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Sample records for increased transepidermal water

  1. Increased transepidermal water loss and decreased ceramide content in lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichiro; Yoon, Ji-Seon; Yoshihara, Toru; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Nishifuji, Koji

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated changes in transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and intercorneal lipid content in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). TEWL and skin hydration were measured in the inguinal skin of 10 dogs with AD and 30 normal dogs. TEWL was significantly higher in both lesional skin (94.3 +/- 38.8 g/m(2)/h) and non-lesional skin (28.8 +/- 9.5) of dogs with AD than healthy controls (12.3 +/- 2.3) (P < 0.05). Water content in the lesional skin of dogs with AD (15.8 +/- 7.0 AU) was significantly lower than that of controls (24.2 +/- 8.8) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were recognized in water content between non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls. To compare the lipid content between lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD and controls, intercorneal lipids, extracted from the stratum corneum, were quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The relative amounts of ceramides in the lesional skin (24.4 +/- 5.6%) and non-lesional skin (25.6 +/- 3.8%) of dogs with AD were significantly lower than those in controls (31.4 +/- 6.9%) (P < 0.05). Conversely, no significant differences were recognized in the relative amounts of cholesterols and free fatty acids (FFA) between dogs with AD and controls. Moreover, there are statistical correlations between TEWL and the relative amounts of ceramides, but not those of cholesterols and FFA, in both lesional and non-lesional skin of dogs with AD. These results strongly suggest that decreased ceramide content accelerates TEWL in dogs with AD, similar to the situation seen in the corresponding human disease.

  2. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Ďurčanská, Veronika; Jedličková, Hana; Vašků, Vladimír

    2016-05-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) is a disease characterized by fibrotic changes in the dermis. Connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor β2 are the main mediators of fibrogenesis; this, along with excessive connective tissue production, affects epidermal keratinocytes, and thereby contributes to the changed quality of skin barrier. The objective of this article was to study the objective measurement of the skin barrier quality in LS with transepidermal water loss (TEWL) meter. The measurements of TEWL were performed on LS plaques in all three stages of various body locations. Control measurements were made on the contralateral side of healthy skin. The difference between TEWL in LS area and the contralateral side of the healthy skin was evaluated. A higher average TEWL 7.86 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.29) was observed on LS plaques compared with the control measurements on healthy skin 6.39 g/m(2) /h (SD 2.77). TEWL average values decreased from the inflammatory stage, through the sclerotic and to the atrophic stage. The mean difference 1.301 g/m(2) /h (SD 5.16) was found between TEWL on LS plaques and on the contralateral healthy skin in 82 measurements, i.e., a higher TEWL was observed in LS. The difference was statistically significant with p = 0.0250. Although fibrogenesis in scleroderma is localized in dermis, the skin barrier changes can be detected. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effects of uncoated paper on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss in bedridden patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Moon, Nam-Kyung; Ahn, Young Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Ok

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to measure skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after application of uncoated paper and to compare skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after use of uncoated paper and disposable underpads. The study was a cross-over, prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial. Bedridden patients aged≥18 years at a medical center in Korea were included. Treatment order was randomly assigned using block randomization, with a block size of 4 and an assignment rate of one-by-one. Skin moisture was measured using a Corneometer 825 and transepidermal water loss was measured using a Tewameter 300. Skin moisture after application of an uncoated paper was significantly lower than observed after application of a disposable underpad (mean 40.6 and SD 13.1 vs. mean 64.6 and SD 23.7, p<0.001). Transepidermal water loss also showed greater health scores after using uncoated paper (mean 11.1 and SD 5.7 g/m2/hour) than after applying a disposable underpad (mean 23.2 and SD 11.1 g/m2 /hour, p<0.001). There were no statistical between-group differences in room temperature, relative humidity, and body temperature. We found that uncoated paper was helpful in avoiding excessive moisture without adverse effects. As indicated by the results of this study, uncoated paper can be applied to bed-ridden patients who required incontinence care. Nurses may consider using uncoated paper as one of nursing methods in the routine care of bed-ridden patients for moisture control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Closed-chamber transepidermal water loss measurement: microclimate, calibration and performance.

    PubMed

    Imhof, R E; De Jesus, M E P; Xiao, P; Ciortea, L I; Berg, E P

    2009-04-01

    The importance of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) as a measure of the skin barrier is well recognized. Currently, the open-chamber method is dominant, but it is increasingly challenged by newer closed-chamber technologies. Whilst there is familiarity with open-chamber characteristics, there is uncertainty about the capabilities of the challengers. The main issues are related to how microclimate affects TEWL measurements. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for understanding the effects of microclimate on TEWL measurement. Part of the problem is that TEWL measurement is indirect. TEWL is the diffusion of condensed water through the stratum corneum (SC), whereas TEWL methods measure water vapour flux in the air above the SC. This vapour flux depends on (i) the rate of supply of water to the skin surface and (ii) the rate of evaporation of water from the skin surface. Rate (i) is a skin property (TEWL), rate (ii) is a microclimate property. The controlling rate for the combined process is the lower of the above two rates. Therefore, TEWL instruments measure TEWL only when TEWL is the rate-limiting process. Another problem is that SC barrier property and SC hydration are affected by the microclimate adjacent to the skin surface. This is discussed insofar as it affects the measurement of TEWL. The conclusion is that such changes occur on a timescale that is long compared with TEWL measurement times. An important aspect of TEWL measurement is calibration. We present an analysis of the traditional wet-cup method and a new droplet method that is traceable and has been independently verified by a standards laboratory. Finally, we review performance indicators of commercial closed-chamber instruments with reference to open-chamber instruments. The main findings are that TEWL readings correlate well, but there are significant differences in the other aspects of performance.

  5. DFD-01 Reduces Transepidermal Water Loss and Improves Skin Hydration and Flexibility.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J Mark; Grove, Gary L; Allenby, Kent; Houser, Tim

    2017-12-01

    In plaque psoriasis, the benefit of topical steroids is well established. The vehicle formulation of topical steroids may also provide benefit in addition to the effects of the steroid itself. DFD-01 (betamethasone dipropionate spray, 0.05%) is a formulation composed of a topical steroid in an emollient-like vehicle that enhances penetration to the target site of inflammation in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DFD-01 and its vehicle on skin hydration and barrier function in compromised skin and to evaluate its effect on flexibility in healthy skin. Eighteen healthy white volunteers were enrolled in each of two studies. In Study 1, dry shaving of volar forearms created a compromised skin barrier, through which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using an evaporimeter. Capacitance, a measure of epidermal hydration, was also measured at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or its vehicle formulation. In Study 2, intact skin flexibility was tested with a cutometer before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or vehicle. In Study 1, both DFD-01 and its vehicle were effective at reducing TEWL through the compromised stratum corneum. Capacitance measurements confirmed this finding; razor-chafed skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle exhibited levels of skin hydration similar to unshaved control skin. Study 2 found softening and greater flexibility of normal skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle compared with nontreated control skin samples. These tests suggest that the DFD-01 formulation and its vehicle are each effective at retaining moisture within a damaged skin barrier and for softening and increasing the flexibility of intact skin. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

  6. Oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey decreased transepidermal water loss and prevented the onset of sodium dodecylsulfate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hidehiko; Masuyama, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Chiaki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Takano, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey on the intact and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-exposed skin of Hos:HR-1 hairless mice. The mice were allowed to drink 10% L. helveticus-fermented milk whey in distilled water ad libitum for 5 weeks. SDS solution was topically applied to the dorsal skin at 4 weeks, leading to the development of dermatitis. The skin moisture content, transepidermal water loss, and sizes of the dermatitis areas were periodically measured. Compared with oral intake of water alone, oral intake of water containing L. helveticus-fermented milk whey for 4 weeks significantly lowered transepidermal water loss from intact skin, significantly reduced in size the areas of early SDS-induced dermatitis, and ameliorated both the SDS-induced decrease in moisture content and the increase in transepidermal water loss. These results suggest that oral intake of L. helveticus-fermented milk whey might be effective in promoting the epidermal barrier function and in preventing the onset of dermatitis.

  7. Measurement of elasticity and transepidermal water loss rate of burn scars with the Dermalab(®).

    PubMed

    Anthonissen, Mieke; Daly, Daniel; Fieuws, Steffen; Massagé, Patrick; Van Brussel, Michel; Vranckx, Jan; Van den Kerckhove, Eric

    2013-05-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the reproducibility of repeated elasticity and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements with the DermaLab(®) on 32 active burn scars and healthy skin. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was examined by means of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurements (SEM). Results showed good ICC values and rather high SEM values for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of elasticity measurements. For TEWL measurements, ICC values were good and SEM values were high for inter- and intra-observer reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the estimated mean elasticity values of normal skin and grafted scars and between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p≤0.003). For the estimated mean TEWL values, there was a significant difference between normal skin and spontaneously healed scars (p=0.036). A significant negative relation was reported between mean TEWL and time after burn (p=0.008). In clinical trials it is necessary to interpret patient-specific changes in elasticity and TEWL with caution, since the SEMs of both modes are rather high. We therefore recommend the use of a mean of repeated measurements of elasticity and TEWL to decrease the SEM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in cats with experimental skin barrier dysfunction using a closed chamber system.

    PubMed

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiro; Gin, Azusa; Matsubara, Takako; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2016-10-01

    A closed chamber evaporimeter is suitable for measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in cats because of the compact device size, tolerance to sudden movement and short measuring time. TEWL is a representative parameter for skin barrier dysfunction, which is one of the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis in humans and dogs. Measurement of feline TEWL has been reported, but applicability of this parameter has not been validated. The aims of this study were to determine if tape stripping is a valid experimental model in cats for studying TEWL and to determine if a closed chambered system is a suitable measurement tool for cats. Ten clinically normal cats. In order to evaluate variation of the measured values, TEWL was measured at the right and left side of the three clipped regions (axillae, lateral thigh and groin). Subsequently, TEWL was measured using sequential tape stripping of the stratum corneum as a model of acute barrier disruption. The variations between both sides of the three regions showed no significant difference. Sequential tape stripping was associated with increasing values for TEWL. Feline TEWL was shown to reflect changes in the skin barrier in an experimental model using a closed chamber system and has the potential for evaluating skin barrier function in cats with skin diseases. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Topical Oil Application and Trans-Epidermal Water Loss in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants-A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Sushma; Paul, Vinod Kumar; Deorari, Ashok Kumar; Sreenivas, V; Agarwal, Ramesh; Chawla, Deepak

    2015-12-01

    Topical emollient application reduces trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) in preterm neonates. Coconut oil used traditionally for infant massage in India has not been evaluated for the same. Very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates were randomized at 12 h of age to Oil (n = 37) or Control (n = 37) groups. Oil group neonates received twice-daily coconut oil application without massage, and Control group received standard care. TEWL was measured every 12 h using an evaporimeter till Day 7 when skin swabs were obtained for bacterial growth and skin condition was assessed using a validated score. Birth weight (g; mean ± SD: 1213 + 214 vs. 1164 + 208, p = 0.31), gestation [week; median (interquartile range): 32 (31-33) vs. 32 (29-33), p = 0.10] and other baseline variables were comparable. TEWL was significantly reduced (g/m(2)/h, mean difference: -6.80, 95% confidence interval: -3.48, -10.15; p < 0.01) with better skin condition and lower bacterial growth in the Oil group (20% vs. 60%, p < 0.01). Coconut oil application reduced TEWL without increasing skin colonization in VLBW neonates. NCT01758068. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A closed unventilated chamber for the measurement of transepidermal water loss.

    PubMed

    Nuutinen, Jouni; Alanen, Esko; Autio, Pekka; Lahtinen, Marjo-Riitta; Harvima, Ilkka; Lahtinen, Tapani

    2003-05-01

    Open chamber systems for measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL) have limitations related to ambient and body-induced airflows near the probe, probe size, measurement sites and angles, and measurement range. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a closed chamber system for the TEWL measurement without significant blocking of normal evaporation through the skin. Additionally, in order to use the evaporimeter to measure evaporation rates through other biological and non-biological specimens and in the field applications, a small portable, battery-operated device was a design criteria. A closed unventilated chamber (inner volume 2.0 cm(3) was constructed. For the skin measurement, the chamber with one side open (open surface area 1.0 cm(2) is placed on the skin. The skin application time was investigated at low and high evaporation rates in order to assess the blocking effect of the chamber on normal evaporation. From the rising linear part of the relative humidity (RH) in the chamber the slope was registered. The slope was calibrated into a TEWL value by evaporating water at different temperatures and measuring the water loss of heated samples with a laboratory scale. The closed chamber evaporation technique was compared with a conventional evaporimeter based on an open chamber method (DermaLab), Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark). The reproducibility of the closed chamber method was measured with the water samples and with volar forearm and palm of the hand in 10 healthy volunteers. The skin application time varied between 7 and 9 s and the linear slope region between 3 and 5 s at the evaporation rates of 3-220 g/m(2) h. A correlation coefficient between the TEWL value from the closed chamber measurements and the readings of the laboratory scale was 0.99 (P < 0.001). The reproducibility of the evaporation measurements with the water samples was 4.0% at the evaporation rate of 40 g/m(2) h. A correlation coefficient of the TEWL values between the

  11. Evaluation of the relation between lipid coat, transepidermal water loss, and skin pH.

    PubMed

    Algiert-Zielińska, Barbara; Batory, Mirella; Skubalski, Janusz; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2017-11-01

    The epidermis is an epidermal barrier which accumulates lipid substances and participates in skin moisturizing. An evaluation of the epidermal barrier efficiency can be made, among others, by the measurement of the following values: the lipid coat, the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) index, and pH. The study involved 50 Caucasian, healthy women aged 19-35 years (mean 20.56). Measurements were made using Courage & Khazaka Multi Probe Adapter MPA 580: Tewameter TM 300, pH-Meter PH 905, Sebumeter SM 815. The areas of measurements included forehead, nose, left cheek, right cheek, chin, and thigh. In the T-zone, the lipid coat was in the range between 0 and 270 μg/cm 2 (mean 128 μg/cm 2 ), TEWL between 1 and 55 g/m 2 /h (mean 11.1 g/m 2 /h), and pH 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.39). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL greater than 30 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. In the U-zone the range of lipid coat was up to 200 μg/cm 2 (mean 65.2 μg/cm 2 ), the skin pH remained 4.0-5.6 (mean 5.47), and TEWL was in the range between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h (mean 8.7 g/m 2 /h). Lower values of the lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were accompanied by TEWL between 1 and 20 g/m 2 /h and less acidic pH of 5.6-9.0. High values of the lipid coat between 180 and 200 μg/cm 2 were connected with TEWL of 1-15 g/m 2 /h. On the skin of the thigh, we observed a very thin lipid coat - 35 μg/cm 2 (mean 5.6 μg/cm 2 ), pH (mean 5.37), and TEWL (mean 8.5 g/m 2 /h) were considered by us to be within regular limits. In the T-zone, a thinner lipid coat resulted in relatively high TEWL and pH levels changing toward alkaline. In the U-zone, thinner lipid coat was accompanied by lower TEWL and pH changing toward alkaline. We also observed that lower values of lipid coat up to 100 μg/cm 2 were associated with higher pH values ranging toward the basic character pH 5.6-9.0). © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Changes in basal cell mitosis and transepidermal water loss in skin cultures treated with vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Parish, W E; Read, J; Paterson, S E

    2005-09-01

    Three variants of the living skin equivalent cultures were compared in order to determine the most suitable to grow human differentiated epidermis to test beneficial properties of nutrients. Criteria of culture quality were mitotic index and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) assayed by means of a ServoMed Evaporimeter EP-2TM (ServoMed, Kinna, Sweden). Standards were donor skin mean mitotic index 11.1% and TEWL of living subjects mean 6.4 g/m(2)/h. Cultures (i) in 5% serum, 10 ng/ml of epidermal growth factor (EGF) at 37 degrees C and 95% relative humidity (RH); mitotic index on day 14, 19.2%, but on day 21, 1.8% and TEWL 9.5 g/m(2)/h on day 18. (ii) In 1% serum, no EGF, 33 degrees C and 95% RH, mitotic index on day 21, 9.1% and TEWL, 9.5% on day 18. (iii) Culture in same medium, 33 degrees C and 60% RH, mitotic index on day 28, 9.5% and TEWL 6.1 g/m(2)/h on day 18 as in vivo. Incubation in 60% RH was achieved using a novel chamber and dishes exposing only the corneum, sealing the medium. Vitamins C and E were used as model test nutrients. Culture conditions were 1% serum, no EGF at 33 degrees C and 95% RH. Vitamin C at 142 and 284 microM increased the mitotic index after 10- and 15-day treatment, but at 586 microM it was weakly toxic. Vitamin E at 20 and 40 microM did not. Both vitamins reduced TEWL providing functional data in support of previous reports on barrier properties. These are functional biomarkers of skin benefit relevant to skin in vivo.

  13. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Changes in Transepidermal Water Loss and Skin Hydration according to Expression of Aquaporin-3 in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young; Je, Young-Jin; Lee, Sang-Sin; Li, Zheng Jun; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kwon, Yoo-Bin; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Im, Myung; Seo, Young Joon

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water transporting proteins present in many mammalian epithelial and endothelial cell types. Among the AQPs, AQP3 is known to be a water/glycerol transporter expressed in human skin. Objective The relationship between the expression level of AQP3 and transpidermal water loss (TEWL) in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis-affected patients, and skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, was investigated. Methods The expression of AQP3 in psoriasis-affected and healthy control skin was determined using immunohistochemical and immunofluroscence staining. TEWL and skin hydration were measured using a Tewameter® TM210 (Courage & Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) and a Corneometer® CM 820 (Courage & Khazaka), respectively. Results AQP3 was mainly expressed in the plasma membrane of stratum corneum and the stratum spinosum in normal epidermis. Unlike the normal epidermis, AQP3 showed decreased expression in the lesional and peri-lesional epidermis of psoriasis. TEWL was increased, and skin hydration was decreased, in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis patients, compared with the healthy control sample. Conclusion Although various factors contribute to reduced skin hydration in the lesional and peri-lesional skin of psoriasis, AQP3 appears to be a key factor in the skin dehydration of psoriasis-affected skin. PMID:22577267

  15. Ceramide 1 and ceramide 3 act synergistically on skin hydration and the transepidermal water loss of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2008-08-01

    Stratum corneum intercellular lipids, such as ceramides, play an important role in the regulation of skin water barrier homeostasis and water-holding capacity. Aim To evaluate the potential water retention capacity of control emulsion and three oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions containing ceramide 1, ceramide 3, or both. Fifteen healthy Asian women (age, 20-30 years) with healthy skin, pretreated with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), applied the tested emulsions twice daily over a period of 28 days. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were measured on the indicated days with a Corneometer(R)825 and a TEWAMETER TM210, respectively. The maximum increase in skin humidity was reached after 4 weeks, with values of 21.9 +/- 1.8% and 8.9 +/- 0.9% for emulsion C and control emulsion, respectively. The maximum decrease in TEWL was also reached after 4 weeks, with values of 36.7 +/- 4.7% and 5.1 +/- 0.8% for the same emulsions. It can be concluded that all the tested ceramide-containing emulsions improved skin barrier function when compared with untreated skin. There was some indication that ceramides 1 and 3 contained in emulsion C might exert a beneficial synergistic effect on skin biochemical properties, such as skin hydration and TEWL, and play a key role in the protection mechanism against SLS irritation.

  16. A novel continuous colour mapping approach for visualization of facial skin hydration and transepidermal water loss for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Keshavarz, Saeed; Sadr, Bardia; Shohrati, Majid; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Farsinejad, Khalil; Rashighi-Firouzabadi, Mehdi; Zartab, Hamed; Firooz, Alireza

    2009-08-01

    Skin lesions are among the most common complications of contact with sulfur mustard. This study was aimed to measure skin water content and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with a history of sulfur mustard contact. Three hundred ten male participants were included in this study: 87 (28.1%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients with current skin lesions (group 1), 71 (22.9%) sulfur mustard-exposed patients without skin lesions (group 2), 78 (25.2%) patients with dermatitis (group 3) and 74 (23.8%) normal controls (group 4) The water content and TEWL of skin was measured at four different locations of the body: forehead, suprasternal, palm and dorsum of hand. Nonparametric statistical tests (Kruskal-Wallis) were used to compare the four groups, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean age of participants were 44.0 +/- 6.7, 41.9 +/- 5.9, 43.8 +/- 9.3 and 44.8 +/- 8.9 years in groups 1 to 4, respectively (P = 0.146). Xerosis, post-lesional hyperpigmentation and lichenification were significantly more common in either sulfur mustard-exposed participants or non-exposed participants with dermatitis (P < 0.05). Skin hydration was higher in subjects with sulfur mustard contact than in non-injured participants (P < 0.05) in the dorsum and palm of hands and forehead. TEWL was significantly higher in participants only in suprasternal area and dorsum of hand. Contact with sulfur mustard agent can alter biophysical properties of the skin--especially the function of stratum corneum as a barrier to water loss-several years after exposure.

  18. Quantitative description of human skin water dynamics by a disposition-decomposition analysis (DDA) of trans-epidermal water loss and epidermal capacitance.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Luis Monteiro; Pinto, Pedro Contreiras; Pereira, Luis Marcelo

    2003-02-01

    In vivo water assessment would greatly benefit from a dynamical approach since the evaluation of common related variables such as trans-epidermal water loss or "capacitance" measurements is always limited to instantaneous data. Mathematical modelling is still an attractive alternative already attempted with bi-exponential empirical models. A classical two-compartment interpretation of such models raises a number of questions about the underlying fundamentals, which can hardly be experimentally confirmed. However, in a system analysis sense, skin water dynamics may be approached as an ensemble of many factors, impossible to discretize, but conceptually grouped in terms of feasible properties of the system. The present paper explores the applicability of this strategy to the in vivo water dynamics assessment. From the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) skin water balance is assessed by modelling trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and "capacitance" data obtained at skin's surface. With system analysis (disposition-decomposition analysis) the distribution function, H(t), modelled as a sum of exponential terms, covers only the distribution characteristics of water molecules traversing the skin. This may correspond macroscopically to the experimental data accessed by "corneometry". Separately, the hyperbolic elimination function Q(TEWL) helps to characterise the dynamic aspects of water influx through the skin. In the observable range there seems to be a linear relationship between the net amount of water lost at the surface by evaporation, and the capability of the system to replenish that loss. This may be a specific characteristic of the system related to what may be described as the skin's "intrinsic hydration capacity" (IHC) a new functional parameter only identified by this strategy. These new quantitative tools are expected to find different applicabilities (from the in vivo skin characterisation to efficacy testing) contributing to disclose the dynamical nature

  19. Influence on clinical parameters of depressomassage (part I): The effects of depressomassage on color and transepidermal water loss rate in burn scars: A pilot comparative controlled study.

    PubMed

    Anthonissen, Mieke; Meirte, Jill; Moortgat, Peter; Maertens, Koen; Daly, Daniel; Fieuws, Steffen; Lafaire, Cindy; De Cuyper, Lieve; Van den Kerckhove, Eric

    2018-06-01

    Depressomassage is a non-invasive massage technique using a mechanical suction device that is used in the treatment of traumatic or burn scars. Since color and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) are respectively the most important physical and physiological characteristic of hypertrophic scar formation, we wanted to investigate the effects of depressomassage on the recovery of color and TEWL in burn scars compared to the traditional physiotherapy. In this pilot comparative controlled study a total 43 burn patients were included and allocated into 2 groups. All patients received standard physical therapy, and the test group received additional depressomassage during 6 months. Color was assessed using the POSAS questionnaire (for color, vascularity and pigmentation) and the Minolta Chromameter. TEWL was measured using DermaLab. Patients of both groups were evaluated at baseline, after 1, 3 and 6 months and after 1year. The evidence for a difference in evolution of color and TEWL between both groups in our study was minimal. In practice, precise indications to begin depressomassage have to be kept in mind. Perhaps other scar abnormalities such as decreased elasticity, increased thickness, excessive pain or itching could be sufficient reasons to begin depressomassage and should be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  1. Diabetic and sympathetic influences on the water permeability barrier function of human skin as measured using transepidermal water loss: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Ji Woong

    2017-11-01

    The presence of long-standing hyperglycemic conditions has been suggested to lead to many skin problems associated with an impaired skin barrier function. However, the relationship between impaired skin barrier status and altered peripheral nervous system function has not yet been determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the water evaporation rate as a measure of the permeability barrier function of diabetic skin and its relationship to diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and peripheral autonomic neuropathy (PAN) using well-controlled confounding variables.This case-control study included 42 participants with chronic diabetes and 43 matched healthy controls. The diabetic group underwent a nerve conduction study and sympathetic skin response (SSR) test to confirm the presence of DSPN and PAN, respectively. Different skin regions were analyzed using the noninvasive Tewameter instrument (Courage + Khazaka Electronic GmbH, Cologne, Germany). The impacts of PAN, DSPN, age, and diabetes duration on the values of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were each analyzed and compared between the groups.Regardless of the presence of DSPN or PAN, the TEWL values as measured on the distal extremities were significantly lower in the diabetic group than in the control group. In the diabetic group, participants with abnormal SSR test results showed decreased TEWL values in the finger, sole, and first toe, as compared with participants with normal SSR test results. In the control group, age showed a negative correlation with the TEWL values with respect to some measured regions. However, in the diabetic group, there was no significant correlation between either patient age or diabetes duration and TEWL values.The presence of a long-term hyperglycemic state can reduce the permeability barrier function of the skin, a phenomenon that might be related to the presence of an impaired peripheral sympathetic nervous system, rather than peripheral sensorimotor

  2. Side-by-side comparison of an open-chamber (TM 300) and a closed-chamber (Vapometer™) transepidermal water loss meter.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Markus; Aikman-Green, Sylvie; Prescott, Gordon J; Dick, Finlay D

    2011-08-01

    The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is used to monitor changes in the stratum corneum's permeability to water vapor. This measurement is widely used in the cosmetics industry and in dermatology research. However, only limited work has been undertaken to assess the comparability of results from different TEWL meters over an extended range of measurements. This study compared the results of TEWL measurements between two commonly used open-chamber and closed-chamber TEWL devices. Five hundred and forty measurements were taken in 17 participants on the dorsum and palm of both hands on two different days and the order of the devices was randomized. The results showed that the open TEWL meter's capacity for measuring high values of TEWL was restricted, and that the closed-chamber TEWL meter was less sensitive to differences in the lower range of measurements. Both devices have their strengths for different applications, but their results cannot be directly compared. We were unable to find a statistical model that would allow us to transform the measurements made on one device for a comparison with the results generated by the other device. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: Part 2. transepidermal water loss and skin hydration.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Johan; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Eloff, Fritz; John, Swen; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus; Franken, Anja; Kudla, Irena; Holness, Linn

    2013-08-01

    There is an emerging perspective that it is not sufficient to just assess skin exposure to physical and chemical stressors in workplaces, but that it is also important to assess the condition, i.e. skin barrier function of the exposed skin at the time of exposure. The workplace environment, representing a non-clinical environment, can be highly variable and difficult to control, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges not typically encountered in clinical settings. An expert working group convened a workshop as part of the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals (OEESC) to develop basic guidelines and best practices (based on existing clinical guidelines, published data, and own experiences) for the in vivo measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration in non-clinical settings with specific reference to the workplace as a worst-case scenario. Key elements of these guidelines are: (i) to minimize or recognize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous-, exogenous-, environmental- and measurement/instrumentation-related factors; (ii) to measure TEWL with a closed-chamber type instrument; (iii) report results as a difference or percent change (rather than absolute values); and (iv) accurately report any notable deviations from this guidelines. It is anticipated that these guidelines will promote consistent data reporting, which will facilitate inter-comparison of study results. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. International guidelines for the in vivo assessment of skin properties in non-clinical settings: Part 2. transepidermal water loss and skin hydration

    PubMed Central

    du Plessis, Johan; Stefaniak, Aleksandr; Eloff, Fritz; John, Swen; Agner, Tove; Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Nixon, Rosemary; Steiner, Markus; Franken, Anja; Kudla, Irena; Holness, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an emerging perspective that it is not sufficient to just assess skin exposure to physical and chemical stressors in workplaces, but that it is also important to assess the condition, i.e. skin barrier function of the exposed skin at the time of exposure. The workplace environment, representing a non-clinical environment, can be highly variable and difficult to control, thereby presenting unique measurement challenges not typically encountered in clinical settings. Methods An expert working group convened a workshop as part of the 5th International Conference on Occupational and Environmental Exposure of Skin to Chemicals (OEESC) to develop basic guidelines and best practices (based on existing clinical guidelines, published data, and own experiences) for the in vivo measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration in non-clinical settings with specific reference to the workplace as a worst-case scenario. Results Key elements of these guidelines are: (i) to minimize or recognize, to the extent feasible, the influences of relevant endogenous-, exogenous-, environmental- and measurement/instrumentation-related factors; (ii) to measure TEWL with a closed-chamber type instrument; (iii) report results as a difference or percent change (rather than absolute values); and (iv) accurately report any notable deviations from this guidelines. Conclusion It is anticipated that these guidelines will promote consistent data reporting, which will facilitate inter-comparison of study results. PMID:23331328

  5. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day. PMID:27904203

  6. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    PubMed

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  7. The examination of biophysical parameters of skin (transepidermal water loss, skin hydration and pH value) in different body regions of normal cats of both sexes.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Lukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration and skin pH in normal cats. Twenty shorthaired European cats of both sexes were examined in the study. Measurements were taken from five different sites: the lumbar region, the axillary fossa, the inguinal region, the ventral abdominal region and the left thoracic region. In each of the regions, TEWL, skin hydration and skin pH were measured. The highest TEWL value was observed in the axillary fossa (18.22g/h/m(2)) and the lowest in the lumbar region (10.53g/h/m(2)). The highest skin hydration was found in the inguinal region (18.29CU) and the lowest in the lumbar region (4.62CU). The highest skin pH was observed in the inguinal region (6.64) and the lowest in the lumbar region (6.39). Statistically significant differences in TEWL were observed between the lumbar region and the left side of the thorax region (P=0.016), the axillary fossa (P=0.0004), the ventral region (P=0.005), and the inguinal region (P=0.009). There were significant differences in skin hydration between the lumbar region and the left thorax (P=0.000003), the axillary fossa (P=0.002), the ventral abdomen (P=0.03), and the inguinal region (P=0.0003) as well as between the thorax and the ventral abdomen (P=0.005). TEWL was higher in females (15g/h/m(2)) than in males (4.57g/h/m(2)). Skin hydration was higher in females (13.89CU) than in males (12.28CU). Significant differences were not found between males and females for TEWL and skin hydration. Skin pH was higher in males (6.94) than in females (6.54), which was significant (P=0.004). Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of topical virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Mara Therese Padilla; Abad-Casintahan, Flordeliz; Lopez-Villafuerte, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease characterized by defects in the epidermal barrier function and cutaneous inflammation, in which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is increased and the ability of the stratum corneum to hold water is impaired, causing decreased skin capacitance and hydration. This study investigated the effects of topical virgin coconut oil (VCO) and mineral oil, respectively, on SCORAD (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis) index values, TEWL, and skin capacitance in pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, using a randomized controlled trial design in which participants and investigators were blinded to the treatments allocated. Patients were evaluated at baseline, and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A total of 117 patients were included in the analysis. Mean SCORAD indices decreased from baseline by 68.23% in the VCO group and by 38.13% in the mineral oil group (P < 0.001). In the VCO group, 47% (28/59) of patients achieved moderate improvement and 46% (27/59) showed an excellent response. In the mineral oil group, 34% (20/58) of patients showed moderate improvement and 19% (11/58) achieved excellent improvement. The VCO group achieved a post-treatment mean TEWL of 7.09 from a baseline mean of 26.68, whereas the mineral oil group demonstrated baseline and post-treatment TEWL values of 24.12 and 13.55, respectively. In the VCO group, post-treatment skin capacitance rose to 42.3 from a baseline mean of 32.0, whereas that in the mineral oil group increased to 37.49 from a baseline mean of 31.31. Thus, among pediatric patients with mild to moderate AD, topical application of VCO for eight weeks was superior to that of mineral oil based on clinical (SCORAD) and instrumental (TEWL, skin capacitance) assessments. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Comparison of skin hydration evaluation sites and correlations among skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, SCORAD index, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score, and quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam-lun Ellis; Wong, Kin Yee; Leung, Ting-Fan; Chow, Chung-Mo; Ng, Pak-Cheung

    2008-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dryness of the skin, pruritus and involvement of the skin flexures. Skin hydration (SH) and integrity, as measured by transepidermal water loss (TEWL), are important parameters for objectively quantifying AD research. To evaluate if sites in the forearm are equivalent to the antecubital fossa for standard SH and TEWL measurements; and to determine the correlations among these measurements and scores of disease severity and quality of life. We evaluated SH and TEWL under standardized conditions at three common measurement sites in the forearm (antecubital flexure, 2 cm below the antecubital flexure, mid-forearm), and determined the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score, Nottingham Eczema Severity Score (NESS), and Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI). Significant correlations between clinical scores, SH, and TEWL were obtained at a site 2 cm below the antecubital fossa (r = -0.553, p < 0.001 for SH and SCORAD; r = 0.596, p < 0.001 for TEWL and SCORAD). SH and TEWL were also correlated with long-term severity of AD as measured by NESS (r = -0.494, p = 0.001 for SH; r = 0.430, p = 0.004 for TEWL), while TEWL was significantly correlated with CDLQI (r = 0.323, p = 0.035). Overall, similar significant correlations were obtained at the mid-forearm, but less so at the antecubital fossa. In AD research, three sites on the forearm appear to be convenient for determination of SH and TEWL. This is the first report to demonstrate that significant correlations are obtained among acute and chronic scores of AD disease severity, quality of life, and the bioengineering parameters.

  10. Transepidermal drug delivery: a new treatment option for areata alopecia?

    PubMed

    Issa, Maria Claudia Almeida; Pires, Marianna; Silveira, Priscilla; Xavier de Brito, Esther; Sasajima, Cristiane

    2015-02-01

    Transepidermal drug delivery (TED) is a new potential method in dermatology. Permeability alterations induced by ablative fractional resurfacing have been described with the aim to increasing the delivery of different substances into the skin. To evaluate clinical response and side effects of TED in areata alopecia (AA) treatment using ablative fractional methods associated with acoustic pressure ultrasound (US) to deliver triamcinolone solution into the skin. Five cases of AA underwent treatment which comprised of 3 steps: 1) Ablative fractioned RF or CO2 laser 2) topical application of triamcinolone 3) acoustic pressure wave US. The number of sessions varied according to the clinical response, ranging from one to six sessions. All patients had complete recovery of the area treated. Two of them treated with ablative fractional RF + triamcinolone + US had complete response after three and six sessions. The other two treated with ablative fractional CO2 + triamcinolone + US had complete response after one session. Fractioned ablative resurfacing associated with acoustic pressure wave US is a new option to areata alopecia treatment with good clinical result and low incidence of side effects.

  11. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  12. Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Frank A.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, water supply limits, and continued population growth have intensified the search for measures to conserve water in irrigated agriculture, the world's largest water user. Policy measures that encourage adoption of water-conserving irrigation technologies are widely believed to make more water available for cities and the environment. However, little integrated analysis has been conducted to test this hypothesis. This article presents results of an integrated basin-scale analysis linking biophysical, hydrologic, agronomic, economic, policy, and institutional dimensions of the Upper Rio Grande Basin of North America. It analyzes a series of water conservation policies for their effect on water used in irrigation and on water conserved. In contrast to widely-held beliefs, our results show that water conservation subsidies are unlikely to reduce water use under conditions that occur in many river basins. Adoption of more efficient irrigation technologies reduces valuable return flows and limits aquifer recharge. Policies aimed at reducing water applications can actually increase water depletions. Achieving real water savings requires designing institutional, technical, and accounting measures that accurately track and economically reward reduced water depletions. Conservation programs that target reduced water diversions or applications provide no guarantee of saving water. PMID:19015510

  13. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Increasing life expectancy of water resources literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heistermann, M.; Francke, T.; Georgi, C.; Bronstert, A.

    2014-06-01

    In a study from 2008, Larivière and colleagues showed, for the field of natural sciences and engineering, that the median age of cited references is increasing over time. This result was considered counterintuitive: with the advent of electronic search engines, online journal issues and open access publications, one could have expected that cited literature is becoming younger. That study has motivated us to take a closer look at the changes in the age distribution of references that have been cited in water resources journals since 1965. Not only could we confirm the findings of Larivière and colleagues. We were also able to show that the aging is mainly happening in the oldest 10-25% of an average reference list. This is consistent with our analysis of top-cited papers in the field of water resources. Rankings based on total citations since 1965 consistently show the dominance of old literature, including text books and research papers in equal shares. For most top-cited old-timers, citations are still growing exponentially. There is strong evidence that most citations are attracted by publications that introduced methods which meanwhile belong to the standard toolset of researchers and practitioners in the field of water resources. Although we think that this trend should not be overinterpreted as a sign of stagnancy, there might be cause for concern regarding how authors select their references. We question the increasing citation of textbook knowledge as it holds the risk that reference lists become overcrowded, and that the readability of papers deteriorates.

  15. Does deficit irrigation of field crops increase water use efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deficit irrigation is often proposed as a method to stretch limited irrigation water supply and increase water use efficiency. A field study of field crops in the high plains shows that water use efficiency, in terms of irrigation water applied, often increases with deficit irrigation. However, in t...

  16. Responding to increased needs and demands for water

    Treesearch

    Hans M. Gregersen; William K. Easter; J. Edward de Steiguer

    2000-01-01

    The nature of the increased needs and demands for water relate to water quantity and quality, bringing in the dimensions of timing and location of water flows. Some key past international activities related to water and watershed policy are reviewed. The common threads that are shaping likely future responses relate to technical vs. institutional means of addressing...

  17. Water Reallocation - Increasing Opportunities for Cooperation, Administration and Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Marston, L.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays utilizable water in many regions around the world has been allocated among the various users. Increasing demands and limited water supplies necessitates water reallocation given that the existing allocation is economically inefficient, socially unfair, and environmentally unsustainable. Water reallocation, a dynamic adaptation strategy to changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions, offers a flexible water management approach to mitigate water scarcity under changing socioeconomic, climatic, and environmental conditions. Water reallocation can be implemented via collective cooperation, administration, and/or market-based approaches. In spite of the numerous benefits of reallocating water between users, examples of successful water transfers are relatively sparse and the expected benefits are rarely met in full due to several complex impediments. This study discusses the key barriers to wider implementation of water reallocation based on overview of the current body of water reallocation literature. Many examples of water transfers from around the world illustrate both the benefits and challenges associated with reallocation. To overcome the obstacles for more effective reallocation, we propose an interdisciplinary approach to water reallocation that couples developments in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines with current water reallocation scholarship, which is predominately rooted in the social sciences. We conclude by calling for an integrated research platform that focuses on supporting both voluntary and nonvoluntary forms of water reallocation; however, a greater emphasis should be on nonmarket means of water transfer since it is more feasible for many regions where water rights are not well defined and institutional capacity is insufficient.

  18. Drivers And Uncertainties Of Increasing Global Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity threatens ecosystems and human health and hampers economic development. It generally depends on the ratio of water consumption to availability. We calculated global, spatially explicit water stress indices (WSIs) which describe the vulnerability to additional water consumption on a scale from 0 (low) to 1 (high) and compare them for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Input data are obtained from a multi-model ensemble at a resolution of 0.5 degrees. The variability among the models was used to run 1000 Monte Carlo simulations (latin hypercube sampling) and to subsequently estimate uncertainties of the WSIs. Globally, a trend of increasing water scarcity can be observed, however, uncertainties are large. The probability that this trend is actually occurring is as low as 53%. The increase in WSIs is rather driven by higher water use than lower water availability. Water availability is only 40% likely to decrease whereas water consumption is 67% likely to increase. Independent from the trend, we are already living under water scarce conditions, which is reflected in a consumption-weighted average of monthly WSIs of 0.51 in the recent decade. Its coefficient of variation points with 0.8 to the high uncertainties entailed, which might still hide poor model performance where all models consistently over- or underestimate water availability or use. Especially in arid areas, models generally overestimate availability. Although we do not traverse the planetary boundary of freshwater use as global water availability is sufficient, local water scarcity might be high. Therefore the regionalized assessment of WSIs under uncertainty helps to focus on specific regions to optimise water consumption. These global results can also help to raise awareness of water scarcity, and to suggest relevant measures such as more water efficient technologies to international companies, which have to deal with complex and distributed supply chains (e.g. in food production).

  19. Climate and Ozone Response to Increased Stratospheric Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.

    2001-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapor abundance affects ozone, surface climate, and stratospheric temperatures. From 30-50 km altitude, temperatures show global decreases of 3-6 K over recent decades. These may be a proxy for water vapor increases, as the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model reproduces these trends only when stratospheric water vapor is allowed to increase. Observations suggest that stratospheric water vapor is indeed increasing, however, measurements are extremely limited in either spatial coverage or duration. The model results suggest that the observed changes may be part of a global, long-term trend. Furthermore, the required water vapor change is too large to be accounted for by increased production within the stratosphere, suggesting that ongoing climate change may be altering tropospheric input. The calculated stratospheric water vapor increase contributes an additional approximately equals 24% (approximately equals 0.2 W/m(exp 2)) to the global warming from well-mixed greenhouse gases over the past two decades. Observed ozone depletion is also better reproduced when destruction due to increased water vapor is included. If the trend continues, it could increase future global warming and impede stratospheric ozone recovery.

  20. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M.; Likens, Gene E.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Stack, William P.; Kelly, Victoria R.; Band, Lawrence E.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. PMID:16157871

  1. Hollow silicon microneedle array based trans-epidermal antiemetic patch for efficient management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharbikar, Bhushan N.; Kumar S., Harish; Kr., Sindhu; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting (CINV) is a serious health concern in the treatment of cancer patients. Conventional routes for administering anti-emetics (i.e. oral and parenteral) have several drawbacks such as painful injections, poor patient compliance, dependence on skilled personnel, non-affordability to majority of population (parenteral), lack of programmability and suboptimal bioavailability (oral). Hence, we have developed a trans-epidermal antiemetic drug delivery patch using out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array. Microneedles are pointed micron-scale structures that pierce the epidermal layer of skin to reach dermal blood vessels and can directly release the drug in their vicinity. They are painless by virtue of avoiding significant contact with dermal sensory nerve endings. This alternate approach gives same pharmacodynamic effects as par- enteral route at a sparse drug-dose requirement, hence negligible side-effects and improved patient compliance. Microneedle design attributes were derived by systematic study of human skin anatomy, natural micron-size structures like wasp-sting and cactus-spine and multi-physics simulations. We used deep reactive ion etching with Bosch process and optimized recipe of gases to fabricate high-aspect-ratio hollow silicon microneedle array. Finally, microneedle array and polydimethylsiloxane drug reservoir were assembled to make finished anti-emetic patch. We assessed microneedles mechanical stability, physico-chemical properties and performed in-vitro, ex- vivo and in-vivo studies. These studies established functional efficacy of the device in trans-epidermal delivery of anti-emetics, its programmability, ease of use and biosafety. Thus, out-of-plane hollow silicon microneedle array trans-epidermal antiemetic patch is a promising strategy for painless and effective management of CINV at low cost in mainstream healthcare.

  2. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-08-01

    Ancient civilizations may have dispersed or collapsed under extreme dry conditions. There are indications that the same may hold for modern societies. However, hydroclimatic change cannot be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water-scarce regions. This paper focuses on technological change as a factor that may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. We study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, and model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on many factors intrinsic to coupled human-water dynamics. We do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but assume that it results from societal actions. While the proposed model is a rather simple model of a coupled human-water system, it is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity, but typically it does so only to a certain extent. In general we find that endogenous technology change under increasing water scarcity helps to delay the peak of population size before it inevitably starts to decline. We also analyze the case when water remains constant over time and find that co-evolutionary trajectories can never grow at a constant rate; rather the rate itself grows with time. Thus our model does not predict a co-evolutionary trajectory of a socio-hydrological system where technological innovation harmoniously provides for a growing population. It allows either for an explosion or an eventual dispersal of population. The latter occurs only under increasing water scarcity. As a result, we draw the conclusion that declining consumption per capita despite technological advancement and increase in aggregate production may serve as a useful predictor of upcoming

  3. Increasing Awareness of Sustainable Water Management for Future Civil Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilic, Suzana; Karleusa, Barbara; Deluka-Tibljas, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    organised together with civil engineering students from the University of Rijeka. The aims of this field visit are: to learn about traditional water supply from an underground storage of rain water called cisterna; and to find out from inhabitants about their current water usage habits and expectations, and how these might change when they get water from the main water supply system. This joint activity has been beneficial for both groups of students. The engineering students become aware of the importance of the social aspects in designing the water supply system, while the geography students learn about the engineering challenges entailed. Both groups learn that water consumption increases with the provision of water through pipeline systems and that this needs to be taken into account in the design of water supply and management of water resources. Importantly, they learn the benefits of traditional sustainable water supply methods, which could be implemented as primary or additional sources of water supply in other areas.In summary, both groups of students develop their professional knowledge and skills as well as generic and transferable skills, which are very important for those who will continue to a career in the design and management of water systems.

  4. Increasing water productivity on Vertisols: implications for environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Mintesinot; Van Ranst, Eric

    2010-10-01

    The availability and quality of irrigation water have become a serious concern because of global climate change and an increased competition for water by industry, domestic users and the environment. Therefore, exploring environmentally friendly water-saving irrigation strategies is essential for achieving food and environmental security. In northern Ethiopia, where traditional furrow irrigation is widely practiced, water mismanagement and its undesirable environmental impact are rampant. A 2-year field study was undertaken to compare the traditional irrigation management with surge and deficit irrigation practices on a Vertisol plot. Results have shown that surge and deficit irrigation practices increase water productivity by 62% and 58%, respectively, when compared to traditional management. The study also found out that these practices reduce the adverse environmental impacts (waterlogging and salinity) of traditional management by minimizing deep percolation and tail water losses. Total irrigation depth was reduced by 12% (for surge) and 27% (for deficit) when compared to traditional management. Based on the results, the study concluded that surge and deficit irrigation technologies not only improve water productivity but also enhance environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Substantia Nigra Free Water Increases Longitudinally in Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Guttuso, T; Bergsland, N; Hagemeier, J; Lichter, D G; Pasternak, O; Zivadinov, R

    2018-02-01

    Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison. Nineteen subjects with idiopathic Parkinson disease and 19 age-matched healthy control subjects were assessed on the same 3T MR imaging scanner at baseline and after approximately 3 years. Baseline mean idiopathic Parkinson disease duration was 7.1 years. Both anterior and posterior substantia nigra free water showed significant intergroup differences at baseline ( P < .001 and P = .014, respectively, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls); however, only anterior substantia nigra free water showed significant longitudinal group × time interaction increases ( P = .021, idiopathic Parkinson disease versus healthy controls). There were no significant longitudinal group × time interaction differences found for conventional diffusion tensor imaging or free water-corrected DTI assessments in either the anterior or posterior substantia nigra. Results from this study provide further evidence supporting substantia nigra free water as a promising disease-progression biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson disease that may help to identify disease-modifying therapies if used in future clinical trials. Our novel finding of longitudinal increases in anterior but not posterior substantia nigra free water is potentially a result of the much longer disease duration of our cohort compared

  6. Calorie increase and water savings of redistributing global crop production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2015-12-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. In order for food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to increase calorie production and minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine the potential improvement in calorie production as well as the associated change in water demand. We also consider what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production while minimizing crop water demand. In doing all of this, our study provides a novel tool for improving crop calorie production without necessarily increasing resource demands.

  7. Optimizing water depth for wetland-dependent wildlife could increase wetland restoration success, water efficiency, and water security

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Securing water for wetland restoration efforts will be increasingly difficult as human populations demand more water and climate change alters the hydrologic cycle. Minimizing water use at a restoration site could help justify water use to competing users, thereby increasing future water security. Moreover, optimizing water depth for focal species will increase habitat quality and the probability that the restoration is successful. We developed and validated spatial habitat models to optimize water depth within wetland restoration projects along the lower Colorado River intended to benefit California black rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). We observed a 358% increase in the number of black rails detected in the year after manipulating water depth to maximize the amount of predicted black rail habitat in two wetlands. The number of black rail detections in our restoration sites was similar to those at our reference site. Implementing the optimal water depth in each wetland decreased water use while simultaneously increasing habitat suitability for the focal species. Our results also provide experimental confirmation of past descriptive accounts of black rail habitat preferences and provide explicit water depth recommendations for future wetland restoration efforts for this species of conservation concern; maintain surface water depths between saturated soil and 100 mm. Efforts to optimize water depth in restored wetlands around the world would likely increase the success of wetland restorations for the focal species while simultaneously minimizing and justifying water use.

  8. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  9. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-05-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  10. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-11-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  11. The refractive index and electronic gap of water and ice increase with increasing pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ding; Wan, Quan; Galli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Determining the electronic and dielectric properties of water at high pressure and temperature is an essential prerequisite to understand the physical and chemical properties of aqueous environments under supercritical conditions, for example, in the Earth interior. However, optical measurements of compressed ice and water remain challenging, and it has been common practice to assume that their band gap is inversely correlated with the measured refractive index, consistent with observations reported for hundreds of materials. Here we report ab initio molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations showing that both the refractive index and the electronic gap of water and ice increase with increasing pressure, at least up to 30 GPa. Subtle electronic effects, related to the nature of interband transitions and band edge localization under pressure, are responsible for this apparently anomalous behaviour. PMID:24861665

  12. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Many ancient civilizations such as the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions. Even contemporary societies such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin, Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Skeptics of hydroclimatic determinism have often cautioned against the use of hydroclimatic change as the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions by suggesting that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity. We here develop a simple overlapping generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. It models technological change not as an exogenous random sequence of events but as an endogenous process (as is widely accepted in contemporary literature) that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the endogenous diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, individuals' patience in terms of its present consumption versus future consumption, the production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of these factors. The population growth rate is modeled to decline once consumption per capita crosses a ';survival' threshold. The model demonstrates that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but only to a certain extent in many cases. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water society, leading to an exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require that the rate of success of investment in technological advancement is high. In other more realistic cases of technological success, we find that endogenous technology change has an effect delaying the peak of population before it starts to decline. While the model is a rather simple model of societal growth, it is capable of replicating (not to scale) patterns of technological

  13. Groundwater management through increased water use by lupin crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, E. A. N.; Turner, N. C.; Schulze, E.-D.; Watson, G. D.; Venn, N. R.

