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Sample records for increased urinary rectal

  1. Early removal of urinary catheters after rectal surgery is associated with increased urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Kwaan, Mary R; Lee, Janet T; Rothenberger, David A; Melton, Genevieve B; Madoff, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary retention after rectal resection is common and managed prophylactically by prolonging urinary catheterization. However, because indwelling urinary catheterization is a well-established risk factor for urinary tract infection, the ideal timing for urinary catheter removal following a rectal resection is unknown. We hypothesized that early urinary catheter removal (on or before postoperative day 2) would be associated with urinary retention. This study is a retrospective review of medical records. This study was conducted at a colorectal surgery service at a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. Adults undergoing rectal resection operations by colorectal surgeons in 2005 to 2010 were selected. The primary outcome measured was urinary retention. Of 205 patients included, 41 (20%) developed urinary retention. Male sex (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-9), increased intraoperative intravenous fluid (OR for each liter, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48), and urinary catheter removal on postoperative day 2 or earlier (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.5) were associated with urinary retention on multivariable analysis. Early catheter removal was not associated with decreased urinary tract infection rates (p = 0.29) but was associated with shorter length of stay (6.5 vs 8.9 days; p = 0.005). The retrospective nature of this study did not allow for a precise definition of urinary retention. Preoperative urinary function was not available, and the patient sample was heterogeneous, including several indications for rectal resection. Urinary catheters were not removed per protocol and therefore subject to bias. The study is likely underpowered to detect differences in urinary tract infection between urinary catheter removal groups. In patients undergoing rectal resection, we found that urinary catheter removal on or before postoperative day 2 was associated with urinary retention (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/DCR/A172).

  2. Do high radiation doses in locally advanced prostate cancer patients treated with 103Pd implant plus external beam irradiation cause increased urinary, rectal, and sexual morbidity?

    PubMed

    Stone, Nelson N; Cesaretti, Jamie A; Rosenstein, Barry; Stock, Richard G

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the morbidity of higher radiation doses in prostate cancer patients. Five hundred eighty-five men treated with seed implantation and external beam irradiation were followed a median of 5 years (range, 2-11). Hormonal therapy (HT) of 9 months duration was used in 504 (86.2%) patients. The biologic effective dose (BED) was calculated using an alpha/beta of 2. Urinary incontinence (UI) and symptoms (IPSS) were prospectively collected. Rectal morbidity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale. Two BED dose groups of 220 Gy (n=136) were used. Comparisons of means were made by Student's t test, and the associations were tested by chi-square analysis (Pearson). Urinary retention developed in 36 (6.2%) and was not associated with BED or IPSS. Retention occurred more often with prostate volume >50 cc (17%, p=0.001). The median change in urinary symptoms (IPSS) was 1. Sixty-one percent with high BED were more likely to have increased postimplant symptoms compared with 39% with lower BED (p=0.025; odds ratio [OR], 1.107; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.21). UI occurred in 25 patients (4.3%) and was only associated with a postimplant transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (n=25), 16% vs. 2.3% for no TURP (p=0.001; OR, 8; 95% CI, 2.4-27). Of the 373 patients initially potent, 204 (54.7%) maintained potency. Impotence was only associated with age at implant (p=0.001) and HT (p=0.004). Sixty-two (10.6%) patients had Grade 1-2 and 4 patients had Grade 3-4 (0.7%, 2 ulcers and 2 fistulas) rectal complications. Three of the Grade 3/4 complications occurred with a dose 220 Gy does not seem to increase morbidity. (c) 2010 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rectal contrast increases rectal dose during vaginal cuff brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Sabater, Sebastia; Andres, Ignacio; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Rovirosa, Angeles; Sanchez-Prieto, Ricardo; Arenas, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of rectal dose on rectal contrast use during vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB). A retrospective review of gynecology patients who received some brachytherapy fractions with and without rectal contrast was carried out. Rectal contrast was instilled at the clinician's discretion to increase rectal visibility. Thirty-six pairs of CT scans in preparation for brachytherapy were analyzed. Pairs of CTs were segmented and planned using the same parameters. The rectum was always defined from 1 cm above the cylinder tip up to 1.5 cm below the last activated dwell source position. An individual plan was computed at every VCB fraction. A set of values (Dmax, D(0.1cc), D(1cc), and D(2cc)) derived from dose-volume histograms were extracted and compared according to the rectal status. Rectal volume was 26.7% larger in the fractions with rectal contrast. Such an increase in volume represented a significant increase from 7.7% to 10.4% in all parameters analyzed except Dmax dose-volume histogram. Avoiding rectal contrast is a simple way of decreasing the rectal dose parameters of VCB, which would mean a better therapeutic ratio. Results also suggest that action directed at maintaining the rectum empty might have the same effect. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual and urinary dysfunction after proctectomy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Eveno, C; Lamblin, A; Mariette, C; Pocard, M

    2010-02-01

    Sexual and urinary dysfunction occur frequently after rectal surgery. Total mesorectal excision (TME) is currently the optimal technique for resection of rectal cancer, providing superior carcinological and functional outcomes. Age, pre-operative radiation therapy, abdominoperineal resection, and surgery which fails to respect the "sacred planes" of TME are the four major risk factors for post-operative sexual and urinary sequelae. In the era of TME, postoperative sexual dysfunction ranges from 10-35%, depending on the scores used to assess it, while urinary sequelae have decreased to less than 5%. The place of laparoscopic surgery remains to be defined, particularly with respect to these complications. It is essential to inform the patient pre-operatively about the possibility of such disorders not only for patient informed consent but also to help with correct post-operative management of the problem. Management is multifaceted, and includes psychological, pharmacological, and sometimes surgical therapy. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Concentrations in Patients with Rectal Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Zezulová, Michaela; Bartoušková, Marie; Hlídková, Eva; Juráňová, Jarmila; Červinková, Barbora; Kasalová, Eva; Adam, Tomáš; Krčmová, Lenka Kujovská; Solichová, Dagmar; Cwiertka, Karel; Vrána, David; Melichar, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the prognostic significance of serum and urinary neopterin concentrations in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma treated with (chemo)radiation. Urinary and serum neopterin and peripheral blood cell count were determined in 49 patients with rectal carcinoma before the start of (chemo)radiation. Neopterin concentrations exhibited a significant inverse correlation with hemoglobin and positive correlation with leukocyte count, platelet count and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio. Increased serum neopterin concentration was associated with significantly inferior relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival. However, a significant association was observed only in 28 patients treated in the neoadjuvant setting. Although increased urinary neopterin was also associated with inferior RFS and overall survival, this was not statistically significant. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was also associated with poor prognosis. The data presented herein indicate a prognostic significance of serum neopterin concentrations in patients with rectal cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Increasing trend in retained rectal foreign bodies

    PubMed Central

    Ayantunde, Abraham A; Unluer, Zynep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To highlight the rising trend in hospital presentation of foreign bodies retained in the rectum over a 5-year period. METHODS Retrospective review of the cases of retained rectal foreign bodies between 2008 and 2012 was performed. Patients’ clinical data and yearly case presentation with data relating to hospital episodes were collected. Data analysis was by SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, United States. RESULTS Twenty-five patients presented over a 5-year period with a mean age of 39 (17-62) years and M: F ratio of 2:1. A progressive rise in cases was noted from 2008 to 2012 with 3, 4, 4, 6, 8 recorded patients per year respectively. The majority of the impacted rectal objects were used for self-/partner-eroticism. The commonest retained foreign bodies were sex vibrators and dildos. Ninty-six percent of the patients required extraction while one passed spontaneously. Two and three patients had retrieval in the Emergency Department and on the ward respectively while 19 patients needed examination under anaesthesia for extraction. The mean hospital stay was 19 (2-38) h. Associated psychosocial issues included depression, deliberate self-harm, illicit drug abuse, anxiety and alcoholism. There were no psychosocial problems identified in 15 patients. CONCLUSION There is a progressive rise in hospital presentation of impacted rectal foreign bodies with increasing use of different objects for sexual arousal. PMID:27830039

  7. Male urinary and sexual function after robotic pelvic autonomic nerve-preserving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhiming; Jiang, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Zhao, Jian; Li, Jieshou

    2017-03-01

    Urinary and sexual dysfunction is the potential complication of rectal cancer surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary and sexual function in male patients with robotic surgery for rectal cancer. This prospective study included 137 of the 336 male patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer. Urinary and male sexual function was studied by means of a questionnaire based on the International Prostatic Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function. All data were collected before surgery and 12 months after surgery. Patients who underwent robotic surgery had significantly decreased incidence of partial or complete erectile dysfunction and sexual dysfunction than patients with laparoscopic surgery. The pre- and post-operative total IPSS scores in patients with robotic surgery were significantly less than that with laparoscopic surgeries. Robotic surgery shows distinct advantages in protecting the pelvic autonomic nerves and relieving post-operative sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Prospective Evaluation of Genito-Urinary Function after Laparoscopic Rectal Resection in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Mari, Giulio; Costanzi, Andrea; Galfrascoli, Elisa; Rosato, Andrea; Crippa, Jacopo; Maggioni, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision is related to sexual and urinary disorders. Anastomotic leak and neo-adjuvant radiation therapy are effective factors in worsening pelvic function. We report a series of 50 elderly (age 70) patients who underwent laparoscopic total mesorectal excision inquired about pre and post-operative genito-urinary function. Patients were interviewed preoperatively, 1 and 9 months post-operatively with validated questionnaires about sexual and urinary function and quality of life. They also underwent urofluximetric test with ultrasound measurement of the bladder remnant volume. The geriatric assessment was performed with the BARTHEL index. Urinary and sexual function slightly worsened after surgery although not significantly. Mean Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Indicator score decreased significantly from pre operative levels at 1 month from surgery. BARTHEL index did not change significantly across surgery. Maximum urinary flow, mean urinary flow, bladder residual volume worsened after surgery although not significantly. Laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision affects the genito-urinary status of elderly patients. Incidence of severe dysfunctions is similar to normal aged population.

  9. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Increases Rectal Activity in Children.

    PubMed

    Moeller Joensson, Iben; Hagstroem, Soren; Siggaard, Charlotte; Bower, Wendy; Djurhuus, Jens Christian; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-01

    Neurostimulation is increasingly used in treating bladder and bowel dysfunction, but its effect on rectal motility is obscure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on rectal motility in children with overactive bladder (OAB). In this double-blind placebo-controlled study in 20 children with OAB (mean age 8.6 ± 1.8 years; 7 girls), 48-hour urodynamic monitoring including rectal manometry was performed. After 24-hours of baseline investigation without stimulation the children were randomised to either active TENS (n = 10) or placebo (n = 10). Surface electrodes were placed over the sacral bone. The exterior of active and placebo stimulators was identical. Starting in the morning, the children received either continuous TENS stimulation or placebo until bedtime. Rectal contractions were defined as pressure runs exceeding 5 cm H2O and lasting ≥3 minutes. At baseline there was no significant difference in proportion of time with rectal contractions in the 2 groups (TENS group median 31% [range 12%-66%] vs placebo group median 31% [range 10%-66%]; P = 0.75); however, on the day of stimulation there was more time with rectal contractions in the group receiving TENS (median 51% [range 25%-78%]) compared with placebo (median 32% [range 4%-68%]; P = 0.02). Also, there was an increase in time with rectal contractions in the TENS group (P = 0.007) but not in the placebo group (P = 0.39). The night after the TENS was disabled, rectal activity in both groups returned to baseline level. TENS acutely increases time with rectal contractions in children undergoing urodynamic investigation. The effect disappears when the stimulator is turned off.

  10. Urinary and sexual dysfunction rates and risk factors following rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Duran, Eyup; Tanriseven, Mustafa; Ersoz, Nail; Oztas, Muharrem; Ozerhan, Ismail Hakki; Kilbas, Zafer; Demirbas, Sezai

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to express the effects of demographic characteristics, the type of the surgery, tumour characteristics and adjuvant therapy on urinary and sexual dysfunctions. Pre-operational urinary and sexual dysfunctions of the patients were evaluated by using the surveys prepared according to International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in men and Index of Female Sexual Function (IFSF) in women. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 20 of them were women and 36 of them were men. The mean age was 56. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) was performed on 11 patients, and low anterior resection (LAR) was performed on 45. The post-treatment IPSS classes were worsened at a rate of 12.7 % compared to the pre-treatment. The mean post-treatment sexual dysfunction score of both men and women were decreased by 27.5 and 17.8 %, respectively. Rectal tumours located in the lower part resulted in more sexual dysfunction. The tumour in the 1/3 lower part of the rectal area was determined to be the most effective factor that caused both urinary and sexual dysfunction. Patients should be informed about the urinary and sexual dysfunctions in the pre-operative consultations.

  11. Rectal HSV-2 Infection May Increase Rectal SIV Acquisition Even in the Context of SIVΔnef Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Pérez, Natalia; Aravantinou, Meropi; Veglia, Filippo; Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Derby, Nina; Blanchard, James; Grasperge, Brooke; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition both in men and women even in asymptomatic subjects. Understanding the impact of HSV-2 on the mucosal microenvironment may help to identify determinants of susceptibility to HIV. Vaginal HSV-2 infection increases the frequency of cells highly susceptible to HIV in the vaginal tissue of women and macaques and this correlates with increased susceptibility to vaginal SHIV infection in macaques. However, the effect of rectal HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition remains understudied. We developed a model of rectal HSV-2 infection in macaques in combination with rectal SIVmac239Δnef (SIVΔnef) vaccination and our results suggest that rectal HSV-2 infection may increase the susceptibility of macaques to rectal SIVmac239 wild-type (wt) infection even in SIVΔnef-infected animals. Rectal SIVΔnef infection/vaccination protected 7 out of 7 SIVΔnef-infected macaques from SIVmac239wt rectal infection (vs 12 out of 16 SIVΔnef-negative macaques), while 1 out of 3 animals co-infected with SIVΔnef and HSV-2 acquired SIVmac239wt infection. HSV-2/SIVmac239wt co-infected animals had increased concentrations of inflammatory factors in their plasma and rectal fluids and a tendency toward higher acute SIVmac239wt plasma viral load. However, they had higher blood CD4 counts and reduced depletion of CCR5+ CD4+ T cells compared to SIVmac239wt-only infected animals. Thus, rectal HSV-2 infection generates a pro-inflammatory environment that may increase susceptibility to rectal SIV infection and may impact immunological and virological parameters during acute SIV infection. Studies with larger number of animals are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Impact of robotic surgery on sexual and urinary functions after fully robotic nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Luca, Fabrizio; Valvo, Manuela; Ghezzi, Tiago Leal; Zuccaro, Massimiliano; Cenciarelli, Sabina; Trovato, Cristina; Sonzogni, Angelica; Biffi, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Urinary and sexual dysfunctions are recognized complications of rectal cancer surgery. Their incidence after robotic surgery is as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the impact of robotic surgery for rectal cancer on sexual and urinary functions in male and female patients. From April 2008 to December 2010, 74 patients undergoing fully robotic resection for rectal cancer were prospectively included in the study. Urinary and sexual dysfunctions affecting quality of life were assessed with specific self-administered questionnaires in all patients undergoing robotic total mesorectal excision (RTME). Results were calculated with validated scoring systems and statistically analyzed. The analyses of the questionnaires completed by the 74 patients who underwent RTME showed that sexual function and general sexual satisfaction decreased significantly 1 month after intervention: 19.1 ± 8.7 versus 11.9 ± 10.2 (P < 0.05) for erectile function and 6.9 ± 2.4 versus 5.3 ± 2.5 (P < 0.05) for general satisfaction in men; 2.6 ± 3.3 versus 0.8 ± 1.4 (P < 0.05) and 2.4 ± 2.5 versus 0.7 ± 1.6 (P < 0.05) for arousal and general satisfaction, respectively, in women. Subsequently, both parameters increased progressively, and 1 year after surgery, the values were comparable to those measured before surgery. Concerning urinary function, the grade of incontinence measured 1 year after the intervention was unchanged for both sexes. RTME allows for preservation of urinary and sexual functions. This is probably due to the superior movements of the wristed instruments that facilitate fine dissection, coupled with a stable and magnified view that helps in recognizing the inferior hypogastric plexus.

  13. LAPAROSCOPICALLY ASSISTED ANORECTOPLASTY AND THE USE OF THE BIPOLAR DEVICE TO SEAL THE RECTAL URINARY FISTULA.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Robson Azevedo; Boscollo, Adriana Cartafina Perez

    2016-01-01

    The anorectal anomalies consist in a complex group of birth defects. Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty improved visualization of the rectal fistula and the ability to place the pull-through segment within the elevator muscle complex with minimal dissection. There is no consensus on how the fistula should be managed. To evaluate the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty and the treatment of the rectal urinary fistula by a bipolar sealing device. It was performed according to the original description by Georgeson1. Was used 10 mm infraumbilical access portal for 30º optics. The pneumoperitoneum was established with pressure 8-10 cm H2O. Two additional trocars of 5 mm were placed on the right and left of the umbilicus. The dissection started on peritoneal reflection using Ligasure(r). With the reduction in the diameter of the distal rectum was identified the fistula to the urinary tract. The location of the new anus was defined by the location of the external anal sphincter muscle complex, using electro muscle stimulator externally. Finally, it was made an anastomosis between the rectum and the new location of the anus. A Foley urethral probe was left for seven days. Seven males were operated, six with rectoprostatic and one with rectovesical fistula. The follow-up period ranged from one to four years. The last two patients operated underwent bipolar sealing of the fistula between the rectum and urethra without sutures or surgical ligation. No evidence of urethral leaks was identified. There are benefits of the laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty for the treatment of anorectal anomaly. The use of a bipolar energy source that seals the rectal urinary fistula has provided a significant decrease in the operating time and made the procedure be more elegant. As anomalias anorretais consistem de um grupo complexo de defeitos congênitos. A anorretoplastia laparoscópica permite melhor visualização da fístula retourinária e propicia o posicionamento do reto abaixado

  14. Predictors of urinary and rectal toxicity after external conformed radiation therapy in prostate cancer: Correlation between clinical, tumour and dosimetric parameters and radical and postoperative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Arribas, C M; González-San Segundo, C; Cuesta-Álvaro, P; Calvo-Manuel, F A

    2017-06-15

    To determine rectal and urinary toxicity after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), assessing the results of patients who undergo radical or postoperative therapy for prostate cancer (pancreatic cancer) and their correlation with potential risk factors. A total of 333 patients were treated with EBRT. Of these, 285 underwent radical therapy and 48 underwent postoperative therapy (39 cases of rescue and 9 of adjuvant therapy). We collected clinical, tumour and dosimetric variable to correlate with toxicity parameters. We developed decision trees based on the degree of statistical significance. The rate of severe acute toxicity, both urinary and rectal, was 5.4% and 1.5%, respectively. The rate of chronic toxicity was 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Twenty-seven patients presented haematuria, and 9 presented haemorrhagic rectitis. Twenty-five patients (7.5%) presented permanent limiting sequela. The patients with lower urinary tract symptoms prior to the radiation therapy presented poorer tolerance, with greater acute bladder toxicity (P=0.041). In terms of acute rectal toxicity, 63% of the patients with mean rectal doses >45Gy and anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy developed mild toxicity compared with 37% of the patients with mean rectal doses <45 Gy and without anticoagulant therapy. We were unable to establish predictors of chronic toxicity in the multivariate analysis. The long-term sequelae were greater in the patients who underwent urological operations prior to the radiation therapy and who were undergoing anticoagulant therapy. The tolerance to EBRT was good, and severe toxicity was uncommon. Baseline urinary symptoms constitute the predictor that most influenced the acute urinary toxicity. Rectal toxicity is related to the mean rectal dose and with anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy. There were no significant differences in severe toxicity between radical versus postoperative radiation therapy. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S

  15. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  16. Urinary and Rectal Toxicity Profiles After Permanent Iodine-125 Implant Brachytherapy in Japanese Men: Nationwide J-POPS Multi-institutional Prospective Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Toshio; Yorozu, Atsunori; Saito, Shiro; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Katayama, Norihisa; Kojima, Shinsuke; Maruo, Shinichiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Dokiya, Takushi; Fukushima, Masanori; Yamanaka, Hidetoshi

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a nationwide multi-institutional cohort study begun in 2005 and in which 6927 subjects were enrolled by 2010, the urinary and rectal toxicity profiles of subjects who enrolled during the first 2 years, and evaluate the toxicity profiles for permanent seed implantation (PI) and a combination therapy with PI and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Baseline data for 2339 subjects out of 2354 patients were available for the analyses. Toxicities were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and the International Prostate Symptom Scores were recorded prospectively until 36 months after radiation therapy. Results: Grade 2+ acute urinary toxicities developed in 7.36% (172 of 2337) and grade 2+ acute rectal toxicities developed in 1.03% (24 of 2336) of the patients. Grade 2+ late urinary and rectal toxicities developed in 5.75% (133 of 2312) and 1.86% (43 of 2312) of the patients, respectively. A higher incidence of grade 2+ acute urinary toxicity occurred in the PI group than in the EBRT group (8.49% vs 3.66%; P<.01). Acute rectal toxicity outcomes were similar between the treatment groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence rates for grade 2+ late urinary toxicities were 6.04% versus 4.82% for the PI and the EBRT groups, respectively, with no significant differences between the treatment groups. The 3-year cumulative incidence rates for grade 2+ late rectal toxicities were 0.90% versus 5.01% (P<.01) for the PI and the EBRT groups, respectively. The mean of the postimplant International Prostate Symptom Score peaked at 3 months, but it decreased to a range that was within 2 points of the baseline score, which was observed in 1625 subjects (69.47%) at the 1-year follow-up assessment. Conclusions: The acute urinary toxicities observed were acceptable given the frequency and retention, and the late rectal toxicities were more favorable than those of other studies.

  17. Plant based dietary supplement increases urinary pH

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, John M; Logan, Alan C; Rao, A Venket

    2008-01-01

    Background Research has demonstrated that the net acid load of the typical Western diet has the potential to influence many aspects of human health, including osteoporosis risk/progression; obesity; cardiovascular disease risk/progression; and overall well-being. As urinary pH provides a reliable surrogate measure for dietary acid load, this study examined whether a plant-based dietary supplement, one marketed to increase alkalinity, impacts urinary pH as advertised. Methods Using pH test strips, the urinary pH of 34 healthy men and women (33.9 +/- 1.57 y, 79.3 +/- 3.1 kg) was measured for seven days to establish a baseline urinary pH without supplementation. After this initial baseline period, urinary pH was measured for an additional 14 days while participants ingested the plant-based nutritional supplement. At the end of the investigation, pH values at baseline and during the treatment period were compared to determine the efficacy of the supplement. Results Mean urinary pH statistically increased (p = 0.03) with the plant-based dietary supplement. Mean urinary pH was 6.07 +/- 0.04 during the baseline period and increased to 6.21 +/- 0.03 during the first week of treatment and to 6.27 +/- 0.06 during the second week of treatment. Conclusion Supplementation with a plant-based dietary product for at least seven days increases urinary pH, potentially increasing the alkalinity of the body. PMID:18990209

  18. Rectal Mucosal Microvascular Blood Supply Increase Is Associated with Colonic Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andrew J.; Roy, Hemant K.; Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Kim, Young; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Ruderman, Sarah; Stoyneva, Valentina; Goldberg, Michael J.; Bianchi, Laura K.; Yen, Eugene; Kromine, Alexey; Jameel, Mohammed; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Endoscopic examination has proven effective in both detecting and preventing colorectal cancer; however, only about a quarter of eligible patients undergo screening. Even if the compliance rate increased, limited endoscopic capacity and cost would be prohibitive. There is a need for an accurate method to target colonoscopy to those most at risk of harboring colonic neoplasia. Exploiting field carcinogenesis seems to be a promising avenue. Our group recently reported that an early increase in blood supply (EIBS) is a reliable marker of field carcinogenesis in experimental models. We now investigate whether in situ detection of EIBS in the rectum can predict neoplasia elsewhere in the colon. Experimental Design We developed a novelpolarization-gated spectroscopy fiber-optic probe that allows depth-selective interrogation of microvascular blood content. Using the probe, we examined the blood content in vivo from the rectal mucosa of 216 patients undergoing screening colonoscopy. Results Microvascular blood content was increased by ~ 50% in the endoscopically normal rectal mucosa of patients harboring advanced adenomas when compared with neoplasia-free patients irrespective of lesion location. Demographic factors and nonneoplastic lesions did not confound this observation. Logistic regression using mucosal oxyhemoglobin concentration and patient age resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 82%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.88 for the detection of advanced adenomas. Conclusions Increased microvascular blood supply in the normal rectal mucosa is associated with the presence of clinically significant neoplasia elsewhere in the colon, supporting the development of rectal EIBS as a colon cancer risk-stratification tool. PMID:19383816

  19. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    Diazepam rectal gel is used in emergency situations to stop cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) in people who are ... Diazepam comes as a gel to instill rectally using a prefilled syringe with a special plastic tip. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, ...

  20. Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer Is Associated With Reduced Serum Testosterone and Increased FSH and LH

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti Svartberg, Johan; Carlsen, Erik; Dueland, Svein; Haug, Egil; Skovlund, Eva; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: It is known that scattered radiation to the testes during pelvic radiotherapy can affect fertility, but there is little knowledge on its effects on male sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether radiotherapy for rectal cancer affects testosterone production. Methods and Materials: All male patients who had received adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified from the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Patients treated with surgery alone were randomly selected from the same registry as control subjects. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were analyzed, and free testosterone was calculated (N = 290). Information about the radiotherapy treatment was collected from the patient hospital charts. Results: Serum FSH was 3 times higher in the radiotherapy group than in the control group (median, 18.8 vs. 6.3 IU/L, p <0.001), and serum LH was 1.7 times higher (median, 7.5 vs. 4.5 IU/l, p <0.001). In the radiotherapy group, 27% of patients had testosterone levels below the reference range (8-35 nmol/L), compared with 10% of the nonirradiated patients (p <0.001). Irradiated patients had lower serum testosterone (mean, 11.1 vs. 13.4 nmol/L, p <0.001) and lower calculated free testosterone (mean, 214 vs. 235 pmol/L, p <0.05) than control subjects. Total testosterone, calculated free testosterone, and gonadotropins were related to the distance from the bony pelvic structures to the caudal field edge. Conclusions: Increased serum levels of gonadotropins and subnormal serum levels of testosterone indicate that curative radiotherapy for rectal cancer can result in permanent testicular dysfunction.

  1. The learning curve of laparoscopic treatment of rectal cancer does not increase morbidity.

    PubMed

    Luján, Juan; Gonzalez, Antonio; Abrisqueta, Jesús; Hernandez, Quiteria; Valero, Graciela; Abellán, Israel; Frutos, María Dolores; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer via laparoscopy is controversial due to its technical complexity. Several randomized prospective studies have demonstrated clear advantages for the patient with similar oncological results to those of open surgery, although during the learning of this surgical technique there may be an increase in complications and a worse prognosis. Our aim is to analyze how the learning curve for rectal cancer via laparoscopy influences intra- and postoperative results and oncological markers. A retrospective review was conducted of the first 120 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for rectal neoplasia. The operations were performed by the same surgical team with a wide experience in the treatment of open colorectal cancer and qualified to perform advanced laparoscopic surgery. We analyzed sex, ASA, tumour location, neoadjuvant treatment, surgical technique, operating time, conversion, postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes, stage and involvement of margins. Significant differences were observed with regard to surgical time (224 min in the first group, 204 min in the second group), with a higher rate of conversion in the first group (22.5%) than in the second (11.3%). No significant differences were noted for rate of conservative sphincter surgery, length of hospital stay, post-surgical complications, number of affected/isolated lymph nodes or affected circumferential and distal margins. It is possible to learn this complex surgical technique without compromising the patient's safety and oncological outcome. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Increasing costs of urinary incontinence among female Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Anger, Jennifer T; Saigal, Christopher S; Madison, Rodger; Joyce, Geoffrey; Litwin, Mark S

    2006-07-01

    We measured the financial burden of urinary incontinence in the United States from 1992 to 1998 among women 65 years old or older. We analyzed Medicare claims for 1992, 1995 and 1998 and estimated spending on the treatment of urinary incontinence. Total costs were stratified by type of service (inpatient, outpatient and emergency department). Costs of urinary incontinence among older women nearly doubled between 1992 and 1998 in nominal dollars, from $128 million to $234 million, primarily due to increases in physician office visits and ambulatory surgery. The cost of inpatient services increased only slightly during the period. The increase in total spending was due almost exclusively to the increase in the number of women treated for incontinence. After adjusting for inflation, per capita treatment costs decreased about 15% during the study. This shift from inpatient to outpatient care likely reflects the general shift of surgical procedures to the outpatient setting, as well as the advent of new minimally invasive incontinence procedures. In addition, increased awareness of incontinence and the marketing of new drugs for its treatment, specifically anticholinergic medication for overactive bladder symptoms, may have increased the number of office visits. While claims based Medicare expenditures are substantial, they do not include the costs of pads or medications and, therefore, underestimate the true financial burden of incontinence on the aging community.

  3. The assessment of urinary function following extended lymph node dissection for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cöl, C; Hasdemir, O; Yalcin, E; Guzel, H; Tunc, G; Bilgen, K; Kucukpinar, T

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the current study is to demonstrate whether the effects of extended systematic lymph-node dissection (ESLND) on urinary dysfunctions differ from those of curative radical surgery (CRS) only for rectal cancer. We present data about our patients who underwent rectal resection for rectal cancer over 5 years. One hundred and seventy patients with rectal cancer were reviewed with respect to surgical procedures and post-operative urinary problems. We performed CRS on 146 patients and CRS+ESLND on 24 patients, and analysed the incidence of post-operative urinary dysfunction in both groups. Urinary incontinence rates were 39 and 58%, urinary retention rates were 4 and 16%, for the patients from CRS group and CRS+ESLND group, respectively. We conclude that the addition of ESLND to CRS does not increase the frequency of post-operative urinary dysfunction, apart from an increased risk of urinary retention.

  4. Urinary and sexual dysfunction in women after resection with and without preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bregendahl, S; Emmertsen, K J; Lindegaard, J C; Laurberg, S

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of urinary and sexual dysfunction in women after rectal cancer treatment is limited. This study addresses this in relation to the use of preoperative radiotherapy, type of surgery and the presence of bowel dysfunction. All living female patients who underwent abdominoperineal excision (APE) or low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal cancer in Denmark between 2001 and 2007 were identified. Validated questionnaires (the ICIQ-FLUTS and the SVQ) on urinary and sexual function were completed by 516 (75%) and 482 (72%) recurrence-free patients in 2009. Urgency and incontinence were reported by 77 and 63% of respondents, respectively. Vaginal dryness, dyspareunia and reduced vaginal dimensions occurred in 72, 53 and 29%, respectively, and 69% reported that they had little/no sexual desire. Preoperative radiotherapy was associated with voiding difficulties (OR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.09-2.44), reduced vaginal dimensions (OR = 4.77, 95% CI 1.97-11.55), dyspareunia (OR = 2.76, 95% CI 1.12-6.79), lack of desire (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.09-4.53) and reduced sexual activity (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.30-0.98). Patients undergoing APE had a higher risk of dyspareunia (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.00-6.85). Bowel dysfunction after LAR was associated with bladder storage difficulties (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.01-2.65), symptoms of incontinence (OR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.35-3.50), lack of sexual desire (OR = 2.69, 95% CI 1.21-5.98), sexual inactivity (OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96) and sexual dissatisfaction (OR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-0.82). Urinary and sexual problems are common in women after treatment for rectal cancer. Preoperative radiotherapy interferes with several aspects of urinary and sexual functioning. Bowel dysfunction after LAR is associated with urinary dysfunction and a reduction in sexual desire, activity and satisfaction. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. SPARCL1 Expression Increases With Preoperative Radiation Therapy and Predicts Better Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kotti, Angeliki Holmqvist, Annica; Albertsson, Maria; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is expressed in various normal tissues and many types of cancers. The function of SPARCL1 and its relationship to a patient's prognosis have been studied, whereas its relationship to radiation therapy (RT) is not known. Our aim was to investigate the expression of SPARCL1 in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: The study included 136 rectal cancer patients who were randomized to undergo preoperative RT and surgery (n=63) or surgery alone (n=73). The expression levels of SPARCL1 in normal mucosa (n=29), primary tumor (n=136), and lymph node metastasis (n=35) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumors with RT had stronger SPARCL1 expression than tumors without RT (P=.003). In the RT group, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival than weak expression in patients with stage III tumors, independent of sex, age, differentiation, and margin status (P=.022; RR = 18.128; 95% confidence interval, 1.512-217.413). No such relationship was found in the non-RT group (P=.224). Further analysis of interactions among SPARCL1 expression, RT, and survival showed statistical significance (P=.024). In patients with metastases who received RT, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival compared to weak expression (P=.041) but not in the non-RT group (P=.569). Conclusions: SPARCL1 expression increases with RT and is related to better prognosis in rectal cancer patients with RT but not in patients without RT. This result may help us to select the patients best suited for preoperative RT.

  6. Effect of preservation of Denonvilliers' fascia during laparoscopic resection for mid-low rectal cancer on protection of male urinary and sexual functions.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong-Bo; Fang, Jia-Feng; Zheng, Zong-Heng; Wei, Bo; Huang, Jiang-Long; Chen, Tu-Feng; Huang, Yong; Lei, Pu-Run

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preservation of Denonvilliers' fascia (DF) during laparoscopic resection for mid-low rectal cancer on protection of male urogenital function. Whether preservation of DF during TME is effective for protection of urogenital function is largely elusive.Seventy-four cases of male mid-low rectal cancer were included. Radical laparoscopic proctectomy was performed, containing 38 cases of preservation of DF (P-group) and 36 cases of resection of DF (R-group) intraoperatively. Intraoperative electrical nerve stimulation (INS) on pelvic autonomic nerve was performed and intravesical pressure was measured manometrically. Urinary function was evaluated by residual urine volume (RUV), International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL). Sexual function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scale and ejaculation function classification.Compared with performing INS on the surfaces of prostate and seminal vesicles in the R-group, INS on DF in the P-group exhibited higher increasing intravesical pressure (7.3 ± 1.5 vs 5.9 ± 2.4 cmH2O, P = 0.008). In addtion, the P-group exhibited lower RUV (34.3 ± 27.2 vs 57.1 ± 50.7 mL, P = 0.020), lower IPSS and QoL scores (7 days: 6.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.5 ± 5.9, P = 0.002 and 2.2 ± 1.1 vs 2.9 ± 1.1, P = 0.005; 1 month: 5.1 ± 2.4 vs 6.6 ± 2.2, P = 0.006 and 1.6 ± 0.7 vs 2.1 ± 0.6, P = 0.003, respectively), higher IIEF score (3 months: 10.7 ± 2.1 vs 8.9 ± 2.0, P = 0.000; 6 months: 14.8 ± 2.2 vs 12.9 ± 2.2, P = 0.001) and lower incidence of ejaculation dysfunction (3 months: 28.9% vs 52.8%, P = 0.037; 6 months: 18.4% vs 44.4%, P = 0.016) postoperatively.Preservation of DF during laparoscopic resection for selective male mid-low rectal cancer is effective for protection of urogenital function.

  7. Urinary Phthalates and Increased Insulin Resistance in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spanier, Adam J.; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Attina, Teresa M.; Blustein, Jan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) is an environmental chemical commonly found in processed foods. Phthalate exposures, in particular to DEHP, have been associated with insulin resistance in adults, but have not been studied in adolescents. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from 766 fasting 12- to 19-year-olds in the 2003–2008 NHANES, we examined associations of phthalate metabolites with continuous and categorical measures of homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: Controlling for demographic and behavioral factors, diet, continuous age, BMI category, and urinary creatinine, for each log (roughly threefold) increase in DEHP metabolites, a 0.27 increase (95% confidence interval 0.14–0.40; P < .001) in HOMA-IR was identified. Compared with the first tertile of DEHP metabolite in the study population (14.5% insulin resistant), the third tertile had 21.6% prevalence (95% confidence interval 17.2%–26.0%; P = .02). Associations persisted despite controlling for bisphenol A, another endocrine-disrupting chemical commonly found in foods, and HOMA-IR and insulin resistance were not significantly associated with metabolites of lower molecular weight phthalates commonly found in cosmetics and other personal care products. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary DEHP concentrations were associated with increased insulin resistance in this cross-sectional study of adolescents. This study cannot rule out the possibility that insulin-resistant children ingest food with higher phthalate content, or that insulin-resistant children excrete more DEHP. PMID:23958772

  8. Increased protein intake on controlled oxalate diets does not increase urinary oxalate excretion

    PubMed Central

    Easter, Linda H.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Assimos, Dean G.; Holmes, Ross P.

    2009-01-01

    High animal protein intake is a risk factor for calcium oxalate stone disease. The effect of dietary protein on the urinary excretion of calcium, acid and citrate is well established. However, its effect on oxalate excretion is unclear, due in part to an inadequate control of dietary oxalate intake in previous studies. This relationship warrants clarification due to the proposed important role of the metabolism of amino acids in endogenous oxalate synthesis. In this study, 11 normal subjects consumed controlled oxalate diets containing 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight/day. The analysis of 24 h urine collections confirmed that as protein intake increased, urinary calcium and glycolate increased and urinary pH and citrate decreased. The increased glycolate excretion was due in part to an increased hydroxyproline, but not glycolate consumption. Total daily urinary oxalate excretion did not change. When indexed to creatinine there was a small but significant decrease in oxalate excretion. This is most likely due to hyperfiltration. These results indicate that as dietary protein intake increases, the catabolism of diet-derived amino acids is not associated with an increased endogenous oxalate synthesis in normal subjects. PMID:19183980

  9. Distinct increased outliers among 136 rectal cancer patients assessed by γH2AX.

    PubMed

    Kroeber, Jana; Wenger, Barbara; Schwegler, Manuela; Daniel, Christoph; Schmidt, Manfred; Djuzenova, Cholpon S; Polat, Bülent; Flentje, Michael; Fietkau, Rainer; Distel, Luitpold V

    2015-02-11

    In recent years attention has focused on γH2AX as a very sensitive double strand break indicator. It has been suggested that γH2AX might be able to predict individual radiosensitivity. Our aim was to study the induction and repair of DNA double strand breaks labelled by γH2AX in a large cohort. In a prospective study lymphocytes of 136 rectal cancer (RC) patients and 59 healthy individuals were ex vivo irradiated (IR) and initial DNA damage was compared to remaining DNA damage after 2 Gy and 24 hours repair time and preexisting DNA damage in unirradiated lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were immunostained with anti-γH2AX antibodies and microscopic images with an extended depth of field were acquired. γH2AX foci counting was performed using a semi-automatic image analysis software. Distinct increased values of preexisting and remaining γH2AX foci in the group of RC patients were found compared to the healthy individuals. Additionally there are clear differences within the groups and there are outliers in about 12% of the RC patients after ex vivo IR. The γH2AX assay has the capability to identify a group of outliers which are most probably patients with increased radiosensitivity having the highest risk of suffering radiotherapy-related late sequelae.

  10. Adjuvant Radiotherapy Is Associated With Increased Sexual Dysfunction in Male Patients Undergoing Resection for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heriot, Alexander G.; Tekkis, Paris P.; Fazio, Victor W.; Neary, Paul; Lavery, Ian C.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on sexual function in patients undergoing oncologic resection for rectal cancer, and to develop a mathematical model for quantifying the risk of sexual dysfunction through time for this group of patients. Methods: Data were prospectively collected on patients undergoing proctosigmoidectomy (group 1: n = 101) or adjuvant radiotherapy (40–50 Gy) and resection (group 2: n = 100) for rectal cancer at a tertiary referral center between December 1998 and July 2004. Study end points were recorded at 7 time intervals (preoperatively, 4 months, 8 months, 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, and 4 years after surgery) and included: 1) ability to have an erection, 2) maintain an erection, 3) attain orgasm, 4) dry orgasm, and 5) whether they were sexually active. Multilevel logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was used to identify factors associated with the sexual dysfunction. A predictive model was developed and internally validated by comparing observed and model-predicted outcomes. Results: Radiotherapy had an adverse effect on the ability to get an erection, maintain an erection, attain orgasm, and being sexually active in comparison with patients undergoing surgery alone (7.4%, 12.6%, 16.2%, and 13.7% reduction 8 months after surgery respectively; P < 0.05). The effect of sexual dysfunction deteriorated with age (odds ratio for erectile function, 0.40 per 10-year increase in age; 95% confidence interval, 0.29–0.49; P < 0.001). A significant variability in sexual function was present among the 7 time points with a maximal deterioration occurring at 8 months after surgery with subsequent slow but not complete recovery (P < 0.001). The predictive model showed adequate discrimination on 4 of the 5 domains of sexual dysfunction (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve >0.70). Conclusions: Radiotherapy has an adverse effect on sexual function, the effect being

  11. Increased rectal wall stiffness after prostate radiotherapy: relation with fecal urgency.

    PubMed

    Krol, R; Hopman, W P M; Smeenk, R J; Van Lin, E N J T

    2012-04-01

      Late anorectal toxicity is a frequent adverse event of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The pathophysiology of anorectal toxicity remains unknown, but we speculate that rectal distensibility is impaired due to fibrosis. Our goal was to determine whether EBRT induces changes of rectal distensibility as measured by an electronic barostat and to explore whether anorectal complaints are related to specific changes of anorectal function.   Thirty-two men, irradiated for localized prostate carcinoma, underwent barostat measurements, anorectal manometry, and completed a questionnaire prior to and 1 year after radiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was rectal distensibility in response to stepwise isobaric distensions. In addition, we assessed sensory thresholds, anal pressures, and anorectal complaints.   External beam radiotherapy reduced maximal rectal capacity (227 ± 14 mL vs 277 ± 15 mL; P < 0.001), area under the pressure-volume curve (3212 ± 352 mL mmHg vs 3969 ± 413 mL mmHg; P < 0.005), and rectal compliance (15.7 ± 1.2 mL mmHg(-1) vs 17.6 ± 0.9 mL mmHg(-1) ; P = 0.12). Sensory pressure thresholds did not significantly change. Sixteen of the 32 patients (50%) had one or more anorectal complaints. Patients with urgency (n = 10) had a more reduced anal squeeze and maximum pressure (decrease 29 ± 11 mmHg vs 1 ± 7 mmHg; P < 0.05 and 31 ± 12 mmHg vs 2 ± 8 mmHg; P < 0.05 respectively) compared with patients without complaints, indicating a deteriorated external anal sphincter function.   Irradiation for prostate cancer leads to reduced rectal distensibility. In patients with urgency symptoms, anal sphincter function was also impaired. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. [The frequencies of both urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria increase with age].

    PubMed

    Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2013-11-18

    Urinary tract infection is common in the elderly, and the prevalence increases with age due to pathological changes in the urinary tract and common use of bladder catheter. The increasing incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, together with fewer classical dysuria symptoms complicates the diagnosis in the elderly. There is also an increasing prevalence of complicated urinary tract infection including septicaemia. Due to an increase in antibiotic resistance urine culture should precede the choice of antibiotic treatment. Treatment duration is seven days; 14 days in patients with pyelonephritis. Adverse effects are notably higher in the elderly.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia and increased urinary norepinephrine excretion.

    PubMed

    Voorhess, M L; Stuart, M J; Stockman, J A; Oski, F A

    1975-04-01

    Chronic iron deficiency in rats resulted in decreased MAO activity both in vitro and in vivo. Since MAO is an important enzyme in inactivation of catecholamines, urinary excretion of DA, NE, E, MN-NMN, and VMA was measured in 24-hour samples from 11 iron-deficient children before and after treatment with intramuscular iron. Pretreatment NE excretion was abnormally high and returned to normal (P=0.001) within one week of therapy. VMA excretion also was higher before than after treatment (P greater than 0.05), but most values were within the normal range for healthy children of comparable size. There was no significant difference between DA, E, and MN-NMN excretion before and after iron therapy. Anemic, non-iron-deficient children had normal urinary NE, E, and VMA excretion before and after transfusion. These findings suggest that the irritability, lack of attentiveness, and low performance scores of iron-deficient children may be related to alterations in catecholamine metabolic pathways secondary to dependence of MAO on adequate iron stores.

  14. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  15. Increased Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy Among Rectal Cancer Patients Taking Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Zachary S.; Saha, Sandeep; Magnuson, William J.; Morris, Brett A.; Borkenhagen, Jenna F.; Ching, Alisa; Hirose, Gayle; McMurry, Vanesa; Francis, David M.; Harari, Paul M.; Chappell, Rick; Tsuji, Stuart; Ritter, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are commonly used antihypertensive medications that have been reported to affect aberrant angiogenesis and the dysregulated inflammatory response. Because of such mechanisms, it was hypothesized that these medications might affect the tumor response to neoadjuvant radiation in patients with rectal cancer. METHODS One hundred fifteen patients who were treated with neoadjuvant radiation at the University of Wisconsin (UW) between 1999 and 2012 were identified. Univariate analyses were performed with anonymized patient data. In a second independent data set, 186 patients with rectal cancer who were treated with neoadjuvant radiation at the Queen’s Medical Center of the University of Hawaii (UH) between 1995 and 2010 were identified. These data were independently analyzed as before. Multivariate analyses were performed with aggregate data. RESULTS Among patients taking ACEIs/ARBs in the UW data set, a significant 3-fold increase in the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy (52% vs 17%, P = .001) was observed. This finding was confirmed in the UH data set, in which a significant 2-fold–increased pCR rate (24% vs 12%, P = .03) was observed. Identified patient and treatment characteristics were otherwise balanced between patients taking and not taking ACEIs/ARBs. No significant effect was observed on pCR rates with other medications, including statins, metformin, and aspirin. Multivariate analyses of aggregate data identified ACEI/ARB use as a strong predictor of pCR (odds ratio, 4.02; 95% confidence interval, 2.06–7.82; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS The incidental use of ACEIs/ARBs among patients with rectal cancer is associated with a significantly increased rate of pCR after neoadjuvant treatment. PMID:27203227

  16. Does Extending the Waiting Time of Low-Rectal Cancer Surgery after Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Increase the Perioperative Complications?

    PubMed Central

    Timudom, Kittinut; Phothong, Natthawut; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Chinswangwatanakul, Vitoon; Pongpaibul, Ananya; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ithimakin, Suthinee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Traditionally, rectal cancer surgery is recommended 6 to 8 weeks after completing neoadjuvant chemoradiation. Extending the waiting time may increase the tumor response rate. However, the perioperative complication rate may increase. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between extending the waiting time of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and perioperative outcomes. Methods. Sixty patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by radical resection at Siriraj hospital between June 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data and perioperative outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results. The two groups were comparable in term of demographic parameters. The mean time interval from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery was 6.4 weeks in Group A and 11.7 weeks in Group B. The perioperative outcomes were not significantly different between Groups A and B. Pathologic examination showed a significantly higher rate of circumferential margin positivity in Group A than in Group B (30% versus 9.3%, resp.; P = 0.04). Conclusions. Extending the waiting to >8 weeks from neoadjuvant chemoradiation to surgery did not increase perioperative complications, whereas the rate of circumferential margin positivity decreased. PMID:27738430

  17. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in long-distance bus drivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Donovan, Maryann; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Professional bus drivers are exposed to environments containing air pollution and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can induce cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage. This study investigated environmental factors associated with oxidative DNA damage in a cohort of long-distance bus drivers. In a comparison study, urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, was examined in 120 male long-distance bus drivers and 58 male office workers in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze association between urinary 8-OHdG levels and environmental factors. Bus drivers had higher urinary 8-OHdG levels (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.5-28.2) compared with office workers. Increased urinary 8-OHdG level was significantly related to cigarette smoking (aOR=18.0, 95% CI=7.1-52.1), consumption of energy drinks (aOR=5.0, 95% CI=2.1-12.6), and regular exercise (aOR=3.8, 95% CI=1.5-10.2). A strong exposure-response relationship was found between urinary 8-OHdG and urinary cotinine (p<0.0001). Among nonsmokers, bus drivers (aOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.0-17.7) had higher urinary 8-OHdG than office workers. Among both bus drivers and office workers, those who drank energy drinks (aOR=3.7, 95% CI=1.2-12.2) had higher 8-OHdG levels than those who did not drink energy drinks. Adjusted for smoking, levels of 8-OHdG were increased in long-distance bus drivers exposed to traffic exhaust and ingested energy drinks. Future studies should explore what aspects of energy drinks may contribute to increased urinary 8-OHdG.

  18. Day of surgery urine cultures identify urogynecologic patients at increased risk for postoperative urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Fok, Cynthia S; McKinley, Kathleen; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Kenton, Kimberly; Schreckenberger, Paul; Wolfe, Alan; Brubaker, Linda

    2013-05-01

    Despite preoperative screening and treatment for urinary tract infections, a postoperative urinary tract infection develops in approximately 1 in 5 urogynecologic patients. In this study we assess the proportion of urogynecologic patients with a positive day of surgery urine culture, the clinical consequences of a positive day of surgery culture and differences in postoperative urinary tract infection risks based on day of surgery culture. After institutional review board approval, patients undergoing urogynecologic surgery at Loyola University Medical Center were recruited for the study. Catheterized urine samples were collected in the operating room before intravenous antibiotic administration. Clinical cultures were considered positive if 1,000 colonies per ml or more bacteria were found on routine culture. For analysis we matched each woman with a positive culture with 2 women with negative culture by age within 10 years and within surgical groups (ie prolapse and/or incontinence). Data were analyzed using SPSS® version 19. Nearly a tenth (9.5%) of participants had positive day of surgery cultures. The clinical and demographic characteristics were similar in women with negative vs positive day of surgery cultures. However, women with positive day of surgery cultures were more likely to experience a postoperative urinary tract infection despite standard perioperative antibiotic administration (29.6% vs 5.6%, p = 0.005, odds ratio 7.2). Regardless of day of surgery culture status no participant experienced postoperative systemic urinary complications. Nearly a tenth of urogynecologic patients had positive day of surgery cultures. Patients with a positive day of surgery culture had an increased risk (29.6%) of postoperative urinary tract infection within 6 weeks of surgery. These findings highlight an opportunity to identify and treat patients with positive day of surgery cultures and reduce the incidence of postoperative urinary tract infections. Copyright

  19. Urinary chromium loss associated with diabetes is offset by increases in absorption.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Nicholas R; McAdory, DeAna; Love, Sharifa; Di Bona, Kristin R; Chen, Yuan; Ansorge, Kirsten; Hira, Jasmina; Kern, Naomi; Kent, Julia; Lara, Paul; Rasco, Jane F; Vincent, John B

    2010-07-01

    The results of the current study indicate that diabetic rats have increased urinary Cr loss as a result of their diabetes; however, this increased urinary Cr loss is offset by increased absorption of Cr. Insulin resistant, obese rats have alterations in the rates of Cr transport and distribution compared to lean rats but have similar levels of urinary Cr loss and Cr absorption. Thus, any increases in urinary Cr loss associated with insulin resistance or diabetes are offset by increased absorption. Given that dietary chromium is normally absorbed with only approximately 1% efficiency, suitable Cr exists in the diet so that a standard diet possesses sufficient chromium to allow for the increases in absorption associated with diabetes. Consequently, supplementing the diet with nutritionally relevant quantities of chromium is not anticipated to have any beneficial effects. Similarly, beneficial effects on plasma variables, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin concentrations, from supra-nutritional doses of Cr(III) complexes should not arise from alleviation of chromium deficiency. These beneficial effects must arise from pharmacological effects of high dose Cr(III) administration.

  20. Cervical vagotomy increased the distal colon distention to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the convergence of vagal inputs into brainstem centers with inputs from the urinary bladder and colon, as well as the convergence of vagal inputs into other centers controlling the urinary bladder and colon reflexes. However, the effect of the vagal inputs on the interaction between the urinary bladder and other pelvic organs has not been studied. In this study, the effect of bilateral cervical vagotomy on the distal colon to urinary bladder reflex was examined. Changes to cystometry parameters in response to increased distal colon distensions (1, 2, and 3 ml) were tested in urethane-anesthetized male rats with or without bilateral cervical vagotomy. In animals with intact vagus nerves, 1 and 2 ml distal colon distentions had no significant effects on micturition frequency; however, 3 ml distal colon distention significantly decreased the frequency of micturition cycles. Also, 3 ml distal colon distention inhibited micturition cycles in 37.5 % of these animals. On the other hand, following cervical vagotomy, 1 ml distal colon distention was enough to significantly decrease the frequency of micturition cycles and to inhibit the cycles in 75 % of the animals. These results demonstrate the presence of supraspinal inhibitory regulation, via the vagus nerve, over the distal colon to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex.

