

  3. Transactivation Domain of Human c-Myc Is Essential to Alleviate Poly(Q)-Mediated Neurotoxicity in Drosophila Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Raj, Kritika; Sarkar, Surajit

    2017-03-18

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) disorders, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias, represent a group of neurological disorders which arise due to an atypically expanded poly(Q) tract in the coding region of the affected gene. Pathogenesis of these disorders inside the cells begins with the assembly of these mutant proteins in the form of insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs), which progressively sequester several vital cellular transcription factors and other essential proteins, and finally leads to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. We have shown earlier that targeted upregulation of Drosophila myc (dmyc) dominantly suppresses the poly(Q) toxicity in Drosophila. The present study examines the ability of the human c-myc proto-oncogene and also identifies the specific c-Myc isoform which drives the mitigation of poly(Q)-mediated neurotoxicity, so that it could be further substantiated as a potential drug target. We report for the first time that similar to dmyc, tissue-specific induced expression of human c-myc also suppresses poly(Q)-mediated neurotoxicity by an analogous mechanism. Among the three isoforms of c-Myc, the rescue potential was maximally manifested by the full-length c-Myc2 protein, followed by c-Myc1, but not by c-MycS which lacks the transactivation domain. Our study suggests that strategies focussing on the transactivation domain of c-Myc could be a very useful approach to design novel drug molecules against poly(Q) disorders.

  4. Structure-based design of platinum(II) complexes as c-myc oncogene down-regulators and luminescent probes for G-quadruplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Yan, Siu-Cheong; Che, Chi-Ming

    2010-06-18

    A series of platinum(II) complexes with tridentate ligands was synthesized and their interactions with G-quadruplex DNA within the c-myc gene promoter were evaluated. Complex 1, which has a flat planar 2,6-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine (bzimpy) scaffold, was found to stabilize the c-myc G-quadruplex structure in a cell-free system. An in silico G-quadruplex DNA model has been constructed for structure-based virtual screening to develop new Pt(II)-based complexes with superior inhibitory activities. By using complex 1 as the initial structure for hit-to-lead optimization, bzimpy and related 2,6-bis(pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (dPzPy) scaffolds containing amine side-chains emerge as the top candidates. Six of the top-scoring complexes were synthesized and their interactions with c-myc G-quadruplex DNA have been investigated. The results revealed that all of the complexes have the ability to stabilize the c-myc G-quadruplex. Complex 3 a ([Pt(II)L2R](+); L2=2,6-bis[1-(3-piperidinepropyl)-1H-enzo[d]imidazol-2-yl]pyridine, R=Cl) displayed the strongest inhibition in a cell-free system (IC(50)=2.2 microM) and was 3.3-fold more potent than that of 1. Complexes 3 a and 4 a ([Pt(II)L3R](+); L3=2,6-bis[1-(3-morpholinopropyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]pyridine, R=Cl) were found to effectively inhibit c-myc gene expression in human hepatocarcinoma cells with IC(50) values of approximately 17 microM, whereas initial hit 1 displayed no significant effect on gene expression at concentrations up to 50 microM. Complexes 3 a and 4 a have a strong preference for G-quadruplex DNA over duplex DNA, as revealed by competition dialysis experiments and absorption titration; 3 a and 4 a bind G-quadruplex DNA with binding constants (K) of approximately 10(6)-10(7) dm(3) mol(-1), which are at least an order of magnitude higher than the K values for duplex DNA. NMR spectroscopic titration experiments and molecular modeling showed that 4 a binds c-myc G-quadruplex DNA through an external end-stacking mode at

  5. Reconstitution of an E box-binding Myc:Max complex with recombinant full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Farina, Anthony; Faiola, Francesco; Martinez, Ernest

    2004-04-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein (Myc) is a DNA sequence-specific transcription factor that regulates transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and its deregulated expression is implicated in many types of human cancer. Myc has an N-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) that interacts with various coactivators and a C-terminal basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) domain required for E box-specific DNA-binding and heterodimerization with its obligatory bHLHZip protein partner Max. The analysis of the mechanisms by which the Myc:Max complex regulates transcription at the molecular level in vitro has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining highly pure recombinant Myc:Max heterodimers that contain full-length Myc with its complete TAD domain and that have sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. Here, we describe a simple method to reconstitute recombinant Myc:Max complexes from highly purified full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that are soluble and highly active in E box-specific DNA-binding in vitro. The reconstituted Myc:Max complexes are stable and lack Max:Max homodimers. This procedure should facilitate the characterization of the DNA-binding and transcription activation functions of full-length Myc:Max complexes in vitro and in particular the role of Myc TAD-interacting cofactors and Myc:Max post-translational modifications.

  6. Reconstitution of an E box-binding Myc:Max complex with recombinant full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Anthony; Faiola, Francesco; Martinez, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    The c-Myc oncoprotein (Myc) is a DNA sequence-specific transcription factor that regulates transcription of a wide variety of genes involved in the control of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis and its deregulated expression is implicated in many types of human cancer. Myc has an N-terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) that interacts with various coactivators and a C-terminal basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) domain required for E box-specific DNA-binding and heterodimerization with its obligatory bHLHZip protein partner Max. The analysis of the mechanisms by which the Myc:Max complex regulates transcription at the molecular level in vitro has been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining highly pure recombinant Myc:Max heterodimers that contain full-length Myc with its complete TAD domain and that have sequence-specific DNA-binding activity. Here, we describe a simple method to reconstitute recombinant Myc:Max complexes from highly purified full-length proteins expressed in Escherichia coli that are soluble and highly active in E box-specific DNA-binding in vitro. The reconstituted Myc:Max complexes are stable and lack Max:Max homodimers. This procedure should facilitate the characterization of the DNA-binding and transcription activation functions of full-length Myc:Max complexes in vitro and in particular the role of Myc TAD-interacting cofactors and Myc:Max post-translational modifications. PMID:15003254

  7. Inhibition of Myc family proteins eradicates KRas-driven lung cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Soucek, Laura; Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Sodir, Nicole M.; Massó-Vallés, Daniel; Serrano, Erika; Karnezis, Anthony N.; Swigart, Lamorna Brown; Evan, Gerard I.

    2013-01-01

    The principal reason for failure of targeted cancer therapies is the emergence of resistant clones that regenerate the tumor. Therapeutic efficacy therefore depends on not only how effectively a drug inhibits its target, but also the innate or adaptive functional redundancy of that target and its attendant pathway. In this regard, the Myc transcription factors are intriguing therapeutic targets because they serve the unique and irreplaceable role of coordinating expression of the many diverse genes that, together, are required for somatic cell proliferation. Furthermore, Myc expression is deregulated in most—perhaps all—cancers, underscoring its irreplaceable role in proliferation. We previously showed in a preclinical mouse model of non-small-cell lung cancer that systemic Myc inhibition using the dominant-negative Myc mutant Omomyc exerts a dramatic therapeutic impact, triggering rapid regression of tumors with only mild and fully reversible side effects. Using protracted episodic expression of Omomyc, we now demonstrate that metronomic Myc inhibition not only contains Ras-driven lung tumors indefinitely, but also leads to their progressive eradication. Hence, Myc does indeed serve a unique and nondegenerate role in lung tumor maintenance that cannot be complemented by any adaptive mechanism, even in the most aggressive p53-deficient tumors. These data endorse Myc as a compelling cancer drug target. PMID:23475959

  8. A Myc-driven self-reinforcing regulatory network maintains mouse embryonic stem cell identity

    PubMed Central

    Fagnocchi, Luca; Cherubini, Alessandro; Hatsuda, Hiroshi; Fasciani, Alessandra; Mazzoleni, Stefania; Poli, Vittoria; Berno, Valeria; Rossi, Riccardo L.; Reinbold, Rolland; Endele, Max; Schroeder, Timm; Rocchigiani, Marina; Szkarłat, Żaneta; Oliviero, Salvatore; Dalton, Stephen; Zippo, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell identity depends on the integration of extrinsic and intrinsic signals, which directly influence the maintenance of their epigenetic state. Although Myc transcription factors play a major role in stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency, their integration with signalling pathways and epigenetic regulators remains poorly defined. We addressed this point by profiling the gene expression and epigenetic pattern in ESCs whose growth depends on conditional Myc activity. Here we show that Myc potentiates the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway, which cooperates with the transcriptional regulatory network in sustaining ESC self-renewal. Myc activation results in the transcriptional repression of Wnt antagonists through the direct recruitment of PRC2 on these targets. The consequent potentiation of the autocrine Wnt/β-catenin signalling induces the transcriptional activation of the endogenous Myc family members, which in turn activates a Myc-driven self-reinforcing circuit. Thus, our data unravel a Myc-dependent self-propagating epigenetic memory in the maintenance of ESC self-renewal capacity. PMID:27301576

  9. MYC on the Path to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Chi V.

    2012-01-01

    The MYC oncogene contributes to the genesis of many human cancers. Recent insights into its expression and function have led to new cancer therapeutic opportunities. MYC’s activation by bromodomain proteins could be inhibited by drug-like molecules, resulting in tumor inhibition in vivo. Tumor growth can also be curbed by pharmacologically uncoupling bioenergetic pathways involving glucose or glutamine metabolism from Myc-induced cellular biomass accumulation. Other approaches to halt Myc on the path to cancer involve targeting Myc-Max dimerization or Myc-induced microRNA expression. Here the richness of our understanding of MYC is reviewed, highlighting new biological insights and opportunities for cancer therapies. PMID:22464321

  10. Random Monoallelic Gene Expression Increases upon Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eckersley-Maslin, Mélanie A.; Thybert, David; Bergmann, Jan H.; Marioni, John C.; Flicek, Paul; Spector, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Random autosomal monoallelic gene expression refers to the transcription of a gene from one of two homologous alleles. We assessed the dynamics of monoallelic expression during development through an allele-specific RNA sequencing screen in clonal populations of hybrid mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We identified 67 and 376 inheritable autosomal random monoallelically expressed genes in ESCs and NPCs respectively, a 5.6-fold increase upon differentiation. While DNA methylation and nuclear positioning did not distinguish the active and inactive alleles, specific histone modifications were differentially enriched between the two alleles. Interestingly, expression levels of 8% of the monoallelically expressed genes remained similar between monoallelic and biallelic clones. These results support a model in which random monoallelic expression occurs stochastically during differentiation, and for some genes is compensated for by the cell to maintain the required transcriptional output of these genes. PMID:24576421

  11. Detecting and Targeting Oncogenic Myc in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    androgen response genes in prostate cancer cells by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation and genomic microarray analysis. Oncogene 2007. 18. Guo QM...have found that a non-coding RNA, H19, is a transcriptional target of MYC, and the inhibition of H19 transcription in cancer cells suppresses certain...morpholino oligomer (PMO), in the Le- wis lung carcinoma model [156]. AVI-4126 also inhibited growth of a murine prostate cancer xenograft by inducing

  12. Stat5-deficient hematopoiesis is permissive for Myc-induced B-cell leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengqi; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Bunting, Silvia T; Bunting, Kevin D

    2015-10-06

    Despite being an attractive molecular target for both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias characterized by activated tyrosine kinases, the molecular and physiological consequences of reduced signal transducer and activator of transcription-5 (Stat5) during leukemogenesis are not well known. Stat5 is a critical regulator of mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and is essential for normal lymphocyte development. We report that pan-hematopoietic deletion in viable adult Vav1-Cre conditional knockout mice as well as Stat5ab(null/null) fetal liver transplant chimeras generated HSCs with reduced expression of quiescence regulating genes (Tie2, Mpl, Slamf1, Spi1, Cited2) and increased expression of B-cell development genes (Satb1, Dntt, Btla, Flk2). Using a classical murine B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) model, we demonstrate that these HSCs were also poised to produce a burst of B-cell precursors upon expression of Bcl-2 combined with oncogenic Myc. This strong selective advantage for leukemic transformation in the background of Stat5 deficient hematopoiesis was permissive for faster initiation of Myc-induced transformation to B-ALL. However, once established, the B-ALL progression in secondary transplant recipients was Stat5-independent. Overall, these studies suggest that Stat5 can play multiple important roles that not only preserve the HSC compartment but can limit accumulation of potential pre-leukemic lymphoid populations.

  13. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  14. IDH-mutant glioma specific association of rs55705857 located at 8q24.21 involves MYC deregulation.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Yavuz; Ülgen, Ege; Can, Özge; Akyerli, Cemaliye B; Yüksel, Şirin; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Durası, I Melis; Henegariu, Octavian Ioan; Nanni, E Paolo; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Erson-Omay, E Zeynep; Bai, Hanwen; Gupta, Manu; Lee, William; Turcan, Şevin; Özpınar, Aysel; Huse, Jason T; Sav, M Aydın; Flanagan, Adrienne; Günel, Murat; Sezerman, O Uğur; Yakıcıer, M Cengiz; Pamir, M Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2016-06-10

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, located in a non-coding but evolutionarily conserved region at 8q24.21, is strongly associated with IDH-mutant glioma development and was suggested to be a causal variant. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has remained unknown. With a case control study in 285 gliomas, 316 healthy controls, 380 systemic cancers, 31 other CNS-tumors, and 120 IDH-mutant cartilaginous tumors, we identified that the association was specific to IDH-mutant gliomas. Odds-ratios were 9.25 (5.17-16.52; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated gliomas and 12.85 (5.94-27.83; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted gliomas. Decreasing strength with increasing anaplasia implied a modulatory effect. No somatic mutations were noted at this locus in 114 blood-tumor pairs, nor was there a copy number difference between risk-allele and only-ancestral allele carriers. CCDC26 RNA-expression was rare and not different between the two groups. There were only minor subtype-specific differences in common glioma driver genes. RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS comparisons pointed to significantly altered MYC-signaling. Baseline enhancer activity of the conserved region specifically on the MYC promoter and its further positive modulation by the SNP risk-allele was shown in vitro. Our findings implicate MYC deregulation as the underlying cause of the observed association.

  15. Melatonin promotes circadian rhythm-induced proliferation through Clock/histone deacetylase 3/c-Myc interaction in mouse adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenjiang; Gan, Lu; Luo, Dan; Sun, Chao

    2017-05-01

    Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and controls circadian rhythm of peripheral adipose tissue, resulting in changes in body weight. Although core regulatory components of clock rhythmicity have been defined, insight into the mechanisms of circadian rhythm-mediated proliferation in adipose tissue is still limited. Here, we showed that melatonin (20 mg/kg/d) promoted circadian and proliferation processes in white adipose tissue. The circadian amplitudes of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1 (Bmal1, P<.05) and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock, P<.05), period 2 (Per2, P<.05), cyclin E (P<.05), and c-Myc (P<.05) were directly increased by melatonin in adipose tissue. Melatonin also promoted cell cycle and increased cell numbers (P<.05), which was correlated with the Clock expression (P<.05). Further analysis demonstrated that Clock bound to the E-box elements in the promoter region of c-Myc and then directly stimulated c-Myc transcription. Moreover, Clock physically interacted with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and formed a complex with c-Myc to promote adipocyte proliferation. Melatonin also attenuated circadian disruption and promoted adipocyte proliferation in chronic jet-lagged mice and obese mice. Thus, our study found that melatonin promoted adipocyte proliferation by forming a Clock/HDAC3/c-Myc complex and subsequently driving the circadian amplitudes of proliferation genes. Our data reveal a novel mechanism that links circadian rhythm to cell proliferation in adipose tissue. These findings also identify a new potential means for melatonin to prevent and treat sleep deprivation-caused obesity.

  16. FBXO32 Targets c-Myc for Proteasomal Degradation and Inhibits c-Myc Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Zhichao; Zhang, Dawei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Jing; Shen, Xian; Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-01-01

    FBXO32 (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is markedly up-regulated in muscle atrophy. Although some data indicate that FBXO32 may play an important role in tumorigenesis, the molecular mechanism of FBXO32 in tumorigenesis has been poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that FBXO32 targets the oncogenic protein c-Myc for ubiquitination and degradation through the proteasome pathway. Phosphorylation of c-Myc at Thr-58 and Ser-62 is dispensable for FBXO32 to induce c-Myc degradation. Mutation of the lysine 326 in c-Myc reduces c-Myc ubiquitination and prevents the c-Myc degradation induced by FBXO32. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXO32 suppresses c-Myc activity and inhibits cell growth, but knockdown of FBXO32 enhances c-Myc activity and promotes cell growth. Finally, we show that FBXO32 is a direct downstream target of c-Myc, highlighting a negative feedback regulation loop between c-Myc and FBXO32. Thus, FBXO32 may function by targeting c-Myc. This work explains the function of FBXO32 and highlights its mechanisms in tumorigenesis. PMID:25944903

  17. FBXO32 Targets c-Myc for Proteasomal Degradation and Inhibits c-Myc Activity.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zhichao; Zhang, Dawei; Hu, Bo; Wang, Jing; Shen, Xian; Xiao, Wuhan

    2015-06-26

    FBXO32 (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is markedly up-regulated in muscle atrophy. Although some data indicate that FBXO32 may play an important role in tumorigenesis, the molecular mechanism of FBXO32 in tumorigenesis has been poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that FBXO32 targets the oncogenic protein c-Myc for ubiquitination and degradation through the proteasome pathway. Phosphorylation of c-Myc at Thr-58 and Ser-62 is dispensable for FBXO32 to induce c-Myc degradation. Mutation of the lysine 326 in c-Myc reduces c-Myc ubiquitination and prevents the c-Myc degradation induced by FBXO32. Furthermore, overexpression of FBXO32 suppresses c-Myc activity and inhibits cell growth, but knockdown of FBXO32 enhances c-Myc activity and promotes cell growth. Finally, we show that FBXO32 is a direct downstream target of c-Myc, highlighting a negative feedback regulation loop between c-Myc and FBXO32. Thus, FBXO32 may function by targeting c-Myc. This work explains the function of FBXO32 and highlights its mechanisms in tumorigenesis.

  18. Characterization of cis-regulatory elements of the c-myc promoter responding to human GM-CSF or mouse interleukin 3 in mouse proB cell line BA/F3 cells expressing the human GM-CSF receptor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S; Ishida, S; Koike, K; Arai, K

    1995-06-01

    Interleukin 3 (IL-3) or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) activates c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc genes and proliferation in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. Using a series of deletion mutants of the beta subunit of human GM-CSF receptor (hGMR) and inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, two distinct signaling pathways, one for activation of c-fos and c-jun genes, and the other for cell proliferation and activation of c-myc gene have been elucidated. In contrast to wealth of information on the pathway leading to activation of c-fos/c-jun genes, knowledge of the latter is scanty. To clarify the mechanisms of activation of c-myc gene by cytokines, we established a transient transfection assay in mouse proB cell line BA/F3 cells expressing hGMR. Analyses of hGMR beta subunit mutants revealed two cytoplasmic regions involved in activation of the c-myc promoter, one is essential and the other is dispensable but enhances the activity. These regions are located at the membrane proximal and the distal regions covering amino acid positions 455-544 and 544-589, respectively. Characterization of cis-acting regulatory elements of the c-myc gene showed that the region containing the P2 promoter initiation site is sufficient to mediate the response to mIL-3 or hGM-CSF. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using an oligonucleotide corresponding to the distal putative E2F binding site revealed that p107/E2F complex, the negative regulator of E2F, decreased, and free E2F increased after mIL-3 stimulation. These results support the thesis that mIL-3 or hGM-CSF regulates the c-myc promoter by altering composition of the E2F complexes at E2F binding site.

  19. AP4 is required for mitogen- and c-MYC-induced cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Jackstadt, Rene; Hermeking, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    AP4 represents a c-MYC-inducible bHLH-LZ transcription factor, which displays elevated expression in many types of tumors. We found that serum-starved AP4-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were unable to resume proliferation and showed a delayed S-phase entry after restimulation. Furthermore, they accumulated as tetraploid cells due to a cytokinesis defect. In addition, AP4 was required for c-MYC-induced cell cycle re-entry. AP4-deficient MEFs displayed decreased expression of CDK2 (cyclin-dependent kinase 2), which we characterized as a conserved and direct AP4 target. Activation of an AP4 estrogen receptor fusion protein (AP4-ER) enhanced proliferation of human diploid fibroblasts in a CDK2-dependent manner. However, in contrast to c-MYC-ER, AP4-ER activation was not sufficient to induce cell cycle re-entry or apoptosis in serum-starved MEFs. AP4-deficiency was accompanied by increased spontaneous and c-MYC-induced DNA damage in MEFs. Furthermore, c-MYC-induced apoptosis was decreased in AP4-deficient MEFs, suggesting that induction of apoptosis by c-MYC is linked to its ability to activate AP4 and thereby cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that AP4 is a central mediator and coordinator of cell cycle progression in response to mitogenic signals and c-MYC activation. Therefore, inhibition of AP4 function may represent a therapeutic approach to block tumor cell proliferation. PMID:25261373

  20. MAX and MYC: a heritable breakup.

    PubMed

    Cascón, Alberto; Robledo, Mercedes

    2012-07-01

    The overexpression of MYC, which occurs in many tumors, dramatically disrupts the equilibrium between activation and repression of the oncogenic MYC/MYC-associated protein X (MAX)/MAX dimerization protein 1 (MXD1) network, favoring MYC-MAX complexes and thereby impairing differentiation and promoting cell growth. Although for some time it has appeared that MAX is necessary for both the activation and repression of the axis, recent evidence shows that MYC retains considerable biologic function in the absence of MAX. The presence of germline MAX mutations in patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma supports the predominant role of MAX as a negative regulator of the network and suggests that MYC deregulation plays a role in hereditary cancer predisposition. This finding also confirms the importance of impairment of the MYC/MAX/MXD1 axis in the development of aggressive neural tumors, because MYCN overexpression is an established genetic hallmark of malign neuroblastoma, and it is likely that MXI1 plays a relevant role in the development of medulloblastoma and glioblastoma. Finally, the likely malignant behavior of tumors with mutations in MAX points to MYC as a candidate therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma.