    1992-06-01

    Total evaporation ( E) was measured on lupin crops of differing leaf area per unit ground area in southwestern Australia. Leaf area was controlled by sowing at different times and rates. The objective was to explore the feasibility of increasing water use in order to reduce recharge to rising, shallow, saline water tables. Replicated plots of Lupinus angustifolius were sown at 100 and 200 kg ha -1 on 24 May and at 100 kg ha -1 on 7 June, 1988. E was measured by ventilated chambers from each of these treatments over eight 24 h periods grouped at the beginning, middle and end of a 28 day period. Mean rates of E were 2.16 mm day -1 for the later sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1, 2.49 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 100 kg ha -1 and 2.90 mm day -1 for the earlier sown lupins at 200 kg ha -1. The corresponding relative values for E were 1.00, 1.15 and 1.34. The transpiration component of E was estimated by measuring sap flow with a heat balance technique on individual plants within the chambers. Daily values of transpiration varied from 0.8 to 2 mm giving residual soil evaporation values of 1.0-1.6 mm day -1. E from soil was a significant cause of water loss particularly in the plots with low leaf area. At preflowering and early flowering E increased linearly with increasing leaf area per unit ground area up to values of 2.6. Soil evaporation decreased linearly with increasing leaf area. We conclude that increased seeding rates and earlier sowing of lupins have the potential to increase E and to reduce recharge and the rise of saline water tables.

  14. Climate and ET: Does Plant Water Requirements Increase during Droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fipps, G.; Bonaiti, G.; Swanson, C.

    2012-04-01

    With the expected rise in global warming and increased frequency of extreme climate variability in the coming decades, conservation and efficient use of water resources is essential and must make use of the most accurate and representative data available. Historically, governmental and private organizations have used estimates of plant water use estimated from a variety of methods for long-term water planning, for designing hydraulic structures, and for establishing regulatory guidance and conservation programs intended to reduce water waste. In recent years, there has been an expansion of agricultural weather station networks which report daily ETo (potential evapotranspiration) and commercial irrigation controllers with instrumentation which calculate real-time ETo from weather parameters. Efforts are underway to use this more precise information for regional water planning and ETo is routinely used for designing and implementing drought response programs. The year 2011 marked the driest year on record in the State of Texas. Compounding the lack of rainfall was record heat during the summer of 2011. In 2011, real-time ETo (reference evapotranspiration) data in Texas was 30 to 50% higher than historic averages. The implications are quite serious, as most current water planning and drought contingency plans do not take into consideration increases in ET during such periods, and irrigation planning and capacity sizing are based on historic averages of consumptive use. This paper examines the relationship between ET and climate during this extreme climatic event. While the solar radiation was near normal levels, temperature and wind was much higher and dew points much lower than norms. The variability and statistical difference between long term average ETo and ETo measurements (from 2006 to 2011) for selected weather stations of the Texas ET Network.

  15. Improvements in crop water productivity increase water sustainability and food security—a global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, Kate A.; Siebert, Stefan; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2013-06-01

    Irrigation consumes more water than any other human activity, and thus the challenges of water sustainability and food security are closely linked. To evaluate how water resources are used for food production, we examined global patterns of water productivity—food produced (kcal) per unit of water (l) consumed. We document considerable variability in crop water productivity globally, not only across different climatic zones but also within climatic zones. The least water productive systems are disproportionate freshwater consumers. On precipitation-limited croplands, we found that ˜40% of water consumption goes to production of just 20% of food calories. Because in many cases crop water productivity is well below optimal levels, in many cases farmers have substantial opportunities to improve water productivity. To demonstrate the potential impact of management interventions, we calculated that raising crop water productivity in precipitation-limited regions to the 20th percentile of productivity would increase annual production on rainfed cropland by enough to provide food for an estimated 110 million people, and water consumption on irrigated cropland would be reduced enough to meet the annual domestic water demands of nearly 1.4 billion people.

  16. Climate and ET: Does Plant Water Requirements Increase during Droughts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fipps, G.

    2015-12-01

    Municipalities, engineering consultants and State agencies use reference evapotranspiration (ETo) data (directly and indirectly) for long-term water planning, for designing hydraulic structures, and for establishing regulatory guidance and conservation programs intended to reduce water waste. The use ETo data for agricultural and landscape irrigation scheduling is becoming more common in Texas as ETo-based controllers and automation technologies become more affordable. Until recently, most ETo data has been available as monthly values averaged over many years. Today, automated weather stations and irrigation controllers equipped with specialized instrumentation allow for real-time ETo measurements. With the expected rise in global warming and increased frequency of extreme climate variability in the coming decades, conservation and efficient use of water resources is essential and must make use of the most accurate and representative data available. 2011 marked the driest year on record in the State of Texas. Compounding the lack of rainfall was record heat during the Summer of 2011. An analysis of real time ETo (reference evapotranspiration) data in Texas found that ET was 30 to 50% higher than historic averages during the 2011 Summer. The implications are quite serious, as most current water planning and drought contingency plans do not take into consideration increases in ET during such periods, and irrigation planning and capacity sizing are based on historic averages of consumptive use. This paper examines the relationship between ET and climate during this extreme climatic event. While the solar radiation was near normal levels, temperature and wind was much higher and dew points much lower than norms. The variability and statistical difference between average monthly ETo data and daily, monthly and seasonal ETo measurements (from 2006 to 2014) for selected weather stations of the Texas ET Network. This study will also examine the suitability of using average

  17. Compounding Impacts of Climate Change and Increased Human Water Withdrawal on Urmia Lake Water Availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alborzi, A.; Moftakhari, H.; Azaranfar, A.; Mallakpour, I.; Ashraf, B.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, climate change and increase in human water withdrawal, combined, have caused ecological degradation in several terminal lakes worldwide. Among them, the shallow and hyper-saline Urmia Lake in Iran has experienced about 6 meters drawdown in lake level and 80% reduction in surface area. Here, we assess the imposed stress on Urmia Basin's water availability and Lake's ecological condition in response to coupled climate change and human-induced water withdrawal. A generalized river basin decision support system model consisting network flow is developed to simulate the basin-lake interactions under a wide range of scenarios. This model explicitly includes water management infrastructure, reservoirs, and irrigation and municipal water use. Studied scenarios represent a wide range of historic climate and water use scenarios including a historical baseline, future increase in water demand, and also improved water efficiency. In this presentation, we show the lake's water level, as a measure of lake's ecological health, under the compounding effects of the climate condition (top-down) and water use (bottom-up) scenarios. This method illustrates what combinations lead to failure in meeting the lake's ecological level.

  18. GABAergic anxiolytic drug in water increases migration behaviour in salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellström, Gustav; Klaminder, Jonatan; Finn, Fia; Persson, Lo; Alanärä, Anders; Jonsson, Micael; Fick, Jerker; Brodin, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt. These results implicate that salmon migration may be affected by human-induced changes in water chemical properties, such as acidification and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater effluent, via alterations in the GABAA receptor function.

  19. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  20. Increasing global accessibility and understanding of water column sonar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, C.; Anderson, C.; Mesick, S.; Parsons, A. R.; Boyer, T.; McLean, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    Active acoustic (sonar) technology is of increasing importance for research examining the water column. NOAA uses water column sonar data to map acoustic properties from the ocean surface to the seafloor - from bubbles to biology to bottom. Scientific echosounders aboard fishery survey vessels are used to estimate biomass, measure fish school morphology, and characterize habitat. These surveys produce large volumes of data that are costly and difficult to maintain due to their size, complexity, and proprietary format that require specific software and extensive knowledge. However, through proper management they can deliver valuable information beyond their original collection purpose. In order to maximize the benefit to the public, the data must be easily discoverable and accessible. Access to ancillary data is also needed for complete environmental context and ecosystem assessment. NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information, in partnership with NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Colorado, created a national archive for the stewardship and distribution of water column sonar data collected on NOAA and academic vessels. A web-based access page allows users to query the metadata and access the raw sonar data. Visualization products being developed allow researchers and the public to understand the quality and content of large volumes of archived data more easily. Such products transform the complex data into a digestible image or graphic and are highly valuable for a broad audience of varying backgrounds. Concurrently collected oceanographic data and bathymetric data are being integrated into the data access web page to provide an ecosystem-wide understanding of the area ensonified. Benefits of the archive include global access to an unprecedented nationwide dataset and the increased potential for researchers to address cross-cutting scientific questions to advance the field of marine ecosystem acoustics.

  1. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired power plants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. ...

  2. Estimating Potential Increased Bladder Cancer Risk Due to Increased Bromide Concentrations in Sources of Disinfected Drinking Waters - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Public water systems are increasingly facing higher bromide levels in their source waters from anthropogenic contamination through coal-fired powerplants, conventional oil and gas extraction, and hydraulic fracturing. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this in coming years. W...

  3. Managing Southeastern US Forests for Increased Water Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Forested lands influence watershed hydrology by affecting water quantity and quality in surface and groundwater systems, making them potentially effective tools for regional water resource planning. In this study, we quantified water use and water yield by pine forests under varying silvicultural management (e.g., high density plantation, thinning, and prescribed burning). Daily forest water use (evapotranspiration, ET) was estimated using continuously monitored soil-moisture in the root-zone at six sites across Florida (USA), each with six plots ranging in forest leaf-area index (LAI). Plots included stands with different rotational ages (from clear-cut to mature pine plantations) and those restored to more historical conditions. Estimated ET relative to potential ET (PET) was strongly associated with LAI, root-zone soil-moisture status, and site hydroclimate; these factors explained 85% of the variation in the ET:PET ratio. Annual water yield (Yw) calculated from these ET estimates and a simple water balance differed significantly among sites and plots (ranging from -0.12 cm/yr to > 100 cm/yr), demonstrating substantive influence of management regimes. LAI strongly influenced Yw in all sites, and a general linear model with forest attributes (LAI and groundcover), hydroclimate, and site characteristics explained >90% of variation in observed Yw. These results can be used to predict water yield changes under different management and climate scenarios and may be useful in the development of payment for ecosystem services approaches that identify water as an important product of forest best management practices.

  4. THE INCREASING NEED FOR SURVEILLANCE: WATER SOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The outbreaks of giardiosis in the 1980's and the outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee, have demonstrated the susceptibility of public water supplies to contamination with protozoan parasites. Many protozoan parasites are resistant to the levels of residual disinfectant re...

  5. Influence of DMPS on the water retention capacity of electroporated stratum corneum: ATR-FTIR study.

    PubMed

    Sckolnick, Maria; Hui, Sek-Wen; Sen, Arindam

    2008-02-28

    Anionic lipids like phosphatidylserine are known to significantly enhance electroporation mediated transepidermal transport of polar solutes of molecular weights up to 10kDa. The underlying mechanism of the effect of anionic lipids on transdermal transport is not fully understood. The main barrier to transdermal transport lies within the intercellular lipid matrix (ILM) of the stratum corneum (SC) and our previous studies indicate that dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) can perturb the packing of this lipid matrix. Here we report on our investigation on water retention in the SC following electroporation in the presence and the absence of DMPS. The water content in the outer most layers of the SC of full thickness porcine skin was determined using ATR-FTIR-spectroscopy. The results show that in the presence of DMPS, the SC remains in a state of enhanced hydration for longer periods after electroporation. This increase in water retention in the SC by DMPS is likely to play an important role in trans-epidermal transport, since improved hydration of the skin barrier can be expected to increase the partitioning of polar solutes and possibly the permeability.

  6. Implementing the 40 Gallon Challenge to Increase Water Conservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Mary Carol; Bauske, Ellen; Pugliese, Paul; Kolich, Heather; Boellstorff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The 40 Gallon Challenge is an easy-to-use, comprehensive indoor and outdoor water conservation educational tool. It can be used nationwide and easily incorporated into existing educational programs. Promotional materials and pledge cards are available on the 40 Gallon Challenge website and can be modified by educators. The website displays data…

  7. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  8. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andrew S; Culligan, Patricia J; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M; Sayler, Gary S; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six unsealed) were monitored for culturable Escherichia coli over 18 months. Additionally, two 'snapshot' sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (enterotoxigenic E. coli; ETEC), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained culturable E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p < 0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality.

  9. Managing the Increasing Water Footprint of Hydraulic Fracturing in the Bakken Play, United States.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Male, Frank; Hove, Michael

    2016-09-20

    The water footprint of oil production, including water used for hydraulic fracturing (HF) and flowback-produced (FP) water, is increasingly important in terms of HF water sourcing and FP water management. Here, we evaluate trends in HF water use relative to supplies and FP water relative to disposal using well by well analysis in the Bakken Play. HF water use per well increased by ∼6 times from 2005-2014, totaling 24.5 × 10(9) gal (93 × 10(9) L) for ∼10 140 wells. Water supplies expanded to meet increased demand, including access of up to ∼33 × 10(9) gal/year (125 × 10(9) L/year) from Lake Sakakawea, expanding pipeline infrastructure by hundreds of miles and allowing water transfers from irrigation. The projected inventory of ∼60 000 future wells should require an additional ∼11 times more HF water. Cumulative FP water has been managed by disposal into an increasing number (277 to 479) of salt water disposal wells. FP water is projected to increase by ∼10 times during the play lifetime (∼40 years). Disposal of FP water into deeper geologic units should be considered because of reported overpressuring of parts of the Dakota Group. The long time series shows how policies have increased water supplies for HF and highlights potential issues related to FP water management.

  10. College Cafeteria Signage Increases Water Intake but Water Position on the Soda Dispenser Encourages More Soda Consumption.

    PubMed

    Montuclard, Astrid Linn; Park-Mroch, Jennifer; O'Shea, Amy M J; Wansink, Brian; Irvin, Jill; Laroche, Helena H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of improved water location visibility and water dispenser position on the soda dispenser on undergraduate students' beverage choices. Two focus groups with pilot intervention surveys before and after, adding a small sign above the soda dispensers' water button for 6 weeks in a large US university's all-you-can-eat, prepaid dining hall (measured with chi-square tests and logistic and ordinal logistic regression). Focus groups included 15 students. Survey participants included 357 students before and 301 after the intervention. After the intervention, more students reported ever having drunk water with the meal (66.4% to 77.0%; P = .003) and water consumption frequency increased (P = .005). Postintervention, the odds of drinking water increased by 1.57. Preference for other drinks was the main reason for not drinking water. A total of 59% of students had ever changed their preference from water to soda. The clear indication of the water's location increased students' reported water consumption. Further investigation is needed into how a non-independent water dispenser influences students' beverage choice. Clearly labeled, independent water dispensers are recommended. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent increases in terrestrial carbon uptake at little cost to the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lei; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Ying-Ping; Canadell, Josep G; Chiew, Francis H S; Beringer, Jason; Li, Longhui; Miralles, Diego G; Piao, Shilong; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2017-07-24

    Quantifying the responses of the coupled carbon and water cycles to current global warming and rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration is crucial for predicting and adapting to climate changes. Here we show that terrestrial carbon uptake (i.e. gross primary production) increased significantly from 1982 to 2011 using a combination of ground-based and remotely sensed land and atmospheric observations. Importantly, we find that the terrestrial carbon uptake increase is not accompanied by a proportional increase in water use (i.e. evapotranspiration) but is largely (about 90%) driven by increased carbon uptake per unit of water use, i.e. water use efficiency. The increased water use efficiency is positively related to rising CO 2 concentration and increased canopy leaf area index, and negatively influenced by increased vapour pressure deficits. Our findings suggest that rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration has caused a shift in terrestrial water economics of carbon uptake.The response of the coupled carbon and water cycles to anthropogenic climate change is unclear. Here, the authors show that terrestrial carbon uptake increased significantly from 1982 to 2011 and that this increase is largely driven by increased water-use efficiency, rather than an increase in water use.

  12. Fractured-rock aquifers, understanding an increasingly important source of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water is one of the Nation?s most important natural resources. It provides drinking water to communities, supports industry and agriculture, and sustains streams and wetlands. A long record of contributions exists in understanding ground-water movement in sand and gravel aquifers; historically, these aquifers were easily accessible and the first to be investigated. With increased demand for water, communities are looking to fractured-rock aquifers, where water moves through fractures in the rock. Frac-tures, however, may not always convey or store large quantities of water. Understanding ground-water flow through fractured-rock aquifers is an area of ground-water research that will have increasing importance to our Nation over the coming years. Many areas of the United States rely on fractured-rock aquifers for water supply. In addition, areas experiencing population growth in the Northeast, Southeast, and mountainous regions of the West are likely to rely heavily on water supplies from fractured-rock aquifers. Finding water for thirsty communities, however, is not the only societal issue requiring an understanding of ground-water flow in fractured rock. Land-use practices affect water quality in fractured-rock aquifers, particularly where ground water flows rapidly through fractures. Fractured rock aquifers also are viewed as potential repositories for radioactive and other types of waste, where it is desirable for the ground water to be inaccessible or move at a very slow rate.

  13. Effect of increasing bromide concentration on toxicity in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sawade, Emma; Fabris, Rolando; Humpage, Andrew; Drikas, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Research is increasingly indicating the potential chronic health effects of brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs). This is likely to increase with elevated bromide concentrations resulting from the impacts of climate change, projected to include extended periods of drought and the sudden onset of water quality changes. This will demand more rigorous monitoring throughout distribution systems and improved water quality management at water treatment plants (WTPs). In this work the impact of increased bromide concentration on formation of DBPs following conventional treatment and chlorination was assessed for two water sources. Bioanalytical tests were utilised to determine cytotoxicity of the water post disinfection. Coagulation was shown to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of the water, indicating that removal of natural organic matter DBP precursors continues to be an important factor in drinking water treatment. Most toxic species appear to form within the first half hour following disinfectant addition. Increasing bromide concentration across the two waters was shown to increase the formation of trihalomethanes and shifted the haloacetic acid species distribution from chlorinated to those with greater bromine substitution. This correlated with increasing cytotoxicity. This work demonstrates the challenges faced by WTPs and the possible effects increasing levels of bromide in source waters could have on public health.

  14. Salicaceae Endophytes Modulate Stomatal Behavior and Increase Water Use Efficiency in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Hyungmin; Van Epps, Victor; Wegley, Nicholas; Doty, Sharon L.; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial and yeast endophytes isolated from the Salicaceae family have been shown to promote growth and alleviate stress in plants from different taxa. To determine the physiological pathways through which endophytes affect plant water relations, we investigated leaf water potential, whole-plant water use, and stomatal responses of rice plants to Salicaceae endophyte inoculation under CO2 enrichment and water deficit. Daytime stomatal conductance and stomatal density were lower in inoculated plants compared to controls. Leaf ABA concentrations increased with endophyte inoculation. As a result, transpirational water use decreased significantly with endophyte inoculation while biomass did not change or slightly increased. This response led to a significant increase in cumulative water use efficiency at harvest. Different endophyte strains produced the same results in host plant water relations and stomatal responses. These stomatal responses were also observed under elevated CO2 conditions, and the increase in water use efficiency was more pronounced under water deficit conditions. The effect on water use efficiency was positively correlated with daily light integrals across different experiments. Our results provide insights on the physiological mechanisms of plant-endophyte interactions involving plant water relations and stomatal functions. PMID:29552021

  15. Water Issues Associated with Increasing Unconventional Oil Production in the Permian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Male, F.; Walsh, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Permian Basin is being transformed from a major conventional oil play to the world's largest unconventional play; however, managing water for this transition is critical in this semiarid region. The study included quantifying produced water volumes with oil and gas production along with water demands for hydraulic fracturing using a detailed well-by-well analysis. Our results show that oil wells in conventional reservoirs generate large volumes of produced water relative to oil production with produced water to oil ratios of 13 (i.e. 13 barrels [bbl] of water relative to a bbl of oil). However, produced water from conventional reservoirs has been mostly injected back into the pressure-depleted oil-producing reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery using water flooding. Unconventional horizontal wells use large volumes of water for hydraulic fracturing that has been markedly increasing by factors of 10 - 16 per well and by factors of 7-10 after dividing by lateral well length (2008-2015). Although unconventional wells generate less produced water relative to oil ( 3 bbl of water relative to oil) than conventional wells, the main difference is that this produced water cannot be reinjected into the low permeability shale reservoirs. Instead, the produced water is disposed into non-producing geologic zones that could result in overpressuring and induced seismicity. There is a high potential for reusing produced water from unconventional wells in the Permian Basin because the produced water volumes can support the hydraulic fracturing water demand based on 2014 data. Reusing produced water with minimal water treatment (clean brine) could partially mitigate produced water injection concerns while reducing water demand for hydraulic fracturing.

  16. Increased fat catabolism sustains water balance during fasting in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Joanna; Sadowska, Edyta T; Cichoń, Mariusz; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-09-01

    Patterns of physiological flexibility in response to fasting are well established, but much less is known about the contribution of water deprivation to the observed effects. We investigated body composition and energy and water budget in three groups of zebra finches: birds with access to food and water, food-deprived birds having access to drinking water and food-and-water-deprived birds. Animals were not stimulated by elevated energy expenditure and they were in thermoneutral conditions; thus, based on previous studies, water balance of fasting birds was expected to be maintained by increased catabolism of proteins. In contrast to this expectation, we found that access to water did not prevent reduction of proteinaceous tissue, but it saved fat reserves of the fasting birds. Thus, water balance of birds fasting without access to water seemed to be maintained by elevated fat catabolism, which generated 6 times more metabolic water compared with that in birds that had access to water. Therefore, we revise currently established views and propose fat to serve as the primary source for metabolic water production. Previously assumed increased protein breakdown for maintenance of water budget would occur if fat stores were depleted or if fat catabolism reached its upper limits due to high energy demands. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Design of the Brine Evaporation Bag for Increased Water Recovery in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Anna L.; Delzeit, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    The existing water recovery system on the International Space Station (ISS) is limited to 75% reclamation; consequently, long duration space missions are currently unfeasible due to the large quantity of water necessary to sustain the crew. The Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) is a proposed system to supplement the existing water recovery system aboard the ISS that can to increase water recovery to 99%. The largest barrier to high water recovery is mineral scaling inside the water recovery equipment, which leads to equipment failure; therefore, some water must remain to keep the minerals dissolved. This waste stream is liquid brine containing salts, acids, organics, and water. The BEB is designed to recover this remaining water while protecting the equipment from scale. The BEB consists of a sealed bag containing a hydrophobic membrane that allows water vapor and gas to pass through. It is operated under vacuum, heated, and continuously filled with brine to boil away the water. The water vapor is recovered and the solids are contained inside the bag for disposal. The BEB can dry the brine to a solid block. Ongoing work includes improving the design of the BEB and the evaporator to prevent leaks, maximize the rate of water removal, and minimize energy use and weight. Additional testing will determine whether designs are heat- or mass-transfer limited and the optimal water recovery rate.

  18. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  19. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Trevor F; Hollinger, David Y; Bohrer, Gil; Dragoni, Danilo; Munger, J William; Schmid, Hans Peter; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-07-18

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct, long-term measurements of whole-ecosystem carbon and water exchange. We find a substantial increase in water-use efficiency in temperate and boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere over the past two decades. We systematically assess various competing hypotheses to explain this trend, and find that the observed increase is most consistent with a strong CO2 fertilization effect. The results suggest a partial closure of stomata-small pores on the leaf surface that regulate gas exchange-to maintain a near-constant concentration of CO2 inside the leaf even under continually increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. The observed increase in forest water-use efficiency is larger than that predicted by existing theory and 13 terrestrial biosphere models. The increase is associated with trends of increasing ecosystem-level photosynthesis and net carbon uptake, and decreasing evapotranspiration. Our findings suggest a shift in the carbon- and water-based economics of terrestrial vegetation, which may require a reassessment of the role of stomatal control in regulating interactions between forests and climate change, and a re-evaluation of coupled vegetation-climate models.

  20. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake.

    PubMed

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Johannes, Bernd; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C; Titze, Jens

    2017-05-01

    The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days' duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology Foundation. Food products were donated by APETITO

  1. Increased salt consumption induces body water conservation and decreases fluid intake

    PubMed Central

    Rakova, Natalia; Kitada, Kento; Lerchl, Kathrin; Dahlmann, Anke; Birukov, Anna; Daub, Steffen; Kopp, Christoph; Pedchenko, Tetyana; Zhang, Yahua; Beck, Luis; Marton, Adriana; Müller, Dominik N.; Rauh, Manfred; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The idea that increasing salt intake increases drinking and urine volume is widely accepted. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in salt intake of 6 g/d would change fluid balance in men living under ultra-long-term controlled conditions. METHODS. Over the course of 2 separate space flight simulation studies of 105 and 205 days’ duration, we exposed 10 healthy men to 3 salt intake levels (12, 9, or 6 g/d). All other nutrients were maintained constant. We studied the effect of salt-driven changes in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid urinary excretion on day-to-day osmolyte and water balance. RESULTS. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake increased urine osmolyte excretion, but reduced free-water clearance, indicating endogenous free water accrual by urine concentration. The resulting endogenous water surplus reduced fluid intake at the 12-g/d salt intake level. Across all 3 levels of salt intake, half-weekly and weekly rhythmical mineralocorticoid release promoted free water reabsorption via the renal concentration mechanism. Mineralocorticoid-coupled increases in free water reabsorption were counterbalanced by rhythmical glucocorticoid release, with excretion of endogenous osmolyte and water surplus by relative urine dilution. A 6-g/d increase in salt intake decreased the level of rhythmical mineralocorticoid release and elevated rhythmical glucocorticoid release. The projected effect of salt-driven hormone rhythm modulation corresponded well with the measured decrease in water intake and an increase in urine volume with surplus osmolyte excretion. CONCLUSION. Humans regulate osmolyte and water balance by rhythmical mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid release, endogenous accrual of surplus body water, and precise surplus excretion. FUNDING. Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology/DLR; the Interdisciplinary Centre for Clinical Research; the NIH; the American Heart Association (AHA); the Renal Research Institute; and the TOYOBO Biotechnology

  2. Looking for Water in the Woods: Quantifying the Potential for Forest Management to Increase Regional Water Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, S.; Kaplan, D. A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Cohen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity presents a crucial challenge for water resource managers charged with maintaining hydrologic resources for domestic, industrial, and agricultural use while protecting natural systems. Forest lands are critical to the functioning of the hydrologic cycle in many watersheds, affecting the quantity, quality, and timing of water delivered to surface and groundwater systems. While the hydrologic impacts of forest growth and removal have been shown to be substantial in watersheds around the globe, data and models connecting forest management to water use and regional hydrology are generally lacking. We propose that water-focused forest management has the potential to deliver a "new" source of water to surface and groundwater resources. To test this hypothesis, we developed a statistical model of water yield in southeastern US pine stands as a function of forest stand structure and ecosystem water use. Model results suggest a potential increase in water yield of up to 64% for pine stands managed at lower basal areas relative to those managed according to standard silvicultural practices. At the watershed scale, the magnitude of this potential water yield enhancement is driven by existing land use and forest management; evaluated for a large watershed in NE Florida, this potential increase is in excess of 200 million gallons per day (equivalent to 20% of the anthropogenic water use in the watershed). While useful for exploration, our statistical model also highlighted critical sources of uncertainty, including the effects of climatic variation, between-site variability, water use in young pine stands, and prescribed fire. Thus, in ongoing work we are comparing the effects of specific land management actions (e.g., thinning, clearcutting, and fire) on water yield across a gradient of environmental conditions (soil type, aquifer confinement, and climate) using a novel combination of in-situ soil moisture and groundwater monitoring. These data are being used to

  3. Increasing Storm Water Capture for Water Supply using Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) in Orange County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, A.; Woodside, G.; Ralph, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Stormwater represents a significant source of water used by the Orange County Water District (OCWD) to recharge the Orange County groundwater basin. Over the last 20 years, OCWD has captured and recharged an average of 50,000 acre-feet per year (afy) of stormwater. Much of this recharge is made possible by the capture of stormwater in the Prado Dam Conservation Pool. OCWD has and continues to work closely with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to manage the conservation pool and to increase the amount of water that can be temporarily impounded in the conservation pool. Currently, the Conservation Pool is allowed to rise to elevation 498 ft msl (approx. 10,000 af of storage) during the storm season and to 505 ft msl (approx. 20,000 af of storage) during the non-storm season. OCWD has been working with the USACE on a Feasibility Study to permanently allow for storage of stormwater up to elevation 505 msl year-round. Even though increasing the Conservation Pool will increase the amount of stormwater captured, the weather forecasting used to manage the conservation pool can be improved in order to minimize lost opportunities to capture water or unnecessary releases of water to the ocean. To increase the efficiency of stormwater capture, OCWD is partnering with the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes (http://cw3e.ucsd.edu/) to study the viability of using Forecast-Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) at Prado Dam. FIRO represents the next generation of operating water reservoirs using the best available technology. Moreover, given the importance of atmospheric river (AR) storms on water supplies in California, FIRO represents a methodology to take advantage of our increasing understanding of AR storms which are infrequent but provide a large percentage of total precipitation.

  4. Expected increase in staple crop imports in water-scarce countries in 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a major challenge in the coming decades. The increasing population and the changing pattern of water availability that results from global warming reduce the potential of sufficient food production in many countries over the world. Today, two thirds of the global population are already living under conditions of severe water scarcity at least one month of the year. This rises the importance of addressing the present and future relationship between water availability and food import in water-scarce countries. The net import of staple crops (barley, cassava, maize, millet and products, oats, potatoes, rice, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sweet potatoes, wheat and yams) is analysed in relation to water availability per capita for the period 1961-2010, considering five decadal averages. The relation found is used together with the low, medium and high population growth scenarios from the United Nations to project the staple crops import in water-scarce countries for the year 2050. Additionally, we investigate the uncertainties related to the three population scenarios. Results will help countries to better understand the impact of population growth and limited water resources on their future food trade. This study will provide a valuable supporting tool for policy makers towards more sustainable and water-efficient food production as targeted with the Sustainable Development Goals. Keywords: Water Availability, Food Import, Staple Crops, Water Scarcity, Water-Use Efficiency, Sustainable Development Goals.

  5. Hydric "Costs" of Reproduction: Pregnancy Increases Evaporative Water Loss in the Snake Vipera aspis.

    PubMed

    Lourdais, Olivier; Dupoué, Andréaz; Guillon, Michaël; Guiller, Gaëtan; Michaud, Bruno; DeNardo, Dale F

    Water constraints can mediate evolutionary conflict either among individuals (e.g., parent-offspring conflict, sexual conflict) or within an individual (e.g., cost of reproduction). During pregnancy, water is of particular importance because the female provides all water needed for embryonic development and experiences important maternal shifts in behavior and physiology that, together, can compromise female water balance if water availability is limited. We examined the effect of pregnancy on evaporative water loss and microhabitat selection in a viviparous snake, the aspic viper. We found that both physiological (increased metabolism and body temperature) and morphological (body distension) changes contribute to an increased evaporative water loss in pregnant females. We also found that pregnant females in the wild select warmer and moister basking locations than nonreproductive females, likely to mitigate the conflict between thermal needs and water loss. Water resources likely induce significant reproductive constraints across diverse taxa and thus warrant further consideration in ecological research. From an evolutionary perspective, water constraints during reproduction may contribute to shaping reproductive effort.

  6. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  7. Rising ozone concentrations decrease soybean evapotranspiration and water use efficiency while increasing canopy temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the effects of increasing [O3] on soybean canopy scale fluxes of heat and water vapor as well as water use efficiency (WUE) at the Soybean Free Air Concentration Enrichment (SoyFACE) facility. Micrometeorological measurements were made to determine the net radiation (Rn) sensible hea...

  8. Land and water use practices intended to increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones. Application to Uzbekistan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirshadiev, Mirzokhid; Fleskens, Luuk; van Dam, Jos; Pulatov, Alim

    2017-04-01

    Water demand increases as more food is required to meet population growth and higher living standards. In addition, climate change is expected to further exacerbate water scarcity in already dry areas where irrigation is most needed. In the water scarce areas, the key strategy to meet demand of growing food production and water use is increase of water productivity (WP) based on best land and water use practices. A literature review will be conducted to study promising land and water use practices that increase water productivity in arid and semi-arid zones, with a special focus on Uzbekistan. In addition to literature review we will conduct interviews with local farmers and land and water management experts. However, due to time constraints and difficult to access grey literature, the review paper cannot cover all promising land and water use practices that have been used in Uzbekistan. We selected the following promising practices: a) conventional furrow irrigation; b) deficit irrigation; c) drip/sprinkle irrigation, and d) rain-fed with supplemental irrigation. The preliminary findings of the literature review show that in Uzbekistan in case of conventional furrow irrigation the WP range of cotton was 0.32-0.89, and of wheat 0.44-1.77 (kg m3). By applying deficit irrigation practices, WP values of cotton can be 0-25% higher (0.32-1.11 kg m3), and of wheat 114-400% higher (2.20-3.78 kg m3). However, deficit irrigation practices for potato's need to be managed carefully to reach higher WP, and might even negatively effect WP, showing a range of 0.85-7.04 compared to conventional furrow irrigation 4.02-4.81 (kg m3). Important to mention that drip irrigation practice can highly contribute to increase WP of cotton by 156-91 % (0.82-1.70 kg m3) compared to furrow irrigation. Also, rain-fed cultivation with supplemental irrigation result is anticipated and will be included in the presentation and full version of paper. In summary, the review of current land and water

  9. Increased Mortality Associated with Well-Water Arsenic Exposure in Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Timothy J.; Xia, Yajuan; Wu, Kegong; Li, Yanhong; Ning, Zhixiong; Le, X Chris; Lu, Xiufen; Feng, Yong; He, Xingzhou; Mumford, Judy L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective mortality study in an Inner Mongolian village exposed to well water contaminated by arsenic since the 1980s. Deaths occurring between January 1, 1997 and December 1, 2004 were classified according to underlying cause and water samples from household wells were tested for total arsenic. Heart disease mortality was associated with arsenic exposure, and the association strengthened with time exposed to the water source. Cancer mortality and all-cause mortality were associated with well-water arsenic exposure among those exposed 10–20 years. This is the first study to document increased arsenic-associated mortality in the Bayingnormen region of Inner Mongolia. PMID:19440436

  10. DREB1A promotes root development in deep soil layers and increases water extraction under water stress in groundnut.

    PubMed

    Vadez, V; Rao, J S; Bhatnagar-Mathur, P; Sharma, K K

    2013-01-01

    Water deficit is a major yield-limiting factor for many crops, and improving the root system has been proposed as a promising breeding strategy, although not in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The present work was carried out mainly to assess how root traits are influenced under water stress in groundnut, whether transgenics can alter root traits, and whether putative changes lead to water extraction differences. Several transgenic events, transformed with DREB1A driven by the rd29 promoter, along with wild-type JL24, were tested in a lysimeter system that mimics field conditions under both water stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. The WS treatment increased the maximum rooting depth, although the increase was limited to about 20% in JL24, compared to 50% in RD11. The root dry weight followed a similar trend. Consequently, the root dry weight and length density of transgenics was higher in layers below 100-cm depth (Exp. 1) and below 30 cm (Exp. 2). The root diameter was unchanged under WS treatment, except a slight increase in the 60-90-cm layer. The root diameter increased below 60 cm in both treatments. In the WW treatment, total water extraction of RD33 was higher than in JL24 and other transgenic events, and somewhat lower in RD11 than in JL24. In the WS treatment, water extraction of RD2, RD11 and RD33 was higher than in JL24. These water extraction differences were mostly apparent in the initial 21 days after treatment imposition and were well related to root length density in the 30-60-cm layer (R(2) = 0.68), but not to average root length density. In conclusion, water stress promotes rooting growth more strongly in transgenic events than in the wild type, especially in deep soil layers, and this leads to increased water extraction. This opens an avenue for tapping these characteristics toward the improvement of drought adaptation in deep soil conditions, and toward a better understanding of genes involved in rooting in groundnut. © 2012

  11. Increasing the availability and consumption of drinking water in middle schools: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha I; Bogart, Laura M; Elliott, Marc N; Lamb, Sheila; Uyeda, Kimberly E; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Klein, David J; Schuster, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Although several studies suggest that drinking water may help prevent obesity, no US studies have examined the effect of school drinking water provision and promotion on student beverage intake. We assessed the acceptability, feasibility, and outcomes of a school-based intervention to improve drinking water consumption among adolescents. The 5-week program, conducted in a Los Angeles middle school in 2008, consisted of providing cold, filtered drinking water in cafeterias; distributing reusable water bottles to students and staff; conducting school promotional activities; and providing education. Self-reported consumption of water, nondiet soda, sports drinks, and 100% fruit juice was assessed by conducting surveys among students (n = 876), preintervention and at 1 week and 2 months postintervention, from the intervention school and the comparison school. Daily water (in gallons) distributed in the cafeteria during the intervention was recorded. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and baseline intake of water at school, the odds of drinking water at school were higher for students at the intervention school than students at the comparison school. Students from the intervention school had higher adjusted odds of drinking water from fountains and from reusable water bottles at school than students from the comparison school. Intervention effects for other beverages were not significant. Provision of filtered, chilled drinking water in school cafeterias coupled with promotion and education is associated with increased consumption of drinking water at school. A randomized controlled trial is necessary to assess the intervention's influence on students' consumption of water and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as obesity-related outcomes.

  12. Myosin-induced volume increase of the hyper-mobile water surrounding actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kabir, Syed Rashel; Siddique, Md Shahjahan Parvez; Nazia, Umme Salma; Miyazaki, Takashi; Kodama, Takao

    2004-09-10

    Microwave dielectric spectroscopy can measure the rotational mobility of water molecules that hydrate proteins and the hydration-shell volume. Using this technique, we have recently shown that apart from typical hydrating water molecules with lowered mobility there are other water molecules around the actin filaments (F-actin) which have a much higher mobility than that of bulk water [Biophys. J. 85 (2003) 3154]. We report here that the volume of this water component (hyper-mobile water) markedly increases without significant change of the volume of the ordinary hydration shell when the myosin motor-domain (S1, myosin subfragment-1) binds to F-actin. No hyper-mobile component was found in the hydration shell of S1 itself. The present results strongly suggest that the solvent space around S1 bound to F-actin is diffusionally asymmetric, which supports our model of force generation by actomyosin proposed previously [op. cit.].

  13. Elk browsing increases aboveground growth of water-stressed willows by modifying plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Danielle B; Cooper, David J; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2007-12-01

    In the northern elk wintering range of Yellowstone National Park, USA, wolf (Canis lupus) removal allowed elk (Cervus elaphus) to overbrowse riparian woody plants, leading to the exclusion of beaver (Castor canadensis) and a subsequent water table decline in many small stream valleys. Reduced elk browsing following wolf reintroduction may or may not facilitate willow (Salix sp.) recovery in these areas. To determine if the effect of elk browsing on willow interacts with that of beaver abandonment, we manipulated elk browsing and the water table in a factorial experiment. Under the condition of an ambient (low) water table, elk browsing increased shoot water potential (Psis), photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A), stomatal conductance per unit leaf area (gs), and aboveground current annual growth (CAG) by 50%. Elk browsing occurred entirely during dormancy and did not affect total plant leaf area (L). Improved water balance, photosynthetic rate, and annual aboveground productivity in browsed willows appeared to be due to morphological changes, such as increased shoot diameter and decreased branching, which typically increase plant hydraulic conductivity. An elevated water table increased Psis, A, gs, CAG, and L, and eliminated or lessened the positive effect of browsing on CAG for most species. Because low water tables create conditions whereby high willow productivity depends on the morphological effects of annual elk browsing, removing elk browsing in areas of water table decline is unlikely to result in vigorous willow stands. As large willow standing crops are required by beaver, a positive feedback between water-stressed willow and beaver absence may preclude the reestablishment of historical conditions. In areas with low water table, willow restoration may depend on actions to promote the re-establishment of beaver in addition to reducing elk browsing.

  14. Assessing Produced Water Management Issues with Increasing U.S. Tight Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Murray, K. E.; Weingarten, M.

    2017-12-01

    U.S. oil fields have been producing about 10 times more water than oil for decades; however, problems with managing this produced water, including over-pressuring and induced seismicity, have only become apparent with the recent increases in oil production from unconventional reservoirs. This study involved quantifying spatial and temporal variability in produced water volumes and evaluating issues with managing this produced water using data from the major U.S. unconventional/conventional oil plays (Bakken, Permian, and Eagle Ford plays, and Oklahoma). The primary difference between recent and historical produced water management is the inability to inject the produced water back into the unconventional low permeability or dewatered oil reservoirs. Disposing of this produced water into non-oil producing horizons using salt water disposal wells has been linked to over-pressuring in shallow geologic units in the Bakken and Permian basins and to induced seismicity in Oklahoma. These issues with produced water management can be partially alleviated by reusing/recycling produced water for hydraulic fracturing, which seems particularly promising in the Permian Basin.

  15. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003–2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes. PMID:26506230

  16. Increased Water Storage in the Qaidam Basin, the North Tibet Plateau from GRACE Gravity Data.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy; Zhang, Xiaotao; Liu, Yi; Kuang, Xingxing

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater plays a key role in maintaining the ecology and environment in the hyperarid Qaidam Basin (QB). Indirect evidence and data from sparse observation wells suggest that groundwater in the QB is increasing but there has been no regional assessment of the groundwater conditions in the entire basin because of its remoteness and the severity of the arid environment. Here we report changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial water storage (TWS) in the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. Our study confirms long-term (2003-2012) TWS increases in the NTP. Between 2003 and 2012 the TWS increased by 88.4 and 20.6 km3 in the NTP and the QB, respectively, which is 225% and 52% of the capacity of the Three Gorges Reservoir, respectively. Soil and water changes from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) were also used to identify groundwater storage in the TWS and to demonstrate a long-term increase in groundwater storage in the QB. We demonstrate that increases in groundwater, not lake water, are dominant in the QB, as observed by groundwater levels. Our study suggests that the TWS increase was likely caused by a regional increase in precipitation and a decrease in evaporation. Degradation of the permafrost increases the thickness of the active layers providing increased storage for infiltrated precipitation and snow and ice melt water, which may also contribute to the increased TWS. The huge increase of water storage in the NTP will have profound effects, not only on local ecology and environment, but also on global water storage and sea level changes.

  17. [Use of social marketing to increase water consumption among school-age children in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (p<0.05), according to their reported consumption. In a sub-sample reported consumption of sweetened beverages decreased 437 ml in the IG and 267 ml in the CG (p<0.05). Social marketing and environmental modifications were effective on increasing water consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.

  18. How Conjunctive Use of Surface and Ground Water could Increase Resiliency in US?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Russo, T. A.; Troy, T. J.; Lall, U.; Allaire, M.

    2016-12-01

    evaluation of stresses on water resources. We explore in particular geographic and temporal trends in function of user-types to develop a better understanding of the dynamics at play. We conclude with a comparison between the optimization results and current water use to identify potential solutions to increase resiliency.

  19. World Health Organization increases its drinking-water guideline for uranium.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, Seth H; Mitchell, Erika J; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the fourth edition of Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality in July, 2011. In this edition, the drinking-water guideline for uranium (U) was increased to 30 μg L(-1) despite the conclusion that "deriving a guideline value for uranium in drinking-water is complex, because the data [from exposures to humans] do not provide a clear no-effect concentration" and "Although some minor biochemical changes associated with kidney function have been reported to be correlated with uranium exposure at concentrations below 30 μg L(-1), these findings are not consistent between studies" (WHO, Uranium in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, available: , accessed 13 October 2011). This paper reviews the WHO drinking-water guideline for U, from its introduction as a 2 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 1998 through its increase to a 30 μg L(-1) health-based guideline in 2011. The current 30 μg L(-1) WHO health-based drinking-water guideline was calculated using a "no-effect group" with "no evidence of renal damage [in humans] from 10 renal toxicity indicators". However, this nominal "no-effect group" was associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and glucose excretion in urine. In addition, the current 30 μg L(-1) guideline may not protect children, people with predispositions to hypertension or osteoporosis, pre-existing chronic kidney disease, and anyone with a long exposure. The toxic effects of U in drinking water on laboratory animals and humans justify a re-evaluation by the WHO of its decision to increase its U drinking-water guideline.

  20. Diffuse radiation increases global ecosystem-level water-use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. M.; Reichstein, M.; Cescatti, A.; Knohl, A.; Zaehle, S.

    2012-12-01

    Current environmental changes lead not only to rising atmospheric CO2 levels and air temperature but also to changes in air pollution and thus the light quality of the solar radiation reaching the land-surface. While rising CO2 levels are thought to enhance photosynthesis and closure of stomata, thus leading to relative water savings, the effect of diffuse radiation on transpiration by plants is less clear. It has been speculated that the stimulation of photosynthesis by increased levels of diffuse light may be counteracted by higher transpiration and consequently water depletion and drought stress. Ultimately, in water co-limited systems, the overall effect of diffuse radiation will depend on the sensitivity of canopy transpiration versus photosynthesis to diffuse light, i.e. whether water-use efficiency changes with relative levels of diffuse light. Our study shows that water-use efficiency increases significantly with higher fractions of diffuse light. It uses the ecosystem-atmosphere gas-exchange observations obtained with the eddy covariance method at 29 flux tower sites. In contrast to previous global studies, the analysis is based directly on measurements of diffuse radiation. Its effect on water-use efficiency was derived by analyzing the multivariate response of carbon and water fluxes to radiation and air humidity using a purely empirical approach based on artificial neural networks. We infer that per unit change of diffuse fraction the water-use efficiency increases up to 40% depending on diffuse fraction levels and ecosystem type. Hence, in regions with increasing diffuse radiation positive effects on primary production are expected even under conditions where water is co-limiting productivity.

  1. How to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Haiyun; Chen, Ji; Sivakumar, Bellie; Peart, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    Regarded as a driving force in water, food and energy demands, the world's population has been increasing rapidly since the beginning of the 20th century. According to the medium-growth projection scenario of the United Nations, the world's population will reach 9.5 billion by 2050. In response to the continuously growing population during this century, water, food and energy demands have also been increasing rapidly, and social problems (e.g., water, food, and energy shortages) will be most likely to occur, especially if no proper management strategies are adopted. Then, how to meet the increasing demands of water, food and energy in the future? This study focuses on the sustainable developments of population, water, food, energy and dams, and the significances of this study can be concluded as follows: First, we reveal the close association between dams and social development through analysing the related data for the period 1960-2010, and argue that construction of additional large dams will have to be considered as one of the best available options to meet the increasing water, food and energy demands in the future. We conduct the projections of global water, food and energy consumptions and dam development for the period 2010-2050, and the results show that, compared to 2010, the total water, food and energy consumptions in 2050 will increase by 20%, 34% and 37%, respectively. Moreover, it is projected that additional 4,340 dams will be constructed by 2050 all over the world. Second, we analyse the current situation of global water scarcity based on the related data representing water resources availability (per capita available water resources), dam development (the number of dams), and the level of economic development (per capita gross domestic product). At the global scale, water scarcity exists in more than 70% of the countries around the world, including 43 countries suffering from economic water scarcity and 129 countries suffering from physical water

  2. Observed Increase of TTL Temperature and Water Vapor in Polluted Couds over Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Hui; Jiang, Jonathan; Liu, Xiaohong

    2011-06-01

    Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impacts precipitation, radiation and climate. Previous studies1-4 suggested that reduced ice cloud particle size and fall speed due to the influence of aerosols may increase evaporation of ice crystals and/or cloud radiative heating in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), leading to higher water vapor abundance in air entering the stratosphere. Observational substantiation of such processes is still lacking. Here, we analyze new observations from multiple NASA satellites to show the imprint of pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. We focus our analysis on the highly-polluted South and East Asia region duringmore » boreal summer. We find that "polluted" ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius than "clean" clouds. In the TTL, the polluted clouds are associated with warmer temperature and higher specific humidity than the clean clouds. The water vapor difference between the polluted and clean clouds cannot be explained by other meteorological factors, such as updraft and detrainment strength. Therefore, the observed higher water vapor entry value into the stratosphere in the polluted clouds than in the clean clouds is likely a manifestation of aerosol pollution influence on stratospheric water vapor. Given the radiative and chemical importance of stratospheric water vapor, the increasing emission of aerosols over Asia may have profound impacts on stratospheric chemistry and global energy balance and water cycle.« less

  3. Increasing water availability during afterschool snack: evidence, strategies, and partnerships from a group randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Giles, Catherine M; Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Lee, Rebekka M; Thayer, Julie C; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Cradock, Angie L

    2012-09-01

    Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack

  4. Increasing daily water intake and fluid adherence in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.

  5. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Moghbel, Masumeh; Grab, Stefan

    2012-12-12

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively.