  1. Increased Urinary Adenosine Triphosphate in Patients With Bladder Outlet Obstruction Due to Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ramos, Miguel; Silva, Isabel; Oliveira, José Carlos; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of bladder outflow obstruction (BOO) in patients with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms is challenging without using invasive urodynamic tests. Recently, we showed in vitro that urothelial strips from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) release more ATP than controls. Here, we tested whether urinary ATP can be used as a wall tension transducer non-invasive biomarker to detect BOO in patients with BPH. 79 male patients with BOO and 22 asymptomatic controls were recruited prospectively. Patients were asked to complete the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire and to void at normal desire into a urinary flowmeter; the postvoid residual volume was determined by suprapubic ultrasonography. Urine samples from all individuals were examined for ATP, creatinine, and lactate dehydrogenase. BOO patients had significantly higher (P < 0.001) urinary ATP normalized by the voided volume (456 ± 36 nmol) than age-matched controls (209 ± 35 nmol). Urinary ATP amounts increased with the voided volume, but the slope of this rise was higher in BOO patients than in controls. A negative correlation was detected between urinary ATP and flow rate parameters, namely maximal flow rate (r = -0.310, P = 0.005), Siroky flow-volume normalization (r = -0.324, P = 0.004), and volume-normalized flow rate index (r = -0.320, P = 0.012). We found no correlation with LUT symptoms IPSS score. Areas under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves were 0.91 (95%CI 0.86-0.96, P < 0.001) for ATP alone and 0.88 (95%CI 0.81-0.94, P < 0,001) when adjusted to urinary creatinine. Patients with BOO release higher amounts of ATP into the urine than the control group. The high area under the ROC curve suggests that urinary ATP can be a high-sensitive non-invasive biomarker of BOO, which may have a discriminative value of detrusor competence when comparing BPH patients with low urinary flow rates. Prostate 76

  2. Increasing alkali supplementation decreases urinary nitrogen excretion when adjusted for same day nitrogen intake.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, L; Dawson-Hughes, B

    2017-08-25

    We examined whether escalating doses of potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3) supplements alter urinary nitrogen excretion expressed as a ratio to same day nitrogen intake (measure of muscle-protein breakdown). The ratio declined significantly from placebo to low to high dose of KHCO3 supplementation in older adults over 3 months, suggesting muscle-sparing. Neutralization of dietary acid load with alkali supplementation (i.e., KHCO3) has been hypothesized to have muscle protein-sparing effects. In controlled feeding studies with fixed nitrogen (N) intake/day, 24-h urinary N excretion is a good marker of muscle breakdown. However, in studies with self-selected diets, changes in 24-h urinary N excretion can be influenced by shifts in N intake. We evaluated changes in 24-h total urinary N excretion as a ratio of N excretion to concurrent N intake in 233 older men and women who participated in an 84-day KHCO3 supplementation randomized placebo-controlled trial. After adjustment for relevant cofactors, escalating doses of KHCO3 (1 mmol/kg/day [low] or 1.5 mmol/kg/day [high]) resulted in a progressive decline in urinary N excretion/N intake compared to placebo (overall P for trend = 0.042). The 84-day change in urinary N excretion/N intake in the high-dose KHCO3 group was statistically significantly lower compared to placebo (P = 0.012) but not compared to the low-dose KHCO3 group (P = 0.276). The 84-day change in urinary N excretion/N intake in the low-dose KHCO3 group did not differ significantly from placebo (P = 0.145). Urinary N excretion expressed as ratio to same day N intake declined steadily with increasing doses of KHCO3 supplementation from low 1 mmol/kg/day to high 1.5 mmol/kg/day, suggesting a nitrogen-sparing effect. Compared to urinary N excretion alone, this ratio could be a more reasonable measure of muscle protein metabolism in large-scale long-term human studies. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT1475214.

  3. A rectal neuroendocrine neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, Modesto J; Muñoz Agel, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The incidence of gastric and rectal carcinoids is increasing. This is probably due to endoscopic screening. The prognosis is primarily dependent upon tumor size, aggressiveness (pathology, Ki-67), metastatic disease and stage. However, neuroendocrine carcinoma usually behaves as an adenocarcinoma.

  4. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Romberg, Kerstin; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Elite swimmers have an increased risk of developing asthma, and exposure to chloramine is believed to be an important trigger factor. The aim of the present study was to explore pathophysiological mechanisms behind induced bronchoconstriction in swimmers exposed to chloramine, before and after swim exercise provocation as well as mannitol provocation. Urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) was used as a possible marker for epithelial stress. 101 elite aspiring swim athletes were investigated and urinary samples were collected before and 1 h after completed exercise and mannitol challenge. CC16, 11β-prostaglandin (PG)F(2α) and leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) were measured. Urinary levels of CC16 were clearly increased after exercise challenge, while no reaction was seen after mannitol challenge. Similar to CC16, the level of 11β-PGF(2α) was increased after exercise challenge, but not after mannitol challenge, while LTE(4) was reduced after exercise. There was no significant difference in urinary response between those with a negative compared to positive challenge, but a tendency of increased baseline levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) in individuals with a positive mannitol challenge. The uniform increase of CC16 after swim exercise indicates that CC16 is of importance in epithelial stress, and may as such be an important pathogenic factor behind asthma development in swimmers. The changes seen in urinary levels of 11β-PGF(2α) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing urinary calcium excretion after ceftriaxone and cephalothin therapy in adults: possible association with urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Ozbek, Emin; Polat, Emre Can; Cekmen, Mustafa; Dursun, Murat; Cakir, Suleyman Sami

    2014-04-01

    In children, stone formation after ceftriaxone (CTRX) therapy by increasing calcium excretion was showed in the literature. In this study, we investigated the effect of CTRX, cephalothin (CP) and ampicillin (AS) therapy on urinary calcium excretion in adults. 180 participants included in the study who divided into six equal groups. The groups were; (1) CTRX therapy in stone free patients, (2) CTRX therapy in patients who have urinary stone; (3) CP therapy in stone free patients, (4) CP therapy in patients with urinary stone, (5) AS therapy in stone free patients, (6) AS therapy in patients with urinary stone. The patients received 2 g/day intravenous CTRX, CP and AS for 5 days in all groups respectively. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and blood biochemistry between the groups. Before and 5 days after the antibiotic therapies, the participants were evaluated by 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio. Results were compared between the groups statistically by ANOVA and Tukey test. After drug therapies in group 2 and 4, the excretion of calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine was more than the other groups. We found that both groups of two drugs therapy with or without stones (groups 1, 2, 3, 4), have significantly increased calcium to creatinine ratio in 24-h urine (p < 0.05). We did not find statistically difference in groups 5 and 6, after AS therapy. As a result of the study, we suggest that the patients who have taken antibiotic therapy with CTRX or CP, have an increased risk for the urolithiasis. In addition, we think that these drugs should be used carefully especially in patients with urolithiasis.

  6. Chemical diplomacy in male tilapia: urinary signal increases sex hormone and decreases aggression.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, João L; Keller-Costa, Tina; Hubbard, Peter C; Rato, Ana; Canário, Adelino V M

    2017-08-09

    Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), have a central role in male fish reproductive physiology and are thought to be involved in both aggression and social signalling. Aggressive encounters occur frequently in social species, and fights may cause energy depletion, injury and loss of social status. Signalling for social dominance and fighting ability in an agonistic context can minimize these costs. Here, we test the hypothesis of a 'chemical diplomacy' mechanism through urinary signals that avoids aggression and evokes an androgen response in receiver males of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). We show a decoupling between aggression and the androgen response; males fighting their mirror image experience an unresolved interaction and a severe drop in urinary 11KT. However, if concurrently exposed to dominant male urine, aggression drops but urinary 11KT levels remain high. Furthermore, 11KT increases in males exposed to dominant male urine in the absence of a visual stimulus. The use of a urinary signal to lower aggression may be an adaptive mechanism to resolve disputes and avoid the costs of fighting. As dominance is linked to nest building and mating with females, the 11KT response of subordinate males suggests chemical eavesdropping, possibly in preparation for parasitic fertilizations.

  7. Effect of Increasing Doses of Saw Palmetto on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Michael J.; Meleth, Sreelatha; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Kreder, Karl J.; Avins, Andrew L.; Nickel, J. Curtis; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Crawford, E. David; Foster, Harris E.; Kaplan, Steven A.; McCullough, Andrew; Andriole, Gerald L.; Naslund, Michael J.; Williams, O. Dale; Kusek, John W.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Betz, Joseph M.; Cantor, Alan; McVary, Kevin T.

    2012-01-01

    Context Saw palmetto fruit extracts are widely used for treating lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, recent clinical trials have questioned their efficacy, at least at standard doses (320 mg daily). Objective To determine the effect of a saw palmetto extract at up to three times the standard dose on lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Design Multicenter placebo-controlled randomized trial conducted from June, 2008 through October, 2010. Setting Eleven North American clinical sites. Participants Were men at least 45 years old, with a peak urinary flow rate ≥ 4 ml/sec, an AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24, and no exclusions. Interventions One, two, and then three 320 mg daily doses of saw palmetto extract or placebo, with dose increases at 24 and 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was the difference in AUASI score from baseline to 72 weeks. Secondary outcomes were measures of urinary bother; nocturia; uroflow; postvoid residual; prostate-specific antigen; participants’ global assessments; and indices of sexual function, continence, sleep quality, and prostatitis symptoms. Results From baseline to 72 weeks, mean AUASI scores decreased from 14.4 to 12.2 points with saw palmetto and from 14.7 to 11.7 points with placebo. The group mean difference in AUASI score change from baseline to 72 weeks between the saw palmetto and placebo groups was 0.79 points favoring placebo (bound of the 95% confidence interval most favorable to saw palmetto was 1.77 points, one-sided P=0.91). Saw palmetto was no more effective than placebo for any secondary outcome. No attributable side effects were identified. Conclusions Increasing doses of a saw palmetto fruit extract did not reduce lower urinary tract symptoms more than placebo. (CAMUS study number NCT00603304 http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov) PMID:21954478

  8. Pregnancy increases urinary loss of carnitine and reduces plasma carnitine in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang-Woon; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2005-05-01

    This study compared plasma and urinary carnitine concentrations in pregnant and non-pregnant Korean women. The subjects were fifty pregnant women and thirty non-pregnant women aged 24-28 years. During the first trimester, dietary carnitine intakes in the pregnant women were much lower than in non-pregnant women (70.00 (SD 29.22) micromol/d), but over the course of pregnancy carnitine intake increased from 44.64 (SD 24.84) micromol/d during the first trimester to 96.11 (SD 36.56) micromol/d during the third trimester. Pregnant women had a significantly lower plasma carnitine concentration than non-pregnant women. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine were significantly lower during the second and third trimesters than the first. Plasma acid-insoluble acylcarnitine levels, which tended to be higher in the non-pregnant women compared with the pregnant women, increased significantly as gestation proceeded. The urinary excretion of non-esterified carnitine, acid-soluble acylcarnitine and total carnitine was significantly higher in the pregnant women during the first and second trimesters than in non-pregnant women and decreased significantly as gestation proceeded. We found that there was a significant decrease in plasma carnitine level even though dietary carnitine intake increased as gestation proceeded. The low urinary excretion of carnitine in late pregnancy may be caused by an increased demand during pregnancy.

  9. High sodium intake increases the urinary excretion of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine but fails to alter the urinary excretion of dopamine and amine metabolites in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Coelho, M A; Pestana, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    1996-12-01

    1. The present study has examined the daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA) during normal salt (NS) and high salt(HS) diets. 2. Daily urinary excretion of L-DOPA, DA, DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA during the 4-day period of NS diet averaged, respectively, 7.6 +/- 0.4, 71 +/- 5, 217 +/- 22, 570 +/- 90 and 1217 +/- 110 nmol/kg/day. The slight increase in the urinary excretion of DA, DOPAC and 3-MT (16% to 42% increase), when rats were fed a HS diet, did not achieve statistical significance. 3. In contrast, the urinary levels of L-DOPA during the HS diet period (11 +/- 1 nmol/kg/day) were found to be significantly higher than during the NS diet period; the maximal increase in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA (93% increase) was observed in the first day and then a progressive decline was observed towards the end of the HS intake period. 4. During the first 5 days of the HS intake period, the urine output of noradrenaline (NA) was found to increase (27% to 83%) and then to progressively decline to baseline values (13.5 +/- 0.7 nmol/ kg/day). Urinary excretion of adrenaline (AD) during the HS intake period was found to increase (72% to 146%); the mean daily urinary excretion of AD during the NS diet period averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 nmol/ kg/day. NS and DA contents in the kidney of rats on a NS diet were not significantly different from that of rats in a HS diet. 6. It is concluded that long-term HS intake in Wistar rats fail to change the urinary excretion of DA and of its metabolites (DOPAC, 3-MT and HVA). Furthermore, the discrepant profile in the urinary excretion of L-DOPA and DA during HS intake might be related to a reduction in the tubular uptake of the amino acid, rather than reflecting a decrease in its decarboxylation.

  10. Increased risk of bone fracture among patients with urinary calculi: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ou, S-M; Chen, Y-T; Shih, C-J; Tarng, D-C

    2015-04-01

    Urinary calculi were associated with higher risk of vertebral and upper limb fracture. Therefore, patients with urinary calculi should be evaluated carefully because they may have a higher risk of subsequent fracture later in life. The contribution of urinary calculi to reduced bone mineral density has been recognized. However, the association of urinary calculi with the risk of fracture remains inconclusive. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of overall fracture and fractures at different anatomic sites in patients with urinary calculi. The records of inpatients and outpatients with urinary calculi were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010. Among patients with urinary calculi at the cohort entry, controls were matched using propensity scores on a 1:1 ratio. All subjects were followed up from the date of enrollment until fracture occurrence, death, or December 31, 2010. There were 46,243 Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 46,243 controls without calculi enrolled. Among these patients, 6005 patients with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 5339 controls developed fractures during a median follow-up period of 5.3 years. Patients with urinary calculi had a higher incidence of fracture compared with controls (23.9 versus 22.1 per 1000 person-years) and a greater risk of overall fractures (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.08, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), mainly located at the vertebrae (aHR 1.15, 95 % CI, 1.06-1.25) and upper limb (aHR 1.07, 95 % CI, 1.01-1.14), but the risk for hip fracture was not increased (aHR 1.09, 95 % CI, 0.96-1.22). Urinary calculus is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent fracture. Patients with urinary calculi should pay attention to the future vertebral and upper limb fractures.

  11. Increased urinary lysophosphatidic acid in mouse with subtotal nephrectomy: potential involvement in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Mirzoyan, Koryun; Baïotto, Anna; Dupuy, Aude; Marsal, Dimitri; Denis, Colette; Vinel, Claire; Sicard, Pierre; Bertrand-Michel, Justine; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P; Klein, Julie; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with consecutive progression to end-stage renal disease represents a significant burden to healthcare systems. Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a classical hallmark of CKD and is well correlated with the loss of renal function. The bioactive lysophospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting through specific G-protein-coupled receptors, was previously shown to be involved in TIF development in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. Here, we study the role of LPA in a mouse subjected to subtotal nephrectomy (SNx), a more chronic and progressive model of CKD. Five months after surgical nephron reduction, SNx mice showed massive albuminuria, extensive TIF, and glomerular hypertrophy when compared to sham-operated animals. Urinary and plasma levels of LPA were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. LPA was significantly increased in SNx urine, not in plasma, and was significantly correlated with albuminuria and TIF. Moreover, SNx mice showed significant downregulation in the renal expression of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPP1, 2, and 3) that might be involved in reduced LPA bioavailability through dephosphorylation. We concluded that SNx increases urinary LPA through a mechanism that could involve co-excretion of plasma LPA with albumin associated with a reduction of its catabolism in the kidney. Because of the previously demonstrated profibrotic activity of LPA, the association of urinary LPA with TIF suggests the potential involvement of LPA in the development of advanced CKD in the SNx mouse model. Targeting LPA metabolism might represent an interesting approach in CKD treatment.

  12. Evidence of Increased Bone Resorption in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Using Urinary Pyridinium Crosslink Analysis

    PubMed Central

    STEVENSON, DAVID A.; SCHWARZ, ELISABETH L.; VISKOCHIL, DAVID H.; MOYER-MILEUR, LAURIE J.; MURRAY, MARY; FIRTH, SEAN D.; D’ASTOUS, JACQUES L.; CAREY, JOHN C.; PASQUALI, MARZIA

    2011-01-01

    Although neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neuro-cutaneous disorder, skeletal abnormalities such as long-bone dysplasia, scoliosis, sphenoid wing dysplasia, and osteopenia are observed. To investigate the role of bone resorption as a mechanism for the bony abnormalities, we selected urinary pyridinium crosslinks (collagen degradation products excreted in urine) as a measure of bone resorption in NF1. Bone resorption was evaluated by quantitative assessment of the urinary excretion of pyridinium crosslinks [pyridinoline (Pyd) and deoxypyridinoline (Dpd)]. Total (free plus peptide-bound) pyridinium crosslinks from the first morning urines from 59 NF1 children (ages 5–19) were extracted and analyzed (17 children with a localized skeletal dysplasia, and 42 without). The data were compared with a healthy reference population without NF1 (n = 99). Multivariate analyses, controlling for age showed statistically significant increases for Dpd (p < 0.001) and the Dpd/Pyd ratio (p < 0.001) in NF1 individuals with and without a skeletal dysplasia. NF1 children have an increase in the urinary excretion of pyridinium crosslinks, reflecting increased bone resorption. The effects of NF1 haploinsufficiency likely contribute to abnormal bone remodeling, either directly or indirectly by aberrant Ras signaling, potentially predisposing NF1 individuals to localized skeletal defects. PMID:18317233

  13. Recent advances in robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Soichiro; Otani, Kensuke; Yasuda, Koji; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Junichiro; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Kazama, Shinsuke; Yamaguchi, Hironori; Sunami, Eiji; Kitayama, Joji; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2015-08-01

    Robotic technology, which has recently been introduced to the field of surgery, is expected to be useful, particularly in treating rectal cancer where precise manipulation is necessary in the confined pelvic cavity. Robotic surgery overcomes the technical drawbacks inherent to laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer through the use of multi-articulated flexible tools, three-dimensional stable camera platforms, tremor filtering and motion scaling functions, and greater ergonomic and intuitive device manipulation. Assessments of the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have reported similar operation times, blood loss during surgery, rates of postoperative morbidity, and circumferential resection margin involvement when compared with laparoscopic surgery. Furthermore, rates of conversion to open surgery are reportedly lower with increased urinary and male sexual functions in the early postoperative period compared with laparoscopic surgery, demonstrating the technical advantages of robotic surgery for rectal cancer. However, long-term outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of robotic surgery for rectal cancer have not been fully evaluated yet; therefore, large-scale clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this new technology.

  14. Urinary prostaglandin E₂ was increased in patients with suprapontine brain diseases, and associated with overactive bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Hiroki; Akino, Hironobu; Ito, Hideaki; Aoki, Yoshitaka; Nomura, Tadao; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the association between the urinary levels of prostaglandins (PGE(2) and PGF(2α)), nerve growth factor (NGF) and substance P, and overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in patients with suprapontine brain diseases. The subjects were 114 patients in the chronic phase of a brain disease and 27 healthy controls with no brain disease or lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The OAB symptoms were assessed with the OAB symptom score and the subjects were then classified into 5 groups: healthy control, patients without LUTS, increased bladder sensation (IBS), OAB dry, and OAB wet. Urinary mediator concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and normalized to the urinary creatinine concentration, and then compared among the 5 groups. The urinary PGE(2) level was significantly higher in patients with brain diseases than in healthy controls, even in the patients without any OAB symptoms, and compared with patients without LUTS, a significant increase in the urinary PGE(2) was observed in patients with OAB dry or wet (P = .004 or .015, respectively). The PGF(2α) level showed a significant increase in OAB wet compared with patients without LUTS (P = .001). The urinary levels of NGF and substance P were not significantly associated with OAB as a result of this type of brain disease. The urinary PGE(2) level was putatively elevated in patients with suprapontine brain diseases and associated with the presence of OAB. The PGF(2α) level may also be associated with OAB. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased urinary excretion of platelet activating factor in mice with lupus nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Macconi, D.; Noris, M.; Benfenati, E.; Quaglia, R.; Pagliarino, G. ); Remuzzi, G. Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo )

    1991-01-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) is present in urine from humans and experimental animals in normal conditions. Very little is known about changes in PAF urinary excretion under pathologic conditions and no data are available about the origin of PAF in the urine. In the present study we explored the possibility that immunologic renal disease is associated with an increase in PAF urinary excretion using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. To clarify the renal or extrarenal origin of urinary PAF we evaluated whether exogenously administered PAF (1-(1{prime},2{prime}-{sup 3}H)alkyl) is filtered through the glomerulus and excreted in the urine. The results show that: (1) urine from mice with lupus nephritis in the early phase of the disease contained amounts of PAF comparable to those excreted in normal mouse urine, (2) PAF levels increased when animals started to develop high grade proteinuria, (3) after intravenous injection of ({sup 3}H) PAF In nephritic mice, a negligible amount of ({sup 3}H) ether lipid, corresponding to ({sup 3}H)1-alkyl -2-acyl-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-2-acyl-GPC), was recovered from the 24 h urine extract.

  16. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  17. Urinary PCR as an increasingly useful tool for an accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis in livestock.

    PubMed

    Hamond, C; Martins, G; Loureiro, A P; Pestana, C; Lawson-Ferreira, R; Medeiros, M A; Lilenbaum, W

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to consider the wide usage of urinary PCR as an increasingly useful tool for an accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis in livestock. A total of 512 adult animals (300 cattle, 138 horses, 59 goats and 15 pigs), from herds/flocks with reproductive problems in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was studied by serology and urinary PCR. From the 512 serum samples tested, 223 (43.5 %) were seroreactive (cattle: 45.6 %, horses: 41.3 %, goats: 34%and pigs: 60 %). PCR detected leptospiral DNA in 32.4 % (cattle: 21.6 %, horses: 36.2 %, goats: 77.4 % and pigs: 33.3 %. To our knowledge there is no another study including such a large number of samples (512) from different species, providing a comprehensive analysis of the usage of PCR for detecting leptospiral carriers in livestock. Serological and molecular results were discrepant, regardless the titre, what was an expected outcome. Nevertheless, it is impossible to establish agreement between these tests, since the two methodologies are conducted on different samples (MAT - serum; PCR - urine). Additionally, the MAT is an indirect method and PCR is a direct one. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that urinary PCR should be considered and encouraged as an increasingly useful tool for an accurate diagnosis of leptospirosis in livestock.

  18. Increased urinary indoxyl sulfate (indican): new insights into gut dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Cancello, Raffaella; Cavanna, Ferruccio; Iorio, Laura; Cereda, Emanuele; Bolliri, Carlotta; Zampella Maria, Paola; Bianchi, Francesca; Cestaro, Benvenuto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the composition of gut microflora have been associated with an increase in chronic diseases. Indican urinary concentration is one of the most common and easily assessable markers of intestinal dysbiosis. Little information is available on intestinal dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease (PD). We decided to investigate indican urinary concentrations in a cohort of PD patients. A case-control study including PD patients (N = 68) on treatment with levodopa (PD) or on no pharmacological treatment (De Novo, DPD; N=34) and an age and gender-matched healthy control group (CTR; N=50). Main confounders, such as nutritional habits and constipation diagnosed according to Rome III criteria, were also investigated. Indican urinary concentrations were significantly higher in PD and DPD than in CTR (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). In PD patients the concentrations were unrelated to the presence of constipation, whereas this symptom was associated with higher concentrations in controls (P=0.043). The frequency of dairy product consumption was also positively associated with increased concentrations (P=0.008). Predictors of indican concentrations were sought by multivariate linear regression analysis. The higher indican urinary concentrations found in both DPD (P=0.045) and PD (P=0.023) patients persisted after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, constipation and consumption of dairy products. Gut dysbiosis seems to be an important issue in PD, independently of the presence of constipation and starting from the early stages of the disease. The role of gut dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of PD deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunoscore in Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-13

    Cancer of the Rectum; Neoplasms, Rectal; Rectal Cancer; Rectal Tumors; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Melanoma; Breast Cancer; Renal Cell Cancer; Lung Cancer; Bladder Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Thyroid Cancer

  20. Rectal application of a highly osmolar personal lubricant in a macaque model induces acute cytotoxicity but does not increase risk of SHIV infection.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram A; Morris, Monica R; Wolitski, Richard J; Luo, Wei; Rose, Charles E; Blau, Dianna M; Tsegaye, Theodros; Zaki, Sherif R; Garber, David A; Jenkins, Leecresia T; Henning, Tara C; Patton, Dorothy L; Hendry, R Michael; McNicholl, Janet M; Kersh, Ellen N

    2015-01-01

    Personal lubricant use is common during anal intercourse. Some water-based products with high osmolality and low pH can damage genital and rectal tissues, and the polymer polyquaternium 15 (PQ15) can enhance HIV replication in vitro. This has raised concerns that lubricants with such properties may increase STD/HIV infection risk, although in vivo evidence is scarce. We use a macaque model to evaluate rectal cytotoxicity and SHIV infection risk after use of a highly osmolar (>8,000 mOsm/kg) water-based lubricant with pH of 4.4, and containing PQ15. Cytotoxicity was documented by measuring inflammatory cytokines and epithelial tissue sloughing during six weeks of repeated, non-traumatic lubricant or control buffer applications to rectum and anus. We measured susceptibility to SHIVSF162P3 infection by comparing virus doses needed for rectal infection in twenty-one macaques treated with lubricant or control buffer 30 minutes prior to virus exposure. Lubricant increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue sloughing while control buffer (phosphate buffered saline; PBS) did not. However, the estimated AID50 (50% animal infectious dose) was not different in lubricant- and control buffer-treated macaques (p = 0.4467; logistic regression models). Although the test lubricant caused acute cytotoxicity in rectal tissues, it did not increase susceptibility to infection in this macaque model. Thus neither the lubricant-induced type/extent of inflammation nor the presence of PQ15 affected infection risk. This study constitutes a first step in the in vivo evaluation of lubricants with regards to HIV transmission.

  1. Rectal Application of a Highly Osmolar Personal Lubricant in a Macaque Model Induces Acute Cytotoxicity but Does Not Increase Risk of SHIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram A.; Morris, Monica R.; Wolitski, Richard J.; Luo, Wei; Rose, Charles E.; Blau, Dianna M.; Tsegaye, Theodros; Zaki, Sherif R.; Garber, David A.; Jenkins, Leecresia T.; Henning, Tara C.; Patton, Dorothy L.; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet M.; Kersh, Ellen N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal lubricant use is common during anal intercourse. Some water-based products with high osmolality and low pH can damage genital and rectal tissues, and the polymer polyquaternium 15 (PQ15) can enhance HIV replication in vitro. This has raised concerns that lubricants with such properties may increase STD/HIV infection risk, although in vivo evidence is scarce. We use a macaque model to evaluate rectal cytotoxicity and SHIV infection risk after use of a highly osmolar (>8,000 mOsm/kg) water-based lubricant with pH of 4.4, and containing PQ15. Methods Cytotoxicity was documented by measuring inflammatory cytokines and epithelial tissue sloughing during six weeks of repeated, non-traumatic lubricant or control buffer applications to rectum and anus. We measured susceptibility to SHIVSF162P3 infection by comparing virus doses needed for rectal infection in twenty-one macaques treated with lubricant or control buffer 30 minutes prior to virus exposure. Results Lubricant increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and tissue sloughing while control buffer (phosphate buffered saline; PBS) did not. However, the estimated AID50 (50% animal infectious dose) was not different in lubricant- and control buffer-treated macaques (p = 0.4467; logistic regression models). Conclusions Although the test lubricant caused acute cytotoxicity in rectal tissues, it did not increase susceptibility to infection in this macaque model. Thus neither the lubricant-induced type/extent of inflammation nor the presence of PQ15 affected infection risk. This study constitutes a first step in the in vivo evaluation of lubricants with regards to HIV transmission. PMID:25853710

  2. Hypertension increases urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Hanyu, Osamu; Hirayama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Osamu; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Ito, Seiki; Sone, Hirohito

    2014-02-01

    Increased urinary excretion of certain plasma proteins, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), ceruloplasmin and transferrin, with different molecular radii of 55 Å or less and different isoelectric points have been reported to precede development of microalbuminuria in patients who have diabetes mellitus with hypertension. We examined how hypertension affects these urinary proteins in a diabetic state. Excretion of IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α2-macroglobulin with a large molecular radius of 88 Å and N-acetylglucosaminidase in first-morning urine samples were measured in normoalbuminuric patients (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio < 15 mg/g) with hypertension and nondiabetes mellitus (group hypertension, n = 32), type 2 diabetes mellitus and normotension (group diabetes mellitus, n = 52) and type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension (group Both, n =45), and in age-matched controls (n = 72). Urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin and N-acetylglucosaminidase and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significantly elevated in groups diabetes mellitus and Both compared with controls. Furthermore, urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin in group Both were significantly higher than those in group diabetes mellitus. These exhibited a positive and relatively strong association with eGFR compared with controls. No significant difference in urinary albumin or N-acetylglucosaminidase was found between the two diabetic groups. In contrast, group hypertension had elevated urinary transferrin without any changes in the other compounds. Urinary α2-macroglobulin did not differ among the four groups. These findings suggest that normoalbuminuric diabetic patients without hypertension have both glomerular hemodynamic changes such as increased intraglomerular hydraulic pressure and altered proximal tubules, and that hypertension increases intraglomerular hydraulic pressure. Increased urinary IgG, ceruloplasmin and transferrin may reflect an

  3. Risk factors for increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations from low arsenic concentrations in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hinwood, Andrea L; Sim, Malcolm R; Jolley, Damien; de Klerk, Nick; Bastone, Elisa B; Gerostamoulos, Jim; Drummer, Olaf H

    2003-09-01

    A large number of drinking water supplies worldwide have greater than 50 microg l(- 1) inorganic arsenic in drinking water, and there is increasing pressure to reduce concentrations. Few studies have specifically considered low concentrations of arsenic in water supplies and the significance of other factors which may contribute to increased exposure. This study aimed to investigate risk factors for increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations, in a population exposed to 10 - 100 microg l(- 1) of arsenic in drinking water, as well as a control population with lower arsenic concentrations in their drinking water. Inorganic arsenic in urine was used as the measure of exposure. The median drinking water arsenic concentration in the exposed population was 43.8 microg l(- 1) (16.0 - 73 microg l(- 1)) and less than the analytical limit of detection of 1 microg l(- 1) (urinary inorganic arsenic concentration for the exposed group was 4.24 microg l(- 1) (rangeurinary inorganic arsenic concentrations with factors such as age, season and drinking water consumption important risk factors. These results show that concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, even at lower concentrations, make an important contribution to exposure. Further work is required to define the potential for absorption at these lower levels.

  4. Urinary levels of substance P and its metabolites are not increased in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D J; Tenis, N; Rosamilia, A; Clements, J A; Dwyer, P L

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether interstitial cystitis is associated with the increased release of substance P from the bladder wall into urine, by measuring urinary excretion rates of substance P and its metabolites in women with interstitial cystitis and in a control group of women with stress incontinence and normal bladder function. Catheter urine was collected from 13 patients and 10 controls during a water diuresis ( approximately 10 mL/min) before and after instilling the bladder with 100 mL of water. The contribution of the bladder wall to urinary substance P peptides was assessed by measuring the change in substance P peptide levels after 2 min of bladder stasis before and after instillation. Absolute substance P excretion rates were similar in patients with interstitial cystitis and controls; 2 min of bladder stasis reduced the substance P excretion rate (P = 0.03) and increased the excretion rate of substance P metabolites (P = 0.01). The release of substance P from the bladder wall was not increased in patients with interstitial cystitis.

  5. Volumetric-modulated arc stereotactic body radiotherapy for prostate cancer: dosimetric impact of an increased near-maximum target dose and of a rectal spacer

    PubMed Central

    Naccarato, Stefania; Stavrev, Pavel; Stavreva, Nadejda; Fersino, Sergio; Giaj Levra, Niccolò; Mazzola, Rosario; Mancosu, Pietro; Scorsetti, Marta; Alongi, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) becomes challenging when the sparing of rectum, bladder and urethra is strictly pursued. Our current 35-Gy-in-five-fraction plans only assure 33.2 Gy to ≥95% PTV (V33.2PTV ≥ 95%). Looking for an improved V33.2PTV, increased near-maximum target dose (D2%) and prostate–rectum spacer insertion were tested. Methods: For 11 patients, two VMAT plans, with D2% ≤ 37.5 Gy (Hom) or D2% ≤ 40.2 Gy (Het), on each of two CT studies, before or after spacer insertion, were computed. All plans assured V33.2PTV ≥95%, and <1 cm3 of rectum, bladder and urethra receiving ≥35 Gy. By hypothesis testing, several dose–volume metrics for target coverage and rectal sparing were compared across the four groups of plans. The impact of spacer insertion on the fractions of rectum receiving more than 18, 28 and 32 Gy (VXr) was further tested by linear correlation analysis. Results: By hypothesis testing, the increased D2% was associated with improvements in target coverage, whereas spacer insertion was associated with improvements in both target coverage and rectal VXr. By linear correlation analysis, spacer insertion was related to the reductions in rectal VXr for X ≥ 28 Gy. Conclusion: A slightly increased D2% or the use of spacer insertion was each able to improve V33.2PTV. Their combined use assured V33.2PTV ≥ 98% to all our patients. Spacer insertion was further causative for improvements in rectal sparing. Advances in knowledge: For VMAT plans in prostate SBRT, the distinct dosimetric usefulness of increased D2% and of the use of spacer insertion were validated in terms of target coverage and rectal sparing. PMID:26235142

  6. Increasing late stage colorectal cancer and rectal cancer mortality demonstrates the need for screening: a population based study in Ireland, 1994-2010.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nicholas; McDevitt, Joseph; Kearney, Patricia M; Sharp, Linda

    2014-05-13

    This paper describes trends in colorectal cancer incidence, survival and mortality from 1994 to 2010 in Ireland prior to the introduction of population-based screening. We examined incidence (National Cancer Registry Ireland (NCRI) and mortality (Central Statistics Office) from 1994 to 2010. Age standardised rates (ASR) for incidence and mortality have been calculated, weighted by the European standard population. Annual percentage change was calculated in addition to testing for linear trends in treatment and case fraction of early and late stage disease. Relative survival was calculated considering deaths from all causes. The colorectal cancer ASR was 63.7 per 100,000 in males and 38.7 per 100,000 in females in 2010. There was little change in the ASR over time in either sex, or when colon and rectal cancers were considered separately; however the number of incident cancers increased significantly during 1994-2010 (1752 to 2298). The case fractions of late stage (III/IV) colon and rectal cancers rose significantly over time. One and 5 year relative survival improved for both sexes between the periods 1994-2008. Colorectal cancer mortality ASRs decreased annually from 1994-2009 by 1.8% (95% CI -2.2, -1.4). Rectal cancer mortality ASRs rose annually by 2.4% (95% CI 1.1, 3.6) and 2.8% (95% CI 1.2, 4.4) in males and females respectively. Increases in late-stage disease and rectal cancer mortality demonstrate an urgent need for colorectal cancer screening. However, the narrow age range at which screening is initially being rolled-out in Ireland means that the full potential for reductions in late-stage cancers and incidence and mortality are unlikely to be achieved. While it is possible that the observed increase in rectal cancer mortality may be partly an artefact of cause of death misclassification, it could also be explained by variations in treatment and adherence to best practice guidelines; further investigation is warranted.

  7. Increased urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in engine room personnel exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, R; Nordlinder, R; Moen, B; Ovrebo, S; Bleie, K; Skorve, A; Hollund, B; Tagesson, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous investigations indicate that engine room personnel on ships are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from oil and oil products, with dermal uptake as the major route of exposure. Several PAH are known carcinogens and mutagens. Aims: To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8OHdG), in engine room personnel, and to study the association between 8OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Methods: Urine samples were collected from engine room personnel (n = 36) on 10 Swedish and Norwegian ships and from unexposed controls (n = 34) with similar age and smoking habits. The exposure to oils, engine exhaust, and tobacco smoke 24 hours prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urinary samples were frozen for later analyses of 8OHdG and 1OHP by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Excretion in urine of 8OHdG (adjusted to density 1.022) was similar for controls (mean 18.0 nmol/l, n = 33), and for those who had been in the engine room without skin contact with oils (mean 18.7 nmol/l, n = 15). Engine room personnel who reported skin contact with oil had increased excretion of 8OHdG (mean 23.2 nmol/l, n = 19). The difference between this group and the unexposed controls was significant. The urinary levels of ln 1OHP and ln 8OHdG were significantly correlated, and the association was still highly significant when the effects of smoking and age were accounted for in a multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: Results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds from skin contact with oils in engine rooms may cause oxidative DNA damage. PMID:15258276

  8. Infants with prenatally diagnosed kidney anomalies have an increased risk of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Maria; Sunde, Lone; Andersen, René F; Petersen, Olav B; Olsen, Morten S

    2017-08-09

    This study estimated the urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in a nationwide cohort of infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies compared with a comparison cohort. A Danish population-based nationwide cohort of foetuses diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies between 2007 and 2012 had previously been identified. These were compared with foetuses without kidney anomalies who were prenatally scanned the same year. Live born infants were followed from birth until the diagnosis of UTI, emigration, death or two years of age. Cumulative incidences of UTIs were computed. Mortality was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. We identified 412 foetuses with parenchymal kidney anomalies out of 362 069 who underwent ultrasound scans and 277 were born alive. The overall risk of a UTI before the age of two years was 19%, and it was 14% among infants without prenatally diagnosed co-occurring urinary tract malformations. The corresponding risk in the 4074 controls was 1%. After two years, mortality was 2.2% in infants with prenatally diagnosed parenchymal kidney anomalies and 0.2% in the controls. Infants prenatally diagnosed with parenchymal kidney anomalies had a substantially increased risk of UTI. Awareness of this increased risk may facilitate earlier diagnosis of UTIs in this population. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Increased urinary angiotensinogen precedes the onset of albuminuria in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhen; Bai, Qiong; A, Lata; Liang, Yaoxian; Zheng, Danxia; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    It was previously reported that intrarenal renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) was employed as a special index of the intrarenal RAS status and enhanced significantly at a very early stage of chronic kidney disease and type 1 diabetes. On the basis of these findings, the present study was performed to test the hypothesis that UAGT levels are increase even before the development of DN in type 2 diabetic patients without hypertension. 102 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 18 healthy volunteers were studied cross-sectionally. Clinical data were collected and morning spot urine samples were obtained from all participants. UAGT levels were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As a result, UAGT to creatinine ratio (UAGT/Cr) was significantly enhanced in T2DM patients before the appearance of urinary albumin (UALB) and further increased to a greater degree in albuminuric patients. UAGT/Cr levels were positively correlated with Log (UALB to creatinine ratio) and diastolic blood pressure, but negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. These data indicate that elevated UAGT levels precede the onset of albuminuria in normotensive T2DM patients. UAGT might potentially serve as an early marker to determine intrarenal RAS activity and predict progressive kidney disease in T2DM patients without hypertension. PMID:26617876

  10. Urinary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 increases in diabetic nephropathy by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Oikawa, Osamu; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Soma, Masayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a member of the renin-angiotensin system that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to the seven-amino acid peptide fragment Ang-(1-7). We evaluated the changes in urinary ACE2 levels in response to treatment with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan in diabetes patients with nephropathy. This prospective, open-label, interventional study was conducted with 31 type 2 diabetes patients with nephropathy. After initial evaluation, patients received 20 mg/day olmesartan, which was increased to 40 mg/day over a 24-week period. In diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease, olmesartan significantly increased urinary ACE2 levels independently of blood pressure and plasma aldosterone levels and reduced albuminuria, urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), and plasma aldosterone levels. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that the change in urinary L-FABP levels was an independent predictor of increased urinary ACE2 levels. Olmesartan may have the unique effect of increasing urinary ACE2 levels. However, whether this contributes to olmesartan's renoprotective effect must be examined further. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Increased urinary levels of RNA catabolites in mice as early indicators for malignant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Thomale, J.; Luz, A.; Nass, G.

    1983-01-01

    It is known that human cancer patients exhibit an altered urinary excretion pattern of modified nucleosides and bases, that mice bearing skin tumors excrete increased amounts of various modified nucleosides and bases, and that the onset of altered excretion of modified RNA constituents precedes tumor diagnosis. We have now obtained similar results in mice for lymphoblastic leukemia induced by a single exposure to X-ray irradiation. Mice showing severe leukemic symptoms excrete several fold amounts of modified nucleosides in their 24-hr urine, when compared with untreated controls. X-ray-treated mice, showing no visible symptoms except increased excretion rates of these RNA constituents, were sacrificed and histologically examined. (Pre)leukemic features in spleen and lymph nodes were observed. Our results provide further evidence in support of the use of RNA catabolites as a basis for the development of an early noninvasive screening method for cancer in human beings.

  12. Redefining the Stone Belt: Precipitation Is Associated with Increased Risk of Urinary Stone Disease.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Kai B; Conti, Simon; Liao, Joseph C; Sofer, Mario; Pao, Alan C; Leppert, John T; Elliott, Christopher S

    2017-09-21

    The American Southeast has been labeled the "Stone Belt" due to its relatively high burden of urinary stone disease, presumed to be related to its higher temperatures. However, other regions with high temperatures (e.g., the Southwest) do not have the same disease prevalence as the southeast. We seek to explore the association of stone disease to other climate-associated factors beyond temperature, including precipitation and temperature variation. We identified all patients who underwent a surgical procedure for urinary stone disease from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) databases (2010-2012). Climate data obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) were compared to population adjusted county operative stone burden, controlling for patient and county demographic data as potential confounders. A total of 63,994 unique patients underwent stone procedures in California between 2010 and 2012. Multivariate modeling revealed that higher precipitation (0.019 average increase in surgeries per 1000 persons per inch, p < 0.01) and higher mean temperature (0.029 average increase in surgeries per 1000 persons per degree, p < 0.01) were both independently associated with an increased operative stone disease burden. Controlling for county-level patient factors did not change these observed effects. In the state of California, higher precipitation and higher mean temperature are associated with increased rates of stone surgery. Our results appear to agree with the larger trends seen throughout the United States where the areas of highest stone prevalence have warm wet climates and not warm arid climates.

  13. Giant rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Alder, L.S.; Elver, G.; Foo, F.J.; Dobson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST are the most common mesenchymal tumours; however, rectal GISTs account for <5%. In the pelvis they represent a diagnostic challenge with giant GISTs likely to be malignant. They may present with urological, gynaecological or rectal symptoms. Sphincter-preserving surgery can be aided by neoadjuvant therapy. We present an uncommon case of giant rectal GIST masquerading as acute urinary retention. PMID:24968434

  14. D-penicillamine does not increase urinary bismuth excretion in patients treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, C U; Pounder, R E

    1990-10-01

    Twenty-four urinary bismuth excretion was measured in five patients who had been treated with tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, before and after single 1 g oral dose of D-penicillamine. Before dosing with D-penicillamine, the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 55 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 17-156 micrograms 24 h-1) and following dosing with D-penicillamine the median 24 h urinary bismuth output was 53 micrograms 24 h-1 (range 12-156 micrograms 24 h-1). D-penicillamine does not facilitate the urinary excretion of bismuth, hence it is unsuitable for use as an oral chelator in patients with bismuth intoxication.

  15. Urinary angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in hypertensive patients may be increased by olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Furuhashi, Masato; Moniwa, Norihito; Mita, Tomohiro; Fuseya, Takahiro; Ishimura, Shutaro; Ohno, Kohei; Shibata, Satoru; Tanaka, Marenao; Watanabe, Yuki; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Hideaki; Takizawa, Hideki; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ura, Nobuyuki; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Miura, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is highly expressed in the kidney and converts angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1-7), a renoprotective peptide. Urinary ACE2 has been shown to be elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the effects of antihypertensive agents on urinary ACE2 remain unclear. Of participants in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort study in 2011 (n = 617), subjects on no medication (n = 101) and hypertensive patients treated with antihypertensive agents, including the calcium channel blockers amlodipine and long-acting nifedipine; the ACE inhibitor enalapril; and the Ang II receptor blockers losartan, candesartan, valsartan, telmisartan, and olmesartan, for more than 1 year (n = 100) were enrolled, and urinary ACE2 level was measured. Glucose and hemoglobin A1c were significantly higher in patients treated with enalapril, telmisartan or olmesartan than in the control subjects. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) was significantly higher in patients treated with enalapril than in the control subjects. Urinary ACE2 level was higher in the olmesartan-treated group, but not the other treatment groups, than in the control group. Urinary ACE2 level was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.211; P = 0.003), UACR (r = 0.367; P < 0.001), and estimated salt intake (r = 0.260; P < 0.001). Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment of age, sex, and the correlated indices showed that the use of olmesartan was an independent predictor of urinary ACE2 level. In contrast with other antihypertensive drugs, olmesartan may uniquely increase urinary ACE2 level, which could potentially offer additional renoprotective effects. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  17. High urinary sodium is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in normotensive overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Jennifer N; El Khoudary, Samar R; Fried, Linda F; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Increased dietary sodium has been reported to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, perhaps through blood pressure (BP)-independent vascular remodeling. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an accepted measure of structural vascular remodeling and a strong predictor of CVD. This study aimed to determine whether urinary sodium is positively associated with carotid IMT in normotensive overweight and obese adults. We evaluated baseline data from 258 participants in the Slow Adverse Vascular Effects (SAVE) clinical trial. Urinary sodium was measured from one 24-h urine collection from each individual. Carotid IMT was measured using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Participants were categorized into quartiles of urinary sodium. There was a significant positive trend with greater IMT associated with increasing urinary sodium quartile in univariate linear regression (P = 0.047). This trend was significant when adjusting for age, sex, race, and systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.03) as well as in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.04). In pairwise comparisons, the highest urinary sodium quartile had a significantly greater mean IMT (0.62 mm) than the lowest urinary sodium quartile (0.59 mm) after adjustment for age, sex, race, and SBP (P = 0.04). This comparison lost significance after the addition of BMI. In our community-based sample of normotensive overweight and obese adults, we observed a significant positive trend in carotid IMT with increasing quartile of urinary sodium. If the ongoing clinical trial confirms this relationship between sodium and carotid IMT, it would lend support to efforts to decrease sodium intake in overweight and obese individuals.

  18. High urinary sodium is associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness in normotensive overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Njoroge, J.N.; El Khoudary, S.R.; Fried, L.F.; Barinas-Mitchell, E.; Sutton-Tyrrell, K

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased dietary sodium has been reported to increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, perhaps through blood pressure (BP) independent vascular remodeling. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an accepted measure of structural vascular remodeling and a strong predictor of CVD. This study aimed to determine whether urinary sodium is positively associated with carotid IMT in normotensive overweight and obese adults. METHODS We evaluated baseline data from 258 participants in the Slow Adverse Vascular Effects (SAVE) Clinical Trial. Urinary sodium was measured from one 24-hour urine collection from each individual. Carotid IMT was measured using high resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Participants were categorized into quartiles of urinary sodium. RESULTS There was a significant positive trend with greater IMT associated with increasing urinary sodium quartile in univariate linear regression (P=0.047). This trend was significant when adjusting for age, sex, race, and systolic BP (SBP) (P=0.03) as well as in a fully adjusted model (P=0.04). In pairwise comparisons, the highest urinary sodium quartile had a significantly greater mean IMT (0.62 mm) than the lowest urinary sodium quartile (0.59 mm) after adjustment for age, sex, race, and SBP (P=0.04). This comparison lost significance after the addition of BMI. CONCLUSIONS In our community-based sample of normotensive overweight and obese adults, we observed a significant positive trend in carotid IMT with increasing quartile of urinary sodium. If the ongoing clinical trial confirms this relationship between sodium and carotid IMT, it would lend support to efforts to decrease sodium intake in overweight and obese individuals. PMID:20508622

  19. Increased urinary polyamine excretion after starting a very low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Uusitupa, M; Pöyhönen, M; Sarlund, H; Laakso, M; Kari, A; Helenius, T; Alakuijala, L; Eloranta, T

    1993-12-01

    Urinary polyamine excretion has been suggested to reflect hypermetabolism or catabolism in different illnesses. In the present study, the excretion of urinary polyamines was examined in 12 obese subjects (3 men, 9 women aged 32-55 y, body mass index 33.3-64.7 kg m-2) before and during a very low calorie diet (the total calorie intake 2100-3350 kJ). In addition, nitrogen balance, basal energy expenditure (BEE) and serum thyroid hormone levels were examined. During the first week on a very low calorie diet (VLCD) the mean body weight declined from 121.8 +/- 27.3 to 117.4 +/- 26.2 kg (mean +/- SD, p < 0.001), and after 12 weeks of treatment body weight was 106.6 +/- 24.6 kg. Immediate reduction of BEE from 1.44 +/- 0.24 to 1.34 +/- 0.24 kcal min-1 (p < 0.001) was found within the first week of therapy and BEE measured on weight-maintaining diet remained lower at 12 weeks (1.25 +/- 0.27 kcal min-1, p < 0.01). Serum free T3 decreased and reverse T3 increased significantly after starting VLCD. Nitrogen balance remained negative during the first 2 weeks on VLCD. A significant increase in total (38%), and in N1-acetyl- and N8-acetylspermidine excretions in the urine (40% and 27%, respectively, p < 0.05) was found during the first week, but later on the levels were not significantly different from the baseline levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of increased urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio to differentiate ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, Filippo; Trementino, Laura; Barbot, Mattia; Antonelli, Giorgia; Plebani, Mario; Denaro, Luca; Regazzo, Daniela; Rea, Federico; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Concettoni, Carolina; Boscaro, Marco; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Scaroni, Carla

    2017-06-07

    Differential diagnosis between Cushing's Disease (CD) and Ectopic ACTH Syndrome (EAS) may be a pitfall for endocrinologists. The increasing use in clinical practice of chromatography and mass spectrometry improves the measurement of urinary free cortisol (UFF) and cortisone (UFE). We have recently observed that cortisol to cortisone ratio (FEr) was higher in a small series of EAS; in this study we collected a larger number of ACTH-dependent Cushing's Syndrome (CS) to study the role of FEr to characterize the source of corticotropin secretion. High-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC-UV, n=35) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, n=72) were used to measure UFF, UFE and FEr in 83 patients with CD and 24 with EAS. UFF, UFE and FEr levels were higher in EAS than in CD (UFF: 6671 vs 549 nmol/24 hours; UFE: 2069 vs 464 nmol/24 hours; FEr: 4.13 vs 0.97; all P<.001). FEr >1.15 (the best ROC-based threshold) was able to distinguish CD from EAS with 75% sensitivity (SE) and 75% specificity (SP), AUC 0.811; results were similar between HPLC-UV (SE 73%, SP 79%, AUC 0.708) and LC-MS/MS (SE 77%, SP 73%, AUC 0.834; P=.727). The diagnostic accuracy of FEr was similar to that of CRH test or high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (respectively P=.171 and P=.683), also combined. Finally, FEr was able to increase the number of correct diagnosis in patients with discordant dynamic tests. Urinary FEr >1.15 was able to suggest EAS, with a diagnostic accuracy similar to that of other dynamic tests proposed to study ACTH-dependent CS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, R.W.; Oace, S.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of {sup 57}Co after a tracer dose of ({sup 57}Co)vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of ({sup 14}C)propionate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status.