  1. Methods for determining Myc-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Littlewood, Trevor D

    2013-01-01

    Although many oncoproteins promote cell growth and proliferation, some also possess the potential to induce cell death by apoptosis. Deregulated expression of the myc oncogene promotes apoptosis in both cultured cells and in some tissues in vivo. Here we describe techniques to detect Myc-induced apoptosis in vitro using flow cytometry and microscopy and in vivo using immunohistochemical staining.

  2. The Metastasis Suppressor, N-MYC Downstream-regulated Gene-1 (NDRG1), Down-regulates the ErbB Family of Receptors to Inhibit Downstream Oncogenic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Menezes, Sharleen V; Sahni, Sumit; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Bae, Dong-Hun; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2016-01-15

    N-MYC downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent growth and metastasis suppressor that acts through its inhibitory effects on a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways, including the TGF-β pathway, protein kinase B (AKT)/PI3K pathway, RAS, etc. To investigate the hypothesis that its multiple effects could be regulated by a common upstream effector, the role of NDRG1 on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other members of the ErbB family, namely human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), was examined. We demonstrate that NDRG1 markedly decreased the expression and activation of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand, while also inhibiting formation of the EGFR/HER2 and HER2/HER3 heterodimers. In addition, NDRG1 also decreased activation of the downstream MAPKK in response to EGF. Moreover, novel anti-tumor agents of the di-2-pyridylketone class of thiosemicarbazones, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, which markedly up-regulate NDRG1, were found to inhibit EGFR, HER2, and HER3 expression and phosphorylation in cancer cells. However, the mechanism involved appeared dependent on NDRG1 for di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, but was independent of this metastasis suppressor for di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone. This observation demonstrates that small structural changes in thiosemicarbazones result in marked alterations in molecular targeting. Collectively, these results reveal a mechanism for the extensive downstream effects on cellular signaling attributed to NDRG1. Furthermore, this study identifies a novel approach for the treatment of tumors resistant to traditional EGFR inhibitors.

  3. A Time for MYC: Metabolism and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chi V

    2017-02-07

    The MYC oncogene is frequently deregulated in human cancers, whereas the proto-oncogene is exquisitely, tightly regulated in normal cells. Deregulated MYC drives transcriptional imbalance, thereby altering metabolism and disrupting the circadian Bmal1-Clock E-box-dependent transcriptional circuitry. Sustained oncogenic MYC expression drives a constitutive growth program with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation that renders cells dependent on nutrients, such that glucose or glutamine deprivation could trigger cell death and key enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and glutaminase (GLS) amenable for targeting in cancers. Further, MYC-mediated suppression of the circadian clock is surmised to suspend the inhibitory effect of Bmal1-Clock on metabolism, allowing for MYC-driven cancer cells to reach a higher state of anabolic metabolism. Hence, metabolic therapy could be deployed, particularly at specific times of the day, to diminish side effects to normal tissues while maintaining antitumor efficacy.

  4. Galectin-3 modulates the EGFR signalling-mediated regulation of Sox2 expression via c-Myc in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hong-Yi; Hsu, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chang, Yu-Wei; Liu, Fu-Tong; Wu, Cheng-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-3 is a ubiquitous lectin exerting multiple cellular functions such as RNA splicing, protein trafficking and apoptosis. Its expression is positively correlated with the poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Galectin-3 can promote cancer progression through its effects on cell proliferation, cell survival or cancer metastasis. However, the role of galectin-3 in the regulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that galectin-3 might regulate lung CSCs via the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. In our study, galectin-3 facilitated EGFR activation and enhanced the sphere formation activity of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, galectin-3 promoted Sox2 expression in an EGFR activation-dependent manner; importantly, forced expression of Sox2 blunted the effect of galectin-3 knockdown on lung cancer sphere formation ability. These results suggest that galectin-3 promotes EGFR activation leading to the upregulation of Sox2 expression and lung CSCs properties. Moreover, we showed that the carbohydrate-binding activity of galectin-3 was important for the regulation of EGFR activation, Sox2 expression and sphere formation. We have recently reported that c-Myc is a transcriptional activator of Sox2. We further found that galectin-3 enhanced c-Myc protein stability leading to increased c-Myc binding to the Sox2 gene promoter. We also examined the effect of the stemness factors, Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 on the expression of galectin-3. We found that Oct4 enhanced galectin-3 expression. Our results together suggest that galectin-3 enhances lung cancer stemness through the EGFR/c-Myc/Sox2 axis; Oct4, in turn, promotes galectin-3 expression, forming a positive regulatory loop in lung CSCs.

  5. Evolution of Brain Active Gene Promoters in Human Lineage Towards the Increased Plasticity of Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gunbin, Konstantin V; Ponomarenko, Mikhail P; Suslov, Valentin V; Gusev, Fedor; Fedonin, Gennady G; Rogaev, Evgeny I

    2017-02-24

    Adaptability to a variety of environmental conditions is a prominent feature of Homo sapiens. We hypothesize that this feature can be explained by evolutionary changes in gene promoters active in the brain prefrontal cortex leading to a more flexible gene regulation network. The genotype-dependent range of gene expression can be broader in humans than in other higher primates. Thus, we searched for specific signatures of evolutionary changes in promoter architectures of multiple hominid genes, including the genes active in human cortical neurons that may indicate an increase of variability of gene expression rather than just changes in the level of expression, such as downregulation or upregulation of the genes. We performed a whole-genome search for genetic-based alterations that may impact gene regulation "flexibility" in a process of hominids evolution, such as (i) CpG dinucleotide content, (ii) predicted nucleosome-DNA dissociation constant, and (iii) predicted affinities for TATA-binding protein (TBP) in gene promoters. We tested all putative promoter regions across the human genome and especially gene promoters in active chromatin state in neurons of prefrontal cortex, the brain region critical for abstract thinking and social and behavioral adaptation. Our data imply that the origin of modern man has been associated with an increase of flexibility of promoter-driven gene regulation in brain. In contrast, after splitting from the ancestral lineages of H. sapiens, the evolution of ape species is characterized by reduced flexibility of gene promoter functioning, underlying reduced variability of the gene expression.

  6. The MYC mRNA 3'-UTR couples RNA polymerase II function to glutamine and ribonucleotide levels.

    PubMed

    Dejure, Francesca R; Royla, Nadine; Herold, Steffi; Kalb, Jacqueline; Walz, Susanne; Ade, Carsten P; Mastrobuoni, Guido; Vanselow, Jens T; Schlosser, Andreas; Wolf, Elmar; Kempa, Stefan; Eilers, Martin

    2017-04-13

    Deregulated expression of MYC enhances glutamine utilization and renders cell survival dependent on glutamine, inducing "glutamine addiction". Surprisingly, colon cancer cells that express high levels of MYC due to WNT pathway mutations are not glutamine-addicted but undergo a reversible cell cycle arrest upon glutamine deprivation. We show here that glutamine deprivation suppresses translation of endogenous MYC via the 3'-UTR of the MYC mRNA, enabling escape from apoptosis. This regulation is mediated by glutamine-dependent changes in adenosine-nucleotide levels. Glutamine deprivation causes a global reduction in promoter association of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and slows transcriptional elongation. While activation of MYC restores binding of MYC and RNAPII function on most promoters, restoration of elongation is imperfect and activation of MYC in the absence of glutamine causes stalling of RNAPII on multiple genes, correlating with R-loop formation. Stalling of RNAPII and R-loop formation can cause DNA damage, arguing that the MYC 3'-UTR is critical for maintaining genome stability when ribonucleotide levels are low.

  7. PIM kinase inhibition presents a novel targeted therapy against triple-negative breast tumors with elevated MYC expression

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Dai; Camarda, Roman; Zhou, Alicia Y.; Yau, Christina; Momcilovic, Olga; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Corella, Alexandra N.; Eyob, Henok; Kessenbrock, Kai; Lawson, Devon A.; Marsh, Lindsey A.; Anderton, Brittany N.; Rohrberg, Julia; Kunder, Ratika; Bazarov, Alexey V.; Yaswen, Paul; McManus, Michael T.; Rugo, Hope S.; Werb, Zena; Goga, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lacks the expression of the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2 receptors, represents the breast cancer subtype with the poorest outcome1. No targeted therapy is available against this subtype due to lack of validated molecular targets. We previously reported that MYC signaling is disproportionally elevated in triple-negative (TN) tumors compared to receptor-positive (RP) tumors2. MYC is an essential, pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes3. Direct inhibition of oncogenic MYC transcriptional activity has remained challenging4,5. The present study conducted an shRNA screen against all kinases to uncover novel MYC-dependent synthetic lethal combinations, and identified PIM1, a non-essential kinase. Here we demonstrate that PIM1 expression was elevated in TN tumors and was associated with poor prognosis in patients with hormone and HER2 receptor-negative tumors. Small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors halted the growth of human TN tumors with elevated MYC expression in patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) and MYC-driven transgenic breast cancer models by inhibiting oncogenic transcriptional activity of MYC while simultaneously restoring the function of the endogenous cell cycle inhibitor, p27. Our findings warrant clinical evaluation of PIM kinase inhibitors in patients with TN tumors that exhibit elevated MYC expression. PMID:27775705

  8. Induction of c-fos and c-myc mRNA by epidermal growth factor or calcium ionophore is cAMP dependent.

    PubMed Central

    Ran, W; Dean, M; Levine, R A; Henkle, C; Campisi, J

    1986-01-01

    Phorbol esters activate protein kinase C and induce expression of the c-fos and c-myc protooncogenes in density-arrested BALB/c 3T3 (A31) cells; in contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF) does not activate protein kinase C and is a poor inducer of c-fos and c-myc in these confluent cells. We show that, when A31 cells were subconfluent and made quiescent by serum deprivation, the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced c-fos and c-myc mRNA poorly, whereas EGF was a better inducer. Another platelet-derived growth factor-inducible gene, JE, did not show this differential regulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and EGF. The ability of EGF to induce protooncogene mRNA was associated with elevated levels of intracellular cAMP. First, serum-deprived cells maintained cAMP at about 2-fold higher level than density-arrested cells. Second, induction was greatly enhanced by cholera toxin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, which increased intracellular cAMP 3- to 10-fold. The calcium ionophore A23187 mimicked EGF in that it elevated c-fos and c-myc mRNA when administered with cholera toxin and isobutylmethylxanthine. Neither cholera toxin and isobutyl-methylxanthine nor A23187 appreciably induced these mRNAs when used alone. Our results suggest that c-fos and c-myc expression can be regulated by an EGF-directed pathway that utilizes calcium and cAMP as cooperating cytoplasmic messengers. Images PMID:2430281

  9. MAX inactivation in small cell lung cancer disrupts MYC-SWI/SNF programs and is synthetic lethal with BRG1.

    PubMed

    Romero, Octavio A; Torres-Diz, Manuel; Pros, Eva; Savola, Suvi; Gomez, Antonio; Moran, Sebastian; Saez, Carmen; Iwakawa, Reika; Villanueva, Alberto; Montuenga, Luis M; Kohno, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2014-03-01

    Our knowledge of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genetics is still very limited, amplification of L-MYC, N-MYC, and C-MYC being some of the well-established gene alterations. Here, we report our discovery of tumor-specific inactivation of the MYC-associated factor X gene, MAX, in SCLC. MAX inactivation is mutually exclusive with alterations of MYC and BRG1, the latter coding for an ATPase of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex. We demonstrate that BRG1 regulates the expression of MAX through direct recruitment to the MAX promoter, and that depletion of BRG1 strongly hinders cell growth, specifically in MAX-deficient cells, heralding a synthetic lethal interaction. Furthermore, MAX requires BRG1 to activate neuroendocrine transcriptional programs and to upregulate MYC targets, such as glycolysis-related genes. Finally, inactivation of the MAX dimerization protein, MGA, was also observed in both non-small cell lung cancer and SCLC. Our results provide evidence that an aberrant SWI/SNF-MYC network is essential for lung cancer development.

  10. Potential role of the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis and c-Myc in the progression of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamichi; Tsuji, Gaku; Ohno, Fumitaka; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-03-24

    OVOL1 and OVOL2 are ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factors in mammals. They promote epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway. We previously reported that human OVOL1 and OVOL2 were preferentially expressed in the normal epidermis and hair follicles as well as their tumors, and found that OVOL1 is upregulated in Bowen's disease and downregulated in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The aims of this study were to elucidate the potential role of the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis in Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma, and to reveal the relationship between OVOL and c-Myc, a proto-oncogene that plays a pivotal role in the malignancy of epithelial tumors. We investigated 20 Bowen's disease and 20 squamous cell carcinoma clinical samples and a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (A431) using immunohistochemical staining and molecular biological approaches. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that OVOL1 was upregulated in Bowen's disease and markedly downregulated in squamous cell carcinoma; conversely, c-Myc was downregulated in Bowen's disease and upregulated in squamous cell carcinoma. OVOL2 was markedly upregulated in the nucleus of Bowen's disease cells, but the distribution of OVOL2 expression in squamous cell carcinoma varied widely; OVOL2 was typically expressed in the cytoplasm, but only sporadically in the nucleus. Furthermore, knockdown of OVOL1 using a specific small interfering RNA increased the mRNA and protein levels of c-Myc and OVOL2. Knockdown of OVOL2 did not significantly affect the mRNA and protein levels of either c-Myc or OVOL1. These results suggest that OVOL1 is an upstream suppressor of c-Myc and OVOL2, and the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is a modulator of c-Myc, coordinately regulating the invasiveness of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Taken together, this study suggests that the OVOL1-OVOL2 axis is a key

  11. Deubiquitinating enzyme USP22 positively regulates c-Myc stability and tumorigenic activity in mammalian and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongyeon; Hong, Ahyoung; Park, Hye In; Shin, Woo Hyun; Yoo, Lang; Jeon, Seo Jeong; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2017-02-04

    The proto-oncogene c-Myc has a pivotal function in growth control, differentiation and apoptosis and is frequently affected in human cancer, including breast cancer. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), a member of the USP family of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), mediates deubiquitination of target proteins, including histone H2B and H2A, telomeric repeat binding factor 1, and cyclin B1. USP22 is also a component of the mammalian SAGA transcriptional co-activating complex. In this study, we explored the functional role of USP22 in modulating c-Myc stability and its physiological relevance in breast cancer progression. We found that USP22 promotes deubiquitination of c-Myc in several breast cancer cell lines, resulting in increased levels of c-Myc. Consistent with this, USP22 knockdown reduces c-Myc levels. Furthermore, overexpression of USP22 stimulates breast cancer cell growth and colony formation, and increases c-Myc tumorigenic activity. In conclusion, the present study reveals that USP22 in breast cancer cell lines increases c-Myc stability through c-Myc deubiquitination, which is closely correlated with breast cancer progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A NOTCH1-driven MYC enhancer promotes T cell development, transformation and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Daniel; Ambesi-Impiombato, Alberto; Palomero, Teresa; Schnell, Stephanie A; Belver, Laura; Wendorff, Agnieszka A; Xu, Luyao; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Llobet-Navás, David; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Clappier, Emmanuelle; Soulier, Jean; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to identify and annotate cancer driver genetic lesions have been focused primarily on the analysis of protein-coding genes; however, most genetic abnormalities found in human cancer are located in intergenic regions. Here we identify a new long range-acting MYC enhancer controlled by NOTCH1 that is targeted by recurrent chromosomal duplications in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). This highly conserved regulatory element, hereby named N-Me for NOTCH MYC enhancer, is located within a broad super-enhancer region +1.47 Mb from the MYC transcription initiating site, interacts with the MYC proximal promoter and induces orientation-independent MYC expression in reporter assays. Moreover, analysis of N-Me knockout mice demonstrates a selective and essential role of this regulatory element during thymocyte development and in NOTCH1-induced T-ALL. Together these results identify N-Me as a long-range oncogenic enhancer implicated directly in the pathogenesis of human leukemia and highlight the importance of the NOTCH1-MYC regulatory axis in T cell transformation and as a therapeutic target in T-ALL.

  13. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  14. Empowering Multi-Cohort Gene Expression Analysis to Increase Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Winston A; Vallania, Francesco; Liu, Charles; Bongen, Erika; Tomczak, Aurelie; Andres-Terrè, Marta; Lofgren, Shane; Tam, Andrew; Deisseroth, Cole A; Li, Matthew D; Sweeney, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    A major contributor to the scientific reproducibility crisis has been that the results from homogeneous, single-center studies do not generalize to heterogeneous, real world populations. Multi-cohort gene expression analysis has helped to increase reproducibility by aggregating data from diverse populations into a single analysis. To make the multi-cohort analysis process more feasible, we have assembled an analysis pipeline which implements rigorously studied meta-analysis best practices. We have compiled and made publicly available the results of our own multi-cohort gene expression analysis of 103 diseases, spanning 615 studies and 36,915 samples, through a novel and interactive web application. As a result, we have made both the process of and the results from multi-cohort gene expression analysis more approachable for non-technical users. PMID:27896970

  15. Hsa-let-7a functions as a tumor suppressor in renal cell carcinoma cell lines by targeting c-myc

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yongchao; Yin, Bingde; Zhang, Changcun; Zhou, Libin; Fan, Jie

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study is the first to test the let-7a/c-myc loop in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Let-7a down-regulated c-myc in three renal cell carcinoma cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer c-myc target genes were down-regulated because of the let-7a-mediated down-regulation of c-myc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The let-7a/c-myc loop has a significant function in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. -- Abstract: Widespread functions of the c-myc pathway play a crucial role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carcinogenesis. Thus, we evaluated the connection between proto-oncogenic c-myc and anti-neoplastic hsa-let-7a (let-7a) in RCC cell lines. The levels of c-myc and let-7a in 3 RCC cell lines (769P, Caki-1 and 786O) were measured after transfecting the cells with let-7a mimics or a negative control. The change in c-myc protein level was confirmed by Western blot. The anti-neoplastic function of let-7a was evaluated using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for proliferation analysis and cell flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis. The changes of downstream targets of c-myc were measured using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Our results suggest for the first time that let-7a acts as a tumor suppressor in RCC cell lines by down-regulating c-myc and c-myc target genes such as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and the miR17-92 cluster, which is accompanied by proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest.

  16. Adenovirus with DNA Packaging Gene Mutations Increased Virus Release

    PubMed Central

    Wechman, Stephen L.; Rao, Xiao-Mei; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2016-01-01

    Adenoviruses (Ads) have been extensively manipulated for the development of cancer selective replication, leading to cancer cell death or oncolysis. Clinical studies using E1-modified oncolytic Ads have shown that this therapeutic platform was safe, but with limited efficacy, indicating the necessity of targeting other viral genes for manipulation. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic Ads, we treated the entire Ad genome repeatedly with UV-light and have isolated AdUV which efficiently lyses cancer cells as reported previously (Wechman, S. L. et al. Development of an Oncolytic Adenovirus with Enhanced Spread Ability through Repeated UV Irradiation and Cancer Selection. Viruses 2016, 8, 6). In this report, we show that no mutations were observed in the early genes (E1 or E4) of AdUV while several mutations were observed within the Ad late genes which have structural or viral DNA packaging functions. This study also reported the increased release of AdUV from cancer cells. In this study, we found that AdUV inhibits tumor growth following intratumoral injection. These results indicate the potentially significant role of the viral late genes, in particular the DNA packaging genes, to enhance Ad oncolysis. PMID:27999391

  17. ROCK has a crucial role in regulating prostate tumor growth through interaction with c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; He, J; Xu, Y; Liu, S

    2014-12-04

    Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) has an essential role in governing cell morphology and motility, and increased ROCK activity contributes to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Burgeoning data suggest that ROCK is also involved in the growth regulation of tumor cells. However, thus far, the molecular mechanisms responsible for ROCK-governed tumor cell growth have not been clearly elucidated. Here we showed that inhibition of ROCK kinase activity, either by a selective ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or by specific ROCK small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, attenuated not only motility but also the proliferation of PC3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, mechanistic investigation revealed that ROCK endowed cancer cells with tumorigenic capability, mainly by targeting c-Myc. ROCK could increase the transcriptional activity of c-Myc by promoting c-Myc protein stability, and ROCK inhibition reduced c-Myc-mediated expression of mRNA targets (such as HSPC111) and microRNA targets (such as miR-17-92 cluster). We provided evidence demonstrating that ROCK1 directly interacted with and phosphorylated c-Myc, resulting in stabilization of the protein and activation of its transcriptional activity. Suppression of ROCK-c-Myc downstream molecules, such as c-Myc-regulated miR-17, also impaired tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In addition, c-Myc was shown to exert a positive feedback regulation on ROCK by increasing RhoA mRNA expression. Therefore, inhibition of ROCK and its stimulated signaling might prove to be a promising strategy for restraining tumor progression in prostate cancer.