  6. Modeling Caspian Sea water level oscillations under different scenarios of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise of Caspian Sea water level (about 2.25 meters since 1978) has caused much concern to all five surrounding countries, primarily because flooding has destroyed or damaged buildings and other engineering structures, roads, beaches and farm lands in the coastal zone. Given that climate, and more specifically climate change, is a primary factor influencing oscillations in Caspian Sea water levels, the effect of different climate change scenarios on future Caspian Sea levels was simulated. Variations in environmental parameters such as temperature, precipitation, evaporation, atmospheric carbon dioxide and water level oscillations of the Caspian sea and surrounding regions, are considered for both past (1951-2006) and future (2025-2100) time frames. The output of the UKHADGEM general circulation model and five alternative scenarios including A1CAI, BIASF, BIMES WRE450 and WRE750 were extracted using the MAGICC SCENGEN Model software (version 5.3). The results suggest that the mean temperature of the Caspian Sea region (Bandar-E-Anzali monitoring site) has increased by ca. 0.17°C per decade under the impacts of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes (r=0.21). The Caspian Sea water level has increased by ca. +36cm per decade (r=0.82) between the years 1951-2006. Mean results from all modeled scenarios indicate that the temperature will increase by ca. 3.64°C and precipitation will decrease by ca. 10% (182 mm) over the Caspian Sea, whilst in the Volga river basin, temperatures are projected to increase by ca. 4.78°C and precipitation increase by ca. 12% (58 mm) by the year 2100. Finally, statistical modeling of the Caspian Sea water levels project future water level increases of between 86 cm and 163 cm by the years 2075 and 2100, respectively. PMID:23369617

  7. Opportunities and constraints for improved water resources management under increasing hydrological extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Increased occurrence of extreme climate events is one of the most damaging consequences of global climate change today and in the future. Estimating the impacts of such extreme events on global and regional water resources is therefore crucial for quantifying increasing risks from climate change. The quest for water security has been a struggle throughout human history. Only in recent years has the scale of this quest moved beyond the local, to the national and regional scales and to the planet itself. Absent or unreliable water supply, sanitation and irrigation services, unmitigated floods and droughts, and degraded water environments severely impact half of the planet's population. The scale and complexity of the water challenges faced by society, particularly but not only in the world's poorest regions, are now recognized, as is the imperative of overcoming these challenges for a stable and equitable world. IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions Initiative (WFAS) is an unprecedented inter-disciplinary scientific initiative to identify robust and adaptive portfolios of optional solutions across different economic sectors, including agriculture, energy and industry, and to test these solution-portfolios with multi-model ensembles of hydrologic and sector models to obtain a clearer picture of the trade-offs, risks, and opportunities. The results of WFaS scenarios and models provide a basis for long-term strategic planning of water resource development under changing environments and increasing climate extremes. And given the complexity of the water system, WFaS uniquely provides policy makers with optional sets of solutions that work together and that can be easily adapted as circumstances change in the future. As WFaS progresses, it will establish a network involving information exchange, mutual learning and horizontal cooperation across teams of researchers, public and private decision makers and practitioners exploring solutions at regional, national and local

  8. Climate control of decadal-scale increases in apparent ages of eogenetic karst spring water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kurz, Marie J.; Khadka, Mitra B.

    2016-09-01

    Water quantity and quality in karst aquifers may depend on decadal-scale variations in recharge or withdrawal, which we hypothesize could be assessed through time-series measurements of apparent ages of spring water. We tested this hypothesis with analyses of various age tracers (3H/3He, SF6, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and selected solute concentrations [dissolved oxygen (DO), NO3, Mg, and SO4] from 6 springs in a single spring complex (Ichetucknee springs) in northern Florida over a 16-yr period. These springs fall into two groups that reflect shallow short (Group 1) and deep long (Group 2) flow paths. Some tracer concentrations are altered, with CFC-12 and CFC-113 concentrations yielding the most robust apparent ages. These tracers show a 10-20-yr monotonic increase in apparent age from 1997 to 2013, including the flood recession that followed Tropical Storm Debby in mid-2012. This increase in age indicates most water discharged during the study period recharged the aquifer within a few years of 1973 for Group 2 springs and 1980 for Group 1 springs. Inverse correlations between apparent age and DO and NO3 concentrations reflect reduced redox state in older water. Positive correlations between apparent age and Mg and SO4 concentrations reflect increased water-rock reactions. Concentrated recharge in the decade around 1975 resulted from nearly 2 m of rain in excess of the monthly average that fell between 1960 and 2014, followed by a nearly 4 m deficit to 2014. This excess rain coincided with two major El Niño events during the maximum cool phase in the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Although regional water withdrawal increased nearly 5-fold between 1980 and 2005, withdrawals represent only 2-5% of Ichetucknee River flow and are less important than decadal-long variations in precipitation. These results suggest that groundwater management should consider climate cycles as predictive tools for future water resources.

  9. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-15

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Surface Water Storage trends for increasing groundwater areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Chandan; Kumar, D. Nagesh

    2018-07-01

    Recent studies based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission suggested that groundwater has increased in central and southern parts of India. However, surface water, which is an equally important source of water in these semi-arid areas has not been studied yet. In the present study, the study areas were outlined based on trends in GRACE data followed by trend identification in surface water storages and checking the hypothesis of causality. Surface Water Extent (SWE) and Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) derived from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) respectively, are selected as proxies of surface water storage (SWS). Besides SWE and SSM, trend test was performed for GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) for the study areas named as R1, R2, GOR1 and KOR1. Granger-causality test is used to test the hypothesis that rainfall is a causal factor of the inter-annual variability of SWE, SSM and TWS. Positive trends were observed in TWS for R1, R2 and GOR1 whereas SWE and SSM show increasing trends for all the study regions. Results suggest that rainfall is the granger-causal of all the storage variables for R1 and R2, the regions exhibiting the most significant positive trends in TWS.

  11. Electrical guidance efficiency of downstream-migrating juvenile Sea Lamprey decreases with increasing water velocity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miehls, Scott M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Haro, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a vertically oriented field of pulsed direct current (VEPDC) created by an array of vertical electrodes for guiding downstream-moving juvenile Sea Lampreys Petromyzon marinus to a bypass channel in an artificial flume at water velocities of 10–50 cm/s. Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel than in other sections of the flume regardless of electric field status (on or off) or water velocity. Additionally, Sea Lampreys were more likely to be captured in the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active; however, an interaction between the effects of VEPDC and water velocity was observed, as the likelihood of capture decreased with increases in water velocity. The distribution of Sea Lampreys shifted from right to left across the width of the flume toward the bypass channel when the VEPDC was active at water velocities less than 25 cm/s. The VEPDC appeared to have no effect on Sea Lamprey distribution in the flume at water velocities greater than 25 cm/s. We also conducted separate tests to determine the threshold at which Sea Lampreys would become paralyzed. Individuals were paralyzed at a mean power density of 37.0 µW/cm3. Future research should investigate the ability of juvenile Sea Lampreys to detect electric fields and their specific behavioral responses to electric field characteristics so as to optimize the use of this technology as a nonphysical guidance tool across variable water velocities.

  12. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  13. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P < 0.01), analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P < 0.005) in WD rats (+68 ± 6%) than controls (+208 ± 20%), and amplitudes of the early expiratory (postinspiratory) trough and late expiratory burst of sSNA were not different between groups. Further analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  14. Does Improved Water Access Increase Child School Attendance? A Quasi-Experimental Approach From Rural Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Y.; Cook, J.

    2012-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of improved water access on child school attendance using two years of primary panel data from a quasi-experimental study in Oromiya, Ethiopia. A predominant form of child labor in rural poor households in least developed countries is water collection. Girls are often the primary water collectors for households, and because of the time intensive nature of water collection improved water access may allow for time to be reallocated to schooling (Rosen and Vincent 1999; Nankhuni and Findeis 2004). Understanding how improved water access may increase schooling for girls has important development policy implications. Indeed, abundant research on returns to education suggests increased schooling for girls is tied to improved future child and maternal health, economic opportunities, and lower fertility rates (Handa 1996; Schultz 1998; Michaelowa 2000). The literature to date finds that improved water access leads to increased schooling; however, there still exists a clear gap in the literature for understanding this relationship for two reasons. First, only four studies have directly examined the relationship between improved water access and schooling in sub-Saharan Africa, and analyses have been limited due to the use of cross-sectional data and research designs (Nankhuni and Findeis 2004; Koolwal and Van de Walle 2010; Ndiritu and Nyangan 2011; Nauges and Strand 2011). Indeed, only two studies have attempted to control for the endogenous nature of water access. Second, all studies use a binary school enrollment indicator from household surveys, which may suffer from response bias and may be an imperfect measure for actual schooling. Respondents may feel pressured to report that their children are enrolled in school if, like in Ethiopia, there are compulsory education laws. This may result in an overestimation of school enrollment. In addition, most children from rural poor households combine work and school, and a binary indicator does

  15. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  16. Skeletal stiffening in an amphibious fish out of water is a response to increased body weight.

    PubMed

    Turko, Andy J; Kültz, Dietmar; Fudge, Douglas; Croll, Roger P; Smith, Frank M; Stoyek, Matthew R; Wright, Patricia A

    2017-10-15

    Terrestrial animals must support their bodies against gravity, while aquatic animals are effectively weightless because of buoyant support from water. Given this evolutionary history of minimal gravitational loading of fishes in water, it has been hypothesized that weight-responsive musculoskeletal systems evolved during the tetrapod invasion of land and are thus absent in fishes. Amphibious fishes, however, experience increased effective weight when out of water - are these fishes responsive to gravitational loading? Contrary to the tetrapod-origin hypothesis, we found that terrestrial acclimation reversibly increased gill arch stiffness (∼60% increase) in the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus when loaded normally by gravity, but not under simulated microgravity. Quantitative proteomics analysis revealed that this change in mechanical properties occurred via increased abundance of proteins responsible for bone mineralization in other fishes as well as in tetrapods. Type X collagen, associated with endochondral bone growth, increased in abundance almost ninefold after terrestrial acclimation. Collagen isoforms known to promote extracellular matrix cross-linking and cause tissue stiffening, such as types IX and XII collagen, also increased in abundance. Finally, more densely packed collagen fibrils in both gill arches and filaments were observed microscopically in terrestrially acclimated fish. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the fish musculoskeletal system can be fine-tuned in response to changes in effective body weight using biochemical pathways similar to those in mammals, suggesting that weight sensing is an ancestral vertebrate trait rather than a tetrapod innovation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  18. A systematic review to determine the most effective interventions to increase water intake.

    PubMed

    Chua, Teresa X W; Prasad, Neha S; Rangan, Gopala K; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rangan, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Maintaining adequate fluid intake has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review to determine the most effective interventions to increase water intake. Six electronic databases were searched from 1910 until March 2015 in the English language. Additional sources through hand-searches, expert recommendations and reviews were checked. Intervention studies increasing water intake in adults through non-pharmacological methods were eligible for inclusion. The quality of included studies was assessed. A total of 950 studies were found of which 16 met the inclusion criteria. Eight studies were randomized controlled trials, and seven studies spanned 6 months or longer. The study populations varied and included patients with recurrent nephrolithiasis (n = 6), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (n = 3), CKD (n = 1), urinary tract infection (n = 1) and other miscellaneous conditions (n = 5). The quality of the studies was mostly neutral (63%) with no studies of high quality. Interventions ranged from instruction alone to self-monitoring tools, providing water bottles and counselling and education. Most interventions successfully increased water intake with 13 studies reporting an increase of at least 500 mL. The most effective strategies were instruction and self-monitoring using urine dipstick or 24 h urine volume. All interventions carried out in the studies succeeded in increasing water intake, with none leading to decreases in intake, and these could be implemented in potential clinical trials in CKD. However, more high quality long-term intervention studies are required to further validate findings. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. A glass of water immediately increases gastric pH in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, George; Theofanidou, Ioanna; Yiasemidou, Marina; Giannoulis, Evangelos; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2008-12-01

    Onset of action of antisecretory agents is of pivotal importance for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated "on-demand." To study the acute effect of acid-inhibiting drugs and water administration on gastric pH. A cross-over study was performed in 12 H. pylori (-), healthy subjects (6 men; mean age: 26 years). A single oral dose of the following agents was received with a wash-out period between each study: a glass of water (200 ml), antacid, ranitidine, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole. Gastric pH was recorded for 6 h after drug intake. Water increased gastric pH >4 in 10/12 subjects after 1 min. The time (median) needed to pH >4 was for: antacid 2 min, ranitidine 50 min, omeprazole 171 min, esomeprazole 151 min, and rabeprazole 175 min. Gastric pH >4 lasted for 3 min after water and for 12 min after antacids; it remained >4 until the end of recording in: 4/12 subjects with ranitidine, 11/12 with rabeprazole, and all with omeprazole and esomeprazole. Water and antacid immediately increased gastric pH, while PPIs showed a delayed but prolonged effect compared to ranitidine.

  20. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-12-01

    It has been considered that drinking oxygenated water improves oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improve immune functions. The present study evaluated the effects of oxygenated drinking water on immune function in pigs. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, interleukin-1β expression level and the CD4(+):CD8(+) cell ratio in pigs. During Salmonella Typhimurium infection, total leukocytes and relative cytokines expression levels were significantly increased in pigs consuming oxygenated water compared with pigs consuming tap water. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in pigs and increases immune responses of pigs during S. Typhimurium Infection.

  1. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. [Effects of increased precipitation on the water use of Nitraira tangutorum at southeast edge of Baddain Jaran Desert in China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Juan; Lu, Qi; Wu, Bo; Li, Yong-Hua; Yao, Bin; Zhang, Jin-Xin

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the threshold value of the water use of Nitraria tanturorum shrubs at the southeast edge of Baddain Jiran Desert. From the early May to late September in 2009, an irrigation simulating increased precipitation was conducted once every month. Three ratios of increased precipitation (0, 50% and 100%) were designed, based on the local mean annual precipitation (115 mm). On the 1 day before irrigation and the 1, 3 and 7 days after irrigation in May, July and September, the deltaD in the xylem water of N. tangutorum, the soil water at the depths 10 and 30 cm, and the well water and natural rainfall, and the variations of the soil water content were measured. Under natural condition, the N. tangutorum mainly utilize ground water in May and September, and utilize the soil water at the depths 10 and 30 cm in July. After irrigation, the ground water use rate of the N. tangutorum decreased, while the soil water use rate increased. In the treatment of 100% increased precipitation, the deltaD ratio of the water in N. tangutorum xylem was affected significantly, and the water use of the N. tangutorum in May, July and September increased. In the treatment of 50% increased precipitation, the soil water condition in May and July was improved, but the water use rate had little improvement. Only when the increased precipitation reached 100% of the local mean annual precipitation, could the water use rate of the N. tangutorum have an obvious increase.

  3. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  4. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J

    2015-10-21

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  5. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S-Y Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the winter of 2013–2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)—in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns. PMID:26487088

  6. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and in relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; Kravitz, Ben; Hipps, Lawrence; Rasch, Philip J.

    2015-10-01

    Since the winter of 2013-2014, California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history, causing statewide water stress, severe economic loss and an extraordinary increase in wildfires. Identifying the effects of global warming on regional water cycle extremes, such as the ongoing drought in California, remains a challenge. Here we analyse large-ensemble and multi-model simulations that project the future of water cycle extremes in California as well as to understand those associations that pertain to changing climate oscillations under global warming. Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% towards the end of the twenty-first century; this projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with a strengthened relation to El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO)--in particular, extreme El Niño and La Niña events that modulate California's climate not only through its warm and cold phases but also its precursor patterns.

  7. Volcano and ship tracks indicate excessive aerosol-induced cloud water increases in a climate model.

    PubMed

    Toll, Velle; Christensen, Matthew; Gassó, Santiago; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2017-12-28

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the most uncertain mechanism of anthropogenic radiative forcing of Earth's climate, and aerosol-induced cloud water changes are particularly poorly constrained in climate models. By combining satellite retrievals of volcano and ship tracks in stratocumulus clouds, we compile a unique observational dataset and confirm that liquid water path (LWP) responses to aerosols are bidirectional, and on average the increases in LWP are closely compensated by the decreases. Moreover, the meteorological parameters controlling the LWP responses are strikingly similar between the volcano and ship tracks. In stark contrast to observations, there are substantial unidirectional increases in LWP in the Hadley Centre climate model, because the model accounts only for the decreased precipitation efficiency and not for the enhanced entrainment drying. If the LWP increases in the model were compensated by the decreases as the observations suggest, its indirect aerosol radiative forcing in stratocumulus regions would decrease by 45%.

  8. Volcano and Ship Tracks Indicate Excessive Aerosol-Induced Cloud Water Increases in a Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toll, Velle; Christensen, Matthew; Gassó, Santiago; Bellouin, Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction is the most uncertain mechanism of anthropogenic radiative forcing of Earth's climate, and aerosol-induced cloud water changes are particularly poorly constrained in climate models. By combining satellite retrievals of volcano and ship tracks in stratocumulus clouds, we compile a unique observational data set and confirm that liquid water path (LWP) responses to aerosols are bidirectional, and on average the increases in LWP are closely compensated by the decreases. Moreover, the meteorological parameters controlling the LWP responses are strikingly similar between the volcano and ship tracks. In stark contrast to observations, there are substantial unidirectional increases in LWP in the Hadley Centre climate model, because the model accounts only for the decreased precipitation efficiency and not for the enhanced entrainment drying. If the LWP increases in the model were compensated by the decreases as the observations suggest, its indirect aerosol radiative forcing in stratocumulus regions would decrease by 45%.

  9. Increased water hardness and magnesium levels may increase occurrence of urolithiasis in cows from the Burdur region (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Sahinduran, S; Buyukoglu, T; Gulay, M S; Tasci, F

    2007-08-01

    Objectives of the study were to measure water hardness in Burdur, and to establish its possible association with urolithiasis in cattle. Water samples were obtained from different stables (n = 15). Water hardness and the concentrations of potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese and copper ions were calculated from these water samples. Total hardness of the samples (mean 285 ppm) exceeded the standards and the water was characterized by high content of magnesium ions. Kidneys (n = 500) were collected randomly from slaughterhouses and examined for urolithiasis. Urolithiasis was observed in 102 kidneys (20.4%). The weights of the stones were between 0.02 and 237.44 g and the colour varied from white to brown. The calculi collected had various shapes and composed of calcium apatite (42.45%), struvite (20.15%), magnesium carbonate (15.15%), calcium carbonate (12.12%), and calcium phosphate cystine (10.13%). It was concluded that high water hardness with high magnesium ion concentrations in water may contribute to urolithiasis and needs to be investigated further in future studies.

  10. Increased sugarcane water productivity in Brazil avoids land use change and related environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpare, F. V.; Galdos, M. V.; Kolln, O.; Gava, G.; Franco, H.; Trivelin, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fábio V. Scarparea, Marcelo V. Galdosa, Oriel T. Kollna, Glauber J.C. Gavab, Henrique J. Francoa, Paulo C.O. Trivelinc a Laboratório Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do Bioetanol - CTBE/CNPEM, C.P. 6170, Campinas, SP, 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail: fabio.scarpare@bioetanol.org.br b APTA - Polo Centro Oeste. Rod. SP 304, km 304, CP 66, Jaú, SP, 17201-970, Brazil. c Laboratório de Isótopos Estáveis, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, C.P. 9, Piracicaba, SP, 13418-900, Brazil. Increasing crop water productivity is a key factor where water is scarce compared with land and other resources. A widespread method for water use assessment is the water productivity (WP) approach which is the ratio between biomass production per unit of water utilized. WP is useful to evaluate water utilization and to identify where and when water can be saved in an irrigation system. Traditionally, field experiments are conducted to quantify and evaluate water management practices in irrigation systems. This field trial was conducted in Jaú - São Paulo State (Lat 22.17° S, Long 48.32° W) during first and second ratoon cycles. Four treatments were appraised; rainfed only (R0); rainfed + 150 kg ha-1 of N (RN); irrigation only (I0) and irrigation + 150 kg ha-1 of N (IN). The subsurface drip irrigation was carried out considering the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to restore 100% of evapotranspired water. The irrigation frequency was considered the water supply to the soil by precipitation and the atmospheric demand for sugarcane ETc, with a maximum soil storage capacity of 70 mm. Our results point that the WP in irrigated condition was 13% higher than rainfed field whereas for N application, WP reached even higher values, 40%. WP among all treatments showed better results for IN (~28 kg mm-1) followed by RN (~23 kg mm-1); I0 (~16 kg mm-1) and R0 (~15 kg mm-1). Those results are in agreement with some studies which suggest high synergy between water and nitrogen for the

  11. Deep South Atlantic carbonate chemistry and increased interocean deep water exchange during last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jimin; Anderson, Robert F.; Jin, Zhangdong; Menviel, Laurie; Zhang, Fei; Ryerson, Fredrick J.; Rohling, Eelco J.

    2014-04-01

    Carbon release from the deep ocean at glacial terminations is a critical component of past climate change, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We present a 28,000-year high-resolution record of carbonate ion concentration, a key parameter of the global carbon cycle, at 5-km water depth in the South Atlantic. We observe similar carbonate ion concentrations between the Last Glacial Maximum and the late Holocene, despite elevated concentrations in the glacial surface ocean. This strongly supports the importance of respiratory carbon accumulation in a stratified deep ocean for atmospheric CO2 reduction during the last ice age. After ˜9 μmol/kg decline during Heinrich Stadial 1, deep South Atlantic carbonate ion concentration rose by ˜24 μmol/kg from the onset of Bølling to Pre-boreal, likely caused by strengthening North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Bølling) or increased ventilation in the Southern Ocean (Younger Drays) or both (Pre-boreal). The ˜15 μmol/kg decline in deep water carbonate ion since ˜10 ka is consistent with extraction of alkalinity from seawater by deep-sea CaCO3 compensation and coral reef growth on continental shelves during the Holocene. Between 16,600 and 15,000 years ago, deep South Atlantic carbonate ion values converged with those at 3.4-km water depth in the western equatorial Pacific, as did carbon isotope and radiocarbon values. These observations suggest a period of enhanced lateral exchange of carbon between the deep South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, probably due to an increased transfer of momentum from southern westerlies to the Southern Ocean. By spreading carbon-rich deep Pacific waters around Antarctica for upwelling, invigorated interocean deep water exchange would lead to more efficient CO2 degassing from the Southern Ocean, and thus to an atmospheric CO2 rise, during the early deglaciation.

  12. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) reduce evaporation and increase soil water retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Zeng, S.; LaManna, J.; Bais, H.; Jin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhancement of plant drought stress tolerance by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been increasingly documented in the literature. However, most studies to date have focused on PGPR-root/plant interactions; very little is known about PGPR's role in mediating physiochemical and hydrological changes in the rhizospheric soil that may impact plant drought stress tolerance. Our study seeks to advance mechanistic understanding of PGPR- mediated biophysical changes in the rhizospheric soil that may contribute to plant drought stress tolerance in addition to plant responses. In this study, we measured soil water retention characteristics, hydraulic conductivity, and water evaporation in soils with various textures (i.e., pure sand, sandy soil, and loam) as influenced by a PGPR (Bacillus subtilis strain UD1022) using the instrument HYPROP©. All PGPR-treated soils held more water, had reduced conductivity, and reduced evaporation rate compared to their corresponding controls. While changes in evaporation behavior, i.e., the transition from Stage I to Stage II, due to PGPR addition, occurred in all soils, they differed with soil texture: PGPR prolonged Stage I (but at lower evaporation rate than control) in the pure sand while the bacteria shortened Stage I in the other two soils. These results indicate that PGPR affects evaporation by modifying soil capillarity and wettability that control liquid phase continuity and capillary forces that sustain Stage I evaporation. SEM images show that PGPR promoted aggregation in the pure sand due to EPS production and biofilm formation. On the other hand, modification of soil wettability by EPS/biofilm thus water phase continuity and capillary driving forces likely dominated the PGPR effects in the other two soils. These findings improve our understanding of rhizosphere functions and have implications in developing biotechnologies using PGPR to increase soil water retention, which would help sustain agricultural production

  13. First-aid with warm water delays burn progression and increases skin survival.

    PubMed

    Tobalem, M; Harder, Y; Tschanz, E; Speidel, V; Pittet-Cuénod, B; Wettstein, R

    2013-02-01

    First aid treatment for thermal injuries with cold water removes heat and decreases inflammation. However, perfusion in the ischemic zone surrounding the coagulated core can be compromised by cold-induced vasoconstriction and favor burn progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of local warming on burn progression in the rat comb burn model. 24 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either no treatment (control) or application of cold (17 °C) or warm (37 °C) water applied for 20 min. Evolution of burn depth, interspace necrosis, and microcirculatory perfusion were assessed with histology, planimetry, respectively with Laser Doppler flowmetry after 1 h, as well as 1, 4, and 7 days. Consistent conversion from a superficial to a deep dermal burn within 24 h was obtained in control animals. Warm and cold water significantly delayed burn depth progression, however after 4 days the burn depth was similar in all groups. Interspace necrosis was significantly reduced by warm water treatment (62±4% vs. 69±5% (cold water) and 82±3% (control); p<0.05). This was attributed to the significantly improved perfusion after warming, which was present 1 h after burn induction and was maintained thereafter (103±4% of baseline vs. 91±3% for cold water and 80±2% for control, p<0.05). In order to limit damage after burn injury, burn progression has to be prevented. Besides delaying burn progression, the application of warm water provided an additional benefit by improving the microcirculatory perfusion, which translated into increased tissue survival. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring and validation of decentralised water and wastewater systems for increased uptake.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Cook, S; Chong, M N

    2013-01-01

    Decentralised water and wastewater systems are being implemented to meet growing demand for municipal services either in combination with centralised systems or as standalone systems. In Australia, there has been increased investment in decentralised water and wastewater systems in response to the capacity constraints of existing centralised systems, an extended period of below average rainfall, uncertainly in traditional water sources due to potential climate change impacts, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of urban development. The implementation of decentralised water systems as a mainstream practice at different development scales is impeded by the knowledge gaps on their actual performance in a range of development types and settings. As the wide-spread uptake of these approaches in modern cities is relatively new compared to centralised approaches, there is limited information available on their planning, design, implementation, reliability and robustness. This paper presents a number of case studies where monitoring studies are under way to validate the performance of decentralised water and wastewater systems. The results from these case studies show the yield and reliability of these decentralised systems, as well as the associated energy demand and ecological footprint. The outputs from these case studies, and other monitoring studies, are important in improving decentralised system design guidelines and developing industry wide management norms for the operation and maintenance of decentralised systems.

  15. Increase in Lead Concentration in the Drinking Water of an Animal Care Facility.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Bradley; Boehm, Kirk; Banovetz, Sandra; Binkley, Neil

    1998-01-01

    We report here the unexpected detection, and subsequent correction, of a problem that resulted in an increase in lead concentration in the drinking water of an animal research facility. At the initiation of a study, analysis of a water sample obtained from the drinking spout of an animal cage revealed a lead concentration nearly twice the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum acceptable concentration. Because the municipal water supply routinely had been tested and found to be free of lead, it was assumed that this contamination was within the animal care facility. It was hypothesized that the brass fitting connecting the drinking spout to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe was the source of contamination. Water samples were obtained hourly from 0700 to 1600 hours before and after replacement of the brass fitting with a PVC fitting. After this change, lead concentrations in all samples were within acceptable limits. Although blood lead concentrations were undetectable in 47 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) housed in the facility, subclinical lead toxicosis could have resulted and potentially complicated studies in which these monkeys were used. We recommend that the water supply of research facilities be monitored periodically.

  16. Increased food production and reduced water use through optimized crop distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    Growing demand for agricultural commodities for food, fuel and other uses is expected to be met through an intensification of production on lands that are currently under cultivation. Intensification typically entails investments in modern technology — such as irrigation or fertilizers — and increases in cropping frequency in regions suitable for multiple growing seasons. Here we combine a process-based crop water model with maps of spatially interpolated yields for 14 major food crops to identify potential differences in food production and water use between current and optimized crop distributions. We find that the current distribution of crops around the world neither attains maximum production nor minimum water use. We identify possible alternative configurations of the agricultural landscape that, by reshaping the global distribution of crops within current rainfed and irrigated croplands based on total water consumption, would feed an additional 825 million people while reducing the consumptive use of rainwater and irrigation water by 14% and 12%, respectively. Such an optimization process does not entail a loss of crop diversity, cropland expansion or impacts on nutrient and feed availability. It also does not necessarily invoke massive investments in modern technology that in many regions would require a switch from smallholder farming to large-scale commercial agriculture with important impacts on rural livelihoods.

  17. Water quality under increased biofuel production and future climate change and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Yan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, biofuel has emerged as an important renewable energy source to supplement gasoline and reduce the associated greenhouse gas emission. Many countries, for instant, have adopted biofuel production goals to blend 10% or more of gasoline with biofuels within 10 to 20 years. However, meeting these goals requires sustainable production of biofuel feedstock which can be challenging under future change in climate and extreme weather conditions, as well as the likely impacts of biofuel feedstock production on water quality and availability. To understand this interrelationship and the combined effects of increased biofuel production and climate change on regional and local water resources, we have performed watershed hydrology and water quality analyses for the Ohio River Basin. The basin is one of the major biofuel feedstock producing region in the United States, which also currently contributes about half of the flow and one third of phosphorus and nitrogen loadings to the Mississippi River that eventually flows to the Gulf of Mexico. The analyses integrate future scenarios and climate change and biofuel development through various mixes of landuse and agricultural management changes and examine their potential impacts on regional and local hydrology, water quality, soil erosion, and agriculture productivity. The results of the study are expected to provide much needed insight about the sustainability of large-scale biofuel feedstock production under the future climate change and uncertainty, and helps to further optimize the feedstock production taking into consideration the water-use efficiency.

  18. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  19. Increased dry season water yield in burned watersheds in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Alicia M.; Hogue, Terri S.

    2015-01-01

    The current work evaluates the effects of the 2003 Old Fire on semi-arid systems in the San Bernardino Mountains, California. Pre- and post-fire daily streamflow are used to analyze flow regimes in two burned watersheds. The average pre-fire runoff ratios in Devil Canyon and City Creek are 0.14 and 0.26, respectively, and both increase to 0.34 post-fire. Annual flow duration curves are developed for each watershed and the low flow is characterized by a 90% exceedance probability threshold. Post-fire low flow is statistically different from the pre-fire values (α = 0.05). In Devil Canyon the annual volume of pre-fire low flow increases on average from 2.6E + 02 to 3.1E + 03 m3 (1090% increase) and in City Creek the annual low flow volume increases from 2.3E + 03 to 5.0E + 03 m3 (118% increase). Predicting burn system resilience to disturbance (anthropogenic and natural) has significant implications for water sustainability and ultimately may provide an opportunity to utilize extended and increased water yield.

  20. Chronic exposure to water pollutant trichloroethylene increased epigenetic drift in CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Blossom, Sarah J; Erickson, Stephen W; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Broadfoot, Brannon; West, Kirk; Bai, Shasha; Cooney, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Autoimmune disease and CD4+ T-cell alterations are induced in mice exposed to the water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE). We examined here whether TCE altered gene-specific DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells as a possible mechanism of immunotoxicity. Materials & methods: Naive and effector/memory CD4+ T cells from mice exposed to TCE (0.5 mg/ml in drinking water) for 40 weeks were examined by bisulfite next-generation DNA sequencing. Results: A probabilistic model calculated from multiple genes showed that TCE decreased methylation control in CD4+ T cells. Data from individual genes fitted to a quadratic regression model showed that TCE increased gene-specific methylation variance in both CD4 subsets. Conclusion: TCE increased epigenetic drift of specific CpG sites in CD4+ T cells. PMID:27092578

  1. Chronic exposure to water pollutant trichloroethylene increased epigenetic drift in CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Blossom, Sarah J; Erickson, Stephen W; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Broadfoot, Brannon; West, Kirk; Bai, Shasha; Cooney, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    Autoimmune disease and CD4(+) T-cell alterations are induced in mice exposed to the water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE). We examined here whether TCE altered gene-specific DNA methylation in CD4(+) T cells as a possible mechanism of immunotoxicity. Naive and effector/memory CD4(+) T cells from mice exposed to TCE (0.5 mg/ml in drinking water) for 40 weeks were examined by bisulfite next-generation DNA sequencing. A probabilistic model calculated from multiple genes showed that TCE decreased methylation control in CD4(+) T cells. Data from individual genes fitted to a quadratic regression model showed that TCE increased gene-specific methylation variance in both CD4 subsets. TCE increased epigenetic drift of specific CpG sites in CD4(+) T cells.

  2. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resource growth pool

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Roundy; Kert Young; Nathan Cline; April Hulet; Richard F. Miller; Robin J. Tausch; Jeanne C. Chambers; Ben Rau

    2014-01-01

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and increase cover of desirable understory species. All plant species in these communities depend on soil water held at > −1.5 MPa matric potential in the upper 0.3 m of soil for nutrient...

  3. Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.

  4. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.

    2016-08-01

    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  5. Coincident patterns of waste water suspended solids reduction, water transparency increase and chlorophyll decline in Narragansett Bay.

    PubMed

    Borkman, David G; Smayda, Theodore J

    2016-06-15

    Dramatic changes occurred in Narragansett Bay during the 1980s: water clarity increased, while phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll concentration decreased. We examine how changes in total suspended solids (TSS) loading from wastewater treatment plants may have influenced this decline in phytoplankton chlorophyll. TSS loading, light and phytoplankton observations were compiled and a light- and temperature-dependent Skeletonema-based phytoplankton growth model was applied to evaluate chlorophyll supported by TSS nitrogen during 1983-1995. TSS loading declined 75% from ~0.60×10(6)kgmonth(-1) to ~0.15×10(6)kgmonth(-1) during 1983-1995. Model results indicate that nitrogen reduction related to TSS reduction was minor and explained a small fraction (~15%) of the long-term chlorophyll decline. The decline in NBay TSS loading appears to have increased water clarity and in situ irradiance and contributed to the long-term chlorophyll decline by inducing a physiological response of a ~20% reduction in chlorophyll per cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jin -Ho; Wang, S. -Y. Simon; Gillies, Robert R.

    California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history since the winter of 2013-2014. The long duration of drought has stressed statewide water resources and the economy, while fueling an extraordinary increase in wildfires. The effects of global warming on the regional climate include a hotter and drier climate, as well as earlier snowmelt, both of which exacerbate drought conditions. However, connections between a changing climate and how climate oscillations modulate regional water cycle extremes are not well understood. Here we analyze large-ensemble simulations of future climate change in California using the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1)more » and multiple climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% toward the end of the 21st century. Furthermore, the projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with tighter relation to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO), particularly extreme El Niño and La Niña events, which modulates California’s climate not only through its warm and cold phases, but also ENSO’s precursor patterns.« less

  7. Increasing Daily Water Intake and Fluid Adherence in Children Receiving Treatment for Retentive Encopresis

    PubMed Central

    Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Patton, Susana R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Methods Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Results Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3–4) and 2 (Weeks 5–6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Conclusions Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children’s intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness. PMID:20439348

  8. Increasing water cycle extremes in California and relation to ENSO cycle under global warming

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Jin -Ho; Wang, S. -Y. Simon; Gillies, Robert R.; ...

    2015-10-21

    California has experienced its most severe drought in recorded history since the winter of 2013-2014. The long duration of drought has stressed statewide water resources and the economy, while fueling an extraordinary increase in wildfires. The effects of global warming on the regional climate include a hotter and drier climate, as well as earlier snowmelt, both of which exacerbate drought conditions. However, connections between a changing climate and how climate oscillations modulate regional water cycle extremes are not well understood. Here we analyze large-ensemble simulations of future climate change in California using the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1)more » and multiple climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Both intense drought and excessive flooding are projected to increase by at least 50% toward the end of the 21st century. Furthermore, the projected increase in water cycle extremes is associated with tighter relation to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO), particularly extreme El Niño and La Niña events, which modulates California’s climate not only through its warm and cold phases, but also ENSO’s precursor patterns.« less

  9. Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

  10. Microwave-induced increase of water and conductivity in submaxillary salivary gland of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mikolajczyk, H.

    Hypersalivation is an important mechanism for heat dissipation by animals without sweat glands. The water content and conductivity (at 20 kHz) in submaxillary salivary glands (SSG) and in other tissues were investigated in adult male rats exposed to microwaves (2880 MHz, 1.5 microsecond pulses at 1000 Hz) or to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. Eighty rats in one series were exposed, one at a time, for 30 min to microwaves producing a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4.2, 6.3, 6.8, 8.4, 10.8 or 12.6 W/kg. Fifty rats were sham-exposed under similar environmental conditions. In the second series, ten ratsmore » were sham-exposed, 33 rats were exposed one at time, for 15, 30 or 60 min to microwaves at a SAR of 9.5 W/kg, and 32 rats were exposed for similar periods to conventional heat at 40 degrees C. In rats of the first series colonic temperatures were elevated significantly at a SAR of 4.2 W/kg, while SSG water content and conductivity increased significantly at SAR values of 6.3 W/kg and higher. In the second series of experiments increases in colonic temperature and SSG water content were greater after 15 and 30 min of microwave exposure than after exposure to heat. Also, SSG conductivity was significantly depressed by heat and significantly increased by microwaves after exposure for 15 or 30 min. The results support the hypothesis that water content and conductivity of SSG of rats can be used as a sensitive specific test of a microwave induced thermal response.« less

  11. Increasing productivity by matching farming system management and genotype in water-limited environments.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, J A; Hunt, J R

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in water productivity and yield arise from interactions between varieties (G) and their management (M). Most G×M interactions considered by breeders and physiologists focus on in-crop management (e.g. sowing time, plant density, N management). However, opportunities exist to capture more water and use it more effectively that involve judicious management of prior crops and fallows (e.g. crop sequence, weed control, residue management). The dry-land wheat production system of southern Australia, augmented by simulation studies, is used to demonstrate the relative impacts and interactions of a range of pre-crop and in-crop management decisions on water productivity. A specific case study reveals how a novel genetic trait, long coleoptiles that enable deeper sowing, can interact with different management options to increase the water-limited yield of wheat from 1.6 t ha(-1) to 4.5 t ha(-1), reflecting the experience of leading growers. Understanding such interactions will be necessary to capture benefits from new varieties within the farming systems of the future.

  12. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydratemore » turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.« less

  13. Increasing leaf hydraulic conductance with transpiration rate minimizes the water potential drawdown from stem to leaf

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, Kevin A.; Burns, Emily; Choat, Brendan; Barbour, Margaret M.; Dawson, Todd E.; Franks, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf hydraulic conductance (k leaf) is a central element in the regulation of leaf water balance but the properties of k leaf remain uncertain. Here, the evidence for the following two models for k leaf in well-hydrated plants is evaluated: (i) k leaf is constant or (ii) k leaf increases as transpiration rate (E) increases. The difference between stem and leaf water potential (ΔΨstem–leaf), stomatal conductance (g s), k leaf, and E over a diurnal cycle for three angiosperm and gymnosperm tree species growing in a common garden, and for Helianthus annuus plants grown under sub-ambient, ambient, and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration were evaluated. Results show that for well-watered plants k leaf is positively dependent on E. Here, this property is termed the dynamic conductance, k leaf(E), which incorporates the inherent k leaf at zero E, which is distinguished as the static conductance, k leaf(0). Growth under different CO2 concentrations maintained the same relationship between k leaf and E, resulting in similar k leaf(0), while operating along different regions of the curve owing to the influence of CO2 on g s. The positive relationship between k leaf and E minimized variation in ΔΨstem–leaf. This enables leaves to minimize variation in Ψleaf and maximize g s and CO2 assimilation rate over the diurnal course of evaporative demand. PMID:25547915

  14. Increased antioxidant efficacy of tocopherols by surfactant solubilization in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kiralan, S Sezer; Doğu-Baykut, Esra; Kittipongpittaya, Ketinun; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2014-10-29

    The physical location of antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions can have significant influence on their free radical scavenging activity and ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine the effect of the surfactant concentration on the partitioning behavior of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ) in oil-in-water emulsions. Tween 20 (0.1, 0.5, and 1%) increased the partitioning of the tocopherols into the aqueous phase via the formation of Tween 20-tocopherol comicelles. Partitioning behavior of antioxidants was dependent upon the number of methyl groups and, thus, polarity of the tocopherols. δ-Tocopherol (one methyl group) exhibited the most partitioning into the aqueous phase, while α-tocopherol (three methyl groups) had the lowest partitioning. Lipid oxidation studies showed that the antioxidant activity of δ- and α-tocopherols was enhanced by adding Tween 20 to oil-in-water emulsions. This work suggests that surfactant micelles could increase the antioxidant activity of tocopherols by changing their physical location.

  15. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily; deGroh, Kim; Banks, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    In the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment, spacecraft surfaces can be altered during atomic oxygen exposure through oxidation and erosion. There can be terrestrial benefits of such interactions, such as the modification of hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of polymers due to chemical modification and texturing. Such modification of the surface may be useful for biomedical applications. For example, atomic oxygen texturing may increase the hydrophilicity of polymers, such as chlorotrifluoroethylene (Aclar), thus allowing increased adhesion and spreading of cells on textured Petri dishes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after atomic oxygen exposure or changes with exposure, the contact angles between the polymer and a water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a radio frequency (RF) plasma asher. Atomic oxygen plasma treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Significant decreases in the water contact angle occurred with atomic oxygen exposure. Fluorinated polymers were found to be less sensitive to changes in hydrophilicity for equivalent atomic oxygen exposures, and two of the fluorinated polymers became more hydrophobic. The majority of change in water contact angle of the non-fluorinated polymers was found to occur with very low fluence exposures, indicating potential cell culturing benefit with short treatment time.

  16. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosolmore » loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R 2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H 2O) -1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.« less

  17. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Ji, Wei; Yu, Peng; Wang, Bin; Li, Jinpeng; Han, Meikun; Xu, Xuexin; Wang, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage), one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation) and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis) conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%–6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%–34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%–28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition. PMID:27362563

  18. Sex in murky waters: algal-induced turbidity increases sexual selection in pipefish.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Josefin; Aronsen, Tonje; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Berglund, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Algal-induced turbidity has been shown to alter several important aspects of reproduction and sexual selection. However, while turbidity has been shown to negatively affect reproduction and sexually selected traits in some species, it may instead enhance reproductive success in others, implying that the impact of eutrophication is far more complex than originally believed. In this study, we aimed to provide more insight into these inconsistent findings. We used molecular tools to investigate the impact of algal turbidity on reproductive success and sexual selection on males in controlled laboratory experiments, allowing mate choice, mating competition, and mate encounter rates to affect reproduction. As study species, we used the broad-nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle , a species practicing male pregnancy and where we have previously shown that male mate choice is impaired by turbidity. Here, turbidity instead enhanced sexual selection on male size and mating success as well as reproductive success. Effects from mating competition and mate encounter rates may thus override effects from mate choice based on visual cues, producing an overall stronger sexual selection in turbid waters. Hence, seemingly inconsistent effects of turbidity on sexual selection may depend on which mechanisms of sexual selection that have been under study. Algal blooms are becoming increasingly more common due to eutrophication of freshwater and marine environments. The high density of algae lowers water transparency and reduces the possibility for fish and other aquatic animals to perform behaviors dependent on vision. We have previously shown that pipefish are unable to select the best partner in mate choice trials when water transparency was reduced. However, fish might use other senses than vision to compensate for the reduction in water transparency. In this study, we found that when fish were allowed to freely interact, thereby allowing competition between partners and direct contact

  19. Red blood cell membrane water permeability increases with length of ex vivo storage.

    PubMed

    Alshalani, Abdulrahman; Acker, Jason P

    2017-06-01

    Water transport across the red blood cell (RBC) membrane is an essential cell function that needs to be preserved during ex vivo storage. Progressive biochemical depletion during storage can result in significant conformational and compositional changes to the membrane. Characterizing the changes to RBC water permeability can help in evaluating the quality of stored blood products and aid in the development of improved methods for the cryopreservation of red blood cells. This study aimed to characterize the water permeability (L p ), osmotically inactive fraction (b), and Arrhenius activation energy (E a ) at defined storage time-points throughout storage and to correlate the observed results with other in vitro RBC quality parameters. RBCs were collected from age- and sex-matched blood donors. A stopped flow spectrophotometer was used to determine L p and b by monitoring changes in hemoglobin autofluorescence when RBCs were exposed to anisotonic solutions. Experimental values of L p were characterized at three different temperatures (4, 20 and 37 °C) to determine the E a . Results showed that L p , b, and E a of stored RBCs significantly increase by day 21 of storage. Degradation of the RBC membrane with length of storage was seen as an increase in hemolysis and supernatant potassium, and a decrease in deformability, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and supernatant sodium. RBC osmotic characteristics were shown to change with storage and correlate with changes in RBC membrane quality metrics. Monitoring water parameters is a predictor of membrane damage and loss of membrane integrity in ex vivo stored RBCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bulwa, Zachary B.; Sharlin, Jordan A.; Clark, Peter J.; Bhattacharya, Tushar K.; Kilby, Chessa N.; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or over-representation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose- dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that over-representation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. PMID:21803530

  1. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of increases in dissolved solids in ground water, Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, Anthony; Packard, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    Increases in dissolved solids have been monitored in two observation wells near Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California. One of the hotel 's supply wells delivers water to a reverse-osmosis treatment plant that produces the area 's potable water supply. Should water with increased dissolved solids reach the supply well, the costs of production of potable water will increase. The reverse-osmosis plant supply well is located about 0.4 mile south of one of the wells where increases have been monitored, and 0.8 mile southwest of the well where the most significant increases have been monitored. The direction of local ground-water movement is eastward, which reduces the probability of the supply well being affected. Honey mesquite, a phreatophyte located about 1.5 miles downgradient from the well where the most significant increases have been monitored, might be adversely affected should water with increased dissolved solids extend that far. Available data and data collected during this investigation do not indicate the source of the dissolved-solids increases. Continued ground-water-quality monitoring of existing wells and the installation of additional wells for water-quality monitoring would be necessary before the area affected by the increases, and the source and direction of movement of the water with increased dissolved solids, can be determined. (USGS)

  3. Increased net water loss by oral compared to nasal expiration in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Sophie; Olin, Anna Carin; Hellgren, Johan

    2006-03-01

    To compare the difference in respiratory water loss during expiration through the nose and through the mouth, in healthy subjects. The study included 19 healthy, non-smoking volunteers without any present history of non-infectious rhinitis, presenting with symptoms of rhinitis, asthma or previous nasal surgery. Nasal and oral expiratory breath condensates were collected using a breath condenser during tidal respiration at indoor resting conditions. During the nasal breath condensate sampling, the subjects were breathing into a transparent face mask covering the nose and the mouth with the mouth closed. During the oral breath condensate sampling, the subjects inhaled through the nose and exhaled through a mouthpiece connected to the condenser. The airflow during the sampling was assessed with a dry-spirometer connected to the condenser. Sampling was stopped after 100 litres of expired air for each breathing mode. Nasal sampling was done before and after decongestion of the nasal mucosa with oxymetazoline, 0.5 mg/ml. The effect on the nasal mucosa was assessed with acoustic rhinometry. The mean loss of expired water was 42% less by nasal expiration before decongestion than by oral expiration (1.9 x 10(-3) g/L min compared to 2.7 x 10(-3) g/L min, p < 0.001). The mean expiratory minute ventilation was 9.0 L/min by nasal respiration and 9.8 L/min by oral respiration. Decongestion of the nasal mucosa showed a mean increase of the cross-sectional area at 4 cm from the nostril (1.44 to 1.67 cm2, p = 0.0024), but there was no effect on the net water loss (1.9 x 10(-3) g/Lmin vs 1.9 x 10(-3) g/Lmin). This study showed that the net water loss increased by 42% when the breathing mode was switched from nasal to oral expiration during tidal breathing in healthy subjects. Increased water and energy loss by oral breathing could be a contributing factor to the symptoms seen in patients suffering from nasal obstruction.

  4. Virtual water maze learning in human increases functional connectivity between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Daniel G; Mantini, Dante; Coxon, James P; D'Hooge, Rudi; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that functional connectivity between remote brain regions can be modulated by task learning or the performance of an already well-learned task. Here, we investigated the extent to which initial learning and stable performance of a spatial navigation task modulates functional connectivity between subregions of hippocampus and striatum. Subjects actively navigated through a virtual water maze environment and used visual cues to learn the position of a fixed spatial location. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were collected before and after virtual water maze navigation in two scan sessions conducted 1 week apart, with a behavior-only training session in between. There was a large significant reduction in the time taken to intercept the target location during scan session 1 and a small significant reduction during the behavior-only training session. No further reduction was observed during scan session 2. This indicates that scan session 1 represented initial learning and scan session 2 represented stable performance. We observed an increase in functional connectivity between left posterior hippocampus and left dorsal caudate that was specific to scan session 1. Importantly, the magnitude of the increase in functional connectivity was correlated with offline gains in task performance. Our findings suggest cooperative interaction occurs between posterior hippocampus and dorsal caudate during awake rest following the initial phase of spatial navigation learning. Furthermore, we speculate that the increase in functional connectivity observed during awake rest after initial learning might reflect consolidation-related processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Measurement of pulp temperature increase to externally applied heat (argon laser, hot water, drilling).

    PubMed

    Renneboog-Squilbin, C; Nammour, S; Coomans, D; Barel, A; Carleer, M; Dourov, N

    1989-09-01

    In order to weld cracks in tooth enamel, it is necessary to bring the surface of the tooth to the fusion temperature of the enamel (greater than 1,000 degrees C). The study investigated whether this increase in surface temperature can cause damage to the vitality of the tooth by recording, using a thermocouple, the temperature in the pulp chamber of teeth exposed to argon laser irradiation (power density after focusing: 4000 W/cm2; duration of continuous irradiation: 1-5 seconds). These pulp temperature increases were compared with those considered safe for the tooth, i.e., contact with a hot drink, drilling of cavities with air + water cooling. It was shown that punctual irradiations with an argon laser for periods of 2 or 4 seconds generated temperature increases in the pulp chamber which were less than inferior to those caused by contact with water at 54-55 degrees C for 1 or 2 seconds, and were of the same order as those caused by the drilling of class III or V cavities of 1 mm in depth and 1 mm in diameter. These results suggest that it is worth continuing research into applying the technique in the mouth.

  6. Increased Hydrologic Connectivity: Consequences of Reduced Water Storage Capacity in the Delmarva Peninsula (U.S.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaughlin, D. L.; Jones, C. N.; Evenson, G. R.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; Alexander, L. C.; Lang, M.