  2. MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF RENAL LITHIASIS—Increasing the Protective Urinary Colloids with Hyaluronidase

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Arthur J.; Hauser, Ernst A.; Seifter, Joseph

    1952-01-01

    Urine is a highly saturated solution due to the presence of certain colloids. The protective action of urinary colloids is of major importance in preventing precipitation, agglomeration and conglomeration of crystalloids from a super-saturated solution. If the concentration of such protective colloids is insufficient, stone formation begins or is accelerated. In 680 human subjects, the incidence of stone was found to be almost inversely proportional to the degree of protective urinary colloids present. Urine specimens were subjected to ultramicroscopic examination, determination of electric charge carried by the colloidal particles, determination of the surface tension, and photo-ultramicrographic studies. Subcutaneous injection of hyaluronidase mixed with physiologic saline solution greatly increases the content of protective colloids in the urine. The colloids are caused to set up to a gel, thereby preventing electrolytes present from crystallizing. They act as excellent dispersing agents and prevent the formation of stone. Hyaluronidase therapy, using 150 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 72 hours, was effective in preventing calculous formation or reformation during a period of 11 to 14 months in 18 of 20 patients in whom, previously, stones formed rapidly. In a second series of ten patients in whom stones formed rapidly, larger doses of hyaluronidase, averaging 300 turbidity reducing units every 24 to 48 hours, were given. The period of observation at the time of report was from six to ten months. In this group, there was no new stone formation or enlargement of existing stones as evidenced by x-ray studies at 30- to 60-day intervals. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:14905291

  3. Urothelial Dysfunction and Increased Suburothelial Inflammation of Urinary Bladder Are Involved in Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis – Clinical and Immunohistochemistry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the urothelial dysfunction and inflammation of urinary bladder in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) urolithiasis through the results of cystoscopic hydrodistension and immunohistochemistry study. Methods Ninety-one patients with UUT urolithiasis underwent cystoscopic hydrodistension before the stone surgery. Immunofluorescence staining of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tryptase (mast cell activation), and TUNEL (urothelial apoptosis) were performed in 42 patients with glomerulations after hydrodistension, 10 without glomerulations, and 10 controls. Results Of the 91 patients, 62 (68.2%) developed glomerulations after hydrodistension. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were present in 53.8% patients, in whom significantly smaller maximal anesthetic bladder capacity (MBC) was noted. Patients with middle or lower 1/3 ureteral stones had a significantly higher glomerulation rate (88.6% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01) and lower MBC (618.4±167.6 vs. 701.2±158.4 ml, p = 0.027) than those with upper 1/3 ureteral or renal stones. Patients with UUT urolithiasis had significantly lower expression of E-cadherin (26.2±14.8 vs. 42.4±16.7) and ZO-1 (5.16±4.02 vs. 11.02±5.66); and higher suburothelial mast cell (13.3±6.8 vs. 1.3±1.2) and apoptotic cell (2.6±2.5 vs. 0.1±0.3) numbers than in controls (all p<0.01). Conclusions Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation and apoptosis are highly prevalent in the bladders of UUT urolithiasis patients, indicating inflammation cross-talk between UUT and urinary bladder. Patients with UUT urolithiaisis concomitant with LUTS had a smaller MBC, which may explain the presence of irritative bladder symptoms. PMID:25329457

  4. Increased Prevalence of Renal and Urinary Tract Anomalies in Children with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juhi; Gordillo, Roberto; Kaskel, Frederick J.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Woroniecki, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism to determine whether further renal and urologic investigations would be of benefit. Study design Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was obtained from the New York State Congenital Malformation Registry. The occurrence of urinary tract anomalies were calculated for children with congenital hypothyroidism and compared to children without congenital hypothyroidism. In addition we obtained congenital hypothyroidism data from New York State newborn screening, and the cases were matched to Congenital Malformation Registry. Results Analysis of Congenital Malformation Registry data showed 980 children with congenital hypothyroidism and 3 661 585 children without congenital hypothyroidism born in New York State (1992-2005). Children with congenital hypothyroidism have a significantly increased risk of congenital renal and urological anomalies with the odds ratio (OR) of 13.2 (10.6-16.5). The other significantly increased defects in congenital hypothyroidism were cardiac, gastrointestinal, and skeletal. Analysis of matched data confirmed an increase of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with OR of 4.8 (3.7-6.3). Conclusions Children with congenital hypothyroidism have an increased prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies. We suggest that these children should be evaluated for the presence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with renal ultrasonography, and that further studies of common genes involved in thyroid and kidney development are warranted. PMID:18823909

  5. Clinical Management of an Increasing Threat: Outpatient Urinary Tract Infections Due to Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogens.

    PubMed

    Walker, Emily; Lyman, Alessandra; Gupta, Kalpana; Mahoney, Monica V; Snyder, Graham M; Hirsch, Elizabeth B

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most commonly treated bacterial infections. Over the past decade, antimicrobial resistance has become an increasingly common factor in the management of outpatient UTIs. As treatment options for multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogens are limited, clinicians need to be aware of specific clinical and epidemiological risk factors for these infections. Based on available literature, the activity of fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin remain high for most cases of MDR Escherichia coli UTIs. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole retains clinical efficacy, but resistance rates are increasing internationally. Beta-lactam agents have the highest rates of resistance and lowest rates of clinical success. Fluoroquinolones have high resistance rates among MDR uropathogens and are being strongly discouraged as first-line agents for UTIs. In addition to accounting for local resistance rates, consideration of patient risk factors for resistance and pharmacological principles will help guide optimal empiric treatment of outpatient UTIs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase α1 mRNA expression in the gill and rectal gland of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, following acclimation to increased salinity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Lambert, Faith N

    2015-06-05

    The salt-secreting rectal gland plays a major role in elasmobranch osmoregulation, facilitating ion balance in hyperosmotic environments in a manner analogous to the teleost gill. Several studies have examined the central role of the sodium pump Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in osmoregulatory tissues of euryhaline elasmobranch species, including regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and abundance in response to salinity acclimation. However, while the transcriptional regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the teleost gill has been well documented the potential for mRNA regulation to facilitate rectal gland plasticity during salinity acclimation in elasmobranchs has not been examined. Therefore, in this study we acclimated Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina (Lesueur) from 11 to 34 ppt salinity over 3 days, and examined changes in plasma components as well as gill and rectal gland Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1 (atp1a1) mRNA expression. Acclimation to increased salinity did not affect hematocrit but resulted in significant increases in plasma osmolality, chloride and urea. Rectal gland atp1a1 mRNA expression was higher in 34 ppt-acclimated D. sabina vs. There was no significant change in gill atp1a1 mRNA expression, however mRNA expression of this gene in the gill and rectal gland were negatively correlated. This study demonstrates regulation of atp1a1 in the elasmobranch salt-secreting gland in response to salinity acclimation and a negative relationship between rectal gland and gill atp1a1 expression. These results support the hypothesis that the gill and rectal gland play opposing roles in ion balance with the gill potentially facilitating ion uptake in hypoosmotic environments. Future studies should further examine this possibility as well as potential differences in the regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase gene expression between euryhaline and stenohaline elasmobranch species.

  7. Chocolate intake increases urinary excretion of polyphenol-derived phenolic acids in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rios, Laurent Y; Gonthier, Marie-Paule; Rémésy, Christian; Mila, Isabelle; Lapierre, Catherine; Lazarus, Sheryl A; Williamson, Gary; Scalbert, Augustin

    2003-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins, the most abundant polyphenols in chocolate, are not depolymerized in the stomach and reach the small intestine intact, where they are hardly absorbed because of their high molecular weight. In vitro and in vivo studies using pure compounds as substrates suggest that proanthocyanidins and the related catechin monomers may be degraded into more bioavailable low-molecular-weight phenolic acids by the microflora in the colon. The aim of the study was to estimate the amounts of phenolic acids formed by the microflora and excreted in the urine of human subjects after consumption of polyphenol-rich chocolate. After consumption of a polyphenol-free diet for 2 d and a subsequent overnight fast, 11 healthy subjects (7 men and 4 women) consumed 80 g chocolate containing 439 mg proanthocyanidins and 147 mg catechin monomers. All urine was collected during the 24 h before chocolate consumption and at 3, 6, 9, 24, and 48 h after chocolate consumption. Aromatic acids were identified in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and were quantified by HPLC-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Chocolate intake increased the urinary excretion of the 6 following phenolic acids: m-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid, ferulic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, m-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillic acid, and m-hydroxybenzoic acid. The antioxidant and biological effects of chocolate may be explained not solely by the established absorption of catechin monomers but also by the absorption of microbial phenolic acid metabolites.

  8. Oxidative profile exhibited by Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA patients at diagnosis: Increased keratan urinary levels.

    PubMed

    Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe P; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo Diaz; Ribas, Graziela; Deon, Marion; Manini, Paula; da Rosa, Helen Tais; Moura, Dinara Jaqueline; Saffi, Jenifer; Giugliani, Roberto; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2017-06-01

    Morquio A disease (Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, MPS IVA) is one of the 11 mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), a heterogeneous group of inherited lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) caused by deficiency in enzymes need to degrade glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Morquio A is characterized by a decrease in N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase activity and subsequent accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate in cells and body fluids. As the pathophysiology of this LSD is not completely understood and considering the previous results of our group concerning oxidative stress in Morquio A patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in Morquio A patients at diagnosis. It was studied 15 untreated Morquio A patients, compared with healthy individuals. The affected individuals presented higher lipid peroxidation, assessed by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane levels and no protein damage, determined by sulfhydryl groups in plasma and di-tyrosine levels in urine. Furthermore, Morquio A patients showed DNA oxidative damage in both pyrimidines and purines bases, being the DNA damage positively correlated with lipid peroxidation. In relation to antioxidant defenses, affected patients presented higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were similar to controls. Our findings indicate that Morquio A patients present at diagnosis redox imbalance and oxidative damage to lipids and DNA, reinforcing the idea about the importance of antioxidant therapy as adjuvant to ERT, in this disorder.

  9. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk.

  10. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk. PMID:27698905

  11. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L.; MacDonald, W. Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry–based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112–122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112–122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies. PMID:26113616

  12. Increased levels of urinary biomarkers of lipid peroxidation products among workers occupationally exposed to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Li, Haibin; Sun, Xin; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Gu, Guizhen; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was found to induce lipid peroxidation (LPO) in animal exposure studies. LPO is a class of oxidative stress and can be reflected by detecting the levels of its production, such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and etheno-DNA adducts including 1,N(6)-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (ɛdA) and 3,N(4)-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine (ɛdC). However, the impact of DEE exposure on LPO has not been explored in humans. In this study, we evaluated urinary MDA, 4-HNE, ɛdA, and ɛdC levels as biomarkers of LPO among 108 workers with exclusive exposure to DEE and 109 non-DEE-exposed workers. Results showed that increased levels of urinary MDA and ɛdA were observed in subjects occupationally exposed to DEE before and after age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, and alcohol use were adjusted (all p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between the internal exposure dose (urinary ΣOH-PAHs) and MDA, 4-HNE, and ɛdA (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, significant increased relations between urinary etheno-DNA adduct and MDA, 4-HNE were observed (all p < 0.05). The findings of this study suggested that the level of LPO products (MDA and ɛdA) was increased in DEE-exposed workers, and urinary MDA and ɛdA might be feasible biomarkers for DEE exposure. LPO induced DNA damage might be involved and further motivated the genomic instability could be one of the pathogeneses of cancer induced by DEE-exposure. However, additional investigations should be performed to understand these observations.

  13. Activation of the Endogenous Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System or Aldosterone Administration Increases Urinary Exosomal Sodium Channel Excretion.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ying; Wang, Xiaojing; Rose, Kristie L; MacDonald, W Hayes; Zhang, Bing; Schey, Kevin L; Luther, James M

    2016-02-01

    Urinary exosomes secreted by multiple cell types in the kidney may participate in intercellular signaling and provide an enriched source of kidney-specific proteins for biomarker discovery. Factors that alter the exosomal protein content remain unknown. To determine whether endogenous and exogenous hormones modify urinary exosomal protein content, we analyzed samples from 14 mildly hypertensive patients in a crossover study during a high-sodium (HS, 160 mmol/d) diet and low-sodium (LS, 20 mmol/d) diet to activate the endogenous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. We further analyzed selected exosomal protein content in a separate cohort of healthy persons receiving intravenous aldosterone (0.7 μg/kg per hour for 10 hours) versus vehicle infusion. The LS diet increased plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration, whereas aldosterone infusion increased only aldosterone concentration. Protein analysis of paired urine exosome samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology detected 2775 unique proteins, of which 316 exhibited significantly altered abundance during LS diet. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and α- and γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) subunits from the discovery set were verified using targeted multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry quantified with isotope-labeled peptide standards. Dietary sodium restriction or acute aldosterone infusion similarly increased urine exosomal γENaC[112-122] peptide concentrations nearly 20-fold, which correlated with plasma aldosterone concentration and urinary Na/K ratio. Urine exosomal NCC and αENaC concentrations were relatively unchanged during these interventions. We conclude that urinary exosome content is altered by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Urinary measurement of exosomal γENaC[112-122] concentration may provide a useful biomarker of ENaC activation in future clinical studies.

  14. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  15. Malic acid supplementation increases urinary citrate excretion and urinary pH: implications for the potential treatment of calcium oxalate stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Allen L; Webber, Dawn; de Charmoy, Rachelle; Jackson, Graham E; Ravenscroft, Neil

    2014-02-01

    Raising urinary pH and citrate excretion with alkali citrate therapy has been a widely used treatment in calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate lowers ionized Ca(+2) concentrations and inhibits calcium salt precipitation. Conservative alternatives containing citrate such as fruit juices have been investigated and recommended. Any compound that induces systemic alkalosis will increase citraturia. Malate, a polycarboxylic anion like citrate, is a potential candidate for chelating Ca(+2) and for inducing systemic alkalinization. We undertook to investigate these possibilities. Theoretical modeling of malic acid's effects on urinary Ca(+2) concentration and supersaturation (SS) of calcium salts was achieved using the speciation program JESS. Malic acid (1200 mg/day) was ingested for 7 days by eight healthy subjects. Urines (24 hours) were collected at baseline and on day 7. They were analyzed for routine lithogenic components, including pH and citrate. Chemical speciation and SS were calculated in both urines. Modeling showed that complexation between calcium and malate at physiological concentrations of the latter would have no effect on SS. Administration of the supplement induced statistically significant increases in pH and citraturia. The calculated concentration of Ca(+2) and concomitant SS calcium oxalate (CaOx) decreased after supplementation, but these were not statistically significant. SS for the calcium phosphate salts hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate increased significantly as a consequence of the elevation in pH, but values for brushite and octacalcium phosphate did not change significantly. We speculate that consumption of malic acid induced systemic alkalinization leading to reduced renal tubular reabsorption and metabolism of citrate, and an increase in excretion of the latter. The decrease in SS(CaOx) was caused by enhanced complexation of Ca(+2) by citrate. We conclude that malic acid supplementation may be useful for conservative treatment of

  16. Increased urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid in a Danish family.

    PubMed

    Sjølin, K E

    1988-08-01

    During collection of a control material for determination of urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-AIB), female high excretors were found in four generations in a Danish family. The heredity seemed to be sex related and dominant, unlike previous communications about genetically conditioned high excretors of beta-AIB.

  17. No Increased Risk of Second Cancer After Radiotherapy in Patients Treated for Rectal or Endometrial Cancer in the Randomized TME, PORTEC-1, and PORTEC-2 Trials.

    PubMed

    Wiltink, Lisette M; Nout, Remi A; Fiocco, Marta; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Jürgenliemk-Schulz, Ina M; Jobsen, Jan J; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Rutten, Harm J T; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Creutzberg, Carien L; Marijnen, Corrie A M

    2015-05-20

    This study investigated the long-term probability of developing a second cancer in a large pooled cohort of patients treated with surgery with or without radiotherapy (RT). All second cancers diagnosed in patients included in the TME, PORTEC-1, and PORTEC-2 trials were analyzed. In the TME trial, patients with rectal cancer (n = 1,530) were randomly allocated to preoperative external-beam RT (EBRT; 25 Gy in five fractions) or no RT. In the PORTEC trials, patients with endometrial cancer were randomly assigned to postoperative EBRT (46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions) versus no RT (PORTEC-1; n = 714) or EBRT versus vaginal brachytherapy (VBT; PORTEC-2; n = 427). A total of 2,554 patients were analyzed (median follow-up, 13.0 years; range 1.8 to 21.2 years). No differences were found in second cancer probability between patients who were treated without RT (10- and 15-year rates, 15.8% and 26.5%, respectively) and those treated with EBRT (10- and 15-year rates, 15.4% and 25.6%, respectively) or VBT (10-year rate, 14.9%). In the individual trials, no significant differences were found between treatment arms. All cancer survivors had a higher risk of developing a second cancer compared with an age- and sex-matched general population. The standardized incidence ratio for any second cancer was 2.98 (95% CI, 2.82 to 3.14). In this pooled trial cohort of > 2,500 patients with pelvic cancers, those who underwent EBRT or VBT had no higher probability of developing a second cancer than patients who were treated with surgery alone. However, patients with rectal or endometrial cancer had an increased probability of developing a second cancer compared with the general population. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Isoproternenol increases vascular volume expansion and urinary output after a large crystalloid bolus in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, Sven; Salter, Michael; Prough, Donald S; Kramer, George C; Svensen, Christer; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Kinsky, Michael P

    2014-11-01

    The primary goal of fluid therapy is to maintain fluid homeostasis. Commonly used isotonic crystalloids are only marginally effective and contribute to fluid excess syndrome. In patients with decreased cardiovascular reserve, fluid therapy alone is not sufficient to maintain end-organ perfusion. Therefore, inotropes or vasoactive drugs are used to supplement fluid infusion. Recent animal data suggest that coinfusion of adrenergic agents modulate the distribution of fluid between the vascular and extravascular/interstitial compartments after a fluid bolus. We sought to determine if this effect would translate in humans by coadministering a β-adrenergic agonist with fluid. Nine healthy volunteers (aged 21-50 years) were randomly paired and received either a continuous isoproterenol infusion (ISO: 0.05 μg/kg per minute) or 0.9% saline (control [CON]) 30min prior to a 25 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl fluid bolus. Hemodynamics, ventricular volume and function, and microcirculatory determinants (capillary filtration coefficient and oncotic pressure) were measured. Vascular and extravascular volume and fluid balance were determined. Compared with CON, ISO significantly increased heart rate (CON: 64.2 ± 4.1 beats/min vs. ISO: 97.4 ± 5.7 beats/min) and cardiac output (CON: 4.4 ± 0.7 L/min vs. ISO: 10.2 ± 0.9) before fluid bolus. Isoproterenol significantly increased urinary output (ISO: 10.86 ± 1.95 vs. control: 6.53 ± 1.45 mL/kg) and reduced extravascular volume (7.98 ± 2.0 vs. 14.15 ± 1.1mL/kg). Isoproterenol prevented an increase in capillary filtration coefficient (1.74 ± 0.4 vs. 3.21 ± 0.4 mL/min per mmHg · 10). Isoproterenol, a nonselective β-adrenergic agonist, augments vascular volume expansion and eliminates extravascular volume via enhanced diuresis, which may in part be due to enhanced endothelial barrier function.

  19. Increased urinary uric acid excretion: a finding in Indian stone formers.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tapan; Karan, S C; Kotwal, Atul

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have been done to determine the risk factors associated with urolithiasis so that preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent stone formation. However the exact aetiology of urinary stones still remains elusive. A prospective control study of epidemiological factors that influence urinary stone formation was done to determine the aetiology of urinary stones. Patients with stone disease had a significantly higher body mass index. 24-h urine excretion of uric acid and phosphate was found to be significantly higher in stone patients as compared to controls. The intake of non-vegetarian food was significantly higher amongst stone formers. Stone patients had a significantly higher consumption of curd and cheese as compared to controls. There was a significant correlation noted between stone formation and a positive family and past history of stone disease. The results indicate that obese patients, especially those with a family history of stone disease, should be counselled on weight loss. Individuals with a past history of stone disease should be advised to reduce their dietary intake of foods rich in uric acid (meat, liver and beans).

  20. Time-related increase in urinary testosterone levels and stable semen analysis parameters after bariatric surgery in men.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Meadows, Juliana W; Kesner, James S; Krieg, Edward F; Rogers, Ann M; Cooney, Robert N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to determine the time-course in androgen and semen parameters in men after weight loss associated with bariatric surgery. Six men aged 18-40 years, meeting National Institutes of Health bariatric surgery guidelines, were followed between 2005 and 2008. Study visits took place at baseline, then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. All men underwent Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB). At each visit, biometric, questionnaire, serum, and urinary specimens and seman analysis were collected. Urinary integrated total testosterone levels increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by 3 months after surgery, and remained elevated throughout the study. Circulating testosterone levels were also higher at 1 and 6 months after surgery, compared with baseline. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin levels were significantly elevated at all time points after surgery (P < 0.01 to P = 0.02). After RYGB surgery, no significant changes occurred in urinary oestrogen metabolites (oestrone 3-glucuronide), serum oestradiol levels, serial semen parameters or male sexual function by questionnaire. A threshold of weight loss is necessary to improve male reproductive function by reversing male hypogonadism, manifested as increased testosterone levels. Further serial semen analyses showed normal ranges for most parameters despite massive weight loss.

  1. Digital rectal exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007069.htm Digital rectal exam To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A digital rectal exam is an examination of the lower ...

  2. Penile metastases of rectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Persec, Z; Persec, J; Sovic, T; Rako, D; Savic, I; Marinic, D K

    2014-02-01

    Penile metastases are very rare and arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma are less common and only 50 or so cases have been reported. We present a 43-year-old man with penile metastases from a rectal adenocarcinoma. Two years before admittance to our department, abdomino-perineal resection of the rectum (Miles operation) was performed for a Dukes B (T3N0M0) rectal adenocarcinoma; the surgical resection margins wee negative. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment were administered. One year after initial management, excision of a local recurrence was performed followed by further chemotherapy. The patient subsequently noticed lesions of the penis measuring up to 1.2 cm in diameter. Biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Computed tomography showed normal structure of penis with subcutaneous nodular thickening. Soon thereafter, the entire shaft of the penis becomes indurated and the patient developed urinary obstruction. A suprapubic cystostomy was performed. The patient died within 6 months. Penile metastases arise most frequently from genitourinary cancers, primarily from the bladder and the prostate gland. Metastasis to the penis from a rectal adenocarcinoma occurs much less commonly. Other reported primary origins of penile metastases include malignancies of the lung, nasopharynx and melanoma. The major symptoms are penile nodular mass, malignant priapism, penile pain and tenderness, difficulty in micturition, and urinary retention. Possible routes of metastasis are arterial, retrograde venous spread, retrograde lymphatic spread, but direct tumor infiltration/extension is also possible. Penile metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma usually occur within 2 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. The prognosis is very poor regardless of treatment modality. Treatment is more often palliative than curative. Survival usually varies from 7 months to 2 years. Long-term survival (9 years) has been

  3. Increased Urinary Cystatin-C Levels Correlate with Reduced Renal Volumes in Neonates with Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Antonella; Cappuccini, Benito; Aisa, Maria Cristina; Grasselli, Chiara; Zamarra, Mariarosalba; Bini, Vittorio; Bellomo, Gianni; Orlacchio, Aldo; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) can have a negative impact on nephrogenesis resulting in limited fetal kidney development and supporting the hypothesis that IUGR represents a risk for renal function and long-term renal disease. Cystatin-C (Cys-C), a strong inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, is freely filtered by the kidney glomerulus and is reabsorbed by the tubules, where it is almost totally catabolized; what remains is subsequently eliminated in urine. In tubular diseases and in hyperfiltration conditions, it seems reasonable to postulate that Cys-C degradation would decrease, and consequently an increase in its urinary elimination would be observed. The aim of this study was to investigate the urinary excretion of Cys-C simultaneously with the assessment of renal volumes in adequate for gestational age (AGA) and IUGR neonates in order to identify its clinical value in IUGR. Urinary Cys-C levels were measured using the enzyme immunoassay DetectX® Human Cystatin C kit in IUGR and AGA neonates. Whole renal and renal cortex volumes were assessed with ultrasounds (Vocal II; Software, GE). Urinary Cys-C levels in IUGR were significantly higher than those found in AGA and were negatively correlated to reduced whole renal and renal cortex volumes. The increased levels of Cys-C in the urine of neonates with IUGR were significantly associated with reduced renal/renal cortex volumes, suggesting that Cys-C could be taken as a surrogate of nephron mass. It also could be used as an early biochemical marker to identify IUGR neonates at high risk of developing long-term renal disease and to select patients for monitoring during childhood. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Usefulness of the renal resistive index to predict an increase in urinary albumin excretion in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, K; Okura, T; Tanino, A; Kukida, M; Nagao, T; Higaki, J

    2017-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive patients. Patients who are expected to increase albuminuria need strict blood pressure control. In the present study, we assessed the association between the renal resistive index (RI) and future increases in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension. Sixty-six patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors, including renal RI, that were significant independent determinants of increased in urinary albumin excretion (UAE), defined as an increase of >50% in the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio over 2 years. Receiver operator characteristics curve analysis was used to select the optimal cut-off point that predicted an increase in UAE. RI was the only significant variable that predicted the increase in UAE, with the optimal cut-off value of renal RI that predicted this increase being 0.71 (sensitivity 52.4% and specificity 84.4%). Renal RI is associated with the future increase in albuminuria in patients with essential hypertension.

  5. Potassium Bicarbonate Attenuates the Urinary Nitrogen Excretion That Accompanies an Increase in Dietary Protein and May Promote Calcium Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S.; Abrams, Steven A.; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-01-01

    Context: Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. Objective: We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. Design: We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. Setting: The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Participants: Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54–82 yr participated. Intervention: KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. Main Outcome Measures: We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. Results: KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). Conclusions: In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content. PMID:19050051

  6. Potassium bicarbonate attenuates the urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanies an increase in dietary protein and may promote calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Ceglia, Lisa; Harris, Susan S; Abrams, Steven A; Rasmussen, Helen M; Dallal, Gerard E; Dawson-Hughes, Bess

    2009-02-01

    Protein is an essential component of muscle and bone. However, the acidic byproducts of protein metabolism may have a negative impact on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in older individuals with declining renal function. We sought to determine whether adding an alkaline salt, potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), allows protein to have a more favorable net impact on intermediary indices of muscle and bone conservation than it does in the usual acidic environment. We conducted a 41-d randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of KHCO3 or placebo with a 16-d phase-in and two successive 10-d metabolic diets containing low (0.5 g/kg) or high (1.5 g/kg) protein in random order with a 5-d washout between diets. The study was conducted in a metabolic research unit. Nineteen healthy subjects ages 54-82 yr participated. KHCO3 (up to 90 mmol/d) or placebo was administered for 41 d. We measured 24-h urinary nitrogen excretion, IGF-I, 24-h urinary calcium excretion, and fractional calcium absorption. KHCO3 reduced the rise in urinary nitrogen excretion that accompanied an increase in protein intake (P = 0.015) and was associated with higher IGF-I levels on the low-protein diet (P = 0.027) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.050). KHCO3 was also associated with higher fractional calcium absorption on the low-protein diet (P = 0.041) with a similar trend on the high-protein diet (P = 0.064). In older adults, KHCO3 attenuates the protein-induced rise in urinary nitrogen excretion, and this may be mediated by IGF-I. KHCO3 may also promote calcium absorption independent of the dietary protein content.

  7. Significance of rises in urinary bicarbonate contents and pH related with increased atmospheric carbon dioxide in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Kazuka, M; Yashima, K; Niiyama, K; Muro, D

    1997-09-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was measured at several locations in Tokyo, for two weeks, in December, 1995 and 1996, and was found to be increased up to 550 ppm, while it was shown by us to be 450 ppm in December, 1994. These results demonstrate that atmospheric carbon dioxide is steadily increasing at faster rates in Tokyo than we expect, though it has been considered that the atmospheric carbon dioxide is still as much as 350 ppm. Bicarbonate concentration and pH of urine of 13 medical students in Tokyo were also measured for the same period in December of 1995 and 1996, and were found to be significantly increased compared with the values that were reported in the past. Furthermore, urinary bicarbonate and pH were extensively increased, when 4 and 5 students made 3-hour car trip in two different cars with all windows closed, where carbon dioxide was increased up to about 5000 ppm within 1 hour. These results support our previous hypothesis that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide may be reflected by the increase of urinary bicarbonate and pH. Our results also suggest that the environmental situation is being seriously aggravated in Tokyo, year by year, in terms of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  8. Functionally active ganglioneuroma with increased plasma and urinary catecholamines and positive iodine 131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Clerico, A.; Jenkner, A.; Castello, M.A.; Ciofetta, G.; Lucarelli, C.; Codini, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Ganglioneuromas are usually considered not to be functionally active. Studies of their catecholamine excretory pattern and of their imaging by means of the adrenergic tracing agent 131-I-MIBG have been therefore sparse. We report on a case of secretory ganglioneuroma, as demonstrated by the increased urinary excretion of the catecholamine metabolites HVA and VMA, increased plasma dopamine and epinephrine levels, and positive 131-I-MIBG scintigraphy. We must therefore be aware that a functionally active tumor is not necessarily a neuroblastoma, and that the diagnosis should be biopsy proven.

  9. Increased Urinary Phthalate Levels in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ah; Kho, Younglim; Chun, Kyoung Chul; Koh, Jae Whoan; Park, Jeong Woo; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the urinary concentration of 16 phthalate metabolites in 57 women with and without uterine leiomyoma (n = 30 and 27; respectively) to determine the association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. To evaluate exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); we calculated the molar sum of DEHP metabolites; ∑3-DEHP (combining mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP); mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP); and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate); ∑4-DEHP (∑3-DEHP plus mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate); and ∑5-DEHP (∑4-DEHP plus mono (2-(carboxylmethyl)hexyl) phthalate (2cx-MMHP)). The log transformed urinary levels of MEHP; MEHHP; 2cx-MMHP; ∑3-DEHP; ∑4-DEHP; and ∑5-DEHP in the leiomyoma group were significantly higher than those of controls. When we adjusted for age; waist circumference; and parity using multiple logistic regression analyses; we found log ∑3-DEHP (OR = 10.82; 95% CI = 1.25; 93.46) and ∑4-DEHP (OR = 8.78; 95% CI = 1.03; 75.29) were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma. Our findings suggest an association between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. However; larger studies are needed to investigate potential interactions between phthalate exposure and uterine leiomyoma. PMID:27983712

  10. Combined radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection.

    PubMed

    Klee, L W; Grmoljez, P

    1999-10-01

    To present our experience with a small series of men who underwent simultaneous radical retropubic prostatectomy and rectal resection. Three men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were found to have concurrent rectal tumors requiring resection. All three men underwent non-nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy and abdominoperineal resection (APR) or low anterior resection (LAR) of the rectum at the same operation. In the 2 patients undergoing APR, the levators were approximated posterior to the urethra, and the bladder was secured to the pubis. The patient undergoing LAR had urinary diversion stents placed and a diverting transverse loop colostomy. All 3 patients had excellent return of urinary continence. One patient required reoperation in the early postoperative period for small bowel adhesiolysis and stoma revision. Another patient had a mild rectal anastomotic stricture and a bladder neck stricture; both were successfully treated with a single dilation. No other significant complications occurred in these patients. Radical retropubic prostatectomy can safely be performed with partial or complete rectal resection in a single operation. A few minor modifications of the standard radical retropubic prostatectomy in this setting are suggested.

  11. Late Side Effects and Quality of Life After Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Guren, Marianne G.; Skovlund, Eva; Hjermstad, Marianne J.; Dahl, Olav; Frykholm, Gunilla; Carlsen, Erik; Tveit, Kjell Magne

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: There is little knowledge on long-term morbidity after radiotherapy (50 Gy) and total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Therefore, late effects on bowel, anorectal, and urinary function, and health-related quality of life (QoL), were studied in a national cohort (n = 535). Methods and Materials: All Norwegian patients who received pre- or postoperative (chemo-)radiotherapy for rectal cancer from 1993 to 2003 were identified. Patients treated with surgery alone served as controls. Patients were without recurrence or metastases. Bowel and urinary function was scored with the LENT SOMA scale and the St. Marks Score for fecal incontinence and QoL with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). Results: Median time since surgery was 4.8 years. Radiation-treated (RT+) patients (n = 199) had increased bowel frequency compared with non-radiation-treated (RT-) patients (n = 336); 19% vs. 6% had more than eight daily bowel movements (p < 0.001). In patients without stoma, a higher proportion of RT+ (n = 69) compared with RT- patients (n = 240), were incontinent for liquid stools (49% vs. 15%, p < 0.001), needed a sanitary pad (52% vs. 13%, p < 0.001), and lacked the ability to defer defecation (44% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). Daily urinary incontinence occurred more frequently after radiotherapy (9% vs. 2%, p = 0.001). Radiation-treated patients had worse social function than RT- patients, and patients with fecal or urinary incontinence had impaired scores for global quality of life and social function (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with considerable long-term effects on anorectal function, especially in terms of bowel frequency and fecal incontinence. RT+ patients have worse social function, and fecal incontinence has a negative impact on QoL.

  12. [Increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictor of cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kurokawa, Shinichiro; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is considered to correlate with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) induced by cerebral vasospasm; however, its exact mechanism is still not well-known. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between hyponatremia caused by CSWS and the increase of the urinary sodium excretion in early phase following SAH. Fifty-four patients with SAH were divided into 2 groups, normonatremia group and hyponatremia group which suffered hyponatremia after SAH. The hyponatremia group comprise 14 patients (26%) in whom the hyponatremia developed of the SAH. In this group, the serum level of sodium significantly decreased 7 days after SAH and then gradually normalised. Further, excretion of sodium in the urine tended to increase 3 days after SAH and significantly increased 7 days after SAH. In conclusion, the increased urinary sodium excretion in the early phase of SAH would serve as a predictive factor for CSWS after SAH. We consider that it is important to start sodium and fluid supplementation and inhibit natriuresis by fludrocortisone acetate administration before hyponatremia occurs in order to prevention delayed ischemic neurological deficits in SAH patients.

  13. Urinary Calcium and Oxalate Excretion in Healthy Adult Cats Are Not Affected by Increasing Dietary Levels of Bone Meal in a Canned Diet

    PubMed Central

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals. PMID:23940588

  14. Urinary calcium and oxalate excretion in healthy adult cats are not affected by increasing dietary levels of bone meal in a canned diet.

    PubMed

    Passlack, Nadine; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), derived from bone meal, on the feline urine composition and the urinary pH, allowing a risk assessment for the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats. Eight healthy adult cats received 3 canned diets, containing 12.2 (A), 18.5 (B) and 27.0 g Ca/kg dry matter (C) and 16.1 (A), 17.6 (B) and 21.1 g P/kg dry matter (C). Each diet was fed over 17 days. After a 7 dayś adaptation period, urine and faeces were collected over 2×4 days (with a two-day rest between), and blood samples were taken. Urinary and faecal minerals, urinary oxalate (Ox), the urinary pH and the concentrations of serum Ca, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were analyzed. Moreover, the urine was microscopically examined for CaOx uroliths. The results demonstrated that increasing levels of dietary Ca led to decreased serum PTH and Ca and increased faecal Ca and P concentrations, but did not affect the urinary Ca or Ox concentrations or the urinary fasting pH. The urinary postprandial pH slightly increased when the diet C was compared to the diet B. No CaOx crystals were detected in the urine of the cats. In conclusion, urinary Ca excretion in cats seems to be widely independent of the dietary Ca levels when Ca is added as bone meal to a typical canned diet, implicating that raw materials with higher contents of bones are of subordinate importance as risk factors for the formation of urinary CaOx crystals.

  15. Effect of zeolite nano-materials and artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) leaf extract on increase in urinary clearance of systematically absorbed nicotine.

    PubMed

    Malekshah, R E; Mahjub, R; Rastgarpanah, M; Ghorbani, M; Partoazar, A R; Mehr, S E; Dehpour, A R; Dorkoosh, F A

    2012-12-01

    Nicotine, the main pharmacologically active component in tobacco and cigarette, has some toxic effects and also high potential for addiction. In this study, the effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and zeolite nano-materials on urinary excretion of nicotine and consequently elimination of systematically absorbed nicotine was investigated. A simple, valid and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for determination of nicotine in rat urine according to guidelines for bioanalysis.It was found that nano-zeolites can cause increase in urinary concentration of nicotine due to its high surface adsorption. Artichoke leaf extract can cause increase in urinary excretion of nicotine in longer post administration times. It was observed that co-administration of nanozeolites and the leaf extract has the synergetic effect on increasing the urinary excretion of nicotine.

  16. Does nonpayment for hospital-acquired catheter-associated urinary tract infections lead to overtesting and increased antimicrobial prescribing?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Meddings, Jennifer; Saint, Sanjay; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Shardell, Michelle; Anderson, Deverick; Milstone, Aaron M; Drees, Marci; Pineles, Lisa; Safdar, Nasia; Bowling, Jason; Henderson, David; Yokoe, Deborah; Harris, Anthony D

    2012-10-01

    On 1 October 2008, in an effort to stimulate efforts to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a policy of not reimbursing hospitals for hospital-acquired CAUTI. Since any urinary tract infection present on admission would not fall under this initiative, concerns have been raised that the policy may encourage more testing for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study with time series analysis of all adults admitted to the hospital 16 months before and 16 months after policy implementation among participating Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network hospitals. Our outcomes were frequency of urine culture on admission and antimicrobial use. A total of 39 hospitals from 22 states submitted data on 2 362 742 admissions. In 35 hospitals affected by the CMS policy, the median frequency of urine culture performance did not change after CMS policy implementation (19.2% during the prepolicy period vs 19.3% during the postpolicy period). The rate of change in urine culture performance increased minimally during the prepolicy period (0.5% per month) and decreased slightly during the postpolicy period (-0.25% per month; P < .001). In the subset of 10 hospitals providing antimicrobial use data, the median frequency of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial use did not change substantially (14.6% during the prepolicy period vs 14.0% during the postpolicy period). The rate of change in fluoroquinolone use increased during the prepolicy period (1.26% per month) and decreased during the postpolicy period (-0.60% per month; P < .001). We found no evidence that CMS nonpayment policy resulted in overtesting to screen for and document a diagnosis of urinary tract infection as present on admission.

  17. Urinary IL-33 and galectin-3 increase in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (review).

    PubMed

    Kochiashvili, G; Kochiashvili, D

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is an enigmatic chronic disorder characterized by vague bladder pain of variable severity accompanied by urinary symptoms. The pathogenesis and etiology of IC/BPS remain incompletely defined. However, there is an emerging consensus about the central role of epithelial dysfunction, bladder sensory nerve up-regulation, and mast cell activation in the genesis of IC/BPS. Accumulating evidences have suggested that tissue damage is recognized at the cell level via receptor-mediated detection of intracellular proteins (so-called alarmins) released by the necrotic cells. Among these proteins IL-33, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), may have an important role because they can be participated as cellular components that stimulate the immune system. We determined IL-33, Gal-3, and AGE in 24-hour urine specimens from patients with IC/BPS and healthy subjects. Study participants included 43 woman with IC/BPS and 29 female volunteers. Urinary IL-33, EGF and Gal-3 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the content of AGE was quantified by natural AGE-specific fluorescence (Ex. 370 nm, Em. 440 nm). Urinary IL-33, and Gal-3 levels were normalized by urinary creatinine (Cr) levels and compared among subgroups. We have found that the levels of IL-33 and Gal-3 were significantly increased in IC/BPS. The level of the IL-33 in the urine of healthy women was equal to 0.32, while the level of IL-33 in IC/BPS patients increases up to 0.58 (p<0.05). Further, the amounts of urine Gal-3 were also elevated in IC/BPS compared to healthy subjects (0.16 versus 0.07; p>0.01) and AGE-specific fluorescence in urine was increased up to 140% in IC/BPS patients. These data suggest on the participation of IL-33, Gal-3 and AGE in the pathogenesis of IC/BPS.

  18. Utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) to demonstrate increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    St.Helen, Gideon; Holland, Nina T.; Balmes, John R.; Hall, Daniel B.; Bernert, J. Thomas; Vena, John E.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Naeher, Luke P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the utility of urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) as a biomarker of increased lung epithelial permeability in non-smokers exposed to outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS). Methods Twenty-eight healthy non-smoking adults visited outdoor patios of a restaurant and a bar where non-participants smoked and an open-air control with no smokers on three weekend days in a crossover study; subjects visited each site once for three hours. Urine samples were collected at baseline, immediately post-exposure, and next-morning, and analyzed for CC16. Changes in CC16 across location-types or with cigarette count were analyzed using mixed-effect models, stratified by gender. Results Urinary CC16 was higher in males (n=9) compared to females (n=18) at all measurement occasions (p<0.002), possibly reflecting prostatic contamination. Urinary CC16 from pre-exposure to post-exposure was higher following visits to restaurant and bar sites compared to the control among females but this increase did not reach statistical significance. Post-exposure to pre-exposure urinary CC16 ratios among females increased with cigarette count (p=0.048). Exposure-related increases in urinary CC16 were not seen among males. Conclusion Urinary CC16 may be a useful biomarker of increased lung epithelial permeability among female non-smokers; further work will be required to evaluate its applicability to males. PMID:22805990

  19. The effect of climate variability on urinary stone attacks: increased incidence associated with temperature over 18 °C: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyoung Keun; Bae, Sang Rak; Kim, Satbyul E; Choi, Woo Suk; Paick, Sung Hyun; Ho, Kim; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Lho, Yong Soo

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal variation and climate parameters on urinary tract stone attack and investigate whether stone attack is increased sharply at a specific point. Nationwide data of total urinary tract stone attack numbers per month between January 2006 and December 2010 were obtained from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The effects of climatic factors on monthly urinary stone attack were assessed using auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regression method. A total of 1,702,913 stone attack cases were identified. Mean monthly and monthly average daily urinary stone attack cases were 28,382 ± 2,760 and 933 ± 85, respectively. The stone attack showed seasonal trends of sharp incline in June, a peak plateau from July to September, and a sharp decline after September. The correlation analysis showed that ambient temperature (r = 0.557, p < 0.001) and relative humidity (r = 0.513, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with urinary stone attack cases. However, after adjustment for trends and seasonality, ambient temperature was the only climate factor associated with the stone attack cases in ARIMA regression test (p = 0.04). Threshold temperature was estimated as 18.4 °C. Risk of urinary stone attack significantly increases 1.71% (1.02-2.41 %, 95% confidence intervals) with a 1 °C increase of ambient temperature above the threshold point. In conclusion, monthly urinary stone attack cases were changed according to seasonal variation. Among the climates variables, only temperature had consistent association with stone attack and when the temperature is over 18.4 °C, urinary stone attack would be increased sharply.

  20. Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5-hydroxytryptophan intake.

    PubMed

    Joy, Tisha; Walsh, Grace; Tokmakejian, Sonya; Van Uum, Stan Hm

    2008-01-01

    5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 micromol/day; normal is less than 45 micromol/day) and serum chromogranin A (CgA) (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L), both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described. To determine whether, and to what extent, oral 5-HTP increases urine 5-HIAA excretion and serum CgA levels in healthy volunteers. A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, with a four-day washout period, was performed in a general community setting. Eight healthy subjects aged 22 to 58 years were recruited by advertising. Bedtime ingestion of 5-HTP 100 mg/day was compared with placebo ingestion for 10 days. Twenty-four hour urine excretion of 5-HIAA and serum CgA were the main outcome measures. Median (range) urinary 5-HIAA excretion was 204 micromol/day (22 micromol/day to 459 micromol/day) during 5-HTP intake, compared with 18 micromol/day (12 micromol/day to 36 micromol/day) during placebo intake (P=0.017). 5-HTP did not affect clinical symptoms or serum CgA levels. Oral 5-HTP increases urinary 5-HIAA excretion with considerable interindividual variation. In a small number of subjects, oral 5-HTP did not affect serum CgA levels. Therefore, increased 5-HIAA levels with normal CgA levels may suggest 5-HTP ingestion. The use of over-the-counter 5-HTP should be excluded as the cause of increased urinary 5-HIAA levels before initiating diagnostic tests to search for a carcinoid tumour. 5-HTP should be added to popular references as a substance that may cause increased 5-HIAA excretion.

  1. Increase of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid excretion but not serum chromogranin A following over-the-counter 5-hydroxytryptophan intake

    PubMed Central

    Joy, Tisha; Walsh, Grace; Tokmakejian, Sonya; Van Uum, Stan HM

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is commonly measured for biochemical detection of carcinoid tumours. A 77-year-old woman was referred for elevated 24 h urine 5-HIAA excretion (510 μmol/day; normal is less than 45 μmol/day) and serum chromogranin A (CgA) (72.1 U/L; normal is less than 18 U/L), both subsequently normalized after discontinuation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-HTP, a precursor of serotonin, is not commonly listed as a substance that increases 5-HIAA levels in urine. The effect of 5-HTP on CgA has not been previously described. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether, and to what extent, oral 5-HTP increases urine 5-HIAA excretion and serum CgA levels in healthy volunteers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, with a four-day washout period, was performed in a general community setting. Eight healthy subjects aged 22 to 58 years were recruited by advertising. Bedtime ingestion of 5-HTP 100 mg/day was compared with placebo ingestion for 10 days. Twenty-four hour urine excretion of 5-HIAA and serum CgA were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: Median (range) urinary 5-HIAA excretion was 204 μmol/day (22 μmol/day to 459 μmol/day) during 5-HTP intake, compared with 18 μmol/day (12 μmol/day to 36 μmol/day) during placebo intake (P=0.017). 5-HTP did not affect clinical symptoms or serum CgA levels. CONCLUSIONS: Oral 5-HTP increases urinary 5-HIAA excretion with considerable interindividual variation. In a small number of subjects, oral 5-HTP did not affect serum CgA levels. Therefore, increased 5-HIAA levels with normal CgA levels may suggest 5-HTP ingestion. The use of over-the-counter 5-HTP should be excluded as the cause of increased urinary 5-HIAA levels before initiating diagnostic tests to search for a carcinoid tumour. 5-HTP should be added to popular references as a substance that may cause increased 5-HIAA excretion. PMID:18209781

  2. Current concepts in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fleshman, James W; Smallwood, Nathan

    2015-03-01

    The history of rectal cancer management informs current therapy and points us in the direction of future improvements. Multidisciplinary team management of rectal cancer will move us to personalized treatment for individuals with rectal cancer in all stages.

  3. Increased level of urinary nitric oxide metabolites in leprosy patients during type 2 reactions and decreased after antireactional therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Keshar K; Gupta, Manisha; Girdhar, B K; Girdhar, A; Chakma, J K; Sengupta, U

    2007-12-01

    To assess the urinary nitric oxide metabolites in lepromatous patients in ENL (type 2 reactions) and to compare these metabolites after subsidence of reactions following antireactional therapy. Further to compare the levels in a group of lepromatous leprosy patients without reactions. The initial urine samples were collected from lepromatous leprosy patients when they came with ENL before commencing antireactional therapy and repeat samples were taken after resolution of ENL. Morning urine samples were collected from LL patients without reactions. Nitrites and nitrates in urine were measured using commercially available kit. Mean levels of nitric oxide metabolites of LL patients with ENL and without ENL were compared by student's 't' test. The level during ENL and after resolution was compared by paired 't' test. The nitric oxide metabolites were analyzed in 14 LL patients with ENL and after resolution of ENL and in 5 LL patients without reaction. The level of urinary nitric oxide metabolite is higher in LL patients in ENL reaction compared to LL patients without reaction (P < 0.04). These levels were reduced significantly with resolution of reaction following antireactional therapy (P < 0.004). The findings of this study suggested that the NO/NOM excretion is increased in leprosy patients during ENL episodes. With antireactional therapy (steroids) and clinical improvement the levels are reduced.

  4. Deep Surgical Site Infections after Open Radical Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion Significantly Increase Hospitalisation Time and Total Treatment Costs.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Mathias; Oelke, Matthias; Lutze, Bettina; Weingart, Markus; Kuczyk, Markus A; Chaberny, Iris F; Graf, Karolin

    2017-01-01

    Deep surgical site infections (DSSI) usually require secondary treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the total length of hospitalisation (LOH), intensive care unit (ICU) duration, and total treatment costs in patients with DSSI versus without DSSI after open radical cystectomy (ORC) and urinary diversion. Prospective case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in patients after ORC with urinary diversion during April 2008 to July 2012. DSSI was defined based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Matched-pair analysis for patients with versus without DSSI was done in 1:2 ratios. Patients with superficial surgical site infections (SSI) were excluded from analysis. In total, 189 operations were performed. Thirty-eight patients (20.1%) developed SSI of which 28 patients (14.8%) had DSSI. Out of 28 patients, 27 (96.4%) were with DSSI and required surgical re-intervention. Due to insufficient matching criteria, 11 patients with DSSI were excluded from analyses. Consequently, 17 patients with DSSI were matched with 34 patients without DSSI. Significant differences were seen for median overall LOH (30 vs. 18 days, p < 0.001), median ICU duration (p = 0.024), and median overall treatment costs (€17,030 vs. €11,402, p = 0.011). DSSI significantly increases LOH (67%) and treatment costs (49%), adding up to a financial loss for the hospital of approximately €5,500 in patients with DSSI. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Combined inflatable penile prosthesis-artificial urinary sphincter implantation: no increased risk of adverse events compared to single or staged device implantation.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert L; Cabrini, Mercelo R; Harris, Elaine D; Mostwin, Jacek L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2013-12-01

    Little data exist on the outcome of combined inflatable penile prosthesis and artificial urinary sphincter insertion for erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence. We assessed patient outcomes for combined vs single device implantation at a single institution. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients who underwent inflatable penile prosthesis and artificial urinary sphincter insertion at our hospital from January 2000 to December 2011. A total of 55 combined procedures were performed compared to the single insertion of 336 inflatable penile prostheses and 279 artificial urinary sphincters. The surgical approach consisted of penoscrotal incisions for inflatable penile prostheses and transperineal incisions for artificial urinary sphincter cuff placement with a secondary lower abdominal incision for reservoir placement. Men treated with combined implantation had greater mean age and were at greater risk for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment, and at lesser risk for Peyronie disease than men who received an inflatable penile prosthesis alone (each p<0.05). Although operative time was significantly longer for the combined procedure than for the inflatable penile prosthesis alone and the AUS alone (mean 218.1 vs 145.9 and 114.7 minutes, respectively, p<0.0001), the rate of device infection, erosion or malfunction was not increased irrespective of combined or staged procedures (p>0.05). Combined inflatable penile prosthesis-artificial urinary sphincter implantation and staged prosthesis implantation are feasible without an increased risk of adverse outcomes compared to implantation of a single prosthesis. Patients with concomitant erectile dysfunction and stress urinary incontinence should be counseled about the possible advantages of this surgical option, which include a single anesthesia event and faster resumption of sexual activity and urinary control. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  6. Aerobically trained individuals have greater increases in rectal temperature than untrained ones during exercise in the heat at similar relative intensities.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Del Coso, Juan; Hamouti, Nassim; Estevez, Emma; Ortega, Juan F

    2010-07-01

    To determine if the increases in rectal temperature (T(REC)) during exercise in the heat at a given percent of VO2peak depend on a subject's aerobic fitness level. On three occasions, 10 endurance-trained (Tr) and 10 untrained (UTr) subjects (VO2peak: 60 +/- 6 vs. 44 +/- 3 mL kg(-1) min(-1), P < 0.05) cycled in a hot-dry environment (36 +/- 1 degrees C; 25 +/- 2% humidity, airflow 2.5 m s(-1)) at three workloads (40, 60, and 80% VO2peak). At the same percent of VO2peak, on average, Tr had 28 +/- 5% higher heat production but also higher skin blood flow (29 +/- 3%) and sweat rate (20 +/- 7%; P = 0.07) and lower skin temperature (0.5 degrees C; P < 0.05). Pre-exercise T(REC) was lower in the Tr subjects (37.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 37.6 +/- 0.2; P < 0.05) but similar to the UTr at the end of 40 and 60% VO2peak trials. Thus, exercise T(REC) increased more in the Tr group than in the UTr group (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.3 +/- 0.1 degrees C at 40% VO2peak and 1.0 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C at 60% VO2peak; P < 0.05). At 80% VO2peak not only the increase in T(REC) (1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3 degrees C) but also the final T(REC) was larger in Tr than in UTr subjects (39.15 +/- 0.1 vs. 38.85 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P < 0.05). During exercise in the heat at the same relative intensity, aerobically trained individuals have a larger rise in T(REC) than do the untrained ones which renders them more hyperthermic after high-intensity exercise.

  7. Chromium (VI) induced oxidative damage to DNA: increase of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine concentrations (8-OHdG) among electroplating workers

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, H; Chang, S; Wu, K; Wu, F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the concentration of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) among electroplating workers in Taiwan. Methods: Fifty workers were selected from five chromium (Cr) electroplating plants in central Taiwan. The 20 control subjects were office workers with no previous exposure to Cr. Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results: Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations among Cr workers (1149.5 pmol/kg/day) were higher than those in the control group (730.2 pmol/kg/day). There was a positive correlation between urinary 8-OHdG concentrations and urinary Cr concentration (r = 0.447, p < 0.01), and urinary 8-OHdG correlated positively with airborne Cr concentration (r = 0.285). Using multiple regression analysis, the factors that affected urinary 8-OHdG concentrations were alcohol, the common cold, and high urinary Cr concentration. There was a high correlation of urinary 8-OHdG with both smoking and drinking, but multiple regression analysis showed that smoking was not a significant factor. Age and gender were also non-significant factors. Conclusion: 8-OHdG, which is an indicator of oxidative DNA damage, was a sensitive biomarker for Cr exposure. PMID:12883020

  8. Correlation between increased urinary sodium excretion and decreased left ventricular diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kagiyama, Shuntaro; Koga, Tokushi; Kaseda, Shigeru; Ishihara, Shiro; Kawazoe, Nobuyuki; Sadoshima, Seizo; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Takata, Yutaka; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Iida, Mitsuo

    2009-10-01

    Increased salt intake may induce hypertension, lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and exacerbate heart failure. When elderly patients develop heart failure, diastolic dysfunction is often observed, although the ejection fraction has decreased. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an established risk factor for heart failure. However, little is known about the relationship between cardiac function and urinary sodium excretion (U-Na) in patients with DM. We measured 24-hour U-Na; cardiac function was evaluated directly during coronary catheterization in type 2 DM (n = 46) or non-DM (n = 55) patients with preserved cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction > or = 60%). Cardiac diastolic and systolic function was evaluated as - dp/dt and + dp/dt, respectively. The average of U-Na was 166.6 +/- 61.2 mEq/24 hour (mean +/- SD). In all patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that - dp/dt had a negative correlation with serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; beta = - 0.23, P = .021) and U-Na (beta = - 0.24, P = .013). On the other hand, + dp/dt negatively correlated with BNP (beta = - 0.30, P < .001), but did not relate to U-Na. In the DM-patients, stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that - dp/dt still had a negative correlation with U-Na (beta = - 0.33, P = .025). The results indicated that increased urinary sodium excretion is associated with an impairment of cardiac diastolic function, especially in patients with DM, suggesting that a reduction of salt intake may improve cardiac diastolic function.