  18. Chemical intervention of the NM23-H2 transcriptional programme on c-MYC via a novel small molecule

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Chan; Lin, Jing; Hou, Jin-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yun; Chen, Shuo-Bin; Chen, Ai-Chun; Ou, Tian-Miao; Tan, Jia-Heng; Li, Ding; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu

    2015-01-01

    c-MYC is an important oncogene that is considered as an effective target for anticancer therapy. Regulation of this gene's transcription is one avenue for c-MYC-targeting drug design. Direct binding to a transcription factor and generating the intervention of a transcriptional programme appears to be an effective way to modulate gene transcription. NM23-H2 is a transcription factor for c-MYC and is proven to be related to the secondary structures in the promoter. Here, we first screened our small-molecule library for NM23-H2 binders and then sifted through the inhibitors that could target and interfere with the interaction process between NM23-H2 and the guanine-rich promoter sequence of c-MYC. As a result, a quinazolone derivative, SYSU-ID-01, showed a significant interference effect towards NM23-H2 binding to the guanine-rich promoter DNA sequence. Further analyses of the compound–protein interaction and the protein–DNA interaction provided insight into the mode of action for SYSU-ID-01. Cellular evaluation results showed that SYSU-ID-01 could abrogate NM23-H2 binding to the c-MYC promoter, resulting in downregulation of c-MYC transcription and dramatically suppressed HeLa cell growth. These findings provide a new way of c-MYC transcriptional control through interfering with NM23-H2 binding to guanine-rich promoter sequences by small molecules. PMID:26117539

  19. Growth arrest by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is abrogated by c-Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, J; Hennecke, S; Alevizopoulos, K; Conti, D; Amati, B

    1996-01-01

    We show here that c-Myc antagonizes the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27Kip1. p27 expressed from recombinant retroviruses in Rat1 cells associated with and inhibited cyclin E/CDK2 complexes, induced accumulation of the pRb and p130 proteins in their hypophosphorylated forms, and arrested cells in G1. Prior expression of c-Myc prevented inactivation of cyclin E/CDK2 as well as dephosphorylation of pRb and p130, and allowed continuous cell proliferation in the presence of p27. This effect did not require ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27. Myc altered neither the susceptibility of cyclin E/CDK2 to inhibition by p27, nor the intrinsic CDK-inhibitory activity of p27, but induced sequestration of p27 in a form unable to bind cyclin E/CDK2. Neither Myc itself nor other G1-cyclin/CDK complexes were directly responsible for p27 sequestration. Retroviral expression of G1 cyclins (D1-3, E or A) or of the Cdc25A phosphatase did not overcome p27-induced arrest. Growth rescue by Myc required dimerization with Max, DNA binding and an intact transcriptional activation domain, as previously shown for cellular transformation. We propose that this activity is mediated by the product of an as yet unknown Myc-Max target gene(s) and represents an essential aspect of Myc's mitogenic and oncogenic functions. Images PMID:8978686

  20. Mutational landscape of EGFR-, MYC-, and Kras-driven genetically engineered mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Politi, Katerina; Bhutkar, Arjun; Chen, Frances K.; Song, Xiaoling; Pirun, Mono; Santiago, Philip M.; Kim-Kiselak, Caroline; Platt, James T.; Lee, Emily; Hodges, Emily; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Socci, Nicholas D.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Jacks, Tyler; Varmus, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer are increasingly being used to assess putative driver mutations identified by large-scale sequencing of human cancer genomes. To accurately interpret experiments that introduce additional mutations, an understanding of the somatic genetic profile and evolution of GEMM tumors is necessary. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing of tumors from three GEMMs of lung adenocarcinoma driven by mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Kras), or overexpression of MYC proto-oncogene. Tumors from EGFR- and Kras-driven models exhibited, respectively, 0.02 and 0.07 nonsynonymous mutations per megabase, a dramatically lower average mutational frequency than observed in human lung adenocarcinomas. Tumors from models driven by strong cancer drivers (mutant EGFR and Kras) harbored few mutations in known cancer genes, whereas tumors driven by MYC, a weaker initiating oncogene in the murine lung, acquired recurrent clonal oncogenic Kras mutations. In addition, although EGFR- and Kras-driven models both exhibited recurrent whole-chromosome DNA copy number alterations, the specific chromosomes altered by gain or loss were different in each model. These data demonstrate that GEMM tumors exhibit relatively simple somatic genotypes compared with human cancers of a similar type, making these autochthonous model systems useful for additive engineering approaches to assess the potential of novel mutations on tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug sensitivity. PMID:27702896

  1. RUNX3 is down-regulated in glioma by Myc-regulated miR-4295.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxing; Zheng, Jihui; Diao, Hongyu; Liu, Yunhui

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs are increasingly reported as tumour suppressors that regulate gene expression after transcription. Our results demonstrated that miR-4295 is overexpression in glioma tissues and its level is significantly correlated with clinical stage. We also found that miR-4295 inhibited the cell G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis leading to promoted cell proliferation and activity. The murine modelling study revealed that female nude mice injected with U87/anti-miR-4295 exhibit subcutaneous tumours in the right groin. Compared with anti-NC, the tumour volume was significantly decreased in anti-miR-4295 treatment group. Furthermore, we confirmed miR-4295 mediates the expression of RUNX3 by targeting its 3'untranslation region. In addition, N-myc protein also could bind to the promoter of pri-miR-4295 and inhibit the expression of RUNX3 in glioma cells. These results validate a pathogenetic role of a miR-4295 in gliomas and establish a potentially regulatory and signalling pathway involving N-myc/miR-4295/RUNX3 in gliomas.

  2. c-MYC is a radiosensitive locus in human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Wade, M A; Sunter, N J; Fordham, S E; Long, A; Masic, D; Russell, L J; Harrison, C J; Rand, V; Elstob, C; Bown, N; Rowe, D; Lowe, C; Cuthbert, G; Bennett, S; Crosier, S; Bacon, C M; Onel, K; Scott, K; Scott, D; Travis, L B; May, F E B; Allan, J M

    2015-01-01

    Ionising radiation is a potent human carcinogen. Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent and young women are at increased risk of developing breast cancer following exposure to ionising radiation compared with older women, and that risk is dose-dependent. Although it is well understood which individuals are at risk of radiation-induced breast carcinogenesis, the molecular genetic mechanisms that underlie cell transformation are less clear. To identify genetic alterations potentially responsible for driving radiogenic breast transformation, we exposed the human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A to fractionated doses of X-rays and examined the copy number and cytogenetic alterations. We identified numerous alterations of c-MYC that included high-level focal amplification associated with increased protein expression. c-MYC amplification was also observed in primary human mammary epithelial cells following exposure to radiation. We also demonstrate that the frequency and magnitude of c-MYC amplification and c-MYC protein expression is significantly higher in breast cancer with antecedent radiation exposure compared with breast cancer without a radiation aetiology. Our data also demonstrate extensive intratumor heterogeneity with respect to c-MYC copy number in radiogenic breast cancer, suggesting continuous evolution at this locus during disease development and progression. Taken together, these data identify c-MYC as a radiosensitive locus, implicating this oncogenic transcription factor in the aetiology of radiogenic breast cancer. PMID:25531321

  3. MYC is a crucial mediator of TGFβ-induced invasion in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Magdalena A.; Moruzzi, Megan E.; Shqau, Tiziana A.; Miller, Erin; Mehner, Christine; Ethier, Stephen P.; Copland, John A.; Radisky, Evette S.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2016-01-01

    Basal subtype breast cancers have a particularly poor prognosis, with high invasiveness and resistance to most targeted therapies. TGFβ and MYC drive central features of basal breast cancer: TGFβ is an autocrine and paracrine signaling factor that drives cell invasion and metastasis, and MYC is a central regulator of cellular proliferation that is upregulated in many cancer types. We show here that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of MYC in MCF10A basal breast cells results in increased sensitivity to TGFβ-stimulated invasion and metastasis, and also show that this signaling loop is dependent on activation of SRC. Analysis of human breast cancer datasets and additional experiments with breast cancer cell lines further suggest the relevance of this signaling loop in basal, but not luminal, breast cancers. Our results imply precaution should be taken when utilizing therapeutic inhibitors of MYC with basal breast cancer patients as this could lead to increased metastasis; however, simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of SRC and MYC for these patients could facilitate the anti-proliferative effects of MYC inhibition while blocking the consequent promotion of metastasis. PMID:27197167

  4. The c-MYC-ABCB5 axis plays a pivotal role in 5-fluorouracil resistance in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kugimiya, Naruji; Nishimoto, Arata; Hosoyama, Tohru; Ueno, Koji; Enoki, Tadahiko; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-07-01

    c-MYC overexpression is frequently observed in various cancers including colon cancer and regulates many biological activities such as aberrant cell proliferation, apoptosis, genomic instability, immortalization and drug resistance. However, the mechanism by which c-MYC confers drug resistance remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the c-MYC expression level in primary colorectal cancer tissues correlated with the recurrence rate following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Supporting this finding, overexpression of exogenous c-MYC increased the survival rate following 5-FU treatment in human colon cancer cells, and knockdown of endogenous c-MYC decreased it. Furthermore, c-MYC knockdown decreased the expression level of ABCB5, which is involved in 5-FU resistance. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that c-MYC bound to the ABCB5 promoter region. c-MYC inhibitor (10058-F4) treatment inhibited c-MYC binding to the ABCB5 promoter, leading to a decrease in ABCB5 expression level. ABCB5 knockdown decreased the survival rate following 5-FU treatment as expected, and the ABCB5 expression level was increased in 5-FU-resistant human colon cancer cells. Finally, using a human colon cancer xenograft murine model, we found that the combined 5-FU and 10058-F4 treatment significantly decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice compared with 5-FU or 10058-F4 treatment alone. 10058-F4 treatment decreased the ABCB5 expression level in the presence or absence of 5-FU. In contrast, 5-FU treatment alone increased the ABCB5 expression level. Taken together, these results suggest that c-MYC confers resistance to 5-FU through regulating ABCB5 expression in human colon cancer cells.

  5. Stress-responsive gene RsICE1 from Raphanus sativus increases cold tolerance in rice.

    PubMed

    Man, Lili; Xiang, Dianjun; Wang, Lina; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Xiaodong; Qi, Guochao

    2017-03-01

    The ICE1 transcription factor plays a critical role in plant cold tolerance via triggering CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. In this work, a novel MYC-type ICE1-like gene, RsICE1, was isolated from radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and its function in cold tolerance was characterized in rice. The RsICE1 gene was expressed constitutively with higher transcriptional levels in the roots and stems of radish seedlings. The NaCl, cold, and ABA treatments could significantly upregulate RsICE1 expression levels, but dehydration stress had a weak effect on its expression. Ectopic expression of the RsICE1 gene in rice conferred enhanced tolerance to low-temperature stress grounded on a higher survival rate, higher accumulation of soluble sugars and free proline content, a decline in electrolyte leakage and MDA levels, and higher chlorophyll levels relative to control plants. OsDREBL and OsTPP1, downstream cold-regulated genes, were remarkably upregulated at transcription levels in rice overexpressing RsICE1 under low-temperature stress, which indicated that RsICE1 was involved in CBF/DREB1 cold-regulated signal networks. Overall, the above data showed that RsICE1 played an active role in improving rice cold tolerance, most likely resulting from the upregulation of OsDREBL and OsTPP1 expression levels by interacting with the RsICE1 gene under low-temperature stress.

  6. Identification of sites subjected to serine/threonine phosphorylation by SGK1 affecting N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Cap43-dependent suppression of angiogenic CXC chemokine expression in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuichi; Hosoi, Fumihito; Izumi, Hiroto; Maruyama, Yuichiro; Ureshino, Hiroki; Watari, Kosuke; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2010-05-28

    We have recently reported that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)/Ca(2+)-associated protein with a molecular mass of 43kDa (Cap43) suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth of pancreatic cancer through marked decreases in both the expression of CXC chemokines and phosphorylation of a NF-kappaB signaling molecule, inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IkappaBalpha). NDRG1/Cap43 is phosphorylated at serine/threonine sites in its C-terminal domain by serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1). In this study, we attempted to clarify the domain or site of NDRG1/Cap43 responsible for its suppression of CXC chemokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Expression of the deletion constructs CapDelta2 [deletion of amino acids (AA) 130-142] and CapDelta4 [deletion of AA 180-294] as well as the wild-type full sequence of NDRG1/Cap43 (F-Cap), suppressed the production of CXC chemokines such as Groalpha/CXCL1 and ENA-78/CXCL5, whereas no or low suppression was observed in cell expressing the CapDelta5 mutant [deletion of AA 326-350] and CapDelta6 mutant [deletion of AA 326-394]. We further introduced mutations at the serine and threonine sites at 328 [T328A], 330 [S330A] and 346 [T346A], which are susceptible to phosphorylation by SGK1, and also constructed double mutants [T328A, S330A], [T328A, T346A] and [S330A, T346A]. Expression of all these mutants, with the exception of [S330A, T346A], suppressed the production of CXC chemokine to similar levels as their wild-type counterpart. IkappaBalpha was found to be specifically phosphorylated by this double mutant [S330A, T346A] and the CapDelta5 mutant at levels comparable to that induced in their wild-type counterpart. Phosphorylation of NDRG1/Cap43 at both serine330 and threonine346 is required for its suppressive action on the NF-kappaB signaling pathway and CXC chemokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

  7. MYC Drives Progression of Small Cell Lung Cancer to a Variant Neuroendocrine Subtype with Vulnerability to Aurora Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mollaoglu, Gurkan; Guthrie, Matthew R; Böhm, Stefanie; Brägelmann, Johannes; Can, Ismail; Ballieu, Paul M; Marx, Annika; George, Julie; Heinen, Christine; Chalishazar, Milind D; Cheng, Haixia; Ireland, Abbie S; Denning, Kendall E; Mukhopadhyay, Anandaroop; Vahrenkamp, Jeffery M; Berrett, Kristofer C; Mosbruger, Timothy L; Wang, Jun; Kohan, Jessica L; Salama, Mohamed E; Witt, Benjamin L; Peifer, Martin; Thomas, Roman K; Gertz, Jason; Johnson, Jane E; Gazdar, Adi F; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Sos, Martin L; Oliver, Trudy G

    2017-02-13

    Loss of the tumor suppressors RB1 and TP53 and MYC amplification are frequent oncogenic events in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We show that Myc expression cooperates with Rb1 and Trp53 loss in the mouse lung to promote aggressive, highly metastatic tumors, that are initially sensitive to chemotherapy followed by relapse, similar to human SCLC. Importantly, MYC drives a neuroendocrine-low "variant" subset of SCLC with high NEUROD1 expression corresponding to transcriptional profiles of human SCLC. Targeted drug screening reveals that SCLC with high MYC expression is vulnerable to Aurora kinase inhibition, which, combined with chemotherapy, strongly suppresses tumor progression and increases survival. These data identify molecular features for patient stratification and uncover a potential targeted treatment approach for MYC-driven SCLC.

  8. DUX4-induced dsRNA and MYC mRNA stabilization activate apoptotic pathways in human cell models of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Shadle, Sean C; Zhong, Jun Wen; Campbell, Amy E; Conerly, Melissa L; Jagannathan, Sujatha; Wong, Chao-Jen; Morello, Timothy D; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by the mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle cells. DUX4 is a transcription factor that activates genes normally associated with stem cell biology and its mis-expression in FSHD cells results in apoptosis. To identify genes and pathways necessary for DUX4-mediated apoptosis, we performed an siRNA screen in an RD rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with an inducible DUX4 transgene. Our screen identified components of the MYC-mediated apoptotic pathway and the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) innate immune response pathway as mediators of DUX4-induced apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that DUX4 expression led to increased MYC mRNA, accumulation of nuclear dsRNA foci, and activation of the dsRNA response pathway in both RD cells and human myoblasts. Nuclear dsRNA foci were associated with aggregation of the exon junction complex component EIF4A3. The elevation of MYC mRNA, dsRNA accumulation, and EIF4A3 nuclear aggregates in FSHD muscle cells suggest that these processes might contribute to FSHD pathophysiology.

  9. DUX4-induced dsRNA and MYC mRNA stabilization activate apoptotic pathways in human cell models of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Shadle, Sean C.; Jagannathan, Sujatha; Wong, Chao-Jen; Morello, Timothy D.; van der Maarel, Silvère M.

    2017-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by the mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle cells. DUX4 is a transcription factor that activates genes normally associated with stem cell biology and its mis-expression in FSHD cells results in apoptosis. To identify genes and pathways necessary for DUX4-mediated apoptosis, we performed an siRNA screen in an RD rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with an inducible DUX4 transgene. Our screen identified components of the MYC-mediated apoptotic pathway and the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) innate immune response pathway as mediators of DUX4-induced apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that DUX4 expression led to increased MYC mRNA, accumulation of nuclear dsRNA foci, and activation of the dsRNA response pathway in both RD cells and human myoblasts. Nuclear dsRNA foci were associated with aggregation of the exon junction complex component EIF4A3. The elevation of MYC mRNA, dsRNA accumulation, and EIF4A3 nuclear aggregates in FSHD muscle cells suggest that these processes might contribute to FSHD pathophysiology. PMID:28273136

  10. Parp-1 genetic ablation in Ela-myc mice unveils novel roles for Parp-1 in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bosch, Neus; Iglesias, Mar; Munné-Collado, Jessica; Martínez-Cáceres, Carlos; Moreno, Mireia; Guerra, Carmen; Yélamos, Jose; Navarro, Pilar

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a dismal prognosis and is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. The inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1), the major protein responsible for poly(ADP-ribosy)lation in response to DNA damage, has emerged as a promising treatment for several tumour types. Here we aimed to elucidate the involvement of Parp-1 in pancreatic tumour progression. We assessed Parp-1 protein expression in normal, preneoplastic and pancreatic tumour samples from humans and from K-Ras- and c-myc-driven mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Parp-1 was highly expressed in acinar cells in normal and cancer tissues. In contrast, ductal cells expressed very low or undetectable levels of this protein, both in a normal and in a tumour context. The Parp-1 expression pattern was similar in human and mouse samples, thereby validating the use of animal models for further studies. To determine the in vivo effects of Parp-1 depletion on pancreatic cancer progression, Ela-myc-driven pancreatic tumour development was analysed in a Parp-1 knock-out background. Loss of Parp-1 resulted in increased tumour necrosis and decreased proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Interestingly, Ela-myc:Parp-1(-/-) mice displayed fewer ductal tumours than their Ela-myc:Parp-1(+/+) counterparts, suggesting that Parp-1 participates in promoting acinar-to-ductal metaplasia, a key event in pancreatic cancer initiation. Moreover, impaired macrophage recruitment can be responsible for the ADM blockade found in the Ela-myc:Parp-1(-/-) mice. Finally, molecular analysis revealed that Parp-1 modulates ADM downstream of the Stat3-MMP7 axis and is also involved in transcriptional up-regulation of the MDM2, VEGFR1 and MMP28 cancer-related genes. In conclusion, the expression pattern of Parp-1 in normal and cancer tissue and the in vivo functional effects of Parp-1 depletion point to a novel role for this protein in pancreatic carcinogenesis and shed light

  11. Myc and Fgf Are Required for Zebrafish Neuromast Hair Cell Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Goo; Huang, Mingqian; Obholzer, Nikolaus D; Sun, Shan; Li, Wenyan; Petrillo, Marco; Dai, Pu; Zhou, Yi; Cotanche, Douglas A; Megason, Sean G; Li, Huawei; Chen, Zheng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, the non-mammalian vertebrate inner ear can regenerate the sensory cells, hair cells, either spontaneously or through induction after hair cell loss, leading to hearing recovery. The mechanisms underlying the regeneration are poorly understood. By microarray analysis on a chick model, we show that chick hair cell regeneration involves the activation of proliferation genes and downregulation of differentiation genes. Both MYC and FGF are activated in chick hair cell regeneration. Using a zebrafish lateral line neuromast hair cell regeneration model, we show that the specific inhibition of Myc or Fgf suppresses hair cell regeneration, demonstrating that both pathways are essential to the process. Rapid upregulation of Myc and delayed Fgf activation during regeneration suggest a role of Myc in proliferation and Fgf in differentiation. The dorsal-ventral pattern of fgfr1a in the neuromasts overlaps with the distribution of hair cell precursors. By laser ablation, we show that the fgfr1a-positive supporting cells are likely the hair cell precursors that directly give rise to new hair cells; whereas the anterior-posterior fgfr1a-negative supporting cells have heightened proliferation capacity, likely to serve as more primitive progenitor cells to replenish lost precursors after hair cell loss. Thus fgfr1a is likely to mark compartmentalized supporting cell subtypes with different capacities in renewal proliferation and hair cell regeneration. Manipulation of c-MYC and FGF pathways could be explored for mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  12. Transformation by myc prevents fusion but not biochemical differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts: mechanisms of phenotypic correction in mixed culture with normal cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    To study the effects of myc oncogene on muscle differentiation, we infected the murine skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 with retroviral vectors encoding various forms of avian c- or v-myc oncogene. myc expression induced cell transformation but, unlike many other oncogenes, prevented neither biochemical differentiation, nor commitment (irreversible withdrawal from the cell cycle). Yet, myotube formation by fusion of differentiated cells was strongly inhibited. Comparison of uninfected C2C12 myotubes with differentiated myc- expressing C2C12 did not reveal consistent differences in the expression of several muscle regulatory or structural genes. The present results lead us to conclude that transformation by myc is compatible with differentiation in C2C12 cells. myc expression induced cell death under growth restricting conditions. Differentiated cells escaped cell death despite continuing expression of myc, suggesting that the muscle differentiation programme interferes with the mechanism of myc-induced cell death. Cocultivation of v-myc-transformed C2C12 cells with normal fibroblasts or myoblasts restored fusion competence and revealed two distinguishable mechanisms that lead to correction of the fusion defect. PMID:8195295

  13. ELL targets c-Myc for proteasomal degradation and suppresses tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Chi; Ji, Wei; Mei, Zhichao; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xing; Ouyang, Gang; Zhou, Jiangang; Xiao, Wuhan

    2016-03-24

    Increasing evidence supports that ELL (eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukaemia) is a key regulator of transcriptional elongation, but the physiological function of Ell in mammals remains elusive. Here we show that ELL functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targets c-Myc for proteasomal degradation. In addition, we identify that UbcH8 serves as a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in this pathway. Cysteine 595 of ELL is an active site of the enzyme; its mutation to alanine (C595A) renders the protein unable to promote the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Myc. ELL-mediated c-Myc degradation inhibits c-Myc-dependent transcriptional activity and cell proliferation, and also suppresses c-Myc-dependent xenograft tumour growth. In contrast, the ELL(C595A) mutant not only loses the ability to inhibit cell proliferation and xenograft tumour growth, but also promotes tumour metastasis. Thus, our work reveals a previously unrecognized function for ELL as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for c-Myc and a potential tumour suppressor.