    2017-12-01

    Combined geospatial and modeling approaches are required to fully enumerate wetland hydrologic connectivity and downstream effects. Here, we utilized both geospatial analysis and hydrologic modeling to explore drivers and consequences of modified surface water connectivity in the Delmarva Peninsula, with particular focus on increased connectivity via pervasive wetland ditching. Our geospatial analysis quantified both historical and contemporary wetland storage capacity across the region, and suggests that over 70% of historical storage capacity has been lost due to this ditching. Building upon this analysis, we applied a catchment-scale model to simulate implications of reduced storage capacity on catchment-scale hydrology. In short, increased connectivity (and concomitantly reduced wetland water storage capacity) decreases catchment inundation extent and spatial heterogeneity, shortens cumulative residence times, and increases downstream flow variation with evident effects on peak and baseflow dynamics. As such, alterations in connectivity have implications for hydrologically mediated functions in catchments (e.g., nutrient removal) and downstream systems (e.g., maintenance of flow for aquatic habitat). Our work elucidates such consequences in Delmarva Peninsula while also providing new tools for broad application to target wetland restoration and conservation. Views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect policies of the US EPA or US FWS.

  7. Elucidating the mechanical effects of pore water pressure increase on the stability of unsaturated soil slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscarnera, G.

    2012-12-01

    The increase of the pore water pressure due to rain infiltration can be a dominant component in the activation of slope failures. This paper shows an application of the theory of material stability to the triggering analysis of this important class of natural hazards. The goal is to identify the mechanisms through which the process of suction removal promotes the initiation of mechanical instabilities. The interplay between increase in pore water pressure, and failure mechanisms is investigated at material point level. In order to account for multiple failure mechanisms, the second-order work criterion is used and different stability indices are devised. The paper shows that the theory of material stability can assess the risk of shear failure and static liquefaction in both saturated and unsaturated contexts. It is shown that the combined use of an enhanced definition of second-order work for unsaturated porous media and a hydro-mechanical constitutive framework enables to retrieve bifurcation conditions for water-infiltration processes in unsaturated deposits. This finding discloses the importance of the coupling terms that incorporate the interaction between the solid skeleton and the pore fluids. As a consequence, these theoretical results suggest that some material properties that are not directly associated with the shearing resistance (e.g., the potential for wetting compaction) can play an important role in the initiation of slope failures. According to the proposed interpretation, the process of pore pressure increase can be understood as a trigger of uncontrolled strains, which at material point level are reflected by the onset of bifurcation conditions.

  8. Biochar increases plant available water in a sandy soil under an aerobic rice cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Meinke, H.

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 t ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields at 2 and 3 years after application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each t ha-1 of biochar amendment at 2 and 3 years after application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an increase in overall porosity of the sandy soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5% and 1.6% for each t ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under water limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  9. Increased water retention in polymer electrolyte membranes at elevated temperatures assisted by capillary condensation.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Jeong; Downing, Kenneth H; Jackson, Andrew; Gomez, Enrique D; Minor, Andrew M; Cookson, David; Weber, Adam Z; Balsara, Nitash P

    2007-11-01

    We establish a new systematic methodology for controlling the water retention of polymer electrolyte membranes. Block copolymer membranes comprising hydrophilic phases with widths ranging from 2 to 5 nm become wetter as the temperature of the surrounding air is increased at constant relative humidity. The widths of the moist hydrophilic phases were measured by cryogenic electron microscopy experiments performed on humid membranes. Simple calculations suggest that capillary condensation is important at these length scales. The correlation between moisture content and proton conductivity of the membranes is demonstrated.

  10. Mercury increases water permeability of a plant aquaporin through a non-cysteine-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frick, Anna; Järvå, Michael; Ekvall, Mikael; Uzdavinys, Povilas; Nyblom, Maria; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2013-09-15

    Water transport across cellular membranes is mediated by a family of membrane proteins known as AQPs (aquaporins). AQPs were first discovered on the basis of their ability to be inhibited by mercurial compounds, an experiment which has followed the AQP field ever since. Although mercury inhibition is most common, many AQPs are mercury insensitive. In plants, regulation of AQPs is important in order to cope with environmental changes. Plant plasma membrane AQPs are known to be gated by phosphorylation, pH and Ca²⁺. We have previously solved the structure of the spinach AQP SoPIP2;1 (Spinacia oleracea plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1) in closed and open conformations and proposed a mechanism for how this gating can be achieved. To study the effect of mercury on SoPIP2;1 we solved the structure of the SoPIP2;1-mercury complex and characterized the water transport ability using proteoliposomes. The structure revealed mercury binding to three out of four cysteine residues. In contrast to what is normally seen for AQPs, mercury increased the water transport rate of SoPIP2;1, an effect which could not be attributed to any of the cysteine residues. This indicates that other factors might influence the effect of mercury on SoPIP2;1, one of which could be the properties of the lipid bilayer.

  11. Fire increases carbon fluxes from inland waters of the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.; Bristol, E. M.; Dabrowski, J. S.; Jimmie, J. A.; Melton, S.; Navarro-Perez, E.; Peter, D. L.; Sae-lim, N.; Holmes, R. M.; Natali, S.; Schade, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change across high-latitude regions is expected to alter the hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic environments, significantly impacting ecosystem C cycling and landscape scale C budgets. Fire represents one manifestation of arctic climate change with the number, extent and intensity of fires projected to increase over upcoming decades. The Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD), Alaska, experienced unprecedented tundra fires in 2015 when more than 250 km2 underwent burn. In this study, we examined the effects of the 2015 YKD fire upon aquatic and terrestrial C fluxes, and investigated potential mechanisms causing changes to C-cycling. Field work was conducted during summer months (July-Sept) over two years, complimented with aerobic and anaerobic laboratory incubations. Burning of the terrestrial organic layer caused dramatic changes to soil moisture, the proportion of organic versus mineral soils near the land surface, and average active layer depth. Fire caused increased C fluxes (particularly CH4) from re-wet soils relative to unburnt soils, suggesting an interaction exists between fire history and soil moisture. Higher C fluxes from saturated ponds and fens across the landscape provided additional support for this theory. Pore-water chemistry in burnt catchments contained higher inorganic nutrient concentrations, specifically nitrogen, potentially driven by changing soil sorption processes and/ or infiltration rates. Organic matter delivery to inland waters within burns contained DOC of lower apparent molecular weight and aromaticity relative to unburnt waters (inferred from optical measures), and waters typically had higher temperatures, pH and dissolved mineral content. Lake and low-lying pond CO2 and CH4 emissions were consistently higher in burn catchment regions, with three to four-fold higher C emission rates. Our study indicates that fire may promote aquatic and terrestrial pathways for C loss and that these enhanced emissions may persist for years

  12. Increased water intake to reduce headache: learning from a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Price, Amy; Burls, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Water intake is a cost effective, non-invasive and low-risk intervention to reduce or prevent headache pain. Chronic mild dehydration may trigger headache. Increased water intake could help. A small trial shows modest benefit; however, a larger methodologically sound randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm efficacy. Spigt, M., Weerkamp, N., Troost, J., van Schayck, C. P., & Knottnerus, J. A. (2012). 'A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches.' Family practice, 29(4), 370-5. Doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmr112 CLINICAL SCENARIO: Patients from primary care registered as 'headache', 'tension headache' and/or 'migraine' for more than one year who suffer at least two episodes of moderately intense headache or more than four mildly intense episodes of headache per month with a daily fluid intake of less than 2.5 litres per day. Patient/Problem = Headache > 1 year with 2 moderately intense or 4 mildly intense episodes per month Intervention = 1.5 litres water per day + stress control and sleep hygiene Comparison/Control = stress control and sleep hygiene Outcome = Reduce or eliminate headache Methodology = Therapy RCT Table 1: Final Search Terms TRIP Data Base: hits = 517 used filter Extended Primary research 4 found 1 paper applicable 'Water intake '[MeSH Terms] AND 'Headache '[All Fields]' Best match to PICO, (2012) RCT SELECTION CRITERION AND OVERALL RESULTS: 102 headache patients in16 primary care clinics were randomized into control (n = 50) and intervention groups (n = 52) Inclusion criteria = two > episodes of moderately intense headache or five > mildly intense headaches per month and total fluid intake > 2.5 litres per day, Follow-up @ 3 months. 79% intervention and 66% of controls completed RCT. Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement of 4.5 (confidence interval: 1.3-7.8) points on Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQOL

  13. A method of measuring increase in soil depth and water-storage capacity due to forest management

    Treesearch

    George R., Jr. Trimble

    1952-01-01

    Conservationists, engineers, and others who deal with water problems have become more and more concerned in recent years with increasing the storage of water in the ground. Their concern has centered around problems of flood control and storage of water for later use by plants or animals, including man.

  14. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Warm Water Pool is Increasing, Nov. 10, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Pacific Ocean was produced using sea surface height measurements taken by the U.S./French TOPEX/Poseidon satellite. The image shows sea surface height relative to normal ocean conditions on Nov. 10, 1997. The volume of extra warm surface water (shown in white) in the core of the El Nino continues to increase, especially in the area between 15 degrees south latitude and 15 degrees north latitude in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The area of low sea level (shown in purple) has decreased somewhat from late October. The white and red areas indicate unusual patterns of heat storage; in the white areas, the sea surface is between 14 centimeters and 32 cm (6 inches to 13 inches) above normal; in the red areas, it is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) above normal. The surface area covered by the warm water mass is about one-and-one-half times the size of the continental United States. The added amount of oceanic warm water near the Americas, with a temperature between 21 to 30 degrees Celsius (70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit), is about 30 times the volume of water in all the U.S. Great Lakes combined. The green areas indicate normal conditions, while purple (the western Pacific) means at least 18 centimeters (7 inches) below normal sea level.

    The El Nino phenomenon is thought to be triggered when the steady westward blowing trade winds weaken and even reverse direction. This change in the winds allows a large mass of warm water (the red and white areas) that is normally located near Australia to move eastward along the equator until it reaches the coast of South America. The displacement of so much warm water affects evaporation, where rain clouds form and, consequently, alters the typical atmospheric jet stream patterns around the world. Using these global data, limited regional measurements from buoys and ships, and a forecasting model of the ocean-atmospheric system, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the National Oceanic and

  15. Increased transpiration and plant water stress in a black spruce bog exposed to whole ecosystem warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) experiment (http://mnspruce.ornl.gov/) in Northern Minnesota, USA, has exposed 12.8 m diameter plots of an ombrotrophic Picea mariana-Ericaceous shrub bog to whole ecosystem warming (0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75, +9 °C) since August 2015, and elevated CO2 treatments (ambient or +500 ppm) since June 2016. The mixed-age stand has trees up to 40 year old, and a 5-8 m tall canopy. Thermal dissipation sap flow probes were installed into dominant Picea mariana and Larix laricina trees in each of the 10 open-top chambers in fall 2015. This talk will focus on the first two years of sap flux data from the 10 treatment plots and the relationships with seasonal growth and prevailing environmental conditions. Sap flow was scaled to whole tree and plot level transpiration based on prior in situ calibrations using cut trees, establishment of a sapwood depth: tree diameter relationship, and the tree size distribution within each plot. We also assessed water potential in the trees and two dominant shrubs at the site: Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata. The warming treatments increased the growing season by up to 6 weeks, with sapflow beginning earlier in spring and lasting later into the fall. The deciduous Larix was the only species exhibiting substantial predawn water stress under the treatments, where water potentials reached -2.5 MPa for the warmest plots. The elevated CO2 reduced midday water stress in the Rhododendron, but not the Chamaedaphne, which could lead to shifts in shrub species composition.

  16. High-Elevation Sierra Nevada Conifers Reveal Increasing Reliance on Snow Water with Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepley, K. S.; Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Shamir, E.; Graham, R.

    2017-12-01

    Snowpack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains accounts for around one third of California's water supply. Melting snow can provide water into dry summer months characteristic of the region's Mediterranean climate. As climate changes, understanding patterns of snowpack, snowmelt, and biological response are critical in this region of agricultural, recreational, and ecological value. Tree rings can act as proxy records to inform scientists and resource managers of past climate variability where instrumental data is unavailable. Here we investigate relationships between tree rings of high-elevation, snow-adapted conifer trees (Tsuga mertensiana, Abies magnifica) and April 1st snow-water equivalent (SWE) in the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The 1st principal component of 29 highly correlated regional SWE time series was modeled using multiple linear regression of four tree-ring chronologies including two lagged chronologies. Split-period verification analysis of this model revealed poor predictive skill in the early half (1929 - 1966) of the calibration period (1929 - 2003). Further analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.01) change in correlation between the Tsuga mertensiana chronology and SWE during early (1929 - 1970) and late (1971 - 2013) periods. Running 31-year correlations between this chronology and SWE rose from r = 0.10 in 1950 to r = 0.77 in 1996. This strengthening relationship is coincident with a positive trend in temperature, a negative trend in SWE, and increased variability in precipitation through time. Snow water is becoming a more limiting resource to tree growth as average temperatures rise and the hydrologic regime shifts. These results highlight the need for resource managers and policy makers to consider that biological response to climate is not static.

  17. Does on-water resisted rowing increase or maintain lower-body strength?

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2013-07-01

    Over the past 30 years, endurance volumes have increased by >20% among the rowing elite; therefore, informed decisions about the value of weight training over other possible activities in periodized training plans for rowing need to be made. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in lower-body strength development after two 14-week phases of intensive resisted on-water rowing, either incorporating weight training or rowing alone. Ten elite women performed 2 resisted rowing ("towing ropes," e.g., 8 × 3 minutes) plus 6 endurance (e.g., 16-28 km at 70-80% maximum heart rate) and 2 rate-regulated races (e.g., 8,000 m at 24 strokes per minute) on-water each week. After a 4-week washout phase, the 14-week phase was repeated with the addition of 2 weight-training sessions (e.g., 3-4 sets × 6-15 reps). Percent (±SD) and standardized differences in effects (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence limit) for 5-repetition leg pressing and isometric pulling strength were calculated from data ratio scaled for body mass, log transformed and adjusted for pretest scores. Resisted rowing alone did not increase leg pressing (-1.0 ± 5.3%, p = 0.51) or isometric pulling (5.3 ± 13.4%, p = 0.28) strength. In contrast, after weight training, a moderately greater increase in leg pressing strength was observed (ES = 0.72 ± 0.49, p = 0.03), although differences in isometric pulling strength were unclear (ES = 0.56 ± 1.69, p = 0.52). In conclusion, intensive on-water training including resisted rowing maintained but did not increase lower-body strength. Elite rowers or coaches might consider the incorporation of high-intensity nonfatiguing weight training concurrent to endurance exercise if increases in lower-body strength without changes in body mass are desired.

  18. Labile and recalcitrant organic matter utilization by river biofilm under increasing water temperature.

    PubMed

    Ylla, Irene; Romaní, Anna M; Sabater, Sergi

    2012-10-01

    Microbial biofilms in rivers contribute to the decomposition of the available organic matter which typically shows changes in composition and bioavailability due to their origin, seasonality, and watershed characteristics. In the context of global warming, enhanced biofilm organic matter decomposition would be expected but this effect could be specific when either a labile or a recalcitrant organic matter source would be available. A laboratory experiment was performed to mimic the effect of the predicted increase in river water temperature (+4 °C above an ambient temperature) on the microbial biofilm under differential organic matter sources. The biofilm microbial community responded to higher water temperature by increasing bacterial cell number, respiratory activity (electron transport system) and microbial extracellular enzymes (extracellular enzyme activity). At higher temperature, the phenol oxidase enzyme explained a large fraction of respiratory activity variation suggesting an enhanced microbial use of degradation products from humic substances. The decomposition of hemicellulose (β-xylosidase activity) seemed to be also favored by warmer conditions. However, at ambient temperature, the enzymes highly responsible for respiration activity variation were β-glucosidase and leu-aminopeptidase, suggesting an enhanced microbial use of polysaccharides and peptides degradation products. The addition of labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC; dipeptide plus cellobiose) caused a further augmentation of heterotrophic biomass and respiratory activity. The changes in the fluorescence index and the ratio Abs(250)/total DOC indicated that higher temperature accelerated the rates of DOC degradation. The experiment showed that the more bioavailable organic matter was rapidly cycled irrespective of higher temperature while degradation of recalcitrant substances was enhanced by warming. Thus, pulses of carbon at higher water temperature might have consequences for DOC

  19. Multi-species biofilms defined from drinking water microorganisms provide increased protection against chlorine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Schwering, Monika; Song, Joanna; Louie, Marie; Turner, Raymond J; Ceri, Howard

    2013-09-01

    A model biofilm, formed of multiple species from environmental drinking water, including opportunistic pathogens, was created to explore the tolerance of multi-species biofilms to chlorine levels typical of water-distribution systems. All species, when grown planktonically, were killed by concentrations of chlorine within the World Health Organization guidelines (0.2-5.0 mg l(-1)). Higher concentrations (1.6-40-fold) of chlorine were required to eradicate biofilm populations of these strains, ~70% of biofilms tested were not eradicated by 5.0 mg l(-1) chlorine. Pathogenic bacteria within the model multi-species biofilms had an even more substantial increase in chlorine tolerance; on average ~700-1100 mg l(-1) chlorine was required to eliminate pathogens from the biofilm, 50-300-fold higher than for biofilms comprising single species. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of biofilms showed distinct 3D structures and multiple cell morphologies and arrangements. Overall, this study showed a substantial increase in the chlorine tolerance of individual species with co-colonization in a multi-species biofilm that was far beyond that expected as a result of biofilm growth on its own.

  20. Increased information on waterborne outbreaks through efficient notification system enforces actions towards safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zacheus, Outi; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2011-12-01

    In 1997, a compulsory notification system for waterborne outbreaks was introduced in Finland. The main aim of this notification is to obtain immediate information on suspected waterborne outbreaks in order to restrict and manage the outbreak promptly. During the past ten years, there have been 67 waterborne outbreaks in Finland, mainly associated with small groundwater supplies or private wells. The number of reported waterborne outbreaks has increased since the launch of the notification system indicating that the threshold limit of outbreak detection has most probably decreased. The number of cases of illness has fulfilled the national health target, which is below 0.01% of the population, but more action is still needed to ensure the production of safe drinking water under all circumstances. Ten years accumulation of knowledge on outbreaks has revealed that a compulsory notification system is an effective tool to gather information on waterborne outbreaks. The system has also increased awareness of possible problems related to the quality of drinking water. This article summarises management and legislative actions and policy measures taken so far in Finland to reduce the number of outbreaks and cases of illness related to them.

  1. Environmental and economic factors can increase the risk of exotic species introductions to the Arctic region through increased ballast water discharge.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Arthur J

    2004-05-01

    The effects of global warming can increase the risk of exotic species introductions in eastern Canadian Arctic waters by reducing surface ice cover and allow increased access to commercial vessels. Ballast water discharged by incoming overseas vessels is an important means for introducing species on a global scale. Analyses of air temperatures at Churchill, Manitoba between 1943 and 2002 indicated an increase in mean temperature within the past decade. Churchill is the only major northern port in this region where grain has been exported on a limited basis due to the short navigation season. Economic analyses of grain exported from Canadian and U.S. ports indicated some cost advantages for using northern ports. The Hudson Bay region is vulnerable to increased exotic species introductions because of its southerly location. Current ballast water exchange measures to reduce the risk of introductions may not be effective because most vessels enter the region with ballast, and the ballast exchange zone is located relatively close to coastal areas where the habitat could be favorable for an introduced species to become established. The probability of a large crab species introduced to this region from northern European waters is discussed. The risk of ballast water-related exotic species introduction to this region may be reduced by expanding the types of cargo handled and developing a strong import market. This approach would accommodate an increase in the number of vessels with cargo, and substantially reduce the volume of ballast carried to this region.

  2. Oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks and increases survivability against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bock-Gie; Lee, Jin-A; Nam, Kyoung-Woo; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2012-03-01

    It has been suggested that drinking oxygenated water may improve oxygen availability, which may increase vitality and improving immune activity. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of oxygenated drinking water in broiler chicks and demonstrated the protective efficacy of oxygenated drinking water against Salmonella Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks. Continuous drinking of oxygenated water markedly increased serum lysozyme activity, peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) splenocyte ratio in broiler chicks. In the chicks experimentally infected with S. Gallinarum, oxygenated drinking water alleviated symptoms and increased survival. These findings suggest that oxygenated drinking water enhances immune activity in broiler chicks, and increases survivability against S. Gallinarum in experimentally infected broiler chicks.

  3. Increasing canopy photosynthesis in rice can be achieved without a large increase in water use-A model based on free-air CO2 enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Chen, Charles P; Sikma, Martin; Yoshimoto, Mayumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Ono, Keisuke; Maruyama, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing the environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]). Here, we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) with a common cultivar (cv. Koshihikari) under ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (A-CO 2 and E-CO 2 , respectively) via leaf ecophysiological parameters derived from a free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Takanari had 4%-5% higher evapotranspiration than Koshihikari under both A-CO 2 and E-CO 2 , and E-CO 2 decreased evapotranspiration of both varieties by 4%-6%. Therefore, if Takanari was cultivated under future [CO 2 ] conditions, the cost for water could be maintained at the same level as for cultivating Koshihikari at current [CO 2 ] with an increase in canopy photosynthesis by 36%. Sensitivity analyses determined that stomatal conductance was a significant physiological factor responsible for the greater canopy photosynthesis in Takanari over Koshihikari. Takanari had 30%-40% higher stomatal conductance than Koshihikari; however, the presence of high aerodynamic resistance in the natural field and lower canopy temperature of Takanari than Koshihikari resulted in the small difference in evapotranspiration. Despite the small difference in evapotranspiration between varieties, the model simulations showed that Takanari clearly decreased canopy and air temperatures within the planetary boundary layer compared to Koshihikari. Our results indicate that lowland rice varieties characterized by high-stomatal conductance can play a

  4. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Increased ambient air temperature alters the severity of soil water repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Keulen, Geertje; Sinclair, Kat; Hallin, Ingrid; Doerr, Stefan; Urbanek, Emilia; Quinn, Gerry; Matthews, Peter; Dudley, Ed; Francis, Lewis; Gazze, S. Andrea; Whalley, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soil repellency, the inability of soils to wet readily, has detrimental environmental impacts such as increased runoff, erosion and flooding, reduced biomass production, inefficient use of irrigation water and preferential leaching of pollutants. Its impacts may exacerbate (summer) flood risks associated with more extreme drought and precipitation events. In this study we have tested the hypothesis that transitions between hydrophobic and hydrophilic soil particle surface characteristics, in conjunction with soil structural properties, strongly influence the hydrological behaviour of UK soils under current and predicted UK climatic conditions. We have addressed the hypothesis by applying different ambient air temperatures under controlled conditions to simulate the effect of predicted UK climatic conditions on the wettability of soils prone to develop repellency at different severities. Three UK silt-loam soils under permanent vegetation were selected for controlled soil perturbation studies. The soils were chosen based on the severity of hydrophobicity that can be achieved in the field: severe to extreme (Cefn Bryn, Gower, Wales), intermediate to severe (National Botanical Garden, Wales), and subcritical (Park Grass, Rothamsted Research near London). The latter is already highly characterised so was also used as a control. Soils were fully saturated with water and then allowed to dry out gradually upon exposure to controlled laboratory conditions. Soils were allowed to adapt for a few hours to a new temperature prior to initiation of the controlled experiments. Soil wettability was determined at highly regular intervals by measuring water droplet penetration times. Samples were collected at four time points: fully wettable, just prior to and after the critical soil moisture concentrations (CSC), and upon reaching air dryness (to constant weight), for further (ultra)metaproteomic and nanomechanical studies to allow integration of bulk soil characterisations with

  6. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise

    Treesearch

    Trevor F. Keenan; David Y. Hollinger; Gil Boher; Danilo Dragoni; J. William Munger; Hans Peter Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere through photosynthesis, a process that is accompanied by the loss of water vapour from leaves. The ratio of water loss to carbon gain, or water-use efficiency, is a key characteristic of ecosystem function that is central to the global cycles of water, energy and carbon. Here we analyse direct,...

  7. An encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate increases skin microcirculation in healthy women.

    PubMed

    De Spirt, S; Sies, H; Tronnier, H; Heinrich, U

    2012-01-01

    Microcirculation in the dermis of the skin is important for nutrient delivery to this tissue. In this study, the effects of a micronutrient concentrate (Juice Plus+®; 'active group'), composed primarily of fruit and vegetable juice powder, on skin microcirculation and structure were compared to placebo. This 12-week study had a monocentric, double-blind placebo and randomized controlled design with two treatment groups consisting of 26 healthy middle-aged women each. The 'oxygen to see' device was used to evaluate microcirculation. Skin density and thickness were measured using ultrasound. Measurements for skin hydration (Corneometer®), transepidermal water loss and serum analysis for carotenoids and α-tocopherol were also performed. By 12 weeks, microcirculation of the superficial plexus increased by 39%. Furthermore, skin hydration increased by 9% while skin thickness increased by 6% and skin density by 16% in the active group. In the placebo group, microcirculation decreased, and a slight increase in skin density was observed. Ingestion of a fruit- and vegetable-based concentrate increases microcirculation of the skin at 12 weeks of intervention and positively affects skin hydration, density and thickness. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  9. Increasing the utility of regional water table maps: a new method for estimating groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, T. E.; Zlotnik, V. A.; Johnson, M.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater table elevations are one of the most fundamental measurements used to characterize unconfined aquifers, groundwater flow patterns, and aquifer sustainability over time. In this study, we developed an analytical model that relies on analysis of groundwater elevation contour (equipotential) shape, aquifer transmissivity, and streambed gradient between two parallel, perennial streams. Using two existing regional water table maps, created at different times using different methods, our analysis of groundwater elevation contours, transmissivity and streambed gradient produced groundwater recharge rates (42-218 mm yr-1) that were consistent with previous independent recharge estimates from different methods. The three regions we investigated overly the High Plains Aquifer in Nebraska and included some areas where groundwater is used for irrigation. The three regions ranged from 1,500 to 3,300 km2, with either Sand Hills surficial geology, or Sand Hills transitioning to loess. Based on our results, the approach may be used to increase the value of existing water table maps, and may be useful as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the quality of groundwater table maps, identify areas in need of detailed aquifer characterization and expansion of groundwater monitoring networks, and/or as a first approximation before investing in more complex approaches to groundwater recharge estimation.

  10. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    PubMed

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Bokaee, S; Davies, J; Harrington, K J; Pandha, H

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigate the role of inhibiting AQPs in sensitising prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were cooled to 0, −5 and −10°C. The expression of AQP3 in response to freezing was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and western blot analysis. Aquaporins were inhibited using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex, and cell survival was assessed using a colorimetric assay. There was a significant increase in AQP3 expression in response to freezing. Cells treated with AQP3 siRNA were more sensitive to cryoinjury compared with control cells (P<0.001). Inhibition of the AQPs by HgCl2 also increased the sensitivity of both cell lines to cryoinjury and there was a complete loss of cell viability at −10°C (P<0.01). In conclusion, we have shown that AQP3 is involved directly in cryoinjury. Inhibition of AQP3 increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to freezing. This strategy may be exploited in the clinic to improve the efficacy of prostate cryotherapy. PMID:19513079

  13. Baking loss of bread with special emphasis on increasing water holding capacity.

    PubMed

    Kotoki, D; Deka, S C

    2010-01-01

    Potato flour (PF), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and honey were used as baking agents and their effects on baking loss and sensory quality were studied. PF at 1, 2 and 4% levels decreased baking loss followed by HPMC and honey. Water absorption was substantially high with the HPMC (70.8-80.8%) and PF (61.7-71.7%) compared to honey and normal standard bread. PF incorporation increased shelf-life (6-7 days) as compared to HPMC and honey. HPMC incorporated bread had higher moisture content (36.8-38.0%) followed by PF (34.5-35.8%) and honey (34.7%). The ash content was in the order of PF (1%) > honey (4%) > PF (2%) > normal bread > HPMC (0.5 g) > PF (4%) > HPMC (1 g) > HPMC (1.5 g). PF incorporated bread had sensorily highest acceptance followed by HPMC and honey.

  14. Low concentrations of copper in drinking water increase AP-1 binding in the brain.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shyang; Li, Huihui; Bondy, Stephen C; Campbell, Arezoo

    2015-12-01

    Copper (Cu) in trace amounts is essential for biological organisms. However, dysregulation of the redox-active metal has been implicated in different neurological disorders such as Wilson's, Menkes', Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's diseases. Since many households use Cu tubing in the plumbing system, and corrosion causes the metal to leach into the drinking water, there may be adverse effects on the central nervous system connected with low-level chronic exposure. The present study demonstrates that treatment with a biologically relevant concentration of Cu for 3 months significantly increases activation of the redox-modulated transcription factor AP-1 in mouse brains. This was independent of an upstream kinase indicated in AP-1 activation. Another redox-active transcription factor, NF-κB, was not significantly modified by the Cu exposure. These results indicate that the effect of Cu on AP-1 is unique and may involve direct modulation of DNA binding. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. Three dimensional live-cell STED microscopy at increased depth using a water immersion objective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Jörn; Wurm, Christian A.; Keller-Findeisen, Jan; Schönle, Andreas; Harke, Benjamin; Reuss, Matthias; Winter, Franziska R.; Donnert, Gerald

    2018-05-01

    Modern fluorescence superresolution microscopes are capable of imaging living cells on the nanometer scale. One of those techniques is stimulated emission depletion (STED) which increases the microscope's resolution many times in the lateral and the axial directions. To achieve these high resolutions not only close to the coverslip but also at greater depths, the choice of objective becomes crucial. Oil immersion objectives have frequently been used for STED imaging since their high numerical aperture (NA) leads to high spatial resolutions. But during live-cell imaging, especially at great penetration depths, these objectives have a distinct disadvantage. The refractive index mismatch between the immersion oil and the usually aqueous embedding media of living specimens results in unwanted spherical aberrations. These aberrations distort the point spread functions (PSFs). Notably, during z- and 3D-STED imaging, the resolution increase along the optical axis is majorly hampered if at all possible. To overcome this limitation, we here use a water immersion objective in combination with a spatial light modulator for z-STED measurements of living samples at great depths. This compact design allows for switching between objectives without having to adapt the STED beam path and enables on the fly alterations of the STED PSF to correct for aberrations. Furthermore, we derive the influence of the NA on the axial STED resolution theoretically and experimentally. We show under live-cell imaging conditions that a water immersion objective leads to far superior results than an oil immersion objective at penetration depths of 5-180 μm.

  16. Drinking water treatment is not associated with an observed increase in neural tube defects in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Johnstone, David W.; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2018-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) arise when natural organic matter in source water reacts with disinfectants used in the water treatment process. Studies have suggested an association between DBPs and birth defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) in embryos of untreated control mice were first observed in-house in May 2006 and have continued to date. The source of the NTD-inducing agent was previously determined to be a component of drinking water. Tap water samples from a variety of sources were analyzed for trihalomethanes (THMs) to determine if they were causing the malformations. NTDs were observed in CD-1 mice provided with treated and untreated surface water. Occurrence of NTDs varied by water source and treatment regimens. THMs were detected in tap water derived from surface water but not detected in tap water derived from a groundwater source. THMs were absent in untreated river water and laboratory purified waters, yet the percentage of NTDs in untreated river water were similar to the treated water counterpart. These findings indicate that THMs were not the primary cause of NTDs in the mice since the occurrence of NTDs was unrelated to drinking water disinfection. PMID:24497082

  17. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Carter, Jill E; Howe, M Caitlin W; Reiner, Jennifer F; Cradock, Angie L

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+ 9.4%; P < .001). The intervention was associated with a 0.58-ounce increase in water intake across all students (P < .001). Without cups, children were observed drinking 2.4 (SE = 0.08) ounces of water from fountains; with cups, 5.2 (SE = 0.2) ounces. The percentage of intervention students observed with sugar-sweetened beverages declined (-3.3%; P < .005). The current default of providing water through drinking fountains in cafeterias results in low water consumption. This study shows that an inexpensive intervention to improve drinking water's convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption.

  18. Water Permeability Adjusts Resorption in Lung Epithelia to Increased Apical Surface Liquid Volumes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hanna; Michel, Christiane; Braubach, Peter; Fauler, Michael; Neubauer, Daniel; Thompson, Kristin E; Frick, Manfred; Mizaikoff, Boris; Dietl, Paul; Wittekindt, Oliver H

    2017-03-01

    The apical surface liquid (ASL) layer covers the airways and forms a first line of defense against pathogens. Maintenance of ASL volume by airway epithelia is essential for maintaining lung function. The proteolytic activation of epithelial Na + channels is believed to be the dominating mechanism to cope with increases in ASL volumes. Alternative mechanisms, in particular increases in epithelial osmotic water permeability (P osm ), have so far been regarded as rather less important. However, most studies mainly addressed immediate effects upon apical volume expansion (AVE) and increases in ASL. This study addresses the response of lung epithelia to long-term AVE. NCI-H441 cells and primary human tracheal epithelial cells, both cultivated in air-liquid interface conditions, were used as models for the lung epithelium. AVE was established by adding isotonic solution to the apical surface of differentiated lung epithelia, and time course of ASL volume restoration was assessed by the deuterium oxide dilution method. Concomitant ion transport was investigated in Ussing chambers. We identified a low resorptive state immediately after AVE, which coincided with proteolytic ion transport activation within 10-15 minutes after AVE. The main clearance of excess ASL occurred during a delayed (hours after AVE) high resorptive state, which did not correlate with ion transport activation. Instead, high resorptive state onset coincided with an increase in P osm , which depended on aquaporin up-regulation. In summary, our data demonstrate that, aside from ion transport activation, modulation of P osm is a major mechanism to compensate for long-term AVE in lung epithelia.

  19. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    greater. This indicates a possible tipping point in the stream temperature-water temperature relationship at which increased urbanization overpowers increasing stream thermal inertia.

  20. Petrobras will increase its water injection in Bahia state (in Spanish)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1967-08-01

    A plan for modernizing and expanding existing water- injection facilities for the Bahia fields is planned by Petrobras, the Brazilian oil monoply. The plan contemplates continued use of most of the original equipment. The plan will be expanded wih a pilot plant treatment of the Don Juan field brine, and the injection plant. The following engineering works will be started: (1) a pumping station which takes 110,000 bpd of water from the sea, (2) a water pipe line 80 k long; (3) a system for the collection of oil field brine; (4) 3 combination water treating plants; (5) 3 highmore » pressure injection pump stations; (6) a system for the distribution of the injection water; and (7) a pilot plant for treating well water. For water injection, it will be possible to use individually, seawater, well water, and brine produced with the oil.« less

  1. Water-filled training tubes increase core muscle activation and somatosensory control of balance during squat.

    PubMed

    Ditroilo, Massimiliano; O'Sullivan, Rory; Harnan, Brian; Crossey, Aislinn; Gillmor, Beth; Dardis, William; Grainger, Adam

    2018-09-01

    This study examined trunk muscle activation, balance and proprioception while squatting with a water-filled training tube (WT) and a traditional barbell (BB), with either closed (CE) or open eyes (OE). Eighteen male elite Gaelic footballers performed an isometric squat under the following conditions: BB-OE, BB-CE, WT-OE and WT-CE. The activity of rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO) and multifidus (MF) was measured using electromyography, along with sway of the centre of pressure (CoP) using a force platform. Only the EO and the MF muscles exhibited an increased activity with WT (p < 0.01). In the medio-lateral direction both the velocity and range of the CoP increased significantly with WT (p < 0.01). Interestingly, the range of the CoP for the WT-CE condition was significantly lower than WT-OE (p < 0.05, d = 0.44), whilst the velocity of the CoP was marginally reduced (d = 0.29). WT elicited a greater level core muscle activation and created a greater challenge to postural stability when compared to a BB. It appears that WT does not benefit from vision but emphasises the somatosensory control of balance. The use of WT may be beneficial in those sports requiring development of somatosensory/proprioceptive contribution to balance control.

  2. Clean Water Act (CWA) Action Plan Implementation Priorities: Changes to Improve Water Quality, Increase Compliance and Expand Transparency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) Action Plan Implementation Priorities describes the new approaches to revamp the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permitting, compliance and enforcement program.Issued May 11, 2011

  3. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    Treesearch

    Kimberly A. Novick; Darren L. Ficklin; Paul C. Stoy; Christopher A. Williams; Gil Bohrer; Andrew C. Oishi; Shirley A. Papuga; Peter D. Blanken; Asko Noormets; Benjamin N. Sulman; Russell L. Scott; Lixin Wang; Richard P. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit-and profoundly affect-vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress1-4. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating...

  4. The Role of Political Action and Media in Increasing Public Awareness of Water Scarcity: Combined Effects on Water Use Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesnel, K.; Roby, N.; Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the midst of California's current drought, authorities have enacted widespread initiatives aimed at coping with water scarcity, for example the first mandatory statewide urban water use reductions in 2015. But to what extent have these measures resulted in decreased water consumption? To answer this question, our research examines the impact of political actions on water use by using media as a proxy. News media outlets have heavily covered the progression of the California drought, and this outreach has played an important role in disseminating information and raising public awareness. To our knowledge, the relationship between political action/media coverage and water use has yet to be examined. In this study, we extract the number of articles related to the term "California Drought" from six widely-read national and statewide newspapers from 2005 to 2015. We study the relationship between media and monthly urban water use at the utility level using multivariate panel regression and principal components analysis to examine how media interacts with other modes of influence such as climate, price, and the state of the economy and how populations of different socio-demographics are affected by media outreach. We also use daily household-level water use readings from recently installed Automated Meter Infrastructure (AMI) in one utility to examine the relationship on a finer spatiotemporal scale. Using a policy timeline, Google search rates, and newspaper article trends confirms the relationship between political actions, public awareness, and media outreach. Preliminary modeling indicates that media plays a significant role in altering water use patterns for residential customers and in utilities with specific local characteristics.

  5. Grab a Cup, Fill It Up! An Intervention to Promote the Convenience of Drinking Water and Increase Student Water Consumption During School Lunch

    PubMed Central

    Gortmaker, Steven L.; Carter, Jill E.; Howe, M. Caitlin W.; Reiner, Jennifer F.; Cradock, Angie L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a low-cost strategy for schools to improve the convenience and appeal of drinking water. Methods. We conducted a group-randomized, controlled trial in 10 Boston, Massachusetts, schools in April through June 2013 to test a cafeteria-based intervention. Signage promoting water and disposable cups were installed near water sources. Mixed linear regression models adjusting for clustering evaluated the intervention impact on average student water consumption over 359 lunch periods. Results. The percentage of students in intervention schools observed drinking water during lunch nearly doubled from baseline to follow-up compared with controls (+9.4%; P < .001). The intervention was associated with a 0.58-ounce increase in water intake across all students (P < .001). Without cups, children were observed drinking 2.4 (SE = 0.08) ounces of water from fountains; with cups, 5.2 (SE = 0.2) ounces. The percentage of intervention students observed with sugar-sweetened beverages declined (–3.3%; P < .005). Conclusions. The current default of providing water through drinking fountains in cafeterias results in low water consumption. This study shows that an inexpensive intervention to improve drinking water’s convenience by providing cups can increase student water consumption. PMID:26180950

  6. Formative Research to Design a Promotional Campaign to Increase Drinking Water among Central American Latino Youth in an Urban Area.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Nicole; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Elkins, Allison; Rivera, Ivonne; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Latinos consume more sugary drinks and less water than other demographic groups. Our objective was to understand beverage choice motivations and test promotional concepts that can encourage Central American Latino urban youth to drink more water. Two rounds of focus group discussions were conducted (n = 10 focus groups, 61 participants, 6-18 years old). Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive and deductive coding approaches. Youth motivations for drinking water were shaped by level of thirst, weather, energy, and perceptions of health benefits. Youth were discouraged from drinking water due to its taste and perceptions of the safety and cleanliness of tap water. Youth beverage preference depended on what their friends were drinking. Availability of water versus other beverages at home and other settings influenced their choice. Promotional materials that included mixed language, informative messages about the benefits of drinking water, and celebrities or athletes who were active, energized, and drinking water were preferred. A promotional campaign to increase water consumption among these Latino youth should include bicultural messages to underscore the power of water to quench true thirst, highlight the health benefits of drinking water, and address the safety of tap water.

  7. Head-out immersion in hot water increases serum BDNF in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takeshi; Banno, Motohiko; Umemoto, Yasunori; Kinoshita, Tokio; Ishida, Yuko; Tajima, Fumihiro

    2017-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important neurotrophin. The present study investigated the effects of head-out water immersion (HOI) on serum BDNF concentrations. Eight healthy men performed 20 min head-out water immersion at 42 °C (hot-HOI) and 35 °C (neutral-HOI). These experimental trials were administered in a randomised order separated by at least 7 days. Venous blood samples were withdrawn at rest, immediately after the 20-min HOI, as well as at 15 and 30 min after the end of the HOI. Serum BDNF and S100β, plasma cortisol, platelet and monocyte counts, and core body temperature (T cb ) were measured. T cb was higher at the end of the hot-HOI and 15 min after hot-HOI (p < 0.01), but recovered to pre-HOI level at 30 min after hot-HOI. No change in T cb was recorded during neutral-HOI. BDNF level was higher (p < 0.05) at the end of the hot-HOI and at 15 min after the end of hot-HOI, and returned to the baseline at 30 min after hot-HOI. S100β, platelet count and monocyte count remained stable throughout the study. Cortisol level was lower at the end of the hot-HOI and returned to pre-HOI level during the recovery period. BDNF and S100β, cortisol, and platelet and monocyte counts did not change throughout the neutral-HOI study. The present findings suggested that the increase in BDNF during 20-min hot-HOI was induced by hyperthermia through enhanced production, rather than by changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), platelet clotting mechanisms or secretion from monocytes.

  8. Use of Atomic Oxygen for Increased Water Contact Angles of Various Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim; Berger, Lauren; Roberts, Lily

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the hydrophilicity of nine different polymers for biomedical applications. Atomic oxygen treatment can alter the chemistry and morphology of polymer surfaces, which may increase the adhesion and spreading of cells on Petri dishes and enhance implant growth. Therefore, nine different polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen and water-contact angle, or hydrophilicity, was measured after exposure. To determine whether hydrophilicity remains static after initial atomic oxygen exposure, or changes with higher fluence exposures, the contact angles between the polymer and water droplet placed on the polymer s surface were measured versus AO fluence. The polymers were exposed to atomic oxygen in a 100-W, 13.56-MHz radio frequency (RF) plasma asher, and the treatment was found to significantly alter the hydrophilicity of non-fluorinated polymers. Pristine samples were compared with samples that had been exposed to AO at various fluence levels. Minimum and maximum fluences for the ashing trials were set based on the effective AO erosion of a Kapton witness coupon in the asher. The time intervals for ashing were determined by finding the logarithmic values of the minimum and maximum fluences. The difference of these two values was divided by the desired number of intervals (ideally 10). The initial desired fluence was then multiplied by this result (2.37), as was each subsequent desired fluence. The flux in the asher was determined to be approximately 3.0 x 10(exp 15) atoms/sq cm/sec, and each polymer was exposed to a maximum fluence of 5.16 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm.

  9. Heightened aggression and winning contests increase corticosterone but decrease testosterone in male Australian water dragons.

    PubMed

    Baird, Troy A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Water dragons (Intellegama [Physignathus] lesueurii) are large (to >1m) agamid lizards from eastern Australia. Males are fiercely combative; holding a territory requires incessant displays and aggression against other males. If a dominant male is absent, injured or fatigued, another male soon takes over his territory. Our sampling of blood from free-ranging adult males showed that baseline levels of both testosterone and corticosterone were not related to a male's social tactic (territorial versus non-territorial), or his frequency of advertisement display, aggression, or courtship behavior. Even when we elicited intense aggression by non-territorial males (by temporarily removing territory owners), testosterone did not increase with the higher levels of aggression that ensued. Indeed, testosterone levels decreased in males that won contests. In contrast, male corticosterone levels increased with the heightened aggression during unsettled conditions, and were higher in males that won contests. High chronic male-male competition in this dense population may favor high testosterone levels in all adult males to facilitate advertisement and patrol activities required for territory maintenance (by dominant animals), and to maintain readiness for territory take-overs (in non-territorial animals). Corticosterone levels increased in response to intense aggression during socially unstable conditions, and were higher in contest winners than losers. A positive correlation between the two hormones during socially unstable conditions suggests that the high stress of contests decreased androgen production. The persistent intense competition in this population appears to exact a high physiological cost, which together with our observation that males sometimes lose their territories to challengers may indicate cycling between these two tactics to manage long-term energetic costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimating Natural Recharge in a Desert Environment Facing Increasing Ground-Water Demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Hevesi, J. A.; Martin, P.

    2004-12-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the community of Joshua Tree in the Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin in the southern Mojave Desert. Joshua Basin Water District (JBWD) supplies water to the community from the underlying Joshua Tree ground-water subbasin, and ground-water withdrawals averaging about 960 acre-ft/yr have resulted in as much as 35 ft of drawdown. As growth continues in the desert, ground-water resources may need to be supplemented using imported water. To help meet future demands, JBWD plans to construct production wells in the adjacent Copper Mountain ground-water subbasin. To manage the ground-water resources and to identify future mitigating measures, a thorough understanding of the ground-water system is needed. To this end, field and numerical techniques were applied to determine the distribution and quantity of natural recharge. Field techniques included the installation of instrumented boreholes in selected washes and at a nearby control site. Numerical techniques included the use of a distributed-parameter watershed model and a ground-water flow model. The results from the field techniques indicated that as much as 70 acre-ft/yr of water infiltrated downward through the two principal washes during the study period (2001-3). The results from the watershed model indicated that the average annual recharge in the ground-water subbasins is about 160 acre-ft/yr. The results from the calibrated ground-water flow model indicated that the average annual recharge for the same area is about 125 acre-ft/yr. Although the field and numerical techniques were applied to different scales (local vs. large), all indicate that natural recharge in the Joshua Tree area is very limited; therefore, careful management of the limited ground-water resources is needed. Moreover, the calibrated model can now be used to estimate the effects of different water-management strategies on the ground-water

  11. Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) resin increases water demands and reduces energy availability in desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida).

    PubMed

    Mangione, Antonio M; Dearing, M Denise; Karasov, William H

    2004-07-01

    Although many plant secondary compounds are known to have serious consequences for herbivores, the costs of processing them are generally unknown. Two potential costs of ingestion and detoxification of secondary compounds are elevation of the minimum drinking water requirement and excretion of energetically expensive metabolites (i.e., glucuronides) in the urine. To address these impacts, we studied the costs of ingestion of resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) on desert woodrats (Neotoma lepida). The following hypotheses were tested: ingestion of creosote resin by woodrats (1) increases minimum water requirement and (2) reduces energy available by increasing fecal and urinary energy losses. We tested the first hypothesis, by measuring the minimum water requirement of woodrats fed a control diet with and without creosote resin. Drinking water was given in decreasing amounts until woodrats could no longer maintain constant body mass. In two separate experiments, the minimum drinking water requirement of woodrats fed resin was higher than that of controls by 18-30% (about 1-1.7 ml/d). We tested several potential mechanisms of increased water loss associated with the increase in water requirement. The rate of fecal water loss was higher in woodrats consuming resin. Neither urinary water nor evaporative water loss was affected by ingestion of resin. Hypothesis 2 was tested by measuring energy fluxes of woodrats consuming control vs. resin-treated diets. Woodrats on a resin diet had higher urinary energy losses and, thus, metabolized a lower proportion of the dietary energy than did woodrats on control diet. Fecal energy excretion was not affected by resin. The excretion of glucuronic acid represented almost half of the energy lost as a consequence of resin ingestion. The increased water requirement and energy losses of woodrats consuming a diet with resin could have notable ecological consequences.

  12. Increased skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate in mice expressing a constitutively active STAT6 in T cells.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, Sonia C; Sahu, Ravi P; Konger, Raymond L; Perkins, Susan M; Kaplan, Mark H; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of Th2 cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) to regulate skin barrier function may be a predisposing factor for AD development. The present studies examined the ability of increased Th2 activity to affect cutaneous barrier function in vivo and epidermal thickening. Mice that express a constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6VT) have increased Th2 cells and a predisposition to allergic inflammation were used in these studies, they demonstrate that topical treatment with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) caused increased transepidermal water loss and epidermal thickening in STAT6VT mice over similarly treated wild-type mice. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was increased in the epidermis of STAT6VT compared to the wild-type mice. However, these differences do not appear to be linked to the addition of an irritant as control-treated STAT6VT skin also exhibited elevated Ki-67 levels, suggesting that the increased epidermal thickness in SLS-treated STAT6VT mice is primarily driven by epidermal cell hypertrophy rather than an increase in cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that an environment with increased Th2 cytokines results in abnormal responses to topical irritants.