  9. Rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction: case report.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Ümit; Bircan, Hüseyin Yüce; Eren, Eryiğit; Demiralay, Ebru; Işıklar, İclal; Demirağ, Alp; Moray, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    Although diverticular disease of the colon is common, the occurrence of rectal diverticula is extremely rare with only sporadic reports in the literature since 1911. Symptomatic rectal diverticula are seen even less frequently, and surgical intervention is needed for only complicated cases. Here we report the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with rectal diverticulitis mimicking rectal carcinoma with intestinal obstruction.

  10. [Adjuvant radiotherapy in rectal cancer and total mesorectal excision].

    PubMed

    Coco, C; Valentini, V; Verbo, A

    2001-01-01

    Local recurrence (LR) after surgical resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum still remains an unsolved problem. Local relapse often occurs when tumor spreads in perirectal fat (mesorectum) or along the lateral iliac lymph nodes also when surgery is considered radically. There is a close relationship between local recurrence rate and lymphatic involvement, local tumor extension and tumour grading. Total mesorectal excision (TME) appears to be associated with a reduced LR rate when resection of perirectal fat is done "en-bloc" and when a negative radial margins is obtained. TME allows autonomic nerve sparing and sphincter preservation too, but lateral nodes are not treated by TME. Extended lymphadenectomy with lateral dissection for advanced rectal cancer has been often associated with an increase rate of long term morbidity, particularly regarding urinary and sexual function. Concomitant preoperative chemo-radiation for advanced rectal cancer is a relatively safe procedure with an acceptable morbidity and mortality. This approach is associated with a considerable clinical and pathologic tumor downstaging. Tumor resectability is improved and lateral spreading is also better controlled. An improving in survival and a longer disease free period has been reported. More radical sphincter saving operations are also allowed.

  11. Healthcare practices among blacks and whites with urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Edwards, Bennett G.; Whitehead, Kimberly; Amamoo, M. Ahinee; Godley, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: The reasons for African-American men to seek care for lower urinary care symptoms has not been determined due to sparse population-based data. OBJECTIVE: Our study examines the solicitation and receipt of medical care for urinary symptoms among racially oversampled elderly urban and rural cohort of African Americans and whites. DESIGN: Longitudinal analyses were conducted on five North Carolina counties through the Piedmont Health Survey of the Elderly Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly. In 1994, the analytic cohort included 482 African Americans and 407 whites; by 1998, 249 and 222, respectively. RESULTS: In 1994, 49.4% of African Americans presented with lower urinary tract symptoms compared to 56.8% of whites. By 1998, these percentages increased to 60.6% and 70.3%, respectively. African Americans reported more interference with activities of daily living than whites. African Americans were less likely than whites to have regular digital rectal exams (DRE) and were more likely to have never received a DRE at all. Additionally, elders with less educational attainment, those who smoked, those who delayed care quite often and those who used less-experienced physicians were less likely to receive regular DREs. CONCLUSION: Poor health behavior has the greatest impact on healthcare seeking for lower urinary tract symptoms. These health behavior risk factors are systemic of a lack of health education. Increases in health education among African Americans regarding lower urinary tract symptoms may close the racial disparity in healthcare-seeking behaviors. PMID:17444430

  12. An Initial Attack of Urinary Stone Disease Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Developing New-Onset Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wei-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Yu; Wu, Jr-Hau; Lin, Fei-Hung; Hsu Chen, Cheng; Chang, Chin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Background The neurotransmitter pathways in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and urinary stone attacks are both related to serotonin, and each disease may be influenced by viscero-visceral hyperalgesia. However, the relationship between urinary tract stone disease and IBS has never been addressed. We aimed to investigate the risk of suffering new-onset IBS after an initial urinary stone attack using a nationwide database. Methods A study group enrolled a total of 13,254 patients who were diagnosed with an initial urinary stone attack; a comparison group recruited 39,762 matched non-urinary stone participants during 2003 and 2007. We followed each patient for 3 years to determine new-onset IBS. We also used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze the risk of IBS between the study and comparison groups after modified by demographics, residence, patient characteristics and personal histories. Results The occurrence rates of IBS were 3.3% (n = 440) and 2.6% (n = 1,034) respectively in the study and comparison groups. A covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of IBS in the study group that was 1.28 times greater (HR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.15–1.44) than that in the comparison group was showed in the stratified Cox proportional analysis. The adjusted HRs of IBS did not decrease after considering demographics and past histories. The majority of IBS (30.5%) occurred within the first 6 months after the stone attack. Conclusion Patients with an initial urinary stone attack are at increased risk of developing new-onset IBS. The HRs of IBS did not decrease even after adjusting for patient demographics and past histories. Most importantly, 30.5% of IBS occurred within the first 6 months after the urinary stone attack. PMID:27337114

  13. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity

    PubMed Central

    Heppner, Thomas J.; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. PMID:26224686

  14. Social stress in mice induces urinary bladder overactivity and increases TRPV1 channel-dependent afferent nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Mingin, Gerald C; Heppner, Thomas J; Tykocki, Nathan R; Erickson, Cuixia Shi; Vizzard, Margaret A; Nelson, Mark T

    2015-09-15

    Social stress has been implicated as a cause of urinary bladder hypertrophy and dysfunction in humans. Using a murine model of social stress, we and others have shown that social stress leads to bladder overactivity. Here, we show that social stress leads to bladder overactivity, increased bladder compliance, and increased afferent nerve activity. In the social stress paradigm, 6-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed for a total of 2 wk, via barrier cage, to a C57BL/6 retired breeder aggressor mouse. We performed conscious cystometry with and without intravesical infusion of the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine, and measured pressure-volume relationships and afferent nerve activity during bladder filling using an ex vivo bladder model. Stress leads to a decrease in intermicturition interval and void volume in vivo, which was restored by capsazepine. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that at low pressures, bladder compliance and afferent activity were elevated in stressed bladders compared with unstressed bladders. Capsazepine did not significantly change afferent activity in unstressed mice, but significantly decreased afferent activity at all pressures in stressed bladders. Immunohistochemistry revealed that TRPV1 colocalizes with CGRP to stain nerve fibers in unstressed bladders. Colocalization significantly increased along the same nerve fibers in the stressed bladders. Our results support the concept that social stress induces TRPV1-dependent afferent nerve activity, ultimately leading to the development of overactive bladder symptoms. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Rectal epithelial cell mitosis and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor are increased 3 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morbid obesity: implications for long-term neoplastic risk following RYGB.

    PubMed

    Kant, Prashant; Sainsbury, Anita; Reed, Karen R; Pollard, Stephen G; Scott, Nigel; Clarke, Alan R; Coletta, P Louise; Hull, Mark A

    2011-07-01

    Rectal epithelial cell mitosis and crypt size, as well as expression of proinflammatory genes including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), are increased 6 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in morbidly obese patients. Tests were carried out to determine whether these putative colorectal cancer risk biomarkers remained elevated long term after RYGB, and the mechanistic basis, as well as the functional consequences, of Mif upregulation in intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. Rectal mucosa and blood were obtained a median of 3 years after RYGB from the original cohort of patients with RYGB (n = 19) for crypt microdissection, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry for MIF and immunoassay of proinflammatory markers. Immunohistochemistry for Mif and bromodeoxyuridine labelling were performed on AhCre⁺ mouse and Apc(Min/⁺) mouse (with and without functional Mif alleles) intestine, respectively. Rectal epithelial cell mitosis and crypt size remained elevated 3 years after RYGB compared with preoperative values (1.7- and 1.5-fold, respectively; p < 0.05). There was a 40-fold (95% CI 13 to 125) increase in mucosal MIF transcript levels at 3 years associated with increased epithelial cell MIF protein levels. Conditional Apc loss in AhCre⁺ mice led to increased epithelial cell Mif content. Mif deficiency in Apc(Min/⁺) mice was associated with a combined defect in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and migration, which was reflected by the longitudinal clinical data. Mucosal abnormalities persist 3 years after RYGB and include elevation of the protumorigenic cytokine MIF, which is upregulated following Apc loss and which contributes to intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis. These observations should prompt clinical studies of colorectal neoplastic risk after RYGB.

  16. Increasing the risk of late rectal bleeding after high-dose radiotherapy for prostate cancer: the case of previous abdominal surgery. Results from a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Vavassori, Vittorio; Rancati, Tiziana; Fellin, Gianni; Baccolini, Micaela; Bianchi, Carla; Cagna, Emanuela; Gabriele, Pietro; Mauro, Floranna; Menegotti, Loris; Monti, Angelo Filippo; Stasi, Michele; Fiorino, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate and discuss the role of specific types of abdominal surgery (SURG) before radical radiation therapy as a risk factor for late rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Results concerning questionnaire-based scored late bleeding and faecal incontinence in 718 patients with a complete follow-up of 36 months were analysed, focusing on the impact of specific pre-radiotherapy abdominal/pelvic surgery procedures. Patients were accrued in the prospective study AIROPROS 0102. Different types of surgery (rectum-sigma resection, kidney resection, cholecystectomy or appendectomy) were considered as covariates together with a number of different parameters previously found to be predictive of late toxicity and including clinical as well as dosimetric parameters. Univariate (UVA) and multivariate (MVA) logistic analyses were carried out. In total 69/718 patients were previously submitted to one or more surgical procedures, mostly cholecystectomy (n=21) and appendectomy (n=27). Actuarial incidences of G2-G3 and G3 bleeding were 52 (7.2%) and 24 (3.3%) respectively; 19 (2.6%) chronic incontinence events were registered. Cholecystectomy was found to be highly correlated with late rectal bleeding at UVA: OR=4.3 and p=0.006 for G2-G3 and OR=5.4 and p=0.01 for G3. Considering MVA (including dosimetric and clinical factors), G2-G3 bleeding was significantly correlated to cholecystectomy (OR=6.5, p=0.002), V75 Gy (OR=1.074, p=0.003) and secondarily with appendectomy (OR=2.7, p=0.10), presence of acute radioinduced rectal bleeding (OR=1.70, p=0.21) and androgen deprivation (OR=0.67, p=0.25). Appendectomy (OR=5.9, p=0.004) and cholecystectomy (OR=5.5, p=0.016) were very strong predictors of G3 bleeding with V75 Gy playing a less significant role (OR=1.037, p=0.26). Conversely, no specific surgery was correlated with actuarial or chronic incontinence. This analysis highlights previous SURG as the best predictor of late rectal bleeding. Among the different types of abdominal

  17. Rectal cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Mohammad Sadegh; Keramati, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Rectal cancer is the second most common cancer in large intestine. The prevalence and the number of young patients diagnosed with rectal cancer have made it as one of the major health problems in the world. With regard to the improved access to and use of modern screening tools, a number of new cases are diagnosed each year. Considering the location of the rectum and its adjacent organs, management and treatment of rectal tumor is different from tumors located in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract or even the colon. In this article, we will review the current updates on rectal cancer including epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentations, screening, and staging. Diagnostic methods and latest treatment modalities and approaches will also be discussed in detail. PMID:26034724

  18. Rectal imaging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vining, D J

    1998-09-01

    Rectal imaging has evolved substantially during the past 25 years and now offers surgeons exquisite anatomic detail and physiologic information. Dynamic cystoproctography, helical computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging, and immunoscintigraphy have become standards for the diagnosis of rectal disease, staging of neoplasia, and survey of therapeutic results. The indications, limitations, and relative costs of current imaging methods are reviewed, and advances in imaging technology that promise future benefits to colorectal surgeons are introduced.

  19. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P < 0.005. Correlation between the two trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  1. Increased urinary 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate levels in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosed children and adolescent.

    PubMed

    Büber, Ahmet; Çakaloz, Burcu; Işıldar, Yetiş; Ünlü, Gülşen; Bostancı, Hayrani Eren; Aybek, Hülya; Herken, Hasan

    2016-03-23

    There are some studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which note altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. In order to better characterize the possible melatonin alteration in ADHD, in this study we aimed to detect daytime, nighttime and 24 h levels of 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate (6-OH MS) in the patients diagnosed with ADHD. Twenty-seven patients between 6 and 16 years-old, who had been diagnosed initially with ADHD, but without other physical and psychiatric disease history and who had not taken psychotropic pharmacotherapy for six months, plus 28 healthy volunteer controls, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected during the whole 24 h cycle, daytime and nighttime separately to assess the time-dependent excretion of the 6-OH MS, which is the main urine metabolite of melatonin. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was used for measuring the urine 6-OH MS level. Daytime (15.4 (8.9-24.8) ng/ml vs 6.9 (2.5-15.9) ng/ml, p=0.002), nighttime (102.9 (65.3-197.7) ng/ml vs 61.5 (37.2-114.4) ng/ml, p=0.012) and 24 h (54.1 (34.6-83.9) ng/ml vs 27.3 (14.3-48.9) ng/ml, p=0.000) 6-OH MS levels median (25p-75p) were found to be significantly higher in the ADHD group. After adjustment for age and sex, there was a statistically significant difference between the ADHD group (59.8 ± 4.9) and control group (33.8 ± 4.8) in 24-h 6-OH MS levels (F(1, 51)=13.673, p=.001, partial η2=.211). There was no relationship between 6-OH MS levels and Conners Parent Rating Scale short form subscale scores for the ADHD group. These findings indicate that melatonin production is increased in ADHD cases. Further research is needed to determine and thereby understand the mechanisms underlying the higher melatonin production, to assess the impact of altered melatonin on the pathophysiology of ADHD.

  2. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  3. NaCl cotransporter abundance in urinary vesicles is increased by calcineurin inhibitors and predicts thiazide sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Flores, Marco A.; Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Vrie, Mathijs v. D.; Jeleń, Sabina; Fenton, Robert A.; Zietse, Robert; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Hoorn, Ewout J.; Hilbrands, Luuk

    2017-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine and tacrolimus can activate the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC). A common side effect of CNIs is hypertension. Renal salt transporters such as NCC are excreted in urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs) after internalization into multivesicular bodies. Human studies indicate that CNIs also increase NCC abundance in uEVs, but results are conflicting and no relationship with NCC function has been shown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of CsA and Tac on the abundance of both total NCC (tNCC) and phosphorylated NCC at Thr60 phosphorylation site (pNCC) in uEVs, and assessed whether NCC abundance in uEVs predicts the blood pressure response to thiazide diuretics. Our results show that in kidney transplant recipients treated with cyclosporine (n = 9) or tacrolimus (n = 23), the abundance of both tNCC and pNCC in uEVs is 4–5 fold higher than in CNI-free kidney transplant recipients (n = 13) or healthy volunteers (n = 6). In hypertensive kidney transplant recipients, higher abundances of tNCC and pNCC prior to treatment with thiazides predicted the blood pressure response to thiazides. During thiazide treatment, the abundance of pNCC in uEVs increased in responders (n = 10), but markedly decreased in non-responders (n = 8). Thus, our results show that CNIs increase the abundance of both tNCC and pNCC in uEVs, and these increases correlate with the blood pressure response to thiazides. This implies that assessment of NCC in uEVs could represent an alternate method to guide anti-hypertensive therapy in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:28430812

  4. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Ping-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) (n = 6801) and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−]) (n = 20,403) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–1.76, P < 0.0001) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.0001). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS. PMID:26290863

  5. Increased urinary Angiotensinogen/Creatinine (AGT/Cr) ratio may be associated with reduced renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Hayne Cho; Kang, Ah-Young; Jang, Joon Young; Kim, Hyunsuk; Han, Miyeun; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Kim, Seung Hyup; Noh, Jung Woo; Cheong, Hae Il; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Ahn, Curie

    2015-06-20

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common hereditary kidney diseases that frequently result in renal failure. In this cross-sectional observational cohort study, we evaluated urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) as a potential biomarker to assess renal function in ADPKD. Urinary AGT was measured in 233 ADPKD patients and its association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and height-adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) were evaluated. The localization of AGT and other renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-related molecules were identified using immunohistochemistry in human ADPKD tissues. Baseline urinary AGT/Cr was negatively correlated with CKD-EPI eGFR (r(2) = 0.162, P < 0.001) and positively correlated with htTKV (r(2) = 0.107, P < 0.001). Both urinary AGT/Cr and plasma renin activity levels were significantly elevated in hypertensive ADPKD patients. Among hypertensive subjects, urinary AGT/Cr was significantly increased in the advanced CKD stages (III-V) compared to early CKD stages (I-II) (28.6 ± 60.3 vs. 93.2 ± 139.3 μg/g, P < 0.001). Immunohistochemical study showed strong expression of AGT along the cyst-lining epithelial cells as well as the nearby compressed tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggested that urinary AGT/Cr may be a valuable biomarker for renal damage in ADPKD since intrarenal ischemic insults induced by cyst growth and subsequent intrarenal RAS activation may play a potential role in the development of hypertension and renal dysfunction in ADPKD.

  6. Comparative analysis of late functional outcome following preoperative radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy and surgery or surgery alone in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Contin, Pietro; Kulu, Yakup; Bruckner, Thomas; Sturm, Martin; Welsch, Thilo; Müller-Stich, Beat P; Huber, Johannes; Büchler, Markus W; Ulrich, Alexis

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluates the anorectal and genitourinary function of patients treated by preoperative short-term radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery and surgery alone for rectal cancer. For this study, a total of 613 patients, who were identified from a prospective rectal cancer database, underwent anterior resection of the rectum between October 2001 and December 2007. Standardized questionnaires were used to determine fecal incontinence, urinary, and sexual function. Relevant clinical variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Independent predictors of functional outcome were identified by a binary logistic regression analysis. The data of 263 (43 %) patients were available for analysis. On multivariate analysis, neoadjuvant RT (P < 0.01) and low anterior resection (LAR) (P = 0.049) were associated with fecal incontinence. In univariate analysis, fecal incontinence was linked to preoperative neoadjuvant treatment (RT and/or CRT vs. LAR) (P < 0.01). The hazard ratio for developing fecal incontinence was 3.3 (1.6-6.8) for patients who received RT. One hundred twenty-five patients (51.2 %) experienced urinary incontinence following surgery, the majority of whom were female (P < 0.01). On univariate analysis, male sexual function was associated with age (P < 0.01), ASA class (P = 0.01) and LAR (P = 0.01). Multimodal therapy of low rectal cancer increases the incidence of fecal incontinence and negatively affects sexual function. The potential benefits of RT or CRT need to be balanced against the risk of increased bowel dysfunction when determining the appropriate treatment for individual patients with rectal cancer.

  7. The increase in urinary excretion of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol as a marker of human hepatic cytochrome P450IIIA induction.

    PubMed Central

    Ged, C; Rouillon, J M; Pichard, L; Combalbert, J; Bressot, N; Bories, P; Michel, H; Beaune, P; Maurel, P

    1989-01-01

    1. Urinary excretion of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol, hepatic microsomal cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase and the specific content of several forms of cytochrome P450 were measured in 8 to 14 patients before and after treatment with rifampicin (600 mg orally per day for 4 days). 2. Rifampicin treatment produced an average five fold increase in daily excretion of urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol. 3. Cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase activity increased from 15 +/- 6 pmol min-1 mg-1 in organ donors (considered as 'control subjects') to 87 +/- 31 pmol min-1 mg-1 in rifampicin treated patients. 4. Among three forms of human P450 (P450IA, IIC and IIIA), (1), (2), measured by Western blots, only P450IIIA was significantly induced by the antibiotic. 5. Only antibodies against P450IIIA selectively inhibited cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase in human liver microsomes. 6. Cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase was correlated with P450IIIA specific content. 7. The urinary level of 6 beta-hydroxycortisol correlated with liver microsomal cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase and P450IIIA specific content. 8. We conclude that P450IIIA is predominantly responsible for cortisol 6 beta-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes and that urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol is a marker of the induction of this cytochrome P450. Images Figure 2 PMID:2590599

  8. Novel radiation techniques for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The concepts for management of rectal cancer have changed drastically over the past few years. Through national bowel cancer screening programmes in the Western countries and the increasing use of endoscopic procedures as diagnostic tool, there is increase in detection of rectal cancer in early stages. There is increase in ageing population worldwide but more so in Western countries. In addition, there is realisation of harm from extirpative surgical procedures which are directed towards managing advanced rectal cancer in the past. Increase in cost of health care burden has also led the investigators to seek alternative treatment options which are effective, safe and cost effective. There are several modern radiation techniques which fits this bill and we need to be aware of newer novel radiation techniques to fulfil this gap. PMID:24982769

  9. Increased levels of urinary phenylacetylglycine associated with mitochondrial toxicity in a model of drug-induced phospholipidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Georg; Lenz, Barbara; Fischer, Holger; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Senn, Hans; Suter, Laura; Csato, Miklos; Evers, Stefan; Singer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phospholipidosis (PLD) is a lysosomal storage disorder induced by a class of cationic amphiphilic drugs. However, drug-induced PLD is reversible. Evidence of PLD from animal studies with some compounds has led to discontinuation of development. Regulatory authorities are likely to request additional studies when PLD is linked to toxicity. Objective: We conducted a trial to investigate urinary phenylacetylglycine (uPAG) as a biomarker for PLD. Materials and methods: Five groups of 12 male Wistar rats were dosed once with vehicle, 300 mg/kg or 1500 mg/kg of compound A (known to induce PLD), or 300 mg/kg or 1000 mg/kg of compound B (similar structure, but does not induce PLD) to achieve similar plasma exposures. Following dosing, urine and blood samples underwent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), proteomic, and biochemical analyses. Necropsies were performed at 48 and 168 h, organ histopathology evaluated, and gene expression in liver analyzed by microarray. Electron microscopic examination of peripheral lymphocytes was performed. Results: For compound A, uPAG increased with dose, correlating with lamellar inclusion bodies formation in peripheral lymphocytes. NMR analysis showed decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, inferring mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction was suggested by uPAG increase, resulting from a switch to anaerobic metabolism or disruption of the urea cycle. Discussion and conclusion: uPAG shows utility as a noninvasive biomarker for mitochondrial toxicity associated with drug-induced PLD, providing a mechanistic hypothesis for toxicity associated with PLD likely resulting from combined direct and indirect mitochondrial toxicity via impairment of the proton motor force and alteration of fatty acid catabolism. PMID:25083254

  10. Urinary Symptom Flare in 712 {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy Patients: Long-Term Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, Mira; Miller, Stacy; Moravan, Veronika; Pickles, Tom; Liu, Mitchell; Spadinger, Ingrid; Lapointe, Vincent; Morris, W. James

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To describe the late transient worsening of urinary symptoms ('urinary symptom flare') in 712 consecutive prostate brachytherapy patients, associated predictive factors, association with rectal and urinary toxicity, and the development of erectile dysfunction. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent implantation between 1998 and 2003 (median follow-up, 57 months). International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) toxicity, and erectile function data were prospectively collected. Flare was defined as an increase in IPSS of >=5 and of >=8 points greater than the post-treatment nadir. The relationships between the occurrence of flare and the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were examined. The Cox proportional hazards method was used to test individual variables and the multivariate models. Results: The incidence of flare was 52% and 30% using the flare definition of an IPSS of >=5 and >=8 points greater than the postimplant nadir, respectively. Of the patients with symptoms, 65% had resolution of their symptoms within 6 months and 91% within 1 year. Flares most commonly occurred 16-24 months after implantation. On multivariate analysis, a greater baseline IPSS and greater maximal postimplant IPSS were the predictors of flare, regardless of the flare definition used. Androgen suppression was a predictor for fewer flares (IPSS >=5). Diabetes and prostate edema predicted for more frequent flares (IPSS >=8). Patients with flare had a greater incidence of RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and RTOG Grade 2 or greater rectal toxicity. No association was found between erectile dysfunction and the occurrence of flare. Conclusion: Urinary symptom flare is a common, transient phenomenon after prostate brachytherapy. A greater baseline IPSS and maximal postimplant IPSS were the strongest predictive factors. Flare was associated with a greater incidence of late RTOG Grade 3 urinary toxicity and greater rate of late RTOG Grade

  11. Women with high early pregnancy urinary iodine levels have an increased risk of hyperthyroid newborns: the population-based Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Medici, Marco; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Visser, Willy; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Visser, W Edward; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Bongers-Schokking, Jacoba J; Ross, H Alec; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Peeters, Robin P

    2014-04-01

    Iodine deficiency during pregnancy results in thyroid dysfunction and has been associated with adverse obstetric and foetal effects, leading to worldwide salt iodization programmes. As nowadays 69% of the world's population lives in iodine-sufficient regions, we investigated the effects of variation in iodine status on maternal and foetal thyroid (dys)function in an iodine-sufficient population. Urinary iodine, serum TSH, free T4 (FT4) and TPO-antibody levels were determined in early pregnancy (13·3 (1·9) week; mean (SD)) in 1098 women from the population-based Generation R Study. Newborn cord serum TSH and FT4 levels were determined at birth. The median urinary iodine level was 222·5 μg/l, indicating an iodine-sufficient population. 30·8% and 11·5% had urinary iodine levels <150 and >500 μg/l, respectively. When comparing mothers with urinary iodine levels <150 vs ≥150 μg/l, and >500 vs ≤500 μg/l, there were no differences in the risk of maternal increased or decreased TSH, hypothyroxinaemia or hyperthyroidism. Mothers with urinary iodine levels >500 μg/l had a higher risk of a newborn with decreased cord TSH levels (5·6 ± 1·4 (mean ± SE) vs 2·1 ± 0·5%, P = 0·04), as well as a higher risk of a hyperthyroid newborn (3·1 ± 0·9 vs 0·6 ± 0·3%, P = 0·02). These mothers had newborns with higher cord FT4 levels (21·7 ± 0·3 vs 21·0 ± 0·1 pm, P = 0·04). Maternal urinary iodine levels <150 μg/l were not associated with newborn thyroid dysfunction. In an iodine-sufficient population, higher maternal urinary iodine levels are associated with an increased risk of a hyperthyroid newborn. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Activation of the serotonergic 5-HT1A receptor in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    de Souza Villa, Patrícia; Menani, José Vanderlei; de Arruda Camargo, Gabriela Maria Pavan; de Arruda Camargo, Luiz Antônio; Saad, Wilson Abrão

    2008-10-09

    The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) may be considered as a dynamic mosaic of chemically-specified subgroups of neurons. 5-HT(1A) is one of the prime receptors identified and there is expressed throughout all magnocellular regions of the PVN. Several reports have demonstrated that a subpopulation of the magnocellular neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors are oxytocin (OT) neurons and activation of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the PVN increases the plasma OT. Increasing evidence shows that OT inhibits water intake and increases urinary excretion in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of serotonergic 5-HT(1A) receptors in the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in the water intake and diuresis induced by 24 h of water deprivation. Cannulae were implanted in the PVN of rats. 5-HT injections in the PVN reduced water intake and increased urinary excretion. 8-OH-DPAT (a 5-HT(1A) agonist) injections blocked the water intake and increased urinary output in all the periods of the observation. pMPPF (a 5-HT(1A) antagonist) injected bilaterally before the 8-OH-DPAT blocked its inhibitory effect on water intake and its diuretic effect. We suggest that antidipsogenic and diuretic responses seem to be mediated via 5-HT(1A) receptors of the lateral-medial posterior magnocellular region of the PVN in water-deprived rats.

  13. Canagliflozin Lowers Postprandial Glucose and Insulin by Delaying Intestinal Glucose Absorption in Addition to Increasing Urinary Glucose Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P.; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, 3H-glucose, 14C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. RESULTS Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0–2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0–6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. CONCLUSIONS Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition. PMID:23412078

  14. [Urinary bilharziasis].

    PubMed

    Gigase, P L

    1992-01-01

    A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem.

  15. [Nuclear morphology in false negative and negative rectal biopsies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rilke, F; Clemente, C; Pilotti, S

    1975-01-01

    An typical nuclear structure consisting of a cribriform and condensed chromatin pattern with hyperchromasia, a small nucleolus and a moderately increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was observed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and in the stromal and muscular cells of 51 out of 70 oncologically negative biopsies of the rectal mucosa. The subsequent retrieval of all clinical and histologia data revealed that the 51 cases included 39 of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine either present (15 cases) at a variable distance from the false negative biopsy or removed previously (24 cases), 7 of extra-intestinal malignant tumor (parotid gland, urinary bladder, endometrium, breast, stomach, metastatic, anus) and 5 with benign conditions of the large intestine. Of the remaining 19 cases whose biopsies did not reveal the atypical nuclear structure 16 had benign lesions of the large intestine and nowhere evidence of malignancy, two had an adenocarcinoma of the large bowel (one present and one removed previously) and one a carcinoma of the anus. In the rectal biopsies examined the atypical nuclear structure was detected in 93.9% of the cases with a malignant tumor either present or removed previously and in 19% of the cases with benign conditions. The morphologic evidence indicated that the atypical nuclear structure was compatible with a possible distrubance of the mitotic cycle since the findings were restricted to the generative compartment of rectal epithelium. The results are discussed in connection with their possible practical use as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation and interpretation of false negative and negative rectal biopsies as well as with their possible significance in the biology of tumor-bearing hosts.

  16. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  17. Slight increase in urinary albumin excretion within the normal range predicts incident hypertension in a community-based Japanese population: the Takahata study.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Atsushi; Konta, Tsuneo; Hozawa, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Tetsu; Shibata, Yoko; Kayama, Takamasa; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that urine albumin excretion in the high normal range predicts hypertension. However, the relationship between urinary albumin excretion in spot urine and incident hypertension remains unclear in the general Japanese population. To clarify this relationship, we conducted a cohort study in a community-based population of 412 normotensive individuals without diabetes and renal insufficiency and examined the incidence of hypertension using the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) at baseline. Incident hypertension was defined as new-onset systolic blood pressure ⩾ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ⩾ 90 mm Hg and/or the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. During the follow-up period (median, 6.7 years), 133 subjects (32.3%) newly developed hypertension. The incidence of hypertension increased with an increase in baseline UACR (20.4% for UACR <5 mg g(-1), 34.0% for 5-9.9 mg g(-1) UACR and 40.4% for 10-29.9 mg g(-1), P=0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for possible confounders, showed that UACR 5-9.9 mg g(-1) and 10-29.9 mg g(-1) were independent risks for incident hypertension compared with UACR <5 mg g(-1) (odds ratio (OR) 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-4.10 and OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.36-5.38, respectively). Subgroup analysis revealed that subjects with increased UACR (⩾ 5 mg g(-1)) had a higher risk of incident hypertension than did those with low UACR (<5 mg g(-1)), irrespective of their backgrounds (age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and urinary sodium excretion). In conclusion, this study showed that a slight increase in urinary albumin excretion might predict incident hypertension in a community-based Japanese population.

  18. Rectal sensation test helps avoid pain of apical prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Jones, J Stephen; Zippe, Craig D

    2003-12-01

    Apical cores obtained during transrectal prostate biopsy are associated with greater pain than cores obtained from the remainder of the gland. We present a method to minimize this pain. During 30 consecutive apical biopsies the needle was purposefully placed above all rectal pain fibers, which are anatomically present only below the dentate line. All patients received a periprostatic nerve block prior to biopsy. The patient was asked if he felt the sharp sensation of the needle as it was placed lightly against the rectal mucosa when the needle was aimed at apex (the rectal sensation test). If so, the needle was advanced cranially 2 to 3 mm or until he could no longer detect its light touch. The probe handle was then rotated dorsally, pulling the rectal mucosa downward until the needle was again aimed at the apex. Patients were asked to report a visual analog pain score for each biopsy. These results were compared to those obtained when doing 30 consecutive apical biopsies without the rectal sensation test. The average visual analog pain score for apical biopsy was 1.25 (range 0 to 2.2) for patients in whom the rectal sensation test was used to bypass rectal pain sensory fibers. The average score in control patients in whom the rectal sensation test was not used was higher at 2.28 (range 0.3-6.2). These results were statistically significant (p > 0.0005). Increased sensitivity to apical prostate biopsy is due to rectal pain fibers located below the dentate line. These fibers and the associated pain may be safely avoided by passing through the rectal wall above the dentate line. The rectal sensation test easily identifies the sensate area below the dentate line. Painless apical biopsy can then be achieved by rotating the ultrasound probe to aim the biopsy needle in the desired path.

  19. Rectal absorption of propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Bartle, W R; Walker, S E; Silverberg, J D

    1988-06-01

    The rectal absorption of propylthiouracil (PTU) was studied and compared to oral absorption in normal volunteers. Plasma levels of PTU after administration of suppositories of PTU base and PTU diethanolamine were significantly lower compared to the oral route. Elevated plasma reverse T3 levels were demonstrated after each treatment, however, suggesting a desirable therapeutic effect at this dosage level for all preparations.

  20. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control increases bladder cancer recurrence risk in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tai, Huai-Chin; Wang, Sho-Mon; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2015-03-01

    The association of diabetes mellitus and bladder cancer recurrence following radical nephroureterectomies (RNUs) in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) was investigated. Between January 1996 and March 2009, 538 patients with UTUC who received RNU and had no previous bladder cancer histories were enrolled. The clinicopathological characteristics were obtained and used for the analysis of metachronous bladder recurrence by using Cox proportional hazard model. The diabetic patients (N = 104, 19.3%) were elderly (72 vs 67 years, p < 0.001) and had more hypertension (56.7 vs 34.5%, p < 0.001) as compared with non-diabetic patients. There was no significant difference in the rest of clinicopathological characteristics between patient groups. During the median follow-up duration of 51 months, bladder recurrences were discovered in 47.1 and 33.1% of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with UTUC, respectively. Poorly controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) exhibited a shorter duration of bladder cancer recurrence-free survival as compared with those with good glycemic controlled diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus (log-rank test, p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, male gender [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.67, p = 0.017], ureteral tumour (HR = 1.61, p = 0.020), end-stage renal disease (HR = 2.09, p = 0.030) and diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HR = 2.10, p < 0.018) independently predicted bladder recurrence after RNU. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) increases the risk of subsequent bladder cancer recurrence. These results underscore the need for intensive glycemic control and close follow-up for diabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer: Actual Status

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Di Girolamo, Stefania; de Rosa, Francesco; Corbelli, Jody; Agostini, Valentina; Biasco, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (preoperative) concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become a standard treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. The clinical stages II (cT3-4, N0, M0) and III (cT1-4, N+, M0) according to International Union Against Cancer (IUCC) are concerned. It can reduce tumor volume and subsequently lead to an increase in complete resections (R0 resections), shows less toxicity, and improves local control rate. The aim of this review is to summarize actual approaches, main problems, and discrepancies in the treatment of locally advanced rectal adenocarcinomas. PMID:22295206

  2. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Erica B; Louis, Germaine M Buck; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Palmer, Christopher D; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18-44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty elements were analyzed in blood and 3 in urine. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis were higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Urinary cadmium and lead were not related to fibroid diagnosis. Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. Differences between urinary and whole blood findings merit further investigation, as urinary cadmium has been considered a superior marker of exposure.

  3. INCREASED TRPV4 EXPRESSION IN URINARY BLADDER AND LUMBOSACRAL DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA IN MICE WITH CHRONIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NGF IN UROTHELIUM

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Merrill, Liana; Malley, Susan; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2013-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) family member 4 (TRPV4) expression has been demonstrated in urothelial cells and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and roles in normal micturition reflexes as well as micturition dysfunction have been suggested. TRP channel expression and function is dependent upon target tissue expression of growth factors. These studies expand upon the target tissue dependence of TRPV4 expression in the urinary bladder and lumbosacral DRG using a recently characterized transgenic mouse model with chronic overexpression of nerve growth factor (NGF-OE) in the urothelium. Immunohistochemistry with image analyses, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and western blotting were used to determine TRPV4 protein and transcript expression in the urinary bladder (urothelium + suburothelium, detrusor) and lumbosacral DRG from littermate wildtype (WT) and NGF-OE mice. Antibody specificity controls were performed in TRPV4-/- mice. TRPV4 transcript and protein expression was significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increased in the urothelium + suburothelium and suburothelial nerve plexus of the urinary bladder and in small- and medium-sized lumbosacral (L1, L2, L6-S1) DRG cells from NGF-OE mice compared to littermate WT mice. NGF-OE mice exhibit significant (p ≤ 0.001) increases in NGF transcript and protein in the urothelium + suburothelium and lumbosacral DRG. These studies demonstrate regulation of TRPV4 expression by NGF in lower urinary tract tissues. Ongoing studies are characterizing the functional roles of TRPV4 expression in the sensory limb (DRG, urothelium) of the micturition reflex. PMID:23690258

  4. Immunological Landscape and Clinical Management of Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ruiz, Elísabeth; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The clinical management of rectal cancer and colon cancer differs due to increased local relapses in rectal cancer. However, the current molecular classification does not differentiate rectal cancer and colon cancer as two different entities. In recent years, the impact of the specific immune microenvironment in cancer has attracted renewed interest and is currently recognized as one of the major determinants of clinical progression in a wide range of tumors. In colorectal cancer, the density of lymphocytic infiltration is associated with better overall survival. Due to the need for biomarkers of response to conventional treatment with chemoradiotherapy in rectal tumors, the immune status of rectal cancer emerges as a useful tool to improve the management of patients. PMID:26941741

  5. Digital rectal examination in the evaluation of rectovaginal septal defects.

    PubMed

    Rachaneni, Suneetha; Atan, Ixora Kamisan; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-02-17

    The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of digital rectal examination in the identification of a true rectocele. This is a retrospective observational study utilising 187 archived data sets of women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and/or pelvic organ prolapse between August 2012 and November 2013. Evaluation included a standardised interview, ICS-POPQ, rectal examination and 4D translabial ultrasound. The main outcome measure was the diagnosis of rectocele by digital rectal palpation on Valsalva manoeuvre. This diagnosis correlated with the sonographic diagnosis of rectocele to determine agreement between digital examination and ultrasound findings. Complete data sets were available for 180 participants. On imaging, the mean position of the rectal ampulla was 11.07 (-36.3 to 44.3) mm below the symphysis pubis; 42.8% (77) had a rectocele of a depth of ≥10 mm. On palpation, a rectocele was detected in 60 women (33%). Agreement between palpation and imaging was observed in 77%; the kappa was 0.52 (CI 0.39-0.65). On receiver operator characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.854 for the relationship between rectocele pocket depth and the detection of rectocele on palpation. Moderate agreement was found between digital rectal examination for rectocele and translabial ultrasound findings of a "true rectocele". Digital rectal examination may be used to identify these defects in clinical practice. Extending the clinical examination of prolapse to include rectal examination to palpate defects in the rectovaginal septum may reduce the need for defecatory proctograms for the assessment of obstructive defecation and may help triage patients in the management of posterior compartment prolapse.

  6. Masked hypertension defined by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is associated with an increased serum glucose level and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hoshide, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kazuo; Schwartz, Joseph E; Pickering, Thomas G; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-08-01

    The authors evaluated the relationship of hypertensive target organ damage to masked hypertension assessed by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring in 129 participants without taking antihypertensive medication. Masked hypertension was defined as office BP < or =140/90 mm Hg and 24-hour ambulatory BP > or =130/80 mm Hg. The masked hypertensive participants defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP (n=13) had a higher serum glucose level (126 vs 96 mg/dL, P=.001) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (38.0 vs 7.5 mg/gCr, P<.001) than the normotensive participants (n=74); however, these relationships were not observed when the authors defined groups using HBP (> or =135/85 mm Hg). Masked hypertension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP had a higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratio than normotension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP (62.1 vs 7.4 mg/gCr, P=.001), and than masked hypertension by HBP alone (9.3 mg/gCr, P=.009). Masked hypertension defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP is associated with an increased serum glucose level and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, but these relationships are not observed in masked hypertension defined by HBP.

  7. Masked Hypertension Defined by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Is Associated With an Increased Serum Glucose Level and Urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hoshide, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kazuo; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Pickering, Thomas G.; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Kario, Kazuomi

    2017-01-01

    The authors evaluated the relationship of hypertensive target organ damage to masked hypertension assessed by ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and home blood pressure (HBP) monitoring in 129 participants without taking antihypertensive medication. Masked hypertension was defined as office BP ≤140/90 mm Hg and 24-hour ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. The masked hypertensive participants defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP (n=13) had a higher serum glucose level (126 vs 96 mg/dL, P=.001) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (38.0 vs 7.5 mg/gCr, P<.001) than the normotensive participants (n=74); however, these relationships were not observed when the authors defined groups using HBP (≥135/85 mm Hg). Masked hypertension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP had a higher urinary albumin-creatinine ratio than normotension by both 24-hour ambulatory BP and HBP (62.1 vs 7.4 mg/gCr, P=.001), and than masked hypertension by HBP alone (9.3 mg/gCr, P=.009). Masked hypertension defined by 24-hour ambulatory BP is associated with an increased serum glucose level and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio, but these relationships are not observed in masked hypertension defined by HBP. PMID:20695934

  8. The paradoxical role of urinary macromolecules in the aggregation of calcium oxalate: a further plea to increase diuresis in stone metaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Baumann, J M; Affolter, B

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to get information on aggregation (AGN) of urinary calcium oxalate crystals (CaOx) which seems to occur in stone formation despite a protecting coat of urinary macromolecules (UMs). CaOx crystallization was directly produced in urine, control and albumin solution by Ox titration and was spectrophotometrically followed. A rapid decrease of optical density indicating AGN was absent in 14 of 15 freshly voided urines of 5 healthy controls. However, in the presence of UM-coated hydroxyapatite all urines with relative high sodium concentration, being an indicator of concentrated urine, showed a pronounced AGN which was abolished when these urines were diluted. Albumin relatively found to be an inhibitor of AGN showed after temporary adsorption on Ca Phosphate (CaP) massive self-AGN and changed to a promoter of CaOx AGN. Self-AGN after adsorption on surfaces especially of CaP, being an important compound of Randall's plaques, can thus explain this paradoxical behavior of UMs. Aggregated UMs probably bridge zones of electrostatic repulsion between UM-coated crystals with identical electrical surface charge. These zones extend by urine dilution which decreases ionic strength. Diminution of urinary concentration by increasing diuresis seems, therefore, to be important in stone metaphylaxis.

  9. Progress in Rectal Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ceelen, Wim P.

    2012-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in local control of rectal cancer observed during the last decades is to be attributed to attention to surgical technique and to the introduction of neoadjuvant therapy regimens. Nevertheless, systemic relapse remains frequent and is currently insufficiently addressed. Intensification of neoadjuvant therapy by incorporating chemotherapy with or without targeted agents before the start of (chemo)radiation or during the waiting period to surgery may present an opportunity to improve overall survival. An increasing number of patients can nowadays undergo sphincter preserving surgery. In selected patients, local excision or even a “wait and see” approach may be feasible following active neoadjuvant therapy. Molecular and genetic biomarkers as well as innovative imaging techniques may in the future allow better selection of patients for this treatment option. Controversy persists concerning the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy after neoadjuvant regimens. The currently available evidence suggests that in complete pathological responders long-term outcome is excellent and adjuvant therapy may be omitted. The results of ongoing trials will help to establish the ideal tailored approach in resectable rectal cancer. PMID:22970381

  10. Laparoscopic Rectopexy with Urinary Bladder Xenograft Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Aradhana; Afshar, Rami; Gardner, Amy; Ackerman, Ellen; Brandt, Jared; Sasse, Kent C.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Rectal prolapse is often repaired laparoscopically, frequently with the use of reinforcement material. Both synthetic and biologically derived materials reduce recurrence rate compared to primary suture repair. Synthetic mesh introduces potential complications such as mesh erosion, fibrosis, and infection. Urinary bladder matrix (UBM) represents a biologically derived material for reinforcement of rectal prolapse repair with the potential to improve durability without risks of synthetic materials. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness, durability, and functional result of laparoscopic rectopexy using urinary bladder matrix xenograft reinforcement at three years follow up. Methods: The 20 cases presented describe rectal prolapse repair by means of laparoscopic rectopexy with presacral UBM reinforcement. Patients were followed up for an average of 3 years and assessed with interviews, physical examination, manometry, and the fecal incontinence severity index (FISI). Results: Each repair was completed laparoscopically. UBM exhibited favorable handling characteristics when sutured to the sacrum and the lateral rectal walls. One patient underwent laparoscopic drainage of a postoperative abscess; no other complications occurred. In 3 years of follow-up, there have been no full-thickness recurrences, erosions, reoperations, or long-term complications. Two patients exhibited a small degree of mucosal prolapse on follow-up physical examination that did not require surgery. Three-year FISI scores averaged 8 (range, 0–33 of a possible 61), indicating low fecal incontinence symptomatology. Follow-up anorectal manometry was performed in 9 patients, showing mixed results. Conclusion: Surgeons may safely use laparoscopic rectopexy with UBM reinforcement for repair of rectal prolapses. In this series, repairs with UBM grafts have been durable at 3-year follow-up and may be an alternative to synthetic mesh reinforcement of rectal

  11. INCREASED LEVELS OF MEDIAN URINARY IODINE EXCRETION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN THE SUBURBAN AREA, KHON KAEN, THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Apirajkamol, Nahatai; Panamonta, Ouyporn; Panamonta, Manat

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is associated with a low IQ in children and is an important public health problem in northeastern Thailand. Despite campaigns to reduce IDD in northeastern Thailand, studies showed people in this region continue to have the lowest median urinary iodine (UI) excretion and Intelligence Quotient scores. We conducted a cross sectional study of median urinary iodine excretion among primary school children in suburban Khon Kaen Province, in northeastern Thailand, during December 2012 to evaluate the current status of IDD in this population. We studied 377 school children. Urine samples were collected and measured for UI using a simple microplate method. The median UI level was 229.0 μg/l (range 15.0-1,124.1). Forty school children (10.6%) had UI levels less than 100 μg/l and 10 children (2.7%) had UI levels less than 50 μg/l. One hundred nine children (28.9%) had UI levels greater than 300 μg/l. Our study shows that there are still children in the study population and study area with inadequate UI levels. Programs to prevent IDD need to include this population in this area.

  12. Phase I Study of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil for Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Rectal Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  13. Rectal injury during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: incidence and management.

    PubMed

    Wedmid, Alexei; Mendoza, Pierre; Sharma, Saurabh; Hastings, Rachel L; Monahan, Kelly P; Walicki, Mary; Ahlering, Thomas E; Porter, James; Castle, Erik P; Ahmed, Faisal; Engel, Jason D; Frazier, Harold A; Eun, Daniel; Lee, David I

    2011-11-01

    Rectal injury during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy is a rare but significant complication. Since the Clavien grading classification of complications does not include intraoperative injury without further sequelae, rectal injury may be underreported in the literature. We present what is to our knowledge the largest retrospective review to date of rectal injury and subsequent management. We reviewed the records of 6,650 patients who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy at a total of 6 institutions. Patient characteristics, perioperative parameters, pathological findings and rectal injury management were tabulated and analyzed for intraoperative predictors of outcome and subsequent management. A total of 11 rectal injury cases were identified of the 6,650 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies for a combined 0.17% incidence of rectal injury. Of rectal injuries 72.7% were identified intraoperatively and most did well with primary closure. Delayed recognition injury presented as rectourethral fistula without septic complications and required delayed fistula repair after primary diversion. We found no conclusive association of rectal injury with any patient parameter, intraoperative differences, pathological finding or surgeon experience. Posterior prostate plane dissection, including seminal vesicle dissection, is the crucial stage when rectal injury can occur and be identified. Our review of the records at 6 centers revealed a combined 0.17% incidence of rectal injury. This compares favorably to the incidence in modern open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy series. No preoperative, intraoperative or pathological differences correlated with injury. Cases in which rectal injury was identified intraoperatively required fewer surgical repeat interventions but ultimately each group had acceptable long-term urinary and bowel function results. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. A model to predict bladder shapes from changes in bladder and rectal filling.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Heidi T; Remeijer, Peter; van Herk, Marcel; Lebesque, Joos V; de Bois, Josien A; Zijp, Lambert J; Moonen, Luc M

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a model that quantifies in three dimensions changes in bladder shape due to changes in bladder and/or rectal volume. The new technique enables us to predict changes in bladder shape over a short period of time, based on known urinary inflow. Shortly prior to the treatment, the patient will be scanned using a cone beam CT scanner (x-ray volume imager) that is integrated with the linear accelerator. After (automated) delineation of the bladder, the model will be used to predict the short-term shape changes of the bladder for the time interval between image acquisition and dose delivery. The model was developed using multiple daily CT scans of the pelvic area of 19 patients. For each patient, the rigid bony structure in follow-up scans was matched to that of the planning CT scan, and the outer bladder and rectal wall were delineated. Each bladder wall was subdivided in 2500 domains. A fixed reference point inside the bladder was used to calculate for each bladder structure a "Mercator-like" 2D scalar map (similar to a height map of the globe), containing the distances from this reference point to each domain on the bladder wall. Subsequently, for all bladder shapes of a patient and for all domains on the wall individually, the distance to the reference point was fitted by a linear function of both bladder and rectal volume. The model uses an existing bladder structure to create a new structure via expansion (or contraction), until the expressed volume is reached. To evaluate the predictive power of the model, the jack-knife method was used. The errors in the fitting procedure depended on the part of the bladder and range from 0 to 0.5 cm (0.2 cm on average). It was found that a volume increase of 150 cc can lead to a displacement up to about 2.5 cm of the cranial part of the bladder. With the model, the uncertainty in the position of the bladder wall can be reduced down to a maximum value of about 0.5 cm in case the bladder

  15. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)/creatinine level is associated with the progression of normal-tension glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Kenya; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between systemic oxidative stress and visual field defect progression in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). The subjects were 40 consecutive patients with NTG who were admitted to Keio University Hospital for 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) evaluation; all subjects underwent six or more visual field tests in either eye and were followed up for >5 years. Spot samples of morning urine were collected during admission from all participants to determine the levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by ELISA kit. A linear regression line was calculated with the least squares method. Those subjects whose regression lines were negative and the p value <0.05 were classified as progressive, while all others were defined as non-progressive. Urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine level was compared between the two groups. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals for the progression were estimated with logistic regression models. Seventeen subjects showed visual field defect progression (age: 59.9 ± 9.5 years, untreated IOP in the right eye: 15.8 ± 2.1 mmHg), and 23 subjects showed no progression (age: 57.4 ± 10.4 years, untreated IOP in the right eye: 16.0 ± 2.6 mmHg). Urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine level was significantly higher in the progressive group than in the non-progressive group (progressive group: 9.0 ± 2.4 ng/mg creatinine, non-progressive group: 7.3 ± 1.8 ng/mg creatinine, p = 0.02). Multivariable analysis revealed that higher urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine level was a significant risk factor for the progression (odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.29). Increased urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine was associated with glaucomatous visual field progression in subjects with NTG.

  16. Increased population use of medications for male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia correlates with changes in indications for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Ingimarsson, Johann P; Isaksson, Helgi J; Sigbjarnarson, Hermann P; Gudmundsson, Jens; Geirsson, Gudmundur

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are correlations between medication use for lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostate hypertrophy (LUTS/BPH) and alteration in incidence and indications for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The number of TURP patients between 1984 and 2008 in Iceland was obtained from hospital registries. The number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5aRIs) and alpha-blockers (ABs) sold was obtained from the Icelandic Medicines Control Agency. Charts of all surgical BPH patients in Iceland from 1998 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The main outcomes measures were: DDDs sold of 5aRIs and ABs, total numbers of TURP, indications for TURP and complications. After the introduction of ABs and 5aRIs, sales increased annually at a near linear rate. TURP rates peaked in 1992, then declined. In 2008, 81 and 3.4 of 1000 men over the age of 50 used LUTS/BPH medications or underwent TURP, respectively. There was an inverse correlation between LUTS/BPH medication use and (i) overall TURP (R(2) = 0.85), (ii) TURP done for absolute indications (R(2) = 0.91), and (iii) LUTS with (R(2) = 0.77) and (iv) without previous medical therapy (R(2) = 0.75). As medication use rose, fewer TURPs were performed for previous history of urinary retention, and more for recurrent urinary tract infections. Increased use of ABs and 5aRIs in the Icelandic population correlated with decreasing incidences of TURP procedures for both LUTS and absolute indications. The sequelae of BPH and indications for TURP are changing as medication use increases, although a clear causative link is hard to establish.