  14. Myc/Max/Mad regulate the frequency but not the duration of productive cell cycles

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Michael; Kohlhuber, Franz; Schlosser, Isabel; Hölzel, Dieter; Lüscher, Bernhard; Eick, Dirk

    2001-01-01

    Upregulation of the proto-oncoprotein Myc, a basic, helix–loop–helix, leucin zipper domain transcription factor has profound consequences on cell proliferation, cell growth and apoptosis. Cell cultures of somatic c-myc–/– rat fibroblasts show extremely prolonged doubling times of 52 h. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show here that individual c-myc–/– cells proceeded within ∼24 h through the cell cycle as fast as c-myc+/+ cells. However, c-myc–/– cells were highly sensitive to contact inhibition and readily arrested in the cell cycle already at low density. Activation of conditional MycER overcame cell cycle arrest in c-myc–/– cells and led to continuous proliferation at the expense of increased apoptosis at high cell density. Conditional expression of Mad1, a Myc antagonist, represses proliferation of different cell types including U2OS cells. In analogy to the effect of Myc, this occurs mainly by reducing the probability of cells remaining in the cycle. Our data demonstrate that the Myc/Max/Mad network does not regulate the duration of the cell cycle, but the decision of cells to enter or exit the cell cycle. PMID:11743027

  15. Activation of c-myc and c-K-ras oncogenes in primary rat tumors induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sawey, M J; Hood, A T; Burns, F J; Garte, S J

    1987-01-01

    An activated K-ras oncogene was detected by transfection in NIH 3T3 cells and by Southern blot analysis in 6 of 12 rat skin tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The DNA from 10 of the 12 tumors also showed c-myc gene amplification and restriction polymorphisms. Evidence for tissue specificity was observed in patterns of oncogene activation, with each of three clear cell carcinomas exhibiting activation of both c-myc and K-ras oncogenes. Images PMID:3547086

  16. Quinazoline derivative QPB-15e stabilizes the c-myc promoter G-quadruplex and inhibits tumor growth in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeng; Liu, Chen; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Zhang, Lei; He, Jinhui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The ribozyme-sensitive element NHE-III1 in the P1 promoter region of the important proto-oncogene c-myc contains many guanine (G)-rich sequences. Induction and stabilization of the G-quadruplex formed by NHE-III1 can downregulate c-myc expression. In the present study, we found that QPB-15e, a quinazoline derivative designed and synthesized by our laboratory, binds to and stabilizes the c-myc G-quadruplex in vitro, thereby inhibiting double-stranded DNA replication, downregulating c-myc gene expression and arresting cancer cell proliferation. PCR termination experiments showed that QPB-15e blocked double-stranded DNA replication by inducing or stabilizing the c-myc G-quadruplex. FRET-melting further confirmed that QPB-15e improved the stability of the G-quadruplex, and CD spectroscopy indicated that the compound interacted directly with the G-rich sequence. In competitive dialysis experiments, QPB-15e bound preferentially to quadruplex DNA in various structures, especially the G-quadruplex within the c-myc promoter region. Moreover, QPB-15e reduced the weights and volumes of tumors transplanted into nude mice. These findings strongly suggest that QPB-15e is a c-myc G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, and may be efficacious for treating cancer in humans. PMID:27144522

  17. In vivo hematopoietic Myc activation directs a transcriptional signature in endothelial cells within the bone marrow microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katharina; Vilne, Baiba; da Costa, Olivia Prazeres; Rudelius, Martina; Peschel, Christian; Oostendorp, Robert A.J.; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Cancer pathogenesis involves tumor-intrinsic genomic aberrations and tumor-cell extrinsic mechanisms such as failure of immunosurveillance and structural and functional changes in the microenvironment. Using Myc as a model oncogene we established a conditional mouse bone marrow transduction/transplantation model where the conditional activation of the oncoprotein Myc expressed in the hematopoietic system could be assessed for influencing the host microenvironment. Constitutive ectopic expression of Myc resulted in rapid onset of a lethal myeloproliferative disorder with a median survival of 21 days. In contrast, brief 4-day Myc activation by means of the estrogen receptor (ER) agonist tamoxifen did not result in gross changes in the percentage/frequency of hematopoietic lineages or hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) subsets, nor did Myc activation significantly change the composition of the non-hematopoietic microenvironment defined by phenotyping for CD31, ALCAM, and Sca-1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of endothelial CD45- Ter119- cells from tamoxifen-treated MycER bone marrow graft recipients revealed a gene expression signature characterized by specific changes in the Rho subfamily pathway members, in the transcription-translation-machinery and in angiogenesis. In conclusion, intra-hematopoietic Myc activation results in significant transcriptome alterations that can be attributed to oncogene-induced signals from hematopoietic cells towards the microenvironment, e. g. endothelial cells, supporting the idea that even pre-leukemic HSPC highjack components of the niche which then could protect and support the cancer-initiating population. PMID:26308666

  18. Structural basis of N-Myc binding by Aurora-A and its destabilization by kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Mark W.; Burgess, Selena G.; Poon, Evon; Carstensen, Anne; Eilers, Martin; Chesler, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Myc family proteins promote cancer by inducing widespread changes in gene expression. Their rapid turnover by the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway is regulated through phosphorylation of Myc Box I and ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFFbxW7. However, N-Myc protein (the product of the MYCN oncogene) is stabilized in neuroblastoma by the protein kinase Aurora-A in a manner that is sensitive to certain Aurora-A–selective inhibitors. Here we identify a direct interaction between the catalytic domain of Aurora-A and a site flanking Myc Box I that also binds SCFFbxW7. We determined the crystal structure of the complex between Aurora-A and this region of N-Myc to 1.72-Å resolution. The structure indicates that the conformation of Aurora-A induced by compounds such as alisertib and CD532 is not compatible with the binding of N-Myc, explaining the activity of these compounds in neuroblastoma cells and providing a rational basis for the design of cancer therapeutics optimized for destabilization of the complex. We also propose a model for the stabilization mechanism in which binding to Aurora-A alters how N-Myc interacts with SCFFbxW7 to disfavor the generation of Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains. PMID:27837025

  19. Sensitization of retinoids and corticoids to epigenetic drugs in MYC-activated lung cancers by antitumor reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Romero, O A; Verdura, S; Torres-Diz, M; Gomez, A; Moran, S; Condom, E; Esteller, M; Villanueva, A; Sanchez-Cespedes, M

    2017-03-02

    Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, including BRG1 (also SMARCA4), are inactivated in cancer. Among other functions, SWI/SNF orchestrates the response to retinoid acid (RA) and glucocorticoids (GC) involving downregulation of MYC. The epigenetic drugs SAHA and azacytidine, as well as RA and GC, are currently being used to treat some malignancies but their therapeutic potential in lung cancer is not well established. Here we aimed to determine the possible therapeutic effects of azacytidine and SAHA (A/S) alone or in combination with GC plus RA (GC/RA) in lung cancers with either BRG1 inactivation or MYC amplification. In vitro, responses to GC/RA treatment were more effective in MYC-amplified cells. These effects were mediated by BRG1 and involved a reprogramming towards prodifferentiation gene expression signatures and downregulation of MYC. In MYC-amplified cells, administration of GC/RA enhanced the cell growth inhibitory effects of A/S which, in turn, accentuated the prodifferentiation features promoted by GC/RA. Finally, these treatments improved overall survival of mice orthotopically implanted with MYC-amplified, but not BRG1-mutant, cells and reduced tumor cell viability and proliferation. We propose that the combination of epigenetic treatments with retinoids and corticoids of MYC-driven lung tumors constitute a strategy for therapeutic intervention in this otherwise incurable disease.

  20. Structural basis of N-Myc binding by Aurora-A and its destabilization by kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark W; Burgess, Selena G; Poon, Evon; Carstensen, Anne; Eilers, Martin; Chesler, Louis; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-11-29

    Myc family proteins promote cancer by inducing widespread changes in gene expression. Their rapid turnover by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is regulated through phosphorylation of Myc Box I and ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(FbxW7) However, N-Myc protein (the product of the MYCN oncogene) is stabilized in neuroblastoma by the protein kinase Aurora-A in a manner that is sensitive to certain Aurora-A-selective inhibitors. Here we identify a direct interaction between the catalytic domain of Aurora-A and a site flanking Myc Box I that also binds SCF(FbxW7) We determined the crystal structure of the complex between Aurora-A and this region of N-Myc to 1.72-Å resolution. The structure indicates that the conformation of Aurora-A induced by compounds such as alisertib and CD532 is not compatible with the binding of N-Myc, explaining the activity of these compounds in neuroblastoma cells and providing a rational basis for the design of cancer therapeutics optimized for destabilization of the complex. We also propose a model for the stabilization mechanism in which binding to Aurora-A alters how N-Myc interacts with SCF(FbxW7) to disfavor the generation of Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains.

  1. MYC protein expression is detected in plasma cell myeloma but not in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruobing; Cerny, Jan; Devitt, Katherine; Dresser, Karen; Nath, Rajneesh; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Rodig, Scott J; Chen, Benjamin J; Woda, Bruce A; Yu, Hongbo

    2014-06-01

    It has been recognized that monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) precedes a diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma in most patients. Recent gene expression array analysis has revealed that an MYC activation signature is detected in plasma cell myeloma but not in MGUS. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical studies using membrane CD138 and nuclear MYC double staining on bone marrow biopsies from patients who met the diagnostic criteria of plasma cell myeloma or MGUS. Our study demonstrated nuclear MYC expression in CD138-positive plasma cells in 22 of 26 (84%) plasma cell myeloma samples and in none of the 29 bone marrow samples from patients with MGUS. In addition, our data on the follow-up biopsies from plasma cell myeloma patients with high MYC expression demonstrated that evaluation of MYC expression in plasma cells can be useful in detecting residual disease. We also demonstrated that plasma cells gained MYC expression in 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) when progressing from MGUS to plasma cell myeloma. Analysis of additional lymphomas with plasmacytic differentiation, including lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and plasmablastic lymphoma, reveals that MYC detection can be a useful tool in the diagnosis of plasma cell myeloma.

  2. A single gene mutation that increases maize seed weight

    SciTech Connect

    Giroux, M.J.; Shaw, J.; Hannah, L.C. |

    1996-06-11

    The maize endosperm-specific gene shrunken2 (Sh2) encodes the large subunit of the heterotetrameric starch synthetic enzyme adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27). Here we exploit an in vivo, site-specific mutagenesis system to create short insertion mutations in a region of the gene known to be involved in the allosteric regulation of AGP. The site-specific mutagen is the transposable element dissociation (Ds). Approximately one-third (8 of 23) of the germinal revertants sequenced restored the wild-type sequence, whereas the remaining revertants contained insertions of 3 or 6 bp. All revertants retained the original reading frame 3 feet to the insertion site and involved the addition of tyrosine and/or serine. Each insertion revertant reduced total AGP activity and the amount of the SH2 protein. The revertant containing additional tyrosine and serine residues increased seed weight 11-18% without increasing or decreasing the percentage of starch. Other insertion revertants lacking an additional serine reduced seed weight. Reduced sensitivity to phosphate, a long-known inhibitor of AGP, was found in the high seed-weight revertant. This alteration is likely universally important since insertion of tyrosine and serine in the potato large subunit of AGP at the comparable position and expression in Escherichia coli also led to a phosphate-insensitive enzyme. These results show that single gene mutations giving rise to increased seed weight, and therefore perhaps yield, are clearly possible in a plant with a long history of intensive and successful breeding efforts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  4. Double minute chromosomes in acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia are associated with micronuclei, MYC or MLL amplification, and complex karyotype.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yang O; Tang, Guilin; Talwalkar, Sameer S; Khoury, Joseph D; Ohanian, Maro; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Abruzzo, Lynne V

    2016-01-01

    Double minute chromosomes (dmin) are small, paired chromatin bodies that lack a centromere and represent a form of extrachromosomal gene amplification. Dmin are rare in myeloid neoplasms and are generally associated with a poor prognosis. Most studies of dmin in myeloid neoplasms are case reports or small series. In the current study, we present the clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features of 22 patients with myeloid neoplasms harboring dmin. These neoplasms included acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (n = 18), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 3), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) (n = 1). The AML cases consisted of AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (n = 13) and therapy-related AML (n = 5). Dmin were detected in initial pre-therapy samples in 14 patients with AML or CMML; they were acquired during the disease course in 8 patients who had AML or MDS. The presence of dmin was associated with micronuclei (18/18; 100%), complex karyotype (17/22; 77.3%), and amplification of MYC (12/16; 75%) or MLL (4/16; 25%). Immunohistochemical staining for MYC performed on bone marrow core biopsy or clot sections revealed increased MYC protein in all 19 cases tested. Except for one patient, most patients failed to respond to risk-adapted chemotherapies. At last follow up, all patients had died of disease after a median of 5 months following dmin detection. In conclusion, dmin in myeloid neoplasms commonly harbor MYC or MLL gene amplification and manifest as micronuclei within leukemic blasts. Dmin are often associated with myelodysplasia or therapy-related disease, and complex karyotypes.

  5. Constitutive androstane receptor activation evokes the expression of glycolytic genes.

    PubMed

    Yarushkin, Andrei A; Kazantseva, Yuliya A; Prokopyeva, Elena A; Markova, Diana N; Pustylnyak, Yuliya A; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O

    2016-09-23

    It is well-known that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases the liver-to-body weight ratio. CAR-mediated liver growth is correlated with increased expression of the pleiotropic transcription factor cMyc, which stimulates cell cycle regulatory genes and drives proliferating cells into S phase. Because glycolysis supports cell proliferation and cMyc is essential for the activation of glycolytic genes, we hypothesized that CAR-mediated up-regulation of cMyc in mouse livers might play a role in inducing the expression of glycolytic genes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of long-term CAR activation on glycolytic genes in a mouse model not subjected to metabolic stress. We demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increases expression of cMyc, which was correlated with reduced expression of gluconeogenic genes and up-regulation of glucose transporter, glycolytic and mitochondrial pyruvate metabolising genes. These changes in gene expression after TCPOBOP treatment were strongly correlated with changes in levels of glycolytic intermediates in mouse livers. Moreover, we demonstrated a significant positive regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on both mRNA and protein levels of Pkm2, a master regulator of glucose metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, our findings provide evidence to support the conclusion that CAR activation initiates a transcriptional program that facilitates the coordinated metabolic activities required for cell proliferation.

  6. Distinct localizations and repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Hagio, Yuko; Kimura, Yumiko; Taira, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yuko; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2006-01-01

    MM-1 was identified as a c-Myc-binding protein and has been reported to repress the E-box-dependent transcription activity of c-Myc by recruiting HDAC1 complex via TIF1 beta/KAP1. In this study, originally isolated MM-1 was found to be a fusion protein comprised of the N-terminal 13 amino acids from the sequence of chromosome 14 and of the rest of the amino acids from that of chromosome 12 and was found to be expressed ubiquitously in all human tissues. Four splicing isoforms of MM-1, MM-1alpha, MM-1beta, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta, which are derived from the sequence of chromosome 12, were then identified. Of these isoforms, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1delta were found to be expressed in tissue-specific manners and MM-1beta was found to be expressed ubiquitously. Although all of the isoforms potentially possessed c-Myc- and TIF1beta-binding activities, MM-1beta and MM-1delta were found to be mainly localized in the cytoplasm and MM-1alpha and MM-1gamma were found to be localized in the nucleus together with both c-Myc and TIF1beta. Furthermore, when repression activities of MM-1 isoforms toward c-Myc transcription activity were examined by reporter gene assays in HeLa cells, MM-1alpha, MM-1gamma, and MM-1gamma, but not MM-1beta, were found to repress transcription activity of c-Myc, and the degrees of repression by MM-1gamma and MM-1delta were smaller than those by MM-1 and MM-1alpha. These results suggest that each MM-1 isoform distinctly regulates c-Myc transcription activity in respective tissues.

  7. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R.; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc. PMID:28378747

  8. The MYC-Associated Protein CDCA7 Is Phosphorylated by AKT To Regulate MYC-Dependent Apoptosis and Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Gill, R. Montgomery; Gabor, Timothy V.; Couzens, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    Cell division control protein A7 (CDCA7) is a recently identified target of MYC-dependent transcriptional regulation. We have discovered that CDCA7 associates with MYC and that this association is modulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The prosurvival kinase AKT phosphorylates CDCA7 at threonine 163, promoting binding to 14-3-3, dissociation from MYC, and sequestration to the cytoplasm. Upon serum withdrawal, induction of CDCA7 expression in the presence of MYC sensitized cells to apoptosis, whereas CDCA7 knockdown reduced MYC-dependent apoptosis. The transformation of fibroblasts by MYC was reduced by coexpression of CDCA7, while the non-MYC-interacting protein Δ(156–187)-CDCA7 largely inhibited MYC-induced transformation. These studies provide insight into a new mechanism by which AKT signaling to CDCA7 could alter MYC-dependent growth and transformation, contributing to tumorigenesis. PMID:23166294

  9. Sodium arsenite alters cell cycle and MTHFR, MT1/2, and c-Myc protein levels in MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Ramos, Ruben; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Albores, Arnulfo; Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2009-12-15

    There is limited available information on the effects of arsenic on enzymes participating in the folate cycle. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the effects of sodium arsenite on the protein levels of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and its further relationship with the expression MT1/2 and c-myc in MCF-7 cells. Arsenite treatment (0-10 muM) for 4 h decreased MTHFR levels in a concentration-dependent fashion without significant effects on DHFR. The effects on MTHFR were observed at arsenite concentrations not significantly affecting cell viability. We also observed an increase in S-phase recruitment at all concentrations probed. Lower concentrations (< 5 muM) induced cell proliferation, showing a high proportion of BrdU-stained cells, indicating a higher DNA synthesis rate. However, higher concentrations (>= 5 muM) or longer treatment periods induced apoptosis. Arsenite also induced dose-dependent increases in MT1/2 and c-Myc protein levels. The levels of MTHFR were inversely correlated to MT1/2 and c-Myc overexpression and increased S-phase recruitment. Our findings indicate that breast epithelial cells are responsive to arsenite and suggest that exposure may pose a risk for breast cancer. The reductions in MTHFR protein levels contribute to understand the mechanisms underlying the induction of genes influencing growth regulation, such as c-myc and MT1/2. However, further research is needed to ascertain if the effects here reported following short-time and high-dose exposure are relevant for human populations chronically exposed to low arsenic concentrations.

  10. Combinatorial gene therapy renders increased survival in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis ranks as the second cause of death in México's productive-age population. This pathology is characterized by acummulation of fibrillar proteins in hepatic parenchyma causing synthetic and metabolic disfunction. Remotion of excessive fibrous proteins might result in benefit for subjects increasing survival index. The goal of this work was to find whether the already known therapeutical effect of human urokinase Plasminogen Activator and human Matrix Metalloprotease 8 extends survival index in cirrhotic animals. Methods Wistar rats (80 g) underwent chronic intoxication with CCl4: mineral oil for 8 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were injected with a combined dose of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 (3 × 1011 and 1.5 × 1011 vp/Kg, respectively) or with Ad-beta-Gal (4.5 × 1011) and were killed after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Then, liver and serum were collected. An additional set of cirrhotic animals injected with combined gene therapy was also monitored for their probability of survival. Results Only the cirrhotic animals treated with therapeutical genes (Ad-delta-huPA+Ad-MMP-8) showed improvement in liver fibrosis. These results correlated with hydroxyproline determinations. A significant decrement in alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 gene expression was also observed. Cirrhotic rats treated with Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 had a higher probability of survival at 60 days with respect to Ad-beta-Gal-injected animals. Conclusion A single administration of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP-8 is efficient to induce fibrosis regression and increase survival in experimental liver fibrosis. PMID:20509929

  11. Role of GLI1 and NDRG1 in Increased Resistance to Apoptosis Induction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Rom, William N; Koshiji, Minori; Mo, Yiqun; Hosomi, Yukio; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of GLI1 expression in PW mouse embryo fibroblasts and H441 lung carcinoma cells. Ectopic expression of GLI1 in PW cells induced anchorage-independent growth and increased resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, and overexpression of GLI1 in H441 cells caused resistance to apoptosis induced by staurosporine and etoposide. GLI1 expression in both H441 and PW cells was associated with increased expression of NDRG1, a gene known to be downregulated by the MYC family of proteins, indicating that upregulation of NDRG1 by GLI1 is not cell-type specific. Consistent with suppression of NDRG1 by c-MYC and N-MYC, increased NDRG1 expression correlated with decreased expression of c-MYC and N-MYC in GLI1-expressing H441 and GLI1-expressing PW cells, respectively. Downregulation of GLI1 expression in A549 cells by siRNA transfection increased sensitivity to etoposide-induced apoptosis, and downregulation of NDRG1 expression in H441 cells by siRNA transfection increased sensitivity to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Of clinical significance, inhibition of GLI1 and NDRG1 expression may increase sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Strategies that aim to inhibit GLI1 function and NDRG1 expression may be useful for targeted therapy of cancers induced by the SHH-GLI signaling pathway.

  12. Aspirin and salicylic acid decrease c-Myc expression in cancer cells: a potential role in chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Muley, Pratik; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between regular aspirin use and reduced colon cancer incidence and mortality; however, the pathways by which it exerts its anti-cancer effects are still not fully explored. We hypothesized that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may occur through downregulation of c-Myc gene expression. Here, we demonstrate that aspirin and its primary metabolite, salicylic acid, decrease the c-Myc protein levels in human HCT-116 colon and in few other cancer cell lines. In total cell lysates, both drugs decreased the levels of c-Myc in a concentration-dependent fashion. Greater inhibition was observed in the nucleus than the cytoplasm, and immunofluorescence studies confirmed these observations. Pretreatment of cells with lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, partially prevented the downregulatory effect of both aspirin and salicylic acid, suggesting that 26S proteasomal pathway is involved. Both drugs failed to decrease exogenously expressed DDK-tagged c-Myc protein levels; however, under the same conditions, the endogenous c-Myc protein levels were downregulated. Northern blot analysis showed that both drugs caused a decrease in c-Myc mRNA levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that aspirin taken up by cells was rapidly metabolized to salicylic acid, suggesting that aspirin's inhibitory effect on c-Myc may occur through formation of salicylic acid. Our result suggests that salicylic acid regulates c-Myc level at both transcriptional and post-transcription levels. Inhibition of c-Myc may represent an important pathway by which aspirin exerts its anti-cancer effect and decrease the occurrence of cancer in epithelial tissues.