  13. Increased skin barrier disruption by sodium lauryl sulfate in mice expressing a constitutively active STAT6 in T cells

    PubMed Central

    DaSilva, Sonia C.; Sahu, Ravi P.; Konger, Raymond L.; Perkins, Susan M.; Kaplan, Mark H.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a pruritic, chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 10–20% of children and 1–3% of adults worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that the ability of Th2 cytokines such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) to regulate skin barrier function may be a predisposing factor for AD development. The present studies examined the ability of increased Th2 activity to affect cutaneous barrier function in vivo and epidermal thickening. Mice that express a constitutively active Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6VT) have increased Th2 cells and a predisposition to allergic inflammation were used in these studies; they demonstrate that topical treatment with the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) caused increased transepidermal water loss and epidermal thickening in STAT6VT mice over similarly treated wild-type mice. The proliferation marker Ki-67 was increased in the epidermis of STAT6VT compared to wild-type mice. However, these differences do not appear to be linked to the addition of an irritant as control-treated STAT6VT skin also exhibited elevated Ki-67 levels, suggesting that the increased epidermal thickness in SLS-treated STAT6VT mice is primarily driven by epidermal cell hypertrophy rather than an increase in cellular proliferation. Our results suggest that an environment with increased Th2 cytokines results in abnormal responses to topical irritants. PMID:21959772

  14. Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase and fat accumulation in migratory blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    PubMed

    Tsurim, Ido; Sapir, Nir; Belmaker, Jonathan; Shanni, Itai; Izhaki, Ido; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Karasov, William H; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-05-01

    Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water. Birds staging in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water increased their body mass and fat reserves both faster and to a greater extent than birds deprived of water. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments on birds captured during the autumn migration period in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birds' dietary choices and, consequently, feeding and food processing rates, and that the availability of drinking water leads to improved digestion and, therefore, to higher apparent metabolizable energy. Blackcaps were trapped in autumn in the Northern Negev Desert, Israel and transferred to individual cages in the laboratory. Birds were provided with P. atlantica fruit and mealworms, and had either free access to water (controls) or were water-deprived. In experiment 1, in which mealworm availability was restricted, water-deprived birds had a fourfold lower fruit and energy intake rates and, consequently, gained less fat and total mass than control birds. Water availability did not affect food metabolizability. In experiment 2, in which mealworms were provided ad libitum, water availability influenced the birds' diet: water-restricted birds ate more mealworms, while control birds consumed mainly P. atlantica fruit. Further, in experiment 2, fat and mass gain did not differ between the two treatment groups. We conclude that water availability may have important consequences for fat accumulation in migrating birds while they fatten at stopover sites, especially when water-rich food is scarce. Restricted water availability may also impede the blackcap's dietary shift from insectivory to frugivory, a shift probably necessary for successful pre-migratory fattening.

  15. Increases in desert shrub productivity under elevated carbon dioxide vary with water availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Housman, D.C.; Naumburg, E.; Huxman, T. E.; Charlet, T.N.; Nowak, R.S.; Smith, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    Productivity of aridland plants is predicted to increase substantially with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations due to enhancement in plant water-use efficiency (WUE). However, to date, there are few detailed analyses of how intact desert vegetation responds to elevated CO2. From 1998 to 2001, we examined aboveground production, photosynthesis, and water relations within three species exposed to ambient (around 38 Pa) or elevated (55 Pa) CO2 concentrations at the Nevada Desert Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Facility in southern Nevada, USA. The functional types sampled - evergreen (Larrea tridentata), drought-deciduous (Ambrosia dumosa), and winter-deciduous shrubs (Krameria erecta) - represent potentially different responses to elevated CO2 in this ecosystem. We found elevated CO2 significantly increased aboveground production in all three species during an anomalously wet year (1998), with relative production ratios (elevated:ambient CO2) ranging from 1.59 (Krameria) to 2.31 (Larrea). In three below-average rainfall years (1999-2001), growth was much reduced in all species, with only Ambrosia in 2001 having significantly higher production under elevated CO2. Integrated photosynthesis (mol CO2 m-2 y-1) in the three species was 1.26-2.03-fold higher under elevated CO2 in the wet year (1998) and 1.32-1.43-fold higher after the third year of reduced rainfall (2001). Instantaneous WUE was also higher in shrubs grown under elevated CO2. The timing of peak canopy development did not change under elevated CO2; for example, there was no observed extension of leaf longevity into the dry season in the deciduous species. Similarly, seasonal patterns in CO2 assimilation did not change, except for Larrea. Therefore, phenological and physiological patterns that characterize Mojave Desert perennials - early-season lags in canopy development behind peak photosynthetic capacity, coupled with reductions in late-season photosynthetic capacity prior to reductions

  16. Consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa acutely increases microcirculation in human skin.

    PubMed

    Neukam, Karin; Stahl, Wilhelm; Tronnier, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2007-02-01

    Long term cocoa ingestion leads to an increased resistance against UV-induced erythema and a lowered transepidermal water loss. To investigate the acute effects of a single dose of cocoa rich in flavanols on dermal microcirculation. In a crossover design study, 10 healthy women ingested a cocoa drink (100 ml) with high (329 mg) or low (27 mg) content of flavanols. The major flavanol monomer in both drinks was epicatechin, 61 mg in the high flavanol, and 6.6 mg in the low flavanol product per 100 ml. Dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin were examined by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectroscopically at 1 mm skin depth at t = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. At the same time points, plasma levels of total epicatechin (free compound plus conjugates) were measured by means of HPLC. Subsequent to the intake of high flavanol cocoa, dermal blood flow was significantly increased by 1.7-fold at t = 2 h and oxygen saturation was elevated 1.8-fold. No statistically significant changes were found upon intake of low flavanol cocoa. Maximum plasma levels of total epicatechin were observed 1 h after ingestion of the high flavanol cocoa drink, 11.6 +/- 7.4 nmol/l at baseline, and 62.9 +/- 35.8 nmol/l at 1 h. No change of total epicatechin was found in the low flavanol group. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption acutely increases dermal blood flow and oxygen saturation.

  17. Incubating rainbow trout in soft water increased their later sensitivity to cadmium and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.; Hennessy, Daniel P.; Dillon, Frank S.

    2010-01-01

    Water hardness is well known to affect the toxicity of some metals; however, reports on the influence of hardness during incubation or acclimation on later toxicity to metals have been conflicting. We incubated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) near the confluence of two streams, one with soft water and one with very-soft water (average incubation hardnesses of about 21 and 11 mg/L as CaCO3, respectively). After developing to the swim-up stage, the fish were exposed for 96-h to a mixture of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in water with a hardness of 27 mg/L as CaCO3. The fish incubated in the higher hardness water were about two times more resistant than the fish incubated in the extremely soft water. This difference was similar or greater than the difference that would have been predicted by criteria hardness equations had the fish been tested in the different acclimation waters. We think it is plausible that the energy demands for fish to maintain homeostasis in the lower hardness water make the fish more sensitive to metals that inhibit ionoregulation such as Cd and Zn. We suggest that if important decisions were to be based upon test results, assumptions of adequate hardness acclimation should be carefully considered and short acclimation periods avoided. If practical, incubating rainbow trout in the control waters to be tested may reduce uncertainties in the possible influences of differing rearing water hardness on the test results.

  18. Fluorescence spectroscopy for field surveillance of THM formation precursors to increase sustainable drinking water treatment for the water industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutter, Marc; Cooper, Pat; Wyness, Adam; Allan, Richard; Weir, Paul; Frogbrook, Zoe; Haffey, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the composition and diversity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is improving rapidly with techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy. For the water industry issues of the reaction of DOM and different processes used to reduce microbial contamination in water for public supply are a pressing concern. A range of processes can be used but the common disinfection by free chlorine can react with DOM to produce a group of substances referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs) that have been linked to health concerns. Hence, management at water treatment works aims to remove DOM prior to the disinfection reaction or change the treatment method. Both are costly financially and in terms of process chemical, such as coagulents that work variably with different DOM forms. Hence, enabling methods of catchment management, which have long been associated with tackling other forms of pollution (e.g. N, P) through source-pathway-receptor concepts, are options for the water industry where catchment raw water source management is a possible sustainable addition to conventional treatment. This presentation looks at the requirements and ongoing work to inform source water management options using bench-top fluorescence excitation-emission spectroscopy and hand-held sensors to detect DBP precursors, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), in complex multi-source environments. We start by introducing the forms of DOM discernible in the fluorescence excitation-emission matrix, how these have been ascribed to different compounds by previous studies and what wavelengths are available for in-situ detection. We then discuss methodology issues for sample storage and standard materials. Then we draw on results from a national set of Scottish catchments and a small catchment study to evaluate relationships between THM compounds from standard assay and GC-MS detection against spectral DOM surrogates, including catchment hydrochemical and spatial data covariates

  19. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Dunne, J. P.; John, J.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1) shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., suboxic) waters does not increase under global warming, as these waters actually become more oxygenated. We show that the rise in dissolved oxygen in the tropical Pacific is associated with a drop in ventilation time. A term-by-term analysis within the least oxygenated waters shows an increased supply of dissolved oxygen due to lateral diffusion compensating an increase in remineralization within these highly hypoxic waters. This lateral diffusive flux is the result of an increase of ventilation along the Chilean coast, as a drying of the region under global warming opens up a region of wintertime convection in our model. The results highlight the potential sensitivity of suboxic waters to changes in subtropical ventilation as well as the importance of constraining lateral eddy transport of dissolved oxygen in such waters.

  20. Low-water activity foods: increased concern as vehicles of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Komitopoulou, Evangelia; Beckers, Harry; Betts, Roy P; Bourdichon, François; Fanning, Séamus; Joosten, Han M; Ter Kuile, Benno H

    2013-01-01

    Foods and food ingredients with low water activity (a(w)) have been implicated with increased frequency in recent years as vehicles for pathogens that have caused outbreaks of illnesses. Some of these foodborne pathogens can survive for several months, even years, in low-a(w) foods and in dry food processing and preparation environments. Foodborne pathogens in low-a(w) foods often exhibit an increased tolerance to heat and other treatments that are lethal to cells in high-a(w) environments. It is virtually impossible to eliminate these pathogens in many dry foods or dry food ingredients without impairing organoleptic quality. Control measures should therefore focus on preventing contamination, which is often a much greater challenge than designing efficient control measures for high-a(w) foods. The most efficient approaches to prevent contamination are based on hygienic design, zoning, and implementation of efficient cleaning and sanitation procedures in the food processing environment. Methodologies to improve the sensitivity and speed of assays to resuscitate desiccated cells of foodborne pathogens and to detect them when present in dry foods in very low numbers should be developed. The goal should be to advance our knowledge of the behavior of foodborne pathogens in low-a(w) foods and food ingredients, with the ultimate aim of developing and implementing interventions that will reduce foodborne illness associated with this food category. Presented here are some observations on survival and persistence of foodborne pathogens in low-a(w) foods, selected outbreaks of illnesses associated with consumption of these foods, and approaches to minimize safety risks.

  1. White-nose syndrome increases torpid metabolic rate and evaporative water loss in hibernating bats.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Liam P; Mayberry, Heather W; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Fungal diseases of wildlife typically manifest as superficial skin infections but can have devastating consequences for host physiology and survival. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a fungal skin disease that has killed millions of hibernating bats in North America since 2007. Infection with the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans causes bats to rewarm too often during hibernation, but the cause of increased arousal rates remains unknown. On the basis of data from studies of captive and free-living bats, two mechanistic models have been proposed to explain disease processes in WNS. Key predictions of both models are that WNS-affected bats will show 1 ) higher metabolic rates during torpor (TMR) and 2 ) higher rates of evaporative water loss (EWL). We collected bats from a WNS-negative hibernaculum, inoculated one group with P. destructans , and sham-inoculated a second group as controls. After 4 mo of hibernation, TMR and EWL were measured using respirometry. Both predictions were supported, and our data suggest that infected bats were more affected by variation in ambient humidity than controls. Furthermore, disease severity, as indicated by the area of the wing with UV fluorescence, was positively correlated with EWL, but not TMR. Our results provide the first direct evidence that heightened energy expenditure during torpor and higher EWL independently contribute to WNS pathophysiology, with implications for the design of potential treatments for the disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Leaf water storage increases with salinity and aridity in the mangrove Avicennia marina: integration of leaf structure, osmotic adjustment and access to multiple water sources.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa T; Meir, Patrick; Sack, Lawren; Evans, John R; Oliveira, Rafael S; Ball, Marilyn C

    2017-08-01

    Leaf structure and water relations were studied in a temperate population of Avicennia marina subsp. australasica along a natural salinity gradient [28 to 49 parts per thousand (ppt)] and compared with two subspecies grown naturally in similar soil salinities to those of subsp. australasica but under different climates: subsp. eucalyptifolia (salinity 30 ppt, wet tropics) and subsp. marina (salinity 46 ppt, arid tropics). Leaf thickness, leaf dry mass per area and water content increased with salinity and aridity. Turgor loss point declined with increase in soil salinity, driven mainly by differences in osmotic potential at full turgor. Nevertheless, a high modulus of elasticity (ε) contributed to maintenance of high cell hydration at turgor loss point. Despite similarity among leaves in leaf water storage capacitance, total leaf water storage increased with increasing salinity and aridity. The time that stored water alone could sustain an evaporation rate of 1 mmol m -2  s -1 ranged from 77 to 126 min from subspecies eucalyptifolia to ssp. marina, respectively. Achieving full leaf hydration or turgor would require water from sources other than the roots, emphasizing the importance of multiple water sources to growth and survival of Avicennia marina across gradients in salinity and aridity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases relative apoplastic water flow in roots of the host plant under both well-watered and drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Paz, José Antonio; Chaumont, François; Martinez-Ballesta, Mari Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2012-04-01

    The movement of water through mycorrhizal fungal tissues and between the fungus and roots is little understood. It has been demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis regulates root hydraulic properties, including root hydraulic conductivity. However, it is not clear whether this effect is due to a regulation of root aquaporins (cell-to-cell pathway) or to enhanced apoplastic water flow. Here we measured the relative contributions of the apoplastic versus the cell-to-cell pathway for water movement in roots of AM and non-AM plants. We used a combination of two experiments using the apoplastic tracer dye light green SF yellowish and sodium azide as an inhibitor of aquaporin activity. Plant water and physiological status, root hydraulic conductivity and apoplastic water flow were measured. Roots of AM plants enhanced significantly relative apoplastic water flow as compared with non-AM plants and this increase was evident under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. The presence of the AM fungus in the roots of the host plants was able to modulate the switching between apoplastic and cell-to-cell water transport pathways. The ability of AM plants to switch between water transport pathways could allow a higher flexibility in the response of these plants to water shortage according to the demand from the shoot.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases relative apoplastic water flow in roots of the host plant under both well-watered and drought stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bárzana, Gloria; Aroca, Ricardo; Paz, José Antonio; Chaumont, François; Martinez-Ballesta, Mari Carmen; Carvajal, Micaela; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The movement of water through mycorrhizal fungal tissues and between the fungus and roots is little understood. It has been demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis regulates root hydraulic properties, including root hydraulic conductivity. However, it is not clear whether this effect is due to a regulation of root aquaporins (cell-to-cell pathway) or to enhanced apoplastic water flow. Here we measured the relative contributions of the apoplastic versus the cell-to-cell pathway for water movement in roots of AM and non-AM plants. Methods We used a combination of two experiments using the apoplastic tracer dye light green SF yellowish and sodium azide as an inhibitor of aquaporin activity. Plant water and physiological status, root hydraulic conductivity and apoplastic water flow were measured. Key Results Roots of AM plants enhanced significantly relative apoplastic water flow as compared with non-AM plants and this increase was evident under both well-watered and drought stress conditions. The presence of the AM fungus in the roots of the host plants was able to modulate the switching between apoplastic and cell-to-cell water transport pathways. Conclusions The ability of AM plants to switch between water transport pathways could allow a higher flexibility in the response of these plants to water shortage according to the demand from the shoot. PMID:22294476

  5. The cost of meeting increased cooling-water demands for CO2 capture and storage utilizing non-traditional waters from geologic saline formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klise, Geoffrey T.; Roach, Jesse D.; Kobos, Peter H.; Heath, Jason E.; Gutierrez, Karen A.

    2013-05-01

    Deep (> ˜800 m) saline water-bearing formations in the United States have substantial pore volume that is targeted for storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the associated saline water can be extracted to increase CO2 storage efficiency, manage pressure build up, and create a new water source that, once treated, can be used for power-plant cooling or other purposes. Extraction, treatment and disposal costs of saline formation water to meet added water demands from CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. This underutilized water source may be important in meeting new water demand associated with CCS. For a representative natural gas combined-cycle (NGCC) power plant, simultaneous extraction of brine from the storage formation could provide enough water to meet all CCS-related cooling demands for 177 out of the 185 (96 %) saline formations analyzed in this study. Calculated total cost of water extraction, treatment and disposal is less than 4.00 US Dollars (USD) m-3 for 93 % of the 185 formations considered. In 90 % of 185 formations, treated water costs are less than 10.00 USD tonne-1 of CO2 injected. On average, this represents approximately 6 % of the total CO2 capture and injection costs for the NGCC scenario.

  6. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    PubMed

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A hairy-leaf gene, BLANKET LEAF, of wild Oryza nivara increases photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice.

    PubMed

    Hamaoka, Norimitsu; Yasui, Hideshi; Yamagata, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Yoko; Furuya, Naruto; Araki, Takuya; Ueno, Osamu; Yoshimura, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles. Linkage analysis in BC 5 F 2 and F 3 populations showed that the trait was governed by a single gene, designated BLANKET LEAF (BKL), on chromosome 6. IL-hairy plants had a warmer leaf surface in sunlight, probably due to increased boundary layer resistance. They had a lower transpiration rate under moderate and high light intensities, resulting in higher photosynthetic water use efficiency. Introgression of BKL on chromosome 6 from O. nivara improved photosynthetic water use efficiency in the genetic background of IR24.

  8. Mineral water administration may increase kidney elimination of urea, creatinine and folic acid in a concentration-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Calomino, Francesco; Di Paolo, Nicola; Nicolai, Giulia; Miglio, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    In a previous experimental study we showed that the administration of a large water load in a short time increases the urinary flow and the transport capacity in the excretory tract of the rabbit ureter. In human subjects drinking a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 30 minutes, diuresis, creatinine and urea clearance increase more than in those drinking the same load in 24 hours. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible correlations between percent reduction and baseline values of serum urea, creatinine, folic acid, and magnesium in humans. 20 volunteers were divided in two groups. Subjects in group 1 received a water load of 25 ml/kg(BW) in 24 hours followed by the same load in 30 minutes. Subjects in group 2 received the same water load but in inverse order. Before and after each water administration, the following variables were measured and compared: diuresis, serum urea, creatinine, folic acid and magnesium concentration, and urea and creatinine clearance. Serum urea and folic acid concentration decreased up to 40% after administration of the water load in 24 hours. Serum creatinine concentration decreased up to 20% after administration of the water load in 30 minutes. The concentration drop of these metabolites increased with increasing baseline metabolite concentrations.

  9. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system.

    PubMed

    Schenk, A; Porter, A L; Alenciks, E; Frazier, K; Best, A A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2016-04-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n=1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n=8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks' body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P<0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P<0.001), nitrites (P<0.001), pH (P<0.01), and bacterial growth (P<0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P<0.001)E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcusin the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P=0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P=0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  10. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P < 0.001) scores for eyes, nostrils, feather quality, feather cleanliness, and foot pads. We also compared water condition, water quality, and duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P < 0.001), nitrites (P < 0.001), pH (P < 0.01), and bacterial growth (P < 0.001). The bacterial growth was shown to have higher (P < 0.001) E. coli, coliforms, and Staphylococcus in the water troughs. Water lines typically showed no bacterial growth in culture-based assays. Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  11. Predicting impacts of increased CO₂ and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO(2) concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO(2), precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO(2) concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO(3)-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO(3)-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  13. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  14. Collision activity during training increases total energy expenditure measured via doubly labelled water.

    PubMed

    Costello, Nessan; Deighton, Kevin; Preston, Thomas; Matu, Jamie; Rowe, Joshua; Sawczuk, Thomas; Halkier, Matt; Read, Dale B; Weaving, Daniel; Jones, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Collision sports are characterised by frequent high-intensity collisions that induce substantial muscle damage, potentially increasing the energetic cost of recovery. Therefore, this study investigated the energetic cost of collision-based activity for the first time across any sport. Using a randomised crossover design, six professional young male rugby league players completed two different 5-day pre-season training microcycles. Players completed either a collision (COLL; 20 competitive one-on-one collisions) or non-collision (nCOLL; matched for kinematic demands, excluding collisions) training session on the first day of each microcycle, exactly 7 days apart. All remaining training sessions were matched and did not involve any collision-based activity. Total energy expenditure was measured using doubly labelled water, the literature gold standard. Collisions resulted in a very likely higher (4.96 ± 0.97 MJ; ES = 0.30 ± 0.07; p = 0.0021) total energy expenditure across the 5-day COLL training microcycle (95.07 ± 16.66 MJ) compared with the nCOLL training microcycle (90.34 ± 16.97 MJ). The COLL training session also resulted in a very likely higher (200 ± 102 AU; ES = 1.43 ± 0.74; p = 0.007) session rating of perceived exertion and a very likely greater (- 14.6 ± 3.3%; ES = - 1.60 ± 0.51; p = 0.002) decrease in wellbeing 24 h later. A single collision training session considerably increased total energy expenditure. This may explain the large energy expenditures of collision-sport athletes, which appear to exceed kinematic training and match demands. These findings suggest fuelling professional collision-sport athletes appropriately for the "muscle damage caused" alongside the kinematic "work required".

  15. The stay green mutations d1 and d2 increase water stress susceptibility in soybeans.

    PubMed

    Luquez, Virginia M; Guiamét, Juan J

    2002-06-01

    The stay green mutant genotype d1d1d2d2 inhibits the breakdown of chloroplast components in senescing leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Together with G (a gene that preserves chlorophyll in the seed coat) they may extend photosynthetic activity in some conditions. While wild-type soybeans maintain high leaf water potentials right up to abscission, leaves of (GG)d1d1d2d2 dehydrate late in senescence, which suggests that water relations may be altered in the mutant. Three-week-old plants were subjected to a moderate water deficit (soil water potential=-0.7 MPa) for 7-10 d. Leaf water potential and relative water content decreased significantly more in response to water deficit in unifoliate leaves of GGd1d1d2d2 than in a near-isogenic wild-type line. Down-regulation of stomatal conductance in response to drought was similar in mutant and wild-type leaves. Likewise, exogenously applied ABA reduced stomatal conductance to a similar extent in the mutant and the wild type, and applied ABA failed to restore water deficit tolerance in GGd1d1d2d2. Experiments with explants lacking roots indicate that the accelerated dehydration of GGd1d1d2d2 is probably not due to alterations in the roots. In a comparison of near-isogenic lines carrying different combinations of d1, d2 and G, only d1d1d2d2 and GGd1d1d2d2 (i.e. the genotypes that cause the stay green phenotype) were more susceptible to water deficit than the wild type. These data suggest that pathways involved in chloroplast disassembly and in the regulation of stress responses may be intertwined and controlled by the same factors.

  16. Symbiosis with AMF and leaf Pi supply increases water deficit tolerance of woody species from seasonal dry tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Frosi, Gabriella; Barros, Vanessa A; Oliveira, Marciel T; Santos, Mariana; Ramos, Diego G; Maia, Leonor C; Santos, Mauro G

    2016-12-01

    In seasonal dry tropical forests, plants are subjected to severe water deficit, and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) or inorganic phosphorus supply (P i ) can mitigate the effects of water deficit. This study aimed to assess the physiological performance of Poincianella pyramidalis subjected to water deficit in combination with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and leaf inorganic phosphorus (P i ) supply. The experiment was conducted in a factorial arrangement of 2 water levels (+H 2 O and -H 2 O), 2 AMF levels (+AMF and -AMF) and 2P i levels (+P i and -P i ). Leaf primary metabolism, dry shoot biomass and leaf mineral nutrients were evaluated. Inoculated AMF plants under well-watered and drought conditions had higher photosynthesis and higher shoot biomass. Under drought, AMF, P i or AMF+P i plants showed metabolic improvements in photosynthesis, leaf biochemistry and higher biomass compared to the plants under water deficit without AMF or P i . After rehydration, those plants submitted to drought with AMF, P i or AMF+P i showed a faster recovery of photosynthesis compared to treatment under water deficit without AMF or P i . However, plants under the drought condition with AMF showed a higher net photosynthesis rate. These findings suggest that AMF, P i or AMF+P i increase the drought tolerance in P. pyramidalis, and AMF associations under well-watered conditions increase shoot biomass and, under drought, promoted faster recovery of photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Water deficit in field-grown Gossypium hirsutum primarily limits net photosynthesis by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chastain, Daryl R; Snider, John L; Collins, Guy D; Perry, Calvin D; Whitaker, Jared; Byrd, Seth A

    2014-11-01

    Much effort has been expended to improve irrigation efficiency and drought tolerance of agronomic crops; however, a clear understanding of the physiological mechanisms that interact to decrease source strength and drive yield loss has not been attained. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms contributing to inhibition of net carbon assimilation under drought stress, three cultivars of Gossypium hirsutum were grown in the field under contrasting irrigation regimes during the 2012 and 2013 growing season near Camilla, Georgia, USA. Physiological measurements were conducted on three sample dates during each growing season (providing a broad range of plant water status) and included, predawn and midday leaf water potential (ΨPD and ΨMD), gross and net photosynthesis, dark respiration, photorespiration, and chlorophyll a fluorescence. End-of-season lint yield was also determined. ΨPD ranged from -0.31 to -0.95MPa, and ΨMD ranged from -1.02 to -2.67MPa, depending upon irrigation regime and sample date. G. hirsutum responded to water deficit by decreasing stomatal conductance, increasing photorespiration, and increasing the ratio of dark respiration to gross photosynthesis, thereby limiting PN and decreasing lint yield (lint yield declines observed during the 2012 growing season only). Conversely, even extreme water deficit, causing a 54% decline in PN, did not negatively affect actual quantum yield, maximum quantum yield, or photosynthetic electron transport. It is concluded that PN is primarily limited in drought-stressed G. hirsutum by decreased stomatal conductance, along with increases in respiratory and photorespiratory carbon losses, not inhibition or down-regulation of electron transport through photosystem II. It is further concluded that ΨPD is a reliable indicator of drought stress and the need for irrigation in field-grown cotton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Increasing water intake influences hunger and food preference, but does not reliably suppress energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Belous, Ilona V; Temple, Jennifer L

    2018-04-17

    Increasing water intake is often purported to reduce energy intake, and is recommended as a weight loss strategy. The few experimental studies that have been conducted to verify these claims have examined the impact of a single pre-load of water before a meal. Although correlational data indicate a relationship between hydration, energy intake, and weight status, there is very little experimental research in this area. The current studies examined the hypothesis that elevated hydration, through increased water intake, would suppress energy intake. In Experiment 1, participants (n = 49) were asked to consume either one, two, or three 500 ml bottles of water throughout the morning before a lunch buffet in the laboratory. When participants categorized as normal weight drank three bottles of water they consumed less energy at lunch, but there was no effect on participants categorized as overweight or obese. In addition, increased water intake suppressed liking of food items in all participants and hunger in females. A follow-up study (n = 45) was conducted to test if four bottles of water throughout the morning would result in a similar energy suppression in participants categorized as overweight or obese. Surprisingly, in the second experiment, there was no effect of water intake on energy intake at lunch in any of the conditions. There was, however, a similar suppression of hunger and food liking. In conclusion, increasing water intake throughout the morning only suppressed energy intake in individuals categorized as normal weight under certain circumstances, and had no effect on individuals categorized as overweight/obese. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Increased Water Storage at Ice-stream Onsets: A Critical Mechanism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Choi, Hyeungu

    2007-01-01

    The interdependence of rapid ice flow, surface topography and the spatial distribution of subglacial water are examined by linking existing theories. The motivation is to investigate whether the acceleration of an ice-stream tributary contains a positive feedback that encourages the retention of subglacial water that leads to faster flow. Periodically varying surface and bed topographies are related through a linear ice-flow perturbation theory for various values of mean surface slope, perturbation amplitude and basal sliding speeds. The topographic variations lead to a periodic variation in hydraulic potential that is used to infer the tendency for subglacial water to be retained in local hydraulic potential minima. If water retention leads to enhanced basal sliding, a positive feedback loop is closed that could explain the transition from slower tributary flow to faster-streaming flow and the sustained downstream acceleration along the tributary-ice-stream system. A sensitivity study illustrates that the same range of topographic wavelengths most effectively transmitted from the bed to the surface also strongly influences the behavior of subglacial water. A lubrication index is defined to qualitatively measure the heterogeneity of the subglacial hydrologic system. Application of this index to field data shows that the transition from tributary to ice stream closely agrees with the location where subglacial water may be first stored.

  20. Association between domestic water hardness, chlorine, and atopic dermatitis risk in early life: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Michael R; Craven, Joanna; Logan, Kirsty; Strachan, David; Marrs, Tom; Radulovic, Suzana; Campbell, Linda E; MacCallum, Stephanie F; McLean, W H Irwin; Lack, Gideon; Flohr, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    Domestic water hardness and chlorine have been suggested as important risk factors for atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to examine the link between domestic water calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and chlorine concentrations, skin barrier dysfunction (increased transepidermal water loss), and AD in infancy. We recruited 1303 three-month-old infants from the general population and gathered data on domestic water CaCO3 (in milligrams per liter) and chlorine (Cl2; in milligrams per liter) concentrations from local water suppliers. At enrollment, infants were examined for AD and screened for filaggrin (FLG) skin barrier gene mutation status. Transepidermal water loss was measured on unaffected forearm skin. CaCO3 and chlorine levels were strongly correlated. A hybrid variable of greater than and less than median levels of CaCO3 and total chlorine was constructed: a baseline group of low CaCO3/low total chlorine (CaL/ClL), high CaCO3/low total chlorine (CaH/ClL), low CaCO3/high total chlorine (CaL/ClH) and high CaCO3/high total chlorine (CaH/ClH). Visible AD was more common in all 3 groups versus the baseline group: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.80; P = .002) for the CaH/ClL group, AOR of 1.46 (95% CI, 0.97-2.21; P = .07) for the CaL/ClH, and AOR of 1.61 (95% CI, 1.09-2.38; P = .02) for the CaH/ClH group. The effect estimates were greater in children carrying FLG mutations, but formal interaction testing between water quality groups and filaggrin status was not statistically significant. High domestic water CaCO3 levels are associated with an increased risk of AD in infancy. The influence of increased total chlorine levels remains uncertain. An intervention trial is required to see whether installation of a domestic device to decrease CaCO3 levels around the time of birth can reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation of proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand, New Jersey coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.

    2006-01-01

    The confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system (surficial aquifer) are major sources of water for southeastern New Jersey. Because of recent concerns about streamflow depletion resulting from ground-water withdrawals and the potential ecological effects on stream habitat in the area, the focus on future withdrawals has been shifted away from the surficial aquifer to the confined Atlantic City 800-foot sand until the effects of increased withdrawals from the surficial aquifer can be investigated. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of seven proposed increases in ground-water withdrawals from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system on the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. The proposed withdrawals are increases above the 2004 allocated rates (full allocation). The effects of full-allocation ground-water withdrawals and the cumulative effect of withdrawals for each of seven proposed increases in withdrawals were simulated using three previously published ground-water flow models: the New Jersey Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer System Analysis model, the Coastal Plain Optimization model, and a model of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in Atlantic County, New Jersey. These models were used to simulate changes in water levels, the source supplying the increased ground-water flow, and the effects on saltwater movement towards production wells in Cape May County as a result of the proposed increased withdrawals at proposed or existing wells. The results of the simulations represent the effects of the proposed increase from full-allocation withdrawals to an additional 1,825 Mgal/yr (million gallons per year) from the Atlantic City 800-foot sand and an additional 1,045 Mgal/yr from the deep part of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system near the updip limit of the Atlantic City 800-foot sand. Most of the simulated decline in water levels in Atlantic County occurred as the result of the proposed

  2. Herbivorous snails can increase water clarity by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiufeng; Taylor, William D; Rudstam, Lars G

    2017-11-01

    Eutrophication in shallow lakes is characterized by a switch from benthic to pelagic dominance of primary productivity that leads to turbid water, while benthification is characterized by a shift in primary production from the pelagic zone to the benthos associated with clear water. A 12-week mesocosm experiment tested the hypothesis that the herbivorous snail Bellamya aeruginosa stimulates the growth of pelagic algae through grazing on benthic algae and through accelerating nutrient release from sediment. A tube-microcosm experiment using 32 P-PO 4 as a tracer tested the effects of the snails on the release of sediment phosphorus (P). The mesocosm experiment recorded greater total nitrogen (TN) concentrations and a higher ratio of TN:TP in the overlying water, and a higher light intensity and biomass of benthic algae as measured by chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the snail treatment than in the control. Concentrations of total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSSs), and inorganic suspended solids (ISSs) in the overlying water were lower in the snail treatment than in the control, though no significant difference in Chl a of pelagic algae between the snail treatment and control was observed. In the microcosm experiment, 32 P activity in the overlying water was higher in the snail treatment than in the control, indicating that snails accelerated P release from the sediment. Our interpretation of these results is that snails enhanced growth of benthic algae and thereby improved water clarity despite grazing on the benthic algae and enhancing P release from the sediment. The rehabilitation of native snail populations may therefore enhance the recovery of eutrophic shallow lakes to a clear water state by stimulating growth of benthic algae.

  3. More efficient irrigation may compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements due to climate change in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. We will present a recently published study1 that estimates the current level of water demand for Mediterranean agriculture and simulates the potential impacts of climate change, population growth and transitions to water-saving irrigation and conveyance technologies. The results indicate that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems, with large differences in the saving potentials across countries. Under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean. Both the Eastern and the Southern Mediterranean would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect. However, in some scenarios water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain. In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a large development2 that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops.

  4. 21st century United States emissions mitigation could increase water stress more than the climate change it is mitigating.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Mohamad I; Voisin, Nathalie; Liu, Lu; Bramer, Lisa M; Fortin, Daniel C; Hathaway, John E; Huang, Maoyi; Kyle, Page; Leung, L Ruby; Li, Hong-Yi; Liu, Ying; Patel, Pralit L; Pulsipher, Trenton C; Rice, Jennie S; Tesfa, Teklu K; Vernon, Chris R; Zhou, Yuyu

    2015-08-25

    There is evidence that warming leads to greater evapotranspiration and surface drying, thus contributing to increasing intensity and duration of drought and implying that mitigation would reduce water stresses. However, understanding the overall impact of climate change mitigation on water resources requires accounting for the second part of the equation, i.e., the impact of mitigation-induced changes in water demands from human activities. By using integrated, high-resolution models of human and natural system processes to understand potential synergies and/or constraints within the climate-energy-water nexus, we show that in the United States, over the course of the 21st century and under one set of consistent socioeconomics, the reductions in water stress from slower rates of climate change resulting from emission mitigation are overwhelmed by the increased water stress from the emissions mitigation itself. The finding that the human dimension outpaces the benefits from mitigating climate change is contradictory to the general perception that climate change mitigation improves water conditions. This research shows the potential for unintended and negative consequences of climate change mitigation.

  5. Biochar increased water holding capacity but accelerated organic carbon leaching from a sloping farmland soil in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Honglan; Tang, Xiangyu; Guan, Zhuo; Reid, Brian J; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ok, Yong Sik; Sun, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A hydrologically contained field study, to assess biochar (produced from mixed crop straws) influence upon soil hydraulic properties and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching, was conducted on a loamy soil (entisol). The soil, noted for its low plant-available water and low soil organic matter, is the most important arable soil type in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River catchment, China. Pore size distribution characterization (by N2 adsorption, mercury intrusion, and water retention) showed that the biochar had a tri-modal pore size distribution. This included pores with diameters in the range of 0.1-10 μm that can retain plant-available water. Comparison of soil water retention curves between the control (0) and the biochar plots (16 t ha(-1) on dry weight basis) demonstrated biochar amendment to increase soil water holding capacity. However, significant increases in DOC concentration of soil pore water in both the plough layer and the undisturbed subsoil layer were observed in the biochar-amended plots. An increased loss of DOC relative to the control was observed upon rainfall events. Measurements of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence indicated the DOC increment originated primarily from the organic carbon pool in the soil that became more soluble following biochar incorporation.

  6. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (beta = -0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 +/- 25 kcal, NP 541 +/- 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 +/- 25 kcal, NP 506 +/- 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  7. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (β = −0.87, P < 0.001) showed a 44% greater decline in weight over the 12 weeks than the nonwater group (β = −0.60, P < 0.001). Test meal EI was lower in the WP than NP condition at baseline, but not at week 12 (baseline: WP 498 ± 25 kcal, NP 541 ± 27 kcal, P = 0.009; 12-week: WP 480 ± 25 kcal, NP 506 ± 25 kcal, P = 0.069). Thus, when combined with a hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion. PMID:19661958

  8. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study Evaluating Fractional Ablative Erbium:YAG Laser-Mediated Trans-Epidermal Delivery of Cosmetic Actives and a Novel Acoustic Pressure Wave Ultrasound Technology for the Treatment of Skin Aging, Melasma, and Acne Scars.

    PubMed

    Alexiades, Macrene

    2015-11-01

    Fractional laser resurfacing enhances trans-epidermal delivery (TED), however laser penetration depths >250- μm fail to substantively increase drug delivery. Evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel acoustic pressure wave ultrasound device following fractional ablative Er:YAG 2940-nm laser (FELR) and topical agents for rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Randomized, blinded, parallel group split-face side-by-side, controlled study evaluating FELR and topical anti-aging and anti-pigment agents to entire face succeeded by ultrasound to randomized side. Fifteen subjects were enrolled to three treatment arms:rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Two monthly treatments were administered with 1, 3, and 6 month follow-up. Efficacy was assessed by Comprehensive Grading Scale of Rhytids, Laxity, and Photoaging by Investigator and two blinded physician evaluators. Subject assessments, digital photographs, and reflectance spectroscopic analyses were obtained. Rhytid severity was reduced from a mean of 3.25 to 2.60 on the 4-point grading scale. Spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated increases in lightness (L*) and reductions in redness (a*) and pigment (b*), with greater improvements on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR and topicals alone. Moderate erythema post-treatment resolved in 7 days and no serious adverse events were observed. In this randomized, paired split-face clinical study, FELR-facilitated TED of topical anti-aging actives with ultrasound treatment is safe and effective with improvement in rhytids, melasma, and acne scars. Statistically significant greater improvement in pigment levels was observed on the ultrasound side as compared to FELR-TED and topical agents alone.

  9. Effect of enzyme concentration, addition of water and incubation time on increase in yield of starch from potato.

    PubMed

    Sit, Nandan; Agrawal, U S; Deka, Sankar C

    2014-05-01

    Enzymatic treatment process for starch extraction from potato was investigated using cellulase enzyme and compared with conventional process. The effects of three parameters, cellulase enzyme concentration, incubation time and addition of water were evaluated for increase in starch yield as compared to the conventional process i.e., without using enzyme. A two-level full factorial design was used to study the process. The results indicated that all the main parameters and their interactions are statistically significant. Enzyme concentration and incubation time had a positive effect on the increase in starch yield while addition of water had a negative effect. The increase in starch yield ranged from 1.9% at low enzyme concentration and incubation time and high addition of water to a maximum of 70% increase from conventional process in starch yield was achieved when enzyme concentration and incubation time were high and addition of water was low suggesting water present in the ground potato meal is sufficient for access to the enzyme with in the slurry ensuring adequate contact with the substrate.

  10. Rutin increases critical wavelength of systems containing a single UV filter and with good skin compatibility.

    PubMed

    Peres, D A; de Oliveira, C A; da Costa, M S; Tokunaga, V K; Mota, J P; Rosado, C; Consiglieri, V O; Kaneko, T M; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2016-08-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for sunburns, skin cancer, photoaging, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The awareness on preventing these deleterious effects made the use of anti-UVB formulations an important part of population habits; however, despite the availability of several antioxidants capable of ROS scavenging, the pharmaceutical market lacks products associating UV filters with natural compounds of proven efficacy. Here, we investigated the effect of rutin, a flavonoid with antioxidant activity, associated with UVB filters in dermocosmetic preparations. Formulations were assessed through its antioxidant activity, in vitro photoprotective effectiveness, photostability, and in vivo skin tolerance (hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema). Samples containing rutin were compatible with the human skin and presented a pronounced antioxidant potential, with scavenging activity values 75% higher than the ones containing only UVB filters. Although rutin could not prevent the sunscreens photodegradation post-irradiation, the bioactive compound significantly increased the formulations critical wavelengths, showing a photoprotective gain, especially in the UVA range. In conclusion, the absorption in the UVA range, coupled with ROS scavenging potential, proved the positive effect of rutin applied to anti-UVB formulations, making this bioactive compound a promising candidate for photoprotection improvement. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. INCREASED MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH WELL-WATER EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a retrospective mortality and morbidity study in the Inner Mongolia region of China to evaluate health effects associated with arsenic exposure. The village we studied has been affected by arsenic contaminated well water since the 1980s. A complete census of the vil...

  12. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains – Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Removal of crop residues for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties, but there is little information on its impact on transport of herbicides and their degradation products to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model, previously calibrated using measured fl...

  13. SDI increases water use efficiency of grain crops in the Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the semi-arid Southern High Plains, nearly all irrigation water is derived from the declining High Plains (Ogallala) aquifer. As well capacities likewise decline, one tactic for continued irrigation is to install subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems with zones sized to accommodate the limited...

  14. Increased porosity turns desorption to adsorption for gas bubbles near water-SiO2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, M.; Dou, M.; Thiyam, P.; Parsons, D. F.; Malyi, O. I.; Persson, C.

    2015-02-01

    We consider theoretically the retarded van der Waals interaction of a small gas bubble in water with a porous SiO2 surface. We predict a possible transition from repulsion to attraction as the surface is made more porous. It highlights that bubbles will interact differently with surface regions with different porosity (i.e., with different optical properties).

  15. Coping with increasing water and land resources limitation for meeting world's food needs: the role of virtual water and virtual land trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Novo, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Increasing pressure to expand agriculture production is giving rise to renewed interest to obtain access to land and water resources in the world. Water footprint evaluations show the importance of green water in global food trade and production. Green water and land are almost inseparable resources. In this work we analyse the role of foreign direct investment and cooperation programmes from developed countries in developing counties, focusing on virtual water trade and associated resources. We develop econometric models with the aim to explain observed trends in virtual water exports from developing countries as explained by the inverse flow of investments and cooperation programmes. We analyse the main 19 emerging food exporters, from Africa, Asia and America, using 15 years of data. Results show that land per capita availability and foreign direct investments explain observed flows of virtual water exports. However, there is no causality with these and flows cooperation investments. Our analysis sheds light on the underlying forces explaining the phenomenon of land grab, which is the appropriation of land access in developing countries by food-importers.

  16. Trout density and health in a stream with variable water temperatures and trace element concentrations: does a cold-water source attract trout to increased metal exposure?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, D.D.; Farag, A.M.; Hogstr, C.; MacConnell, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    A history of hard-rock mining has resulted in elevated concentrations of heavy metals in Prickly Pear Creek (MT. USA). Remediation has improved water quality; however, dissolved zinc and cadmium concentrations still exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria. Physical habitat, salmonid density, fish health, and water quality were assessed, and metal concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and macroinvertebrates were determined to evaluate the existing condition in the watershed. Cadmium, zinc, and lead concentrations in fish tissues, biofilm, and invertebrates were significantly greater than those at the upstream reference site and an experimental site farther downstream of the confluence. Fish densities were greatest, and habitat quality for trout was better, downstream of the confluence, where water temperatures were relatively cool (16??C). Measures of fish health (tissue metal residues, histology, metallothionein concentrations, and necropsies), however, indicate that the health of trout at this site was negatively affected. Trout were in colder but more contaminated water and were subjected to increased trace element exposures and associated health effects. Maximum water temperatures in Prickly Pear Creek were significantly lower directly below Spring Creek (16??C) compared to those at an experimental site 10 km downstream (26??C). Trout will avoid dissolved metals at concentrations below those measured in Prickly Pear Creek; however, our results suggest that the preference of trout to use cool water temperatures may supersede behaviors to avoid heavy metals. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  17. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    Treesearch

    Christina M. Restaino; David L. Peterson; Jeremy Littell

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate...

  18. Increasing Water Intake of Children and Parents in the Family Setting: A Randomized, Controlled Intervention Using Installation Theory.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine; Franks, Bradley; Guelinckx, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    On average, children and adults in developed countries consume too little water, which can lead to negative health consequences. In a one-year longitudinal field experiment in Poland, we compared the impact of three home-based interventions on helping children and their parents/caregivers to develop sustainable increased plain water consumption habits. Fluid consumption of 334 children and their caregivers were recorded over one year using an online specific fluid dietary record. They were initially randomly allocated to one of the three following conditions: Control, Information (child and carer received information on the health benefits of water), or Placement (in addition to information, free small bottles of still water for a limited time period were delivered at home). After three months, half of the non-controls were randomly assigned to Community (child and caregiver engaged in an online community forum providing support on water consumption). All conditions significantly increased the water consumption of children (by 21.9-56.7%) and of adults (by 22-89%). Placement + Community generated the largest effects. Community enhanced the impact of Placement for children and parents, as well as the impact of Information for parents but not children. The results suggest that the family setting offers considerable scope for successful installation of interventions encouraging children and caregivers to develop healthier consumption habits, in mutually reinforcing ways. Combining information, affordances, and social influence gives the best, and most sustainable, results. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Will building new reservoirs always help increase the water supply reliability? - insight from a modeling-based global study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Y.; Tian, F.; Yigzaw, W.; Hejazi, M. I.; Li, H. Y.; Turner, S. W. D.; Vernon, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    More and more reservoirs are being build or planned in order to help meet the increasing water demand all over the world. However, is building new reservoirs always helpful to water supply? To address this question, the river routing module of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) has been extended with a simple yet physical-based reservoir scheme accounting for irrigation, flood control and hydropower operations at each individual reservoir. The new GCAM river routing model has been applied over the global domain with the runoff inputs from the Variable Infiltration Capacity Model. The simulated streamflow is validated at 150 global river basins where the observed streamflow data are available. The model performance has been significantly improved at 77 basins and worsened at 35 basins. To facilitate the analysis of additional reservoir storage impacts at the basin level, a lumped version of GCAM reservoir model has been developed, representing a single lumped reservoir at each river basin which has the regulation capacity of all reservoir combined. A Sequent Peak Analysis is used to estimate how much additional reservoir storage is required to satisfy the current water demand. For basins with water deficit, the water supply reliability can be improved with additional storage. However, there is a threshold storage value at each basin beyond which the reliability stops increasing, suggesting that building new reservoirs will not help better relieve the water stress. Findings in the research can be helpful to the future planning and management of new reservoirs.

  20. Water vapor increase in the northern hemispheric lower stratosphere by the Asian monsoon anticyclone observed during TACTS campaign in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolf, Christian; Vogel, Bärbel; Hoor, Peter; Günther, Gebhard; Krämer, Martina; Müller, Rolf; Müller, Stephan; Riese, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Water vapor plays a key role in determining the radiative balance in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and thus the climate of the Earth (Forster and Shine, 2002; Riese et al., 2012). Therefore a detailed knowledge about transport pathways and exchange processes between troposphere and stratosphere is required to understand the variability of water vapor in this region. The Asian monsoon anticyclone caused by deep convection over and India and east Asia is able to transport air masses from the troposphere into the nothern extra-tropical stratosphere (Müller et al. 2016, Vogel et al. 2016). These air masses contain pollution but also higher amounts of water vapor. An increase in water vapor of about 0.5 ppmv in the extra-tropical stratosphere above a potential temperature of 380 K was detected between August and September 2012 by in-situ instrumentation above the European northern hemisphere during the HALO aircraft mission TACTS. Here, we investigated the origin of this water vapor increase with the help of the 3D Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). We can assign an origin of the moist air masses in the Asian region (North and South India and East China) with the help of model origin tracers. Additionally, back trajectories of these air masses with enriched water vapor are used to differentiate between transport from the Asia monsoon anticyclone and the upwelling of moister air in the tropics particularly from the Pacific and Southeast Asia.

  1. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Vinicius; Jacques, Saulo M S; Guimarães, Jean R D; Farjalla, Vinicius F

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP), bacterioplankton respiration (BR) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with three levels of water temperature (25, 30, and 35°C) and four levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P, and NP additions) in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~4% in BR, a decrease of ~0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P, and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different

  2. Potential changes in bacterial metabolism associated with increased water temperature and nutrient inputs in tropical humic lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Vinicius; Jacques, Saulo M. S.; Guimarães, Jean R. D.; Farjalla, Vinicius F.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and nutrient concentrations regulate aquatic bacterial metabolism. However, few studies have focused on the effect of the interaction between these factors on bacterial processes, and none have been performed in tropical aquatic ecosystems. We analyzed the main and interactive effects of changes in water temperature and N and P concentrations on bacterioplankton production (BP), bacterioplankton respiration (BR) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) in tropical coastal lagoons. We used a factorial design with three levels of water temperature (25, 30, and 35°C) and four levels of N and/or P additions (Control, N, P, and NP additions) in five tropical humic lagoons. When data for all lagoons were pooled together, a weak interaction was observed between the increase in water temperature and the addition of nutrients. Water temperature alone had the greatest impact on bacterial metabolism by increasing BR, decreasing BP, and decreasing BGE. An increase of 1°C lead to an increase of ~4% in BR, a decrease of ~0.9% in BP, and a decrease of ~4% in BGE. When data were analyzed separately, lagoons responded differently to nutrient additions depending on Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration. Lagoons with lowest DOC concentrations showed the strongest responses to nutrient additions: BP increased in response to N, P, and their interaction, BR increased in response to N and the interaction between N and P, and BGE was negatively affected, mainly by the interaction between N and P additions. Lagoons with the highest DOC concentrations showed almost no significant relationship with nutrient additions. Taken together, these results show that different environmental drivers impact bacterial processes at different scales. Changes of bacterial metabolism related to the increase of water temperature are consistent between lagoons, therefore their consequences can be predicted at a regional scale, while the effect of nutrient inputs is specific to different

  3. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that experience distinctly different climate in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Under an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas-fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  4. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Christina M; Peterson, David L; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-08-23

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range.