  17. Distribution of fibronectin in the rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Scott, D L; Morris, C J; Blake, A E; Low-Beer, T S; Walton, K W

    1981-07-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of high molecular weight present in tissues, plasma, and tissue fluids. Its distribution in the rectal mucosa was studied by immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase techniques using a monospecific antiserum. Immunofluorescent reactivity for fibronectin was present in the normal rectal mucosa of control subjects in epithelial cells, on basement membranes, and as a loose cribriform network of extracellular reactivity in the lamina propria that codistributed with histochemically demonstrable reticulin. Fibronectin was demonstrated immunoelectromicroscopically on collagen fibres, on smooth muscle cells and within and between columnar epithelial cells. In the rectal mucosa of patients with colitis with marked inflammatory changes, fibronectin appeared thickened and more prominent when present on basement membranes and as sparse strands between inflammatory cells infiltrating the lamina propria. In patients with longstanding colitis and less inflammatory cell infiltration there was a diffuse increase in fibronectin which was densely and uniformly present throughout the lamina propria. Fibronectin is a structural component of the rectal mucosa and changes in its distribution may form an important part of the local reaction to inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... The knowledge gained from these studies is advancing scientific understanding of why urinary tract disorders develop, leading to improved methods of diagnosing, treating, and preventing them. Clinical trials ...

  19. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in workers exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a waste plastic recycling site in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Li; Chen, Xi; Rao, Kai Min; Lu, Shao You; Ma, Sheng Tao; Jiang, Pu; Zheng, Dan; Xu, Shun Qing; Zheng, Hong Yan; Wang, Jian Shu; Yu, Zhi Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Tao, Yong; Yuan, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p < 0.05 for all). The workers had higher median levels of MDA (3.80 vs. 3.14 nmol/ml) and urinary 8-OHdG (340.37 vs. 268.18 μmol/mol creatinine) and decreased SOD activities (112.15 vs. 123.82 U/ml) than the reference group (p < 0.01 for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that the history of working in waste plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers.

  20. Urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins increases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats without decreases in liver or blood vitamin content.

    PubMed

    Imai, Eri; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that the contents of water-soluble vitamins in the body are generally low in diabetic patients because large amounts of vitamins are excreted into urine. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed. To investigate this hypothesis, diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats (6 wk old) by streptozotocin treatment, and they were then given diets containing low, medium or sufficient vitamins for 70 d. The contents of 6 kinds of B-group vitamins, namely vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, vitamin B₁₂, folate and biotin, were determined in the urine, blood and liver. No basic differences among the dietary vitamin contents were observed. The urinary excretion of vitamins was higher in diabetic rats than in control rats. The blood concentrations of vitamin B₁₂ and folate were lowered by diabetes, while, those of vitamin B₁, vitamin B₂, vitamin B₆, and biotin were not. All liver concentrations of vitamins were increased in diabetic rats above those in control rats. These results showed that streptozotocin-induced diabetes increased urinary excretion of water-soluble vitamins, though their blood and liver concentrations were essentially maintained in the rats.

  1. Comparison of group B streptococci colonization in vaginal and rectal specimens by culture method and polymerase chain reaction technique.

    PubMed

    Bidgani, Shahrokh; Navidifar, Tahereh; Najafian, Mahin; Amin, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a colonizing microorganism in pregnant women and without causing symptoms. Colonization of GBS in the rectovaginal region in late of pregnancy is a risk factor for newborn diseases. GBS infection in newborn babies is acquired by the aspiration of infected amniotic fluid or vertical transmission during delivery through the birth canal. The aim of this study was determination of GBS prevalence among vaginal and anorectal specimens at gestation females by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture-based methods. In this study, 137 rectal and vaginal swabs were separately collected from women with gestational age 35-37 weeks from July 2013 to March 2014 at the teaching hospital of Razi, Ahvaz, Iran. All samples were enrichment in selective culture media Todd-Hewitt broth for 24 hours and recognized by standard culture using blood agar, phenotypic tests, and amplification of the CFB gene. Age range was 16-45 years (mean, 28.34 ± 0.7 years). Of rectal samples, 42 (30.7%) were positive based on culture method and 57 (41.6%) samples were positive by PCR. Of 137 vaginal samples, 38 (27.7%) were positive by culture and 60 (43.8%) samples were positive by PCR. The chance of colonization with GBS was increased in women with a history of urinary tract infection. The frequency of GBS culture from rectal samples was higher than vaginal samples. However, the detection percentage of GBS using PCR from vaginal samples was higher than rectal samples. By contrast, the culture is a time-consuming method requiring at least 48 hours for GBS fully identification but PCR is a sensitive and rapid technique in detection of GBS, with the result was acquired during 3 hours. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. Rectal adenocarcinoma infiltrating the bulbar urethra and metastasising to the penis.

    PubMed

    James, Mathews; Amaranathan, Anandhi; Nelamangala Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad; Toi, Pampa Chakrabarty

    2016-06-16

    Secondary penile tumours from rectal carcinoma is a known clinical entity but can be missed unless carefully evaluated. We report a case of rectal adenocarcinoma with synchronous painless penile nodules. A patient presented with constipation and rectal bleeding. He had an anorectal growth as well as palpable nodules on his penis. Rectal biopsy yielded adenocarcinoma. Imaging revealed direct infiltration of tumour into the bulb of the penis as well as distal shaft lesions. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the penile nodule showed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Diversion colostomy was performed and the patient referred for chemoradiation. Since he did not have any urinary symptoms, the penile lesions were left unaltered. Repeat imaging after concurrent chemoradiotherapy showed no response. The prognosis was explained and the patient was given palliative clinic care.

  3. Rectal Douching and Implications for Rectal Microbicides among Populations Vulnerable to HIV in South America: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Jerome T.; Kinsler, Janni J.; Imrie, John; Nureña, César R.; Sánchez, Jorge; Cunningham, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While gel-formulated Rectal Microbicides (RM) are the first to enter clinical trials, rectal douching in preparation for anal intercourse is a common practise, thus RMs formulated as douches may be a convenient alternative to gels. Nonetheless, little is known about potential users’ thoughts regarding douche-formulated RMs or rectal douching practises, data needed to inform the advancement of douche-based RMs. This qualitative study examined thoughts regarding douches, their use as a RM and current douching practises among men who have sex with men and transgender women. Methods Ten focus groups and 36 in-depth interviews were conducted (N=140) to examine the overall acceptability of RM, of which one component focused on rectal douching. Focus groups and interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded; text relating to rectal douching was extracted and analysed. Sociodemographic information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Results Support for a douche-formulated RM centred on the possibility of combined pre-coital hygiene and HIV protection, and it was believed that a deeply-penetrating liquid douche would confer greater HIV protection than a gel. Drawbacks included rectal dryness; impracticality and portability issues; and, potential side effects. Non-commercial douching apparatus use was common and liquids used included detergents, vinegar, bleach, lemon juice and alcohol. Conclusions A douche-formulated RM while desirable and perceived as more effective than a gel-formulated RM also generated questions regarding practicality and side-effects. Of immediate concern were the non-commercial liquids already being used which likely damage rectal epithelia, potentially increasing HIV infection risk. Pre-coital rectal douching is common and a RM formulated as such is desirable, but education on rectal douching practices is needed now. PMID:23966338

  4. GM-CSF DNA: an adjuvant for higher avidity IgG, rectal IgA, and increased protection against the acute phase of a SHIV-89.6P challenge by a DNA/MVA immunodeficiency virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Lilin; Vödrös, Dalma; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Montefiori, David C.; Wilson, Robert L.; Akerstrom, Vicki L.; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Yu, Tianwei; Kannanganat, Sunil; Ofielu, Lazarus; Villinger, Francois; Wyatt, Linda S.; Moss, Bernard; Amara, Rama Rao; Robinson, Harriet L.

    2007-01-01

    Single intradermal or intramuscular inoculations of GM-CSF DNA with the DNA prime for a simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-89.6 vaccine, which consists of DNA priming followed by modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boosting, increased protection of both the blood and intestines against the acute phase of an intrarectal SHIV-89.6P challenge. GM-CSF appeared to contribute to protection by enhancing two antibody responses: the avidity maturation of anti-Env IgG in blood (p=<0.01) and the presence of long lasting anti-viral IgA in rectal secretions (p<0.01). The avidity of anti-Env IgG showed strong correlations with protection both pre and post challenge. Animals with the highest avidity anti-Env Ab had 1000-fold reductions in peak viremia over those with the lowest avidity anti-Env Ab. The enhanced IgA response was associated with the best protection, but did not achieve significance. PMID:17698160

  5. Increased levels of urinary PGE-M, a biomarker of inflammation, occur in association with obesity, aging, and lung metastases in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, Patrick G; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Milne, Ginger L; Goldstein, Daniel; Hawks, Laura C; Dang, Chau T; Modi, Shanu; Fornier, Monica N; Hudis, Clifford A; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated levels of COX-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) occur in inflamed tissues. To evaluate the potential links between inflammation and breast cancer, levels of urinary prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M), a stable end metabolite of PGE2, were quantified. We enrolled 400 patients with breast cancer: controls with early breast cancer (n = 200), lung metastases (n = 100), and metastases to other sites (n = 100). Patients completed a questionnaire, provided urine, and had measurements of height and weight. Urinary PGE-M was quantified by mass spectrometry. Ever smokers with lung metastasis who had not been exposed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) had the highest PGE-M levels. PGE-M levels were increased in association with elevated body mass index (BMI; P < 0.001), aging (P < 0.001), pack-year smoking history (P = 0.02), lung metastases (P = 0.02), and recent cytotoxic chemotherapy (P = 0.03). Conversely, use of NSAIDs, prototypic inhibitors of COX activity, was associated with reduced PGE-M levels (P < 0.001). On the basis of the current findings, PGE-M is likely to be a useful biomarker for the selection of high-risk subgroups to determine the use of interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and possibly the development and progression of breast cancer, especially in overweight and obese women.

  6. Increased levels of urinary PGE-M, a biomarker of inflammation, occur in association with obesity, aging and lung metastases in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Patrick G.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Milne, Ginger L.; Goldstein, Daniel; Hawks, Laura C.; Dang, Chau T.; Modi, Shanu; Fornier, Monica N.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) occur in inflamed tissues. To evaluate the potential links between inflammation and breast cancer, levels of urinary prostaglandin E-metabolite (PGE-M), a stable end metabolite of PGE2, were quantified. We enrolled 400 patients with breast cancer: controls with early breast cancer (n=200), lung metastases (n=100) and metastases to other sites (n=100). Patients completed a questionnaire, provided urine and had measurements of height and weight. Urinary PGE-M was quantified by mass spectrometry. Ever smokers with lung metastasis who had not been exposed to NSAIDs had the highest PGE-M levels. PGE-M levels were increased in association with elevated BMI (p<0.001), aging (p<0.001), pack-year smoking history (p=0.02), lung metastases (p=0.02) and recent cytotoxic chemotherapy (p=0.03). Conversely, use of NSAIDs, prototypic inhibitors of COX activity, was associated with reduced PGE-M levels (p<0.001). Based on the current findings, PGE-M is likely to be a useful biomarker for the selection of high risk subgroups to determine the utility of interventions that aim to reduce inflammation and possibly the development and progression of breast cancer, especially in overweight and obese women. PMID:23531446

  7. Rectal tuberculosis in an HIV-infected patient: case report

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Marcos dos Santos Vieira; Christiano, Celso Guilherme; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Rosa, Vladimir Mulele Pinto Santa

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract has been increasingly affected by tuberculosis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Although strict rectal involvement is rare, the GI site mostly affected is the ileocecal region. Thus, tuberculosis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of perianal and rectal lesions, and more so in patients infected by the HIV virus. The authors report the case of a 32-year-old man presenting a long-term history of fever, night sweats, weight loss, bloody diarrhea, fecal incontinence, tenesmus, and rectal pain. HIV serology was positive. The patient underwent anoscopy and biopsy, which disclosed the diagnosis of rectal tuberculosis. Thus the patient was referred to an outpatient clinic to follow the standard treatment. PMID:28573121

  8. Characterization of Urinary Stone Composition by Use of Third-Generation Dual-Source Dual-Energy CT With Increased Spectral Separation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xinhui; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Halaweish, Ahmed F; Fletcher, Joel G; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this phantom study was to determine the utility of a third-generation dual-source CT scanner with increased dual-energy spectral separation in differentiating urinary stone composition. Eighty-seven urinary stones from humans were scanned in 35-, 40-, 45-, and 50-cm wide anthropomorphic phantoms with a third-generation dual-source scanner (system A) with a high-energy beam of 150 kV plus 0.6-mm tin filtration (Sn). The low-energy data were acquired at 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV. A second-generation dual-source scanner (system B) was used to acquire data at 140 kV plus 0.4-mm Sn for the high-energy and 80 or 100 kV for the low-energy images. Volume CT dose index was matched for a given phantom size. CT number ratios were calculated and used to differentiate uric acid from non-uric acid stones and oxalate from apatite stones in an ROC analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for uric acid versus non-uric acid stones increased for large phantoms. For example, for imaging of the 45-cm wide phantom with system A at the 100- and 150-kV Sn low- and high-energy combination, the AUC was 0.99, whereas for system B at the 100- and 140-kV Sn combination, the AUC was 0.86. At each phantom size and for all energy combinations, the AUC values for oxalate versus apatite stones were higher for system A than they were for any energy combination for system B. Compared with use of second-generation dual-source CT, use of third-generation dual-source CT at the energy combination of 100 and 150 kV Sn improved classification of urinary stones across a wide range of phantom sizes and increased the ability to differentiate oxalate from apatite stones.

  9. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Jennifer L.; Barr, Susan I.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = −0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = −0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes. PMID:22254088

  10. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  11. A familial component to human rectal cancer, independent of colon cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Maul, John Scott; Burt, Randall W.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: The Utah Population Database (UPDB) is unique; it links genealogy for over 2 million Utah individuals to a statewide Cancer Registry. We have investigated the familial nature of rectal cancer, considered independently from colon cancer. Methods: We estimated relative risks in relatives, and average relatedness among rectal cancer cases using matched controls from the UPDB. Results: There is a significant increased risk for rectal cancer in first-degree relatives of rectal cancer cases (Relative Risk = 1.97), equivalent to the risk for colon cancer (RR =2.11). The significant increased risk for rectal cancer extends to second- and third-degree relatives. The relative risk for rectal cancer among first-degree relatives of young-onset rectal cancer cases (< 55 years), is equivalent (RR = 3.34) to their risk of colon cancer (RR=3.35). Conclusions: The UPDB provides strong evidence for a familial component to rectal cancer that may include a genetic component in addition to shared environment. There is a significant increased risk of rectal cancer in the close and distant relatives of rectal cancer cases, which is even higher among relatives of young-onset cases. While it has been reported that relatives of colon cancer probands are at increased risk for colorectal cancer, the risk of large bowel cancer among relatives of rectal cancer patients has been less clear. Relatives of rectal cancer probands experience a risk of cancer of the large bowel that is at least as high as the risk previously reported for relatives of individuals with colon cancer. PMID:17625976

  12. Does robotics improve minimally invasive rectal surgery? Functional and oncological implications.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Francesco; Pesi, Benedetta; Amore Bonapasta, Stefano; Perna, Federico; Di Marino, Michele; Annecchiarico, Mario; Coratti, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Robot-assisted surgery has been reported to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional laparoscopy for the treatment of rectal cancer in a minimally invasive manner. Nevertheless, substantial data concerning functional outcomes and long-term oncological adequacy is still lacking. We aimed to assess the current role of robotics in rectal surgery focusing on patients' functional and oncological outcomes. A comprehensive review was conducted to search articles published in English up to 11 September 2015 concerning functional and/or oncological outcomes of patients who received robot-assisted rectal surgery. All relevant papers were evaluated on functional implications such as postoperative sexual and urinary dysfunction and oncological outcomes. Robotics showed a general trend towards lower rates of sexual and urinary postoperative dysfunction and earlier recovery compared with laparoscopy. The rates of 3-year local recurrence, disease-free survival and overall survival of robotic-assisted rectal surgery compared favourably with those of laparoscopy. This study fails to provide solid evidence to draw definitive conclusions on whether robotic systems could be useful in ameliorating the outcomes of minimally invasive surgery for rectal cancer. However, the available data suggest potential advantages over conventional laparoscopy with reference to functional outcomes. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Management of urinary tract infection with intravesical amikacin may increase the risk of bladder oxidative stress in children with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Amasyali, Akin Soner; Yilmaz, Dilek; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Sonmez, Ferah; Erol, Haluk

    2017-09-27

    We evaluated the bladder oxidative stress in neurogenic bladder children treated with intravesical amikacin for recurrent UTI and whether urinary isoprostane f2 alpha (F2-IsoP) is a good biomarker in this particular condition. This prospectively designed controlled study was approved by the Adnan Menderes University institutional ethics committee (Adnan Menderes University, 2015/649). Between January 2016 and January 2017, twenty-six children with meningomyelocele who had been doing CIC were recruited. Serum and urine samples were collected during urinary tract infection (UTI) (group 1) and after management of UTI with intravesical amikacin (group 2) besides standard oral antibiotic treatment. While oxidative stress parameters SOD, GSH, GPX, MDA, F2-IsoP and NO were analyzed in the serum samples, only F2-IsoP was analyzed in the urine. All data were compared with 23 normal healthy control children (group 3). Median age, CIC duration and number of CIC per day of patients' group were 84 (60-147) months, 60 (30-90) months and 4 (4-6), respectively. Male-to-female ratio was 1:16. There was no statistical difference between groups in terms of serum oxidative stress parameters (p > 0.05). However, statistically significant urine F2-IsoP changes exist between groups (p = 0.011) (Fig. 1). But there were no correlations between urine F2-IsoP and disease clinical data such as CIC duration or number of CIC per day. Serum glutathione levels in group 2 were higher than group 1 and 3, as well (p = 0.023, Kruskal-Wallis test). Fig. 1 Comparison of median urinary isoprostane f2 alpha levels CONCLUSION: Higher urine F2-IsoP levels after management of UTI with intravesical amikacin may reflect increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in children with NB. This detrimental effect on bladder should be considered in the long-term treatment period.

  14. PELVIC FLOOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE ANALYSES IN WOMEN UNDERGOING SURGERY FOR RECTAL PROLPASE

    PubMed Central

    ELLINGTON, DR; MANN, M; BOWLING, CB; DRELICHMAN, ER; GREER, WJ; SZYCHOWSKI, JM; RICHTER, HE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Characterize pelvic floor symptom distress and impact, sexual function and quality of life in women who underwent rectal prolapse surgery. Methods Subjects undergoing rectal prolapse surgery from 2004–2009 completed questionnaires including the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Baseline demographic, medical, and surgical characteristics were extracted by chart review. Demographic and clinic outcomes of women undergoing transperineal and abdominal approaches were compared. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical measures. Results 45 were identified; two deceased at follow-up. 28/43 subjects (65.1%) responded to the questionnaires. Mean time from original procedure was 3.9 ± 3.1 years. No differences in median total Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and subscale scores, and Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire scores in women undergoing open rectopexy versus transperineal proctectomy were seen (all p>0.05). 26 (60%) participants answered the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, nine reported sexual activity within the last month. All underwent abdominal procedures. Conclusion There are few colorectal or other pelvic floor symptoms after rectal prolapse repair. Robust prospective studies are needed to more fully characterize and understand issues associated with rectal prolapse surgery in women. PMID:25379122

  15. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  16. The predictive factors of α1-D/A adrenoceptor antagonist, naftopidil, dose increase therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia: INFORM study.

    PubMed

    Tanuma, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Takeyama, Ko; Okamoto, Tomoshi

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the predictive factors which affect the efficacy of naftopidil 50 mg/day therapy and dose increase therapy to administration of 75 mg/day after an initial dose of 50 mg/day. A total of 92 patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia were administrated naftopidil 50 mg/day for 4 weeks (50 mg therapy). At week 4, the patients were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group E and Group I, respectively). For further 4 weeks, the dosage of naftopidil was increased to 75 mg/day in all patients. At week 8, the patients of Group E and Group I were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group EE, Group EI, Group IE, and Group II, respectively). Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume at baseline was a predictive factor for efficacy of 50 mg therapy. In Group E, change in International Prostate Symptom Score storage symptoms subscore from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy. In Group I, change in maximum flow rate from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy. The short term of naftopidil 50 mg therapy was ineffective for the patients who had large PVR. The predictive factor of this dose increase therapy might be a dynamic variable in 50 mg/day of dose period, but not a baseline variable at the time of 75 mg/day dosage starts.

  17. Nested case-control study reveals increased levels of urinary proteins from human kidney toxicity panels in women predicted to develop preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Hernandez, Yamile; Saldivar-Nava, Jorge Alejandro; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Martinez-de-Villarreal, Laura Elia; Yahuaca-Mendoza, Patricia; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram Pablo; Lopez-Gilibets, Laura; Galvan-Tejada, Jorge Issac; Galvan-Tejada, Carlos Eric; Celaya-Padilla, Jose Maria; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of urine concentrations of 12 proteins as a risk parameter for developing preeclampsia (PE). A nested case-control study was designed to determine protein concentrations in urine from women predicted to develop PE (WPD-PE) and normotensive pregnancies (controls). Protein profiles were determined at 12, 16 and 20 gestational weeks (GW) using the Bio-Plex Pro human kidney toxicity Panel 1 and Panel 2 (Bio-Rad). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. Correlations between proteins and clinical parameters at the time of PE diagnosis were also assessed. Significant differences were observed in urine cystatin C (Cys C) levels at 16 and 20 GW and clusterin at 20 GW between WPD-PE and controls (P < 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that Cys C at 16 GW had the highest area under the ROC curve (0.758). At 16 GW, patients with urine Cys C levels above 73.7 ng/mL had eightfold increased odds for developing PE (odds ratio 7.92; 95 % CI 1.3-47.5; P = 0.027). A positive correlation was found between urinary Cys C (at 16 and 20 GW) and leukocyte counts, total proteins, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase at the time of PE diagnosis (P value < 0.05). Urinary Cys C and clusterin showed predictive value for PE development in our cohort. Further studies are needed to validate their use as predictive biomarkers for PE and/or their participation in PE pathogenesis.

  18. Rectal gland of Bactrocera papayae: ultrastructure, anatomy, and sequestration of autofluorescent compounds upon methyl eugenol consumption by the male fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Cynthia C H; Tan, Keng Hong

    2005-08-01

    Sexually mature males of Bactrocera papayae are strongly attracted to and consume methyl eugenol (ME). Upon consumption, ME is biotransformed to two phenylpropanoids, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) and (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF), that are transported in the hemolymph, sequestered and stored in the rectal glands, and subsequently released as sex and aggregation pheromones during courtship. To date, very little work on the ultrastructure and anatomy of the rectal gland has been done, and the accumulation of phenylpropanoids in the rectal glands of males has not been observed visually. Our objectives are to describe the anatomy and fine structures of the rectal glands of males and females and to observe the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds in the rectal glands of males. The rectal glands of males and females have four rectal papillae with each papilla attached to a rectal pad. The rectal pads protrude from the rectal gland as the only surfaces of the gland that are not surrounded by muscles. The rectal papillae of ME-fed males had oil droplets and autofluorescent compounds that were absent from those of ME-deprived males. The autofluorescent compounds accumulated in the rectal sac, which is an evagination that is not found in rectal glands of females. The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland.

  19. Transitioning from conventional radiotherapy to intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: changing focus from rectal bleeding to detailed quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Hideya; Nakamura, Satoaki; Nishimura, Takuya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of modern radiation techniques, we have been able to deliver a higher prescribed radiotherapy dose for localized prostate cancer without severe adverse reactions. We reviewed and analyzed the change of toxicity profiles of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) from the literature. Late rectal bleeding is the main adverse effect, and an incidence of >20% of Grade ≥2 adverse events was reported for 2D conventional radiotherapy of up to 70 Gy. 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) was found to reduce the incidence to ∼10%. Furthermore, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) reduced it further to a few percentage points. However, simultaneously, urological toxicities were enhanced by dose escalation using highly precise external radiotherapy. We should pay more attention to detailed quality of life (QOL) analysis, not only with respect to rectal bleeding but also other specific symptoms (such as urinary incontinence and impotence), for two reasons: (i) because of the increasing number of patients aged >80 years, and (ii) because of improved survival with elevated doses of radiotherapy and/or hormonal therapy; age is an important prognostic factor not only for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control but also for adverse reactions. Those factors shift the main focus of treatment purpose from survival and avoidance of PSA failure to maintaining good QOL, particularly in older patients. In conclusion, the focus of toxicity analysis after radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients is changing from rectal bleeding to total elaborate quality of life assessment. PMID:25204643

  20. Chemoradiation of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Arrazubi, V; Suárez, J; Novas, P; Pérez-Hoyos, M T; Vera, R; Martínez Del Prado, P

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer is a challenge. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy comprise the multimodal therapy that is administered in most cases. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is required. Because this cancer has a high rate of local recurrence, efforts have been made to improve clinical outcomes while minimizing toxicity and maintaining quality of life. Thus, total mesorectal excision technique was developed as the standard surgery, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been established as neoadjuvant treatment. Both approaches reduce locoregional relapse. Two neoadjuvant treatments have emerged as standards of care: short-course radiotherapy and long-course chemoradiotherapy with fluoropyrimidines; however, long-course chemoradiotherapy might be more appropriate for low-lying neoplasias, bulky tumours or tumours with near-circumferential margins. If neoadjuvant treatment is not administered and locally advanced stage is demonstrated in surgical specimens, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is recommended. The addition of chemotherapy to the treatment regimen confers a significant benefit. Adjuvant chemotherapy is widely accepted despite scarce evidence of its benefit. The optimal time for surgery after neoadjuvant therapy, the treatment of low-risk T3N0 neoplasms, the convenience of avoiding radiotherapy in some cases and tailoring treatment to pathological response have been recurrent subjects of debate that warrant more extensive research. Adding new drugs, changing the treatment sequence and selecting the treatment based on prognostic or predictive factors other than stage remain experimental.

  1. Stimulation of defecation: effects of coffee use and nicotine on rectal tone and visceral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Sloots, Cornelius E J; Felt-Bersma, Richelle J F; West, Rachel L; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2005-07-01

    Coffee and cigarette use is believed to induce bowel movements, although the literature is controversial and precise measurements of rectal tone and sensitivity with a barostat have never been performed. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of coffee and nicotine on rectal tone, compliance and sensitivity. Sixteen healthy volunteers were recruited for the coffee (n = 8) and nicotine (n = 8) experiments. The experiments were randomly performed in a placebo-controlled crossover design on separate days. In the coffee experiment, 280 ml strong coffee or warm water was drunk and in the nicotine experiment, nicotine (2 mg) or placebo was given sublingually. A rectal barostat procedure was carried out. A flaccid bag, mounted on a catheter, was inserted in the rectum. Continuous pressure distension was exerted to register basal visceral sensitivity and compliance. After rectal adaptation, the stimulus was given. Rectal tone was measured for 1 h, after which continuous pressure distension was repeated. Rectal tone increased by 45% 30 min after coffee intake (p = 0.031) and by 30% after water intake (p = 0.032), but the effects of coffee and water were not significantly different. Rectal tone did not change significantly after administration of nicotine (7%) or placebo (10%). There was no difference in compliance and visceral sensitivity between coffee and water or nicotine and placebo. Both coffee and warm water have an effect on defecation by increasing rectal tone, but nicotine (2 mg) did not affect rectal tone. Coffee and nicotine did not influence sensitivity or compliance.

  2. Surgical management of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Madiba, Thandinkosi E; Baig, Mirza K; Wexner, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    The problem of complete rectal prolapse is formidable, with no clear predominant treatment of choice. Surgical management is aimed at restoring physiology by correcting the prolapse and improving continence and constipation with acceptable mortality and recurrence rates. Abdominal procedures are ideal for young fit patients, whereas perineal procedures are reserved for older frail patients with significant comorbidity. Laparoscopic procedures with their advantages of early recovery, less pain, and possibly lower morbidity are recently added options. Regardless of the therapy chosen, matching the surgical selection to the patient is essential. To review the present status of the surgical treatment of rectal prolapse. Literature review using MEDLINE. All articles reporting on rectopexy were included. Articles reporting on prospective and retrospective comparisons were included. Case reports were excluded, as were studies comparing data with historical controls. The results were tabulated to show outcomes of different studies and were compared. Studies that did not report some of the outcomes were noted as "not stated." Abdominal operations offer not only lower recurrence but also greater chance for functional improvements. Suture and mesh rectopexy produce equivalent results. However, the polyvinyl alcohol (Ivalon) sponge rectopexy is associated with an increased risk of infectious complications and has largely been abandoned. The advantage of adding a resection to the rectopexy seems to be related to less constipation. Laparoscopic rectopexy has similar results to open rectopexy but has all of the advantages related to laparoscopy. Perineal procedures are better suited to frail elderly patients with extensive comorbidity. Abdominal procedures are generally better for young fit patients; the results of all abdominal procedures are comparable. Suture and mesh rectopexy are still popular with many surgeons-the choice depends on the surgeon's experience and preference

  3. Increased Risk of Urinary Tract Cancer in ESRD Patients Associated with Usage of Chinese Herbal Products Suspected of Containing Aristolochic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo-Meng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Wei, Alan; Chen, Ya-Yin; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wang, Jung-Der

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Both end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and urothelial cancer (UC) are associated with the consumption of Chinese herbal products containing aristolochic acid (AA) by the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of UC associated with AA-related Chinese herbal products among ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cohort study using the National Health Insurance reimbursement database to enroll all ESRD patients in Taiwan from 1998–2002. Cox regression models were constructed and hazard ratios and confidence intervals were estimated after controlling for potential confounders, including age, sex, residence in region with endemic black foot disease, urinary tract infection, and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen. Results A total of 38,995 ESRD patients were included in the final analysis, and 320 patients developed UC after ESRD. Having been prescribed Mu Tong that was adulterated with Guan Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis) before 2004, or an estimated consumption of more than 1–100 mg of aristolochic acid, were both associated with an increased risk of UC in the multivariable analyses. Analgesic consumption of more than 150 pills was also associated with an increased risk of UC, although there was little correlation between the two risk factors. Conclusion Consumption of aristolochic acid-related Chinese herbal products was associated with an increased risk of developing UC in ESRD patients. Regular follow-up screening for UC in ESRD patients who have consumed Chinese herbal products is thus necessary. PMID:25170766

  4. Increased urinary levels of podocyte glycoproteins, matrix metallopeptidases, inflammatory cytokines, and kidney injury biomarkers in women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuping; Gu, Yang; Loyd, Susan; Jia, Xiuyue; Groome, Lynn J

    2015-12-15

    To investigate kidney injury in preeclampsia, we analyzed 14 biomarkers in urine specimen from 4 groups of pregnant women (normotensive pregnant women and those with pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension or mild or severe preeclampsia). These biomarkers included 1) podocyte glycoproteins nephrin and podocalyxin, 2) matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and their inhibitor tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, 3) inflammatory molecules and cytokines soluble VCAM-1, TNF-α, soluble TNF receptor receptor-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-18, and 4) kidney injury biomarkers neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1. Postpartum urine specimens (6-8 wk) from normotensive women and those with severe preeclampsia were also evaluated. We found that, first, urine levels of nephrin, MMP-2, MMP-9, and kidney injury molecule-1 were significantly higher before delivery in severe preeclampsia than normotensive groups. The increased levels were all reduced to levels similar to those of the normotensive control group in postpartum specimens from the severe preeclampsia group. Second, soluble VCAM-1, soluble TNF receptor-1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels were significantly increased in the severe preeclampsia group compared with the normotensive control group before delivery, but levels of these molecules were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens in both groups. Third, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were not different between preeclampsia and normotensive groups but significantly increased in pregnancy complicated with chronic hypertension. Finally, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and IL-18 levels were not different among the study groups before delivery but were significantly reduced in postpartum specimens from normotensive controls. Our results indicate that the kidney experiences an increased inflammatory response during pregnancy. Most interestingly, tubular epithelial cell injury may also occur in severe

  5. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2017-07-06

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence.

  6. Urinary Podocyte Loss Is Increased in Patients with Fabry Disease and Correlates with Clinical Severity of Fabry Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Fall, Brent; Scott, C. Ronald; Mauer, Michael; Shankland, Stuart; Pippin, Jeffrey; Jefferson, Jonathan A.; Wallace, Eric; Warnock, David; Najafian, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major complication of Fabry disease. Podocytes accumulate globotriaosylceramide inclusions more than other kidney cell types in Fabry patients. Podocyte injury occurs early in age, and is progressive. Since injured podocytes detach into the urine (podocyturia), we hypothesized that podocyturia would increase in Fabry patients and correlate with clinical severity of Fabry nephropathy. Urine specimens from 39 Fabry patients and 24 healthy subjects were evaluated for podocyturia. Most of the Fabry patients and many healthy subjects had podocyturia. The number of podocytes per gram of urine creatinine (UPodo/g Cr) was 3.6 fold greater in Fabry patients (3,741 ± 2796; p = 0.001) than healthy subjects (1,040 ± 972). Fabry patients with normoalbuminuria and normoproteinuria had over 2-fold greater UPodo/g Cr than healthy subjects (p = 0.048). UPodo/gCr was inversely related to eGFR in male patients (r = -0.69, p = 0.003). UPodo/gCr was directly related to urine protein creatinine ratio (r = 0.33; p = 0.04) in all Fabry patients. These studies confirm increased podocyturia in Fabry disease, even when proteinuria and albuminuria are absent. Podocyturia correlates with clinical severity of Fabry nephropathy, and potentially may be of prognostic value. PMID:27992580

  7. Urinary Podocyte Loss Is Increased in Patients with Fabry Disease and Correlates with Clinical Severity of Fabry Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Fall, Brent; Scott, C Ronald; Mauer, Michael; Shankland, Stuart; Pippin, Jeffrey; Jefferson, Jonathan A; Wallace, Eric; Warnock, David; Najafian, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major complication of Fabry disease. Podocytes accumulate globotriaosylceramide inclusions more than other kidney cell types in Fabry patients. Podocyte injury occurs early in age, and is progressive. Since injured podocytes detach into the urine (podocyturia), we hypothesized that podocyturia would increase in Fabry patients and correlate with clinical severity of Fabry nephropathy. Urine specimens from 39 Fabry patients and 24 healthy subjects were evaluated for podocyturia. Most of the Fabry patients and many healthy subjects had podocyturia. The number of podocytes per gram of urine creatinine (UPodo/g Cr) was 3.6 fold greater in Fabry patients (3,741 ± 2796; p = 0.001) than healthy subjects (1,040 ± 972). Fabry patients with normoalbuminuria and normoproteinuria had over 2-fold greater UPodo/g Cr than healthy subjects (p = 0.048). UPodo/gCr was inversely related to eGFR in male patients (r = -0.69, p = 0.003). UPodo/gCr was directly related to urine protein creatinine ratio (r = 0.33; p = 0.04) in all Fabry patients. These studies confirm increased podocyturia in Fabry disease, even when proteinuria and albuminuria are absent. Podocyturia correlates with clinical severity of Fabry nephropathy, and potentially may be of prognostic value.

  8. Increased angiotensinogen expression, urinary angiotensinogen excretion, and tissue injury in nonclipped kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Weijian; Miyata, Kayoko; Katsurada, Akemi; Satou, Ryousuke; Seth, Dale M; Rosales, Carla B; Prieto, Minolfa C; Mitchell, Kenneth D; Navar, L Gabriel

    2016-08-01

    In angiotensin II (ANG II)-dependent hypertension, there is an angiotensin type 1 receptor-dependent amplification mechanism enhancing intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) formation and secretion in the tubular fluid. To evaluate the role of increased arterial pressure, AGT mRNA, protein expression, and urinary AGT (uAGT) excretion and tissue injury were assessed in both kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Sprague-Dawley hypertensive rats subjected to left renal arterial clipping (0.25-mm gap). By 18-21 days, systolic arterial pressure increased to 180 ± 3 mmHg, and uAGT increased. Water intake, body weights, 24-h urine volumes, and sodium excretion were similar. In separate measurements of renal function in anesthetized rats, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate were similar in clipped and nonclipped kidneys and not different from those in sham rats, indicating that the perfusion pressure to the clipped kidneys remained within the autoregulatory range. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited increased urine flow and sodium excretion. The uAGT excretion was significantly greater in nonclipped kidneys compared with clipped and sham kidneys. AGT mRNA was 2.15-fold greater in the nonclipped kidneys compared with sham (1.0 ± 0.1) or clipped (0.98 ± 0.15) kidneys. AGT protein levels were also greater in the nonclipped kidneys. The nonclipped kidneys exhibited greater glomerular expansion and immune cell infiltration, medullary fibrosis, and cellular proliferation than the clipped kidneys. Because both kidneys have elevated ANG II levels, the greater tissue injury in the nonclipped kidneys indicates that an increased arterial pressure synergizes with increased intrarenal ANG II to stimulate AGT production and exert greater renal injury.

  9. American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educational Resources ASCRS Textbook, 3rd Edition CARSEP® CREST® Case Study Listserv International Colon and Rectal Societies and Organizations ... Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery CARSEP® Members Case Study Listserv CREST® Young Surgeons Listserv Quality Assessment and ...

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. Warren; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

  11. [Quality radiotherapy in rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Capirci, C; Amichetti, M; De Renzis, C

    2001-01-01

    The quality of radiotherapy significantly impacts on the results of treatment, in patients with rectal carcinoma, especially in terms of acute and late toxicity. Based on this assumption, the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) formulated a document aimed to define the standards of radiation treatment for rectal carcinomas. Two different levels of standard were described: a first level, considered as "minimal requirement", and a second level, considered as "optimal treatment". A retrospective evaluation, based on a questionnaire, revealed that in 1996, in most Italian Centers, patients affected by rectal carcinoma received radiation treatment within the first level of proposed standards. A subsequent analysis concerned the evaluation of the level of treatments applied in 2000. In this paper the radiotherapy standards proposed by the AIRO are described in the different phases of the radiation treatment.

  12. Supplementing a low-protein diet with dibasic amino acids increases urinary calcium excretion in young women.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Sullivan, Rebecca R; Simpson, Christine A; Caseria, Donna M; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Kerstetter, Jane E; Insogna, Karl L

    2014-03-01

    Increasing dietary protein within a physiologic range stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, but it is not known if specific amino acids or dietary protein as a whole are responsible for this effect. Therefore, we selectively supplemented a low-protein (0.7 g/kg) diet with either the calcium-sensing receptor-activating amino acids (CaSR-AAAs) L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-histidine, or the dibasic amino acids (DAAs) L-arginine and L-lysine, to achieve intakes comparable to the content of a high-protein diet (2.1 g/kg) and measured intestinal calcium absorption. Fourteen young women took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover feeding trial in which each participant ingested a 6-d low-protein diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs, DAAs, or methylcellulose capsules (control) after an 11-d adjustment period. All participants ingested all 3 diets in random order. Intestinal calcium absorption was measured between days 5 and 6 using dual-stable calcium isotopes ((42)Ca, (43)Ca, and (44)Ca). There was no difference in calcium absorption between the diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs (22.9 ± 2.0%) and the control diet (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P = 0.64). However, calcium absorption tended to be greater during the DAA supplementation period (25.2 ± 1.4%) compared with the control diet period (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P < 0.10). Larger and longer clinical trials are needed to clarify the possible benefit of arginine and lysine on calcium absorption.

  13. Supplementing a Low-Protein Diet with Dibasic Amino Acids Increases Urinary Calcium Excretion in Young Women12

    PubMed Central

    Bihuniak, Jessica D.; Sullivan, Rebecca R.; Simpson, Christine A.; Caseria, Donna M.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; O’Brien, Kimberly O.; Kerstetter, Jane E.; Insogna, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing dietary protein within a physiologic range stimulates intestinal calcium absorption, but it is not known if specific amino acids or dietary protein as a whole are responsible for this effect. Therefore, we selectively supplemented a low-protein (0.7 g/kg) diet with either the calcium-sensing receptor-activating amino acids (CaSR-AAAs) L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, and L-histidine, or the dibasic amino acids (DAAs) L-arginine and L-lysine, to achieve intakes comparable to the content of a high-protein diet (2.1 g/kg) and measured intestinal calcium absorption. Fourteen young women took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover feeding trial in which each participant ingested a 6-d low-protein diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs, DAAs, or methylcellulose capsules (control) after an 11-d adjustment period. All participants ingested all 3 diets in random order. Intestinal calcium absorption was measured between days 5 and 6 using dual-stable calcium isotopes (42Ca, 43Ca, and 44Ca). There was no difference in calcium absorption between the diet supplemented with CaSR-AAAs (22.9 ± 2.0%) and the control diet (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P = 0.64). However, calcium absorption tended to be greater during the DAA supplementation period (25.2 ± 1.4%) compared with the control diet period (22.3 ± 1.4%) (P < 0.10). Larger and longer clinical trials are needed to clarify the possible benefit of arginine and lysine on calcium absorption. PMID:24431325

  14. The predictive factors of α1-D/A adrenoceptor antagonist, naftopidil, dose increase therapy for male lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia: INFORM study

    PubMed Central

    Tanuma, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Takeyama, Ko; Okamoto, Tomoshi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the predictive factors which affect the efficacy of naftopidil 50 mg/day therapy and dose increase therapy to administration of 75 mg/day after an initial dose of 50 mg/day. Materials and Methods: A total of 92 patients with male lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia were administrated naftopidil 50 mg/day for 4 weeks (50 mg therapy). At week 4, the patients were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group E and Group I, respectively). For further 4 weeks, the dosage of naftopidil was increased to 75 mg/day in all patients. At week 8, the patients of Group E and Group I were divided into an effective and an ineffective group (Group EE, Group EI, Group IE, and Group II, respectively). Results: Postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume at baseline was a predictive factor for efficacy of 50 mg therapy. In Group E, change in International Prostate Symptom Score storage symptoms subscore from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy. In Group I, change in maximum flow rate from baseline to week 4 was a predictive factor for efficacy of this dose increase therapy. Conclusions: The short term of naftopidil 50 mg therapy was ineffective for the patients who had large PVR. The predictive factor of this dose increase therapy might be a dynamic variable in 50 mg/day of dose period, but not a baseline variable at the time of 75 mg/day dosage starts. PMID:28794594

  15. Hypomethylation of inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3) and increased urinary 8-nitroguanine in arsenic-exposed newborns and children.

    PubMed

    Phookphan, Preeyaphan; Navasumrit, Panida; Waraprasit, Somchamai; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2017-02-01

    Early-life exposure to arsenic increases risk of developing a variety of non-malignant and malignant diseases. Arsenic-induced carcinogenesis may be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms and pathways leading to inflammation. Our previous study reported that prenatal arsenic exposure leads to increased mRNA expression of several genes related to inflammation, including COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3. This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic exposure on promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression of these inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3), as well as the generation of 8-nitroguanine, which is a mutagenic DNA lesion involved in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Prenatally arsenic-exposed newborns had promoter hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3 in cord blood lymphocytes (p<0.01). A follow-up study in these prenatally arsenic-exposed children showed a significant hypomethylation of these genes in salivary DNA (p<0.01). In vitro experiments confirmed that arsenite treatment at short-term high doses (10-100μM) and long-term low doses (0.5-1μM) in human lymphoblasts (RPMI 1788) caused promoter hypomethylation of these genes, which was in concordance with an increase in their mRNA expression. Additionally, the level of urinary 8-nitroguanine was significantly higher (p<0.01) in exposed newborns and children, by 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively. Arsenic accumulation in toenails was negatively correlated with hypomethylation of these genes and positively correlated with levels of 8-nitroguanine. These results indicated that early-life exposure to arsenic causes hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3, increases mRNA expression of these genes, and increases 8-nitroguanine formation. These effects may be linked to mechanisms of arsenic-induced inflammation and cancer development later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Local management of rectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Touzios, John; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2008-11-01

    The treatment of rectal neoplasia, whether benign or malignant, challenges the surgeon. The challenge in treating rectal cancer is selecting the proper approach for the appropriate patient. In a small number of rectal cancer patients local excision may be the best approach. In an attempt to achieve two goals-cure of disease with a low rate of local failure and maintenance of function and quality of life-multiple approaches can be utilized. The key to obtaining a good outcome for any one patient is balancing the competing factors that impact on these goals. Any effective treatment aimed at controlling rectal cancer in the pelvis must take into account the disease in the bowel wall itself and the disease, or potential disease, in the mesorectum. The major downside of local excision techniques is the potential of leaving untreated disease in the mesorectum. Local management techniques avoid the potential morbidity, mortality, and functional consequences of a major abdominal radical resection and are thus quite effective in achieving the maintenance of function and quality of life goal. The issue for the transanal techniques is how they fare in achieving the first goal-cure of the cancer while keeping local recurrence rates to an absolute minimum. Without removing both the rectum and the mesorectum there is no completely accurate way to determine whether a rectal cancer has moved outside the bowel wall, so any decision on local management of a rectal neoplasm is a calculated risk. For benign neoplasia, the challenge is removing the lesion without having to resort to a major abdominal procedure.

  17. SwiftLase: a new technology for char-free ablation in rectal surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, David A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe layer-by-layer char-free ablation of hemorrhoids and other rectal lesions at very low CO2 laser power levels with a miniature `SwiftLaser' optomechanical flashscanner. Increased speed with excellent control, very shallow thermal damage, and less postoperative pain are the main advantages of the flashscan technology in rectal surgery.

  18. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  1. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have

  2. Post-operative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  3. Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Surgery in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-09

    Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  4. Rectal foreign bodies: imaging assessment and medicolegal aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Miele, Vittorio; Pinto, Fabio; Mizio, Veronica Di; Panico, Maria Rita; Muzj, Carlo; Romano, Luigia

    2015-02-01

    The amount of patients presenting at the emergency hospitals with retained rectal foreign bodies appears recently to have increased. Foreign objects retained in the rectum may result from direct introduction through the anus (more common) or from ingestion. Affected individuals often make ineffective attempts to extract the object themselves, resulting in additional delay of medical care and potentially increasing the risk of complications. The goals of radiological patient assessment are to identify the type of object retained, its location, and the presence of associated complications. Plain film radiographs still play an important role in the assessment of retained rectal foreign bodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of povidone-iodine at delivery significantly increases maternal urinary iodine but not neonatal thyrotropin in an area with iodine sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Majid; Nazeri, Pantea; Fazli, Farzaneh; Mohammadian, Farnaz; Kalantari, Sadreddin; Kamali, Koorosh; Osali, Hesam

    2017-08-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of povidone-iodine (PVP-I) application at delivery on maternal urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and neonatal thyrotropin concentration. In this cross-sectional study, urine samples were collected from each pregnant woman after admission to the hospital and before routine application of the PVP-I for delivery preparation and after delivery at time of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. A heel-prick blood sample was taken from all newborns. A total of 394 pregnant women at time of delivery participated in this study. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) maternal UIC values were 120 (105-157) and 253 (126-470) μg/L before and after delivery, respectively (p<0.001). No significant correlations were observed between maternal UIC before and after delivery and neonatal thyrotropin levels. Application of PVP-I significantly increased UIC in postpartum mothers; however, thyrotropin concentration in neonates, whose mothers had adequate UIC, was within the normal range.

  6. Postoperative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention.

  7. Nomogram to predict rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Delobel, Jean-Bernard; Ospina, Juan David; Beckendorf, Véronique; Chira, Ciprian; Zhu, Jian; Bossi, Alberto; Messai, Taha; Acosta, Oscar; Castelli, Joël; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity following prostate cancer radiotherapy (RT), while integrating the potential impact of RT technique, dose escalation, and moderate hypofractionation, thus enabling us to generate a nomogram for individual prediction. Methods In total, 972 patients underwent RT for localized prostate cancer, to a total dose of 70 Gy or 80 Gy, using two different fractionations (2 Gy or 2.5 Gy/day), by means of several RT techniques (3D conformal RT [3DCRT], intensity-modulated RT [IMRT], or image-guided RT [IGRT]). Multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of acute and late rectal toxicity. A nomogram was generated based on the logistic regression model used to predict the 3-year rectal toxicity risk, with its accuracy assessed by dividing the cohort into training and validation subgroups. Results Mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 62 months, ranging from 6 to 235. The rate of acute Grade ≥2 rectal toxicity was 22.2%, decreasing when combining IMRT and IGRT, compared to 3DCRT (RR = 0.4, 95%CI: 0.3–0.6, p<0.01). The 5-year Grade ≥2 risks for rectal bleeding, urgency/tenesmus, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence were 9.9%, 4.5%, 2.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. The 3-year Grade ≥2 risk for overall rectal toxicity increased with total dose (p<0.01, RR = 1.1, 95%CI: 1.0–1.1) and dose per fraction (2Gy vs. 2.5Gy) (p = 0.03, RR = 3.3, 95%CI: 1.1–10.0), and decreased when combining IMRT and IGRT (RR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.3–0.8, p<0.01). Based on these three parameters, a nomogram was generated. Conclusions Dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation increase late rectal toxicity. IMRT combined with IGRT markedly decreases acute and late rectal toxicity. Performing combined IMRT and IGRT can thus be envisaged for dose escalation and moderate hypofractionation. Our nomogram predicts the 3-year rectal toxicity risk by integrating total dose, fraction dose, and RT technique. PMID:28640871

  8. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery for rectal adenomas: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Mikelis, Kipras; Samalavicius, Robertas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a method of choice for the local treatment of rectal adenomas. Though generally considered as a safe method, some authors have expressed skepticism about the anorectal function following TEM. Aim To review our experience in using TEM for removal of rectal adenomas. We focused on morbidity, local recurrence rates, and anorectal function following the operation. Material and methods The study included 72 patients who underwent TEM for rectal adenomas from December 2009 to November 2014 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute. Of the 72 patients, 31 (43.1%) were lost in the follow-up. We recorded the demographics, operative details, final pathology, post-operative length of stay, post-operative complications, recurrences and functional outcome for each of the 41 (56.9%) remaining participants. Results Of the 41 eligible patients, 19 (46.3%) were male and 22 (53.7%) were female. The mean age of our patients was 66.8 years. There were no intraoperative complications. In 4 (9.8%) cases, postoperative complications were observed – urinary retention (2 cases, 4.9%) and postoperative hemorrhage (2 cases, 4.9%). All complications were treated conservatively. There was a single case (2.4%) of adenoma recurrence during the follow-up period. The mean score of the FISI questionnaire was 7.6 ±9.2 (ranging from 0 to 36), and the mean Wexner score was 2.3 ±3.4 (ranging from 0 to 17). Conclusions Transanal endoscopic microsurgery in our experience demonstrated low complication and recurrence rates, and good functional results. We conclude that TEM is an effective and safe method for the treatment of rectal adenomas. PMID:28133497

  9. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms in urinary tract pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated during rapidly increasing fluoroquinolone consumption in a low-use country.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Nina; Nielsen, Lene; Jakobsen, Lotte; Stegger, Marc; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2011-09-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin in Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTI) in Denmark is increasing parallel to increased use of fluoroquinolones both in Denmark and in other European countries. The objective was to investigate the occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance mechanisms, phenotypic coresistance, and if ciprofloxacin resistance was caused by clonal spread or to individual mutational events in a collection of consecutively obtained E. coli submitted to a clinical microbiology department at a Danish hospital. One hundred four UTI-related E. coli resistant toward nalidixic acid by disc diffusion were typed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI. One isolate representing each PFGE type and only one patient (n = 77) were investigated for point mutations in sequenced PCR amplicons of the four topoisomerase genes; qnr genes by use of PCR; aac(6')-Ib-cr by BtsCI restriction of PCR products; and efflux using efflux pump inhibitors in a broth dilution assay. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 21 antibacterial agents, including ciprofloxacin. Of the 77 isolates, the majority were resistant to ciprofloxacin (91%) and multiresistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes, 83%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed at least one target mutation. A significant, positive correlation was found regarding MIC of ciprofloxacin and the number of target mutations. Efflux was found as a resistance mechanism in 77% of isolates tested (n = 60). The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was detected on plasmids from five isolates showing ciprofloxacin MICs >512 mg/L. No overall clonal relationship among isolates was found according to PFGE. Target modification is the dominating fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism often found in combination with efflux and sometimes aac(6')-Ib-cr. In Denmark, increasing ciprofloxacin resistance in E. coli is mainly due to mutational events and not to spread of clones.