  13. Pre-clinical analysis of changes in intra-cellular biochemistry of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells due to c-Myc silencing.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Vishal; Vaidyanathan, Muthukumar; Janardhanam, Vanisree Arambakkam; Bradner, James E

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of brain Tumor that has few cures. In this study, we analyze the anti-proliferative effects of a new molecule JQ1 against GBMs induced in Wistar Rats. JQ1 is essentially a Myc inhibitor. c-Myc is also known for altering the biochemistry of a tumor cell. Therefore, the study is intended to analyze certain other oncogenes associated with c-Myc and also the change in cellular biochemistry upon c-Myc inhibition. The quantitative analysis of gene expression gave a co-expressive pattern for all the three genes involved namely; c-Myc, Bcl-2, and Akt. The cellular biochemistry analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed high glycogen and lipid aggregation in Myc inhibited cells and excessive autophagy. The study demonstrates the role of c-Myc as a central metabolic regulator and Bcl-2 and Akt assisting in extending c-Myc half-life as well as in regulation of autophagy, so as to regulate cell survival on the whole. The study also demonstrates that transient treatment by JQ1 leads to aggressive development of tumor and therefore, accelerating death, emphasizing the importance of dosage fixation, and duration for clinical use in future.

  14. C-Myc Protein-Protein and Protein-DNA Interactions: Targets for Therapeutic Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    progression through the cell cycle (Jansen-Durr et al., 1993; Luscher and Eisenman, 1990). In the mouse, both the c- and N-Myc genes are essential for... Luscher and Eisenman, 1990), the pathways by which it does so seem to be complex. An essential insight into how c-Myc might perform these functions has...Collum and Alt, 1990; Luscher and Eisenman, 1990). Recent experiments support this idea (Amati et al., 1992; Amin et al., 1993; Gu et al., 1993; Kato et al

  15. c-Myc-Induced Survivin Is Essential for Promoting the Notch-Dependent T Cell Differentiation from Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rizwanul; Song, Jianyong; Haque, Mohammad; Lei, Fengyang; Sandhu, Praneet; Ni, Bing; Zheng, Songguo; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Jin-Ming; Song, Jianxun

    2017-01-01

    Notch is indispensable for T cell lineage commitment, and is needed for thymocyte differentiation at early phases. During early stages of T cell development, active Notch prevents other lineage potentials including B cell lineage and myeloid cell (e.g., dendritic cell) lineage. Nevertheless, the precise intracellular signaling pathways by which Notch promotes T cell differentiation remain unclear. Here we report that the transcription factor c-Myc is a key mediator of the Notch signaling–regulated T cell differentiation. In a well-established in vitro differentiation model of T lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells, we showed that Notch1 and 4 directly promoted c-Myc expression; dominant-negative (DN) c-Myc inhibited early T cell differentiation. Moreover, the c-Myc expression activated by Notch signaling increased the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein. We further demonstrated that over-expression of c-Myc increased the abundance of survivin and the T cell differentiation thereof, whereas dn c-Myc reduced survivin levels and concomitantly retarded the differentiation. The c-Myc–dependent survivin induction is functionally germane, because Notch-dependent T cell differentiation was canceled by the depletion of survivin. These results identify both c-Myc and survivin as important mediators of the Notch signaling–regulated differentiation of T lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:28272325

  16. Modulation of Cellular Migration and Survival by c-Myc through the Downregulation of Urokinase (uPA) and uPA Receptor▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Daniela; Votta, Giuseppina; Schulze, Almut; Downward, Julian; Caputi, Mario; Stoppelli, Maria Patrizia; Iaccarino, Ingram

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that c-Myc proapoptotic activity accounts for most of its restraint of tumor formation. We established a telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cell line expressing an activatable c-Myc protein. We found that c-Myc activation induces, in addition to increased sensitivity to apoptosis, reductions in cell motility and invasiveness. Transcriptome analysis revealed that urokinase (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR) were strongly downregulated by c-Myc. Evidence is provided that the repression of uPA and uPAR may account for most of the antimigratory and proapoptotic activities of c-Myc. c-Myc is known to cooperate with Ras in cellular transformation. We therefore investigated if this cooperation could converge in the control of uPA/uPAR expression. We found that Ras is able to block the effects of c-Myc activation on apoptosis and cellular motility but not on cell invasiveness. Accordingly, the activation of c-Myc in the context of Ras expression had only minor influence on uPAR expression but still had a profound repressive effect on uPA expression. Thus, the differential regulation of uPA and uPAR by c-Myc and Ras correlates with the effects of these two oncoproteins on cell motility, invasiveness, and survival. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel link between c-Myc and uPA/uPAR. We propose that reductions of cell motility and invasiveness could contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis by c-Myc and that the regulation of uPA and uPAR expression may be a component of the ability of c-Myc to reduce motility and invasiveness. PMID:20123981

  17. NCYM is upregulated by lncUSMycN and modulates N-Myc expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei Y; Atmadibrata, Bernard; Mondal, Sujanna; Tee, Andrew E; Liu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in early childhood. Patients with neuroblastoma due to the amplification of a 130-kb genomic DNA region containing the MYCN, MYCN antisense NCYM and lncUSMycN genes show poor prognosis. BET bromodomain inhibitors show anticancer efficacy against neuroblastoma partly by reducing MYCN gene transcription and N-Myc mRNA and protein expression. We have previously shown that the long nocoding RNA lncUSMycN upregulates N-Myc mRNA expression by binding to the RNA-binding protein NonO. In this study, we found that lncUSMycN upregulated NCYM expression, and knocking-down lncUSMycN reduced histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, a marker for active gene transcription, at the NCYM gene promoter. NCYM upregulated N-Myc mRNA expression, NCYM RNA formed a complex with NonO protein, and knocking down NCYM expression reduced neuroblastoma cell proliferation. Importantly, treatment with BET bromodomain inhibitors reduced NCYM expression. In human neuroblastoma patients, high levels of NCYM expression in tumor tissues correlated with high levels of N-Myc, NonO and lncUSMycN expression as well as poor patient prognosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that lncUSMycN upregulates NCYM expression by activating its gene transcription, and that NCYM RNA upregulates N-Myc mRNA expression by binding to NonO. Our findings also provide further evidence for the application of BET bromodomain inhibitors for the therapy of neuroblastoma characterized by MYCN/NCYM gene locus amplification.

  18. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Hurlin, P J; Quéva, C; Koskinen, P J; Steingrímsson, E; Ayer, D E; Copeland, N G; Jenkins, N A; Eisenman, R N

    1995-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHZip) protein Max associates with members of the Myc family, as well as with the related proteins Mad (Mad1) and Mxi1. Whereas both Myc:Max and Mad:Max heterodimers bind related E-box sequences, Myc:Max activates transcription and promotes proliferation while Mad:Max represses transcription and suppresses Myc dependent transformation. Here we report the identification and characterization of two novel Mad1- and Mxi1-related proteins, Mad3 and Mad4. Mad3 and Mad4 interact with both Max and mSin3 and repress transcription from a promoter containing CACGTG binding sites. Using a rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay, we show that both Mad3 and Mad4 inhibit c-Myc dependent cell transformation. An examination of the expression patterns of all mad genes during murine embryogenesis reveals that mad1, mad3 and mad4 are expressed primarily in growth-arrested differentiating cells. mxi1 is also expressed in differentiating cells, but is co-expressed with either c-myc, N-myc, or both in proliferating cells of the developing central nervous system and the epidermis. In the developing central nervous system and epidermis, downregulation of myc genes occurs concomitant with upregulation of mad family genes. These expression patterns, together with the demonstrated ability of Mad family proteins to interfere with the proliferation promoting activities of Myc, suggest that the regulated expression of Myc and Mad family proteins function in a concerted fashion to regulate cell growth in differentiating tissues. Images PMID:8521822

  19. C-Myc negatively controls the tumor suppressor PTEN by upregulating miR-26a in glioblastoma multiforme cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Pin; Nie, Quanmin; Lan, Jin; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming; Mao, Qing

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •The c-Myc oncogene directly upregulates miR-26a expression in GBM cells. •ChIP assays demonstrate that c-Myc interacts with the miR-26a promoter. •Luciferase reporter assays show that PTEN is a specific target of miR-26a. •C-Myc–miR-26a suppression of PTEN may regulate the PTEN/AKT pathway. •Overexpression of c-Myc enhances the proliferative capacity of GBM cells. -- Abstract: The c-Myc oncogene is amplified in many tumor types. It is an important regulator of cell proliferation and has been linked to altered miRNA expression, suggesting that c-Myc-regulated miRNAs might contribute to tumor progression. Although miR-26a has been reported to be upregulated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the mechanism has not been established. We have shown that ectopic expression of miR-26a influenced cell proliferation by targeting PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene that is inactivated in many common malignancies, including GBM. Our findings suggest that c-Myc modulates genes associated with oncogenesis in GBM through deregulation of miRNAs via the c-Myc–miR-26a–PTEN signaling pathway. This may be of clinical relevance.

  20. MYC cis-Elements in PsMPT Promoter Is Involved in Chilling Response of Paeonia suffruticosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoqing; Dong, Lei; Liu, Chunying; Song, Wenwen; Liu, Jingjing; Gai, Shupeng

    2016-01-01

    The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed. GUS staining and qPCR showed that the promoter was active in mainly the flower stigma and stamen. Moreover, it was found that the promoter activity was enhanced by chilling, NaCl, GA, ACC and NAA, but inhibited by ABA, mannitol and PEG. In transgenic plants harboring 421 bp of the PsMPT promoter, the GUS gene expression and the activity were significantly increased by chilling treatment. When the fragment from -421 to -408 containing a MYC cis-element was deleted, the chilling response could not be observed. Further mutation analysis confirmed that the MYC element was one of the key motifs responding to chilling in the PsMPT promoter. The present study provides useful information for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism of PsMPT during the endo-dormancy release. PMID:27228117

  1. SirT1 knockdown potentiates radiation-induced bystander effect through promoting c-Myc activity and thus facilitating ROS accumulation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuexia; Tu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Jianghong; He, Mingyuan; Ye, Shuang; Dong, Chen; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-02-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for secondary cancer risk assessment during cancer radiotherapy, but the bystander signaling processes, especially under hypoxic condition, are still largely unclear. The present study found that micronuclei (MN) formation could be induced in the non-irradiated HL-7702 hepatocyte cells after being treated with the conditioned medium from irradiated hepatoma HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells under either normoxia or hypoxia. This bystander response was dramatically diminished or enhanced when the SirT1 gene of irradiated hepatoma cells was overexpressed or knocked down, respectively, especially under hypoxia. Meanwhile, SirT1 knockdown promoted transcriptional activity for c-Myc and facilitated ROS accumulation. But both of the increased bystander responses and ROS generation due to SirT1-knockdown were almost completely suppressed by c-Myc interference. Moreover, ROS scavenger effectively abolished the RIBE triggered by irradiated hepatoma cells even with SirT1 depletion. These findings provide new insights that SirT1 has a profound role in regulating RIBE where a c-Myc-dependent release of ROS may be involved.

  2. The effect of non-coding DNA variations on P53 and cMYC competitive inhibition at cis-overlapping motifs.

    PubMed

    Kin, Katherine; Chen, Xi; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel; Fakhouri, Walid D

    2016-04-15

    Non-coding DNA variations play a critical role in increasing the risk for development of common complex diseases, and account for the majority of SNPs highly associated with cancer. However, it remains a challenge to identify etiologic variants and to predict their pathological effects on target gene expression for clinical purposes. Cis-overlapping motifs (COMs) are elements of enhancer regions that impact gene expression by enabling competitive binding and switching between transcription factors. Mutations within COMs are especially important when the involved transcription factors have opposing effects on gene regulation, like P53 tumor suppressor and cMYC proto-oncogene. In this study, genome-wide analysis of ChIP-seq data from human cancer and mouse embryonic cells identified a significant number of putative regulatory elements with signals for both P53 and cMYC. Each co-occupied element contains, on average, two COMs, and one common SNP every two COMs. Gene ontology of predicted target genes for COMs showed that the majority are involved in DNA damage, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, and RNA processing. EMSA results showed that both cMYC and P53 bind to cis-overlapping motifs within a ChIP-seq co-occupied region in Chr12. In vitro functional analysis of selected co-occupied elements verified enhancer activity, and also showed that the occurrence of SNPs within three COMs significantly altered enhancer activity. We identified a list of COM-associated functional SNPs that are in close proximity to SNPs associated with common diseases in large population studies. These results suggest a potential molecular mechanism to identify etiologic regulatory mutations associated with common diseases.

  3. New Approach to Identify Novel Regulators of Myc Oncoprotein Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Regulators of Myc Oncoprotein Stability PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Linda Z. Penn, Ph D CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University Health Network...uhnres.utoronto.ca 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...research. 6 KEY RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Constructed new Myc-FP chimeras . Showed that Myc half-life and Myc-FP fluorescence are

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 protease plays a dual role in regulation of ESX-1 secretion and virulence.

    PubMed

    Ohol, Yamini M; Goetz, David H; Chan, Kaman; Shiloh, Michael U; Craik, Charles S; Cox, Jeffery S

    2010-03-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses the ESX-1 secretion system to deliver virulence proteins during infection of host cells. Here we report a mechanism of posttranscriptional control of ESX-1 mediated by MycP1, a M. tuberculosis serine protease. We show that MycP1 is required for ESX-1 secretion but that, unexpectedly, genetic inactivation of MycP1 protease activity increases secretion of ESX-1 substrates. We demonstrate that EspB, an ESX-1 substrate required for secretion, is a target of MycP1 in vitro and in vivo. During macrophage infection, an inactive MycP1 protease mutant causes hyperactivation of ESX-1-stimulated innate signaling pathways. MycP1 is required for growth in mice during acute infection, while loss of its protease activity leads to attenuated virulence during chronic infection. As the key ESX-1 substrates ESAT-6 and CFP-10 are highly immunogenic, fine-tuning of their secretion by MycP1 may balance virulence and immune detection and be essential for successful maintenance of long-term M. tuberculosis infection.

  5. Myc overexpression enhances of epicardial contribution to the developing heart and promotes extensive expansion of the cardiomyocyte population

    PubMed Central

    Villa del Campo, Cristina; Lioux, Ghislaine; Carmona, Rita; Sierra, Rocío; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Clavería, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Myc is an essential regulator of cell growth and proliferation. Myc overexpression promotes the homeostatic expansion of cardiomyocyte populations by cell competition, however whether this applies to other cardiac lineages remains unknown. The epicardium contributes signals and cells to the developing and adult injured heart and exploring strategies for modulating its activity is of great interest. Using inducible genetic mosaics, we overexpressed Myc in the epicardium and determined the differential expansion of Myc-overexpressing cells with respect to their wild type counterparts. Myc-overexpressing cells overcolonized all epicardial-derived lineages and showed increased ability to invade the myocardium and populate the vasculature. We also found massive colonization of the myocardium by Wt1Cre-derived Myc-overexpressing cells, with preservation of cardiac development. Detailed analyses showed that this contribution is unlikely to derive from Cre activity in early cardiomyocytes but does not either derive from established epicardial cells, suggesting that early precursors expressing Wt1Cre originate the recombined cardiomyocytes. Myc overexpression does not modify the initial distribution of Wt1Cre-recombined cardiomyocytes, indicating that it does not stimulate the incorporation of early expressing Wt1Cre lineages to the myocardium, but differentially expands this initial population. We propose that strategies using epicardial lineages for heart repair may benefit from promoting cell competitive ability. PMID:27752085

  6. Activation of MYC in a masked t(8;17) translocation results in an aggressive B-cell leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Gauwerky, C E; Huebner, K; Isobe, M; Nowell, P C; Croce, C M

    1989-01-01

    We have analyzed the oncogene rearrangements involving BCL2 and MYC in the leukemia cells of a patient with an aggressive prolymphocytic leukemia that had an abnormal karyotype including a t(14;18) translocation and a chromosome 17q+. Molecular analysis showed that BCL2 was rearranged in the major breakpoint cluster region and had joined into the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene as in follicular lymphoma. Cloning and sequence analysis of the rearranged MYC gene revealed that MYC was truncated at the Pvu II site at the end of the first exon of MYC and had joined into the regulatory elements of a gene that we called BCL3 (B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 3). The BCL3 locus was mapped to chromosome 17 band q22. We found BCL3 transcribed as a message of 1.7 kilobases in many hematopoietic cell lines representing all hematopoietic lineages. In the patient's leukemia cells, the truncated MYC gene was highly expressed under the influence of BCL3 regulatory elements, leading to an aggressive B-cell leukemia that presumably had been derived from an indolent lymphoma carrying a rearranged BCL2 gene. Images PMID:2682663

  7. Activation of the Tor/Myc signaling axis in intestinal stem and progenitor cells affects longevity, stress resistance and metabolism in drosophila.

    PubMed

    Strilbytska, Olha M; Semaniuk, Uliana V; Storey, Kenneth B; Edgar, Bruce A; Lushchak, Oleh V

    2017-01-01

    The TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway and the transcriptional factor Myc play important roles in growth control. Myc acts, in part, as a downstream target of TOR to regulate the activity and functioning of stem cells. Here we explore the role of TOR-Myc axis in stem and progenitor cells in the regulation of lifespan, stress resistance and metabolism in Drosophila. We found that both overexpression of rheb and myc-rheb in midgut stem and progenitor cells decreased the lifespan and starvation resistance of flies. TOR activation caused higher survival under malnutrition conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate gut-specific activation of JAK/STAT and insulin signaling pathways to control gut integrity. Both genetic manipulations had an impact on carbohydrate metabolism and transcriptional levels of metabolic genes. Our findings indicate that activation of the TOR-Myc axis in midgut stem and progenitor cells influences a variety of traits in Drosophila.

  8. Rapid regulation of c-myc protooncogene expression by progesterone in the avian oviduct.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, K L; Wieben, E D; Woloschak, G E; Spelsberg, T C

    1988-01-01

    The mRNA levels of genes known to be regulated by sex steroids are not altered until 1 hr or longer after steroid treatment, although the steroid receptor complexes are bound to nuclear acceptor sites within 5 min. In a search for early regulation of gene transcription, total chick oviduct RNA was isolated at various times after injection (i.p.) of progesterone and analyzed for c-myc expression. Levels of c-myc mRNA began to decrease in response to progesterone by 10 min after injection. The mRNA levels continued to decrease, reached a 70% reduction at 30 min, and returned to control values by 8 hr after steroid injection. Changes in alpha-tubulin mRNA levels were markedly less in these same RNA preparations. The effect was dependent on the dose of the steroid and was target-tissue specific. These changes occurred much more rapidly than changes in egg-white protein mRNA levels. Vehicle alone did not alter c-myc mRNA levels. Early regulated genes such as c-myc may represent the initial site of action of steroid receptors in the genome. Images PMID:3162308

  9. Clinical significance of high c-MYC and low MYCBP2 expression and their association with Ikaros dysfunction in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Zheng; Guo, Xing; Li, Jianyong; Hartman, Melanie; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Dovat, Sinisa; Song, Chunhua

    2015-12-08

    Increased expression of c-MYC is observed in both Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) and T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL). MYC binding protein 2 (MYCBP2) is a probable E3 ubiquitin ligase and its function in leukemia is unknown. IKZF1 deletion is associated with the development and poor outcome of ALL. Here, we observed significant high c-MYC expression and low MYCBP2 expression in adult ALL patients. Patients with high c-MYC expression and/or low MYCBP2 expression had higher WBC counts and a higher percentage of CD34+ or CD33+ cells, as well as splenomegaly, liver infiltration, higher BM blasts, and lower CR rate. Ikaros bound to the regulatory regions of c-MYC and MYCBP2, suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in ALL cells. Expression of c-MYC mRNA was significantly higher in patients with IKZF1 deletion; conversely MYCBP2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in those patients. A CK2 inhibitor, which acts as an Ikaros activator, also suppressed c-MYC and increased MYCBP2 expression in an Ikaros (IKZF1) dependent manner in the ALL cells. In summary, our data indicated the correlation of high c-MYC expression, low MYCBP2 expression and high c-MYC plus low MYCBP2 expression with high-risk factors and proliferation markers in adult ALL patients. Our data also revealed an oncogenic role for an Ikaros/MYCBP2/c-MYC axis in adult ALL, providing a mechanism of target therapies that activate Ikaros in adult ALL.