  5. Increased water deficit decreases Douglas fir growth throughout western US forests

    PubMed Central

    Restaino, Christina M.; Peterson, David L.; Littell, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Changes in tree growth rates can affect tree mortality and forest feedbacks to the global carbon cycle. As air temperature increases, evaporative demand also increases, increasing effective drought in forest ecosystems. Using a spatially comprehensive network of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) chronologies from 122 locations that represent distinct climate environments in the western United States, we show that increased temperature decreases growth via vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across all latitudes. Using an ensemble of global circulation models, we project an increase in both the mean VPD associated with the lowest growth extremes and the probability of exceeding these VPD values. As temperature continues to increase in future decades, we can expect deficit-related stress to increase and consequently Douglas fir growth to decrease throughout its US range. PMID:27503880

  6. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert B.; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes <1 km from natural gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes <1 km from gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (δ13C-CH4, δ13C-C2H6, and δ2H-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas 4He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living <1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases. PMID:23798404

  7. Hand immersion in cold water alleviating physiological strain and increasing tolerance to uncompensable heat stress.

    PubMed

    Khomenok, Gennadi A; Hadid, Amir; Preiss-Bloom, Orahn; Yanovich, Ran; Erlich, Tomer; Ron-Tal, Osnat; Peled, Amir; Epstein, Yoram; Moran, Daniel S

    2008-09-01

    The current study examines the use of hand immersion in cold water to alleviate physiological strain caused by exercising in a hot climate while wearing NBC protective garments. Seventeen heat acclimated subjects wearing a semi-permeable NBC protective garment and a light bulletproof vest were exposed to a 125 min exercise-heat stress (35 degrees C, 50% RH; 5 km/h, 5% incline). The heat stress exposure routine included 5 min rest in the chamber followed by two 50:10 min work-rest cycles. During the control trial (CO), there was no intervention, whilst in the intervention condition the subjects immersed their hands and forearms in a 10 degrees C water bath (HI). The results demonstrated that hand immersion in cold water significantly reduced physiological strain. In the CO exposure during the first and second resting periods, the average rectal temperature (T (re)) practically did not decrease. With hand immersion, the mean (SD) T (re) decreased by 0.45 (0.05 degrees C) and 0.48 degrees C (0.06 degrees C) during the first and second rest periods respectively (P < 0.005). Significant decreases in skin temperature, sweat rate, heart rate, and heat storage was also noted in the HI vs. the CO trials. Tolerance time in the HI exposure were longer than in the CO exposure (only 12 subjects in the CO trial endured the entire heat exposure session, as opposed to all 17 subjects in the HI group). It is concluded that hand immersion in cold water for 10 min is an effective method for decreasing the physiological strain caused by exercising under heat stress while wearing NBC protective garments. The method is convenient, simple, and allows longer working periods in hot or contaminated areas with shorter resting periods.

  8. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes <1 km from natural gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes <1 km from gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P < 0.01). For ethane concentrations, distance to gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P < 0.005). Isotopic signatures (δ(13)C-CH4, δ(13)C-C2H6, and δ(2)H-CH4), hydrocarbon ratios (methane to ethane and propane), and the ratio of the noble gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living <1 km from gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  9. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra at treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3, and 1.0 °C at 5, 10, and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapor, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ13C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. PMID:25737326

  10. Do osmotic forces play a role in the uptake of water by human skin?

    PubMed

    van Kemenade, Patricia M; Houben, Mark M J; Huyghe, Jacques M; Douven, Lucien F A

    2004-05-01

    To describe the water and ion transport through the skin under different conditions, we developed a three-component mixture model. This model has proven to describe the transient change in transepidermal water loss (TEWL) after a change in relative humidity and the result of damage to the skin. Osmotic forces arc present in the model. To assess the influence of osmotic forces on the water uptake of the skin, we investigated transient TEWL values after 1 h application of salt solutions of different molarities (0, 1, and 4 M NaCl). Filters saturated with 0, 1, and 4 M NaCl solution were applied for 1 h under occlusion. TEWL was measured 50-90 min after removal of the solution. The transient water loss curves were fit with an exponential function. The area under the fitted curve was calculated and regarded as a measure for the amount of extra water absorbed in the skin. For all molarities, TEWL is increased immediately after removal of the solution. In time, this increase decays until pre-application values are reached again. The rate of decrease differs significantly for all three molarities. Ninety-five per cent of the increase has been reversed after 30, 19, and 6 min for the 0, 1, and 4 M case, respectively. The amount of water absorbed differs significantly between the three molarities 7.3+/-2.0; 3.9+/-1.0; 2.0+/-0.5 g/m(2), respectively. In all cases, there was an increase in TEWL immediately after removal of the solution. The significant differences in decay time and amount of water absorbed between the three molarities indicate that osmotic forces do play an important role in the water uptake.

  11. Eurasian beaver activity increases water storage, attenuates flow and mitigates diffuse pollution from intensively-managed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Puttock, Alan; Graham, Hugh A; Cunliffe, Andrew M; Elliott, Mark; Brazier, Richard E

    2017-01-15

    Beavers are the archetypal keystone species, which can profoundly alter ecosystem structure and function through their ecosystem engineering activity, most notably the building of dams. This can have a major impact upon water resource management, flow regimes and water quality. Previous research has predominantly focused on the activities of North American beaver (Castor canadensis) located in very different environments, to the intensive lowland agricultural landscapes of the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe. Two Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber) were introduced to a wooded site, situated on a first order tributary, draining from intensively managed grassland. The site was monitored to understand impacts upon water storage, flow regimes and water quality. Results indicated that beaver activity, primarily via the creation of 13 dams, has increased water storage within the site (holding ca. 1000m 3 in beaver ponds) and beavers were likely to have had a significant flow attenuation impact, as determined from peak discharges (mean 30±19% reduction), total discharges (mean 34±9% reduction) and peak rainfall to peak discharge lag times (mean 29±21% increase) during storm events. Event monitoring of water entering and leaving the site showed lower concentrations of suspended sediment, nitrogen and phosphate leaving the site (e.g. for suspended sediment; average entering site: 112±72mgl -1 , average leaving site: 39±37mgl -1 ). Combined with attenuated flows, this resulted in lower diffuse pollutant loads in water downstream. Conversely, dissolved organic carbon concentrations and loads downstream were higher. These observed changes are argued to be directly attributable to beaver activity at the site which has created a diverse wetland environment, reducing downstream hydrological connectivity. Results have important implications for beaver reintroduction programs which may provide nature based solutions to the catchment-scale water resource management issues

  12. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  13. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  14. More Yield with Less Water: Increasing Water Use Efficiency by Capitalizing on the Adaptation of Native Shrubs in the Sudano-Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogie, Nathaniel; Bayala, Roger; Diedhiou, Ibrahima; Dick, Richard; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2016-04-01

    A changing climate along with human and animal population pressure can have a devastating effect on crop yields and food security in the Sudano-Sahel. Agricultural solutions to address soil degradation and crop water stress are needed to combat this increasingly difficult situation. Significant differences in crop success have been observed in peanut and millet grown in association with two native evergreen shrubs Piliostigma reticulatum, and Guiera senegalensis at the sites of Nioro du Rip and Keur Matar, respectively. We investigate how farmers can increase crop productivity by capitalizing on the evolutionary adaptation of native shrubs to the harsh Sudano-Sahelian environment as well as the physical mechanisms at work in the system that can lead to more robust yields. Research plots at Keur Matar Arame with no fertilizer added were monitored in 2013 using two soil moisture sensor networks at depths of 10, 20, 40, 60, 100, 200, and 300cm. Cropping season water use total calculated based on beginning and end of season soil moisture and seasonal precipitation data revealed that crop-only plot used 411±32 mm of water, and the crop and shrub plot used 439±42 mm of water. Taking into account the quantity of crop biomass produced and neglecting the shrub biomass produced, the crop and shrub plot had a water use efficiency of 1.60 kg ha-1 mm-1 and the crop only plot had 0.269 kg ha-1 mm-1. Water status was measured three times throughout the season on millet leaves and revealed no significant trends. Handheld NDVI readings revealed significantly higher NDVI values in crop and shrub plots at all measurement dates. These findings build on work that was completed in 2004 at the site, but further increases in crop yields have been shown. Increasing water use efficiency by over 500% can be a great advantage in years of limited water availability such as 2013. Using even the limited resources that farmers possess, this agroforestry technique can be expanded over wide

  15. Removal of infused water predominantly during insertion (water exchange) is consistently associated with an increase in adenoma detection rate - review of data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of water-related methods

    PubMed Central

    Harker, JO; Leung, JW; Siao-Salera, RM; Mann, SK; Ramirez, FC; Friedland, S; Amato, A; Radaelli, F; Paggi, S; Terruzzi, V; Hsieh, YH

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Variation in outcomes in RcTs comparing water-related methods and air insufflation raises challenging questions regarding the new approach. This report reviews impact of water exchange - simultaneous infusion and removal of infused water during insertion on adenoma detection rate (ADR) defined as proportion of patients with a least one adenoma of any size. Methods Medline (2008–2011) searches, abstract of 2011 Digestive Disease Week (DDW) meeting and personal communications were considered to identify RcTs that compared water-related methods and air insufflation to aid insertion of colonoscope. Results Since 2008, eleven reports of RcTs (6 published, 1 submitted and 4 abstracts, n=1728) described ADR in patients randomized to be examined by air and water-related methods. The water-related methods differed in timing of removal of the infused water -predominantly during insertion (water exchange) (n=825) or predominantly during withdrawal (water immersion) (n=903). Water immersion was associated with both increases and decreases in ADR compared to respective air method patients and the net overall change (-7%) was significant. On the other hand water exchange was associated with increases in ADR consistently and the net changes (overall, 8%; proximal overall, 11%; and proximal <10 mm, 12%) were all significant. Conclusion Comparative data generated the hypothesis that significantly larger increases in overall and proximal colon ADRs were associated with water exchange than water immersion or air insufflation during insertion. The hypothesis should be evaluated by RCTs to elucidate the mechanism of water exchange on adenoma detection. PMID:22163082

  16. Photosystem II Subunit S overexpression increases the efficiency of water use in a field-grown crop.

    PubMed

    Głowacka, Katarzyna; Kromdijk, Johannes; Kucera, Katherine; Xie, Jiayang; Cavanagh, Amanda P; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ort, Donald R; Niyogi, Krishna K; Long, Stephen P

    2018-03-06

    Insufficient water availability for crop production is a mounting barrier to achieving the 70% increase in food production that will be needed by 2050. One solution is to develop crops that require less water per unit mass of production. Water vapor transpires from leaves through stomata, which also facilitate the influx of CO 2 during photosynthetic assimilation. Here, we hypothesize that Photosystem II Subunit S (PsbS) expression affects a chloroplast-derived signal for stomatal opening in response to light, which can be used to improve water-use efficiency. Transgenic tobacco plants with a range of PsbS expression, from undetectable to 3.7 times wild-type are generated. Plants with increased PsbS expression show less stomatal opening in response to light, resulting in a 25% reduction in water loss per CO 2 assimilated under field conditions. Since the role of PsbS is universal across higher plants, this manipulation should be effective across all crops.

  17. Hydrogel-forming microneedles increase in volume during swelling in skin, but skin barrier function recovery is unaffected

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Ryan F.; Mooney, Karen; McCrudden, Maelíosa T.C.; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; Belaid, Luc; González-Vázquez, Patricia; McElnay, James C.; Woolfson, A. David

    2014-01-01

    We describe, for the first time, quantification of in-skin swelling and fluid uptake by hydrogel-forming microneedle arrays (MN) and skin barrier recovery in human volunteers. Such MN, prepared from aqueous blends of hydrolysed poly(methylvinylether/maleicanhydride) (15% w/w) and the crosslinker poly(ethyleneglycol) 10,000 daltons (7.5% w/w), were inserted into the skin of human volunteers (n = 15) to depths of approximately 300 μm by gentle hand pressure. The MN swelled in skin, taking up skin interstitial fluid, such that their mass had increased by approximately 30% after 6 hours in skin. Importantly, however, skin barrier function recovered within 24 hours post microneedle removal, regardless of how long the MN had been in skin or how much their volume had increased with swelling. Further research on closure of MN-induced micropores is required, since transepidermal water loss measurements suggested micropore closure, while optical coherence tomography indicated that MN-induced micropores had not closed over, even 24 hours after MN had been removed. There were no complaints of skin reactions, adverse events or strong views against MN use by any of the volunteers. Only some minor erythema was noted after patch removal, although this always resolved within 48 hours and no adverse events were present on follow-up. PMID:24633895

  18. Climate change and the impact of increased rainfall variability on sediment transport and catchment scale water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. R.; Willgoose, G. R.; Cohen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Recently there has been recognition that changing climate will affect rainfall and storm patterns with research directed to examine how the global hydrological cycle will respond to climate change. This study investigates the effect of different rainfall patterns on erosion and resultant water quality for a well studied tropical monsoonal catchment that is undisturbed by Europeans in the Northern Territory, Australia. Water quality has a large affect on a range of aquatic flora and fauna and a significant change in sediment could have impacts on the aquatic ecosystems. There have been several studies of the effect of climate change on rainfall patterns in the study area with projections indicating a significant increase in storm activity. Therefore it is important that the impact of this variability be assessed in terms of catchment hydrology, sediment transport and water quality. Here a numerical model of erosion and hydrology (CAESAR) is used to assess several different rainfall scenarios over a 1000 year modelled period. The results show that that increased rainfall amount and intensity increases sediment transport rates but predicted water quality was variable and non-linear but within the range of measured field data for the catchment and region. Therefore an assessment of sediment transport and water quality is a significant and complex issue that requires further understandings of the role of biophysical feedbacks such as vegetation as well as the role of humans in managing landscapes (i.e. controlled and uncontrolled fire). The study provides a robust methodology for assessing the impact of enhanced climate variability on sediment transport and water quality.

  19. Wildfires and storms: Increased vulnerability of water quality in the southwestern U.S. in the face of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. F.; Writer, J. H.; McCleskey, R. B.; Martin, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Communities in the southwestern U.S. rely on forested watersheds to provide high-quality water, but these watersheds are prone to major disturbance by wildfire. The loss of vegetation and litter can decrease water storage and infiltration and decrease nutrient uptake, leading to enhanced surface runoff, erosion, and nutrient export compared to undisturbed watersheds. Post-wildfire impacts on water quality vary widely across geographic regions, and are largely driven by post-fire storm timing and intensity. In the southwestern U.S., the North American Monsoon can produce high-intensity rain from July through September. A better understanding of the post-fire water-quality response of watersheds to monsoonal storms in this region is therefore critical. The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned 2600 ha near Boulder, Colorado in September 2010, including 23% of the Fourmile Creek watershed. This watershed had been recovering from historical mining activity, and dispersed waste rock and mine tailings were only partially revegetated before the wildfire. We collected water quality, hydrological, and meteorological data with high temporal and spatial density upstream and downstream of the burned area for 4 years post-fire. For 9 months post-fire, the area received snow or low-intensity rain, and the difference in stream water chemistry between burned and unburned watersheds was minimal. However, in the summer of 2011, and in the following two summers, relatively common monsoonal storms caused dramatic, but short-lived, increases in discharge, sediment, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, and metals downstream of the burned area. Such pulses can degrade aquatic ecosystems, impair water treatability, and decrease reservoir capacity. Climate change is projected to increase wildfire frequency and size and lead to an earlier and longer wildfire season. Simultaneously, storm frequency and intensity are predicted to increase, and the monsoon season may occur later in the year, potentially

  20. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed thatmore » the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.« less

  1. On issue of increasing profitability of automated energy technology complexes for preparation and combustion of water-coal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylina, O. G.; Osintsev, K. V.; Prikhodko, YU S.; Savosteenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of energy technological complexes economy increase on the existing techniques of water-coal suspensions preparation and burning basis due to application of highly effective control systems of electric drives and neurocontrol. The automated control system structure for the main boiler components is given. The electric drive structure is disclosed by the example of pumps (for transfer of coal-water mash and / or suspension). A system for controlling and diagnosing a heat and power complex based on a multi-zone regulator is proposed. The possibility of using neural networks for implementing the control algorithms outlined in the article is considered.

  2. Consumption of low-moderate level arsenic contaminated water does not increase spontaneous pregnancy loss: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Neamtiu, Iulia A; Surdu, Simona; Pop, Cristian; Lupsa, Ioana Rodica; Anastasiu, Doru; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Gurzau, Eugen S

    2014-10-13

    Previous work suggests an increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss linked to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water sources (>10 μg/L). However, there has been little focus to date on the impact of low-moderate levels of iAs in drinking water (<10 μg/L). To address this data gap we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Timis County, Romania. We recruited women with incident spontaneous pregnancy loss of 5-20 weeks completed gestation as cases (n = 150), and women with ongoing pregnancies matched by gestational age (±1 week) as controls (n = 150). Participants completed a physician-administered questionnaire and we collected water samples from residential drinking sources. We reconstructed residential drinking water exposure histories using questionnaire data weighted by iAs determined using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between iAs exposure and loss, conditioned on gestational age and adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, education and prenatal vitamin use. We explored potential interactions in a second set of models. Drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 175.1 μg/L, with median 0.4 μg/L and 90th%tile 9.4 μg/L. There were no statistically significant associations between loss and average or peak drinking water iAs concentrations (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01), or for daily iAs intake (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02). We detected modest evidence for an interaction between average iAs concentration and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.057) and for daily iAs exposure and prenatal vitamin use (P = 0.085). These results suggest no increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with low to moderate level drinking water iAs exposure. Though imprecise, our data also raise the possibility for increased risk among cigarette smokers

  3. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift

    PubMed Central

    Kettridge, N.; Turetsky, M. R.; Sherwood, J. H.; Thompson, D. K.; Miller, C. A.; Benscoter, B. W.; Flannigan, M. D.; Wotton, B. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon. PMID:25623290

  4. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.

    PubMed

    Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

    2015-01-27

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon.

  5. Aortic Stiffness, Increased White Matter Free Water, and Altered Microstructural Integrity: A Continuum of Injury.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Pauline; Mitchell, Gary F; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa; Fletcher, Evan; Tsao, Connie W; Pase, Matthew P; Satizabal, Claudia L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha; DeCarli, Charles

    2017-06-01

    Previous reports from the Framingham Heart Study have identified cross-sectional associations of arterial stiffness, as reflected by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) and systolic blood pressure with vascular brain injury. The purpose of this study is to examine free water (FW), fractional anisotropy (FA), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in relation to arterial stiffness among subjects of the Framingham Offspring and Third-Generation cohorts. In 2422 participants aged 51.3±11.6 years, FA, FW, and WMH were related to CFPWV using voxel-based linear and generalized linear regressions, adjusting for relevant covariables. Mean FW, mean FA, and WMH burden (log transformed) were computed within white matter (WM) region and related to systolic blood pressure and CFPWV using multiple mediation analyses. CFPWV was found to be associated with higher FW, lower FA, and higher WMH incidence in WM areas covering, respectively, 356.1, 211.8, and 10.9 mL of the WM mask. Mediation analyses revealed that the effect of systolic blood pressure on FW was mediated by CFPWV (direct and indirect effects: a=0.040; P <0.001, and a'=0.020; P >0.05). Moreover, the effect of CFPWV on FA was mediated by FW (direct and indirect effects: b=-0.092; P <0.001, and b'=0.012; P >0.05), whose effect on WMH was, in turn, mediated by FA (direct and indirect effects: c=0.246; P <0.001, and c'=0.116; P >0.05). From these data, we propose a biomechanical hypothesis designed for future research experiments to explain how hemodynamic alteration may lead to WM injury by impacting cerebral water content and more subtly WM integrity, to finally lead to WMH development. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  7. Remediation of incomplete nitrification and capacity increase of biofilters at different drinking water treatment plants through copper dosing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florian B; Nielsen, Peter Borch; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2018-04-01

    Drinking water treatment plants based on groundwater may suffer from incomplete ammonium removal, which deteriorates drinking water quality and constrains water utilities in the operation of their plants. Ammonium is normally removed through nitrification in biological granular media filters, and recent studies have demonstrated that dosing of copper can stimulate the removal of ammonium. Here, we investigated if copper dosing could generically improve ammonium removal of biofilters, at treatment plants with different characteristics. Copper was dosed at ≤1.5 μg Cu/L to biofilters at 10 groundwater treatment plants, all of which had displayed several years of incomplete nitrification. Plants exceeded the Danish national water quality standard of 0.05 mg NH 4 + /L by a factor of 2-12. Within only 2-3 weeks of dosing, ammonium removal rates increased significantly (up to 150%). Nitrification was fully established, with ammonium effluent concentrations of <0.01 mg NH 4 + -N/L at most plants, regardless of the differences in raw water chemistry, ammonium loading rates, filter design and operation, or treatment plant configuration. However, for filters without primary filtration, it took longer time to reach complete ammonium removal than for filters receiving prefiltered water, likely due to sorption of copper to iron oxides, at plants without prefiltration. With complete ammonium removal, we subjected two plants to short-term loading rate upshifts, to examine the filters' ability to cope with loading rate variations. After 2 months of dosing and an average loading rate of 1.0 g NH 4 + -N/m 3 filter material/h, the loading rate was upshifted by 50%. Yet, a filter managed to completely remove all the influent ammonium, showing that with copper dosing the filter had extra capacity to remove ammonium even beyond its normal loading rates. Depth sampling revealed that the ammonium removal rate of the filter's upper 10 cm increased more than 7-fold from 0.67 to

  8. Water exchange for screening colonoscopy increases adenoma detection rate: a multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Sergio; Falt, Přemysl; Rondonotti, Emanuele; Radaelli, Franco; Fojtik, Petr; Gallittu, Paolo; Liggi, Mauro; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Smajstrla, Vit; Urban, Ondřej; Erriu, Matteo; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-05-01

    Background and study aims  Single-center studies, which were retrospective and/or involved unblinded colonoscopists, have suggested that water exchange, but not water immersion, compared with air insufflation significantly increases the adenoma detection rate (ADR), particularly in the proximal and right colon. Head-to-head comparison of the three techniques with ADR as primary outcome and blinded colonoscopists has not been reported to date. In a randomized controlled trial with blinded colonoscopists, we aimed to evaluate the impact of the three insertion techniques on ADR. Patients and methods  A total of 1224 patients aged 50 - 70 years (672 males) and undergoing screening colonoscopy were randomized 1:1:1 to water exchange, water immersion, or air insufflation. Split-dose bowel preparation was adopted to optimize colon cleansing. After the cecum had been reached, a second colonoscopist who was blinded to the insertion technique performed the withdrawal. The primary outcome was overall ADR according to the three insertion techniques (water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation). Secondary outcomes were other pertinent overall and right colon procedure-related measures. Results  Baseline characteristics of the three groups were comparable. Compared with air insufflation, water exchange achieved a significantly higher overall ADR (49.3 %, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 44.3 % - 54.2 % vs. 40.4 % 95 %CI 35.6 % - 45.3 %; P  = 0.03); water exchange showed comparable overall ADR vs. water immersion (43.4 %, 95 %CI 38.5 % - 48.3 %; P  = 0.28). In the right colon, water exchange achieved a higher ADR than air insufflation (24.0 %, 95 %CI 20.0 % - 28.5 % vs. 16.9 %, 95 %CI 13.4 % - 20.9 %; P  = 0.04) and a higher advanced ADR (6.1 %, 95 %CI 4.0 % - 9.0 % vs. 2.5 %, 95 %CI 1.2 % - 4.6 %; P  = 0.03). Compared with air insufflation, the mean number of

  9. Residue management increases fallow water conservation and yield deficit irrigated crops grown in rotation with wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    No-tillage (NT) residue management provides cover to increase precipitation capture compared with disk tillage (DT) or in the absence of a cover crop. Therefore, NT has the potential to reduce irrigation withdrawals from the declining Ogallala Aquifer. In a 4-year study, we quantified DT and NT effe...

  10. Increased water yields following harvesting operations on a drained coastal watershed

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; R.W. Skaggs; H.R. Malcom; G.M. Chescheir; D.K. Cassel

    2003-01-01

    Forest harvesting operations have been reported to affect annual and seasonal outflow characteristics from drained forest watersheds. Increases in forest outflow, nutrient concentrations, and suspended sediments are commonly seen as a result of these forest management activities. Thus, it is important to assess the impact of forest management activities on hydrology,...

  11. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  12. Potassium application to table grape clusters after veraison increases soluble solids by enhancing berry water loss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potassium salt solutions were applied twice to clusters of several table grapes cultivars, after the onset of veraison and three weeks later. Potassium bicarbonate, potassium sorbate, and glycine-complexed potassium, a commercial fertilizer product, increased soluble solids content consistently, whi...

  13. Conservation cropping systems: Increasing water use efficiency and lowering production costs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As of the 2007 Census of Agriculture, irrigated acres were only found on 4.4% of agricultural operations in Alabama. To increase irrigated acres, the Alabama Legislature passed the Irrigation Incentives Bill in 2012 to provide a state income tax credit of 20 percent of the costs of the purchase and ...

  14. Pinon-juniper reduction increases soil water availability of the resouce growth pool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Managers reduce piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees that are encroaching into (Artemisia spp.) communities to lower fuel loads and to increase cover and density of desirable understory species. A major concern for using prescribed fire or mechanical treatments to reduce trees is th...

  15. Human-accelerated weathering increases salinization, major ions, and alkalinization in fresh water across land use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land use increases transport of dissolved inorganic carbon and major ions in watersheds due to the combination of easily weathered materials in watersheds and anthropogenic inputs. Here, we show that dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), alkalinity, and major ions are significa...

  16. Increasing water use efficiency along the C3 to C4 evolutionary pathway: a stomatal optimization perspective.

    PubMed

    Way, Danielle A; Katul, Gabriel G; Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia

    2014-07-01

    C4 photosynthesis evolved independently numerous times, probably in response to declining atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but also to high temperatures and aridity, which enhance water losses through transpiration. Here, the environmental factors controlling stomatal behaviour of leaf-level carbon and water exchange were examined across the evolutionary continuum from C3 to C4 photosynthesis at current (400 μmol mol(-1)) and low (280 μmol mol(-1)) atmospheric CO2 conditions. To this aim, a stomatal optimization model was further developed to describe the evolutionary continuum from C3 to C4 species within a unified framework. Data on C3, three categories of C3-C4 intermediates, and C4 Flaveria species were used to parameterize the stomatal model, including parameters for the marginal water use efficiency and the efficiency of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (or C4 pump); these two parameters are interpreted as traits reflecting the stomatal and photosynthetic adjustments during the C3 to C4 transformation. Neither the marginal water use efficiency nor the C4 pump strength changed significantly from C3 to early C3-C4 intermediate stages, but both traits significantly increased between early C3-C4 intermediates and the C4-like intermediates with an operational C4 cycle. At low CO2, net photosynthetic rates showed continuous increases from a C3 state, across the intermediates and towards C4 photosynthesis, but only C4-like intermediates and C4 species (with an operational C4 cycle) had higher water use efficiencies than C3 Flaveria. The results demonstrate that both the marginal water use efficiency and the C4 pump strength increase in C4 Flaveria to improve their photosynthesis and water use efficiency compared with C3 species. These findings emphasize that the advantage of the early intermediate stages is predominantly carbon based, not water related. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris increases physical stamina in mice.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Hyun-Myung; Park, Hyeung-Suk; Han, Jae-Gab; Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Young-Sig; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2006-01-01

    A unicellular algae, Chlorella vulgaris, was used as a biological response modifier. Although hot water extracts of C. vulgaris (CVE) are thought to augment immune responses, the effect of CVE on fatigue and physical stamina has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CVE on forced swimming test and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), glucose (Glc), and total protein (TP). CVE (0.05-0.15 g/kg/day) was orally administered to mice. After 7 days, the immobility time was decreased in the 0.1- and 0.15-g/kg CVE-treated groups (179 +/- 8.3 and 175 +/- 2.1 s) in comparison with the control group (223 +/- 5.4 s). In addition, the contents of BUN, CK, and LDH in the blood serum were decreased in the CVE-fed group. However, they had no effect on the elevation of Glc and TP level. The results predict a potential benefit of CVE for enhancing immune function and improving physical stamina. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Soil warming increased whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Gerhard; Grams, Thorsten E E; Matyssek, Rainer; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    This study quantified the effect of soil warming on sap flow density (Qs) of Pinus cembra L. at the treeline in the Central Tyrolean Alps. To enhance soil temperature we installed a transparent roof construction above the forest floor around six trees. Six other trees served as controls in the absence of any manipulation. Roofing enhanced growing season mean soil temperature by 1.6, 1.3 and 1.0 °C at 5, 10 and 20 cm soil depth, respectively, while soil water availability was not affected. Sap flow density (using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes) and environmental parameters were monitored throughout three growing seasons. During the first year of treatment, no warming effect was detected on Qs. However, soil warming caused Qs to increase significantly by 11 and 19% above levels in control trees during the second and third year, respectively. This effect appeared to result from warming-induced root production, a reduction in viscosity and perhaps an increase also in root hydraulic conductivity. Hardly affected were leaf-level net CO2 uptake rate and conductance for water vapour, so that water-use efficiency stayed unchanged as confirmed by needle δ(13)C analysis. We conclude that tree water loss will increase with soil warming, which may alter the water balance within the treeline ecotone of the Central Austrian Alps in a future warming environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Potential of soil amendments (Biochar and Gypsum) in increasing water use efficiency of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Batool, Aniqa; Taj, Samia; Rashid, Audil; Khalid, Azeem; Qadeer, Samia; Saleem, Aansa R.; Ghufran, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Water being an essential component for plant growth and development, its scarcity poses serious threat to crops around the world. Climate changes and global warming are increasing the temperature of earth hence becoming an ultimate cause of water scarcity. It is need of the day to use potential soil amendments that could increase the plants’ resistance under such situations. Biochar and gypsum were used in the present study to improve the water use efficiency (WUE) and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench (Lady’s Finger). A 6 weeks experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Stress treatments were applied after 30 days of sowing. Plant height, leaf area, photosynthesis, transpiration rate (Tr), stomatal conductance and WUE were determined weekly under stressed [60% field capacity (F.C.)] and non-stressed (100% F.C.) conditions. Stomatal conductance and Tr decreased and reached near to zero in stressed plants. Stressed plants also showed resistance to water stress upto 5 weeks and gradually perished at sixth week. On the other hand, WUE improved in stressed plants containing biochar and gypsum as compared to untreated plants. Biochar alone is a better strategy to promote plant growth and WUE specifically of A. esculentus, compared to its application in combination with gypsum. PMID:26442046

  20. Copper Pollution Increases the Resistance of Soil Archaeal Community to Changes in Water Regime.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rong; Cui, Li-Juan; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; He, Ji-Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Increasing efforts have been devoted to exploring the impact of environmental stresses on soil bacterial communities, but the work on the archaeal community is seldom. Here, we constructed microcosm experiments to investigate the responses of archaeal communities to the subsequent dry-rewetting (DW) disturbance in two contrasting soils (fluvo-aquic and red soil) after 6 years of copper pollution. Ten DW cycles were exerted on the two soils with different copper levels, followed by a 6-week recovery period. In both soils, archaeal diversity (Shannon index) in the high copper-level treatments increased over the incubation period, and archaeal community structure changed remarkably as revealed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling ordinations. In both soils, copper pollution altered the response of dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to the DW disturbance. Throughout the incubation and recovery period, the resistance of archaeal abundance to the DW disturbance was higher in the copper-polluted soils than soils without pollution. Taken together, copper pollution altered the response of soil archaeal diversity and community composition to the DW disturbance and increased the resistance of the archaeal abundance. These findings have important implications for understanding soil microbial responses to ongoing environmental change.

  1. Territorial approach to increased energy consumption of water extraction from depletion of a highlands Mexican aquifer.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Esteller, María Vicenta; Díaz-Delgado, Carlos

    2013-10-15

    This work proposes a method to estimate increased energy consumption of pumping caused by a drawdown of groundwater level and the equivalent energy consumption of the motor-pump system in an aquifer under intensive exploitation. This method has been applied to the Valley of Toluca aquifer, located in the Mexican highlands, whose intensive exploitation is reflected in a decline in the groundwater level of between 0.10 and 1.6 m/year. Results provide a summary of energy consumption and a map of energy consumption isopleths showing the areas that are most susceptible to increases in energy consumption due to pumping. The proposed method can be used to estimate the effect of the intensive exploitation of the Valley of Toluca aquifer on the energy consumption of groundwater extraction. Finding reveals that, for the year 2006, groundwater extraction in the urban zone required 2.39 times more energy than the conditions observed 38 years earlier. In monetary terms, this reflects an increase of USD$ 3 million annually, according to 2005 energy production costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure reduces extravascular lung water and increases lymphatic flow in hydrostatic pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Fernández Mondéjar, E; Vazquez Mata, G; Cárdenas, A; Mansilla, A; Cantalejo, F; Rivera, R

    1996-09-01

    To analyze the effect of different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on extravascular lung water and on lymphatic drainage through the thoracic duct during hydrostatic pulmonary edema. Randomized, controlled, experimental study. Research laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. Eighteen beagle dogs weighing between 10 and 19 kg. Dogs were anesthetized and cannulated via a thoracic duct. Hydrostatic pulmonary edema was provoked by inflating the balloon of a Foley catheter in the left atrium. Different amounts of PEEP were applied. Extravascular lung water was determined by the double indicator dilution method (indocyanine green in glucoside solution at 0 degree C), and lymphatic drainage was measured every 30 mins. After a baseline measurement, the left atrial pressure was increased to 24 to 26 mm Hg, and measurements were recorded after 30, 60, 90, and 120 mins. The animals were divided into three groups. Group I (n = 6): PEEP of 20 cm H2O was instituted at 120 mins, and the other determinations were made without PEEP; group II (n = 7): PEEP of 10 cm H2O was instituted at 60 and 90 mins; group III (n = 5): PEEP of 20 cm H2O was instituted at 60 and 90 mins. Extravascular lung water increased after the increase of left atrial pressure in all three groups. After 90 mins, the extravascular lung water was significantly greater (p < .01) in group I (no PEEP application) at 21.2 +/- 5.1 mL/kg than in groups II and III (with 10 and 20 cm H2O of PEEP) at 12.8 +/- 2.01 and 14.8 +/- 4.8 mL/kg, respectively. Lymphatic drainage tended to increase over time in all three groups. Ninety minutes after the left atrial pressure increase, lymphatic drainage was significantly greater (p < .05) in group II, at 6.06 +/- 2.53 mL/kg/30 mins, than in group I, at 2.83 +/- 0.76 mL/kg/30 mins. a) The application of PEEP levels of between 10 and 20 cm H2O limits the increase of extravascular lung water in cases of hydrostatic pulmonary edema; and b) the application of 10 cm H2O

  3. Rational Water and Nitrogen Management Improves Root Growth, Increases Yield and Maintains Water Use Efficiency of Cotton under Mulch Drip Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongzhi; Khan, Aziz; Tan, Daniel K. Y.; Luo, Honghai

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to optimize water-nitrogen (N) applications to increase seed cotton yield and water use efficiency (WUE) under a mulch drip irrigation system. This study evaluated the effects of four water regimes [moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W1), deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W2), pre-sowing and moderate drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the boll-opening stage (W3), pre-sowing and deficit drip irrigation from the third-leaf to the flowering stage and sufficient drip irrigation thereafter (W4)] and N fertilizer at a rate of 520 kg ha-1 in two dressing ratios [7:3 (N1), 2:8 (N2)] on cotton root morpho-physiological attributes, yield, WUE and the relationship between root distribution and dry matter production. Previous investigations have shown a strong correlation between root activity and water consumption in the 40–120 cm soil layer. The W3 and especially W4 treatments significantly increased root length density (RLD), root volume density (RVD), root mass density (RMD), and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer. Cotton RLD, RVD, RMD was decreased by 13.1, 13.3, and 20.8%, respectively, in N2 compared with N1 at 70 days after planting (DAP) in the 0–40 cm soil layer. However, root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer at 140 DAP was 31.6% higher in N2 than that in N1. Total RMD, RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil were significantly and positively correlated with shoot dry weight. RLD and root activity in the 40–120 cm soil layer was highest in the W4N2 treatments. Therefore increased water consumption in the deep soil layers resulted in increased shoot dry weight, seed cotton yield and WUE. Our data can be used to develop a water-N management strategy for optimal cotton yield and high WUE. PMID:28611817

  4. Thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is associated with increased water intake and impaired urea-mediated water excretion at low plasma antidiuretic hormone and urine aquaporin-2.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Nanne J; Vogt, Liffert; De Rooij, Sophia E; Trimpert, Christiane; Levi, Marcel M; Deen, Peter M T; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Hyponatraemia is a common, potentially life-threatening, complication of thiazide diuretics. The mechanism of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is incompletely understood. Previous experiments have suggested a direct effect of thiazide diuretics on the plasma membrane expression of aquaporin (AQP)2. We examined the effects of a single re-exposure to hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 50 mg on water balance, renal sodium handling and osmoregulation in 15 elderly hypertensive patients with a history of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia and 15 matched hypertensive controls using thiazide diuretics without previous hyponatraemia. Patients with thiazide-induced hyponatraemia had significantly lower body weight and lower plasma sodium and osmolality at baseline. After HCTZ administration, plasma sodium and osmolality significantly decreased and remained lower in patients compared with controls (P < 0.001). Plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and urine AQP2 were low or suppressed in patients, whereas solute and electrolyte-free water clearance was significantly increased compared with controls. Ad libitum water intake was significantly higher in patients (2543 ± 925 ml) than in controls (1828 ± 624 ml, P < 0.05), whereas urinary sodium excretion did not differ. In contrast, urea excretion remained significantly lower in patients (263 ± 69 mmol per 24 h) compared with controls (333 ± 97 mmol per 24 h, P < 0.05) and predicted the decrease in plasma sodium following HCTZ administration. Thiazide diuretics are associated with markedly impaired free water excretion at low ADH and AQP2 in elderly patients. The higher water intake and lower urea excretion in patients points to an important role for polydipsia and urea-mediated water excretion in the pathogenesis of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia.

  5. Ten days of simulated live high:train low altitude training increases Hbmass in elite water polo players.

    PubMed

    Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Clark, Sally A; Polglaze, Ted; McFadden, Greg; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Water polo requires high aerobic power to meet the demands of match play. Live high:train low (LHTL) may enhance aerobic capacity at sea level. Before the Olympics, the Australian women's water polo team utilised LHTL in an attempt to enhance aerobic fitness. Over 6 months, 11 players completed three normobaric LHTL exposures (block 1:11 days at 3000 m; block 2+3:9 days at 2500 m, 11 days normoxia, 10 days at 2800 m). Haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured through carbon monoxide-rebreathing. Before each block, the relationship between Hbmass and water polo-specific aerobic fitness was investigated using the Multistage Shuttle Swim Test (MSST). Effect size statistics were adopted with likely, highly likely and almost certainly results being >75%, >95%, >99%, respectively. A Pearson product moment correlation was used to characterise the association between pooled data of Hbmass and MSST. Hbmass (mean ± SD, pre 721 ± 66 g) likely increased after block 1 and almost certainly after block 2+3 (% change; 90% confidence limits: block 1: 3.7%; 1.3-6.2%, block 2+3: 4.5%; 3.8-5.1%) and the net effect was almost certainly higher after block 2+3 than before block 1 (pre) by 8.5%; 7.3-9.7%. There was a very large correlation between Hbmass (g/kg) and MSST score (r=0.73). LHTL exposures of <2 weeks induced approximately 4% increase in Hbmass of water polo players. Extra Hbmass may increase aerobic power, but since match performance is nuanced by many factors it is impossible to ascertain whether the increased Hbmass contributed to Australia's Bronze medal.

  6. Increasing Fruit, Vegetable and Water Consumption in Summer Day Camps-3-Year Findings of the Healthy Lunchbox Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day-1, 10-11 weeks summer-1, SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design…

  7. Increased ventilation of Antarctic deep water during the warm mid-Pliocene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Nisancioglu, Kerim H; Ninnemann, Ulysses S

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period is a recent warm geological period that shares similarities with predictions of future climate. It is generally held the mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must have been stronger, to explain a weak Atlantic meridional δ(13)C gradient and large northern high-latitude warming. However, climate models do not simulate such stronger Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, when forced with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. Proxy reconstructions allow for an alternative scenario that the weak δ(13)C gradient can be explained by increased ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Here this alternative scenario is supported by simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-L), which simulate an intensified and slightly poleward shifted wind field off Antarctica, giving enhanced ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Our findings challenge the prevailing theory and show how increased Southern Ocean ventilation can reconcile existing model-data discrepancies about Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation while explaining fundamental ocean features.

  8. Increased ventilation of Antarctic deep water during the warm mid-Pliocene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Ninnemann, Ulysses S.

    2013-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene warm period is a recent warm geological period that shares similarities with predictions of future climate. It is generally held the mid-Pliocene Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation must have been stronger, to explain a weak Atlantic meridional δ13C gradient and large northern high-latitude warming. However, climate models do not simulate such stronger Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, when forced with mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. Proxy reconstructions allow for an alternative scenario that the weak δ13C gradient can be explained by increased ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Here this alternative scenario is supported by simulations with the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-L), which simulate an intensified and slightly poleward shifted wind field off Antarctica, giving enhanced ventilation and reduced stratification in the Southern Ocean. Our findings challenge the prevailing theory and show how increased Southern Ocean ventilation can reconcile existing model-data discrepancies about Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation while explaining fundamental ocean features. PMID:23422667

  9. Effects of increasing forest plantation area and management practices on carbon storage and water use in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.; Tian, H.

    2013-12-01

    Planted forest area in the United States gradually increased during the last half century, and by 2007 accounted for about 20% of the total forest area in the southern United States and about 13% in the entire country. Intensive plantation management activities - such as slash burning, thinning, weed control, fertilization and the use of genetically improved seedlings - are routinely applied during the forest rotation. However, no comprehensive assessments have been made to examine the impacts of this increased forest plantation area and associated management practices on ecosystem function. In this study, we integrated field measurement data and process-based modeling to quantitatively estimate the changes in carbon storage, nitrogen cycling and water use as influenced by forest plantations in the United States from 1925 to 2007. The results indicated that forest plantations and management practices greatly increased forest productivity, vegetation carbon, and wood product carbon storage in the United States, but slightly reduce soil carbon storage at some areas; however, the carbon sink induced by forest plantations was at the expense of more water use as represented by higher evapotranspiration. Stronger nitrogen and water limitations were found for forest plantations as compared to natural or naturally-regenerated forests.

  10. Glacial cold-water coral growth in the Gulf of Cádiz: Implications of increased palaeo-productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienberg, Claudia; Frank, Norbert; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Stuut, Jan-Berend; Marchant, Margarita; Fietzke, Jan; Mienis, Furu; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-10-01

    A set of 40 Uranium-series datings obtained on the reef-forming scleractinian cold-water corals Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata revealed that during the past 400 kyr their occurrence in the Gulf of Cádiz (GoC) was almost exclusively restricted to glacial periods. This result strengthens the outcomes of former studies that coral growth in the temperate NE Atlantic encompassing the French, Iberian and Moroccan margins dominated during glacial periods, whereas in the higher latitudes (Irish and Norwegian margins) extended coral growth prevailed during interglacial periods. Thus it appears that the biogeographical limits for sustained cold-water coral growth along the NE Atlantic margin are strongly related to climate change. By focussing on the last glacial-interglacial cycle, this study shows that palaeo-productivity was increased during the last glacial. This was likely driven by the fertilisation effect of an increased input of aeolian dust and locally intensified upwelling. After the Younger Dryas cold event, the input of aeolian dust and productivity significantly decreased concurrent with an increase in water temperatures in the GoC. This primarily resulted in reduced food availability and caused a widespread demise of the formerly thriving coral ecosystems. Moreover, these climate induced changes most likely caused a latitudinal shift of areas with optimum coral growth conditions towards the northern NE Atlantic where more suitable environmental conditions established with the onset of the Holocene.

  11. Does plasticity in plant physiological traits explain the rapid increase in water use efficiency? An ecohydrological modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Fatichi, Simone; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The rise of atmospheric CO2 concentration is expected to stimulate plant productivity by enhancing photosynthesis and reducing stomatal conductance and thus increasing plant water use efficiency (WUE) worldwide. An analysis of eddy covariance flux tower data from 21 forested ecosystems across the north hemisphere detected an unexpectedly large increase in WUE (Keenan et al, 2013), which was six times larger than the increase found by most previous studies based on controlled experiments (e.g., FACE), leaf-scale analyses, and numerical modelling. This increase could be solely attributed to the increase in atmospheric CO2 since other confounding factors were ruled out. Here, we investigate the potential contribution of plant plasticity, reflected in the temporal adjustment of major plant physiological traits, on changes in WUE using the ecohydrological model Tethys and Chloris (T&C). We hypothesize that the increase in WUE can be attributed to small variations in plant physiological traits, undetectable through observations, eventually triggered by the atmospheric CO2 increase. Data from the 21 sites in the above mentioned study are used to force the model. Simulation results with and without plasticity in the physiological traits (i.e., model parameters in our numerical experiments) are compared with the observed trends in WUE. We test several plant adaptation strategies in being effective in explaining the observed increase in WUE using a multifactorial numerical experiment in which we perturb in a systematic way selected plant parameters. Keenan, T. F., Hollinger, D. Y., Bohrer, G., Dragoni, D., Munger, J. W., Schmid, H. P., and Richardson, A. D. (2013). Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499(7458), 324-7.

  12. Coccolithophore community response to increasing pCO2 in Mediterranean oligotrophic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo, A. M.; Ziveri, P.; Gazeau, F.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of elevated partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) on plankton communities in oligotrophic ecosystems were studied during two mesocosm experiments: one during summer 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, France, and another during winter 2013 in the Bay of Villefranche, France. Here we report on the relative abundances of coccolithophores versus siliceous phytoplankton, coccolithophore community structure, Emiliania huxleyi coccolith morphology and calcification degree. A pCO2 mediated succession of phytoplankton groups did not occur. During both experiments, coccolithophore abundance and community structure varied with time independently of pCO2 levels. Changes in the community structure were partly explained by the concentration of phosphate during the winter experiment. During the summer experiment, it was not clearly related to any of the parameters measured but possibly to changes in temperature. Phenological changes in the community and an attenuated response due to the low biomass building during the winter experiment could have masked the response to pCO2. E. huxleyi dominated the coccolithophore community in winter; it was not affected by elevated pCO2 at any time. In contrast, the abundance of Rabdosphaera clavigera, the dominant species in summer, increased with time and this increase was affected at elevated pCO2. Thus, a different coccolithophore community response based on species-specific sensitivities to pCO2 is still likely. Finally, elevated pCO2 had no traceable effect on E. huxleyi (type A) coccolith morphology or on the degree of coccolith calcification. Our results highlight the possibility that, in oligotrophic regions, nutrient availability, temperature or intrinsic phenological changes might exert larger constrains on the coccolithophore community structure than high pCO2 does solely.

  13. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  14. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    PubMed Central

    van Grinsven, Hans JM; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution. PMID:16989661

  15. Synergizing green and gray infrastructures to increase water supply resilience in the Brazos River basin in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Yamazaki, D.; Finley, T.; Bohn, T. J.; Low, G.; Sabo, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Water infrastructure lies at the heart of the challenges and opportunities of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). Green infrastructure (e.g., wetlands restoration) presents an alternative to its hard-path counterpart - gray infrastructure, which often has external, economic and unmeasured ecological costs. But the science framework to prioritize green infrastructure buildout is nascent. In this study, we addressed this gap in Brazos River basin in Texas, in the context of corporate decisions to secure water supplies for various water stewardship objectives. We developed a physically-based tool to quantify the potential for wetland restoration to restore desired flows (hydrology), and a financial framework for comparing its cost-benefit with heightening an existing dam (conservation finance). Our framework has three components. First, we harnessed a topographic index (HAND) to identify the potential wetlands sites. Second, we coupled a land surface model (VIC) with a hydrodynamic model (CaMa-Flood) to investigate the effects of wetland size, location, and vegetation on hydrology. Finally, we estimated the net present value, indirect rate of return and payback period for green (wetlands) vs. gray (reservoir expansion) infrastructure. We found wetlands have more substantial impact on peak flow than baseflow. Interestingly, wetlands can improve baseflow reliability but not directly except with the largest (>400 km2) projects. Peak flow reduction volumes of wetlands if used as credits towards reservoir flood-control storage provide adequate conservation storage to deliver guaranteed reliability of baseflow. Hence, the synergy of existing dams with newly created wetlands offers a promising natural solution to increase water supply resilience, while green projects also generate revenue compared to their gray counterparts. This study demonstrates the possibility of using innovative engineering design to synergize green and gray infrastructures to convert water

  16. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased Extreme Hydrological Events and Decreased Water Supply Availability for the Southwestern United States Projected by Mid-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, B. R.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Mei, R.; Kendall, D. R.; Pal, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-arid Southern California relies primarily on imported water originating mostly from snowpack in basins outside of the region including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. This study provides an integrated ensemble approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California. Output from 10 global climate models is used to force a regional climate model and hydrological model resulting in high-resolution 4.17-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). On the annual timescale, temperature, precipitation and evaporation increase throughout the majority of the study area. With increased temperatures, precipitation is less likely to fall as snow, decreasing snowpack and natural storage and shifting peak flows to earlier in the year. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation events are projected to significantly increase in intensity and frequency by mid-century. The 50-year event, for example, becomes approximately five times more likely in the Colorado River basin and twice as likely in the other basins. In densely populated coastal Southern Californian cities, extreme flood events become three to five times as likely substantially increasing the risk of overburdening flood control systems and potential widespread flooding. The escalating likelihood of the combined effects of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring adaptation measures such as water release from reservoirs. Significant snowpack reductions and increased flood risk will likely necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Southwestern US.