  10. Toward Restored Bowel Health in Rectal Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Gunnar; Schmidt, Heike; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Sjöberg, Fei; Bull, Cecilia Magdalena; Vordermark, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    As technology gets better and better, and as clinical research provides more and more knowledge, we can extend our ambition to cure patients from cancer with restored physical health among the survivors. This increased ambition requires attention to grade 1 toxicity that decreases quality of life. It forces us to document the details of grade 1 toxicity and improve our understanding of the mechanisms. Long-term toxicity scores, or adverse events as documented during clinical trials, may be regarded as symptoms or signs of underlying survivorship diseases. However, we lack a survivorship nosology for rectal cancer survivors. Primarily focusing on radiation-induced side effects, we highlight some important observations concerning late toxicity among rectal cancer survivors. With that and other data, we searched for a preliminary survivorship-disease nosology for rectal cancer survivors. We disentangled the following survivorship diseases among rectal cancer survivors: low anterior resection syndrome, radiation-induced anal sphincter dysfunction, gut wall inflammation and fibrosis, blood discharge, excessive gas discharge, excessive mucus discharge, constipation, bacterial overgrowth, and aberrant anatomical structures. The suggested survivorship nosology may form the basis for new instruments capturing long-term symptoms (patient-reported outcomes) and professional-reported signs. For some of the diseases, we can search for animal models. As an end result, the suggested survivorship nosology may accelerate our understanding on how to prevent, ameliorate, or eliminate manifestations of treatment-induced diseases among rectal cancer survivors.

  11. Adjuvant therapy of resectable rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2002-08-01

    The two conventional treatments for clinically resectable rectal cancer are surgery followed by postoperative combined modality therapy and preoperative combined modality therapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy. Preoperative therapy (most commonly combined modality therapy) has gained acceptance as a standard adjuvant therapy. The potential advantages of the preoperative approach include decreased tumor seeding, less acute toxicity, increased radiosensitivity due to more oxygenated cells, and enhanced sphincter preservation. There are a number of new chemotherapeutic agents that have been developed for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Phase I/II trials examining the use of new chemotherapeutic agents in combination with pelvic radiation therapy are in progress.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Catherine E; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the anatomy of the anorectum, the MRI protocol parameters required to optimize diagnosis of rectal cancer, and the diagnostic MRI criteria essential to stage rectal cancer accurately, using the TNM staging classification. A brief review of more emerging important aspects of rectal cancer staging, such as the circumferential resection margin, extramural vascular invasion, and the staging of low rectal cancers, will also be provided. Finally, the authors will touch upon the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in the setting of locally advanced rectal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Rectosacropexy in rectal prolapse management].

    PubMed

    Titov, A Iu; Biriukov, O M; Fomenko, O Iu; Zarodniuk, I V; Voĭnov, M A

    2016-01-01

    To compare results of rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy in rectal prolapse management. Study included 122 patients operated for rectal prolapse for the period January 2007 to August 2014. Patients' age ranged from 19 to 85 years (mean 47.3±16.1). Main group consisted of 60 (49.2%) patients who underwent rectosacropexy (D'Hoore's procedure). Control group included 62 (50.8%) patients in whom posterior-loop rectopexy was applied (Wells's procedure). Long-term results were followed-up in 94 (77.0%) patients including 48 and 46 from main and control group respectively. Recurrent prolaple incidence after rectosacropexy and posterior-loop rectopexy was 2% and 8.7% respectively. Multivariant analysis statistically confirmed that postoperative impaired colon motility was independent risk factor of recurrence. Recurrent disease is observed 5.7 times more often in this case. Rectosacropexy does not significantly impair colon motility because of ileus occurs in 8.3% of operated patients. Impovement of anal continence does not depend on rectopexy method and occurs in all patients with degree 1-2 of anal sphincter failure. Rectosacropexy may be preferred in rectal prolapse. However, further highly significant studies are necessary to optimize rectal prolapse management.

  14. Male sexual and urinary function after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.

    PubMed

    Morino, Mario; Parini, Umberto; Allaix, Marco Ettore; Monasterolo, Gabriella; Brachet Contul, Riccardo; Garrone, Corrado

    2009-06-01

    Urinary and sexual dysfunction are potential complications of rectal surgery for cancer. This study retrospectively evaluated the frequency of such complications after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) with autonomic nerve preservation. For this study, 50 men younger than 75 years who underwent radical LTME for mid and low rectal cancer were followed up for at least 12 months, interviewed, and administered a standardized questionnaire about postoperative functional outcomes and quality of life. Sexual desire was maintained by 55.6%, ability to engage in intercourse by 57.8%, and ability to achieve orgasm and ejaculation by 37.8% of the patients. Distance of the tumor from the anal verge and adjuvant or neoadjuvant treatments were the significant predictors of poor postoperative sexual function. Seven patients (14%) presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction, all of whom were medically treated. Tumor stage and distance from the anal verge were independently associated with the postoperative global International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS). No differences were observed in urinary quality of life. In this series, LTME did not reproduce or improve on sexual and urinary dysfunction outcomes obtained in the best open TME series. Further trials are needed to evaluate functional outcome in rectal cancer patients.

  15. Metachronous penile metastasis from rectal cancer after total pelvic exenteration.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Shida, Dai; Nasu, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Warabi, Masahiro; Inoue, Satoru

    2012-10-14

    Despite its abundant vascularization and extensive circulatory communication with neighboring organs, metastases to the penis are a rare event. A 57-year-old male, who had undergone total pelvic exenteration for rectal cancer sixteen months earlier, demonstrated an abnormal uptake within his penis by positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A single elastic nodule of the middle penis shaft was noted deep within Bucks fascia. No other obvious recurrent site was noted except the penile lesion. Total penectomy was performed as a curative resection based on a diagnosis of isolated penile metastasis from rectal cancer. A histopathological examination revealed an increase of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the corpus spongiosum consistent with his primary rectal tumor. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated positive staining for cytokeratin 20 and negative staining for cytokeratin 7, which strongly supported a diagnosis of penile metastasis from the rectum. The patient is alive more than two years without any recurrence.

  16. A Review of Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Ji; Ma, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Yan, Yanli; Xue, Chaofan; Hui, Beina; Liu, Rui; Ma, Hailin; Ren, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy not only can reduce tumor size and recurrence, but also increase the tumor resection rate and anus retention rate with very slight side effect. Comparing with preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative chemoradiotherapy can further reduce the local recurrence rate and downstage. Middle and low rectal cancers can benefit more from neoadjuvant chemradiotherapy than high rectal cancer. It needs to refine the selection of appropriate patients and irradiation modes for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Different therapeutic reactions to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy affect the type of surgical techniques, hence calling for the need of much attention. Furthermore, many problems such as accurate staging before surgery, selection of suitable neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy method, and sensitivity prediction to preoperative radiotherapy need to be well settled. PMID:27489505

  17. Incidence and risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Young; Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook; Lim, Hyun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Hui Gyeong; Bang, Yu Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to investigate the incidence of and potential risk factors for rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 300 patients who underwent laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. We assessed the presence of rectal pain and categorized patients into Group N (no rectal pain) or Group P (rectal pain). Results In total, 288 patients were included. Of these patients, 39 (13.5%) reported rectal pain and 14 (4.9%) had rectal pain that persisted for >3 months. Univariate analysis revealed that patients in Group P had more preoperative chemoradiotherapy, more ileostomies, longer operation times, more anastomotic margins of <2 cm from the anal verge, more anastomotic leakage, and longer hospital stays. Multivariate analysis identified an anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time as risk factors. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Conclusions In this study, the incidence of rectal pain after laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery was 13.5%. An anastomotic margin of <2 cm from the anal verge and a long operation time were risk factors for rectal pain. The presence of diabetes mellitus was a negative predictor of rectal pain. Thus, the possibility of postoperative rectal pain should be discussed preoperatively with patients with these risk factors. PMID:28415928

  18. Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, William R.; Hosford, Charles C.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

  19. Human collagen injections to reduce rectal dose during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noyes, William R; Hosford, Charles C; Schultz, Steven E

    2012-04-01

    The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Moderate dose escalation with volumetric modulated arc therapy improves outcome in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stuyck, Cedric; Wegge, Marilyn; Bulens, Philippe; Joye, Ines; Haustermans, Karin

    2017-08-22

    Locally advanced rectal cancer is frequently treated with a long course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. We investigated the effect of moderate dose escalation with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) up to 50 Gy in 25 fractions compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) to 45 Gy in 25 fractions in rectal cancer patients. Dose-volume parameters, acute toxicity, and complete response rates were compared. For both groups, 65 patients were selected from our database through availability. Dose-volume parameters and acute toxicity data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Univariate and multivariate analyses correcting for tumor and nodal stage, distance to the mesorectal fascia and interval to surgery were used to compare complete response rates. Lower mean doses to the small and large bowel were observed in the VMAT group compared to the 3D-CRT group (21 Gy vs. 29 Gy [p < .001] and 26 Gy vs. 30 Gy [p = .002], respectively). Similar beneficial dose-volume parameters were observed for the bladder, sacrum and femoral heads. Furthermore, patients receiving VMAT experienced significantly less diarrhea, flatulence, non-infective cystitis, urinary frequency, dermatitis, and fatigue. In univariate analysis, a significant increase in complete response rate after moderate dose escalation with VMAT was observed (34% vs. 15%, p = .015). However, this did not remain significant when corrected for tumor and nodal stage, distance to the mesorectal fascia, and interval to surgery. Moderate dose escalation with VMAT resulted in superior dose-volume parameters compared to 3D-CRT, translating into lower acute toxicity. Additionally, improved tumor response after VMAT up to 50 Gy might contribute to a higher percentage of patients achieving a complete response.

  1. Phase II Study of Preoperative Helical Tomotherapy With a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, Benedikt; Tournel, Koen; Everaert, Hendrik; Hoorens, Anne; Sermeus, Alexandra; Christian, Nicolas; Storme, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: The addition of concomitant chemotherapy to preoperative radiotherapy is considered the standard of care for patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. The combined treatment modality increases the complete response rate and local control (LC), but has no impact on survival or the incidence of distant metastases. In addition, it is associated with considerable toxicity. As an alternative strategy, we explored prospectively, preoperative helical tomotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). Methods and Materials: A total of 108 patients were treated with intensity-modulated and image-guided radiotherapy using the Tomotherapy Hi-Art II system. A dose of 46 Gy, in daily fractions of 2 Gy, was delivered to the mesorectum and draining lymph nodes, without concomitant chemotherapy. Patients with an anticipated circumferential resection margin (CRM) of less than 2 mm, based on magnetic resonance imaging, received a SIB to the tumor up to a total dose of 55.2 Gy. Acute and late side effects were scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results: A total of 102 patients presented with cT3-4 tumors; 57 patients entered the boost group and 51 the no-boost group. One patient in the no-boost group developed a radio-hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in a complete tumor remission, a Grade 3 acute and Grade 5 late enteritis. No other Grade {>=}3 acute toxicities occurred. With a median follow-up of 32 months, Grade {>=}3 late gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity were observed in 6% and 4% of the patients, respectively. The actuarial 2-year LC, progression-free survival and overall survival were 98%, 79%, and 93%. Conclusions: Preoperative helical tomotherapy displays a favorable acute toxicity profile in patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer. A SIB can be safely administered in patients with a narrow CRM and resulted in a promising LC.

  2. Rectal cancer and Fournier’s gangrene - current knowledge and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Bruketa, Tomislav; Majerovic, Matea; Augustin, Goran

    2015-01-01

    Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a rapid progressive bacterial infection that involves the subcutaneous fascia and part of the deep fascia but spares the muscle in the scrotal, perianal and perineal region. The incidence has increased dramatically, while the reported incidence of rectal cancer-induced FG is unknown but is extremely low. Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of rectal cancer-induced FG per se does not differ from the other causes. Only rectal cancer-specific symptoms before presentation can lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis of rectal cancer-induced FG should be excluded in every patient with blood on digital rectal examination, when urogenital and dermatological causes are excluded and when fever or sepsis of unknown origin is present with perianal symptomatology. Therapeutic options are more complex than for other forms of FG. First, the causative rectal tumor should be removed. The survival of patients with rectal cancer resection is reported as 100%, while with colostomy it is 80%. The preferred method of rectal resection has not been defined. Second, oncological treatment should be administered but the timing should be adjusted to the resolution of the FG and sometimes for the healing of plastic reconstructive procedures that are commonly needed for the reconstruction of large perineal, scrotal and lower abdominal wall defects. PMID:26290629

  3. Rectal chlamydia infection in women at high risk of chlamydia attending Canberra Sexual Health Centre.

    PubMed

    Musil, Kate; Currie, Marian; Sherley, Miranda; Martin, Sarah

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Australian guidelines recommend urogenital screening in asymptomatic men and women, and rectal screening in men who have sex with men or women reporting anal sex/symptoms. International studies describe a rectal chlamydia prevalence in women of 5% to 21%. We found that in women at high risk of chlamydia, 57% (32/56) tested positive for rectal chlamydia. Of these, 97% (31/32) had concurrent urogenital chlamydia. Women with urogenital chlamydia were significantly more likely to have a positive rectal result (χ(2), p = 0.000). Neither anal symptoms nor reported anal sex were associated with a positive rectal chlamydia test. The recommended treatment of rectal chlamydia differs substantially from that of urogenital chlamydia, raising the possibility that Australian women are being regularly undertreated due to a lack of rectal testing. Untreated rectal chlamydia may increase the risk of persistent infection, reproductive tract reinfection, complications and transmission. Further work is needed to determine the optimal management of chlamydia in women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone but not 16alpha-hydroxyestrone in premenopausal women during a soya diet containing isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Lu, L J; Cree, M; Josyula, S; Nagamani, M; Grady, J J; Anderson, K E

    2000-03-01

    Asian diets high in soy are associated with lower risk for breast cancer compared with Western diets. Moreover, higher levels of two putative carcinogenic metabolites of 17beta-estradiol, 4- and 16alpha-hydroxyestrogen, and lower amounts of anticarcinogenic metabolites, 2-hydroxyestrogens, have been associated with greater breast cancer risk. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that consumption of a soya diet containing the weakly estrogenic isoflavones genistein and daidzein may alter the metabolism of 17beta-estradiol to 2- and 16alpha-hydroxylated products. Eight pre-menopausal women were placed on a soya-containing, constant diet in a metabolic unit. The diet provided 400 kilocalories from soymilk and 113-202 mg/day (158 +/- 26 mg/day, mean +/- SD) isoflavones daily for a complete menstrual cycle. After a washout period of 4 months, the subjects consumed the same diet, but with soymilk that contained <4.5 mg/day isoflavones ("isoflavone-free"). Urine samples were collected for 24 h daily for the entire cycle during each soya diet period for the analysis of daidzein, genistein, and 2- and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone. Subjects excreted measurable amounts of daidzein (11.6-39.2 mg/day) and genistein (2.9-18.2 mg/day) during the isoflavone-rich soya diet but not during the isoflavone-free soya diet. The diet rich in isoflavones increased the cycle mean daily urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone (averaged over the entire cycle) from 11.6 +/- 2.06 to 17.0 +/- 2.96 nmol/12-h (P = 0.03), a 47% increase. However, the mean daily excretion of 16alpha-hydroxyestrone did not change (7.0 +/- 1.14 nmol/12-h during the isoflavone-free and 7.7 +/- 1.25 nmol/12-h during the isoflavone-rich diet; P = 0.36). The ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 16alpha-hydroxyestrone was higher during the isoflavone-rich soya diet (2.6 +/- 0.34) than during the isoflavone-free diet (2.0 +/- 0.32; P = 0.01), a 27% increase. These results suggest that soya isoflavones increase the metabolism of

  5. [Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients].

    PubMed

    Verdejo, Carlos; Méndez, Santiago; Salinas, Jesús

    2016-11-18

    Urinary tract dysfunction in older patients has a multifactorial aetiology and is not a uniform clinical condition. Changes due to physiological ageing as well as comorbidity and polypharmacy, can produce several dynamic conditions such as urinary incontinence and urinary retention. Lower urinary tract symptoms increase with age in both sexes and are a major problem in older patients due to their medical and psychosocial consequences. For these reasons, in assessing urinary dysfunction in older patients, we should consider external circumstances such as polypharmacy, poor mobility, affective and cognitive disorders and also accessibility to housing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; DeGara, Christopher; Porter, Geoff; Ghosh, Sunita; Schiller, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved. Methods We reviewed the charts of all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 who had a potentially curative resection. The main outcomes examined were 5-year local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Surgeons were classified into 3 groups according to training and volume, and we compared outcome measures among them. We also compared our results to those of the previous study from our region. Results We included 433 cases in the study. Subspecialty-trained colorectal surgeons performed 35% of all surgeries in our study compared to 16% in the previous study. The overall 5-year LR rate and DSS in our study were improved compared to the previous study. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with increased 5-year LR was presence of obstruction, and the factors associated with decreased 5-year DSS were high-volume noncolorectal surgeons, presence of obstruction and increased stage. Conclusion Over the past 10 years, the long-term outcomes of treatment for rectal cancer have improved. We found that surgical subspecialization was associated with improved DSS but not LR. Increased surgical volume was not associated with LR or DSS. PMID:23883504

  7. Retrospective review of rectal cancer surgery in northern Alberta.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Degara, Christopher; Porter, Geoff; Ghosh, Sunita; Schiller, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies, including research published more than 10 years ago in Northern Alberta, have demonstrated improved outcomes with increased surgical volume and subspecialisation in the treatment of rectal cancer. We sought to examine contemporary rectal cancer care in the same region to determine whether practice patterns have changed and whether outcomes have improved. We reviewed the charts of all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2003 who had a potentially curative resection. The main outcomes examined were 5-year local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Surgeons were classified into 3 groups according to training and volume, and we compared outcome measures among them. We also compared our results to those of the previous study from our region. We included 433 cases in the study. Subspecialty-trained colorectal surgeons performed 35% of all surgeries in our study compared to 16% in the previous study. The overall 5-year LR rate and DSS in our study were improved compared to the previous study. On multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with increased 5-year LR was presence of obstruction, and the factors associated with decreased 5-year DSS were high-volume noncolorectal surgeons, presence of obstruction and increased stage. Over the past 10 years, the long-term outcomes of treatment for rectal cancer have improved. We found that surgical subspecialization was associated with improved DSS but not LR. Increased surgical volume was not associated with LR or DSS.

  8. MiR-145 detection in urinary extracellular vesicles increase diagnostic efficiency of prostate cancer based on hydrostatic filtration dialysis method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Qin, Sihua; An, Taixue; Tang, Yueting; Huang, Yiyao; Zheng, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be detected in body fluids and may serve as disease biomarkers. Increasing evidence suggests that circulating miRNAs in serum and urine may be potential non-invasive biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether hydrostatic filtration dialysis (HFD) is suitable for urinary EVs (UEVs) isolation and whether such reported PCa-related miRNAs can be detected in UEVs as PCa biomarkers. To analyze EVs miRNAs, we searched for an easy and economic method to enrich EVs from urine samples. We compared the efficiency of HFD method and conventional ultracentrifugation (UC) in isolating UEVs. Subsequently, UEVs were isolated from patients with PCa, patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy individuals. Differential expression of four PCa-related miRNAs (miR-572, miR-1290, miR-141, and miR-145) were measured in UEVs and paired serum EVs using SYBR Green-based quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The overall performance of HFD was similar to UC. In miRNA yield, both HFD and UC can meet the needs of further analysis. The level of miR-145 in UEVs was significantly increased in patients with PCa compared with the patients with BPH (P = 0.018). In addition, significant increase was observed in miR-145 levels when patients with Gleason score ≥8 tumors compared with Gleason score ≤7 (P = 0.020). Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed that miR-145 in UEVs combined with serum PSA could differentiate PCa from BPH better than PSA alone (AUC 0.863 and AUC 0.805, respectively). In serum EVs, four miRNAs were significantly higher in patients with PCa than with BPH. HFD is appropriate for UEVs isolation and miRNA analysis when compared with conventional UC. miR-145 in UEVs is upregulated from PCa patients compared BPH patients and healthy controls. We suggest the potential use of UEVs miR-145 as a biomarker of PCa. © 2017 Wiley

  9. Canagliflozin lowers postprandial glucose and insulin by delaying intestinal glucose absorption in addition to increasing urinary glucose excretion: results of a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, David; Sha, Sue; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Ghosh, Atalanta; Vaccaro, Nicole; Farrell, Kristin; Rothenberg, Paul; Henry, Robert R

    2013-08-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, is also a low-potency SGLT1 inhibitor. This study tested the hypothesis that intestinal canagliflozin levels postdose are sufficiently high to transiently inhibit intestinal SGLT1, thereby delaying intestinal glucose absorption. This two-period, crossover study evaluated effects of canagliflozin on intestinal glucose absorption in 20 healthy subjects using a dual-tracer method. Placebo or canagliflozin 300 mg was given 20 min before a 600-kcal mixed-meal tolerance test. Plasma glucose, (3)H-glucose, (14)C-glucose, and insulin were measured frequently for 6 h to calculate rates of appearance of oral glucose (RaO) in plasma, endogenous glucose production, and glucose disposal. Compared with placebo, canagliflozin treatment reduced postprandial plasma glucose and insulin excursions (incremental 0- to 2-h area under the curve [AUC0-2h] reductions of 35% and 43%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both), increased 0- to 6-h urinary glucose excretion (UGE0-6h, 18.2 ± 5.6 vs. <0.2 g; P < 0.001), and delayed RaO. Canagliflozin reduced AUC RaO by 31% over 0 to 1 h (geometric means, 264 vs. 381 mg/kg; P < 0.001) and by 20% over 0 to 2 h (576 vs. 723 mg/kg; P = 0.002). Over 2 to 6 h, canagliflozin increased RaO such that total AUC RaO over 0 to 6 h was <6% lower versus placebo (960 vs. 1,018 mg/kg; P = 0.003). A modest (∼10%) reduction in acetaminophen absorption was observed over the first 2 h, but this difference was not sufficient to explain the reduction in RaO. Total glucose disposal over 0 to 6 h was similar across groups. Canagliflozin reduces postprandial plasma glucose and insulin by increasing UGE (via renal SGLT2 inhibition) and delaying RaO, likely due to intestinal SGLT1 inhibition.

  10. Rectal dose to prostate cancer patients treated with proton therapy with or without rectal spacer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heeteak; Polf, Jerimy; Badiyan, Shahed; Biagioli, Matthew; Fernandez, Daniel; Latifi, Kujtim; Wilder, Richard; Mehta, Minesh; Chuong, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a spacer inserted in the prerectal space could reduce modeled rectal dose and toxicity rates for patients with prostate cancer treated in silico with pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy. A total of 20 patients were included in this study who received photon therapy (12 with rectal spacer (DuraSeal™ gel) and 8 without). Two PBS treatment plans were retrospectively created for each patient using the following beam arrangements: (1) lateral-opposed (LAT) fields and (2) left and right anterior oblique (LAO/RAO) fields. Dose volume histograms (DVH) were generated for the prostate, rectum, bladder, and right and left femoral heads. The normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity was calculated using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model and compared between patients with and without the rectal spacer. A significantly lower mean rectal DVH was achieved in patients with rectal spacer compared to those without. For LAT plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 4.19 and 13.5%, respectively. For LAO/RAO plans, the mean rectal V70 with and without rectal spacer was 5.07 and 13.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found in any rectal dosimetric parameters between the LAT and the LAO/RAO plans generated with the rectal spacers. We found that ≥ 9 mm space resulted in a significant decrease in NTCP modeled for ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity. Rectal spacers can significantly decrease modeled rectal dose and predicted ≥grade 2 rectal toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated in silico with PBS. A minimum of 9 mm separation between the prostate and anterior rectal wall yields the largest benefit.

  11. Correlation between tumor regression grade and rectal volume in neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Seok; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Hee Chul; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Chung, Kwangzoo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether large rectal volume on planning computed tomography (CT) results in lower tumor regression grade (TRG) after neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in rectal cancer patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed medical records of 113 patients treated with surgery following neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer between January and December 2012. Rectal volume was contoured on axial images in which gross tumor volume was included. Average axial rectal area (ARA) was defined as rectal volume divided by longitudinal tumor length. The impact of rectal volume and ARA on TRG was assessed. Results Average rectal volume and ARA were 11.3 mL and 2.9 cm². After completion of neoadjuvant CCRT in 113 patients, pathologic results revealed total regression (TRG 4) in 28 patients (25%), good regression (TRG 3) in 25 patients (22%), moderate regression (TRG 2) in 34 patients (30%), minor regression (TRG 1) in 24 patients (21%), and no regression (TRG0) in 2 patients (2%). No difference of rectal volume and ARA was found between each TRG groups. Linear correlation existed between rectal volume and TRG (p = 0.036) but not between ARA and TRG (p = 0.058). Conclusion Rectal volume on planning CT has no significance on TRG in patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT for rectal cancer. These results indicate that maintaining minimal rectal volume before each treatment may not be necessary. PMID:27592514

  12. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Bondurant, Kristina L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S.; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In this study we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were utilized. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk and CXCR1, and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1, and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/NSAID, cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% CI 1.18–2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28–2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. PMID:22674296

  13. [Surgical treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Fernández, O; Salinas-Aragón, L E; Camacho-Mauries, D; Medina-Franco, H

    2010-01-01

    Rectal affection accounts for 30% of colorectal cancer. The standard of treatment is surgical resection, which often is curative. For superior and middle-rectal involvement, low anterior resection (LAR) is the preferred procedure. For tumors involving the lower portion of the rectum, abdominoperineal resection (APR) or LAR are the options of treatment, depending on sphincter involvement. The main surgical objective is to achieve a R0 resection with an appropriated total mesorrectal excision, greater number of lymph nodes and negative distal and radial margins. These surgical parameters have been used as quality indicators and have prognostic implications in terms of overall and disease-free survival. Total mesorectal excision with preservation of hypogastric nerves has shown a reduction in rates of sexual and bladder dysfunction as well as lower local recurrence. At specialized centers such procedures are performed by minimal invasive surgery; however the number of meta-analysis is scarce.

  14. Testosterone treatment is not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or worsening of lower urinary tract symptoms: prostate health outcomes in the Registry of Hypogonadism in Men.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Frans M J; Behre, Hermann M; Roehrborn, Claus G; Maggi, Mario; Wu, Frederick C W; Schröder, Fritz H; Jones, Thomas Hugh; Porst, Hartmut; Hackett, Geoffrey; Wheaton, Olivia A; Martin-Morales, Antonio; Meuleman, Eric; Cunningham, Glenn R; Divan, Hozefa A; Rosen, Raymond C

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) on prostate health indicators in hypogonadal men, including rates of prostate cancer diagnoses, changes in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) over time. The Registry of Hypogonadism in Men (RHYME) is a multi-national patient registry of treated and untreated, newly-diagnosed hypogonadal men (n = 999). Follow-up assessments were performed at 3-6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Baseline and follow-up data collection included medical history, physical examination, blood sampling, and patient questionnaires. Prostate biopsies underwent blinded independent adjudication for the presence and severity of prostate cancer; PSA and testosterone levels were measured via local and central laboratory assays; and LUTS severity was assessed via the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were calculated. Longitudinal mixed models were used to assess effects of testosterone on PSA levels and IPSS. Of the 999 men with clinically diagnosed hypogonadism (HG), 750 (75%) initiated TRT, contributing 23 900 person-months of exposure. The mean testosterone levels increased from 8.3 to 15.4 nmol/L in treated men, compared to only a slight increase from 9.4 to 11.3 nmol/L in untreated men. In all, 55 biopsies were performed for suspected prostate cancer, and 12 non-cancer related biopsies were performed for other reasons. Overall, the proportion of positive biopsies was nearly identical in men on TRT (37.5%) compared to those not on TRT (37.0%) over the course of the study. There were no differences in PSA levels, total IPSS, or the IPSS obstructive sub-scale score by TRT status. Lower IPSS irritative sub-scale scores were reported in treated compared to untreated men. Results support prostate safety of TRT in newly diagnosed men with HG. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell cancer is not associated with an increased risk of tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Klingler, H C; Lodde, M; Pycha, A; Remzi, M; Janetschek, G; Marberger, M

    2003-10-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy reduces the morbidity of surgical management of urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), but a potentially increased risk for local tumour spreading was reported. We evaluated results obtained from patients undergoing a modified laparoscopic approach and open procedures in this respect. Between January 2000 and March 2002 we performed 19 modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomies (LNU) with open intact specimen retrieval in conjunction with open distal ureter and bladder cuff removal and 15 open standard nephroureterectomies (ONU). Staging lymphadenectomy was performed in 14/19 (73.7%) patients with LNU and in 6/15 (40.0%) with ONU. In all patients operating time, blood loss, complications, pain score (VAS) and data in respect to tumour recurrence were analysed. Mean follow-up was 22.1+/-9.2 (range 14-34) months for LNU and 23.1+/-8.8 (14-36) for ONU respectively. In LNU and ONU pathological features were 12 pT1 vs. 10 pT1, 2 pT2 vs. 2 pT2 and 5 pT3 vs. 3 pT3, respectively. All patients had TCC and were R0 at final histology. Four patients with LNU had lymph node involvement, one in ONU. LNU had decreased operating times (p=0.057), blood loss (p=0.018), complications (p=0.001) and VAS scores (p=0.001). One tumour recurrence occurred in LNU, associated with a pT3b pN2 G3 TCC at final histology. One patient with ONU had local tumour recurrence at the site of the bladder cuff. No port-site metastasis occurred during follow-up with LNU. Improved peri-operative results and same cancer control as compared to open surgery by this modified LNU was not associated with an increased risk for tumour recurrence, since strict "non-touch" preparation, avoiding of urine spillage and intact specimen retrieval prevents tumour seeding. However, results from long term studies are still warranted to clarify this issue.

  16. Impact of rectal gonorrhoea and chlamydia on HIV viral load in the rectum: potential significance for onward transmission.

    PubMed

    Davies, Olubanke; Costelloe, Sinead; Cross, Gemma; Dew, Tracy; O'Shea, Siobhan; White, John; Fox, Julie

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of asymptomatic rectal bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on rectal HIV viral load (VL). A prospective cohort study of HIV-positive men who have sex with men attending a tertiary centre in London, UK, for their routine HIV care was performed. Forty-two HIV-positive men who have sex with men were recruited between January and August 2014. In participants on antiretroviral therapy (ART), there was no significant difference in rectal VL in those with and without STI ( p = 0.4). All rectal HIV VLs were below the limit of detection (<100 copies/µg of total RNA) whether an STI was present or not. In those not on ART, rectal HIV VL was on average 0.6log10 lower post STI treatment. The presence of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia and gonorrhoea was not associated with increased rectal HIV VL in those fully suppressed on ART. In the context of effective ART, the presence of rectal gonorrhoea or chlamydia does not appear to increase rectal HIV VL and the risk of increased viral infectivity.

  17. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) for Rectal Cancer: University Hospital of North Tees Experience.

    PubMed

    Osman, Khalid A; Ryan, Daniel; Afshar, Sorena; Mohamed, Zakir K; Garg, Dharmendra; Gill, Talvinder

    2015-12-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive technique that is increasingly being used to treat early rectal cancer (T1/T2). We studied the outcomes of TEM for rectal cancer at our institution looking at the indication, recurrence rate, need for further radical surgery, 30-day and 12-month mortality and complication rate. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of cases between 2008 and 2012: 110 TEM procedures were performed during this period: 40 were confirmed rectal cancers and 70 were benign. We analysed the data for the 40 patients with confirmed rectal cancer. Thirty (75 %) of the subjects were male with a mean age of 71 ± 10 years (range 49-90 years) and 19 (48 %) patients were ASA 3 and 4. Nineteen (48 %) of cancers were pT1, eighteen (45 %) were pT2, two (5 %) were pT3 and one was yPT0. Mean specimen size was 66 ± 20 mm (range 33-120 mm) with a mean polyp size of 41 ± 24 mm (range 18-110 mm). The mean cancer size was 24 ± 13 mm (range 2-50 mm). Average distance from the anal verge was 70 ± 37 mm (range 10-150 mm), and the mean operating time was 72 ± 22 min (range 40-120 min), with an average blood loss of 28 ± 15 ml (range 10-50ml). Median hospital stay was 2 ± 1 days (range 1-7 days). Complete excision (R0) was achieved in 37 (93 %) patients. Minor post-operative complications included urinary retention in two and pyrexia in three patients. There were no 30-day or 12-month mortalities. Mean follow-up was 13 ± 11 months, range (3-40 months) Local recurrence occurred in two (5 %) patients, both underwent redo TEM. Twelve (30 %) patients underwent laparoscopic radical resections (seven AR and five APER) post-TEM. Post-operative histology confirmed pT0N0 in 7/12 patients. Three were lymph node-positive (T0N1), one was pT3N1 and the fifth was pT3N2. TEM is associated with quicker recovery, shorter hospital stay and fewer complications than

  18. Use of brachytherapy in management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Goes, R N; Beart, R W; Simons, A J; Gunderson, L L; Grado, G; Streeter, O

    1997-10-01

    Locally recurrent rectal cancer is associated with poor quality of life and has justified aggressive surgical and adjuvant approaches to control the disease. This study was designed to evaluate if the use of brachytherapy in association with wide surgical excision (debulking operation) can offer reasonable palliation for patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer. Patients with biopsy-proven locally recurrent rectal cancer who were not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy and who were previously considered as having unresectable tumors were included in the study and were followed-up from May 1981 to November 1990. All of them had undergone laparotomy and had either radical or debulking surgical resection performed. At the same time, brachytherapy was used with temporary or permanent implant of seeds of iridium-192 or iodine-125. Thirty patients were included. Patients ranged in age from 28 to 74 years, and 16 patients were female. No mortality was observed, and morbidity was low (small-bowel obstruction (1 patient), intestinal fistula (1 patient), and urinary fistula (1 patient). Histologic examination of the specimen showed gross residual disease in 67 percent of patients and microscopic disease in 25 percent of patients. Long-term follow-up was possible in 28 patients. Mean follow-up and local control were, respectively, 26.5 months and 37.5 percent for gross residual disease and 34 months and 66 percent for microscopic residual disease. Eighteen patients (64 percent) had locally recurrent rectal cancer under control at the time of the last follow-up, with seven patients (25 percent) having no evidence of local or distant recurrence. This is the first report of brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer. This appears to offer a therapeutic alternative to patients who are not candidates for intraoperative radiation therapy. Surgical morbidity and mortality are acceptable. Local control in 18 patients (64 percent) is comparable with

  19. Lubricant Use and Rectal Chlamydial and Gonococcal Infections Among Men Who Engage in Receptive Anal Intercourse.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, Courtney; Rice, Cara E; Wang, Shu-Hua; Fields, Karen S; Ervin, Melissa; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2016-07-01

    Use of lubricants during anal intercourse is very common among men who have sex with men. However, few studies have evaluated associations between specific lubricants and rectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Between July 2012 and October 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who have sex with men recruited from an urban, public sexual health clinic. In a self-administered survey, participants identified the lubricants used and frequency of lubricant use in the previous three months. Among men reporting any receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in the previous 3 months, we used multivariable binomial regression models to analyze associations between recent use of 9 specific lubricants and prevalent rectal chlamydia, rectal gonorrhea, and either rectal infection. Twenty-five percent of the 146 participants had rectal chlamydial infection and 21% had rectal gonococcal infection; 37% had either (chlamydial or gonococcal) infection. Three-quarters reported always or almost always using lubricant during recent receptive anal intercourse. After adjustment for age, race, human immunodeficiency virus status, and condom use, Gun Oil (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.80) and Slick (aPR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.38-9.12) were significantly associated with prevalent gonococcal infection. No lubricants were significantly associated with prevalent rectal chlamydia, but in analyses of either rectal infection, precum (aPR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.66), Vaseline (aPR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.10-2.64), and baby oil (aPR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.43-3.57) were all significantly associated with prevalent rectal infection. Several lubricants were significantly associated with increased prevalence of rectal STI. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine any causal relationship between specific lubricants and STI acquisition.

  20. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-09-26

    Laparoscopic surgery has gained acceptance as a less invasive approach in the treatment of colon cancer. However, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer, particularly cancer of the lower rectum, is still challenging because of limited accessibility. Robotic surgery overcomes the limitations of laparoscopy associated with anatomy and offers certain advantages, including 3-D imaging, dexterity and ambidextrous capability, lack of tremors, motion scaling, and a short learning curve. Robotic rectal surgery has been reported to reduce conversion rates, particularly in low anterior resection, but it is associated with longer operative times than the conventional laparoscopic approach. Postoperative morbidities are similar between the robotic and conventional laparoscopic approaches, and oncological outcomes such as the quality of the mesorectum and the status of resection margins are also equivalent. The possible superiority of robotic surgery in terms of the preservation of autonomic function has yet to be established in research based on larger numbers of patients. Although robotic rectal surgery is safe, feasible, and appears to overcome some of the technical limitations associated with conventional laparoscopic surgery, the advantages provided by this technical innovation are currently limited. To justify its expensive cost, robotic surgery is more suitable for select patients, such as obese patients, men, those with cancer of the lower rectum, and those receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Stubborn rectal prolapse in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Sven; Tobisch, Alexander; Puhl, Gero; Kötter, Ina; Wollina, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder. Anorectal involvement might typically cause fecal incontinence and rarely rectal prolapse. Here we report three female patients, who were admitted with a mean history of 10 years suffering from SSc. All patients presented with the initial symptom of anal incontinence, in all cases this was associated with rectal intussusception or rectal prolapse. The three women faced prolapse recurrence, independent of the initial procedure. After surgical removal of the prolapse, the incontinence remained. In SSc rectal prolapse syndrome might occur at an earlier age, and a primary prolapse of the ventral aspect of the rectal wall seems to be typical for this disease. If patients with prior diagnosis of SSc appear with third degree of fecal incontinence, it is suspected to be associated with rectal prolapse. The prolapse recurrence rate after surgery in SSc patients is high.

  2. [Urinary evaluations of drug consumption among workers having high risk of accident: technical difficulties, limits and possibilities of increasing efficacy of the law].

    PubMed

    D'Orso, M I; Grosso, D; Colli, M; Gironi, A; Riva, M A; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Urinary evaluations of drug consumption among workers having high risk of accident became compulsory in Italian legislation few years ago. We report results of 322.110 single urinary drug detections carried out between 2008 and 2011 on 35.789 subjects. We verified technical difficulties arisen during laboratory detections and organizational difficulties evidenced by Occupational Doctors during collections of samples. We screened 701 positive samples (1.96%), mostly to Cannabinoids and Cocaine, verified using first and second level screening according to national law. Many patients referred regular or irregular use of medicines active on Central Nervous System frequently ignoring their collateral effects. After the evidence of a positive result, during a second medical visit, many workers referred assumption of "natural diet supplements" acquired not in traditional commercial distributors. In two cases we have had the possibility of analyzing these supplements which have shown the presence of law concentrations of drugs in their compositions.

  3. Daily Consumption of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Containing 250 μg Iodine Does Not Increase Urinary Iodine Concentrations in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Khan, Md Showkat Ali; Siddiqui, Zakia; Ullah, Barkat; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Young, Rebecca T; Arnold, Charles D; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation is common in Bangladesh.Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on urinary iodine concentration (UIC).Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial in which we enrolled 4011 pregnant women at ≤20 gestational weeks. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe/d + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing 22 vitamins and minerals (including 250 μg I). We randomly selected a subsample of 1159 women for repeated urine sample collection, i.e., at enrollment, at 36 wk of gestation, and at 6 mo postpartum, for UIC analysis, a secondary outcome of the trial.Results: The geometric mean UIC at 36 wk of gestation and at 6 mo postpartum did not differ significantly between the IFA and LNS-PL groups. The median (quartile 1, quartile 3) UIC at 36 wk was 27.4 μg/L (16.9, 52.7 μg/L) in the IFA group and 30.2 μg/L (17.7, 56.6 μg/L) in the LNS-PL group; at 6 mo, these were 23.0 μg/L (10.0, 45.9 μg/L) in the IFA group and 22.2 μg/L (9.1, 50.4 μg/L) in the LNS-PL group.Conclusion: Daily consumption of LNS-PL containing 250 μg I did not increase the UICs of pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh. Iodine from lipid-based nutrient supplements may have been stored in the thyroid gland or secreted in breast milk instead of being excreted in urine. Additional research that uses other biomarkers of iodine status is needed to determine how to meet the iodine requirements of pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh and similar settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Rectal-wall dose dependence on postplan timing after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Taussky, Daniel; Yeung, Ivan; Williams, Theresa; Pearson, Shannon; McLean, Michael; Pond, Gregory; Crook, Juanita . E-mail: Juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Dose to rectal wall after permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy is dependent on distance between posterior prostatic seeds and anterior rectal wall and is influenced by postimplant periprostatic edema. We analyzed the effect of postplan timing on anterior rectal-wall dose. Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received permanent seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy as monotherapy (145 Gy). Implants were preplanned by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and carried out by use of preloaded needles. Postimplant dosimetry was calculated by use of magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion on Days 1, 8, and 30. The anterior rectal-wall dose is reported as the isodose enclosing 1.0 or 2.0 cc of rectal wall and as the RV100 in cc. Results: The dose to rectal wall increased progressively over time. The median increase in dose to 1.0 cc of rectal wall (RD [1 cc]) from Day 1 to 30 was 39.2 Gy (p < 0.001). RV100 increased from a median of 0.07 cc on Day 1 to 0.67 cc on Day 30. The most significant predictor of rectal-wall dose (RD [1 cc], RD [2 cc], or RV100) was the time of evaluation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Although periprostatic edema cannot be quantified by postimplant imaging, the dose to the anterior rectal wall increases significantly over time as prostatic and periprostatic edema resolve. Critical-organ dose reporting and guidelines for minimizing toxicity must take into account the time of the assessment.

  5. Robotic rectal surgery: what are the benefits?

    PubMed

    Kim, C W; Baik, S H

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal surgery is not a rare event for colorectal surgeons any more. Even patients with colorectal diseases obtain information through the mass media and are asking surgeons about robotic surgery. Since laparoscopic rectal surgery has proved to have some benefits compared to open rectal surgery, many surgeons became interested in robotic rectal surgery. Some of them have reported the advantages and disadvantages of robotic rectal surgery over the last decade. This review will report on the outcomes of robotic rectal surgery. Robotic rectal surgery requires a longer operation time than laparoscopic or open surgery, but many authors reduced the gap as they were accustomed to the robotic system and used various additional techniques. The high cost for purchasing and maintaining the robotic system is still a problem, though. However, except for this reason, robotic rectal surgery shows comparable and even superior results in some parameters than laparoscopic or open surgery. They include pathologic and functional outcomes as well as short-term outcomes such as complication rates, length of hospital stay, time to recover normal bowel function or first flatus, time to start diet, and postoperative pain. Moreover, studies on oncologic outcomes show acceptable results. Robotic rectal surgery is safe and feasible and has a number of benefits. Therefore, it can be an alternative option to conventional laparoscopic and open surgery with strict indications.

  6. Rectal neuroendocrine neoplasms: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal neuroendocrine neoplasms (GI-NENs) are very rare, among which second most common type is the rectal NENs in China. Patients with rectal NENs may experience non-specific symptoms such as pain, perianal bulge, anemia, and bloody stools, and surgery is considered as the first treatment for rectal NENs. We report a case of rectal NENs in a 68-year-old male patient with bloody stools, who received surgery and postoperative pathology revealed an elevated well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. PMID:28138616

  7. Magnamosis: a novel technique for the management of rectal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Katie W; Rollins, Michael D; Feola, G Peter; Scaife, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of rectal atresia treated using magnets to create a rectal anastomosis. This minimally invasive technique is straightforward and effective for the treatment of rectal atresia in children. PMID:25096648

  8. Managing patients with acute urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Kuppusamy, Shanggar; Gillatt, David

    2011-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is more than ten times more common in men than women. In men it tends to occur in the elderly; the risk of AUR is higher in men > 70 years. The causes in men can be divided into precipitated or occurring spontaneously. These can be further divided according to the mechanism i.e. obstructive, neurological and myogenic. Spontaneous AUR, caused by progression of BPH leading to a mechanical obstruction of the bladder outlet, is the most common cause of AUR. The typical presentation of AUR is a patient complaining of a sudden inability to urinate associated with progressive abdominal distension which is usually painful. The pain increases in intensity with increasing distension of the bladder. An abdominal examination should reveal a distended bladder which can be confirmed by a dull percussion note. A digital rectal examination is vital to gain information on prostatic enlargement (benign or malignant), faecal load in rectum, anal tone and presence of other masses. Urinalysis and culture should be carried out on a sample obtained after catheterisation to rule out infection. Renal function should be assessed to see if there has been damage to the upper tracts. It is better not to perform a PSA test in this situation as it will invariably be raised due to distension of the bladder and catheter insertion. If catheter insertion fails then a urological consultation is required for insertion of a suprapubic catheter. Admission is essential if the patient is: unwell with urosepsis; has abnormal renal function needing investigation and fluid monitoring; has acute neurological problems; or cannot take care of the catheter. Trial without catheter needs to be planned and the ideal time to do this is within 2-3 days so that the patient can pass urine naturally.

  9. An association between urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot

    2011-05-15

    Excessive urinary calcium excretion is the major risk of urinary stone formation. Very few population studies have been performed to determine the relationship between environmental cadmium exposure and urinary stone disease. This population-based study examined an association between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and prevalence of urinary stones in persons aged 15 years and older, who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in the Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. A total of 6748 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium and urinary stone disease in 2009. To test a correlation between urinary excretion of cadmium and calcium, we measured urinary calcium content in 1492 persons, who lived in 3 villages randomly selected from the 12 contaminated villages. The rate of urinary stones significantly increased from 4.3% among persons in the lowest quartile of urinary cadmium to 11.3% in the highest quartile. An increase in stone prevalence with increasing urinary cadmium levels was similarly observed in both genders. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between urinary cadmium levels and stone prevalence, after adjusting for other co-variables. The urinary calcium excretion significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both genders, after adjusting for other co-variables. Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium might increase the risk of urinary stone formation in this environmentally exposed population. - Research highlights: {yields} Excessive calciuria is the major risk of urinary stone formation. {yields} We examine cadmium-exposed persons for urinary cadmium, calcium, and stones. {yields} The rate of urinary stones increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Urinary calcium excretion increases with increasing urinary cadmium. {yields} Elevated calciuria induced by cadmium may increase the risk of urinary stones.

  10. Watch and wait approach to rectal cancer: A review.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Marcos E; Fang, Sandy H

    2015-11-27

    In 2014, there were an estimated 136800 new cases of colorectal cancer, making it the most common gastrointestinal malignancy. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States and over one-third of newly diagnosed patients have stage III (node-positive) disease. For stage II and III colorectal cancer patients, the mainstay of curative therapy is neoadjuvant therapy, followed by radical surgical resection of the rectum. However, the consequences of a proctectomy, either by low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection, can lead to very extensive comorbidities, such as the need for a permanent colostomy, fecal incontinence, sexual and urinary dysfunction, and even mortality. Recently, trends of complete regression of the rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy have been confirmed by clinical and radiographic evaluation-this is known as complete clinical response (cCR). The "watch and wait" approach was first proposed by Dr. Angelita Habr-Gama in Brazil in 2009. Those patients with cCR are followed with close surveillance physical examinations, endoscopy, and imaging. Here, we review management of rectal cancer, the development of the "watch and wait" approach and its outcomes.

  11. [Preoperative intra-arterial chemotherapy for progressive lower rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yun-qiang; Tan, Zhi-ming; Wang, Jia-kang; Tang, Ri-jie; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Hong-yu; Mai, Cong; Zhang, Xiang-liang; Cui, Shu-zhong

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect of preoperative regional intra-arterial chemotherapy (PRAC) on progressive lower rectal cancer. Forty-five patients with progressive lower rectal cancer were divided into groups A (23 cases) and B (22 cases) for treatment with PRAC 1 to 2 weeks prior to surgical tumor resection or with surgical resection only, respectively. PRAC caused obvious tissue degeneration and necrosis of rectal cancer with a total effective rate of 95.65%. The rates of radical resection in groups A and B were 91.3% and 72.27%, respectively. The 1-year postoperative survival rates of the two groups were 95.65% and 86.36%, with 3-year survival of 89.96% and 68.18%, and 3-year postoperative recurrence rates of 8.69% and 27.27%, respectively. The anal preservation rates of the two groups were 78.26% and 59.09%. PRAC can increase radical resection rates, promote the postoperative survival and anal preservation rate, and lower the recurrence rate in patients with lower rectal cancer.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of resectable rectal cancer. New developments and controversies.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D; Guillem, Jose G

    2008-11-15

    Until 2004, initial surgery and, in cases of pT3 and/or node-positive disease, postoperative chemoradiotherapy (radiation plus concurrent chemotherapy) was the conventional approach for patients with clinical T3 and/or node-positive rectal cancer. The German CAO/ARO/AIO 94 trial confirmed that, compared with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, postoperative chemoradiotherapy is associated with significantly higher local failure and toxicity rates as well as a decrease in the incidence of sphincter preservation. These data resulted in a change from postoperative to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. This shift to preoperative therapy has prompted a series of new questions regarding the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, including: What is the ideal neoadjuvant approach (short-course vs. combined-modality therapy)? Is postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy necessary for all patients following preoperative chemoradiotherapy? Do patients with node-negative rectal cancer require pelvic radiation? What is the ideal combined-modality regimen? Does an increase in response rate translate into improved local control and survival? And lastly, what is the benefit of novel radiation sensitization and delivery techniques? This review will address these and other questions surrounding the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer.

  13. [Fecal incontinence and rectal prolapse. Clinico-functional assessment].

    PubMed

    Santini, L; Pezzullo, L; Caracò, C; Candela, G; Esposito, B

    1995-09-01

    Rectal Prolapse is a rare and distressing condition, with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Often, this pathology is associated with fecal incontinence. The recommended approach to the patient with rectal prolapse and fecal incontinence is to repair the prolapse first, then deal particularly with fecal incontinence at a second operation. A retrospective, clinical and manometric study has varying degrees of fecal incontinence. Clinically five of their operation, and a further three patients improved, in two patients the degree of fecal incontinence remained invariable. One patient was worsened after surgery. Manometrically resting and pressure (RAP) was significantly higher in continent patients than in voluntary contraction pressure (MVCP) (p < 0.05) in preoperative testing. Postoperatively, there was a significant increase in the resting anal pressure as well as in maximum voluntary contraction pressure. Patients who remained incontinent had a significantly lower RAP and MVCP than patients who improved our regained continence. In conclusion this study shows an alteration of internal and external sphincteric function in patients with rectal prolapse. The surgical treatment of this disease improves sphincteric function. Incontinent patients with RAP < 10 mmHg and MCVP < 20 mmHg, probably they would be better treated simultaneously either for rectal prolapsus and incontinence. In this kind of patients the perianal proctectomy with total sphincteroplasty could be the elective treatment.

  14. Colonic and rectal NET's.

    PubMed

    Mandair, Dalvinder; Caplin, Martyn E

    2012-12-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours of the Colon and Rectum are rare but are increasing in incidence as a result of greater investigation with endoscopy and improved histological reporting. Classification with the 2010 WHO TNM staging system as well as grading based on the Ki-67 index has led to improved prognostic assessment. The use of Endoanal Ultrasound has increased the sensitivity of detection of depth of invasion and lymphovascular involvement, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Standard polypectomy has largely been replaced by endoscopic mucosal resection of smaller polyps, although newer techniques such as band ligation or endoscopic submucosal dissection are likely to be associated with less residual disease. The management of advanced disease remains a challenge but new treatments such as Peptide Receptor Targeted therapy and molecular targeted treatments offer hope of improved progression free survival in non-resectable disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of lower urinary retention in a limited resource setting.