  10. 5' long terminal repeats of myc-associated proviruses appear structurally intact but are functionally impaired in tumors induced by avian leukosis viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Goodenow, M M; Hayward, W S

    1987-01-01

    B-cell lymphomas induced in chickens infected with avian leukosis viruses are characterized by integration of the virus within the cellular myc locus and alteration of c-myc expression. Although avian leukosis viruses are intact, replication-competent retroviruses, the structures of many myc-associated proviruses are altered by deletions, raising the possibility that proviral defectiveness plays an essential role in oncogenesis. We found that all myc-associated proviruses in 21 independent tumors had deletions, which were confined to the viral genome and did not extend into adjacent cellular sequences. Deletions were not random but, in at least 85% of the myc-associated proviruses, involved a region near the 5' end of the proviral genome where elements implicated in control of viral gene expression have been localized. A second class of deletions involved sequences in the 3' half of the viral genome and included the splice acceptor site used in generating viral env mRNA. Both the 5' and 3' long terminal repeats of myc-associated proviruses appeared to be structurally intact in most tumors, although the 5' long terminal repeats were not involved in expression of either U5-myc transcripts or detectable steady-state viral RNAs. A complex array of repeated sequence elements surrounded the junctions of the internal deletions in two myc-associated proviruses. The organization of the deleted proviruses was similar to that of deleted unintegrated viral molecules, consistent with a model in which deletions occurred prior to integration. Images PMID:3037111

  11. Discovery of a Family of Genomic Sequences Which Interact Specifically with the c-MYC Promoter to Regulate c-MYC Expression

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Shelia D.; Rouchka, Eric C.; Miller, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplex forming sequences are particularly enriched in the promoter regions of eukaryotic genes, especially of oncogenes. One of the most well studied G-quadruplex forming sequences is located in the nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 of the c-MYC promoter region. The oncoprotein c-MYC regulates a large array of genes which play important roles in growth regulation and metabolism. It is dysregulated in >70% of human cancers. The silencer NHEIII1 located upstream of the P1 promoter regulates up-to 80% of c-MYC transcription and includes a G-quadruplex structure (Pu27) that is required for promoter inhibition. We have identified, for the first time, a family of seventeen G-quadruplex-forming motifs with >90% identity with Pu27, located on different chromosomes throughout the human genome, some found near or within genes involved in stem cell maintenance or neural cell development. Notably, all members of the Pu27 family interact specifically with NHEIII1 sequence, in vitro. Crosslinking studies demonstrate that Pu27 oligonucleotide binds specifically to the C-rich strand of the NHEIII1 resulting in the G-quadruplex structure stabilization. Pu27 homologous sequences (Pu27-HS) significantly inhibit leukemic cell lines proliferation in culture. Exposure of U937 cells to the Pu27-HS induces cell growth inhibition associated with cell cycle arrest that is most likely due to downregulation of c-MYC expression at the RNA and/or protein levels. Expression of SOX2, another gene containing a Pu27-HS, was affected by Pu27-HS treatment as well. Our data suggest that the oligonucleotides encoding the Pu27 family target complementary DNA sequences in the genome, including those of the c-MYC and SOX2 promoters. This effect is most likely cell type and cell growth condition dependent. The presence of genomic G-quadruplex-forming sequences homologous to Pu27 of c-MYC silencer and the fact that they interact specifically with the parent sequence suggest a common

  12. Cdk2 deficiency decreases ras/CDK4-dependent malignant progression, but not myc-induced tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Macias, Everardo; Kim, Yongbaek; Miliani de Marval, Paula L; Klein-Szanto, Andres; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L

    2007-10-15

    We have previously shown that forced expression of CDK4 in mouse skin (K5CDK4 mice) results in increased susceptibility to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development in a chemical carcinogenesis protocol. This protocol induces skin papilloma development, causing a selection of cells bearing activating Ha-ras mutations. We have also shown that myc-induced epidermal proliferation and oral tumorigenesis (K5Myc mice) depends on CDK4 expression. Biochemical analysis of K5CDK4 and K5Myc epidermis as well as skin tumors showed that keratinocyte proliferation is mediated by CDK4 sequestration of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1, and activation of CDK2. Here, we studied the role of CDK2 in epithelial tumorigenesis. In normal skin, loss of CDK2 rescues CDK4-induced, but not myc-induced epidermal hyperproliferation. Ablation of CDK2 in K5CDK4 mice results in decreased incidences and multiplicity of skin tumors as well as malignant progression to SCC. Histopathologic analysis showed that K5CDK4 tumors are drastically more aggressive than K5CDK4/CDK2-/- tumors. On the other hand, we show that CDK2 is dispensable for myc-induced tumorigenesis. In contrast to our previous report of K5Myc/CDK4-/-, K5Myc/CDK2-/- mice developed oral tumors with the same frequency as K5Myc mice. Overall, we have established that ras-induced tumors are more susceptible to CDK2 ablation than myc-induced tumors, suggesting that the efficacy of targeting CDK2 in tumor development and malignant progression is dependent on the oncogenic pathway involved.

  13. IDH-mutant glioma specific association of rs55705857 located at 8q24.21 involves MYC deregulation

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Yavuz; Ülgen, Ege; Can, Özge; Akyerli, Cemaliye B.; Yüksel, Şirin; Erdemgil, Yiğit; Durası, İ. Melis; Henegariu, Octavian Ioan; Nanni, E. Paolo; Selevsek, Nathalie; Grossmann, Jonas; Erson-Omay, E. Zeynep; Bai, Hanwen; Gupta, Manu; Lee, William; Turcan, Şevin; Özpınar, Aysel; Huse, Jason T.; Sav, M. Aydın; Flanagan, Adrienne; Günel, Murat; Sezerman, O. Uğur; Yakıcıer, M. Cengiz; Pamir, M. Necmettin; Özduman, Koray

    2016-01-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism rs55705857, located in a non-coding but evolutionarily conserved region at 8q24.21, is strongly associated with IDH-mutant glioma development and was suggested to be a causal variant. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this association has remained unknown. With a case control study in 285 gliomas, 316 healthy controls, 380 systemic cancers, 31 other CNS-tumors, and 120 IDH-mutant cartilaginous tumors, we identified that the association was specific to IDH-mutant gliomas. Odds-ratios were 9.25 (5.17–16.52; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated gliomas and 12.85 (5.94–27.83; 95% CI) for IDH-mutated, 1p/19q co-deleted gliomas. Decreasing strength with increasing anaplasia implied a modulatory effect. No somatic mutations were noted at this locus in 114 blood-tumor pairs, nor was there a copy number difference between risk-allele and only-ancestral allele carriers. CCDC26 RNA-expression was rare and not different between the two groups. There were only minor subtype-specific differences in common glioma driver genes. RNA sequencing and LC-MS/MS comparisons pointed to significantly altered MYC-signaling. Baseline enhancer activity of the conserved region specifically on the MYC promoter and its further positive modulation by the SNP risk-allele was shown in vitro. Our findings implicate MYC deregulation as the underlying cause of the observed association. PMID:27282637

  14. Identification of small molecules that induce apoptosis in a Myc-dependent manner and inhibit Myc-driven transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Hao; Henriksson, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Myc transcription factor plays a central role in the regulation of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cellular transformation. Myc is a potent oncoprotein that is deregulated in a wide variety of human tumors and is therefore an attractive target for novel cancer therapies. Using a cellular screening approach, we have identified low-molecular-weight compounds, Myc pathway response agents (MYRAs), that induce apoptosis in a c-Myc-dependent manner and inhibit Myc-driven cellular transformation. MYRA-A inhibits Myc transactivation and interferes with the DNA-binding activity of Myc family proteins but has no effect on the E-box-binding protein USF. In contrast, MYRA-B induces Myc-dependent apoptosis without affecting Myc transactivation or Myc/Max DNA binding. Our data show that cellular screening assays can be a powerful strategy for the identification of candidate substances that modulate the Myc pathway. These compounds can be useful tools for studying Myc function and may also be of therapeutic potential as leads for drug development. PMID:16606833

  15. A novel role for c-Myc in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) transcriptional regulation in human kidney proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Tran, Hanh T; Van Sciver, Robert E; Bigler Wang, Dora; Carlson, Julia M; Felder, Robin A

    2013-05-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) negatively regulates the dopaminergic system by desensitizing the dopamine-1-receptor. The expressional control of GRK4 has not been reported, but here we show that the transcription factor c-Myc binds to the promoter of GRK4 and positively regulates GRK4 protein expression in human renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs). Addition of phorbol esters to RPTCs not only increased c-Myc binding to the GRK4 promoter but also increased both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. The phorbol ester-mediated increase in GRK4 expression was completely blocked by the c-Myc inhibitor, 10074-G5, indicating that GRK4 is downstream of phospho-c-Myc. The autocrine production of angiotensin II (Ang II) in RPTCs increased the phosphorylation and activation of c-Myc and subsequently GRK4 expression. 3-Amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase A, increased RPTC secretion of Ang II. 3-Amino-4-thio-butyl sulfonate or Ang II increased the expression of both phospho-c-Myc and GRK4, which was blocked by 10074-G5. Blockade of the Ang II type 1 receptor with losartan decreased phospho-c-Myc and GRK4 expression. Both inhibition of c-Myc activity and blockade of Ang II type 1 receptor restored the coupling of dopamine-1-receptor to adenylyl cyclase stimulation in uncoupled RPTCs, whereas phorbol esters or Ang II caused the uncoupling of normally coupled RPTCs. We suggest that the Ang II type 1 receptor impairs dopamine-1-receptor function via c-Myc activation of GRK4. This novel pathway may be involved in the increase in blood pressure in hypertension that is mediated by increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system and decreased activity of the renal dopaminergic system.

  16. Regulation of c-myc and c-fos mRNA levels by polyomavirus: distinct roles for the capsid protein VP/sub 1/ and the viral early proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, J.; Stiles, C.D.; Garcea, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The levels of c-myc, c-fos, and JE mRNAs accumulate in a biphasic pattern following infection of quiescent BALB/c 3T3 mouse cells with polyomavirus. Maximal levels of c-myc and c-fos mRNAs were seen within 1 hr and were nearly undetectable at 6 hr after infection. At 12 hr after infection mRNA levels were again maximal and remained elevated thereafter. Empty virions (capsids) and recombinant VP/sub 1/ protein, purified from Escherichia coli, induced the early but not the late phase of mRNA accumulation. Virions, capsids, and recombinant VP/sub 1/ protein stimulated (/sup 3/H)thymidine nuclear labeling and c-myc mRNA accumulation in a dose-responsive manner paralleling their affinity for the cell receptor for polyoma. The second phase of mRNA accumulation is regulated by the viral early gene products, as shown by polyomavirus early gene mutants and by a transfected cell line (336a) expressing middle tumor antigen upon glucocorticoid addition. These results suggest that polyomavirus interacts with the cell membrane at the onset of infection to increase the levels of mRNA for the cellular genes associated with cell competence for DNA replication, and subsequently these levels are maintained by the action of the early viral proteins.

  17. Polycystic kidney disease in SBM transgenic mice: role of c-myc in disease induction and progression.

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, M.; Barisoni, L.; Lanoix, J.; D'Agati, V.

    1998-01-01

    SBM mouse is a unique transgenic model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) produced by dysregulation of c-myc in the kidneys. Our previous demonstration that c-myc is overexpressed in human autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) prompted us to investigate the pathogenetic role of c-myc in the induction and progression of the cystogenic phenotype in our mouse model. In young SBM kidneys, c-myc was two- to threefold increased with persistent expression levels into adulthood, an age when c-myc is normally undetectable. In situ hybridization analysis of the c-myc transgene demonstrated intense signal specifically overlying glomerular and tubular epithelium of developing cysts in fetal and young kidneys. Increased expression of c-myc correlated with the initiation and progression of the PKD phenotype as evidenced by early tubular and glomerular cysts at E16.5. Cyst number and size increased with age, with co-development of glomerular and tubular epithelial hyperplasia. Consistently, the mean renal proliferative index was increased approximately 5- to 20-fold in noncystic and cystic tubules of newborn SBM animals compared with littermate controls. Similarly, in fetal and newborn kidneys the tubular apoptotic indices were increased approximately three- to ninefold over controls. Both proliferation and apoptotic rates in cystic tubules approached levels in developing tubules from the normal nephrogenic zone. We conclude that the pathogenesis of PKD hinges on a critical imbalance in c-myc regulation of the opposing processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis, recapitulating the cellular phenomena in developing fetal kidney. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422539

  18. Array-CGH reveals recurrent genomic changes in Merkel cell carcinoma including amplification of L-Myc.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Kelly G; Lemos, Bianca D; Feng, Bin; Jaimes, Natalia; Peñas, Pablo F; Bi, Xiaohui; Maher, Elizabeth; Cohen, Lisa; Leonard, J Helen; Granter, Scott R; Chin, Lynda; Nghiem, Paul

    2009-06-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer with poorly characterized genetics. We performed high resolution comparative genomic hybridization on 25 MCC specimens using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. Tumors frequently carried extra copies of chromosomes 1, 3q, 5p, and 6 and lost chromosomes 3p, 4, 5q, 7, 10, and 13. MCC tumors with less genomic aberration were associated with improved survival (P=0.04). Tumors from 13 of 22 MCC patients had detectable Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA, and these tumors had fewer genomic deletions. Three regions of genomic alteration were of particular interest: a deletion of 5q12-21 occurred in 26% of tumors, a deletion of 13q14-21 was recurrent in 26% of tumors and contains the well-characterized tumor suppressor RB1, and a previously unreported focal amplification at 1p34 was present in 39% of tumors and centers on L-Myc (MYCL1). L-Myc is related to the c-Myc proto-oncogene, has transforming activity, and is amplified in the closely related small cell lung cancer. Normal skin showed no L-Myc expression, whereas 4/4 MCC specimens tested expressed L-Myc RNA in relative proportion to the DNA copy number gain. These findings suggest several genes that may contribute to MCC pathogenesis, most notably L-Myc.

  19. Myc mouse and anti-ageing therapy.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda

    2015-04-01

    Reduction in the expression and activity of a well-known proto-oncogene, Myc, has a beneficial effect on mouse health and survival to old age, in part independently of cancer impact, a recent study reveals. Is this new anti-ageing intervention pointing a way towards new treatments for age-related diseases?

  20. Effect of teicoplanin on the expression of c-myc and c-fos proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ashouri, Saeideh; Khujin, Maryam Hosseindokht; Kazemi, Mohammad; Kheirollahi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teicoplanin is a member of vancomycin-ristocetin family of glycopeptide antibiotics. It mediated wound healing by increasing neovascularization possibly through activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway. The aim of this study is an evaluation of c-myc and c-fos genes expression after treatment of cells by teicoplanin and determines whether this glycopeptide antibiotic exerts its proliferation effects by influencing the expression of these genes. Hence, this study was designed to elucidate one possible mechanism underlying teicoplanin effects on cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Materials and Methods: Breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, was cultured, and three different concentrations of teicoplanin were added to the plates. We measured the cell proliferation rate by MTT assay. After cell harvesting, total RNA was extracted to synthesize single-stranded cDNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed, and the data were analyzed. Results: It was observed that the level of c-fos and c-myc genes’ expressions was decreased at all three different concentrations of teicoplanin. Conclusion: it could be concluded that although teicoplanin is considered as an enhancing cell growth and proliferation, but probably its effect is not through MAP kinase signaling pathway or perhaps even has inhibitory effect on the expression of some genes such as c-myc and c-fos in this pathway. Hence, the mechanism of action of teicoplanin for increasing cell propagation, through cell signaling pathways or chromosomal abnormalities, remains unclear, and further studies should be conducted. PMID:28028512

  1. HAUSP deubiquitinated and stabilizes N-Myc in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Tavana, Omid; Li, Dawei; Dai, Chao; Lopez, Gonzalo; Banerjee, Debarshi; Kon, Ning; Chen, Chao; Califano, Andrea; Yamashiro, Darrell J; Sun, Hongbin; Gu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The MYCN protooncogene is amplified in a number of advanced-stage human tumors such as neuroblastomas. Like other members of Myc family proteins, N-Myc is a transcription factor and its stability and activity are tightly controlled by ubiquitination-dependent proteasome degradation1-4. Although numerous studies demonstrate that N-Myc acts as a driver of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, therapies that directly suppress N-Myc activity in human tumors are limited. Here, we have identified the herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP or USP75-7) as a regulator of N-Myc in neuroblastoma. HAUSP interacts with N-Myc, and HAUSP expression induces deubiquitination and subsequent stabilization of N-Myc. Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of HAUSP in neuroblastoma cancer cell lines, or genetic ablation of Hausp in the mouse brain destabilizes N-Myc, which leads to inhibition of N-Myc function. Notably, HAUSP is more abundant in neuroblastoma patients with poorer prognosis and HAUSP expression significantly correlates with N-Myc transcriptional activity. Furthermore, small molecule inhibitors against HAUSP deubiquitinase activity significantly suppress the growth of MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cell lines in xenograft mouse models. Together, our findings demonstrate a crucial role of HAUSP in regulating N-Myc function in vivo and suggest that HAUSP inhibition is a potential therapy for MYCN-amplified tumors. PMID:27618649

  2. Wild-type p53 binds to MYC promoter G-quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Petr, Marek; Helma, Robert; Polášková, Alena; Krejčí, Aneta; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Kejnovská, Iva; Navrátilová, Lucie; Adámik, Matej; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Brázdová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures that are implicated in the regulation of transcription, translation and replication. Genome regions enriched in putative G-quadruplex motifs include telomeres and gene promoters. Tumour suppressor p53 plays a critical role in regulatory pathways leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. In addition to transcriptional regulation mediated via sequence-specific DNA binding, p53 can selectively bind various non-B DNA structures. In the present study, wild-type p53 (wtp53) binding to G-quadruplex formed by MYC promoter nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 region was investigated. Wtp53 binding to MYC G-quadruplex is comparable to interaction with specific p53 consensus sequence (p53CON). Apart from the full-length wtp53, its isolated C-terminal region (aa 320–393) as well, is capable of high-affinity MYC G-quadruplex binding, suggesting its critical role in this type of interaction. Moreover, wtp53 binds to MYC promoter region containing putative G-quadruplex motif in two wtp53-expressing cell lines. The results suggest that wtp53 binding to G-quadruplexes can take part in transcriptional regulation of its target genes. PMID:27634752

  3. Wild-type p53 binds to MYC promoter G-quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Petr, Marek; Helma, Robert; Polášková, Alena; Krejčí, Aneta; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Kejnovská, Iva; Navrátilová, Lucie; Adámik, Matej; Vorlíčková, Michaela; Brázdová, Marie

    2016-10-01

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures that are implicated in the regulation of transcription, translation and replication. Genome regions enriched in putative G-quadruplex motifs include telomeres and gene promoters. Tumour suppressor p53 plays a critical role in regulatory pathways leading to cell cycle arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. In addition to transcriptional regulation mediated via sequence-specific DNA binding, p53 can selectively bind various non-B DNA structures. In the present study, wild-type p53 (wtp53) binding to G-quadruplex formed by MYC promoter nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) III1 region was investigated. Wtp53 binding to MYC G-quadruplex is comparable to interaction with specific p53 consensus sequence (p53CON). Apart from the full-length wtp53, its isolated C-terminal region (aa 320-393) as well, is capable of high-affinity MYC G-quadruplex binding, suggesting its critical role in this type of interaction. Moreover, wtp53 binds to MYC promoter region containing putative G-quadruplex motif in two wtp53-expressing cell lines. The results suggest that wtp53 binding to G-quadruplexes can take part in transcriptional regulation of its target genes.

  4. MNT and Emerging Concepts of MNT-MYC Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    MYC family proteins play fundamental roles in stem and progenitor cell homeostasis, morphogenesis and cancer. As expected for proteins that profoundly affect the fate of cells, the activities of MYC are regulated at a multitude of levels. One mechanism with the potential to broadly affect the activities of MYC is transcriptional antagonism by a group of MYC-related transcriptional repressors. From this group, the protein MNT has emerged as having perhaps the most far-reaching impact on MYC activities. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of MNT, its regulation and how, as a MYC antagonist, it functions both as a tumor suppressor and facilitator of MYC-driven proliferation and oncogenesis. PMID:28230739

  5. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, S.B. ); Williams, P.H. ); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. ); Murofushi, Noboru ); Mander, L.N. )

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  6. Intraductal delivery of adenoviruses targets pancreatic tumors in transgenic Ela-myc mice and orthotopic xenografts.

    PubMed

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Miguel Camacho-Sánchez, Juan; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p less than 0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors.

  7. Intraductal Delivery of Adenoviruses Targets Pancreatic Tumors in Transgenic Ela-myc Mice and Orthotopic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    José, Anabel; Sobrevals, Luciano; Camacho-Sánchez, Juan Miguel; Huch, Meritxell; Andreu, Núria; Ayuso, Eduard; Navarro, Pilar; Alemany, Ramon; Fillat, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Gene-based anticancer therapies delivered by adenoviruses are limited by the poor viral distribution into the tumor. In the current work we have explored the feasibility of targeting pancreatic tumors through a loco-regional route. We have taken advantage of the ductal network in the pancreas to retrogradelly inject adenoviruses through the common bile duct in two different mouse models of pancreatic carcinogenesis: The transgenic Ela-myc mice that develop mixed neoplasms displaying both acinar-like and duct-like neoplastic cells affecting the whole pancreas; and mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 orthotopic xenografts that constitute a model of localized human neoplastic tumors. We studied tumor targeting and the anticancer effects of newly thymidine kinase-engineered adenoviruses both in vitro and in vivo, and conducted comparative studies between intraductal or intravenous administration. Our data indicate that the intraductal delivery of adenovirus efficiently targets pancreatic tumors in the two mouse models. The in vivo application of AduPARTKT plus ganciclovir (GCV) treatment induced tumor regression in Ela-myc mice. Moreover, the intraductal injection of ICOVIR15-TKT oncolytic adenoviruses significantly improved mean survival of mice bearing PANC-1 and BxPC-3 pancreatic xenografts from 30 to 52 days and from 20 to 68 days respectively (p<0.0001) when combined with GCV. Of notice, both AduPARTKT and ICOVIR15-TKT antitumoral responses were stronger by ductal viral application than intravenously, in line with the 38-fold increase in pancreas transduction observed upon ductal administration. In summary our data show that cytotoxic adenoviruses retrogradelly injected to the pancreas can be a feasible approach to treat localized pancreatic tumors. PMID:23328228

  8. Effect of c-myc on the ultrastructural structure of cochleae in guinea pigs with noise induced hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yu; Zhong, Cuiping; Hong, Liu; Wang, Ye; Qiao, Li; Qiu, Jianhua

    2009-12-18

    Noise over-stimulation may induce hair cells loss and hearing deficit. The c-myc oncogene is a major regulator for cell proliferation, growth, and apoptosis. However, the role of this gene in the mammalian cochlea is still unclear. The study was designed to firstly investigate its function under noise condition, from the aspect of cochlear ultrastructural changes. We had established the adenoviral vector of c-myc gene and delivered the adenovirus suspension into the scala tympani of guinea pigs 4 days before noise exposure. The empty adenoviral vectors were injected as control. Then, all subjects were exposed to 4-kHz octave-band noise at 110 dB SPL for 8 h/day, 3 days consecutively. Auditory thresholds were assessed by auditory brainstem response, prior to and 7 days following noise exposure. On the seventh days after noise exposure, the cochlear sensory epithelia surface was observed microscopically and the cochleae were taken to study the ultrastructural changes. The results indicated that auditory threshold shift after noise exposure was higher in the ears treated with Ad.EGFP than that treated with Ad.c-myc-EGFP. Stereocilia loss and the disarrangement of outer hair cells were observed, with greater changes found in the Ad.EGFP group. Also, the ultrastructure changes were severe in the Ad.EGFP group, but not obvious in the Ad.c-myc-EGFP group. Therefore, c-myc gene might play an unexpected role in hearing functional and morphological protection from acoustic trauma.