  18. Increased Extreme Hydrological Events and Decreased Water Supply Availability for the Southwestern United States Projected by Mid-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagan, B. R.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.; Naz, B. S.; Kao, S. C.; Mei, R.; Kendall, D. R.; Pal, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid Southern California relies primarily on imported water originating mostly from snowpack in basins outside of the region including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. This study provides an integrated ensemble approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California. Output from 10 global climate models is used to force a regional climate model and hydrological model resulting in high-resolution 4.17-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). On the annual timescale, temperature, precipitation and evaporation increase throughout the majority of the study area. With increased temperatures, precipitation is less likely to fall as snow, decreasing snowpack and natural storage and shifting peak flows to earlier in the year. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation events are projected to significantly increase in intensity and frequency by mid-century. The 50-year event, for example, becomes approximately five times more likely in the Colorado River basin and twice as likely in the other basins. In densely populated coastal Southern Californian cities, extreme flood events become three to five times as likely substantially increasing the risk of overburdening flood control systems and potential widespread flooding. The escalating likelihood of the combined effects of runoff occurring earlier in the year and in significantly higher amounts poses a substantial flood control risk requiring adaptation measures such as water release from reservoirs. Significant snowpack reductions and increased flood risk will likely necessitate additional multiyear storage solutions for urban and agricultural regions in the Southwestern US.

  19. Differential changes in production measures for an estuarine-resident sparid in deep and shallow waters following increases in hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, Alan; Hall, Norman G.; Hesp, S. Alex; Potter, Ian C.

    2018-03-01

    This study determined how productivity measures for a fish species in different water depths of an estuary changed in response to the increase in hypoxia in deep waters, which had previously been shown to occur between 1993-95 and 2007-11. Annual data on length and age compositions, body mass, growth, abundance, biomass, production and production to biomass ratio (P/B) were thus determined for the estuarine-resident Acanthopagrus butcheri in nearshore shallow (<2 m) and offshore deep waters (2-6 m) of the upper Swan River Estuary in those two periods. Length and age compositions imply that the increase in hypoxia was accompanied by the distribution of the majority of the older and larger A. butcheri changing from deep to shallow waters, where the small fish typically reside. Annual densities, biomass and production in shallow waters of <0.02 fish m-2, 2-4 g m-2 and ∼2 g m-2 y-1 in the earlier period were far lower than the 0.1-0.2 fish m-2, 8-15 g m-2 and 5-10 g m-2 y-1 in the later period, whereas the reverse trend occurred in deep waters, with values of 6-9 fish net-1, 2000-3900 g net-1, 900-1700 g net-1 y-1 in the earlier period vs < 1.5 fish net-1, ∼110 g net-1 and 27-45 g net-1 y-1 in the later period. Within the later period, and in contrast to the trends with annual abundance and biomass, the production in shallow waters was least during 2008/09, rather than greatest, reflecting the slow growth in that particularly cool year. The presence of substantial aggregations of both small and large fish in shallow waters accounts for the abundance, biomass and production in those waters increasing between those periods and thus, through a density-dependent effect, provide a basis for the overall reduction in growth. In marked contrast to the trends with the other three production measures, annual production to biomass ratios (P/B) in shallow waters in the two years in the earlier period, and in three of the four years of the later period, fell within the same

  20. Increased Power in Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell: Facilitated Mass Transfer via a Water-Layer Anode Embedded in Sediment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Seok; An, Junyeong; Kim, Bongkyu; Park, HyunJun; Kim, Jisu; Chang, In Seop

    2015-01-01

    We report a methodology for enhancing the mass transfer at the anode electrode of sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs), by employing a fabric baffle to create a separate water-layer for installing the anode electrode in sediment. The maximum power in an SMFC with the anode installed in the separate water-layer (SMFC-wFB) was improved by factor of 6.6 compared to an SMFC having the anode embedded in the sediment (SMFC-woFB). The maximum current density in the SMFC-wFB was also 3.9 times higher (220.46 mA/m2) than for the SMFC-woFB. We found that the increased performance in the SMFC-wFB was due to the improved mass transfer rate of organic matter obtained by employing the water-layer during anode installation in the sediment layer. Acetate injection tests revealed that the SMFC-wFB could be applied to natural water bodies in which there is frequent organic contamination, based on the acetate flux from the cathode to the anode.

  1. Increasing vertical resolution of three-dimensional atmospheric water vapor retrievals using a network of scanning compact microwave radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Swaroop

    2011-12-01

    The thermodynamic properties of the troposphere, in particular water vapor content and temperature, change in response to physical mechanisms, including frictional drag, evaporation, transpiration, heat transfer and flow modification due to terrain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is characterized by a high rate of change in its thermodynamic state on time scales of typically less than one hour. Large horizontal gradients in vertical wind speed and steep vertical gradients in water vapor and temperature in the PBL are associated with high-impact weather. Observation of these gradients in the PBL with high vertical resolution and accuracy is important for improvement of weather prediction. Satellite remote sensing in the visible, infrared and microwave provide qualitative and quantitative measurements of many atmospheric properties, including cloud cover, precipitation, liquid water content and precipitable water vapor in the upper troposphere. However, the ability to characterize the thermodynamic properties of the PBL is limited by the confounding factors of ground emission in microwave channels and of cloud cover in visible and IR channels. Ground-based microwave radiometers are routinely used to measure thermodynamic profiles. The vertical resolution of such profiles retrieved from radiometric brightness temperatures depends on the number and choice of frequency channels, the scanning strategy and the accuracy of brightness temperature measurements. In the standard technique, which uses brightness temperatures from vertically pointing radiometers, the vertical resolution of the retrieved water vapor profile is similar to or larger than the altitude at which retrievals are performed. This study focuses on the improvement of the vertical resolution of water vapor retrievals by including scanning measurements at a variety of elevation angles. Elevation angle scanning increases the path length of the atmospheric emission, thus improving the signal-to-noise ratio

  2. Changing Waters: Are Climate-Driven Changes in Discharge Regimes Increasing Eutrophication Risk in the Great Lakes Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) has experienced increasing precipitation, warming temperatures, and earlier spring thaws. During this same period, the region has been plagued by problems of water quality, with Lake Erie, in particular, experiencing a re-emergence of major eutrophication events, including an increased incidence of Harmful Algal Blooms. Although the prevailing paradigm is that eutrophication of inland waters is directly correlated with total phosphorus (P) inputs, recent decades have seen a decrease in the total P being delivered to the lakes from contributing watersheds. This apparent disconnect between inputs and outputs, i.e. decreasing P inputs but increased eutrophication, has led some to speculate that loading of total P is an insufficient metric of eutrophication risk and that increasing ratios of soluble reactive P (SRP) in relation to the total P (TP) entering inland water bodies may be a more important driver of algal growth. We hypothesize that changes in seasonal discharge patterns may be contributing to changes in the forms of P being delivered to the lakes, potentially due to changes in delivery pathways-for example surface pathways are more dominant in spring snowmelt, while shallow subsurface and tile pathways are more dominant during winter freeze-thaw events. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized data from more than 200 gaging stations across the GLB to explore the influences of climate and changing hydrologic patterns on biogeochemical processing and transport within the GLB. More specifically, we have asked the following questions: 1) How are discharge patterns changing across the GLB? 2) Are SRP:TP ratios increasing in subwatersheds of the GLB, and what are the spatial patterns in these changes? 3) Are climate-related changes in seasonality, e.g. earlier snowmelt, decreasing snowfall, longer growing seasons, linked to increased ratios of bioavailable P? Our results suggest that changes in precipitation as well

  3. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  4. Simulated effects of increased recharge on the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nevada-California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the potential effects of changes in future climatic conditions on the groundwater system in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential mined geologic repository for high-level nuclear wastes. These changes probably would result in greater rates of precipitation and, consequently, greater rates of recharge. The study was performed by simulating the groundwater system, using a two-dimensional, finite-element, groundwater flow model. The simulated position of the water table rose as much as 130 meters near the U.S. Department of Energy 's preferred repository area at Yucca Mountain for a simulation involving a 100-percent increase in precipitation compared to modern-day conditions. Despite the water table rise, no flooding of the potential repository would occur at its current proposed location. According to the simulation, springs would discharge south and west of Timber Mountain, along Fortymile Canyon, in the Amargosa Desert near Lathrop Wells and Franklin Lake playa, and near Furnace Creek Ranch in Death Valley, where they presently discharge. Simulated directions of groundwater flow paths near the potential repository area generally would be the same for the baseline (modern-day climate) and the increased-recharge simulations, but the magnitude of flow would increase by 2 to 4 times that of the baseline-simulation flow. (USGS)

  5. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B; Lousada, José L; Gaspar, Maria J; Correia, Isabel E; David, Teresa S; Soares, Pedro M M; Cardoso, Rita M; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M; Gouveia, Célia M

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster's vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster's production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region.

  6. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  7. Effects of Recent Minimum Temperature and Water Deficit Increases on Pinus pinaster Radial Growth and Wood Density in Southern Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Kurz-Besson, Cathy B.; Lousada, José L.; Gaspar, Maria J.; Correia, Isabel E.; David, Teresa S.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Cardoso, Rita M.; Russo, Ana; Varino, Filipa; Mériaux, Catherine; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia M.

    2016-01-01

    Western Iberia has recently shown increasing frequency of drought conditions coupled with heatwave events, leading to exacerbated limiting climatic conditions for plant growth. It is not clear to what extent wood growth and density of agroforestry species have suffered from such changes or recent extreme climate events. To address this question, tree-ring width and density chronologies were built for a Pinus pinaster stand in southern Portugal and correlated with climate variables, including the minimum, mean and maximum temperatures and the number of cold days. Monthly and maximum daily precipitations were also analyzed as well as dry spells. The drought effect was assessed using the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration (SPEI) multi-scalar drought index, between 1 to 24-months. The climate-growth/density relationships were evaluated for the period 1958-2011. We show that both wood radial growth and density highly benefit from the strong decay of cold days and the increase of minimum temperature. Yet the benefits are hindered by long-term water deficit, which results in different levels of impact on wood radial growth and density. Despite of the intensification of long-term water deficit, tree-ring width appears to benefit from the minimum temperature increase, whereas the effects of long-term droughts significantly prevail on tree-ring density. Our results further highlight the dependency of the species on deep water sources after the juvenile stage. The impact of climate changes on long-term droughts and their repercussion on the shallow groundwater table and P. pinaster’s vulnerability are also discussed. This work provides relevant information for forest management in the semi-arid area of the Alentejo region of Portugal. It should ease the elaboration of mitigation strategies to assure P. pinaster’s production capacity and quality in response to more arid conditions in the near future in the region. PMID:27570527

  8. Responses of tropical native and invader C4 grasses to water stress, clipping and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Zdravko; Jackson, Robert B

    2005-10-01

    The invasion of African grasses into Neotropical savannas has altered savanna composition, structure and function. The projected increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration has the potential to further alter the competitive relationship between native and invader grasses. The objective of this study was to quantify the responses of two populations of a widespread native C(4) grass (Trachypogon plumosus) and two African C(4) grass invaders (Hyparrhenia rufa and Melinis minutiflora) to high CO(2) concentration interacting with two primary savanna stressors: drought and herbivory. Elevated CO(2) increased the competitive potential of invader grasses in several ways. Germination and seedling size was promoted in introduced grasses. Under high CO(2), the relative growth rate of young introduced grasses was twice that of native grass (0.58 g g(-1) week(-1) vs 0.25 g g(-1) week(-1)). This initial growth advantage was maintained throughout the course of the study. Well-watered and unstressed African grasses also responded more to high CO(2) than did the native grass (biomass increases of 21-47% compared with decreases of 13-51%). Observed higher water and nitrogen use efficiency of invader grasses may aid their establishment and competitive strength in unfertile sites, specially if the climate becomes drier. In addition, high CO(2) promoted lower leaf N content more in the invader grasses. The more intensive land use, predicted to occur in this region, may interact with high CO(2) to favor the African grasses, as they generally recovered faster after simulated herbivory. The superiority of invader grasses under high CO(2) suggests further increases in their competitive strength and a potential increased rate of displacement of the native savannas in the future by grasslands dominated by introduced African species.

  9. Atmospheric energy and water balance perspective to projection of global-scale precipitation increase: may mitigation policies unexpectedly amplify precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, A.; Fogli, P.; Vichi, M.; Zeng, N.

    2012-12-01

    Future climate scenarios experiencing global warming are expected to strengthen hydrological cycle during 21st century by comparison with the last decades of 20th century. From the perspective of changes in whole atmospheric water and energy budgets, we analyze strengthening of the hydrological cycle as measured by the increase in global-scale precipitation. Furthermore, by combining energy and water equations for the whole atmosphere we profitably obtain constraints for the changes in surface fluxes and for the partitioning at the surface between sensible and latent components. Above approach is applied to investigate difference in precipitation increase in two scenario centennial simulations performed with an Earth System model forced with specified atmospheric concentration pathways. Alongside medium-high non-mitigation scenario (baseline), we considered an aggressive-mitigation scenario (E1) with reduced fossil fuel use for energy production aimed at stabilizing global warming below 2K. Quite unexpectedly, mitigation scenario is shown to strengthen hydrological cycle more than baseline till around 2070, that is a couple of decades after that mitigation of global temperature was already well established in E1. Our analysis shows that this is mostly a consequence of the larger increase in the negative radiative imbalance of atmosphere in E1 compared to baseline. This appears to be primarily related to the abated aerosol concentration in E1, which considerably reduces atmospheric absorption of solar radiation compared to baseline. In contrast, last decades of 21st century (21C) show marked increase of global precipitation in baseline compared to E1, despite the fact that the two scenarios display almost same overall increase of radiative imbalance with respect to 20th century. Our results show that radiative cooling is weakly effective in baseline throughout all 21C, so that two distinct mechanisms characterize the diverse strengthening of hydrological cycle in

  10. Skin application of urea-containing cream affected cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity, blood flow, and water evaporation.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Fujisaki, Yosiyuki; Fuyuki, Risa; Hashimoto, Kazuko; Niijima, Akira; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Nagai, Katsuya

    2011-02-01

    We observed that olfactory stimulation with scent of grapefruit oil elevated the activities of sympathetic nerves, and increased the plasma glycerol concentration and blood pressure. In contrast, olfactory stimulation with scent of lavender oil had opposite effects in rats. These suggest that changes in autonomic activities cause physiological functions via histaminergic H1 and H3 receptor. Moreover, it has been reported that somatic sensory stimulation affected autonomic neurotransmission. To examine effects of skin application of urea-containing cream on cutaneous arterial sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA), blood flow, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The activity of CASNA was determined by electrophysiological method, and cutaneous blood flow was determined using laser flowmeter in urethane-anesthetized rats, TEWL was measured using VapoMeter in the back skin of HWY hairless rats. CASNA was markedly and significantly inhibited by skin application of 10% urea-containing cream, whereas cutaneous blood flow was significantly elevated via histaminergic H3-receptor. In conscious hairless rats, TEWL was significantly decreased 24 h after application of 10% urea-containing cream to the back skin. These findings suggest that skin application of 10% urea-containing cream increases the cutaneous blood flow and water retaining ability, and that histaminergic H3-receptors may mediate these effects. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    PubMed

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  12. Blinded by the light? Nearshore energy pathway coupling and relative predator biomass increase with reduced water transparency across lakes.

    PubMed

    Tunney, Tyler D; McCann, Kevin S; Jarvis, Lauren; Lester, Nigel P; Shuter, Brian J

    2018-04-01

    Habitat coupling is a concept that refers to consumer integration of resources derived from different habitats. This coupling unites fundamental food web pathways (e.g., cross-habitat trophic linkages) that mediate key ecological processes such as biomass flows, nutrient cycling, and stability. We consider the influence of water transparency, an important environmental driver in aquatic ecosystems, on habitat coupling by a light-sensitive predator, walleye (Sander vitreus), and its prey in 33 Canadian lakes. Our large-scale, across-lake study shows that the contribution of nearshore carbon (δ 13 C) relative to offshore carbon (δ 13 C) to walleye is higher in less transparent lakes. To a lesser degree, the contribution of nearshore carbon increased with a greater proportion of prey in nearshore compared to offshore habitats. Interestingly, water transparency and habitat coupling predict among-lake variation in walleye relative biomass. These findings support the idea that predator responses to changing conditions (e.g., water transparency) can fundamentally alter carbon pathways, and predator biomass, in aquatic ecosystems. Identifying environmental factors that influence habitat coupling is an important step toward understanding spatial food web structure in a changing world.

  13. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water

    PubMed Central

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism’s photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO2. No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs. PMID:20133799

  14. Flow enhances photosynthesis in marine benthic autotrophs by increasing the efflux of oxygen from the organism to the water.

    PubMed

    Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia; Shavit, Uri; Grinstein, Mor; Tchernov, Dan

    2010-02-09

    Worldwide, many marine coastal habitats are facing rapid deterioration due in part to human-driven changes in habitat characteristics, including changes in flow patterns, a factor known to greatly affect primary production in corals, algae, and seagrasses. The effect of flow traditionally is attributed to enhanced influx of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) across the benthic boundary layer from the water to the organism however, here we report that the organism's photosynthetic response to changes in the flow is nearly instantaneous, and that neither nutrients nor DIC limits this rapid response. Using microelectrodes, dual-pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, particle image velocimetry, and real time mass-spectrometry with the common scleractinian coral Favia veroni, the alga Gracilaria cornea, and the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, we show that this augmented photosynthesis is due to flow-driven enhancement of oxygen efflux from the organism to the water, which increases the affinity of the RuBisCO to CO(2). No augmentation of photosynthesis was found in the absence of flow or when flow occurred, but the ambient concentration of oxygen was artificially elevated. We suggest that water motion should be considered a fundamental factor, equivalent to light and nutrients, in determining photosynthesis rates in marine benthic autotrophs.

  15. Increased Milk Protein Concentration in a Rehydration Drink Enhances Fluid Retention Caused by Water Reabsorption in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Saito, Yuri; Ashida, Kinya; Yamaji, Taketo; Itoh, Hiroyuki; Oda, Munehiro

    2015-01-01

    A fluid-retention effect is required for beverages that are designed to prevent dehydration. That is, fluid absorbed from the intestines should not be excreted quickly; long-term retention is desirable. Here, we focused on the effect of milk protein on fluid retention, and propose a new effective oral rehydration method that can be used daily for preventing dehydration. We first evaluated the effects of different concentrations of milk protein on fluid retention by measuring the urinary volumes of rats fed fluid containing milk protein at concentrations of 1, 5, and 10%. We next compared the fluid-retention effect of milk protein-enriched drink (MPD) with those of distilled water (DW) and a sports drink (SD) by the same method. Third, to investigate the mechanism of fluid retention, we measured plasma insulin changes in rats after ingesting these three drinks. We found that the addition of milk protein at 5 or 10% reduced urinary volume in a dose-dependent manner. Ingestion of the MPD containing 4.6% milk protein resulted in lower urinary volumes than DW and SD. MPD also showed a higher water reabsorption rate in the kidneys and higher concentrations of plasma insulin than DW and SD. These results suggest that increasing milk protein concentration in a beverage enhances fluid retention, which may allow the possibility to develop rehydration beverages that are more effective than SDs. In addition, insulin-modifying renal water reabsorption may contribute to the fluid-retention effect of MPD.

  16. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness.

    PubMed

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R; Carlson, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two "resting" meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a "resting" state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change.

  17. Mediating Water Temperature Increases Due to Livestock and Global Change in High Elevation Meadow Streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    PubMed Central

    Nusslé, Sébastien; Matthews, Kathleen R.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout Wilderness, California, we measured riparian vegetation and monitored water temperature in three meadow streams between 2008 and 2013, including two “resting” meadows and one meadow that is partially grazed. All three meadows have been subject to grazing by cattle and sheep since the 1800s and their streams are home to the imperiled California golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita). In 1991, a livestock exclosure was constructed in one of the meadows (Mulkey), leaving a portion of stream ungrazed to minimize the negative effects of cattle. In 2001, cattle were removed completely from two other meadows (Big Whitney and Ramshaw), which have been in a “resting” state since that time. Inside the livestock exclosure in Mulkey, we found that riverbank vegetation was both larger and denser than outside the exclosure where cattle were present, resulting in more shaded waters and cooler maximal temperatures inside the exclosure. In addition, between meadows comparisons showed that water temperatures were cooler in the ungrazed meadows compared to the grazed area in the partially grazed meadow. Finally, we found that predicted temperatures under different global warming scenarios were likely to be higher in presence of livestock grazing. Our results highlight that land use can interact with climate change to worsen the local thermal conditions for taxa on the edge and that protecting riparian vegetation is likely to increase the resiliency of these ecosystems to climate change. PMID:26565706

  18. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host

    PubMed Central

    Cirocco, Robert M.; Facelli, José M.; Watling, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites’ effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ13C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. PMID:26703920

  19. High water availability increases the negative impact of a native hemiparasite on its non-native host.

    PubMed

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Environmental factors alter the impacts of parasitic plants on their hosts. However, there have been no controlled studies on how water availability modulates stem hemiparasites' effects on hosts. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the association between the Australian native stem hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens and the introduced host Ulex europaeus under high (HW) and low (LW) water supply. Cassytha pubescens had a significant, negative effect on the total biomass of U. europaeus, which was more severe in HW than LW. Regardless of watering treatment, infection significantly decreased shoot and root biomass, nodule biomass, nodule biomass per unit root biomass, F v/F m, and nitrogen concentration of U. europaeus. Host spine sodium concentration significantly increased in response to infection in LW but not HW conditions. Host water potential was significantly higher in HW than in LW, which may have allowed the parasite to maintain higher stomatal conductances in HW. In support of this, the δ(13)C of the parasite was significantly lower in HW than in LW (and significantly higher than the host). C. pubescens also had significantly higher F v/F m and 66% higher biomass per unit host in the HW compared with the LW treatment. The data suggest that the enhanced performance of C. pubescens in HW resulted in higher parasite growth rates and thus a larger demand for resources from the host, leading to poorer host performance in HW compared with LW. C. pubescens should more negatively affect U. europaeus growth under wet conditions rather than under dry conditions in the field. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recently expanded Renewable Fuel Standard, which now requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, has increased demand for biofuel refinery feedstocks. Currently, biofuel production consists mainly of corn-based ethanol, but concern over increasing nitrate levels resulting from increased corn crop fertilization has prompted research into alternative biofuel feedstocks. Of these, high-yielding biomass crops such as Miscanthus have been suggested for cellulose-based ethanol production. Because these perennial crops require less fertilization and do not need tilling, increasing land area in the Midwest planted with Miscanthus would result in less nitrate pollution to the Gulf of Mexico. There is a tradeoff, however, as Miscanthus also has higher water requirements than conventional crops in the region. This could pose a serious problem for riparian ecosystems and other streamflow users such as municipalities and biofuel refineries themselves, as the lowest natural flows in this region coincide with the peak of the growing season. Moreover, low flow reduction may eventually cut off the water quality benefit that planting Miscanthus provides. Therefore, for large-scale cellulosic ethanol production to be sustainable, it is important to understand how the watershed will respond to this change in land and water use. To this end a detailed data analysis of current watershed conditions has been combined with hydrologic modeling to gain deeper insights into how catchments in the highly agricultural central IL watershed of the Sangamon River respond to current and future land and water usage, with the focus on the summer low-flow season. In addition, an integrated systems optimization model has been developed that combines hydrologic, agro-biologic, engineering infrastructural, and economic inputs to provide optimal scenarios of crop type and area and corresponding refinery locations and capacities. Through this integrated modeling framework, we address the key

  1. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p < 0.01) for the presence of epiphytic algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. SOD activity significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) with the presence of epiphytic algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p < 0.01). However, in the treatments of T1 and T4, SOD activity had no obvious change with the presence of epiphytic algae (p < 0.05) by comparing with control. At the end of the experiment, the effects of epiphytic algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p < 0.001), the effects of epiphytic algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p < 0.001), respectively, and their interaction (p < 0.001). Our observations

  2. Biochar increases plant-available water in a sandy loam soil under an aerobic rice crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo Carvalho, M. T.; de Holanda Nunes Maia, A.; Madari, B. E.; Bastiaans, L.; van Oort, P. A. J.; Heinemann, A. B.; Soler da Silva, M. A.; Petter, F. A.; Marimon, B. H., Jr.; Meinke, H.

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the impact of biochar rate (0, 8, 16 and 32 Mg ha-1) on the water retention capacity (WRC) of a sandy loam Dystric Plinthosol. The applied biochar was a by-product of slow pyrolysis (∼450 °C) of eucalyptus wood, milled to pass through a 2000 μm sieve that resulted in a material with an intrinsic porosity ≤10 μm and a specific surface area of ∼3.2 m2 g-1. The biochar was incorporated into the top 15 cm of the soil under an aerobic rice system. Our study focused on both the effects on WRC and rice yields 2 and 3 years after its application. Undisturbed soil samples were collected from 16 plots in two soil layers (5-10 and 15-20 cm). Soil water retention curves were modelled using a nonlinear mixed model which appropriately accounts for uncertainties inherent of spatial variability and repeated measurements taken within a specific soil sample. We found an increase in plant-available water in the upper soil layer proportional to the rate of biochar, with about 0.8% for each Mg ha-1 biochar amendment 2 and 3 years after its application. The impact of biochar on soil WRC was most likely related to an effect in overall porosity of the sandy loam soil, which was evident from an increase in saturated soil moisture and macro porosity with 0.5 and 1.6% for each Mg ha-1 of biochar applied, respectively. The increment in soil WRC did not translate into an increase in rice yield, essentially because in both seasons the amount of rainfall during the critical period for rice production exceeded 650 mm. The use of biochar as a soil amendment can be a worthy strategy to guarantee yield stability under short-term water-limited conditions. Our findings raise the importance of assessing the feasibility of very high application rates of biochar and the inclusion of a detailed analysis of its physical and chemical properties as part of future investigations.

  3. Arsenic exposure through drinking water increases the risk of liver and cardiovascular diseases in the population of West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic is a natural drinking water contaminant affecting 26 million people in West Bengal, India. Chronic arsenic exposure causes cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, neuropathies and ocular diseases. The aims of the present study were to assess bioindicators of hepatocellular injury as indicated by the levels of liver enzymes, to determine the auto immune status, as indicated by the amounts of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies in their serum, and to predict cardiovascular risk in the arsenic exposed population. Methods Effect of chronic arsenic exposure on liver was determined by liver function tests. Autoimmune status was measured by measuring ANA and anti-dsDNA in serum. Inflammatory cytokines associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, IL6, IL8 and MCP-1 were determined. Results Our results indicated that serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and ANA were increased in the arsenic exposed population. Serum levels of IL6 and IL8 also increased in the arsenic exposed group. Conclusions Chronic arsenic exposure causes liver injury, increases the serum levels of autoimmune markers and imparts increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:22883023

  4. Time- and concentration-dependent increases in cell proliferation in rats and mice administered vinyl acetate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Rudolph; Bamberger, J R; Szostek, B; Frame, S R; Hansen, J F; Bogdanffy, M S

    2002-06-01

    Chronic administration of vinyl acetate (VA) in drinking water to rats and mice has produced upper digestive tract neoplasms. These tumors were believed to arise from the intracellular metabolism of VA by carboxylesterases to cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds. We hypothesized that prolonged VA exposure at high concentrations would induce cytotoxicity and a restorative cell proliferation (CP). These endpoints were measured in F-344 rats and BDF1 mice administered drinking water containing 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, or 24,000 ppm VA for 92 days. On test days, Days 1, 8, 29, and 92, upper digestive tract histopathology and oral cavity CP (pulsed 5-bromodeoxyuridine [BrdU] to measure S-phase DNA synthesis) were evaluated. Analysis of test solutions showed that VA spontaneously hydrolyzed, slowly releasing acetic acid and thereby lowering pH. Statistically significant, concentration-related increases in CP occurred in basal cells of the mandibular oral cavity mucosa of mice at 10,000 and 24,000 ppm but only after 92 days. CP increases were approximately 2.4- and 3.4-fold above controls and were considered to be toxicologically significant. Some statistically significant increases in CP were also measured in the oral cavity mucosa of rats; however, these changes were considered to be of equivocal biological relevance. No histopathological evidence of mucosal injury was seen in either species. The absence of cytotoxicity in the upper digestive tract mucosa suggests that the increased CP at high administered VA concentrations may be due to a mitogenic response, ostensibly from the loss of cell growth controls in oral cavity mucosa.

  5. Removal of distal protein–water hydrogen bonds in a plant epoxide hydrolase increases catalytic turnover but decreases thermostability

    PubMed Central

    Thomaeus, Ann; Naworyta, Agata; Mowbray, Sherry L.; Widersten, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    A putative proton wire in potato soluble epoxide hydrolase 1, StEH1, was identified and investigated by means of site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetic measurements, temperature inactivation studies, and X-ray crystallography. The chain of hydrogen bonds includes five water molecules coordinated through backbone carbonyl oxygens of Pro186, Leu266, His269, and the His153 imidazole. The hydroxyl of Tyr149 is also an integrated component of the chain, which leads to the hydroxyl of Tyr154. Available data suggest that Tyr154 functions as a final proton donor to the anionic alkylenzyme intermediate formed during catalysis. To investigate the role of the putative proton wire, mutants Y149F, H153F, and Y149F/H153F were constructed and purified. The structure of the Y149F mutant was solved by molecular replacement and refined to 2.0 Å resolution. Comparison with the structure of wild-type StEH1 revealed only subtle structural differences. The hydroxyl group lost as a result of the mutation was replaced by a water molecule, thus maintaining a functioning hydrogen bond network in the proton wire. All mutants showed decreased catalytic efficiencies with the R,R-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide, whereas with the S,S-enantiomer, k cat/K M was similar or slightly increased compared with the wild-type reactions. k cat for the Y149F mutant with either TSO enantiomer was increased; thus the lowered enzyme efficiencies were due to increases in K M. Thermal inactivation studies revealed that the mutated enzymes were more sensitive to elevated temperatures than the wild-type enzyme. Hence, structural alterations affecting the hydrogen bond chain caused increases in k cat but lowered thermostability. PMID:18515642

  6. Removal of distal protein-water hydrogen bonds in a plant epoxide hydrolase increases catalytic turnover but decreases thermostability.

    PubMed

    Thomaeus, Ann; Naworyta, Agata; Mowbray, Sherry L; Widersten, Mikael

    2008-07-01

    A putative proton wire in potato soluble epoxide hydrolase 1, StEH1, was identified and investigated by means of site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetic measurements, temperature inactivation studies, and X-ray crystallography. The chain of hydrogen bonds includes five water molecules coordinated through backbone carbonyl oxygens of Pro(186), Leu(266), His(269), and the His(153) imidazole. The hydroxyl of Tyr(149) is also an integrated component of the chain, which leads to the hydroxyl of Tyr(154). Available data suggest that Tyr(154) functions as a final proton donor to the anionic alkylenzyme intermediate formed during catalysis. To investigate the role of the putative proton wire, mutants Y149F, H153F, and Y149F/H153F were constructed and purified. The structure of the Y149F mutant was solved by molecular replacement and refined to 2.0 A resolution. Comparison with the structure of wild-type StEH1 revealed only subtle structural differences. The hydroxyl group lost as a result of the mutation was replaced by a water molecule, thus maintaining a functioning hydrogen bond network in the proton wire. All mutants showed decreased catalytic efficiencies with the R,R-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide, whereas with the S,S-enantiomer, k (cat)/K (M) was similar or slightly increased compared with the wild-type reactions. k (cat) for the Y149F mutant with either TSO enantiomer was increased; thus the lowered enzyme efficiencies were due to increases in K (M). Thermal inactivation studies revealed that the mutated enzymes were more sensitive to elevated temperatures than the wild-type enzyme. Hence, structural alterations affecting the hydrogen bond chain caused increases in k (cat) but lowered thermostability.

  7. Placental ischemia-induced increases in brain water content and cerebrovascular permeability: role of TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P.; Drummond, Heather A.; Granger, Joey P.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications and increased risk of encephalopathies are characteristic of preeclampsia and contribute to 40% of preeclampsia/eclampsia-related deaths. Circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is elevated in preeclamptic women, and infusion of TNF-α into pregnant rats mimics characteristics of preeclampsia. While this suggests that TNF-α has a mechanistic role to promote preeclampsia, the impact of TNF-α on the cerebral vasculature during pregnancy remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that TNF-α contributes to cerebrovascular abnormalities during placental ischemia by first infusing TNF-α in pregnant rats (200 ng/day ip, from gestational day 14 to 19) at levels to mimic those reported in preeclamptic women. TNF-α increased mean arterial pressure (MAP, P < 0.05) and brain water content in the anterior cerebrum (P < 0.05); however, TNF-α infusion had no effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the anterior cerebrum or posterior cerebrum. We then assessed the role of endogenous TNF-α in mediating these abnormalities in a model of placental ischemia induced by reducing uterine perfusion pressure followed by treatment with the soluble TNF-α receptor (etanercept, 0.8 mg/kg sc) on gestational day 18. Etanercept reduced placental ischemia-mediated increases in MAP, anterior brain water content (P < 0.05), and BBB permeability (202 ± 44% in placental ischemic rats to 101 ± 28% of normal pregnant rats). Our results indicate that TNF-α mechanistically contributes to cerebral edema by increasing BBB permeability and is an underlying factor in the development of cerebrovascular abnormalities associated with preeclampsia complicated by placental ischemia. PMID:26400187

  8. Corn stover harvest increases herbicide movement to subsurface drains - Root Zone Water Quality Model simulations.

    PubMed

    Shipitalo, Martin J; Malone, Robert W; Ma, Liwang; Nolan, Bernard T; Kanwar, Rameshwar S; Shaner, Dale L; Pederson, Carl H

    2016-06-01

    Crop residue removal for bioenergy production can alter soil hydrologic properties and the movement of agrochemicals to subsurface drains. The Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), previously calibrated using measured flow and atrazine concentrations in drainage from a 0.4 ha chisel-tilled plot, was used to investigate effects of 50 and 100% corn (Zea mays L.) stover harvest and the accompanying reductions in soil crust hydraulic conductivity and total macroporosity on transport of atrazine, metolachlor and metolachlor oxanilic acid (OXA). The model accurately simulated field-measured metolachlor transport in drainage. A 3 year simulation indicated that 50% residue removal reduced subsurface drainage by 31% and increased atrazine and metolachlor transport in drainage 4-5-fold when surface crust conductivity and macroporosity were reduced by 25%. Based on its measured sorption coefficient, approximately twofold reductions in OXA losses were simulated with residue removal. The RZWQM indicated that, if corn stover harvest reduces crust conductivity and soil macroporosity, losses of atrazine and metolachlor in subsurface drainage will increase owing to reduced sorption related to more water moving through fewer macropores. Losses of the metolachlor degradation product OXA will decrease as a result of the more rapid movement of the parent compound into the soil. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Increase in volatilization of organic compounds using air sparging through addition in alcohol in a soil-water system.

    PubMed

    Chao, Huan-Ping; Hsieh, Lin-Han Chiang; Tran, Hai Nguyen

    2018-02-15

    This study developed a novel method to promote the remediation efficiency of air sparging. According to the enhanced-volatilization theory presented in this study, selected alcohols added to groundwater can highly enhance the volatilization amounts of organic compounds with high Henry's law constants. In this study, the target organic compounds consisted of n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, toluene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and tetrachloroethene. n-pentanol, n-hexanol, and n-heptanol were used to examine the changes in the volatilization amounts of organic compounds in the given period. Two types of soils with high and low organic matter were applied to evaluate the transport of organic compounds in the soil-water system. The volatilization amounts of the organic compounds increased with increasing alcohol concentrations. The volatilization amounts of the test organic compounds exhibited a decreasing order: n-heptanol>n-hexanol>n-pentanol. When 10mg/L n-heptanol was added to the system, the maximum volatilization enhancement rate was 18-fold higher than that in distilled water. Samples of soil with high organic matter might reduce the volatilization amounts by a factor of 5-10. In the present study, the optimal removal efficiency for aromatic compounds was approximately 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cost of oviposition site selection in a water strider Aquarius paludum insularis: egg mortality increases with oviposition depth.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2010-06-01

    Females generally avoid selecting sites for oviposition which have a high predation risk to increase offspring survival. Previous studies have focused on costs to ovipositing females. However, although offspring may also incur costs by being oviposited at low predation risk sites, no studies have focused on costs to offspring. Such costs to offspring were examined by using Aquarius paludum insularis, females of which avoid eggs parasitism by ovipositing at deep sites. Deep sites are safe from egg parasitism but may be unsuitable for hatching due to environmental factors. We examined the costs to offspring at deep sites by comparing the hatching rate, the duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae between eggs that were set at three levels of water depth (0 cm, 25 cm and 50 cm depth). While the hatching rate at 50 cm was lower than that at 0 cm, the rate at 25 cm did not differ from that at 0 cm. Duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae did not differ between the three depths. It is suggested that the declining survival rate of A. paludum eggs was due to increased water pressure at greater depth. Such a cost may exist in other species and such an observation may aid in understanding oviposition site selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing fruit, vegetable and water consumption in summer day camps--3-year findings of the healthy lunchbox challenge.

    PubMed

    Beets, Michael W; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Moore, Justin B

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day(-1), 10-11 weeks summer(-1), SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design was used in four large-scale SDCs serving more than 550 children day(-1) (6-12 years). The percentage of foods/beverages brought by children/staff, staff promotion of healthy eating and children's consumption of FVW was assessed via direct observation over 98 days across three summers. For children (3308 observations), fruit and vegetables (>11-16%) increased; no changes were observed for FVW for staff (398 observations). Reductions in unhealthy foods/beverages (e.g. soda/pop and chips) were observed for both children and staff (minus -10% to 38%). Staff role modeling unhealthy eating/drinking initially decreased but increased by 2013. The majority of children who brought fruit/vegetables consumed them. The HLC can influence the foods/beverages brought to SDCs. Enhancements are required to further increase FVW brought and consumed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  13. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods: This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results: The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival ( p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery ( p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline ( p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality ( p = 0.01), cholesterol ( p = 0.009), c-reactive protein ( p = 0.04), sodium ( p = 0.01), and chloride ( p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions: These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain

  14. Effects of water nanodroplets on skin moisture and viscoelasticity during air-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Hideo; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamada, Kuniyuki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Motohiko

    2013-11-01

    In air-conditioned rooms, dry air exacerbates some skin diseases, for example, senile xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and surface roughness. Humidifiers are used to improve air dryness, which often induces excess humidity and thermal discomfort. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of water nanodroplets (mist) on skin hydration, which may increase skin hydration by penetrating into the interstitial spaces between corneocytes of the stratum corneum (SC) without increasing air humidity. We examined biophysical parameters, including skin conductance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical parameters of skin distension/retraction before and after suction at the forehead, lateral canthus, and cheek, with or without mist, in a testing environment (24°C, 35% relative humidity) for 120 min. In the group without mist, TEWL values significantly decreased at all the sites after 1 h compared with the initial values. However, in the presence of mist, TEWL values were maintained at the initial values through the test, yielding significant differences vs. the group without mist. There were no significant differences between mist and mist-free groups in terms of skin conductance. Skin distension was significantly increased in the group with mist compared with that in the group without mist at the forehead and cheek, suggesting a softening effect of mist. Skin deformation of the face was improved by mist, suggesting hydration of the SC by mist. The change in TEWL was influenced by mist, suggesting supply of water to the skin, particularly the SC, by mist. These data indicated that a mist of water nanodroplets played an important role in softening skin in an air-conditioned room without increasing excess humidity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Supplemental irrigation as an initiative to support water and food security: A global evaluation of the potential to support and increase precipitation-fed wheat production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilovic, M.; Gleeson, T. P.; Adamowski, J. F.; Langhorn, C.; Kienzle, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    Supplemental irrigation is the practice of supporting precipitation-fed agriculture with limited irrigation. Precipitation-fed agriculture dominates the agricultural landscape, but is vulnerable to intraseasonal and interannual variability in precipitation and climate. The interplay between food security, water resources, ecosystem health, energy, and livelihoods necessitates evaluating and integrating initiatives that increase agricultural production while reducing demands on water resources. Supplemental irrigation is the practice of minimally irrigating in an effort to stabilize and increase agricultural production, as well as increase water productivity - the amount of crop produced per unit of water. The potential of supplemental irrigation to support both water and food security has yet to be evaluated at regional and global scales. We evaluate whether supplemental irrigation could stabilize and increase agricultural production of wheat by determining locally-calibrated water use-crop yield relationships, known as crop-water production functions. Crop-water production functions are functions of seasonal water use and crop yield, and previous efforts have largely ignored the effects of the temporal distribution of water use throughout the growing season. We significantly improve upon these efforts and provide an opportunity to evaluate supplemental irrigation that appropriately acknowledges the effects of irrigation scheduling. Integrating agroclimatic and crop data with the crop-water model Aquacrop, we determine the increases in wheat production achieved by maximizing water productivity, sharing limited water between different years, and other irrigation scenarios. The methodology presented and evaluation of supplemental irrigation provides water mangers, policy makers, governments, and non-governmental organizations the tools to appropriately understand and determine the potential of this initiative to support precipitation-fed agriculture.

  16. Does cessation of community water fluoridation lead to an increase in tooth decay? A systematic review of published studies.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Singhal, Sonica

    2016-09-01

    Cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF) appears to be occurring with increasing frequency in some regions. Our objective was to comprehensively review published research on the impact of CWF cessation on dental caries. We searched 13 multidisciplinary databases. Results were synthesised qualitatively and quantitatively. We identified 15 instances of CWF cessation ('intervention') in 13 countries, which covered a broad time frame (1956-2003) and diverse geographical and political/economic contexts. Overall, results were mixed, but pointed more to an increase in caries postcessation than otherwise. For example, of the 9 studies with at least moderate methodological quality based on criteria we developed for this review, 5 showed an increase in caries postcessation. 3 studies did not show an increase in caries postcessation; however, important postcessation changes (eg, implementation of alternative fluoride delivery programmes) and/or large-scale social change may have contributed to those effects. Of the 3 study groupings that permitted quantitative synthesis, 2 showed statistically significant mean overall increase in caries postcessation; however, quantitative synthesis results must be interpreted cautiously. Overall, the published research points more to an increase in dental caries post-CWF cessation than otherwise. However, the literature is highly diverse and variable in methodological quality. To build this literature, it is important to exploit research opportunities presented by CWF cessation. Remaining knowledge gaps include the impact of CWF cessation on the distribution of dental caries (ie, equitable or not) and understanding the decision-making circumstances around CWF cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Water exchange and permeability properties of the skin in three species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda spp.).

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, H B; Menon, J G; Menon, G K; Sheehy, C M; Tu, M C

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary transitions between different environmental media such as air and water pose special problems with respect to skin permeability because of the dramatic changes in the driving gradients and nature of water exchange processes. Also, during the transitional periods prior to complete adaptation to a new medium, the skin is exposed to two very different sets of environmental conditions. Here, we report new data for transepidermal evaporative water loss (TEWL) and cutaneous resistance to evaporative water loss (R(s)) of sea snakes that are transitional in the sense of being amphibious and semi-terrestrial. We investigated three species of sea kraits (Elapidae: Laticaudinae) that are common to Orchid Island (Lanyu), Taiwan. Generally, R(s) of all three species is lower than that characteristic of terrestrial/xeric species of snakes measured in other taxa. Within Laticauda, R(s) is significantly greater (TEWL lower) in the more terrestrial species and lowest (TEWL highest) in the more aquatic species. Previously reported losses of water from snakes kept in seawater exhibit a reversed trend, with lower rates of loss in the more aquatic species. These data suggest selection for adaptive traits with respect to increasing exposure to the marine environment. Thus, a countergradient of traits is reflected in decreased TEWL in aerial environments and decreased net water efflux in marine environments, acting simultaneously in the three species. The pattern for TEWL correlates with ultrastructural evidence for increased lipogenesis in the stratum corneum of the more terrestrial species. The skin surfaces of all three species are hydrophobic. Species differences in this property possibly explain the pattern for water efflux when these snakes are in seawater, which remains to be investigated.

  18. Hybrid Analysis of Blue Water Consumption and Water Scarcity Implications at the Global, National, and Basin Levels in an Increasingly Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-05-17

    As the fifth global water footprint assessment, this study enhanced previous estimates of national blue water consumption (including fresh surface and groundwater) and main economic activities with (1) improved spatial and sectoral resolution and (2) quantified the impacts of virtual water trade on water use and water stress at both the national and basin level. In 2007, 1194 Gm(3) of blue water was consumed globally for human purposes. The consuming (producing) of primary and manufactured goods and services from the sectors of "Primary Crops and Livestock", "Primary Energy and Minerals", "Processed Food and Beverages", "Non-food Manufactured Products", "Electricity", "Commercial and Public Services", and "Households" accounted for 33% (91%), ∼ 0% (1%), 37% (<1%), 13% (1%), 1% (2%), 15% (3%), and 2% (2%) of the world's total blue water consumption, respectively. The considerable differences in sectoral water consumption accounted for by the two perspectives (consumption- vs production-based) highlight the significance of the water consumed indirectly, upstream in the supply chain (i.e., > 70% of total blue water consumption) while offering additional insights into the water implications of critical interconnected economic activities, such as the water-energy nexus. With 145 Gm(3) (12%) of the blue water consumption embedded in the goods and services traded internationally, 89 countries analyzed were net blue water importers at the national level. On the basin level, the impacts of virtual water trade on water stress were statistically significant for basins across the world and within 104 countries; virtual water trade mitigated water stress for the basins within 85 of the 104 countries, including all of those where there are moderate and greater water stress countrywide (except Italy).

  19. Effects of water activity and low molecular weight humectants on skin permeability and hydration dynamics - a double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Albèr, C; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Kocherbitov, V; Saleem, S; Lodén, M; Engblom, J

    2014-10-01

    The mammalian skin is a barrier that effectively separates the water-rich interior of the body from the normally dryer exterior. Changes in the external conditions, for example ambient humidity, have been shown to affect the skin barrier properties. The prime objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of water activity of a topical formulation on skin hydration and permeability. A second objective was to gain more understanding on how two commonly used humectants, urea and glycerol, affect skin barrier function in vivo. Simple aqueous formulations were applied under occlusion to the volar forearm of healthy volunteers. Following 4-h exposure, skin water loss (by transepidermal water loss measurements), skin hydration (by Corneometry) and skin permeability (by time to vasodilation due to benzyl nicotinate exposure) were monitored. The results demonstrate that a relatively small change in the water activity of a topical formulation is sufficient to induce considerable effects on stratum corneum hydration and permeability to exogenous substances. Exposing the skin to high water activity leads to increased skin hydration and also increased permeability. Furthermore, urea and glycerol promote skin hydration and permeability even at reduced water activity of the applied formulation. These results highlight the importance of considering the water activity in topically applied formulations and the potential benefit of using humectants. The results may impact formulation optimization in how to facilitate skin hydration and to modify skin permeability by temporarily open and close the skin barrier. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Distinct effects of water use efficiency increase on growth in Scots pine and sessile oak in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sancho, Elisabet; Dorado-Liñán, Isabel; Gutiérrez-Merino, Emilia; Matiu, Michael; Heinrich, Ingo; Helle, Gerhard; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Drought is one of the main drivers of species distribution in the Mediterranean Basin, which will be exacerbated by climate change. The increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Ca) has been related to enhanced tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). However, in the Mediterranean Basin this 'fertilizing' effect should compensate the potential drought-induced growth reduction to maintain forest productivity at a comparable level. This is particularly relevant for temperate species reaching their southern distribution limits and/or the limits of their climatic niche in this region. We investigated tree growth and physiological responses of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) stands located at their southern distribution limits using annually resolved tree-ring width and δ13C chronologies for the period 1960-2012. The selected stands were sampled in Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Bulgaria, and Romania. Wood cores were extracted at each site and tree-ring width and δ13C were measured. Basal area increment (BAI) was calculated as a surrogate of secondary growth and 13C discrimination (Δ), leaf intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and iWUE were estimated from δ13C values. The temporal trends of BAI, Δ, Ci and iWUE, as well as in climatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration derived from CRU TS3.23 dataset) were calculated per site for the study period. Our specific objectives were (i) to test if rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and changes in climate may have induced shifts in tree growth and ecophysiological proxies; (ii) to determine whether and how changes in iWUE are related to radial growth rates; and (iii) to assess site-specific physiological adjustments to increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the studied period. Preliminary results showed a generalized increase in Ci, and consequently in iWUE, at all study sites. Scots pine stands displayed a

  1. Abnormal swimming behavior and increased deformities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss cultured in low exchange water recirculation aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to determine if accumulating water quality parameters would negatively impact rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss health and welfare within water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) that were operated at low and near-zero water exchange, with and without ozonation, and ...