    PubMed

    Ugare, U G; Bassey, Ima-Abasi; Udosen, E J; Essiet, Akanimo; Bassey, O O

    2014-10-01

    There is a projected increase in lower urinary tract obstruction by 2018, especially in the developing economies of Asia and Africa. However in many of these countries, the problems encountered both by the patients and the clinicians are not well documented. Our aims are, to prospectively analyse the management of urinary retention, the associated difficulties, and complications in our setting, where access to investigative modalities such as Computerize Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are not available. The study was approved by the University Of Calabar Teaching Hospital ethical committee. A validated Proforma was used to collect data from all patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary retention based on history, and physical examination, from July 2009 to June 2010. Data collected from the 1st of July 2009 to the 30th of June 2010, include demographics, findings on physical examination, previous medical history and co-morbid conditions. The results of investigations done such as: urinalysis, full blood count, electrolytes, urea and creatinine, intravenous urography, trans- abdominal ultrasonography, chest X-ray and histology of trans-rectal biopsies of the prostate . The total number of new patients seen, including those with urinary retention during the study was documented. The retentions were also classified into acute and chronic. All the patients were followed up throughout the study. The data was analysed using Epi-Info statistical program version 3.4 of 2007 to analyse the data, estimating averages, mean, median and percentages. The total number of new patients seen, including those with urinary retention was Seventy thousand, one hundred and thirty nine (70,139).Of this number, hundred and fifty nine (0.23%), presented with urinary retention; 145 (91.2%) were acute, and14 (8.8%) were chronic. The male: female ratio was 39:1.The patients ages ranged from 4 to 94 years, with a mean of 53.7±11.2. Seventy seven [48.4%] of them were in the

  16. Comparison between auricular and standard rectal thermometers for the measurement of body temperature in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Marlos G.; Carareto, Roberta; Pereira-Junior, Valdo A.; Aquino, Monally C.C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the rectal mucosa remains the traditional site for measuring body temperature in dogs, an increasing number of clinicians have been using auricular temperature to estimate core body temperature. In this study, 88 mature healthy dogs had body temperatures measured with auricular and rectal thermometers. The mean temperature and confidence intervals were similar for each method, but Bland-Altman plots showed high biases and limits of agreement unacceptable for clinical purposes. The results indicate that auricular and rectal temperatures should not be interpreted interchangeably. PMID:21731094

  17. The association between bacteria and urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    Urinary stone disease (USD) is an increasing clinical problem in both children and adults. One in ten individuals will experience a urinary stone, yet the mechanisms responsible for urinary stones remain largely unknown. Bacteria have long been recognized to contribute to struvite urinary stones; however, the role of bacteria in the development of the more common calcium oxalate (CaOx) and calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stones has not been extensively investigated. However, several findings do indicate a possible association between urinary stones and bacteria, including the high rate of urinary tract infections (UTI) in urinary stone patients and multiple case series of culture-positive urinary stones, including stones composed of CaOx or CaPhos. New technology, such as next generation sequencing, may be used to lend additional insight regarding the association between urinary stones and bacteria. In 2015, we published the initial bacterial sequencing results from five urinary stones, from which we sequenced multiple types of bacterial DNA. Whether these bacteria are causal, disease modifying or passively present remains to be determined. However, initial exploration of underlying mechanisms for this association indicate that bacteria aggregate selectively to crystals, that their presence is associated with increased clumping of crystals, and that they stimulate incorporation of proteins into the stone matrix. PMID:28217697

  18. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2016-11-27

    To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: "rectal cancer" or "colorectal cancer" and robot* or "da Vinci" and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors. Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726 (54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery. It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and three sexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions. There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required.

  19. Critical analysis of the literature investigating urogenital function preservation following robotic rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyses the current literature regarding the urogenital functional outcomes of patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases was performed in October 2015. The following search terms were applied: “rectal cancer” or “colorectal cancer” and robot* or “da Vinci” and sexual or urolog* or urinary or erect* or ejaculat* or impot* or incontinence. All original studies examining the urological and/or sexual outcomes of male and/or female patients receiving robotic rectal cancer surgery were included. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were manually searched for further relevant articles. Abstracts were independently searched by two authors. RESULTS Fifteen original studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 1338 patients were included; 818 received robotic, 498 laparoscopic and 22 open rectal cancer surgery. Only 726 (54%) patients had their urogenital function assessed via means of validated functional questionnaires. From the included studies, three found that robotic rectal cancer surgery leads to quicker recovery of male urological function and five of male sexual function as compared to laparoscopic surgery. It is unclear whether robotic surgery offers favourable urogenital outcomes in the long run for males. In female patients only two studies assessed urological and three sexual function independently to that of males. In these studies there was no difference identified between patients receiving robotic and laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. However, in females the presented evidence was very limited making it impossible to draw any substantial conclusions. CONCLUSION There seems to be a trend towards earlier recovery of male urogenital function following robotic surgery. To evaluate this further, larger well designed studies are required. PMID:27933136

  20. Urinary p75ECD

    PubMed Central

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p < 0.0001). Assay reproducibility was high, with p75ECD showing stability across repeated freeze-thaw cycles, at room temperature and 4°C for 2 days, and no diurnal variation. Urinary p75ECD correlated with the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale at first evaluation (r = −0.44, p = 0.008) and across all study visits (r = −0.36, p < 0.0001). p75ECD also increased as disease progressed at an average rate of 0.19 ng/mg creatinine per month (p < 0.0001). In multivariate prognostic analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p < 0.0001), and baseline p75ECD (HR 1.3, p = 0.0004) were predictors of survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  1. Multidisciplinary management in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hervás Morón, Asunción; García de Paredes, María Luisa; Lobo Martínez, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of rectal cancer has evolved over the last few decades from surgery alone to treatments with trimodal therapy for high-risk patients. The involvement of a multidisciplinary team of radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, radiotherapists and medical oncologists is now fundamental for decision-making and outcomes. The evolution of different diagnostic and therapeutic techniques has optimised the therapeutic rate. Future studies will determine the optimal regimen for inducing complete responses in locally advanced disease and whether the intensification of local treatments could enable the use of more conservative treatments, as for other tumour locations. The study of biomarkers will be essential in this respect.

  2. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Carey, Alison J.; Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Tan, Chee K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection. PMID:27936166

  3. Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Matthew J; Carey, Alison J; Leclercq, Sophie Y; Tan, Chee K; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of UTI incorporating young mice, aged and dam mice to show that uropathogenic S. agalactiae causes bacteriuria at significantly higher levels in aged mice compared to young mice and this occurs coincident with equivalent levels of bladder tissue colonisation at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). In addition, aged mice exhibited significantly higher bacteriuria burdens at 48 h compared to young mice, confirming a divergent pattern of bacterial colonization in the urinary tract of aged and young mice. Multiparous mice, in contrast, exhibited significantly lower urinary titres of S. agalactiae compared to age-matched nulliparous mice suggesting that parity enhances the ability of the host to control S. agalactiae bacteriuria. Additionally, we show that both age and parity alter the expression levels of several key regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important the immune response to UTI, including Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12(p40), and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1). Finally, we demonstrate that other cytokines, including IL-17 are induced significantly in the S. agalactiae-infected bladder regardless of age and parity status. Collectively, these findings show that the host environment plays an important role in influencing the severity of S. agalactiae UTI; infection dynamics, particularly in the context of bacteriuria, depend on age and parity, which also affect the nature of innate immune responses to infection.

  4. Multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Doi, Momoko; Ikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Kawamura, Takuji; Katsura, Kanade

    2016-08-01

    We report multiple rectal carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins who, respectively, had 42 and 36 carcinoid tumors in the lower rectum. This is the first report about carcinoid tumors in monozygotic twins. Both twins developed a similar number of rectal carcinoids with a similar distribution. Investigation of their genetic background may provide information about the origin of these tumors.

  5. Fournier gangrene: rare complication of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ossibi, Pierlesky Elion; Souiki, Tarik; Ibn Majdoub, Karim; Toughrai, Imane; Laalim, Said Ait; Mazaz, Khalid; Tenkorang, Somuah; Farih, My Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's Gangrene is a rare complication of rectal cancer. Its discovery is often delayed. It's incidence is about 0.3/100,000 populations in Western countries. We report a patient with peritoneal perforation of rectal cancer revealed by scrotal and perineal necrotizing fasciitis.

  6. Surgeon-related factors and outcome in rectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, G A; Soskolne, C L; Yakimets, W W; Newman, S C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical subspecialty training in colorectal surgery or frequency of rectal cancer resection by the surgeon are independent prognostic factors for local recurrence (LR) and survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in patient outcome in rectal cancer has been shown among centers and among individual surgeons. However, the prognostic importance of surgeon-related factors is largely unknown. METHODS: All patients undergoing potentially curative low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum between 1983 and 1990 at the five Edmonton general hospitals were reviewed in a historic-prospective study design. Preoperative, intraoperative, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcome variables were obtained. Outcomes of interest included LR and disease-specific survival (DSS). To determine survival rates and to control both confounding and interaction, multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The study included 683 patients involving 52 surgeons, with > 5-year follow-up obtained on 663 (97%) patients. There were five colorectal-trained surgeons who performed 109 (16%) of the operations. Independent of surgeon training, 323 operations (47%) were done by surgeons performing < 21 rectal cancer resections over the study period. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LR was increased in patients of both noncolorectal trained surgeons (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, p = 0.001) and those of surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.8, p < 0.001). Stage (p < 0.001), use of adjuvant therapy (p = 0.002), rectal perforation or tumor spill (p < 0.001), and vascular/neural invasion (p = 0.002) also were significant prognostic factors for LR. Similarly, decreased disease-specific survival was found to be independently associated with noncolorectal-trained surgeons (HR = 1.5, p = 0.03) and surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.4, p = 0.005). Stage (p < 0

  7. Proforma-based reporting in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F; Mangat, N; Swift, I R; Brown, G

    2010-10-04

    The improvements in outcomes associate with the use of preoperative therapy rather than postoperative treatment means that clinical teams are increasingly reliant on imaging to identify high-risk features of disease to determine treatment plans. For many solid tumours, including rectal cancer, validated techniques have emerged in identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively. In the MERCURY study, a standardised scanning technique and the use of reporting proformas enabled consistently accurate assessment and documentation of the prognostic factors. This is now an essential tool to enable our clinical colleagues to make treatment decisions. In this review, we describe the proforma-based reporting tool that enables a systematic approach to the interpretation of the magnetic resonance images, thereby enabling all the clinically relevant features to be adequately assessed.

  8. Anterior rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse: Technical and functional results

    PubMed Central

    Faucheron, Jean-Luc; Trilling, Bertrand; Girard, Edouard; Sage, Pierre-Yves; Barbois, Sandrine; Reche, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess effectiveness, complications, recurrence rate, and recent improvements of the anterior rectopexy procedure for treatment of total rectal prolapse. METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and other relevant database were searched to identify studies. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized studies and original articles in English language, with more than 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy for full-thickness rectal prolapse, with a follow-up over 3 mo were considered for the review. RESULTS: Twelve non-randomized case series studies with 574 patients were included in the review. No surgical mortality was described. Conversion was needed in 17 cases (2.9%), most often due to difficult adhesiolysis. Twenty eight patients (4.8%) presented with major complications. Seven (1.2%) mesh-related complications were reported. Most frequent complications were urinary tract infection and urinary retention. Mean recurrence rate was 4.7% with a median follow-up of 23 mo. Improvement of constipation ranged from 3%-72% of the patients and worsening or new onset occurred in 0%-20%. Incontinence improved in 31%-84% patients who presented fecal incontinence at various stages. Evaluation of functional score was disparate between studies. CONCLUSION: Based on the low long-term recurrence rate and favorable outcome data in terms of low de novo constipation rate, improvement of anal incontinence, and low complications rate, laparoscopic anterior rectopexy seems to emerge as an efficient procedure for the treatment of patients with total rectal prolapse. PMID:25945021

  9. Rectal microbicides: clinically relevant approach to the design of rectal specific placebo formulations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to identify the critical formulation parameters controlling distribution and function for the rectal administration of microbicides in humans. Four placebo formulations were designed with a wide range of hydrophilic characteristics (aqueous to lipid) and rheological properties (Newtonian, shear thinning, thermal sensitive and thixotropic). Aqueous formulations using typical polymers to control viscosity were iso-osmotic and buffered to pH 7. Lipid formulations were developed from lipid solvent/lipid gelling agent binary mixtures. Testing included pharmaceutical function and stability as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Results The aqueous fluid placebo, based on poloxamer, was fluid at room temperature, thickened and became shear thinning at 37°C. The aqueous gel placebo used carbopol as the gelling agent, was shear thinning at room temperature and showed a typical decrease in viscosity with an increase in temperature. The lipid fluid placebo, myristyl myristate in isopropyl myristate, was relatively thin and temperature independent. The lipid gel placebo, glyceryl stearate and PEG-75 stearate in caprylic/capric triglycerides, was also shear thinning at both room temperature and 37°C but with significant time dependency or thixotropy. All formulations showed no rectal irritation in rabbits and were non-toxic using an ex vivo rectal explant model. Conclusions Four placebo formulations ranging from fluid to gel in aqueous and lipid formats with a range of rheological properties were developed, tested, scaled-up, manufactured under cGMP conditions and enrolled in a formal stability program. Clinical testing of these formulations as placebos will serve as the basis for further microbicide formulation development with drug-containing products. PMID:21385339

  10. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, Leucovorin Calcium, and Oxaliplatin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-11

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  11. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. Material and methods For writing this review, Google Scholar –a scholarly search engine– (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Results Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Conclusions Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future. PMID:25914847

  12. [Rectal administration of anesthetic agents].

    PubMed

    Ceriana, P; Maurelli, M

    1995-05-01

    To collect data in the current literature dealing with the diffusion, the reliability and the effectiveness of the rectal administration of anaesthetic drugs. To evaluate differences with parenteral administration. Pharmacokinetics and clinical studies published in recent years in indexed journals. Based on the study methodology, drugs employed and pharmacokinetic parameters evaluated. Factors involved in absorption of drugs from the rectal mucosa, clinical effect and pharmacokinetic data of the following drugs: diazepam, flunitrazepam, midazolam, ketamin and methohexital, then a brief evaluation of other drugs: thiopental, etomidate, morphine and chloral hydrate. The most widely used drugs are benzodiazepines: they are safe, easy to manage and highly effective; among them midazolam has the best kinetic and dynamic pattern. Ketamin is useful during painful diagnostic procedures; with the use of barbiturates there is a greater risk of respiratory depression and more caution must be employed. Wide intervariability of rate of absorption, achievement of plasma levels and clinical effect is a relevant drawback of this technique, such to make it not preferable to the parenteral route, when both are feasible. It deserves, anyway, more consideration, and maintains its validity for the preparation of the paediatric patient to general anaesthesia.

  13. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  14. A rare association of celiac disease and rectal neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Deniz; Tanrıverdi, Özgür; Solak Özşeker, Havva; Özşeker, Burak

    2017-07-28

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy which is triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Increased risk of all gastrointestinal cancers was found during the first year after diagnosis of CD. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) are a heterogeneous tumor group originating from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Today, the incidences of both GEP-NETs and CD have increased due to the increased availability of diagnostic tools and awareness. Association of GEP-NETs with CD is rarely seen. Here we aimed to present a case in which we diagnosed CD with concurrent rectal NET. Association of CD and rectal NET has not been reported in the literature, and we believe that our case report can contribute to the epidemiological data.

  15. Evaluation of the urinary microbiota of women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Thomas-White, Krystal J; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Rickey, Leslie; Lukacz, Emily S; Richter, Holly E; Moalli, Pamela; Zimmern, Philippe; Norton, Peggy; Kusek, John W; Wolfe, Alan J; Brubaker, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Female urinary microbiota are associated with urgency urinary incontinence and response to medication. The urinary microbiota of women with stress urinary incontinence has not been described. We sought to study the cross-sectional relationships between urinary microbiota features and demographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing stress urinary incontinence surgery. Preoperative urine specimens were collected from women without urinary tract infection and were available from 197 women (174 voided, 23 catheterized) enrolled in a multicenter prospective randomized trial, the Value of Urodynamic Evaluation study. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained including stress and urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, menopausal status, and hormone use. The bacterial composition of the urine was qualitatively assessed by sequencing the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Phylogenetic relatedness and microbial alpha diversity were compared to demographics and symptoms using generalized estimating equation models. The majority of 197 urine samples (86%) had detectable bacterial DNA. Bacterial diversity was significantly associated with higher body mass index (P = .02); increased Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging urge index score (P = .04); and hormonal status (P < .001). No associations were detected with stress urinary incontinence symptoms. Increased diversity was also associated with a concomitant lower frequency of Lactobacillus in hormone-negative women. Women undergoing stress urinary incontinence surgery have detectable urinary microbiota. This cross-sectional analysis revealed that increased diversity of the microbiota was associated with urgency urinary incontinence symptoms, hormonal status, and body mass index. In contrast, the female urinary microbiota were not associated with stress urinary incontinence symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  17. Effect of pelvic floor muscle contraction on vesical and rectal function with identification of puborectalis-rectovesical inhibitory reflex and levator-rectovesical excitatory reflex.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-08-01

    The effects of pelvic floor muscle contraction on rectal and vesical function were studied in 19 healthy volunteers with the aim of shedding light on some of the hitherto vague aspects of the mechanisms involved in micturition and defecation and their disorders. Rectal and vesical pressures were recorded during puborectalis (PR) and levator ani (LA) muscle stimulation with the rectum or urinary bladder empty and full. Muscle stimulation was effected by needle EMG electrode. The pressure responses to stimulation of the PR and LA muscles were also recorded with these muscles and the rectum and urinary bladder individually anesthetized in 12 of the 19 subjects. The test was repeated using saline instead of xylocaine. PR and LA muscle stimulation produced no pressure response in the empty rectum or bladder. Upon rectal balloon distension with a mean of 156.6+/-34.2 ml of carbon dioxide the mean rectal pressure was 64.6+/-18.7 cm H2O, the subject felt the urge to evacuate and the balloon was expelled to the exterior. On PR muscle stimulation at rectal distension with the above volume, the subject did not feel the urge to evacuate, the rectal pressure was 8.2+/-1.6 cm H2O and the balloon was not expelled. Upon LA stimulation at the same volume, the urge persisted, the rectal pressure was higher and the balloon was expelled. Vesical filling with a mean of 378.2+/-23.6 ml of saline initiated the urge to urinate and elevated the vesical pressure. PR muscle stimulation at this volume aborted the urge and pressure elevation, while LA stimulation caused more elevation of the vesical pressure and spontaneous micturition. Bladder filling with a mean of 423.6+/-38.2 ml produced high vesical pressure and spontaneous urination, both of which were prevented by PR muscle stimulation but not by LA muscle stimulation. Stimulation of the PR and LA muscles during individual anesthetization of the rectum, bladder or PR and LA muscles resulted in no significant rectal or vesical pressure

  18. Functional outcomes following laparoscopic and open rectal resection for cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlone, Emma R; Khan, Omar A; Conti, John; Iqbal, Zafar; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed whether laparoscopic approach confers a difference in functional outcome compared to conventional open resectional surgery for rectal cancer. 246 papers were found using the reported search, of which five represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group, study type, relevant outcomes and key results of these papers are tabulated. Of these five studies, none showed any difference in post-operative urinary function between patients undergoing laparoscopic or open surgery. The two randomised studies reported either a trend or a significant difference in favour of open surgery for sexual outcome in men. Three more recent, case-control studies showed differences in favour of laparoscopic surgery for sexual function in men. We conclude that there is no evidence to suggest that laparoscopic approach makes any difference to post-operative urinary function. The data relating to sexual function in men is contradictory, and as none of the studies available have generated high level evidence and further trials are required to clarify whether laparoscopic approach confers an advantage or disadvantage in terms of sexual function for men post-operatively. In terms of sexual function in women, the available data is far too scarce to satisfactorily determine whether laparoscopy is superior to open surgery. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Urinary β-trace protein

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Carlo; Bozzoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients needs the measurement of serum markers like creatinine. Our previous results indicated that urinary excretion of β-trace protein (BTP), a low-molecular-weight protein (23–29 kDa), is increased in CKD patients from stage 2. The aim of this study was to assess the major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP and to evaluate its feasibility as noninvasive marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) impairment. We studied 355 CKD patients (198 males), aged 15 to 83 years, in stable clinical conditions, classified in the different stages of CKD on the basis of GFR (renal clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid). At the same time, we measured serum and urinary creatinine and BTP, and urinary albumin. Urinary excretion of BTP and albumin was expressed as mg/g urinary creatinine. Fractional clearance of BTP was calculated as the ratio of BTP clearance to creatinine clearance (%). Urinary excretion of BTP is mainly determined by its serum concentration and by the level of GFR, and to a lower extent by urinary albumin excretion. In fact, urinary BTP (U-BTP) and fractional clearance of BTP progressively and significantly increased along with the reduction of GFR and the concurrent rise in serum BTP (S-BTP). The relationship of U-BTP with GFR was very similar to that of S-BTP with GFR: U-BTP mirrors S-BTP. The accuracy of U-BTP to screen patients with GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was good (area under the curve 0.833), its sensitivity was 76.9%, specificity 80%, and positive predictive value 84.9%. Sensitivity of U-BTP was quite similar to that of S-BTP and serum creatinine. The major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP are S-BTP and GFR. U-BTP may be a suitable noninvasive marker to screen the general population for detection of GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:27930558

  20. Is it possible to improve elderly male bladder function by having them drink more water? A randomized trial of effects of increased fluid intake/urine output on male lower urinary tract function.

    PubMed

    Spigt, Mark; van Schayck, Onno; Knipschild, Paul; Westerterp, Klaas; van de Beek, Cees; van Kerrebroeck, Philip; Pel, Johan; van Mastrigt, Ron; Knottnerus, André

    2006-11-01

    Several animal studies have shown that bladder performance improves as a result of diuresis. Whether increased urine output also has beneficial effects on elderly male bladder function and lower urinary tract symptoms is unknown. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial of 141 men, 55 to 75 years of age, with moderate lower urinary tract symptoms. The experimental group drank 1.5 L of extra water daily. The control group consumed one tablespoon of placebo syrup daily. After 6 months, we evaluated bladder contractility, voided volumes, and the severity of lower urinary tract symptoms. The actual increase in water consumption was measured using the deuterium urine dilution method. Water consumption in the intervention group increased by 359 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 171 to 548) per 24 hours compared with the control group. At 6 months, no statistically significant effect was found in the maximal flow rate (0.9 mL/s, 95% CI -0.4 to 2.2) compared with placebo. A statistically significant effect was found for bladder pressure (20 cm H2O, 95% CI 6 to 34) and bladder wall stress (1.9 N/cm2, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.5). In addition, it showed that the experimental group had greater maximal (44 mL, 95% CI -1 to 90) and average (26 mL, 95% CI 1 to 51) voided volumes per urination. The subjective effect parameters improved in both groups, but no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups. It seems possible to improve some aspects of male bladder function by drinking more water. However, the effects are too small to be clinically relevant.

  1. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer: Dose constraints for the anterior rectal wall to minimize rectal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Jennifer L.; Buskirk, Steven J.; Heckman, Michael G.; Diehl, Nancy N.; Bernard, Johnny R.; Tzou, Katherine S.; Casale, Henry E.; Bellefontaine, Louis P.; Serago, Christopher; Kim, Siyong; Vallow, Laura A.; Daugherty, Larry C.; Ko, Stephen J.

    2014-04-01

    Rectal adverse events (AEs) are a major concern with definitive radiotherapy (RT) treatment for prostate cancer. The anterior rectal wall is at the greatest risk of injury as it lies closest to the target volume and receives the highest dose of RT. This study evaluated the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall receiving a high dose to identify potential ideal dose constraints that can minimize rectal AEs. A total of 111 consecutive patients with Stage T1c to T3a N0 M0 prostate cancer who underwent image-guided intensity-modulated RT at our institution were included. AEs were graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The volume of anterior rectal wall receiving 5 to 80 Gy in 2.5-Gy increments was determined. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify cut points in these volumes that led to an increased risk of early and late rectal AEs. Early AEs occurred in most patients (88%); however, relatively few of them (13%) were grade ≥2. At 5 years, the cumulative incidence of late rectal AEs was 37%, with only 5% being grade ≥2. For almost all RT doses, we identified a threshold of irradiated absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which there was at least a trend toward a significantly higher rate of AEs. Most strikingly, patients with more than 1.29, 0.73, or 0.45 cm{sup 3} of anterior rectal wall exposed to radiation doses of 67.5, 70, or 72.5 Gy, respectively, had a significantly increased risk of late AEs (relative risks [RR]: 2.18 to 2.72; p ≤ 0.041) and of grade ≥ 2 early AEs (RR: 6.36 to 6.48; p = 0.004). Our study provides evidence that definitive image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) for prostate cancer is well tolerated and also identifies dose thresholds for the absolute volume of anterior rectal wall above which patients are at greater risk of early and late complications.

  2. Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Aracil, Xavier; Mora-Lopez, Laura; Alcantara-Moral, Manel; Caro-Tarrago, Aleidis; Gomez-Diaz, Carlos Javier; Navarro-Soto, Salvador

    2014-09-07

    Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present.

  3. Rectal administration of iodide and propylthiouracil in the treatment of thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    Yeung, S C; Go, R; Balasubramanyam, A

    1995-10-01

    We administered potassium iodide and propylthiouracil per rectum, in conjunction with intravenous dexamethasone and propranolol, for emergent treatment of a patient in thyroid storm with small bowel obstruction. Shortly after initiation of this treatment, the patient successfully underwent two emergent surgical procedures for resection of an intestinal volvulus with advanced peritonitis. Serum levels of iodide and propylthiouracil showed substantial absorption of these drugs via the rectal route. Measurement of 24-h urinary-free iodide indicated that the bioavailability of potassium iodide delivered by retention enema was at least 40%. Parenteral iodide preparations have been unavailable in the past, and continue to be difficult to obtain emergently. Rectal administration of inorganic iodide is an effective, readily available and less expensive alternative to parenteral sodium iodide for patients in thyroid storm with upper gastrointestinal tract dysfunction.

  4. Procedure of rectal temperature measurement affects brain, muscle, skin, and body temperatures and modulates the effects of intravenous cocaine.

    PubMed

    Bae, David D; Brown, P Leon; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2007-06-18

    Rectal probe thermometry is commonly used to measure body core temperature in rodents because of its ease of use. Although previous studies suggest that rectal measurement is stressful and results in long-lasting elevations in body temperatures, we evaluated how this procedure affects brain, muscle, skin, and core temperatures measured with chronically implanted thermocouple electrodes in rats. Our data suggest that the procedure of rectal measurement results in powerful locomotor activation, rapid and strong increases in brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures, as well as a biphasic, down-up fluctuation in skin temperature, matching the response pattern observed during tail-pinch, a representative stressful procedure. This response, moreover, did not habituate after repeated day-to-day testing. Repeated rectal probe insertions also modified temperature responses induced by intravenous cocaine. Under quiet resting conditions, cocaine moderately increased brain, muscle, and deep body temperatures. However, during repeated rectal measurements, which increased temperatures, cocaine induced both hyperthermic and hypothermic responses. Direct comparisons revealed that body temperatures measured by a rectal probe are typically lower (approximately 0.6 degrees C) and more variable than body temperatures recorded by chronically implanted electrodes; the difference is smaller at low and greater at high basal temperatures. Because of this difference and temperature increases induced by the rectal probe per se, cocaine had no significant effect on rectal temperatures compared to control animals exposed to repeated rectal probes. Therefore, although rectal temperature measurements provide a decent correlation with directly measured deep body temperatures, the arousing influence of this procedure may drastically modulate the effects of other arousing stimuli and drugs.

  5. Development of the American Society of Colon & Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) Rectal Cancer Surgery Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Sean C.; Morris, Arden M.; Baxter, Nancy N.; Fleshman, James W.; Alavi, Karim S.; Luchtefeld, Martin A.; Monson, John R. T.; Chang, George J.; Temple, Larissa K.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is excellent evidence that surgical safety checklists contribute to decreased morbidity and mortality. Objective To develop a surgical checklist comprising the key phases of care for rectal cancer patients. Design Consensus-oriented decision-making model involving iterative input from subject matter experts under the auspices of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Results The process generated a 25-item checklist covering the spectrum of care for rectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Limitations Lack of prospective validation. Conclusions The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Rectal Cancer Surgery checklist comprises the essential elements of pre-, intra- and postoperative care that must be addressed during the surgical treatment of patients with rectal cancer. PMID:27270511

  6. Future of therapy for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Bruce D

    2013-06-01

    Since 2004, the standard of care for patients with cT3 and/or N+ rectal cancer has been preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery and postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. A number of advances have occurred and are defining the future of rectal cancer therapy. Among these are short course radiation, the impact of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, selective radiation and selective surgery, and new chemoradiation regimens with novel agents. This review will examine these developments and assess their impact on the future therapy of rectal cancer.

  7. Genetic Mutations in Blood and Tissue Samples in Predicting Response to Treatment in Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  8. Paediatric rectal prolapse in Rwanda.

    PubMed Central

    Chaloner, E J; Duckett, J; Lewin, J

    1996-01-01

    During the 1994 crisis in Rwanda, a high incidence of full-thickness rectal prolapse was noted among the refugee children in the south-west of the country. The prolapses arose as a result of acute diarrhoeal illness superimposed on malnutrition and worm infestation. We used a modification of the Thiersch wire technique in 40 of these cases during two months working in a refugee camp. A catgut pursestring was tied around the anal margin under local, regional or general anaesthesia. This was effective in achieving short-term control of full-thickness prolapse until the underlying illness was corrected. Under the circumstances, no formal follow-up could be arranged; however, no complications were reported and only one patient presented with recurrence. Images Figure 1 PMID:9014879

  9. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: a single center experience of 100 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Stănciulea, O; Eftimie, M; David, L; Tomulescu, V; Vasilescu, C; Popescu, I

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the field of general surgery over the few last decades. Despite its advantages, in complex procedures such as rectal surgery, laparoscopy has not achieved a high penetration rate because of its steep learning curve, its relatively high conversion rate and technical challenges. The aim of this study was to present a single center experience with robotic surgery for rectal cancer focusing mainly on early and mid-term postoperative outcome. A series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent robotic rectal surgery between January 2008 and June 2012 was analyzed retrospectively in terms of demographics, pathological data, surgical and oncological outcomes. Seventy-seven patients underwent robotic sphincter-saving resection, and 23 patients underwent robotic abdominoperineal resection. There were 4 conversions. The median operative time for sphincter-saving procedures was 180 min. The median time for robotic abdominoperineal resection was 160 min. The median distal resection margin of the operative specimen was 3 cm. The median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 14. The median hospital stay was 10 days. In-hospital mortality was nil. The overall morbidity was 30%. Four patients presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction. Severe erectile dysfunction was reported by 3 patients. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 90%. Robotic surgery is advantageous for both surgeons (in that it facilitates dissection in a narrow pelvis) and patients (in that it affords a very good quality of life via the preservation of sexual and urinary function in the vast majority of patients and it has low morbidity and good midterm oncological outcomes). In rectal cancer surgery, the robotic approach is a promising alternative and is expected to overcome the low penetration rate of laparoscopy in this field. Celsius.

  10. Lack of prophylactic efficacy of oral maraviroc in macaques despite high drug concentrations in rectal tissues.

    PubMed

    Massud, Ivana; Aung, Wutyi; Martin, Amy; Bachman, Shanon; Mitchell, James; Aubert, Rachael; Solomon Tsegaye, Theodros; Kersh, Ellen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Heneine, Walid; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2013-08-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is a potent CCR5 coreceptor antagonist that is in clinical testing for daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. We used a macaque model consisting of weekly SHIV162p3 exposures to evaluate the efficacy of oral MVC in preventing rectal SHIV transmission. MVC dosing was informed by the pharmacokinetic profile seen in blood and rectal tissues and consisted of a human-equivalent dose given 24 h before virus exposure, followed by a booster postexposure dose. In rectal secretions, MVC peaked at 24 h (10,242 ng/ml) with concentrations at 48 h that were about 40 times those required to block SHIV infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in vitro. Median MVC concentrations in rectal tissues at 24 h (1,404 ng/g) were 30 and 10 times those achieved in vaginal or lymphoid tissues, respectively. MVC significantly reduced macrophage inflammatory protein 1β-induced CCR5 internalization in rectal mononuclear cells, an indication of efficient binding to CCR5 in rectal lymphocytes. The half-life of CCR5-bound MVC in PBMCs was 2.6 days. Despite this favorable profile, 5/6 treated macaques were infected during five rectal SHIV exposures as were 3/4 controls. MVC treatment was associated with a significant increase in the percentage of CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells in blood. We show that high and durable MVC concentrations in rectal tissues are not sufficient to prevent SHIV infection in macaques. The increases in CD3(+)/CCR5(+) cells seen during MVC treatment point to unique immunological effects of CCR5 inhibition by MVC. The implications of these immunological effects on PrEP with MVC require further evaluation.

  11. Mechanical suture in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Cornel Dragos; Simon, Ioan; Fabian, Ovidiu; Maghiar, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent digestive malignancies, being the third cause of death by cancer, despite early diagnosis and therapeutic progress made over the past years. Standard treatment in these patients is to preserve the anal sphincter with restoration of intestinal function by mechanical colorectal anastomosis or coloanal anastomosis, and to maintain genitourinary function by preservation of hypogastric nerves. In order to emphasize the importance of this surgical technique in the Fourth Surgical Clinic of the CF Clinical Hospital Cluj-Napoca, we conducted a prospective observational interventional study over a 3-year period (2013-2016) in 165 patients hospitalized for rectal and rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma in various disease stages, who underwent Dixon surgery using the two techniques of manual and mechanical end-to-end anastomosis. For mechanical anastomosis, we used Covidien and Panther circular staplers. The patients were assigned to two groups, group A in which Dixon surgery with manual end-to-end anastomosis was performed (116 patients), and group B in which Dixon surgery with mechanical end-to-end anastomosis was carried out (49 patients). Mechanical anastomosis allowed to restore intestinal continuity following low anterior resection in 21 patients with lower rectal adenocarcinoma compared to 2 patients in whom intestinal continuity was restored by manual anastomosis, with a statistically significant difference (p<0.000001). The double-row mechanical suture technique is associated with a reduced duration of surgery (121.67 minutes for Dixon surgery with mechanical anastomosis, compared to 165.931 minutes for Dixon surgery with manual anastomosis, p<0.0001). The use of circular transanal staplers facilitates end-to-end anastomosis by double-row mechanical suture, allowing to perform low anterior resection in situations when the restoration of intestinal continuity by manual anastomosis is technically not possible, with the aim to

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2: ERG Scores and Serum PHI in Predicting Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Tallon, Lucile; Luangphakdy, Devillier; Ruffion, Alain; Colombel, Marc; Devonec, Marian; Champetier, Denis; Paparel, Philippe; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Perrin, Paul; Vlaeminck-Guillem, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion tests and serum PHI correlate to cancer aggressiveness-related pathological criteria at prostatectomy. To evaluate and compare their ability in predicting prostate cancer aggressiveness, PHI and urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2) scores were assessed in 154 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression and decision curve analyses were performed. All three markers were predictors of a tumor volume ≥0.5 mL. Only PHI predicted Gleason score ≥7. T2 score and PHI were both independent predictors of extracapsular extension (≥pT3), while multifocality was only predicted by PCA3 score. Moreover, when compared to a base model (age, digital rectal examination, serum PSA, and Gleason sum at biopsy), the addition of both PCA3 score and PHI to the base model induced a significant increase (+12%) when predicting tumor volume >0.5 mL. PHI and urinary PCA3 and T2 scores can be considered as complementary predictors of cancer aggressiveness at prostatectomy. PMID:25079439

  13. A rare cause of chronic rectal bleeding in children; solitary rectal ulcer: case report.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Abdulkerim; Tander, Burak; Temiz, Muhyittin; Barış, Sancar; Arıtürk, Ender

    2011-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding is extremely rare in children. Rare presentation, non-specific symptoms, insufficient experience, and characteristics mimicking other rectal diseases may cause misdiagnosis or delay of diagnosis in some pediatric patients. Here, we report a 10-year-old boy with solitary rectal ulcer diagnosed two years after onset of the symptoms who responded well to the conservative therapy, including high-fiber diet, laxatives, defecation training, and sucralfate enema.

  14. PET-MRI in Diagnosing Patients With Colon or Rectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-25

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  15. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  16. [Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Cicinskaite, Ilona; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Macas, Andrius; Tamosiūnas, Ramūnas; Kinderyte, Aida

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are responsible for 40-60% of all hospital-acquired infections. Increased age of patients and comorbid diseases render hospitalized patients more susceptible to infection. Almost 80% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are associated with urinary catheters, and only 5-10% of urinary infections are caused by invasive manipulations in the urogenital tract. Pathogens of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are frequently multi-resistant, and antibiotic therapy can only be successful when the complicating factors are eliminated or urodynamic function is restored. For treatment of complicated hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, the antibiotics must exhibit adequate pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties: high renal clearance of unmetabolized form with good antimicrobial activity in both acidic and alkaline urine. For selection of empirical treatment of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, it is necessary to evaluate localization of infection, its severity, possible isolates, and the most frequent pathogens in the department where patient is treated. The best choice for the starting the antimicrobial therapy is the cheapest narrow-spectrum effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infection until microbiological evaluation of pathogens will be received. Adequate management of urinary tract infections lowers the rate of complications, requirements for antibacterial treatment, selection of multi-resistant isolates and is cost effective.

  17. Rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumor as an incidental finding in a patient with rectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wu, Xu-Dong; Fan, Ren-Gen; zha, Wen-Zhang; Xu, Yong-Hua; Qing, Cheng-Lin; Jia, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A patient who was diagnosed as rectal polyps in the local hospital went to our hospital for surgical treatment. Abdominal CT demonstrated a large irregular extra-luminal tumor of at least 5 cm cross-section on the ventral side of the lower rectal wall. Intraoperatively, a large irregular extra-luminal tumor (about 5×4.5×4 cm) was found. Anterior resection with end colostomy and rectal stump (Hartmann's procedure) was performed. Postoperative histological examination showed simultaneous development of rectal GIST and polyps.

  18. Urinary proteins in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lena; Preda, Iulian; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Hanson, Lars A; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Barregard, Lars; Hansson, Sverker

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.

  19. The curative management of synchronous rectal and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Dara O; Martin, Joseph; Small, Cormac; Joyce, Myles R; Faul, Clare M; Kelly, Paul J; O'Riordain, Michael; Gillham, Charles M; Armstrong, John G; Salib, Osama; McNamara, Deborah A; McVey, Gerard; O'Neill, Brian D P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neoadjuvant “long-course” chemoradiation is considered a standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer. In addition to prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy with or without androgen suppression (AS) are well established in prostate cancer management. A retrospective review of ten cases was completed to explore the feasibility and safety of applying these standards in patients with dual pathology. To our knowledge, this is the largest case series of synchronous rectal and prostate cancers treated with curative intent. Methods: Eligible patients had synchronous histologically proven locally advanced rectal cancer (defined as cT3-4Nx; cTxN1-2) and non-metastatic prostate cancer (pelvic nodal disease permissible). Curative treatment was delivered to both sites simultaneously. Follow-up was as per institutional guidelines. Acute and late toxicities were reviewed, and a literature search performed. Results: Pelvic external beam radiotherapy (RT) 45–50.4 Gy was delivered concurrent with 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Prostate total dose ranged from 70.0 to 79.2 Gy. No acute toxicities occurred, excluding AS-induced erectile dysfunction. Nine patients proceeded to surgery, and one was managed expectantly. Three relapsed with metastatic colorectal cancer, two with metastatic prostate cancer. Five patients have no evidence of recurrence, and four remain alive with metastatic disease. With a median follow-up of 2.2 years (range 1.2–6.3 years), two significant late toxicities occurred; G3 proctitis in a patient receiving palliative bevacizumab and a G3 anastomotic stricture precluding stoma reversal. Conclusion: Patients proceeding to synchronous radical treatment of both primary sites should receive 45–50.4 Gy pelvic RT with infusional 5FU. Prostate dose escalation should be given with due consideration to the potential impact of prostate cancer on patient survival, as increasing dose may result in significant late morbidity

  20. Urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Drugs Approved for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in colon cancer and rectal cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  2. Low Rectal Cancer Study (MERCURY II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adenocarcinoma; Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous; Carcinoma; Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial; Neoplasms by Histologic Type; Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous; Colorectal Neoplasms; Intestinal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Digestive System Neoplasms; Neoplasms by Site; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Rectal Diseases

  3. How to Use Rectal Suppositories Properly

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lubricate the suppository tip with a water-soluble lubricant such as K-Y Jelly, not petroleum jelly (Vaseline). If you do not have this lubricant, moisten your rectal area with cool tap water. ...

  4. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  5. Effects of Prostate-Rectum Separation on Rectal Dose From External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Susil, Robert C.; McNutt, Todd R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Song, Danny

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy for prostate cancer, the rectum is the major dose-limiting structure. Physically separating the rectum from the prostate (e.g., by injecting a spacer) can reduce the rectal radiation dose. Despite pilot clinical studies, no careful analysis has been done of the risks, benefits, and dosimetric effects of this practice. Methods and Materials: Using cadaveric specimens, 20 mL of a hydrogel was injected between the prostate and rectum using a transperineal approach. Imaging was performed before and after spacer placement, and the cadavers were subsequently dissected. Ten intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated (five before and five after separation), allowing for characterization of the rectal dose reduction. To quantify the amount of prostate-rectum separation needed for effective rectal dose reduction, simulations were performed using nine clinically generated intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans. Results: In the cadaveric studies, an average of 12.5 mm of prostate-rectum separation was generated with the 20-mL hydrogel injections (the seminal vesicles were also separated from the rectum). The average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy decreased from 19.9% to 4.5% (p < .05). In the simulation studies, a prostate-rectum separation of 10 mm was sufficient to reduce the mean rectal volume receiving 70 Gy by 83.1% (p <.05). No additional reduction in the average rectal volume receiving 70 Gy was noted after 15 mm of separation. In addition, spacer placement allowed for increased planning target volume margins without exceeding the rectal dose tolerance. Conclusion: Prostate-rectum spacers can allow for reduced rectal toxicity rates, treatment intensification, and/or reduced dependence on complex planning and treatment delivery techniques.

  6. Transmission of rectal electric waves: is it through circular or longitudinal smooth muscle layers or both?

    PubMed

    Shafik, A; El-Sibai, O

    2001-04-01

    The rectum possesses electric activity in the form of pacesetter (PPs) and action potentials (APs). In recent studies we suggested that the waves are not initiated by the extrarectal autonomic innervation but might be triggered by a 'rectosigmoid pacemaker' and are transmitted in the rectal wall through the rectal musculature and not the enteric nerve plexus. To investigate whether the rectal waves are transmitted through the circular or longitudinal muscle layer, the rectum of 18 mongrel dogs was exposed under anesthesia through an abdominal incision. Three electrodes were applied to the rectal wall (longitudinal muscle layer) and another 3 electrodes to the circular muscle; the latter was exposed by splitting apart the fibers of the longitudinal muscle. Rectal electric activity and pressure were recorded from the 6 electrodes before and after performing individual myotomy of the rectal longitudinal (9 dogs), circular (9 dogs), and then the whole muscle layers (18 dogs). The myotomy was performed proximal to and between the electrodes. Pacesetter (PPs) and action potentials (APs) were recorded from the 3 electrodes on the longitudinal muscle but no waves were registered from those on the circular muscle. After longitudinal muscle myotomy was performed between electrodes 1 and 2, PPs and APs were recorded from electrode 1 but not 2 and 3 and when performed proximally to electrode 1, no waves were registered. The rectal pressure increased concomitantly with occurrence of APs. Circular muscle myotomy effected no change in the rectal electric activity recorded from the 3 electrodes applied to the longitudinal muscle. In total muscle myotomy, the electric waves were recorded from the electrodes proximal but not distal to the myotomy. We propose that the motile activity of the rectal longitudinal muscle is initiated by the electric activity which appears to be triggered by the rectosigmoid pacemaker, while that of the circular muscle fibers is believed to be initiated

  7. Alcohol consumption and rectal tumor mutations and epigenetic changes.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Wolff, Roger K; Herrick, Jennifer S; Curtin, Karen; Caan, Bette J; Samowitz, Wade

    2010-08-01

    An association between alcohol and rectal cancer has been reported in the epidemiological literature. In this study we further explore the association by examining specific tumor markers with alcohol consumption as well as types of alcoholic beverages consumed. We assessed alcohol consumption with CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, TP53, and KRAS2 mutations in incident rectal cancer cases and compared them with population-based controls. We evaluated type, long-term, and recent alcohol consumption. We observed a trend toward increasing risk of CpG Island Methylator Phenotype positive tumors and long-term alcohol consumption. In contrast, after adjusting for total alcohol intake, recent high beer consumption significantly increased the odds of having a TP53 mutation compared with those who did not drink beer (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% CI 1.24, 3.12). We observed a nonstatistically significant reduced risk of a TP53 mutation among those who drank wine (in particular, red wine) vs nonconsumers of wine. The association between TP53 mutations and recent beer consumption was strongest for transversion mutations. These data suggest that both alcohol and specific constituents of alcoholic beverages contribute to rectal cancer risk among unique disease pathways.

  8. Locally advanced rectal cancer: The importance of a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Berardi, Rossana; Maccaroni, Elena; Onofri, Azzurra; Morgese, Francesca; Torniai, Mariangela; Tiberi, Michela; Ferrini, Consuelo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Rectal cancer accounts for a relevant part of colorectal cancer cases, with a mortality of 4-10/100000 per year. The development of locoregional recurrences and the occurrence of distant metastases both influences the prognosis of these patients. In the last two decades, new multimodality strategies have improved the prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer with a significant reduction of local relapse and an increase in terms of overall survival. Radical surgery still remains the principal curative treatment and the introduction of total mesorectal excision has significantly achieved a reduction in terms of local recurrence rates. The employment of neoadjuvant treatment, delivered before surgery, also achieved an improved local control and an increased sphincter preservation rate in low-lying tumors, with an acceptable acute and late toxicity. This review describes the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, focusing on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and of post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy both in the standard combined modality treatment programs and in the ongoing research to improve these regimens. PMID:25516638

  9. Locally advanced rectal cancer: the importance of a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Rossana; Maccaroni, Elena; Onofri, Azzurra; Morgese, Francesca; Torniai, Mariangela; Tiberi, Michela; Ferrini, Consuelo; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-12-14

    Rectal cancer accounts for a relevant part of colorectal cancer cases, with a mortality of 4-10/100000 per year. The development of locoregional recurrences and the occurrence of distant metastases both influences the prognosis of these patients. In the last two decades, new multimodality strategies have improved the prognosis of locally advanced rectal cancer with a significant reduction of local relapse and an increase in terms of overall survival. Radical surgery still remains the principal curative treatment and the introduction of total mesorectal excision has significantly achieved a reduction in terms of local recurrence rates. The employment of neoadjuvant treatment, delivered before surgery, also achieved an improved local control and an increased sphincter preservation rate in low-lying tumors, with an acceptable acute and late toxicity. This review describes the multidisciplinary management of rectal cancer, focusing on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and of post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy both in the standard combined modality treatment programs and in the ongoing research to improve these regimens.

  10. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery for Patients With Rectal Tumors: A Single Institution's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kilius, Alfredas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Samalavicius, Narimantas E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to look at our complication rates and recurrence rates, as well as the need for further radical surgery, in treating patients with benign and early malignant rectal tumors by using transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). Methods Our study included 130 patients who had undergone TEM for rectal adenomas and early rectal cancer from December 2009 to December 2015 at the Department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Lithuania. Patients underwent digital and endoscopic evaluation with multiple biopsies. For preoperative staging, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging or endorectal ultrasound was performed. We recorded the demographics, operative details, final pathologies, postoperative lengths of hospital stay, postoperative complications, and recurrences. Results The average tumor size was 2.8 ± 1.5 cm (range, 0.5–8.3 cm). 102 benign (78.5%) and 28 malignant tumors (21.5%) were removed. Of the latter, 23 (82.1%) were pT1 cancers and 5 (17.9%) pT2 cancers. Of the 5 patients with pT2 cancer, 2 underwent adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, 1 underwent an abdominoperineal resection, 1 refused further treatment and 1 was lost to follow up. No intraoperative complications occurred. In 7 patients (5.4%), postoperative complications were observed: urinary retention (4 patients, 3.1%), postoperative hemorrhage (2 patients, 1.5%), and wound dehiscence (1 patient, 0.8%). All complications were treated conservatively. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.3 days. Conclusion TEM in our experience demonstrated low complication and recurrence rates. This technique is recommended for treating patients with a rectal adenoma and early rectal cancer and has good prognosis. PMID:28289660

  11. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  12. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  13. A nurse-family partnership intervention to increase the self-efficacy of family caregivers and reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infection in catheterized patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwo-Chen; Chao, Yann-Fen C; Wang, Yueh-Mien; Lin, Pi-Chu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nurse-family partnership model on the self-efficacy of family caregivers (FCs) and the incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) among patients. A randomized controlled study was conducted. We recruited 61 patients and their FCs, who were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 31). In the experimental group, the main caregivers comprised a nurse-family partnership, whereas the control participants received routine care. The findings were as follows: (i) the incidence of CAUTI was lower in the experimental group than in the control group (20% vs. 38.8%), but the difference was not statistically significant; and (ii) no significant difference emerged for reported Caregiver Self-Efficacy Score between the two groups. The nursing team and FCs must become partners in cooperative caregiving to enhance the quality of patient care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Age and cellular context influence rectal prolapse formation in mice with caecal wall colorectal cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Tommelein, Joke; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; De Vlieghere, Elly; Wagemans, Glenn; Gespach, Christian; Boterberg, Tom; Demetter, Pieter; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer. PMID:27689329

  15. Locally advanced rectal cancer: management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kokelaar, RF; Evans, MD; Davies, M; Harris, DA; Beynon, J

    2016-01-01

    Between 5% and 10% of patients with rectal cancer present with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and 10% of rectal cancers recur after surgery, of which half are limited to locoregional disease only (locally recurrent rectal cancer). Exenterative surgery offers the best long-term outcomes for patients with LARC and locally recurrent rectal cancer so long as a complete (R0) resection is achieved. Accurate preoperative multimodal staging is crucial in assessing the potential operability of advanced rectal tumors, and resectability may be enhanced with neoadjuvant therapies. Unfortunately, surgical options are limited when the tumor involves the lateral pelvic sidewall or high sacrum due to the technical challenges of achieving histological clearance, and must be balanced against the high morbidity associated with resection of the bony pelvis and significant lymphovascular structures. This group of patients is usually treated palliatively and subsequently survival is poor, which has led surgeons to seek innovative new solutions, as well as revisit previously discarded radical approaches. A small number of centers are pioneering new techniques for resection of beyond-total mesorectal excision tumors, including en bloc resections of the sciatic notch and composite resections of the first two sacral vertebrae. Despite limited experience, these new techniques offer the potential for radical treatment of previously inoperable tumors. This narrative review sets out the challenges facing the management of LARCs and discusses evolving management options. PMID:27785074

  16. Management of rectal varices in portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al Khalloufi, Kawtar; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O

    2015-01-01

    Rectal varices are portosystemic collaterals that form as a complication of portal hypertension, their prevalence has been reported as high as 94% in patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. The diagnosis is typically based on lower endoscopy (colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy). However, endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be superior to endoscopy in diagnosing rectal varices. Color Doppler ultrasonography is a better method because it allows the calculation of the velocity of blood flow in the varices and can be used to predict the bleeding risk in the varices. Although rare, bleeding from rectal varices can be life threatening. The management of patients with rectal variceal bleeding is not well established. It is important to ensure hemodynamic stability with blood transfusion and to correct any coagulopathy prior to treating the bleeding varices. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy has been reported to be more effective in the management of active bleeding from rectal varices with less rebleeding rate as compared to endoscopic band ligation. Transjugular intrahepatic portsystemic shunt alone or in combination with embolization is another method used successfully in control of bleeding. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an emerging procedure for management of gastric varices that has also been successfully used to treat bleeding rectal varices. Surgical procedures including suture ligation and porto-caval shunts are considered when other methods have failed. PMID:26730278

  17. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  18. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  19. Specific increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies in lupus mice induced by lysozyme administration: further evidence for DNA-anti-DNA immune complexes in the pathogenesis of nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Nagase, M; Hishida, A; Honda, N

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported that lysozyme electrostatically inhibits the fibronectin-mediated DNA binding to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) and reduces in situ DNA-anti-DNA complex formation in the GBM in NZB/W F1 mice [1]. In this study, we further noticed significant increases in urinary excretion of anti-DNA antibodies and immune complexes (IC) in lysozyme-treated NZB/W F1 mice. Their clearance ratios of IgG anti-DNA antibody to whole IgG were markedly high compared with those of saline-treated animals. A large number of IgG and C3 positive granules were observed in the tubular cells of NZB/W F1 mice treated with lysozyme. On the contrary, nil or only small amounts of anti-DNA antibodies were detected in the urine of NZB/W F1 mice without lysozyme administration despite a large amount of proteinuria, suggesting entrapment of the antibodies in lupus glomeruli. Lysozyme neither inhibited the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA or heparan sulphate nor did it displace anti-DNA antibodies and IC from the kidney homogenates of lupus mice. It thus appears that the inhibition of DNA binding to the GBM due to lysozyme reduced the entrapment of anti-DNA antibodies in the GBM, resulting in urinary excretion of the antibodies. PMID:8419071

  20. Interleukin genes and associations with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Bondurant, Kristina L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S; Kadlubar, Susan; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2013-02-15

    Interleukins are a group of cytokines that contribute to growth and differentiation, cell migration, and inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses by the immune system. In our study, we examined genetic variation in genes from various anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory interleukins to determine association with colon and rectal cancer risk and overall survival. Data from two population-based incident studies of colon cancer (1,555 cases and 1,956 controls) and rectal cancer (754 cases and 954 controls) were used. After controlling for multiple comparisons, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from four genes, IL3, IL6R, IL8, IL15, were associated with increased colon cancer risk, and CXCR1 and CXCR2 were significantly associated with increased rectal cancer risk. Only SNPs from genes within the IL-8 pathway (IL8, CXCR1 and CXCR2) showed a significant association with both colon and rectal cancer risk. Several SNPs interacted significantly with IL8 and IFNG SNPs and with aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), cigarette smoking, estrogen use and BMI. For both colon and rectal cancer, increasing numbers of risk alleles were associated with increased hazard of death from cancer; the estimated hazard of death for colon cancer for the highest category of risk alleles was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.56) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.28-2.99) for rectal cancer. These data suggest that interleukin genes play a role in risk and overall survival for colon and rectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. A diet high in meat protein and potential renal acid load increases fractional calcium absorption and urinary calcium excretion without affecting markers of bone resorption or formation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jay J; Johnson, LuAnn K; Hunt, Janet R

    2011-03-01

    Our objective in this study was to determine the effects of a high-protein and high-potential renal acid load (PRAL) diet on calcium (Ca) absorption and retention and markers of bone metabolism. In a randomized crossover design, 16 postmenopausal women consumed 2 diets: 1 with low protein and low PRAL (LPLP; total protein: 61 g/d; PRAL: -48 mEq/d) and 1 with high protein and high PRAL (HPHP; total protein: 118 g/d; PRAL: 33 mEq/d) for 7 wk each separated by a 1-wk break. Ca absorption was measured by whole body scintillation counting of radio-labeled (47)Ca. Compared with the LPLP diet, the HPHP diet increased participants' serum IGF-I concentrations (P < 0.0001), decreased serum intact PTH concentrations (P < 0.001), and increased fractional (47)Ca absorption (mean ± pooled SD: 22.3 vs. 26.5 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05) and urinary Ca excretion (156 vs. 203 ± 63 mg/d; P = 0.005). The net difference between the amount of Ca absorbed and excreted in urine did not differ between 2 diet periods (55 vs. 28 ± 51 mg/d). The dietary treatments did not affect other markers of bone metabolism. In summary, a diet high in protein and PRAL increases the fractional absorption of dietary Ca, which partially compensates for increased urinary Ca, in postmenopausal women. The increased IGF-I and decreased PTH concentrations in serum, with no change in biomarkers of bone resorption or formation, indicate a high-protein diet has no adverse effects on bone health.