  9. A SIRT2-selective inhibitor promotes c-Myc oncoprotein degradation and exhibits broad anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Hui; Hu, Jing; He, Bin; Negron Abril, Yashira L.; Stupinski, Jack; Weiser, Keren; Carbonaro, Marisa; Chiang, Ying-Ling; Southard, Teresa; Giannakakou, Paraskevi; Weiss, Robert S.; Lin, Hening

    2016-01-01

    Summary Targeting sirtuins for cancer treatment has been a topic of debate due to conflicting reports and lack of potent and specific inhibitors. We have developed a thiomyristoyl lysine compound, TM, as a potent SIRT2-specific inhibitor with broad anticancer effect in various human cancer cells and mouse models of breast cancer. Mechanistically, SIRT2 inhibition promotes c-Myc ubiquitination and degradation. The anticancer effect of TM correlates with its ability to decrease c-Myc level. TM had limited effects on non-cancerous cells and tumor-free mice, suggesting that cancer cells have an increased dependency on SIRT2 that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Our studies demonstrate that SIRT2-selective inhibitors are promising anticancer agents and may represent a general strategy to target certain c-Myc-driven cancers. PMID:26977881

  10. Wogonin inhibits multiple myeloma-stimulated angiogenesis via c-Myc/VHL/HIF-1α signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rong; Chen, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Ping; An, Teng; Tao, Lei; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chen, Bao-An; Li, Zhi-Yu; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long; Wu, Zhao-Qiu

    2016-02-02

    Angiogenesis is associated with the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Wogonin is an active mono-flavonoid with remarkable antitumor activity. However, its impact on MM-stimulated angiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that wogonin decreased expression and secretion of pro-angiogenic factors in MM cells via c-Myc/HIF-1α signaling axis, reducing MM-stimulated angiogenesis and MM cell proliferation in vivo. Overexpression of c-Myc in MM cells disrupted the balance between VHL SUMOylation and ubiquitination, and thus inhibited proteasome-mediated HIF-1α degradation. Impaired function of VHL ubiquitination complex in c-Myc-overexpressing cells was fully reversed by wogonin treatment via increasing HIF-1α-VHL interaction and promoting HIF-1α degradation. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo studies reveal for the first time that wogonin represses MM-stimulated angiogenesis and tumor progression via c-Myc/VHL/HIF-1α signaling axis.

  11. Wogonin inhibits multiple myeloma-stimulated angiogenesis via c-Myc/VHL/HIF-1α signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; An, Teng; Tao, Lei; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chen, Bao-An; Li, Zhi-Yu; You, Qi-Dong; Guo, Qing-Long; Wu, Zhao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is associated with the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). Wogonin is an active mono-flavonoid with remarkable antitumor activity. However, its impact on MM-stimulated angiogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated that wogonin decreased expression and secretion of pro-angiogenic factors in MM cells via c-Myc/HIF-1α signaling axis, reducing MM-stimulated angiogenesis and MM cell proliferation in vivo. Overexpression of c-Myc in MM cells disrupted the balance between VHL SUMOylation and ubiquitination, and thus inhibited proteasome-mediated HIF-1α degradation. Impaired function of VHL ubiquitination complex in c-Myc-overexpressing cells was fully reversed by wogonin treatment via increasing HIF-1α-VHL interaction and promoting HIF-1α degradation. Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo studies reveal for the first time that wogonin represses MM-stimulated angiogenesis and tumor progression via c-Myc/VHL/HIF-1α signaling axis. PMID:26735336

  12. Control of c-fos and c-myc proto-oncogene induction in rat thyroid cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Isozaki, O.; Kohn, L.D. )

    1987-11-01

    Removal of TSH, insulin, and cortisol from the medium, and decreasing the serum content to 0.2%, abolishes both the proliferate and differentiated state of FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells in culture. In these basal conditions, the individual addition of TSH, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), alpha 1-adrenergic agents, or A23187, increase c-myc and/or c-fos proto-oncogene expression. Under the same conditions, only the addition of TSH increased cAMP levels; 8-bromo-cAMP can increase c-myc or c-fos mRNA levels. Pretreatment of cells with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, an agent which down regulates the C-kinase, completely inhibits the effect of TPA on proto-oncogene expression but has no affect on the A23187 induced-increase. The sum of these results indicate that at least four separate signal systems independently increase c-myc or c-fos gene expression in FRTL-5 cells cAMP (TSH), C-kinase (TPA), Ca++/phosphoinositide (A23187), and that influenced by insulin/IGF-I. None of the ligands, when individually returned to cells in basal medium (no TSH, insulin, or cortisol and only 0.2% serum), increases cell number; norepinephrine, and A23187 do not increase (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA under these conditions; and combinations of the ligands can be more than additive in effecting (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA but are only additive in effecting proto-oncogene expression. Insulin/IGF-I plus TSH or insulin/IGF-I plus norepinephrine can increase both proto-oncogene expression and (3H)thymidine incorporation into DNA to the same extent; however, the former combination can increase cell number whereas the latter cannot. There is therefore no simple correlation between the ability of the above ligands to increase proto-oncogene expression and their ability to increase cell number or induce DNA synthesis.

  13. A proteomic study of cMyc improvement of CHO culture

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The biopharmaceutical industry requires cell lines to have an optimal proliferation rate and a high integral viable cell number resulting in a maximum volumetric recombinant protein product titre. Nutrient feeding has been shown to boost cell number and productivity in fed-batch culture, but cell line engineering is another route one may take to increase these parameters in the bioreactor. The use of CHO-K1 cells with a c-myc plasmid allowing for over-expressing c-Myc (designated cMycCHO) gives a higher integral viable cell number. In this study the differential protein expression in cMycCHO is investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by image analysis to determine the extent of the effect c-Myc has on the cell and the proteins involved to give the new phenotype. Results Over 100 proteins that were differentially expressed in cMycCHO cells were detected with high statistical confidence, of which 41 were subsequently identified by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Further analysis revealed proteins involved in a variety of pathways. Some examples of changes in protein expression include: an increase in nucleolin, involved in proliferation and known to aid in stabilising anti-apoptotic protein mRNA levels, the cytoskeleton and mitochondrial morphology (vimentin), protein biosysnthesis (eIF6) and energy metabolism (ATP synthetase), and a decreased regulation of all proteins, indentified, involved in matrix and cell to cell adhesion. Conclusion These results indicate several proteins involved in proliferation and adhesion that could be useful for future approaches to improve proliferation and decrease adhesion of CHO cell lines which are difficult to adapt to suspension culture. PMID:20307306

  14. Increasing the complexity: new genes and new types of albinism.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Lluís; Grønskov, Karen; Wei, Ai-Hua; Martínez-García, Mónica; Fernández, Almudena; Arveiler, Benoît; Morice-Picard, Fanny; Riazuddin, Saima; Suzuki, Tamio; Ahmed, Zubair M; Rosenberg, Thomas; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Albinism is a rare genetic condition globally characterized by a number of specific deficits in the visual system, resulting in poor vision, in association with a variable hypopigmentation phenotype. This lack or reduction in pigment might affect the eyes, skin, and hair (oculocutaneous albinism, OCA), or only the eyes (ocular albinism, OA). In addition, there are several syndromic forms of albinism (e.g. Hermansky-Pudlak and Chediak-Higashi syndromes, HPS and CHS, respectively) in which the described hypopigmented and visual phenotypes coexist with more severe pathological alterations. Recently, a locus has been mapped to the 4q24 human chromosomal region and thus represents an additional genetic cause of OCA, termed OCA5, while the gene is eventually identified. In addition, two new genes have been identified as causing OCA when mutated: SLC24A5 and C10orf11, and hence designated as OCA6 and OCA7, respectively. This consensus review, involving all laboratories that have reported these new genes, aims to update and agree upon the current gene nomenclature and types of albinism, while providing additional insights from the function of these new genes in pigment cells.

  15. Selective Targeting of CTNNB1-, KRAS- or MYC-Driven Cell Growth by Combinations of Existing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Uitdehaag, Joost C. M.; de Roos, Jeroen A. D. M.; van Doornmalen, Antoon M.; Prinsen, Martine B. W.; Spijkers-Hagelstein, Jill A. P.; de Vetter, Judith R. F.; de Man, Jos; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Zaman, Guido J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of combination drug treatment in cancer therapy is to improve response rate and to decrease the probability of the development of drug resistance. Preferably, drug combinations are synergistic rather than additive, and, ideally, drug combinations work synergistically only in cancer cells and not in non-malignant cells. We have developed a workflow to identify such targeted synergies, and applied this approach to selectively inhibit the proliferation of cell lines with mutations in genes that are difficult to modulate with small molecules. The approach is based on curve shift analysis, which we demonstrate is a more robust method of determining synergy than combination matrix screening with Bliss-scoring. We show that the MEK inhibitor trametinib is more synergistic in combination with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib than with vemurafenib, another BRAF inhibitor. In addition, we show that the combination of MEK and BRAF inhibitors is synergistic in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells, and additive or antagonistic in, respectively, BRAF-wild type melanoma cells and non-malignant fibroblasts. This combination exemplifies that synergistic action of drugs can depend on cancer genotype. Next, we used curve shift analysis to identify new drug combinations that specifically inhibit cancer cell proliferation driven by difficult-to-drug cancer genes. Combination studies were performed with compounds that as single agents showed preference for inhibition of cancer cells with mutations in either the CTNNB1 gene (coding for β-catenin), KRAS, or cancer cells expressing increased copy numbers of MYC. We demonstrate that the Wnt-pathway inhibitor ICG-001 and trametinib acted synergistically in Wnt-pathway-mutant cell lines. The ERBB2 inhibitor TAK-165 was synergistic with trametinib in KRAS-mutant cell lines. The EGFR/ERBB2 inhibitor neratinib acted synergistically with the spindle poison docetaxel and with the Aurora kinase inhibitor GSK-1070916 in cell lines with MYC amplification

  16. Myc induced miR-144/451 contributes to the acquired imatinib resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia cell K562

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Li; Wang, Sitao; Chen, Renan; Wu, Yanlan; Zhang, Bei; Huang, Siyong; Zhang, Jingyi; Xiao, Fang; Wang, Meng; Liang, Yingmin

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased c-myc expression in imatinib resistant CML cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer c-myc contributes the imatinib resistance in CML cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer c-myc transcriptionally reduces the expression of miR-144/451 in K562R cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Restoration of miR-144/451 reverses the resistance of K562R cells to imatinib. -- Abstract: Imatinib resistance remains the big hurdle for CML therapy. Previous study reveals that c-myc is important for bcr-abl CML cell proliferation, while its role in imatinib resistance is largely unknown. In this study, we first found that c-myc expression is upregulated in imatinib resistant K562R cells, which in turn enhances the expression of miR-144/451. Knockdown of c-myc or restoration of miR-144/451 in the K562R cells sensitizes K562R cells to imatinib therapy. Our study here reveals an regulatory pathway between myc and miR-144/451 and highlights that targeting either myc or miR-144/451 might be valuable for eliminating the imatinib resistant CML cells.

  17. Inhibitory effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting c-myc mRNA on smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed Central

    Biro, S; Fu, Y M; Yu, Z X; Epstein, S E

    1993-01-01

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration play pivotal roles in restenosis following angioplasty. c-myc is an immediate early response gene induced by various mitogens, and several lines of evidence derived from experiments using transformed or hematopoietic cell lines, or transgenic mice, suggest its protein product plays a role in numerous signaling transduction pathways, including those modulating cell division. We therefore reasoned that a strategy employing oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) complementary to c-myc mRNA (antisense ODNs) might be potent inhibitors of SMC proliferation and, perhaps, of SMC migration. To evaluate this concept, we tested several antisense ODNs targeted to c-myc mRNA (15- or 18-mer ODNs complementary to different c-myc mRNA sequences) by introducing them individually into the medium of cultured rat aortic SMCs. Phosphoroamidate-modified ODNs were employed to retard degradation. Antisense ODNs inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, SMC proliferation and SMC migration. Maximal inhibitory effect was 50% for proliferation and > 90% for migration. These effects were associated with decreased SMC expression of c-myc-encoded protein by Western immunoblotting and immunocytochemical staining. ODNs with the same nucleotides but a scrambled sequence caused no effect. These results indicate that the c-myc gene product is involved in the signal transduction pathways mediating SMC proliferation and migration in the in vitro model we employed. The results also suggest a potential role of antisense strategies designed to inhibit c-myc expression for the prevention of coronary restenosis. Images PMID:8421701

  18. The c-MYC-ABCB5 axis plays a pivotal role in 5-fluorouracil resistance in human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kugimiya, Naruji; Nishimoto, Arata; Hosoyama, Tohru; Ueno, Koji; Enoki, Tadahiko; Li, Tao-Sheng; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2015-01-01

    c-MYC overexpression is frequently observed in various cancers including colon cancer and regulates many biological activities such as aberrant cell proliferation, apoptosis, genomic instability, immortalization and drug resistance. However, the mechanism by which c-MYC confers drug resistance remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we found that the c-MYC expression level in primary colorectal cancer tissues correlated with the recurrence rate following 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Supporting this finding, overexpression of exogenous c-MYC increased the survival rate following 5-FU treatment in human colon cancer cells, and knockdown of endogenous c-MYC decreased it. Furthermore, c-MYC knockdown decreased the expression level of ABCB5, which is involved in 5-FU resistance. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that c-MYC bound to the ABCB5 promoter region. c-MYC inhibitor (10058-F4) treatment inhibited c-MYC binding to the ABCB5 promoter, leading to a decrease in ABCB5 expression level. ABCB5 knockdown decreased the survival rate following 5-FU treatment as expected, and the ABCB5 expression level was increased in 5-FU-resistant human colon cancer cells. Finally, using a human colon cancer xenograft murine model, we found that the combined 5-FU and 10058-F4 treatment significantly decreased tumorigenicity in nude mice compared with 5-FU or 10058-F4 treatment alone. 10058-F4 treatment decreased the ABCB5 expression level in the presence or absence of 5-FU. In contrast, 5-FU treatment alone increased the ABCB5 expression level. Taken together, these results suggest that c-MYC confers resistance to 5-FU through regulating ABCB5 expression in human colon cancer cells. PMID:25689483

  19. The X protein of hepatitis B virus binds to the F box protein Skp2 and inhibits the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Neetu; Kumar, Vijay

    2006-01-23

    The HBx protein of hepatitis B virus is involved in deregulation of cell cycle and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Since c-Myc also plays an important role in cell proliferation and tumor development, we studied its regulation by HBx in a human hepatoma cell line. Co-expression of HBx and c-Myc resulted in increased stability of intracellular c-Myc. HBx blocked the ubiquitination of Myc through a direct interaction with the F box region of Skp2 and destabilization of the SCF(Skp2) complex. We suggest that sustained presence of c-Myc combined with mitogenic activity inherent to HBx may be associated with cell cycle deregulation and transformation.

  20. Piperlongumine inhibits LMP1/MYC-dependent mouse B-lymphoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seong-Su; Tompkins, Van S.; Son, Dong-Ju; Kamberos, Natalie L.; Stunz, Laura L.; Halwani, Ahmad; Bishop, Gail A.; Janz, Siegfried

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma revealed cancer inhibition by PL. •Treatment with PL led to apoptosis of malignant but not normal B cells. •PL inhibited LMP1–NF-κB–Myc-dependent target genes including p21-encoding Cdkn1a. •PL holds promise for new interventions approaches to hematologic malignancies. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (PL), isolated from the fruit of Long pepper, Piper longum, is a cancer-inhibiting compound that selectively kills tumor cells while sparing their normal counterparts. Here we evaluated the efficacy with which PL suppresses malignant B cells derived from a newly developed, double-transgenic mouse model of human endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL), designated mCD40-LMP1/iMyc{sup Eμ}. PL inhibited tumor cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner and induced apoptosis of neoplastic but not normal B cells. Treatment with PL resulted in downregulation of EBV-encoded LMP1, cellular Myc, constitutive NF-κB activity, and a host of LMP1-Myc-NF-κB-regulated target genes including Aurka, Bcat1, Bub1b, Ccnb1, Chek1, Fancd2, Tfrc and Xrcc6. Of note, p21{sup Cip1}-encoding Cdkn1a was suppressed independent of changes in Trp53 mRNA levels and p53 DNA-binding activity. Considering the central role of the LMP1–NF-κB–Myc axis in B-lineage neoplasia, these findings further our understanding of the mechanisms by which PL inhibits B-lymphoma and provide a preclinical rationale for the inclusion of PL in new interventions in blood cancers.

  1. Inducement of G-quadruplex DNA forming and down-regulation of oncogene c-myc by bile acid-amino acid conjugate-BAA.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingyue; Zhang, Xiufeng; Li, Yan; Ju, Yong; Xiang, Junfeng; Zhao, Changqi; Tang, Yalin

    2010-03-01

    Human c-myc gene is a central regulator of cellular proliferation and cell growth, and G-quadruplexes have been proven to be the transcriptional controller of this gene. In this study, the interaction of bile acid-amino acid conjugate (BAA) with G-quadruplexes in c-myc was investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurement, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The experimental results indicated that BAA has the ability to selectively induce the formation of parallel G-quadruplexes in c-myc, which leads to down-regulation of c-myc transcription in the human breast cancer cell MCF-7.

  2. Mei-P26 Mediates Tissue-Specific Responses to the Brat Tumor Suppressor and the dMyc Proto-Oncogene in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana; Boulan, Laura; Perez, Lidia; Milán, Marco

    2014-01-01

    TRIM-NHL proteins are a family of translational regulators that control cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation during development. Drosophila Brat and Mei-P26 TRIM-NHL proteins serve as tumor suppressors in stem cell lineages and have been proposed to exert this action, in part, via the repression of the protooncogene dMyc. Here we analyze the role of Brat, Mei-P26, and dMyc in regulating growth in Drosophila imaginal discs. As in stem cell lineages, Brat and Mei-P26 repress dMyc in epithelial cells by acting at the post-transcriptional and protein level, respectively. Analysis of cell and organ size unravel that Mei-P26 mediates tissue-specific responses to Brat and dMyc activities. Loss-of-function of brat and overexpression of dMyc induce overgrowth in stem cell lineages and eventually can participate in tumor formation. In contrast, an increase in Mei-P26 levels inhibits growth of epithelial cells in these two conditions. Upon depletion of Brat, Mei-P26 up-regulation prevents an increase in dMyc protein levels and leads to tissue undergrowth. This mechanism appears to be tissue-specific since Mei-P26 is not upregulated in brain tumors resulting from brat loss-of-function. Driving Mei-P26 expression in these tumors —mimicking the situation in epithelial cells— is sufficient to prevent dMyc accumulation, thus rescuing the overgrowth. Finally, we show that Mei-P26 upregulation mediates dMyc-induced apoptosis and limits dMyc growth potential in epithelial cells. These findings shed light on the tumor suppressor roles of TRIM-NHL proteins and underscore a new mechanism that maintains tissue homeostasis upon dMyc deregulation. PMID:24990993

  3. The human cut homeodomain protein represses transcription from the c-myc promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Dufort, D; Nepveu, A

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the c-myc promoter have shown that efficient transcription initiation at the P2 start site as well as the block to elongation of transcription require the presence of the ME1a1 protein binding site upstream of the P2 TATA box. Following fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, three protein-ME1a1 DNA complexes, a, b, and c, were detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A cDNA encoding a protein present in complex c was isolated by screening of an expression library with an ME1a1 DNA probe. This cDNA was found to encode the human homolog of the Drosophila Cut homeodomain protein. The bacterially expressed human Cut (hu-Cut) protein bound to the ME1a1 site, and antibodies against hu-Cut inhibited the ME1a1 binding activity c in nuclear extracts. In cotransfection experiments, the hu-Cut protein repressed transcription from the c-myc promoter, and this repression was shown to be dependent on the presence of the ME1a1 site. Using a reporter construct with a heterologous promoter, we found that c-myc exon 1 sequences were also necessary, in addition to the ME1a1 site, for repression by Cut. Taken together, these results suggest that the human homolog of the Drosophila Cut homeodomain protein is involved in regulation of the c-myc gene. Images PMID:8196661

  4. hTERT, MYC and TP53 deregulation in gastric preneoplastic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a serious public health problem in Northern Brazil and in the world due to its high incidence and mortality. Despite the severity of the disease, more research is needed to better understand the molecular events involved in this intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis process. Since precancerous lesions precede intestinal-type gastric cancer, here, we evaluated the hTERT, MYC, and TP53 mRNA and protein expression, as well as TP33 copy number, in gastric preneoplastic lesions. Methods We evaluated 19 superficial gastritis, 18 atrophic gastritis, and 18 intestinal metaplasia from cancer-free individuals of Northern Brazil. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze the mRNA expression and immunohistochemical methods were used to assess protein immunoreactivity in tissue samples. The number of TP53 gene copies was investigated in gastric diseases by quantitative PCR. Results We observed hTERT, MYC, and p53 immunoreactivity only in intestinal metaplasia samples. The immunoreactivity of these proteins was strongly associated with each other. A significantly higher MYC mRNA expression was observed in intestinal metaplasia compared to gastritis samples. Loss of TP53 was also only detected in intestinal metaplasia specimens. Conclusions We demonstrated that hTERT, MYC, and TP53 are deregulated in intestinal metaplasia of individuals from Northern Brazil and these alterations may facilitate tumor initiation. PMID:22768805