  2. Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with decreased gene expression and increased DNA methylation in peripheral blood

    SciTech Connect

    Ameer, Syeda Shegufta

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of cancer and non-malignant diseases. Inefficient arsenic metabolism is a marker for susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic may alter gene expression, possibly by altering DNA methylation. Objectives: To elucidate the associations between arsenic exposure, gene expression, and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, and the modifying effects of arsenic metabolism. Methods: The study participants, women from the Andes, Argentina, were exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of arsenic metabolites in urine (U-As), using high performance liquid-chromatography hydride-generation inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry, and arsenic metabolism efficiency was assessed by themore » urinary fractions (%) of the individual metabolites. Genome-wide gene expression (N = 80 women) and DNA methylation (N = 93; 80 overlapping with gene expression) in peripheral blood were measured using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0 and Infinium Human-Methylation 450K BeadChip, respectively. Results: U-As concentrations, ranging 10–1251 μg/L, was associated with decreased gene expression: 64% of the top 1000 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated with increasing U-As. U-As was also associated with hypermethylation: 87% of the top 1000 CpGs were hypermethylated with increasing U-As. The expression of six genes and six individual CpG sites were significantly associated with increased U-As concentration. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of genes related to cell death and cancer. The pathways differed somewhat depending on arsenic metabolism efficiency. We found no overlap between arsenic-related gene expression and DNA methylation for individual genes. Conclusions: Increased arsenic exposure was associated with lower gene expression and hypermethylation in peripheral blood, but with no evident overlap. - Highlights: • Women exposed to inorganic arsenic were studied

  3. Increased dielectric constant in the water treated by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and its possible biological implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xun

    2011-12-01

    Water is the most abundant compound on the surface of the Earth, and can be considered to be the most important molecule in living systems. Water plays a variety of cellular functions, being the solvent of most biological molecules, a substrate and product of enzymatic catalysis, an important component of macromolecules, and more. Because of importance of water in life, many physical and chemical treatments were invented to improve the quality of drinking water. Among them, the treatment with electromagnetic field is a well-known, but much debatable physical method. Although electromagnetic field has been utilized for treating water for 80 years, many reports on beneficial biological effect of electromagnetic field-treated water were either anecdotal or less convincing. To explore if there is any physical base for understanding possible biological effects of electromagnetic field-treated water, dielectric relaxation spectra of deionized water treated with an extremely low frequency electromagnetic (ELFEM) field were measured and compared with that of untreated water. It was surprisingly found that the dielectric constant of the ELFEM field-treated water was 3.7% higher than the control over the frequency range of 1-10 GHz, which indicates a higher molecular polarization occurs in the ELFEM field-treated water. Electrostatic and thermodynamic analysis shows that proteins or other biomacromolecules would have more reduced free energy when they are hydrated in high dielectric constant water. Since free energy is of crucial importance for stability of proteins, protein folding and its conformational change, as well as catalytic activity of enzymes, the free energy reduction of the biomacromolecules hydrated with higher dielectric constant water may be responsible for many possible biological effects of electromagnetic field treated water.

  4. Lowering relative humidity level increases epidermal protein deimination and drives human filaggrin breakdown.

    PubMed

    Cau, Laura; Pendaries, Valérie; Lhuillier, Emeline; Thompson, Paul R; Serre, Guy; Takahara, Hidenari; Méchin, Marie-Claire; Simon, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Deimination (also known as citrullination), the conversion of arginine in a protein to citrulline, is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs). Three PADs are expressed in the epidermis, one of their targets being filaggrin. Filaggrin plays a central role in atopic dermatitis and is a key protein for the epidermal barrier. It aggregates keratins and is cross-linked to cornified envelopes. Following its deimination, it is totally degraded to release free amino acids, contributing to the natural moisturizing factor (NMF). The mechanisms controlling this multistep catabolism in human are unknown. To test whether external humidity plays a role, and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. Specimens of reconstructed human epidermis (RHEs) produced in humid or dry conditions (>95% or 30-50% relative humidity) were compared. RHEs produced in the dry condition presented structural changes, including a thicker stratum corneum and a larger amount of keratohyalin granules. The transepidermal water loss and the stratum corneum pH were decreased whereas the quantity of NMF was greater. This highly suggested that filaggrin proteolysis was up-regulated. The expression/activity of the proteases involved in filaggrin breakdown did not increase while PAD1 expression and the deimination rate of proteins, including filaggrin, were drastically enhanced. Partial inhibition of PADs with Cl-amidine reversed the effect of dryness on filaggrin breakdown. These results demonstrate the importance of external humidity in the control of human filaggrin metabolism, and suggest that deimination plays a major role in this regulation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. All rights reserved.

  5. Meeting the Access Goal: Strategies for Increasing Access to Safe Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment to American Indian and Alaska Native Villages - March 2008

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes the key barriers to improving access to safe drinking water and wastewater disposal in Indian country and offers recommendations on how to reduce these barriers to increase access.

  6. Altmetric: 165More detailArticle | OPENClimate change-induced increases in precipitation are reducing the potential for solar ultraviolet radiation to inactivate pathogens in surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is accelerating the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to inland and coastal waters through increases in precipitation, thawing of permafrost, and changes in vegetation. Our modeling approach suggests that the selective absorption of ultraviolet radiation (U...

  7. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke

    2016-12-15

    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of Seasonal Temperature Increasing on Nitrogen Mineralization in Soil of the Water Level Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorge Tributary During the Dry Period].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun-jie; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Bin; Xiao, Xiao-jun; Ma, Hui-yan; Yu, Zhi-guo

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the effect of seasonal temperature increasing on nitrogen mineralization in soil of the water level fluctuating soil zone of three gorge reservoir areas in the Yangtze river tributary during the dry period, surface soils were collected from the water level fluctuating zone of Pengxi river crossing two hydrological sections, i.e., upstream and downstream and three water level altitudes, 155 m (low), 165 m (middle) and 175 m (high). We incubated the soil at 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C to determine the transformation rates of nitrogen in soil of Pengxi river basin during the dry period. The result showed that TN and NO3- -N contents in the soil of upstream section and higher (175 m) altitude of water level were higher than those in downstream and low (165 m) altitude of water level, whereas the pattern for NH4+ -N was different, with higher NH4+ -N contents in downstream and low water level. The inorganic nitrogen was dominated by NO3- -N, which accounted for up to 57.4%-84.7% of inorganic nitrogen. Generally, soil ammoniation, nitration and net N mineralization increased with the rising water level altitude and stream sections (P < 0.05). In summary, nitration and net N mineralization significantly increased with increasing temperature, (P < 0.05), while ammoniation showed no difference (P > 0.05).

  9. Increasing the Reliability of the Work of Artificial Filtering Arrays for the Purification of Quarry Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyulenev, Maxim; Lesin, Yury; Litvin, Oleg; Maliukhina, Elena; Abay, Asmelash

    2017-11-01

    Features of geological structure of the Kuznetsk coal basin stipulate the application of a low-cost open technique of coal mining, which is more advantageous both from the economic standpoint, and by safety criteria of mining. However, open mining affects significantly the water resources of region. Intensive pollution of reservoirs and water courses, exhaustion of the underground water-bearing layers, violation of a hydrographic network, etc. be-long to the main disadvantages of an open technique of coal mining. Besides, the volume of the water coming into the mining producers exceeds signi-ficantly the needed quantity. According to the data of annual reports of ecology and natural resources department, 348.277 million m3 of water were ta-ken away during production of soft coal, brown coal and lignum fossil from waters of Kemerovo region in 2013 (mostly from underground water objects (96,5%) when draining of mine openings). At the same time, only 87.018 million m3 of water (25%) has been used within a year.

  10. SUBCHRONIC SODIUM CHLORATE EXPOSURE IN DRINKING WATER RESULTS IN A CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT INCREASE IN RAT THYROID FOLLICULAR CELL HYPERPLASIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine dioxide (C102) is an effective water disinfectant but sodium chlorate (NaC103) has been identified as a potentially harmful disinfection by-product. Studies were performed to describe the development of thyroid lesions in animals exposed to NaC103 in drinking water. Mal...

  11. Progressive Increase in Disinfection Byproducts and Mutagenicity from Sourceto Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Implications for Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on the mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples f...

  12. Responses of loblolly pine, sweetgum and crab grass roots to localized increases in nitrogen in two watering regimes

    Treesearch

    Kim H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1995-01-01

    Root responses to differences in availability of nitrogen and soil water were studied in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings grown in monoculture and in competition with sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) or crab grass (Digitaria spp.). Rhizotron cells were maintained at high soil water availability (...

  13. Increased performance in the short-term water demand forecasting through the use of a parallel adaptive weighting strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardinha-Lourenço, A.; Andrade-Campos, A.; Antunes, A.; Oliveira, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Recent research on water demand short-term forecasting has shown that models using univariate time series based on historical data are useful and can be combined with other prediction methods to reduce errors. The behavior of water demands in drinking water distribution networks focuses on their repetitive nature and, under meteorological conditions and similar consumers, allows the development of a heuristic forecast model that, in turn, combined with other autoregressive models, can provide reliable forecasts. In this study, a parallel adaptive weighting strategy of water consumption forecast for the next 24-48 h, using univariate time series of potable water consumption, is proposed. Two Portuguese potable water distribution networks are used as case studies where the only input data are the consumption of water and the national calendar. For the development of the strategy, the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method and a short-term forecast heuristic algorithm are used. Simulations with the model showed that, when using a parallel adaptive weighting strategy, the prediction error can be reduced by 15.96% and the average error by 9.20%. This reduction is important in the control and management of water supply systems. The proposed methodology can be extended to other forecast methods, especially when it comes to the availability of multiple forecast models.

  14. Sugared water consumption by adult offspring of mothers fed a protein-restricted diet during pregnancy results in increased offspring adiposity: the second hit effect.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Rodríguez, M; Martínez-Gómez, M; Cuevas, E; Nicolás, L; Castelán, F; Nathanielsz, P W; Zambrano, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, J

    2014-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition predisposes offspring to metabolic disease. This predisposition is modified by various postnatal factors. We hypothesised that coupled to the initial effects of developmental programming due to a maternal low-protein diet, a second hit resulting from increased offspring postnatal sugar consumption would lead to additional changes in metabolism and adipose tissue function. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of sugared water consumption (5% sucrose in the drinking-water) on adult offspring adiposity as a 'second hit' following exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy. We studied four offspring groups: (1) offspring of mothers fed the control diet (C); (2) offspring of mothers fed the restricted protein diet (R); (3) offspring of control mothers that drank sugared water (C-S); (4) offspring of restricted mothers that drank sugared water (R-S). Maternal diet in pregnancy was considered the first factor and sugared water consumption as the second factor - the second hit. Body weight and total energy consumption, before and after sugared water consumption, were similar in all the groups. Sugared water consumption increased TAG, insulin and cholesterol concentrations in both the sexes of the C-S and R-S offspring. Sugared water consumption increased leptin concentrations in the R-S females and males but not in the R offspring. There was also an interaction between sugared water and maternal diet in males. Sugared water consumption increased adipocyte size and adiposity index in both females and males, but the interaction with maternal diet was observed only in females. Adiposity index and plasma leptin concentrations were positively correlated in both the sexes. The present study shows that a second hit during adulthood can amplify the effects of higher adiposity arising due to poor maternal pregnancy diet in an offspring sex dependent fashion.

  15. Purchase of drinking water is associated with increased child morbidity and mortality among urban slum-dwelling families in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Sari, Mayang; Akhter, Nasima; Bloem, Martin W

    2009-07-01

    In developing countries, poor families in urban slums often do not receive municipal services including water. The objectives of our study were to characterize families who purchased drinking water and to examine the relation between purchasing drinking water and child morbidity and mortality in urban slums of Indonesia, using data collected between 1999 and 2003. Of 143,126 families, 46.8% purchased inexpensive drinking water from street vendors, 47.4% did not purchase water, i.e., had running or spring/well water within household, and 5.8% purchased more expensive water in the previous 7 days. Families that purchased inexpensive drinking water had less educated parents, a more crowded household, a father who smoked, and lower socioeconomic level compared with the other families. Among children of families that purchased inexpensive drinking water, did not purchase drinking water, or purchased more expensive water, the prevalence was, respectively, for diarrhea in last 7 days (11.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%), underweight (28.9%, 24.1%, 24.1%), stunting (35.6%, 30.5%, 30.5%), wasting (12.0%, 10.5%, 10.9%), family history of infant mortality (8.0%, 5.6%, 5.1%), and of under-five child mortality (10.4%, 7.1%, 6.4%) (all P<0.0001). Use of inexpensive drinking water was associated with under-five child mortality (Odds Ratio [O.R.] 1.32, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.20-1.45, P<0.0001) and diarrhea (O.R. 1.43, 95% C.I. 1.29-1.60, P<0.0001) in multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Purchase of inexpensive drinking water was common and associated with greater child malnutrition, diarrhea, and infant and under-five child mortality in the family. Greater efforts must be made to ensure access to safe drinking water, a basic human right and target of the Millennium Development Goals, in urban slums.

  16. Breeding for Increased Water Use Efficiency in Corn (Maize) Using a Low-altitude Unmanned Aircraft System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, A. N.; Li, J.; Ge, Y.; Schnable, J. C.; Rodriguez, O.; Liang, Z.; Miao, C.

    2017-12-01

    Low-altitude aerial imagery collected by unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at centimeter-level spatial resolution provides great potential to collect high throughput plant phenotyping (HTP) data and accelerate plant breeding. This study is focused on UAS-based HTP for breeding increased water use efficiency in corn in eastern Nebraska. The field trail is part of an effort by the Genomes to Fields consortium effort to grow and phenotype many of the same corn (maize) hybrids at approximately 40 locations across the United States and Canada in order to stimulate new research in crop modeling, the development of new plant phenotyping technologies and the identification of genetic loci that control the adaptation of specific corn (maize) lines to specific environments. It included approximately 250 maize hybrids primary generated using recently off patent material from major seed companies. These lines are the closest material to what farmers are growing today which can be legally used for research purposes and genotyped by the public sector. During the growing season, a hexacopter equipped with a multispectral and a RGB cameras was flown and used to image this 1-hectare field trial near Mead, NE. Sensor data from the UAS were correlated directly with grain yield, measured at the end of the growing season, and were also be used to quantify other traits of interest to breeders including flowering date, plant height, leaf orientation, canopy spectral, and stand count. The existing challenges of field data acquisition (to ensure data quality) and development of effective image processing algorithms (such as detecting corn tassels) will be discussed. The success of this study and others like it will speed up the process of phenotypic data collection, and provide more accurate and detailed trait data for plant biologists, plant breeders, and other agricultural scientists. Employing advanced UAS-based machine vision technologies in agricultural applications have the potential

  17. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances

    PubMed Central

    Otberg, Nina; Grone, Diego; Meyer, Lars; Schanzer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Gerd; Ackermann, Hanns; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Background: Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation has been shown to enhance penetration of clinically used topically applied substances in humans through investigation of functional effects of penetrated substances like vasoconstriction by cortisone. Aim of the study: Investigation of the influence of wIRA irradiation on the dermatopharmacokinetics of topically applied substances by use of optical methods, especially to localize penetrating substances, in a prospective randomised controlled study in humans. Methods: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic dye fluorescein and the lipophilic dye curcumin in separate standard water-in-oil emulsions were determined on the inner forearm of test persons by tape stripping in combination with spectroscopic measurements. Additionally, the penetration was investigated in vivo by laser scanning microscopy. Transepidermal water loss, hydration of the epidermis, and surface temperature were determined. Three different procedures (modes A, B, C) were used in a randomised order on three separate days of investigation in each of 12 test persons. In mode A, the two dyes were applied on different skin areas without water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) irradiation. In mode B, the skin surface was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min before application of the two dyes (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 10 mm water cuvette, orange filter OG590, water-filtered spectrum: 590–1400 nm with dominant amount of wIRA). In mode C, the two dyes were applied and immediately afterwards the skin was irradiated with wIRA over 30 min. In all modes, tape stripping started 30 min after application of the formulations. Main variable of interest was the ratio of the amount of the dye in the deeper (second) 10% of the stratum corneum to the amount of the dye in the upper 10% of the stratum corneum. Results: The penetration profiles of the hydrophilic fluorescein showed in case of pretreatment or treatment with wIRA (modes B and C) an increased

  18. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuce, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  19. Increasing chloride in rivers of the conterminous U.S. and linkages to potential corrosivity and lead action level exceedances in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stets, E G; Lee, C J; Lytle, D A; Schock, M R

    2018-02-01

    Corrosion in water-distribution systems is a costly problem and controlling corrosion is a primary focus of efforts to reduce lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in tap water. High chloride concentrations can increase the tendency of water to cause corrosion in distribution systems. The effects of chloride are also expressed in several indices commonly used to describe the potential corrosivity of water, the chloride-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) and the Larson Ratio (LR). Elevated CSMR has been linked to the galvanic corrosion of Pb whereas LR is indicative of the corrosivity of water to iron and steel. Despite the known importance of chloride, CSMR, and LR to the potential corrosivity of water, monitoring of seasonal and interannual changes in these parameters is not common among water purveyors. We analyzed long-term trends (1992-2012) and the current status (2010-2015) of chloride, CSMR, and LR in order to investigate the short and long-term temporal variability in potential corrosivity of US streams and rivers. Among all sites in the trend analyses, chloride, CSMR, and LR increased slightly, with median changes of 0.9mgL -1 , 0.08, and 0.01, respectively. However, urban-dominated sites had much larger increases, 46.9mgL -1 , 2.50, and 0.53, respectively. Median CSMR and LR in urban streams (4.01 and 1.34, respectively) greatly exceeded thresholds found to cause corrosion in water distribution systems (0.5 and 0.3, respectively). Urbanization was strongly correlated with elevated chloride, CSMR, and LR, especially in the most snow-affected areas in the study, which are most likely to use road salt. The probability of Pb action-level exceedances (ALEs) in drinking water facilities increased along with raw surface water CSMR, indicating a statistical connection between surface water chemistry and corrosion in drinking water facilities. Optimal corrosion control will require monitoring of critical constituents reflecting the potential corrosivity in surface waters. Published by

  20. Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  1. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production.

    PubMed

    Lung, Tzu-Ying; Liao, Li-Ya; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Wei, Bai-Luh; Huang, Ping-Yi; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2016-05-27

    Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence.

  2. Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Carvalho, Patrícia; Marques, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Luís; Nunes, Mafalda; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit. Plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13%, 17% and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively. Inoculation with N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi has the potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increased grain protein content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production

    PubMed Central

    Lung, Tzu-Ying; Liao, Li-Ya; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Wei, Bai-Luh; Huang, Ping-Yi; Lee, Chun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence. PMID:27240384

  4. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Agendas, and Minutes New Blood Lead Level Information Funding Information Lead in Drinking Water Lead-based Water Lines Washington, D.C. Blood Lead Level Tests Effect of Previously Missing Blood Lead Level (BPb) Surveillance ...

  5. Afghanistan Development: U.S. Efforts to Support Afghan Water Sector Increasing, but Improvements Needed in Planning and Coordination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    controlling erosion, reducing industrial pollution , protecting watersheds, managing river basins, and implementing disaster risk reduction activities to...Agriculture; (3) Hydropower; (4) Environment; (5) Governance and Management; and (6) Transboundary issues. Figure 4 summarizes the goals and alignment...and its neighbors; strengthen Afghanistan’s capacity to engage its neighbors on transboundary water resources; and strengthen the environment

  6. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Treesearch

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  7. Hot Water and Copper Coatings in Reused Containers Decrease Inoculum of Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon and Increase Douglas Fir Seedling Growth

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Robert L. James; David L. Wenny

    2002-01-01

    Inoculum of Douglas fir root diseases caused by the fungi Fusarium and Cylindrocarpon is carried from crop to crop in reused containers. Soaking containers for 90 seconds in 80 °C water removed ~99% of Fusarium and 100% of Cylindrocarpon inoculum between growing cycles. Overall seedling growth was also improved:...

  8. Mediating water temperature increases due to livestock and global change in high elevation meadow streams of the Golden Trout Wilderness

    Treesearch

    Sebastien Nussle; Kathleen R. Matthews; Stephanie M. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change are pushing the thermal limits of many species, but how climate warming interacts with other anthropogenic disturbances such as land use remains poorly understood. To understand the interactive effects of climate warming and livestock grazing on water temperature in three high elevation meadow streams in the Golden Trout...

  9. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  10. Water Scarcity and Increased Instability - How Israel’s Policies and Actions Since the Creation of the National Water Carrier Have Adversely impacted the Jordan River Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    Jordan River System ....................................... .40 Table 3. Allocations or consumption of transboundary resources between Israeli and...Shared by four sovereign states-Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon-as well as the stateless Palestinian people, the transboundary water resources that...sustainable recharge rate. 17 • The Eastern Aquifer Basin (EAB) contains the smallest volume of the transboundary aquifers and covers more than half of

  11. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Jarrib Baleha--a pilot nutrition intervention to increase water intake and decrease soft drink consumption among school children in Beirut.

    PubMed

    Abi Haidar, Gina; Lahham Salameh, Nina; Afifi, Rema A

    2011-01-01

    The Global School-based Student Health Survey (2005) indicated that in Lebanon, 33% of students in grades 7-9 drink carbonated soft drinks two or more times per day. Observational evidence suggests that students do not drink enough water. A pilot project called Jarrib Baleha ['try without it'] was implemented with 110 students in grades 3 and 4 in two schools in Lebanon to promote drinking water instead of soft drinks. Specific objectives included increasing knowledge about the benefits of water and the harms of soft drinks, increasing confidence in choosing water over soft drinks, and increasing actual water drinking behavior while decreasing soft drink consumption. Four 50-minute theory-informed, interactive and participatory sessions were implemented --by a graduate student in partial fulfillment of requirements for a MPH degree--over a period of two weeks. The intervention sessions--based on the Health Belief Model--took place during a class period. Process evaluation measured satisfaction of the students with the sessions. Impact evaluation measured changes in knowledge, attitudes including self-efficacy, and behavior, using a self-administered questionnaire completed prior to and after the intervention. Bivariate analysis using crosstabs was carried out to compare pretest and posttest scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Comparison of the knowledge index between pretest and posttest indicated that, overall, knowledge increased from 6.0769 to 9.1500 (p = 0.000). Compared to pretest, students at posttest also felt more confident to drink less soft drinks and more water (p < 0.05), to drink water when thirsty (p < 0.05), and to choose water over soft drinks when going to a restaurant (p < 0.05). The percentage of students drinking 6 or more cups of water increased from 27.7% to 59.1% (p = 0.000); and those drinking less than one can of soft drink/day increased from 25.5% to 57.6% (p = 0.000). These results are encouraging and suggest the Jarrib Baleha

  13. Increased water temperature renders single-housed C57BL/6J mice susceptible to antidepressant treatment in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Bächli, Heidi; Steiner, Michel A; Habersetzer, Ursula; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2008-02-11

    To investigate genotype x environment interactions in the forced swim test, we tested the influence of water temperature (20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C) on floating behaviour in single-housed male C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice. We observed a contrasting relationship between floating and water temperature between the two strains, with C57BL/6J floating more and BALB/c floating less with increasing water temperature, independent of the lightening conditions and the time point of testing during the animals' circadian rhythm. Both strains showed an inverse relationship between plasma corticosterone concentration and water temperature, indicating that the differences in stress coping are unrelated to different perception of the aversive encounter. Treatment with desipramine (20mg/kg, i.p.) caused a reduction in immobility time in C57BL/6J mice if the animals were tested at 30 degrees C water temperature, with no effect at 25 degrees C and no effects on forced swim stress-induced corticosterone secretion. The same treatment failed to affect floating behaviour in BALB/c at any temperature, but caused a decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. Taken together we demonstrate that an increase in water temperature in the forced swim test exerts opposite effects on floating behaviour in C57BL/6J and BALB/c and renders single-housed C57BL/6J mice, but not BALB/c mice, susceptible to antidepressant-like behavioral effects of desipramine.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement at increasing water concentration in alcohol in the process of non-stationary film boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanin, P. K.; Ryazantsev, V. A.; Lexin, M. A.; Zabirov, A. R.; Yagov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    New experimental data on heat transfer in pool film boiling of subcooled ethanol-water mixtures at spherical surfaces are considered. The water solutions with ethanol mass fraction from 10 to 91% and temperature of liquid 50°C were examined. All the experiments were conducted under atmospheric pressure, using the stainless steel sphere of 39 mm in diameter as a cooled body. The sphere was heated up to 450-750°C, depending on ethanol concentration, and immersed into the experimental vessel with subcooled mixture. As it is expected, boiling heat transfer intensifies with ethanol concentration decrease, and duration of cooling decreases. It means that stable film boiling duration decreases, and earlier transition to intensive heat transfer regime occurs.

  15. Thermally stratified acid water in late winter - a key factor inducing self-accelerating processes which increase acidification

    Treesearch

    Hans Hultberg

    1976-01-01

    Ion separation of acid air pollutants out of snow causes-sudden, deep pH-drops in lakes and running waters at an early stage of snowmelting. These pH-drops have drastic effects on fish populations and are suggested to be the main cause of Sphagnum invasion and changes in the microflora already at an early stage of acidification, i.e. when summer pH-...

  16. Unsustainability of water resources in the Upper Laja River Basin, Mexico: Social-hydrology interactions in a regional overexploited aquifer with increasing concentrations of fluoride, arsenic and sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A.

    2013-05-01

    The Upper Laja River Basin, also known as the Independence Basin (IB), with an area of 7,000 km2 and a population near to 500,000 inhabitants is part of the regional Lerma-Chapala Basin in Central Mexico. Groundwater is the main source for drinking water supply, agriculture and industrial uses. Total groundwater extraction is in the order of 1,000 million of m3/a, through near to 3,000 wells in the basin, from which about 85% is for agriculture production, mainly for exportation. Historical hydrologic information in the basin showed the existence of numerous streams, rivers and lakes within the catchments in addition to thousands of springs in the discharge area. At present there is not permanent runoff in the main river and most of the springs and associated ecosystems have disappeared. Water table in the aquifer is between 100 and 200 m depth with decreasing rates between 2 m/a and 10 m/a, while 60 years ago water tables was near ground surface. Dissolved concentration of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater is increasing with time, causing severe health effects in rural villages and more recently in the main urban centers. Increasing concentration of sodium is affecting soil productivity and plant grow, where several hectares of land are been abandoned. There are several pieces of evidence that show the unsustainability of water resources in the IB creating complex social-hydrology interactions: Human actions are impairing the long-term renewability of freshwater stocks and flows. Basic water requirement are not been guaranteed to all inhabitants to maintain human health, neither to restore nor to maintain the remaining ecosystems. Water quality does not meet certain minimum standards in most of the basin. Water-planning and decision making are not democratic, the COTAS, a representation of water users is controlled by farmers with political power; therefore, limiting the participation of other parties and fostering direct participation of affected interests

  17. Encapsulation of β-carotene within ferritin nanocages greatly increases its water-solubility and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingli; Bai, Guangling; Yang, Rui; Zang, Jiachen; Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-04-15

    Carotenoids may play a number of potential health benefits for human. However, their use in food industry is limited mostly because of their poor water-solubility and low thermal stability. Ferritins are widely distributed in nature with a shell-like structure which offers a great opportunity to improve the water-solubility and thermal stability of the carotenoids by encapsulation. In this work, recombinant human H-chain ferritin (rHuHF) was prepared and used to encapsulate β-carotene, a typical compound among carotenoids, by taking advantage of the reversible dissociation and reassembly characteristic of apoferritin in different pH environments. Results from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV/Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that β-carotene molecules were successfully encapsulated within protein cages with a β-carotene/protein molar ratio of 12.4-1. Upon such encapsulation, these β-carotene-containing apoferritin nanocomposites were water-soluble. Interestingly, the thermal stability of the β-carotene encapsulated within apoferritin nanocages was markedly improved as compared to free β-carotene. These new properties might be favourable to the utilisation of β-carotene in food industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water organic pollution and eutrophication influence soil microbial processes, increasing soil respiration of estuarine wetlands: site study in jiuduansha wetland.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent.

  19. Water Organic Pollution and Eutrophication Influence Soil Microbial Processes, Increasing Soil Respiration of Estuarine Wetlands: Site Study in Jiuduansha Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Lei; Hu, Yu; Xi, Xuefei; Tang, Yushu; Chen, Jinhai; Fu, Xiaohua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Undisturbed natural wetlands are important carbon sinks due to their low soil respiration. When compared with inland alpine wetlands, estuarine wetlands in densely populated areas are subjected to great pressure associated with environmental pollution. However, the effects of water pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine and their mechanism have still not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, two representative zones of a tidal wetland located in the upstream and downstream were investigated to determine the effects of water organic pollution and eutrophication on soil respiration of estuarine wetlands and its mechanism. The results showed that eutrophication, which is a result of there being an excess of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorus, and organic pollutants in the water near Shang shoal located upstream were higher than in downstream Xia shoal. Due to the absorption and interception function of shoals, there to be more nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in Shang shoal soil than in Xia shoal. Abundant nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon input to soil of Shang shoal promoted reproduction and growth of some highly heterotrophic metabolic microorganisms such as β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria which is not conducive to carbon sequestration. These results imply that the performance of pollutant interception and purification function of estuarine wetlands may weaken their carbon sequestration function to some extent. PMID:25993326

  20. Assessing risk with increasingly stringent public health goals: the case of water lead and blood lead in children.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Previous predictions of children's blood lead levels (BLLs) through biokinetic models conclude that lead in tap water is not a primary health risk for a typical child under scenarios representative of chronic exposure, when applying a 10 μg/dL BLL of concern. Use of the US Environmental Protection Agency Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) biokinetic model to simulate children's exposure to water lead at home and at school was re-examined by expanding the scope of previous modeling efforts to consider new public health goals and improved methodology. Specifically, explicit consideration of the more sensitive population groups (e.g., young children and, particularly, formula-fed infants), the variability in BLLs amongst exposed individuals within those groups (e.g., more sensitive children at the upper tail of the BLL distribution), more conservative BLL reference values (e.g., 5 and 2 μg/dL versus 10 μg/dL) and concerns of acute exposure revealed situations where relatively low water lead levels were predicted to pose a human health concern.

  1. Aspergillus niger mutants affected in conidial pigmentation do not have an increased susceptibility to water stress during growth at low water activity.

    PubMed

    Segers, F J J; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

    2018-03-01

    Aspergillus niger forms conidia that contain melanin in their cell wall. This black pigment has been shown to protect fungi against UV radiation, and experimental evidence has indicated that it also protects against drought and high salt concentrations. In this study, growth of A. niger was evaluated at low water activity (a w ) and after changes in relative humidity (RH). In addition, deletion strains of A. niger affected in the melanin synthesis pathway were compared. Germination of conidia of the wild-type and deletion strains was observed at 0·81 a w and germ tubes continued growth at a w  ≥ 0·83. Conidia and microcolonies of the different strains were incubated for 1 week at lowered RH (33-84%). Conidia of all strains germinated and formed colonies after exposure to RH ≥33% when transferred back to malt extract medium at a w 0·98. Conidia germinated and showed limited growth at 84% RH. Microcolonies of all strains did not survive an incubation of 1 week at RH ≤75%, but continued growth after exposure to 84% RH. Together, this is the first genetic evidence that melanin does not play a role during germination and radial extension of fungi at low water conditions. Aspergillus niger, a cosmopolitan fungus with melanized conidia, is used here as a model system for fungal growth at low water activity (a w ) and humidity dynamics. From this study it becomes clear that melanin, contrary to what has been suggested before, is not a key factor in survival and growth during situations that mimic indoor conditions. Indoor fungal growth can lead to cosmetic damage to building materials and health problems. This knowledge makes clear that novel ways to limit indoor fungal growth have to be based on interference with other cellular traits of fungi. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Mitigation of Water Stress on Apple Trees under Rotational Irrigation Conditions by Increasing the Application Rate of Organic Fertilizers to Sandy Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Ramadan Eid, Abdelraouf; Mohsmed Rabie Abdellatif Abdelaziz, Adel; Fathy Abdelsalam Essa, El-Sayed

    2016-04-01

    Egypt, as part of Mediterranean regions, is characterized by irregular and low rainfall amount which varies between (30-150 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. On the other hand, New reclaimed soils are mostly occupies around 84 % of total area of Egypt, which is mainly sandy soils. These soils generally characterized by low water capacity holding, soil organic matter, and weak in nutrients retention. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency and increasing of nutrient retention in sandy soils. In this context, two field experiments were carried out on sand soil located in north Cairo-Egypt at the experimental farm of National Research Center, El-NUBARIA, (latitude 30° 30' N, and longitude 30° 19' E). The effect of compost rates on soil hydraulic characteristics, fruit yields, quality traits, and water use efficiency and productivity of apple tree (Apple Anna Cultivar), was studied under deficit irrigation conditions. Four rates of compost [I1: control, I2: 12 ton.ha-1., I3: 24 ton.ha-1., I4: 36 ton.ha-1. and I5:48 ton.ha-1.] were applied under irrigation frequencies of (IF1 :once per week; IF2 :twice per week, IF3 :three times per week). The obtained results indicated that by increasing the application rate of compost, the available water capacity and saturated water content of sandy soil have been enhanced. In the same time, the fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity were increased by increasing the application rate of compost. It is worthy to mention that the I5IF3 treatment gave the highest values of fruit yield, quality traits and water productivity, whereas I1IF1 treatment gave the lowest values of all the above mentioned variables. As result, for apple cultivation in El-NUBARIA region, the recommended rate of compost is 48 ton.ha-1 and irrigation frequency

  3. Comparison of pulsating DC and DC power air-water plasma jet: A method to decrease plume temperature and increase ROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Hu, H.; Lei, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Most air-water plasma jets are rich in hydroxyl radicals (•OH), but the plasma has higher temperatures, compared to that of pure gas, especially when using air as working gas. In this paper, pulsating direct current (PDC) power was used to excite the air-water plasma jet to reduce plume temperature. In addition to the temperature, other differences between PDC and DC plasma jets are not yet clear. Thus, comparative studies of those plasmas are performed to evaluate characteristics, such as breakdown voltage, temperature, and reactive oxygen species. The results show that the plume temperature of PDC plasma is roughly 5-10 °C lower than that of DC plasma in the same conditions. The •OH content of PDC is lower than that of DC plasma, whereas the O content of PDC plasma is higher. The addition of water leads in an increase in the plume temperature and in the production of •OH with two types of power supplies. The production of O inversely shows a declining tendency with higher water ratio. The most important finding is that the PDC plasma with 100% water ratio achieves lower temperature and more abundant production of •OH and O, compared with DC plasma with 0% water ratio.

  4. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew C; Quick, Robert E; Abbott, Daniel P; Ogutu, Paul; Rheingans, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, women's groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programme's impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the women's groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated.

  5. Elevated tissue Cr levels, increased plasma oxidative markers, and global hypomethylation of blood DNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to potassium dichromate in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wu, Wei; Yao, Chunji; Lou, Jianlin; Chen, Riping; Jin, Lingzhi; Wu, Nanxiang; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is prevalent in ground water in some areas, but evidence on the toxic effects of Cr (VI) via ingestion through drinking water remains insufficient. The aims of our study were to investigate the toxic effects of Cr (VI) through oral water ingestion on oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to porassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ; 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/L) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Mean body weight gain, mean water consumption, clinical chemistry determinations, and oxidative stress levels in plasma were measured. Global DNA methylation changes and DNA methylation status at the promoter of p16 gene were also detected. After 4 weeks, mild anemic effects and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in rats exposed to 100 mg/L or 300 mg/L of Cr (VI). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in all exposed groups. Global DNA methylation levels were reduced in 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L exposure groups. However, DNA methylation status at the promoter of P16 gene remained unchanged in all K2 Cr2 O7- treated groups. The correlation analysis indicated that increased MDA levels were closely correlated to global DNA hypomethylation. Our results indicated that oral ingestion of Cr (VI) through drinking water caused not only oxidative stress in plasma, but also global DNA hypomethylation in blood cells from male rats, and a good correlation was found between increased MDA levels and reduced global DNA methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1080-1090, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Salinity acclimation enhances salinity tolerance in tadpoles living in brackish water through increased Na⁺ , K⁺ -ATPase expression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Shiun; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Tsung-Han; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Kam, Yeong-Choy

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians are highly susceptible to osmotic stress but, nonetheless, some species can adapt locally to withstand moderately high levels of salinity. Maintaining the homeostasis of body fluids by efficient osmoregulation is thus critical for larval survival in saline environments. We studied the role of acclimation in increased physiological tolerance to elevated water salinity in the Indian rice frog (Fejervarya limnocharis) tadpoles exposed to brackish water. We quantified the effects of salinity acclimation on tadpole survival, osmolality, water content, and gill Na⁺ , K⁺ -ATPase (NKA) expression. Tadpoles did not survive over 12 hr if directly transferred to 11 ppt (parts per thousand) whereas tadpoles previously acclimated for 48 hr in 7  ppt survived at least 48 hr. We reared tadpoles in 3 ppt and then we transferred them to one of (a) 3 ppt, (b) 11  ppt, and (c) 7  ppt for 48 hr and then 11 ppt. In the first 6 hr after transfer to 11 ppt, tadpole osmolality sharply increased and tadpole water content decreased. Tadpoles pre-acclimated for 48 hr in 7 ppt were able to maintain lower and more stable osmolality within the first 3 hr after transfer. These tadpoles initially lost water content, but over the next 6 hr gradually regained water and stabilized. In addition, they had a higher relative abundance of NKA proteins than tadpoles in other treatments. Pre-acclimation to 7 ppt for 48 hr was hence sufficient to activate NKA expression, resulting in increased survivorship and reduced dehydration upon later transfer to 11 ppt. J © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fluoride Increase in Saliva and Dental Biofilm due to a Meal Prepared with Fluoridated Water or Salt: A Crossover Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carolina V; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2018-06-07

    Knowledge about fluoride delivery to oral fluids from foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt is scarce, and no study has evaluated fluoride concentrations in saliva or biofilm during meal consumption. In this randomized double-blind crossover study, 12 volunteers ingested meals (rice, beans, meat, and legumes) prepared with nonfluoridated water and salt (control group), fluoridated water (0.70 mg F/L; water group), and fluoridated salt (183.7 mg F/kg; salt group). Whole saliva was collected before meal ingestion, during mastication, and up to 2 h after meal ingestion. Dental biofilm was collected before and immediately after meal ingestion. Fluoride concentrations in saliva and dental biofilm were determined by an ion-specific electrode. The mean (±standard deviation; n = 4) fluoride concentrations in meals prepared for the control, water, and salt groups were 0.039 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.04, and 1.71 ± 0.32 μg F/g, respectively. The three groups had significantly different fluoride concentrations in saliva collected during mastication (p < 0.0001) and after meal ingestion (p < 0.04; salt > water > control). The fluoride concentration in saliva returned to baseline 30 min after meal ingestion in the water group but remained high for up to 2 h in the salt group (p = 0.002). The fluoride concentration in biofilm fluid differed only between the salt and control groups (p = 0.008). The mastication of foods cooked with fluoridated water and salt increases fluoride concentrations in oral fluids and may contribute to the local effect of these community-based fluoride interventions on caries control. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) shows increased public health risk associated with exposure to river water under conditions of riverbed sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Genthe, Bettina; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2016-10-01

    Although higher microbial concentrations have been reported in sediments than in the overlying water column, most quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies have not clearly indicated the contribution of sediment-borne pathogens to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa. Microbial pathogens were isolated and identified using culture and molecular methods. The beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of infection (Pi) with the various pathogens, following accidental/intentional ingestion of 1mL or 100mL (or 50mL) of untreated river water. Mean wet season Escherichia coli counts ranged between 5.8E+01 and 8.8E+04MPN/100mL (water column) and between 2.40E+03 and 1.28E+05MPN/100mL (sediments). Mean dry season E. coli counts ranged between 5.11E+00 and 3.40E+03MPN/100mL (water column) and between 5.09E+00 and 6.30E+03MPN/100mL (sediments). Overall (water and sediments) Vibrio cholerae was the most detected pathogen (58.8%) followed by Salmonella spp. (23.9%) and Shigella (10.1%). Ingestion of 1mL of river water could lead to 0%-4% and 1%-74% Pi with E. coli during the dry and wet season, respectively. During the dry season, the Pi with V. cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 0%-1.39%, 0%-4.11% and 0%-0.16% respectively, depending on volume of water ingested. The risks of infections with all microorganisms increased during the wet season. A 2-log increase in water E. coli count following sediments disturbance led to approximately 10 times higher Pi with E. coli than when sediments were undisturbed. Therefore, the use of the untreated water from the Apies River for drinking, household purposes or recreational activities poses a potential health risk to the users of the river. Copyright © 2016

  9. Training-induced increase in nitric oxide metabolites in chronic heart failure and coronary artery disease: an extra benefit of water-based exercises?

    PubMed

    Laurent, Mourot; Daline, Teffaha; Malika, Bouhaddi; Fawzi, Ounissi; Philippe, Vernochet; Benoit, Dugue; Catherine, Monpère; Jacques, Regnard

    2009-04-01

    Rehabilitation programs involving immersed exercises are more and more frequently used, with severe cardiac patients as well. This study investigated whether a rehabilitation program including water-based exercises has additional effects on the cardiovascular system compared with a traditional land-based training in heart disease patients. Twenty-four male stable chronic heart failure patients and 24 male coronary artery disease patients with preserved left ventricular function participated in the study. Patients took part in the rehabilitation program performing cycle endurance exercises on land. They also performed gymnastic exercises either on land (first half of the participants) or in water (second half). Resting plasma concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (nitrate and nitrite) and catecholamine were evaluated, and a symptom-limited exercise test on a cycle ergometer was performed before and after the rehabilitation program. In the groups performing water-based exercises, the plasma concentration of nitrates was significantly increased (P = 0.035 for chronic heart failure and P = 0.042 for coronary artery disease), whereas it did not significantly change in the groups performing gymnastic exercise on land. No changes in plasma catecholamine concentration occurred. In every group, the cardiorespiratory capacity of patients was significantly increased after rehabilitation. The water-based exercises seemed to effectively increase the basal level of plasma nitrates. Such changes may be related to an enhancement of endothelial function and may be of importance for the health of the patients.

  10. Mycelium-Like Networks Increase Bacterial Dispersal, Growth, and Biodegradation in a Model Ecosystem at Various Water Potentials.

    PubMed

    Worrich, Anja; König, Sara; Miltner, Anja; Banitz, Thomas; Centler, Florian; Frank, Karin; Thullner, Martin; Harms, Hauke; Kästner, Matthias; Wick, Lukas Y

    2016-05-15

    Fungal mycelia serve as effective dispersal networks for bacteria in water-unsaturated environments, thereby allowing bacteria to maintain important functions, such as biodegradation. However, poor knowledge exists on the effects of dispersal networks at various osmotic (Ψo) and matric (Ψm) potentials, which contribute to the water potential mainly in terrestrial soil environments. Here we studied the effects of artificial mycelium-like dispersal networks on bacterial dispersal dynamics and subsequent effects on growth and benzoate biodegradation at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -1.5 MPa. In a multiple-microcosm approach, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged derivative of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model organism and sodium benzoate as a representative of polar aromatic contaminants. We found that decreasing ΔΨo and ΔΨm values slowed bacterial dispersal in the system, leading to decelerated growth and benzoate degradation. In contrast, dispersal networks facilitated bacterial movement at ΔΨo and ΔΨm values between 0 and -0.5 MPa and thus improved the absolute biodegradation performance by up to 52 and 119% for ΔΨo and ΔΨm, respectively. This strong functional interrelationship was further emphasized by a high positive correlation between population dispersal, population growth, and degradation. We propose that dispersal networks may sustain the functionality of microbial ecosystems at low osmotic and matric potentials. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Multi-mode humidity sensing with water-soluble copper phthalocyanine for increased sensitivity and dynamic range

    SciTech Connect

    Muckley, Eric S.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Vidal, Keith

    Aqueous solubility of copper phthalocyanine-3,4',4',4"'-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs) enables fabrication of flexible electronic devices by low cost inkjet printing. We (1) investigate water adsorption kinetics on CuPcTs for better understanding the effects of relative humidity (RH) on hydrophilic phthalocyanines, and (2) assess CuPcTs as a humidity-sensing material. Reaction models show that H 2O undergoes 2-site adsorption which can be represented by a pair of sequentially-occurring pseudo-first order reactions. Using high frequency (300–700 THz) and low frequency (1–8 MHz) dielectric spectroscopy combined with gravimetric measurements and principal component analysis, we observe that significant opto-electrical changes in CuPcTs occur at RHmore » ≈ 60%. The results suggest that rapid H 2O adsorption takes place at hydrophilic sulfonyl/salt groups on domain surfaces at low RH, while slow adsorption and diffusion of H 2O into CuPcTs crystallites leads to a mixed CuPcTs-H 2O phase at RH > 60%, resulting in high frequency dielectric screening of the film by water and dissociation of Na+ from CuPc(SO 3-) 4 ions. Lastly, the CuPcTs-H 2O interaction can be tracked using a combination of gravimetric, optical, and electrical sensing modes, enabling accurate ( ± 2.5%) sensing in the ~0–95% RH range with a detection limit of less than 0.1% RH.« less

  12. Multi-mode humidity sensing with water-soluble copper phthalocyanine for increased sensitivity and dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Muckley, Eric S; Jacobs, Christopher B; Vidal, Keith; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sumpter, Bobby G; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2017-08-30

    Aqueous solubility of copper phthalocyanine-3,4',4″,4″'-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs) enables fabrication of flexible electronic devices by low cost inkjet printing. We (1) investigate water adsorption kinetics on CuPcTs for better understanding the effects of relative humidity (RH) on hydrophilic phthalocyanines, and (2) assess CuPcTs as a humidity-sensing material. Reaction models show that H 2 O undergoes 2-site adsorption which can be represented by a pair of sequentially-occurring pseudo-first order reactions. Using high frequency (300-700 THz) and low frequency (1-8 MHz) dielectric spectroscopy combined with gravimetric measurements and principal component analysis, we observe that significant opto-electrical changes in CuPcTs occur at RH ≈ 60%. The results suggest that rapid H 2 O adsorption takes place at hydrophilic sulfonyl/salt groups on domain surfaces at low RH, while slow adsorption and diffusion of H 2 O into CuPcTs crystallites leads to a mixed CuPcTs-H 2 O phase at RH > 60%, resulting in high frequency dielectric screening of the film by water and dissociation of Na + from CuPc(SO 3 - ) 4 ions. The CuPcTs-H 2 O interaction can be tracked using a combination of gravimetric, optical, and electrical sensing modes, enabling accurate ( ± 2.5%) sensing in the ~0-95% RH range with a detection limit of less than 0.1% RH.

  13. Multi-mode humidity sensing with water-soluble copper phthalocyanine for increased sensitivity and dynamic range

    DOE PAGES

    Muckley, Eric S.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Vidal, Keith; ...

    2017-08-30

    Aqueous solubility of copper phthalocyanine-3,4',4',4"'-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuPcTs) enables fabrication of flexible electronic devices by low cost inkjet printing. We (1) investigate water adsorption kinetics on CuPcTs for better understanding the effects of relative humidity (RH) on hydrophilic phthalocyanines, and (2) assess CuPcTs as a humidity-sensing material. Reaction models show that H 2O undergoes 2-site adsorption which can be represented by a pair of sequentially-occurring pseudo-first order reactions. Using high frequency (300–700 THz) and low frequency (1–8 MHz) dielectric spectroscopy combined with gravimetric measurements and principal component analysis, we observe that significant opto-electrical changes in CuPcTs occur at RHmore » ≈ 60%. The results suggest that rapid H 2O adsorption takes place at hydrophilic sulfonyl/salt groups on domain surfaces at low RH, while slow adsorption and diffusion of H 2O into CuPcTs crystallites leads to a mixed CuPcTs-H 2O phase at RH > 60%, resulting in high frequency dielectric screening of the film by water and dissociation of Na+ from CuPc(SO 3-) 4 ions. Lastly, the CuPcTs-H 2O interaction can be tracked using a combination of gravimetric, optical, and electrical sensing modes, enabling accurate ( ± 2.5%) sensing in the ~0–95% RH range with a detection limit of less than 0.1% RH.« less

  14. Synthesis of Large-Pore Stabilized MIL-53(Al) Compounds with Increased CO2 Adsorption and Decreased Water Adsorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    increase in the quadrupolar coupling constant upon saturation with DMF for sDMF220, 8.4~10.1, and sDMF120, 8.2~10.1 compared to the increase in CQ...nonpolar methane . The CH4 adsorption isotherms for sH2O and sDMF220 shown in Fig. 5 also exhibit Type I behaviour. The CO2 adsorption isotherm for sH2O...Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 13519-13526. 15. T. Loiseau, C. Serre, C. Huguenard, G. Fink, F. Taulelle, M. Henry , T. Bataille and G. Ferey, Chem-Eur J

  15. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  16. The Effect of Increased CO2 Mixing Ratio on Water Use Efficiency, Evapo-transpiration, Soil Moisture Content and Stem Flow in two Long-term Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, B.; Powell, T.; Li, J.; Hinkle, R.; Rasse, D.

    2007-12-01

    Stomatal opening in plant leaves control carbon and water exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere. Closure of these water-gates in response to increased atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio's, reduces transpiration under most laboratory and short term experimental conditions. Does this imply however, as atmospheric CO2 rises, and plant canopies expand, that evapo-transpiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC), and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) will increase? To test this question, field experiments have been and still are conducted using open top chambers. We have exposed native species in Florida Scrub to a carbon dioxide mixing ratio of nearly 700 ppmv CO2 for the past ten years and in Chesapeake Bay wetlands for 21 years. As a result of this treatment, in both ecosystems there was an increase in net ecosystem CO2 exchange and leaf area but a reduction of stomatal conductance, stem flow, transpiration, and ETR. For Florida scrub oak, these changes were also accompanied by an increase in soil moisture content as well.

  17. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  18. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment. PMID:28005940

  19. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  20. Modulation of gut microbiota and increase in fecal water content in mice induced by administration of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DN1.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dana; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kang, Il-Byeong; Kim, Hyunsook; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-02-22

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is the key probiotic bacterium in kefir. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral consumption of L. kefiranofaciens on the fecal quality and intestinal microbiota of mice. Four-week-old Balb/c mice were divided into two groups (n = 8 each) and administered 0.2 mL of saline (control group) or saline containing 2 × 10 8 cfu L. kefiranofaciens DN1 (LKF_DN1 group) for two weeks. At the end of the experiment, their fecal samples were collected and the fecal quality and microbiota were assessed. The LKF_DN1 group exhibited higher total fecal weight and fecal weight per stool sample than the control group (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the fecal water content was significantly higher in the fecal samples of the LKF_DN1 group than in those of the control group (p < 0.05). The numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Lactobacillus, and Prevotella were significantly higher in the LKF_DN1 group than in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the number of opportunistic pathogens, including Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae, and the percentage of genus Clostridium among the total bacteria were significantly reduced in the LKF_DN1 group (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that regular L. kefiranofaciens DN1 administration could alleviate constipation and improve gut microbiota.