  5. Synergism of v-myc and v-Ha-ras in the in vitro neoplastic progression of murine lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, R C; Stanton, L W; Riley, S C; Marcu, K B; Witte, O N

    1986-01-01

    Murine bone marrow was either singly or doubly infected with retroviral vectors expressing v-myc (OK10) or v-Ha-ras. The infected bone marrow was cultured in a system that supports the long-term growth of B-lineage lymphoid cells. While the v-myc vector by itself had no apparent effect on lymphoid culture establishment and growth, infection with the v-Ha-ras vector or coinfection with both v-myc and v-Ha-ras vectors led to the appearance of growth-stimulated cell populations. Clonal pre-B-cell lines stably expressing v-Ha-ras alone or both v-myc and v-Ha-ras grew out of these cultures. In comparison with cell lines expressing v-Ha-ras alone, cell lines expressing both v-myc and v-Ha-ras grew to higher densities, had reduced dependence on a feeder layer for growth, and had a marked increase in ability to grow in soft-agar medium. The cell lines expressing both oncogenes were highly tumorigenic in syngeneic animals. These experiments show that the v-myc oncogene in synergy with v-Ha-ras can play a direct role in the in vitro transformation of murine B lymphoid cells. Images PMID:3023969

  6. miR-17-92 fine-tunes MYC expression and function to ensure optimal B cell lymphoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovich, Marija; Bremang, Michael; Spadotto, Valeria; Musiani, Daniele; Vitale, Elena; Varano, Gabriele; Zambelli, Federico; Mancuso, Francesco M.; Cairns, David A.; Pavesi, Giulio; Casola, Stefano; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2015-01-01

    The synergism between c-MYC and miR-17-19b, a truncated version of the miR-17-92 cluster, is well-documented during tumor initiation. However, little is known about miR-17-19b function in established cancers. Here we investigate the role of miR-17-19b in c-MYC-driven lymphomas by integrating SILAC-based quantitative proteomics, transcriptomics and 3′ untranslated region (UTR) analysis upon miR-17-19b overexpression. We identify over one hundred miR-17-19b targets, of which 40% are co-regulated by c-MYC. Downregulation of a new miR-17/20 target, checkpoint kinase 2 (Chek2), increases the recruitment of HuR to c-MYC transcripts, resulting in the inhibition of c-MYC translation and thus interfering with in vivo tumor growth. Hence, in established lymphomas, miR-17-19b fine-tunes c-MYC activity through a tight control of its function and expression, ultimately ensuring cancer cell homeostasis. Our data highlight the plasticity of miRNA function, reflecting changes in the mRNA landscape and 3′ UTR shortening at different stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:26555894

  7. Transient activation of c-MYC expression is critical for efficient platelet generation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Naoya; Nishimura, Satoshi; Nakamura, Sou; Shimizu, Takafumi; Ohnishi, Ryoko; Endo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Otsu, Makoto; Nishimura, Ken; Nakanishi, Mahito; Sawaguchi, Akira; Nagai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    Human (h) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potentially abundant source of blood cells, but how best to select iPSC clones suitable for this purpose from among the many clones that can be simultaneously established from an identical source is not clear. Using an in vitro culture system yielding a hematopoietic niche that concentrates hematopoietic progenitors, we show that the pattern of c-MYC reactivation after reprogramming influences platelet generation from hiPSCs. During differentiation, reduction of c-MYC expression after initial reactivation of c-MYC expression in selected hiPSC clones was associated with more efficient in vitro generation of CD41a+CD42b+ platelets. This effect was recapitulated in virus integration-free hiPSCs using a doxycycline-controlled c-MYC expression vector. In vivo imaging revealed that these CD42b+ platelets were present in thrombi after laser-induced vessel wall injury. In contrast, sustained and excessive c-MYC expression in megakaryocytes was accompanied by increased p14 (ARF) and p16 (INK4A) expression, decreased GATA1 expression, and impaired production of functional platelets. These findings suggest that the pattern of c-MYC expression, particularly its later decline, is key to producing functional platelets from selected iPSC clones. PMID:21098095

  8. The Max b-HLH-LZ can transduce into cells and inhibit c-Myc transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Martin; Beaudoin, Nicolas; Fortin, David; Lavoie, Christine L; Klinck, Roscoe; Lavigne, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The inhibition of the functions of c-Myc (endogenous and oncogenic) was recently shown to provide a spectacular therapeutic index in cancer mouse models, with complete tumor regression and minimal side-effects in normal tissues. This was achieved by the systemic and conditional expression of omomyc, the cDNA of a designed mutant of the b-HLH-LZ of c-Myc named Omomyc. The overall mode of action of Omomyc consists in the sequestration of Max and the concomitant competition of the Omomyc/Max complex with the endogenous c-Myc/Max heterodimer. This leads to the inhibition of the transactivation of Myc target genes involved in proliferation and metabolism. While this body of work has provided extraordinary insights to guide the future development of new cancer therapies that target c-Myc, Omomyc itself is not a therapeutic agent. In this context, we sought to exploit the use of a b-HLH-LZ to inhibit c-Myc in a cancer cell line in a more direct fashion. We demonstrate that the b-HLH-LZ domain of Max (Max*) behaves as a bona fide protein transduction domain (PTD) that can efficiently transduce across cellular membrane via through endocytosis and translocate to the nucleus. In addition, we show that the treatment of HeLa cells with Max* leads to a reduction of metabolism and proliferation rate. Accordingly, we observe a decrease of the population of HeLa cells in S phase, an accumulation in G1/G0 and the induction of apoptosis. In agreement with these phenotypic changes, we show by q-RT-PCR that the treatment of HeLa cells with Max* leads to the activation of the transcription c-Myc repressed genes as well as the repression of the expression of c-Myc activated genes. In addition to the novel discovery that the Max b-HLH-LZ is a PTD, our findings open up new avenues and strategies for the direct inhibition of c-Myc with b-HLH-LZ analogs.

  9. Integration of proteomic and transcriptomic profiles identifies a novel PDGF-MYC network in human smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) has been implicated in the proliferation, migration and synthetic activities of smooth muscle cells that characterize physiologic and pathologic tissue remodeling in hollow organs. However, neither the molecular basis of PDGFR-regulated signaling webs, nor the extent to which specific components within these networks could be exploited for therapeutic benefit has been fully elucidated. Results Expression profiling and quantitative proteomics analysis of PDGF-treated primary human bladder smooth muscle cells identified 1,695 genes and 241 proteins as differentially expressed versus non-treated cells. Analysis of gene expression data revealed MYC, JUN, EGR1, MYB, RUNX1, as the transcription factors most significantly networked with up-regulated genes. Forty targets were significantly altered at both the mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation, migration and angiogenesis were the biological processes most significantly associated with this signature, and MYC was the most highly networked master regulator. Alterations in master regulators and gene targets were validated in PDGF-stimulated smooth muscle cells in vitro and in a model of bladder injury in vivo. Pharmacologic inhibition of MYC and JUN confirmed their role in SMC proliferation and migration. Network analysis identified the diaphanous-related formin 3 as a novel PDGF target regulated by MYC and JUN, which was necessary for PDGF-stimulated lamellipodium formation. Conclusions These findings provide the first systems-level analysis of the PDGF-regulated transcriptome and proteome in normal smooth muscle cells. The analyses revealed an extensive cohort of PDGF-dependent biological processes and connected key transcriptional effectors to their regulation, significantly expanding current knowledge of PDGF-stimulated signaling cascades. These observations also implicate MYC as a novel target for pharmacological intervention in fibroproliferative expansion of

  10. c-Myc targeted regulators of cell metabolism in a transgenic mouse model of papillary lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ciribilli, Yari; Singh, Prashant; Inga, Alberto; Borlak, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    c-Myc's role in pulmonary cancer metabolism is uncertain. We therefore investigated c-Myc activity in papillary lung adenocarcinomas (PLAC). Genomics revealed 90 significantly regulated genes (> 3-fold) coding for cell growth, DNA metabolism, RNA processing and ribosomal biogenesis and bioinformatics defined c-Myc binding sites (TFBS) at > 95% of up-regulated genes. EMSA assays at 33 novel TFBS evidenced DNA binding activity and ChIP-seq data retrieved from public repositories confirmed these to be c-Myc bound. Dual-luciferase gene reporter assays developed for RNA-Terminal-Phosphate-Cyclase-Like-1(RCL1), Ribosomal-Protein-SA(RPSA), Nucleophosmin/Nucleoplasmin-3(NPM3) and Hexokinase-1(HK1) confirmed c-Myc functional relevance and ChIP assays with HEK293T cells over-expressing ectopic c-Myc demonstrated enriched c-Myc occupancy at predicted TFBS for RCL1, NPM3, HK1 and RPSA. Note, c-Myc recruitment on chromatin was comparable to the positive controls CCND2 and CDK4. Computational analyses defined master regulators (MR), i.e. heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, nucleolin, the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, triosephosphate-isomerase 1, folate transporter (SLC19A1) and nucleophosmin to influence activity of up to 90% of PLAC-regulated genes. Their expression was induced by 3-, 3-, 6-, 3-, 11- and 7-fold, respectively. STRING analysis confirmed protein-protein-interactions of regulated genes and Western immunoblotting of fatty acid synthase, serine hydroxyl-methyltransferase 1, arginine 1 and hexokinase 2 showed tumor specific induction. Published knock down studies confirmed these proteins to induce apoptosis by disrupting neoplastic lipogenesis, by endorsing uracil accumulation and by suppressing arginine metabolism and glucose-derived ribonucleotide biosynthesis. Finally, translational research demonstrated high expression of MR and of 47 PLAC up-regulated genes to be associated with poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients (HR 3.2 p < 0.001) thus

  11. Salinomycin Suppresses PDGFRβ, MYC, and Notch Signaling in Human Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Ying; Johnson, Max R; Qian, Steven; Wu, Min; Wu, Erxi

    2014-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common childhood brain tumor. Despite improved therapy and management, approximately 30% of patients die of the disease. To search for a more effective therapeutic strategy, the effects of salinomycin were tested on cell proliferation, cell death, and cell cycle progression in human MB cell lines. The results demonstrated that salinomycin inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell death , and disrupts cell cycle progression in MB cells. Salinomycin was also tested on the expression levels of key genes involved in proliferation and survival signaling and revealed that salinomycin down-regulates the expression of PDGFRβ, MYC, p21 and Bcl-2 as well as up-regulates the expression of cyclin A. In addition, the results reveal that salinomycin suppresses the expression of Hes1 and Hes5 in MB cells. Our data shed light on the potential of using salinomycin as a novel therapeutic agent for patients with MB.

  12. Determination of binding constant of transcription factor myc-max/max-max and E-box DNA: the effect of inhibitors on the binding.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon; Chung, Sunah; Kim, Kyung-Mee; Jung, Kyung-Chae; Park, Chihoon; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Yang, Chul-Hak

    2004-02-24

    The truncated myc and max proteins, only containing basic regions and helix-loop-helix/zipper (b/HLH/Zip) regions were over-expressed in E. coli and used for the determination of the binding constant and of the inhibitory mechanism on myc-max (or max-max)-DNA complex formation. The association kinetic constants (k(1) and k(-1)) of truncated max-max or myc-max dimer and DNA were determined as k(1)=(1.7+/-0.6)x10(5) M(-1) s(-1), k(-1)=(3.4+/-1.2)x10(-2) s(-1) for max-max and DNA or k(1)=(2.1+/-0.7)x10(5) M(-1) s(-1), k(-1)=(3.2+/-1.4)x10(-2) s(-1) for myc-max and DNA. The equilibrium binding constant (K(1)) was determined using these kinetic parameters [K(XXD)=(7.8+/-2.6)x10(6) M(-1) for max-max and DNA or K(XYD)=(6.9+/-2.2)x10(6) M(-1) for myc-max and DNA]. The binding constants of myc-max or max-max dimer formation were K(XX)=(2.6+/-0.9)x10(5) M(-1) or K(XY)=(1.3+/-0.4)x10(4) M(-1), respectively. When truncated proteins were used, the max-max dimer formation was easier than the myc-max dimer formation, contrary to the physiologically determined case. This leads us to deduce that domains other than b/HLH/Zip are very important for the transcriptional regulatory activity in physiological conditions. The truncated myc and max proteins, which were expressed in E. coli and contained only b/HLH/Zip regions were also used for the screening of inhibitors of myc-max-DNA complex formation. A synthesized curcuminoid, 1,7-bis(4-methyl-3-nitrophenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcuminoid 004), showed the most potent inhibition out of the synthesized curcuminoids, in competition with DNA. The dissociation constant of max-max dimer and the inhibitor was 9 microM, when investigated using in vitro expressed b/HLH/Zip dimer proteins. The curcuminoid 004 showed an inhibitory effect on the binding of myc-max protein to the E-box element in SNU16 cells, and suppressed the expression of myc target genes including ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cdc25a and c-myc in myc over

  13. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  14. Overexpression of c-myc in the liver prevents obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Riu, Efren; Ferre, Tura; Hidalgo, Antonio; Mas, Alex; Franckhauser, Sylvie; Otaegui, Pedro; Bosch, Fatima

    2003-09-01

    Alterations in hepatic glucose metabolism play a key role in the development of the hyperglycemia observed in type 2 diabetes. Because the transcription factor c-Myc induces hepatic glucose uptake and utilization and blocks gluconeogenesis, we examined whether hepatic overexpression of c-myc counteracts the insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet. After 3 months on this diet, control mice became obese, hyperglycemic, and hyperinsulinemic, indicating that they had developed insulin resistance. In contrast, transgenic mice remained lean and showed improved glucose disposal and normal levels of blood glucose and insulin, indicating that they had developed neither obesity nor insulin resistance. These findings were concomitant with normalization of hepatic glucokinase and pyruvate kinase gene expression and enzyme activity, which led to normalization of intrahepatic glucose-6-phosphate and glycogen content. In the liver of control mice fed a high-fat diet, the expression of genes encoding proteins that control energy metabolism, such as sterol receptor element binding protein 1-c, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, and uncoupling protein-2, was altered. In contrast, in the liver of transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet, the expression of these genes was normal. These results suggest that c-myc overexpression counteracted the obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet by modulating the expression of genes that regulate hepatic metabolism.

  15. Alterations in TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expression associated with progression in B-CLL.

    PubMed

    Halina, Antosz; Artur, Paterski; Barbara, Marzec-Kotarska; Joanna, Sajewicz; Anna, Dmoszyńska

    2010-12-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) originates from B lymphocytes that may differ in the activation level, maturation state or cellular subgroups in peripheral blood. Tumour progression in CLL B cells seems to result in gradual accumulation of the clone of resting B lymphocytes in the early phases (G0/G1) of the cell cycle. The G1 phase is impaired in B-CLL. We investigated the gene expression of five key cell cycle regulators: TP 53, c-Myc, cyclin D2, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1, which primarily regulate the G1 phase of the cell cycle, or S-phase entry and ultimately control the proliferation and cell growth as well as their role in B-CLL progression. The study was conducted in peripheral blood CLL lymphocytes of 40 previously untreated patients. Statistical analysis of correlations of TP53, cyclin D2, c-Myc, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1 expressions in B-CLL patients with different Rai stages demonstrated that the progression of disease was accompanied by increases in p53, cyclin D2 and c-Myc mRNA expression. The expression of p27KIP1 was nearly statistically significant whereas that of p21 WAF1/CIP1 showed no such correlation. Moreover, high expression levels of TP53 and c-Myc genes were found to be closely associated with more aggressive forms of the disease requiring earlier therapy.

  16. Hierarchical phosphorylation at N-terminal transformation-sensitive sites in c-Myc protein is regulated by mitogens and in mitosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lutterbach, B; Hann, S R

    1994-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of the c-Myc protein has been reported to be critical for both the transactivation and biological functions of the c-Myc proteins. Through detailed phosphopeptide mapping analyses, we demonstrate that there is a cluster of four regulated and complex phosphorylation events on the N-terminal domain of Myc proteins, including Thr-58, Ser-62, and Ser-71. An apparent enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation occurs on v-Myc proteins having a mutation at Thr-58 which has previously been correlated with increased transforming ability. In contrast, phosphorylation of Thr-58 in cells is dependent on a prior phosphorylation of Ser-62. Hierarchical phosphorylation of c-Myc is also observed in vitro with a specific glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha, unlike the promiscuous phosphorylation observed with other glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha and 3 beta preparations. Although both p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cdc2 kinase specifically phosphorylate Ser-62 in vitro and cellular phosphorylation of Thr-58/Ser-62 is stimulated by mitogens, other in vivo experiments do not support a role for these kinases in the phosphorylation of Myc proteins. Unexpectedly, both the Thr-58 and Ser-62 phosphorylation events, but not other N-terminal phosphorylation events, can occur in the cytoplasm, suggesting that translocation of the c-Myc proteins to the nucleus is not required for phosphorylation at these sites. In addition, there appears to be an unusual block to the phosphorylation of Ser-62 during mitosis. Finally, although the enhanced transforming properties of Myc proteins correlates with the loss of phosphorylation at Thr-58 and an enhancement of Ser-62 phosphorylation, these phosphorylation events do not alter the ability of c-Myc to transactivate through the CACGTG Myc/Max binding site. Images PMID:8035827

  17. Compensatory RNA polymerase 2 loading determines the efficacy and transcriptional selectivity of JQ1 in Myc-driven tumors

    PubMed Central

    Donato, E; Croci, O; Sabò, A; Muller, H; Morelli, M J; Pelizzola, M; Campaner, S

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal motif (BET) proteins such as BRD4 bears great promise for cancer treatment and its efficacy has been frequently attributed to Myc downregulation. Here, we use B-cell tumors as a model to address the mechanism of action of JQ1, a widely used BET inhibitor. Although JQ1 led to widespread eviction of BRD4 from chromatin, its effect on gene transcription was limited to a restricted set of genes. This was unlinked to Myc downregulation or its chromatin association. Yet, JQ1-sensitive genes were enriched for Myc and E2F targets, were expressed at high levels, and showed high promoter occupancy by RNAPol2, BRD4, Myc and E2F. Their marked decrease in transcriptional elongation upon JQ1 treatment, indicated that BRD4-dependent promoter clearance was rate limiting for transcription. At JQ1-insensitive genes the drop in transcriptional elongation still occurred, but was compensated by enhanced RNAPol2 recruitment. Similar results were obtained with other inhibitors of transcriptional elongation. Thus, the selective transcriptional effects following JQ1 treatment are linked to the inability of JQ1-sensitive genes to sustain compensatory RNAPol2 recruitment to promoters. These observations highlight the role of BET proteins in supporting transcriptional elongation and rationalize how a general suppression of elongation may selectively affects transcription. PMID:27443262

  18. Ruthenation of Non‐stacked Guanines in DNA G‐Quadruplex Structures: Enhancement of c‐MYC Expression

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Jéssica; Mosquera, Jesús; Couceiro, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Guanine quadruplexes (GQs) are compact four‐stranded DNA structures that play a key role in the control of a variety of biological processes, including gene transcription. Bulky ruthenium complexes featuring a bipyridine, a terpyridine, and one exchangeable ligand ([Ru(terpy)(bpy)X]n+) are able to metalate exposed guanines present in the GQ of the c‐MYC promoter region that are not involved in quadruplex base pairing. qRT‐PCR and western‐blot experiments indicated that the complexes promote a remarkable increase in the expression of this oncogene. We also show that exchangeable thioether ligands (X=RSR′, Met) allow regulation of the metalating activity of the complex with visible light. PMID:27860057

  19. Long-range oncogenic activation of Igh-c-myc translocations by the Igh 3' regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Gostissa, Monica; Yan, Catherine T; Bianco, Julia M; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric; Alt, Frederick W

    2009-12-10

    B-cell malignancies, such as human Burkitt's lymphoma, often contain translocations that link c-myc or other proto-oncogenes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH, encoded by Igh). The nature of elements that activate oncogenes within such translocations has been a long-standing question. Translocations within Igh involve DNA double-strand breaks initiated either by the RAG1/2 endonuclease during variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination, or by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) during class switch recombination (CSR). V(D)J recombination in progenitor B (pro-B) cells assembles Igh variable region exons upstream of mu constant region (Cmu) exons, which are the first of several sets of C(H) exons ('C(H) genes') within a C(H) locus that span several hundred kilobases (kb). In mature B cells, CSR deletes Cmu and replaces it with a downstream C(H) gene. An intronic enhancer (iEmu) between the variable region exons and Cmu promotes V(D)J recombination in developing B cells. Furthermore, the Igh 3' regulatory region (Igh3'RR) lies downstream of the C(H) locus and modulates CSR by long-range transcriptional enhancement of C(H) genes. Transgenic mice bearing iEmu or Igh3'RR sequences fused to c-myc are predisposed to B lymphomas, demonstrating that such elements can confer oncogenic c-myc expression. However, in many B-cell lymphomas, Igh-c-myc translocations delete iEmu and place c-myc up to 200 kb upstream of the Igh3'RR. Here we address the oncogenic role of the Igh3'RR by inactivating it in two distinct mouse models for B-cell lymphoma with Igh-c-myc translocations. We show that the Igh3'RR is dispensable for pro-B-cell lymphomas with V(D)J recombination-initiated translocations, but is required for peripheral B-cell lymphomas with CSR-associated translocations. As the Igh3'RR is not required for CSR-associated Igh breaks or Igh-c-myc translocations in peripheral B-cell lymphoma progenitors, we conclude that

  20. Strategies to Inhibit Myc and Their Clinical Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Jonathan R.; Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; Soucek, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Myc is an oncogene deregulated in most—perhaps all—human cancers. Each Myc family member, c-, L-, and N-Myc, has been connected to tumor progression and maintenance. Myc is recognized as