  2. Factors Associated With Receipt of Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    McClure, Laura A; Sussman, Daniel A; Hernandez, Monique N; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Yechieli, Raphael L; Bonner, Judith M; Zheng, D Diane; Lee, David J

    2015-12-22

    Appropriate treatment for cancer is vital to increasing the likelihood of survival; however, for rectal cancer, there are demonstrated disparities in receipt of treatment by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. We evaluated factors associated with receipt of appropriate radiation therapy for rectal cancer using data from the Florida Cancer Data System that had been previously enriched with detailed treatment information collected from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Comparative Effectiveness Research study. This treatment information is not routinely available in cancer registry data and represents a unique data resource. Using multivariable regression, we evaluated factors associated with receiving radiation therapy among rectal cancer cases stage II/III. Our sample (n=403) included cases diagnosed in Florida in 2011 who were 18 years and older. Cases clinically staged as 0/I/IV were excluded. Older age (odds ratio=0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-0.97), the presence of one or more comorbidities (0.61; 0.39-0.96), and receipt of surgical intervention (0.44; 0.22-0.90) were associated with lack of radiation. In this cohort of patients, sociodemographic factors such as race/ethnicity, insurance status, and socioeconomic status, did not influence the receipt of radiation. Further research is needed, however, to understand why aging, greater comorbidity, and having surgery present a barrier to radiation therapy, particularly given that it is a well-tolerated treatment in most patients.

  3. GLUT-1 expression and response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Sarah; Sheehan, Katherine M; McNamara, Deborah A; Deasy, Joseph; Bouchier-Hayes, David J; Kay, Elaine W

    2009-12-15

    Preoperative chemoradiotherapy is used in locally advanced rectal cancer to reduce local recurrence and improve operability, however a proportion of tumors do not undergo significant regression. Identification of predictive markers of response to chemoradiotherapy would improve patient selection and may allow response modification by targeting of specific pathways. The aim of this study was to determine whether expression of glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) and p53 in pretreatment rectal cancer biopsies was predictive of tumor response to chemoradiotherapy. Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1 and p53 was performed on 69 pretreatment biopsies and compared to tumor response in the resected specimen as determined by the tumor regression grade (TRG) scoring system. GLUT-1 expression was significantly associated with reduced response to chemoradiotherapy and increasing GLUT expression correlated with poorer response (p=0.02). GLUT-1 negative tumors had a 70% probability of good response (TRG3/4) compared to a 31% probability of good response in GLUT-1 positive tumors. GLUT-1 may be a useful predictive marker of response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer.

  4. Predictive value of urinary interleukin-6 for symptomatic urinary tract infections in a nursing home population.

    PubMed

    Sundén, Fredrik; Wullt, Björn

    2016-02-01

    To study urinary interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and pyuria during episodes of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection in the institutionalized elderly, and to investigate the role of interleukin-6 as a biomarker for differential diagnosis. Levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and pyuria were assessed in 35 older adults with asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection to define possible diagnostic thresholds. In a two-phase intervention study, the antibiotic treatment for urinary tract infection before and after introduction of urinary interleukin-6 as a biomarker was then assessed. Asymptomatic bacteriuria patients had no or low levels of interleukin-6, and low levels of interleukin-8 and pyuria. Women had lower interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 than men (P = 0.05). Interleukin-6 was the only marker showing significant increases during urinary tract infection episodes in patients with both asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection, in pooled (P = 0.042) and in paired intra-individual (P = 0.017) comparisons. In the intervention study lectures, the increased use of urine cultures and the introduction of interleukin-6 as a biomarker reduced antibiotic treatments by 20%. Antibiotic-treated urinary tract infection episodes had increased interleukin-6 as compared with urinary tract infection episodes not treated (P = 0.02), and as compared with asymptomatic bacteriuria patients (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of interleukin-6 (cut-off 25 pg/mL) differentiating asymptomatic bacteriuria from urinary tract infection was 57% and 80%, respectively. Urinary interleukin-6 shows promise as a biomarker to detect the transition from asymptomatic bacteriuria to symptomatic urinary tract infection in older adults. Further larger studies with robust methodology are warranted to determine whether development for near to patient testing would be worthwhile. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  5. Differences in microbial signatures between rectal mucosal biopsies and rectal swabs.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Pérez, Félix; McCoy, Amber N; Okechukwu, Charles; Carroll, Ian M; Smith, Kevin M; Jeremiah, Kim; Sandler, Robert S; Asher, Gary N; Keku, Temitope O

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence the microbiota of the large bowel may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other diseases including type-1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases and irritable bowel syndrome. Current sampling methods to obtain microbial specimens, such as feces and mucosal biopsies, are inconvenient and unappealing to patients. Obtaining samples through rectal swabs could prove to be a quicker and relatively easier method, but it is unclear if swabs are an adequate substitute. We compared bacterial diversity and composition from rectal swabs and rectal mucosal biopsies in order to examine the viability of rectal swabs as an alternative to biopsies. Paired rectal swabs and mucosal biopsy samples were collected in un-prepped participants (n = 11) and microbial diversity was characterized by Terminal Restriction Fragment Length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. Microbial community composition from swab samples was different from rectal mucosal biopsies (p = 0.001). Overall the bacterial diversity was higher in swab samples than in biopsies as assessed by diversity indexes such as: richness (p = 0.01), evenness (p = 0.06) and Shannon's diversity (p = 0.04). Analysis of specific bacterial groups by qPCR showed higher copy number of Lactobacillus (p < 0.0001) and Eubacteria (p = 0.0003) in swab samples compared with biopsies. Our findings suggest that rectal swabs and rectal mucosal samples provide different views of the microbiota in the large intestine.

  6. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... increasing your volume of urine. They include: Alcohol Caffeine Decaffeinated tea and coffee Carbonated drinks Artificial sweeteners ... need to cut back on or avoid alcohol, caffeine or acidic foods. Reducing liquid consumption, losing weight ...

  7. The female urinary microbiome: a comparison of women with and without urgency urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Meghan M; Hilt, Evann E; Rosenfeld, Amy B; Zilliox, Michael J; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C; Brubaker, Linda; Gai, Xiaowu; Wolfe, Alan J

    2014-07-08

    Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. Importance: New evidence indicates that the human urinary tract contains microbial communities; however, the role of these communities in urinary health remains to be elucidated. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a highly prevalent yet poorly understood urinary condition characterized by

  8. Laparoscopic versus robotic rectal resection for rectal cancer in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Ramiro; Anaya, Daniel A; Li, Linda T; Orcutt, Sonia T; Balentine, Courtney J; Awad, Samir A; Berger, David H; Albo, Daniel A; Artinyan, Avo

    2013-10-01

    Robotic rectal cancer resection remains controversial. We compared the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic vs robotic rectal cancer resection in a high-risk Veterans Health Administration population. Patients who underwent minimally invasive rectal cancer resection were identified from an institutional colorectal cancer database. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared between robotic and laparoscopic groups. The robotic group (n = 13) did not differ significantly from the laparoscopic group (n = 59) with respect to baseline characteristics except for a higher rate of previous abdominal surgery. Robotic patients had significantly lower tumors, more advanced disease, a higher rate of preoperative chemoradiation, and were more likely to undergo abdominoperineal resection. Robotic rectal resection was associated with longer operative time. There were no differences in blood loss, conversion rates, postoperative morbidity, lymph nodes harvested, margin positivity, or specimen quality between groups. The robotic approach for rectal cancer resection is safe with similar postoperative and oncologic outcomes compared with laparoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Significance of serum total prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdrabo, Abdelkarim A; Fadlalla, Adil I; Fadl-Elmula, Imad M

    2011-11-01

    To assess the significance of serum total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) and digital rectal examination (DRE) in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC). One hundred and eighteen patients with serum tPSA ranging between 2.5 and 10 ng/ml with lower urinary tract symptoms presented at the Urology Clinic of Soba University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan from August 2008 and January 2010 were included in the study. Serum tPSA was measured using enzyme immunoassay method, and accordingly, the patients were classified into 2 groups: patients that had tPSA between 2.5-4.0 ng/ml; and patients that had tPSA between 4.1-10 ng/ml. The DRE was performed on all patients by a qualified urologist, and were recorded as a group with suspicion of PC, and a group with no suspicion of PC. All patients underwent transrectal sextant prostate biopsy. The DRE alone showed 63.8% sensitivity and 68% specificity with 46.9% positive predictive value (PPV) for the diagnosis of PC. The tPSA test revealed 91.6% sensitivity and 24% specificity with PPV of 34%. However, when combining DRE and tPSA, the sensitivity reached 100% and the specificity increased to 92% with PPV of 49%. Combining DRE and tPSA test increases the sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of PC detection.

  10. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words “rectum”, “rectal”, “cancer”, “laparoscopy”, “robot”. After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients. PMID:27895814

  11. [Metabolic complications of urinary intestinal diversion].

    PubMed

    Gelosa, Marco; Pisani, Enrico

    2003-03-01

    The use of bowel in urinary diversion has increased markedly over the last 15 years and this trend is expected to continue. Complications that have been noted in patients with urinary intestinal diversion occurring as a consequence of metabolic abnormalities include disordered electrolyte metabolism, osteomalacia, growth retardation, calculus formation, infection, abnormal drug metabolism. The factors that influence the intensity of absorption of urinary electrolites by intestinal mucosa include length of time of retention of the urine, concentration of solute in the urine, type of urinary diversion, quality of emptying, capacity of the reservoir, surface area of the bowel used, renal function, infection and chronic dilatation. Regular draining of the urinary intestinal diversion, vigilant metabolic follow-up, and careful patient selection are essential to prevent metabolic abnormalities.

  12. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping of Women with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rhiannon; Cacciatore, Stefano; Jiménez, Beatriz; Cartwright, Rufus; Digesu, Alex; Fernando, Ruwan; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A; Khullar, Vik

    2017-10-04

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including urinary incontinence, urgency and nocturia, affect approximately half of women worldwide. Current diagnostic methods for LUTS are invasive and costly, while available treatments are limited by side effects leading to poor patient compliance. In this study, we aimed to identify urine metabolic signatures associated with LUTS using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy. A total of 214 urine samples were collected from women attending tertiary urogynecology clinics (cases; n = 176) and healthy control women attending general gynecology clinics (n = 36). Despite high variation in the urine metabolome across the cohort, associations between urine metabolic profiles and BMI, parity, overactive bladder syndrome, frequency, straining, and bladder storage were identified using KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization). Four distinct urinary metabotypes were identified, one of which was associated with increased urinary frequency and low BMI. Urine from these patients was characterized by increased levels of isoleucine and decreased levels of hippurate. Our study suggests that metabolic profiling of urine samples from LUTS patients offers the potential to identify differences in underlying etiology, which may permit stratification of patient populations and the design of more personalized treatment strategies.

  13. High risk of rectal cancer and of metachronous colorectal cancer in probands of families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Laura; Urso, Emanuele Dl; Parrinello, Giovanni; Pucciarelli, Salvatore; Moneghini, Dario; Agostini, Marco; Nitti, Donato; Nascimbeni, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the risk of metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC), its impact on survival, and the risk of rectal cancer in a cohort of probands meeting the Amsterdam criteria. Several determinants of decision-making for the management of CRC in patients with a putative diagnosis of Lynch syndrome are scarcely defined, and many of them undergo segmental bowel resection instead of the advised total colectomy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 65 probands of the Amsterdam-positive families who had surgery for primary CRC and at least 5-year surveillance thereafter. The rates of metachronous CRC and of rectal cancer were evaluated, together with their association with preoperatively available clinical predictors. Differences in overall survival between patients with and without metachronous CRC were evaluated using a time-dependent Cox model. Seventeen patients (26.2%) had metachronous CRC. No clinical feature was associated with an increased risk of its development. The risk of death in patients with metachronous CRC was 6-fold increased. Neither a 2-year interval endoscopic surveillance after surgery, nor total colectomy was associated with a significant reduction in metachronous CRC. Eighteen patients (23.7%) had rectal cancer at first presentation, 5 patients of the remainder (10.6%) developed rectal cancer after primary colon resection. Two patients undergoing total colectomy developed a metachronous rectal cancer (18.2%). A first-degree family history of rectal cancer was associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer. Probands of families fulfilling the Amsterdam criteria carry a high risk of rectal cancer and of metachronous CRC. Total proctocolectomy, or total colectomy and a 1-year interval of proctoscopic surveillance should be advised when a high risk of rectal cancer can be predicted.

  14. Learning curve for robotic-assisted laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Díaz-Pavón, José Manuel; de la Portilla de Juan, Fernando; Prendes-Sillero, Emilio; Dussort, Hisnard Cadet; Padillo, Javier

    2013-06-01

    One of the main uses of robotic assisted abdominal surgery is the mesorectal excision in patients with rectal cancer. The aim of the present study is to analyse the learning curve for robotic assisted laparoscopic resection of rectal cancer. We included in our study 43 consecutive rectal cancer resections (16 females and 27 males) performed from January 2008 through December 2010. Mean age of patients was 66 ± 9.0 years. Surgical procedures included both abdomino-perineal and anterior resections. We analysed the following parameters: demographic data of the patients included in the study, intra- and postoperative data, time taking to set up the robot for operations (set-up or docking time), operative time, intra- and postoperative complications, conversion rates and pathological specimen features. The learning curve was analysed using cumulative sum (CUSUM) methodology. The procedures understudied included seven abdomino-perineal resections and 36 anterior resections. In our series of patients, mean robotic set-up time was 62.9 ± 24.6 min, and the mean operative time was 197.4 ± 44.3 min. Once we applied CUSUM methodology, we obtained two graphs for CUSUM values (operating time and success), both of them showing three well-differentiated phases: phase 1 (the initial 9-11 cases), phase 2 (the middle 12 cases) and phase 3 (the remaining 20-22 cases). Phase 1 represents initial learning; phase 2 plateau represents increased competence in the use of the robotic system, and finally, phase 3 represents the period of highest skill or mastery with a reduction in docking time (p = 0.000), but a slight increase in operative time (p = 0.007). The CUSUM curve shows three phases in the learning and use of robotic assisted rectal cancer surgery which correspond to the phases of initial learning of the technique, consolidation and higher expertise or mastery. The data obtained suggest that the estimated learning curve for robotic assisted rectal cancer

  15. Managing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  16. Outcome of young patients with rectal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Hernández, Rosa A.; Ruiz-García, Erika B.; León-Takahashi, Alberto M.; García-Pérez, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    Background There is an increase in the incidence of rectal carcinoma (RC) in young patients. Methods We analyzed 175 patients with sporadic RC which were divided in two groups according their age: 24 patients ≤40 years and 151 patients >40 years and the two groups were compared in order to determine if the outcomes (especially overall 5-year survival) were different. Results Overall 5-year survival was similar between groups (67.1% for patients over 40 years and 70.4% for those under 40 years, P=0.803). The only differences found were in some clinicopathologic features: patients <40 years showed more dissected lymph nodes (LNs) (21 vs. 15, P=0.035) and more LN metastasis (54.2% vs. 39.1%, P=0.048). In multivariate analysis factors associated with worse survival were incomplete resection and no use of neoadjuvant therapy. Age did not demonstrate prognostic value (P=0.077). Conclusions RC in people ≤40 years demonstrated greater number of LN harvested and LN metastases but oncologic outcomes, especially 5-year overall survival, were similar between groups. PMID:28280614

  17. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  18. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Caused by Fusarium proliferatum in an Agranulocytosis Patient and a Review of Published Reports.

    PubMed

    Su, Huilin; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Li, Li; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Junhao; Zhu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Infections caused by Fusarium species are increasing in frequency among immunocompromised hosts, but urinary tract infection (UTI) due to Fusarium proliferatum has not been reported in the literature so far. We describe a case of UTI caused by F. proliferatum in a 47-year-old man who was diagnosed with rectal cancer and metastasis. He underwent radical resection of rectal carcinoma and local resection of hepatic metastases. After the first adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient presented the obvious high fever, severely diarrhea and progressive decline of the white blood cell count. The direct microscopic examination of fungi in urine was positive, and the fungal cultures showed white, cotton-like colony. After the DNA sequencing, it was identified as F. proliferatum. We gave the patient itraconazole and other antibiotics to fight the infection. A month later, the temperature dropped to normal and the results of the direct microscopic examination and culture of fungi in urine turn negative. The itraconazole is effective against F. proliferatum.

  19. Rectal dosimetry following prostate brachytherapy with stranded seeds--comparison of transrectal ultrasound intra-operative planning (day 0) and computed tomography-postplanning (day 1 vs. day 30) with special focus on sources placed close to the rectal wall.

    PubMed

    Pinkawa, Michael; Asadpour, Branka; Piroth, Marc D; Gagel, Bernd; Klotz, Jens; Fischedick, Karin; Borchers, Holger; Jakse, Gerhard; Eble, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare intra-operative and postplanning at different intervals with special focus on sources placed close to the rectal wall. In 61 consecutive patients, CT scans were performed on day 1 and day 30 after an I-125 implant with stranded seeds. The number of sources < or =7 mm to the rectal wall was determined, and displacements were analyzed. The angulation of strands relative to rectal wall was compared between intra-operative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and both postplanning CT scans. Sources close to the rectum on day 1 (n=204) have been the most apical in a strand in 98.5% (n=201). By comparing day 1 and day 30 data, significant inferior source displacements (mean 3.6 mm; p=0.02) relative to pelvic bones and a decreasing distance to the rectal wall (mean 1.2 mm; p<0.01)--consequentially increasing rectal dose--were determined only for sources initially > or =3 mm to the rectum. In contrast to an almost parallel arrangement of the needle track and the rectal wall in TRUS, strands and rectal wall converged towards the apex in the postplanning CT scans (mean >30 degrees). Posterior preplanning margins around the prostate should be particularly limited at the level of the prostate apex.

  20. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  1. Preoperative staging of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Neil; Brown, Gina

    2008-01-01

    Detailed preoperative staging using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the selection of patients that require preoperative therapy for tumour regression. This information can be used to instigate neoadjuvant therapy in those patients with poor prognostic features prior to disturbing the tumour bed and potentially disseminating disease. The design of trials incorporating MR assessment of prognostic factors prior to therapy has been found to be of value in assessing treatment modalities and outcomes that are targeted to these preoperative prognostic subgroups and in providing a quantifiable assessment of the efficacy of particular chemoradiation treatment protocols by comparing pre-treatment MR staging with post therapy histology assessment. At present, we are focused on achieving clear surgical margins of excision (CRM) to avoid local recurrence. We recommend that all patients with rectal cancer should undergo pre-operative MRI staging. Of these, about half will have good prognosis features (T1-T3b, N0, EMVI negative, CRM clear) and may safely undergo primary total mesorectal excision. Of the remainder, those with threatened or involved margins will certainly benefit from pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with the aim of downstaging to permit safe surgical excision. In the future, our ability to recognise features predicting distant failure, such as extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) may be used to stratify patients for neo-adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in an effort to prevent distant relapse. The optimal pre-operative treatment regimes for these patients (radiotherapy alone, systemic chemotherapy alone or combination chemo-radiotherapy) is the subject of current and future trials.

  2. [Urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Incontinence is a common age-dependent and increasing problem in women that may mainly present as stress incontinence, overactive bladder, mixed incontinence or other forms. A thorough history, gynaecological and neurological examination and urinalysis as initial step will lead to the diagnosis and treatment. If midstream urine is difficult to receive, a catheter urine will be easy to obtain. Further investigations as urodynamics, cystoscopy and ultrasound may be required. As initial step, stress incontinence should be treated with physiotherapy and pelvic floor exercises, if not successful with operations as suburethral slings. Slings have good long-term success rates of approximately 85 % with a low morbidity and can even be inserted under local anaesthetic. The treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder consists of bladder training, a behavioural therapy, and mainly anticholinergics. Anticholinergics may cause side effects particularly in the elderly who are under several medications that may add anticholinergic effects as antidepressants, antibiotics or antihistaminics.

  3. [Different strategies between Japan and other countries for the diagnosis and treatment of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2008-11-01

    In the treatment of rectal cancer, various attempts have been made to reduce the local recurrence rate. In Japan, lateral node dissection (LND) has been widely performed as a standard procedure for lower rectal cancers. Studies since the 1980s have shown that LND reduces the local recurrence rate and improves the survival rate. However, significant sexual or urinary dysfunction has been reported due to impairment of autonomic nerves by LND. To overcome these problems, autonomic nerve-preserving LND has been introduced. At present, autonomic nerve-preserving LND is the standard procedure for the treatment of lower rectal cancers in Japan. On the other hand, radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision is the standard procedure in other countries. Survival data also differ between Japan and elsewhere. In Japanese series, the postoperative survival rate is higher than those in other countries. This may be due to differences in the method of lymph node examination, surgical technique, etc. However, this is a very important issue in determining the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. In Japan, these differences need to be taken into account in determining the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.

  4. Demographic, Dietary, and Urinary Factors and 24-h Urinary Calcium Excretion

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Results: Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values ≤0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend ≤0.01). Conclusions: Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium. PMID:19820135

  5. Demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium excretion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Eric N; Curhan, Gary C

    2009-12-01

    Higher urinary calcium is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis. This study delineated associations between demographic, dietary, and urinary factors and 24-h urinary calcium. Cross-sectional studies were conducted of 2201 stone formers (SF) and 1167 nonstone formers (NSF) in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (men) and Nurses' Health Studies I and II (older and younger women). Median urinary calcium was 182 mg/d in men, 182 mg/d in older women, and 192 mg/d in younger women. Compared with NSF, urinary calcium as a fraction of calcium intake was 33 to 38% higher in SF (P values < or =0.01). In regression analyses, participants were combined because associations with urinary calcium were similar in each cohort and in SF and NSF. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of calcium intake excreted 18 mg/d more urinary calcium than those in the lowest (P trend =0.01). Caffeine and family history of nephrolithiasis were positively associated, whereas urinary potassium, thiazides, gout, and age were inversely associated, with urinary calcium. After multivariate adjustment, participants in the highest quartiles of urinary magnesium, sodium, sulfate, citrate, phosphorus, and volume excreted 71 mg/d, 37 mg/d, 44 mg/d, 61 mg/d, 37 mg/d, and 24 mg/d more urinary calcium, respectively, than participants in the lowest (P values trend < or =0.01). Intestinal calcium absorption and/or negative calcium balance is greater in SF than NSF. Higher calcium intakes at levels typically observed in free-living individuals are associated with only small increases in urinary calcium.

  6. Tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS) increases tibial speed of sound and urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC) in premature infants (29-32 wks PMA)

    PubMed Central

    Haley, S; Beachy, J; Ivaska, KK; Slater, H; Smith, S; Moyer-Mileur, LJ

    2012-01-01

    Preterm delivery (<37 wks post-menstrual age) is associated with suboptimal bone mass. We hypothesized that tactile/kinesthetic stimulation (TKS), a form of infant massage that incorporates kinesthetic movement, would increase bone strength and markers of bone accretion in preterm infants. Preterm, AGA infants (29-32 wks) were randomly assigned to TKS (N=20) or Control (N=20). Twice daily TKS was provided six days per week for two weeks. Control infants received the same care without TKS treatment. Treatment was masked to parents, health care providers, and study personnel. Baseline and week two measures were collected for tibial speed of sound (tSOS, m/sec), a surrogate for bone strength, by quantitative ultrasound (Sunlight8000) and urine markers of bone metabolism, pyridinium crosslinks and osteocalcin (U-MidOC and unOC). Infant characteristics at birth and study entry as well as energy/nutrient intake were similar between TKS and Control. TKS intervention attenuated the decrease in tSOS observed in Control infants (p<0.05). Urinary pyridinium crosslinks decreased over time in both TKS and CTL (p<0.005). TKS infants experienced greater increases in urinary osteocalcin (U-MidOC, p<0.001 and unOC, p<0.05). We conclude that TKS improves bone strength in premature infants by attenuating the decrease that normally follows preterm birth. Further, biomarkers of bone metabolism suggest a modification in bone turnover in TKS infants in favor of bone accretion. Taken together, we speculate that TKS improves bone mineralization. PMID:22846674

  7. [Urinary fistula: update].

    PubMed

    Allona Almagro, A; Sanz Migueláñez, J L; Pérez Sanz, P; Pozo Mengual, B; Navío Niño, S

    2002-01-01

    The urinary fistulas are not a frequent problem in our urological rutinary work, being the vesicovaginal ones the most common. However, it will be necessary to know them to be able to diagnose and treat them in the best way. In this article we classificate the different urinary fistulas (uro-gynecologicals, uro-vasculars, uro-cutaneous and entero-urinarys), explaining the possible etiologies and the correct management.

  8. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  9. Rectal mucosa in cows' milk allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Yadav, M; Boey, C G

    1989-01-01

    Eleven infants who were suspected clinically of having cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy were fed with a protein hydrolysate formula for six to eight weeks, after which they had jejunal and rectal biopsies taken before and 24 hours after challenge with cows' milk protein. When challenged six infants (group 1) developed clinical symptoms and five did not (group 2). In group 1 the lesions developed in both the jejunal mucosa (four infants at 24 hours and one at three days), and the rectal mucosa, and the injury was associated with depletion of alkaline phosphatase activity. Infants in group 2 were normal. It seems that rectal injury that develops as a direct consequence of oral challenge with the protein in reactive infants may be used as one of the measurements to confirm the diagnosis of cows' milk protein sensitive enteropathy. Moreover, ingestion of such food proteins may injure the distal colonic mucosa without affecting the proximal small gut in some infants. PMID:2817945

  10. Effects of morphine in the isolated mouse urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, C G; Tamayo, L; Contreras, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute morphine increased the responses to acetylcholine of the isolated mouse urinary bladder. A chronic morphine treatment did not change the responses of the urinary bladder to acetylcholine or ATP. The acute administration of morphine did not modify the contractile response to ATP in the urinary bladders from untreated or chronically morphine treated mice. Methadone and ketocyclazocine decreased the responses to the electrical stimulation of the urinary bladder. These depressant effects were not modified by naloxone. The results suggest the nonexistence of opiate receptors in the mouse urinary bladder and the lack of direct effects of morphine on the neuroeffector junction.

  11. Bladder and rectal incontinence without paraplegia or paraparesis after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Naritomo; Kurimoto, Yoshihiko; Maruyama, Ryushi; Ujihira, Kosuke; Iba, Yutaka; Hatta, Eiichiro; Yamada, Akira; Nakanishi, Katsuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Spinal cord ischemia is a well-known potential complication of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), and it is usually manifested by paraplegia or paraparesis. We describe a case in which spinal cord ischemia after EVAR presented by isolated bladder and rectal incontinence without other neurological deficits. A 63-year-old woman presented with intermittent claudication secondary to an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and a left common iliac artery obstruction, for which she underwent EVAR using an aorto-uniiliac (AUI) device and ilio-femoral artery bypass. On postoperative day 3, she developed urinary and fecal incontinence without signs of paraplegia or paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hyper-intense signal in the spinal cord. She received hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and was discharged after 18 days when her urinary and fecal incontinence were almost resolved. This report suggests that spinal cord ischemia after EVAR for aortoiliac occlusive disease might present as bladder and rectal incontinence without other neurological manifestations.

  12. Rectal carcinoids are on the rise: early detection by screening endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Scherübl, H

    2009-02-01

    Rectal carcinoids are on the rise; in the United States the age-adjusted incidence has increased by 800% -1000% in the last 35 years. The incidence of carcinoids of the stomach, pancreas, or small bowels has also multiplied. The reasons for these epidemiological changes are not yet understood. Both screening sigmoidoscopy and screening colonoscopy lead to a shift to smaller-sized (< or =13 mm) rectal carcinoids and earlier tumor stages at diagnosis. During the last 35 years the overall 5-year survival of patients with rectal carcinoid disease has increased by almost 20% (in the US). Thus, endoscopic screening of the colorectum is effective in the early diagnosis not only of colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas but also of carcinoids. Rectal carcinoids that are 10.0 mm or less and do not infiltrate the muscularis propria can be removed endoscopically. If histological angioinvasion or lymph node metastases are found, surgical lymph node dissection has to be considered. Before deciding on definitive therapy, rectal carcinoids should be staged by means of endoscopic ultrasonography, CT, or MRI and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

  13. Variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Herrick, Jennifer S; Kadlubar, Susan; Caan, Bette J; Potter, John D; Wolff, Roger K

    2011-07-01

    CYP19A1, or aromatase, influences estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and may influence cancer risk. We examine variation in the CYP19A1 gene and risk of colorectal cancer using data from population-based case-control studies (colon n = 1,574 cases, 1,970 controls; rectal n = 791 cases, 999 controls). Four SNPs were statistically significantly associated with colon cancer and four were associated with rectal cancer. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, the AA genotype of rs12591359 was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer (OR 1.44 95% CI 1.16-1.80) and the AA genotype of rs2470144 was associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR 0.65 95% CI 0.50-0.84). Variants of CYP19A1 were associated with CIMP+ and CIMP+/KRAS2-mutated tumors. CT/TT genotypes of rs1961177 were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of a MSI+ colon tumor (OR 1.77 95% CI 1.26-2.37). We observed statistically significant interactions between genetic variation in NFκB1 and CYP19A1 for both colon and rectal cancer. Our data suggest the importance of CYP19A1 in the development of colon and rectal cancer and that estrogen may influence risk through an inflammation-related mechanism.

  14. Urinary proteomic analysis of chronic allograft nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    O’Riordan, Edmond; Orlova, Tatyana N.; Mendelev, Natalia; Patschan, Daniel; Kemp, Rowena; Chander, Praveen N.; Hu, Rena; Hao, Gang; Gross, Steven S.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Delaney, Veronica; Goligorsky, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of progressive renal allograft injury, which is termed chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), remains obscure and is currently defined by histology. Prospective protocolbiopsy trials have demonstrated that clinical and standard laboratory tests are insufficiently sensitive indicators of the development and progression of CAN. The study aim was to determine if CAN could be characterized by urinary proteomic data and identify the proteins associated with disease. The urinary proteome of 75 renal transplant recipients and 20 healthy volunteers was analyzed using surface enhanced laser desorption and ionization MS. Patients could be classified into subgroups with normal histology and Banff CAN grades 2-3 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 92% by applying the classification algorithm Adaboost to urinary proteomic data. Several urinary proteins associated with advanced CAN were identified including α1-micro-globulin, β2-micro-globulin, prealbumin, and endorepellin, the antiangiogenic C-terminal fragment of perlecan. Increased urinary endorepellin was confirmed by ELISA and increased tissue expression of the endorepellin/perlecan ratio by immunofluoresence analysis of renal biopsies. In conclusion, analysis of urinary proteomic data has further characterized the more severe CAN grades and identified urinary endorepellin, as a potential biomarker of advanced CAN. PMID:21136903

  15. Post-stroke urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Z; Birns, J; Bhalla, A

    2013-11-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the current evidence on post-stroke urinary incontinence. An electronic database search was performed to identify relevant studies and review articles related to Urinary Incontinence (UI) in the stroke population between the years 1966 and 2012. Urinary incontinence following stroke is a common problem affecting more than one-third of acute stroke patients and persisting in up to a quarter at 1 year. It is well established that this condition is a strong marker of stroke severity and is associated with poorer functional outcomes and increased institutionalisation and mortality rates compared with those who remain continent. Despite evidence linking better outcomes to those patients who regain continence, the results of national audits have demonstrated that the management of UI following stroke is suboptimal, with less than two-thirds of stroke units having a documented plan to promote continence. Current evidence supports a thorough assessment to categorise the type and severity of post-stroke urinary incontinence. An individually tailored, structured management strategy to promote continence should be employed. This has been associated with better stroke outcomes and should be the aim of all stroke health professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate

    PubMed Central

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route. PMID:27123404

  17. Primary Transanal Management of Rectal Atresia in a Neonate.

    PubMed

    M, Braiek; A, Ksia; I, Krichen; S, Belhassen; K, Maazoun; S, Ben Youssef; N, Kechiche; M, Mekki; A, Nouri

    2016-01-01

    Rectal atresia (RA) with a normal anus is a rare anomaly. We describe a case of rectal atresia in a newborn male presenting with an abdominal distension and failure of passing meconium. The rectal atresia was primarily operated by transanal route.

  18. Massive zosteriform cutaneous metastasis from rectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Damin, D C; Lazzaron, A R; Tarta, C; Cartel, A; Rosito, M A

    2003-07-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with a large and rapidly growing skin lesion approximately six months after resection of a rectal carcinoma. The lesion measured 40 cm in size, extended from the suprapubic area to the proximal half of the left groin, and showed a particular zosteriform aspect. Biopsy confirmed a metastatic skin adenocarcinoma. Cutaneous metastases from rectal cancer are very uncommon. Their gross appearance is not distinctive, although the skin tumors are usually solid, small (less than 5 cm) and painless nodules or papules. Early biopsies for suspicious skin lesions are needed in patients with a history of colorectal cancer.

  19. Transanal Approach to Rectal Polyps and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Vinay; Mishra, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    A transanal approach to rectal polyp and cancer excision is often an appropriate alternative to conventional rectal resection, and has a lower associated morbidity. There has been a steady evolution in the techniques of transanal surgery over the past 30 years. It started with traditional transanal excision and was revolutionized by introduction of transanal endoscopic microsurgery in early 1980s. Introduction of transanal minimally invasive surgery made it more accessible to surgeons around the world. Now robotic platforms are being tried in certain institutions. Concerns have been raised about recurrence rates of cancers with transanal approach and success of subsequent salvage operations. PMID:26929754

  20. [Adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Qvortrup, Camilla; Mortensen, John Pløen; Pfeiffer, Per

    2013-09-09

    A new Cochrane meta-analysis evaluated adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil (5FU)-based, not modern combination chemotherapy) in almost 10,000 patients with rectal cancer and showed a 17% reduction in mortality corresponding well to the efficacy observed in recent studies, which reported a reduction in mortality just about 20%. The authors recommend adjuvant chemotherapy which is in accordance with the Danish national guidelines where 5-FU-based chemotherapy is recommended for stage III and high-risk stage II rectal cancer.

  1. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Huang, Xianghua; Cheng, Shuiqin; Zhao, Liang; Ren, Guisheng; Chen, Wencui; Wang, Qingwen; Zeng, Caihong; Liu, Zhihong

    2017-01-01

    Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens. Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group. Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in almost all

  2. Diagnostic value of rectal temperature of African cattle of variable coat colour infected with trypanosomes and tick-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Magona, J W; Walubengo, J; Olaho-Mukani, W; Jonsson, N N; Eisler, M C

    2009-03-23

    Diagnosis of major endemic bovine parasitic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa such as trypanosomosis, theileriosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis and cowdriosis is increasingly relying on clinical diagnosis due to deterioration of veterinary services and laboratory facilities. Pyrexia is a common clinical feature of aforementioned diseases whose detection relies on measurement of rectal temperature. The research undertaken in this study was aimed at assessing the effects of diurnal changes and variable coat colour of indigenous Nkedi Zebu cattle on the diagnostic value of rectal temperature under tropical conditions. The results revealed that variation in rectal temperature was significantly influenced by time of day it was taken and by the coat colour of the Nkedi Zebu cattle (P<0.001). Rectal temperature experienced diurnal changes: steadily rising to reach a peak at 17.00h before declining. The mean rectal temperature of unhealthy cattle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the healthy ones only between 13.00 and 17.00h of the day. During which period the proportion of unhealthy cattle having a rectal temperature of 39.4 degrees C or higher was significantly higher than that of healthy ones (P<0.001). Regarding the variable coat colour of indigenous breeds, rectal temperature among cattle of different coat colours was significantly different (P<0.05). In conclusion it is important to consider diurnal changes in rectal temperature and differences due to variable coat colour of indigenous African breeds when measuring rectal temperature for assessing pyrexia, during clinical diagnosis of bovine trypanosomosis and tick-borne diseases that are endemic in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Transanal Endoscopic Operation for Benign Rectal Lesions and T1 Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihara, Emi; Dedrye, Lieven; Vindevoghel, Koen; Nuytens, Frederiek; Pottel, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Transanal endoscopic operation (TEO) is a minimally invasive technique used for local excision of benign and selected malignant rectal lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, safety, and oncological outcomes of the procedure and to report the experience in 3 centers. Methods: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database was performed of all patients with benign lesions or ≤cT1N0 rectal cancer who underwent TEO with curative intent at 3 Belgian centers (2012 through 2014). Results: Eighty-three patients underwent 84 TEOs for 89 rectal lesions (37 adenomas, 43 adenocarcinomas, 1 gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 1 lipoma, 2 neuroendocrine tumors, and 5 scar tissues). Operative time was associated with lesion size (P < .001). Postoperative complications occurred in 13 patients: 7 hemorrhages, 1 urinary tract infection, 1 urinary retention, 2 abscesses, 1 anastomotic stenosis, and 1 entrance into the peritoneal cavity. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1–8). During a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 2–27), there was 1 recurrence. Conclusion: Although longer follow-up is still necessary, TEO appears to be an effective method of excising benign tumors and low-risk T1 carcinomas of the rectum. However, TEO should be considered as part of the diagnostic work-up. Furthermore, the resected specimen of a TEO procedure allows adequate local staging in contrast to an endoscopic piecemeal excision. Nevertheless, definitive histology must be appreciated, and in case of unfavorable histology, radical salvage resection still has to be performed. PMID:28144126

  4. Transrectal impalement of an incense stick in a child presenting as foreign body in the urinary bladder

    PubMed Central

    Singha Mahapatra, Rajkumar; Priyadarshi, Vinod; Sarma Madduri, Vijay kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of objects that can be found in the urinary bladder often surpasses the urologist's imagination and mostly they are introduced per urethrally. Impalement injuries of the rectum with bladder perforation have been rarely reported. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis of bladder perforation while assessing patients presenting with rectal impalement. In this interesting case, a young male child presented with haematuria and dysuria. He had a history of accidentally sitting on an agarbatti (Indian incense stick) stand while playing, followed by perianal pain which subsided spontaneously. Next day he presented with haematuria and dysuria. Clinical examination was inconclusive. On thorough investigation, a linear echogenic foreign body was found in the urinary bladder. The child was operated and the foreign body (incense stick) was removed. This is the first reported case of rectal impalement injury with incense stick, migrated to the urinary bladder in a 2-year-old child. PMID:24925539

  5. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Urinary infection is the most common bacterial infection in elderly populations. The high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in both men and women is benign and should not be treated. A diagnosis of symptomatic infection for elderly residents of long-term care facilities without catheters requires localizing genitourinary findings. Symptomatic urinary infection is overdiagnosed in elderly bacteriuric persons with nonlocalizing clinical presentations, with substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use. Residents with chronic indwelling catheters experience increased morbidity from urinary tract infection. Antimicrobial therapy is selected based on clinical presentation, patient tolerance, and urine culture results.

  7. A comparison of tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates.

    PubMed

    Duru, Chika O; Akinbami, Felix O; Orimadegun, Adebola E

    2012-06-25

    Tympanic thermometry has come as a suitable alternative to traditional thermometry because of its safety and ease of use. However, it is still yet to gain wide acceptance in African settings due to conflicting results on its accuracy, thus rectal thermometry remains the gold standard in the newborn. The aim of this study was to compare tympanic and rectal temperatures in term Nigerian neonates. Rectal and tympanic temperatures were measured simultaneously in 300 consecutive term neonates between the ages of 37 and 42 weeks gestation using mercury-in-glass and the Infrared tympanic thermometers respectively. Paired t test, Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot were used to compute data. Using rectal thermometry as gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of tympanic thermometry at various rectal temperature cut-offs were determined. Receiver Operating Curves (ROC) were constructed and the Areas Under the Curves (AUC) were compared. The mean rectal temperature (37.34±0.55°C) was significantly higher than the mean tympanic temperature (37.25 ± 0.56°C) (p<0.001) with a mean difference of 0.09 °C±0.24 °C (95% CI: 0.06, 0.12). There was a strong positive correlation between the two measurements (r=0.9; p<0.001). Tympanic thermometry showed sensitivities ranging from 65% to 86% and specificities of 95% to 99% at rectal temperature cut-offs of 37.5°C to 38°C. The positive and negative predictive values of the tympanic temperatures at the various temperature cut-offs ranged from 82% to 93% and 80% to 98% respectively. Accuracy was noted to increase with higher temperatures as shown by the Receiver Operating Curves with the highest accuracy at the temperature cut-off of 38°C and AUC of 0.91. The sensitivity of tympanic thermometry was relatively low in detecting rectal temperatures despite the good correlation and agreement between them. The specificities and predictive values of tympanic temperatures in

  8. Urinary Calculi and Risk of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Chia-Jen; Chen, Yung-Tai; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that urinary calculi are associated with increased risks of urinary tract cancers. However, the association between urinary calculi and overall cancers is a largely undefined body of knowledge. We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 and 2009. Patients were excluded if they had antecedent cancers or urinary calculi before the enrollment. All study subjects were followed until the occurrence of cancer, dropout from the NHI program, death, or the end of 2010. Patterns of cancer incidence in patients with urinary calculi were compared with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratio (SIR). A total of 43,516 patients with urinary calculi were included. After a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 1891 patients developed cancer. The risk of overall cancers was significantly increased (SIR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–1.83). We observed that urinary calculi was associated with higher risk of cancers of kidney (4.24; 95% CI, 3.47–5.13), bladder (3.30; 95% CI, 2.69–4.00), thyroid (2.50; 95% CI, 1.78–3.40), hematologic origin (2.41; 95% CI, 1.92–2.99), breast (1.84; 95% CI, 1.54–2.20), lung (1.82; 95% CI, 1.59–2.07), digestive tract (1.69; 95% CI, 1.57–1.82), and head and neck (1.54; 95% CI, 1.32–1.79), respectively. Our study shows that urinary calculi are associated with higher risk of systemic cancers in addition to urinary tract cancers. Further study is required to validate this association. PMID:25546684

  9. Change in intraoperative rectal temperature influencing erectile dysfunction following transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chih-Kuang; Liao, Chun-Hou; Wan, Kong-Sang; Lee, Wen-Kai; Jeng, Huey-Sheng; Shia, Ben-Chang; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Ko, Ming-Chung

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we assessed the relationship between changes in intraoperative rectal temperature and erectile function in patients who have undergone transurethral resection of the prostate. Eighty-six potential patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia-induced lower urinary tract symptoms were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1-small prostates (<40 ml) and group 2-large prostates (≥ 40 ml), as determined by transrectal ultrasound measurement. The intraoperative rectal temperature was evaluated using a transrectal thermosensor and the differences between the highest intra- and preoperative temperatures were recorded. The erectile function at baseline, at three months and at one-year postoperatively was assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire. Intraoperative rectal temperature differences were 0.54 ± 0.24°C for group 1 (n=45) and 0.44 ± 0.20°C for group 2 (n=41), (p=0.04). The IIEF-5 scores for group1 and group 2 were, respectively, 20.9 ± 1.6 and 20.6 ± 1.6 at baseline (p=0.32), 17.3 ± 2.9 and 18.7 ± 3.2 (p=0.037) at 3 months, 17.9 ± 2.7 and 18.7 ± 3.0 (p=0.17) at 1 year postoperatively. The deterioration of erectile function at 3 months post-operatively was observed for both groups. The percentage of retrograde ejaculation between two groups was not significantly different (p=0.33) at 1 year postoperatively. Our study revealed that a higher intraoperative rectal temperature difference caused by transurethral resection of the prostate might affect the postoperative erectile function, particularly in patients with a small prostate. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Water-jet dissection in rectal cancer surgery: surgical and oncological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Touloumtzidis, Aristotelis; Kühn, Petra; Goretzki, Peter E; Lammers, Bernhard J

    2010-10-01

    These days the treatment of rectal cancer remains an encounter for various medical disciplines. A key position in the whole concept of therapy is still taken by surgery itself. To facilitate the advantages of the total mesorectal excision (TME) we used the water-jet dissector (WJD) in our surgical routine. Our object was to analyze perioperative data as well as oncological long-term results following WJD-assisted rectal resection. A total of 226 patients underwent surgery for rectal cancer in our center between October 2001 and June 2009. A retrospective review was performed of all WJD-assisted rectal resections during this time. One hundred and five patients with adenocarcinoma of the lower and middle rectum were operated on by 7 surgeons according to the concept of TME. Seventy-six patients underwent a low anterior resection, 29 patients an abdominoperineal resection. Twenty-eight patients received preoperative radiochemotherapy. The median follow-up period amounted to 35 (2-96) months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Anastomotic leakage occurred in 5.7%, wound healing disturbance (including perineal wound infections) in 29.5%, intra-abdominal infections in 7.6% and urinary tract infections in 7.6%. Postoperative bladder dysfunction (requiring catheterization) occurred in 1.9%. Postoperative 30-day mortality was 0%, 60-day mortality 1%. The rate of local recurrence (including three patients who refused postoperative radiochemotherapy) was 8.5%. Cancer-specific survival at 5 years was 74% and differed significantly by stage. The particular advance of the WJD is the facile development of the embryological plane between the mesorectal fascia and the surrounding pelvic nerves. Without harming one of them, maximum radicality and excellent autonomic nerve preservation can be achieved. The WJD is a technique with acceptable postoperative morbidity and low mortality. Local control and survival are comparable to other surgical centers in

  11. The Female Urinary Microbiome: a Comparison of Women with and without Urgency Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Meghan M.; Hilt, Evann E.; Rosenfeld, Amy B.; Zilliox, Michael J.; Thomas-White, Krystal; Fok, Cynthia; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; Brubaker, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial DNA and live bacteria have been detected in human urine in the absence of clinical infection, challenging the prevailing dogma that urine is normally sterile. Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) is a poorly understood urinary condition characterized by symptoms that overlap urinary infection, including urinary urgency and increased frequency with urinary incontinence. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome warrants investigation into whether bacteria contribute to UUI. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to classify bacterial DNA and expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) techniques to isolate live bacteria in urine collected by using a transurethral catheter from women with UUI and, in comparison, a cohort without UUI. For these cohorts, we demonstrated that the UUI and non-UUI urinary microbiomes differ by group based on both sequence and culture evidences. Compared to the non-UUI microbiome, sequencing experiments revealed that the UUI microbiome was composed of increased Gardnerella and decreased Lactobacillus. Nine genera (Actinobaculum, Actinomyces, Aerococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Oligella, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus) were more frequently cultured from the UUI cohort. Although Lactobacillus was isolated from both cohorts, distinctions existed at the species level, with Lactobacillus gasseri detected more frequently in the UUI cohort and Lactobacillus crispatus most frequently detected in controls. Combined, these data suggest that potentially important differences exist in the urinary microbiomes of women with and without UUI, which have strong implications in prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of UUI. PMID:25006228

  12. Vasopressin increases expression of UT-A1, UT-A3, and ER chaperone GRP78 in the renal medulla of mice with a urinary concentrating defect.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qi; Nelson, Sarah K; McReynolds, Matthew R; Diamond-Stanic, Maggie Keck; Elliott, David; Brooks, Heddwen L

    2010-10-01

    Activation of V2 receptors (V2R) during antidiuresis increases the permeability of the inner medullary collecting duct to urea and water. Extracellular osmolality is elevated as the concentrating capacity of the kidney increases. Osmolality is known to contribute to the regulation of collecting duct water (aquaporin-2; AQP2) and urea transporter (UT-A1, UT-A3) regulation. AQP1KO mice are a concentrating mechanism knockout, a defect attributed to the loss of high interstitial osmolality. A V2R-specific agonist, deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP), was infused into wild-type and AQP1KO mice for 7 days. UT-A1 mRNA and protein abundance were significantly increased in the medullas of wild-type and AQP1KO mice following dDAVP infusion. The mRNA and protein abundance of UT-A3, the basolateral urea transporter, was significantly increased by dDAVP in both wild-type and AQP1KO mice. Semiquantitative immunoblots revealed that dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase in the medullary expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone GRP78. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that GRP78 expression colocalized with AQP2 in principal cells of the papillary tip of the renal medulla. Using immunohistochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that vasopressin induced a marked apical targeting of GRP78 in medullary principal cells. Urea-sensitive genes, GADD153 and ATF4 (components of the ER stress pathway), were significantly increased in AQP1KO mice by dDAVP infusion. These findings strongly support an important role of vasopressin in the activation of an ER stress response in renal collecting duct cells, in addition to its role in activating an increase in UT-A1 and UT-A3 abundance.

  13. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  14. Rectal Cancer in Asian vs. Western Countries: Why the Variation in Incidence?

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanhong

    2017-09-25

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. CRC has been thought to be less common in Asia compared to Western countries. However, the incidence rates of CRC in Asia are high and there is an increasing trend in the Asian population. Furthermore, colorectal cancer accounts for the greatest number of all incidences of CRC in Asia. The increasing adoption of a Western lifestyle, particularly in dietary habits, is likely the most important factor contributing to the rapid increase in colon cancer incidence; it is noteworthy that trends for rectal cancer were flat. The etiology of colon and rectal cancer is a bit different. The risks of distal colon and rectal cancers are more likely to be related to environmental factors, such as polluted surface water sources, alcohol consumption, and habitual smoking. The lack of great change in the incidence of rectal cancer might be due to weaker associations with such lifestyle factors. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that proximal and distal sections of the colon and rectum are two different organs in terms of function and genetic background. It may mean differences in differential sensitivities and exposures to carcinogens. However, despite the decrease in whole incidence, the CRC incidence in young adults in Western countries are reversely increasing, especially in rectal cancer, due to reasons largely unknown. Although the treatment algorithm is different between Asia and western countries, globally, the survival rate for patients with rectal cancer has risen during the past 10 years. Screening contributes a great deal to reducing the incidence and improving survival. Most countries in Asia, such as China, need nationwide registration and screening systems to provide better data.

  15. Tissue-Associated Bacterial Alterations in Rectal Carcinoma Patients Revealed by 16S rRNA Community Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew M.; Jesus, Eliane C.; Lopes, Ademar; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D.; Rocha, Rafael M.; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Camargo, Anamaria A.; Hoffmann, Christian; Freitas, Helano C.; Silva, Israel T.; Nunes, Diana N.; Setubal, João C.; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group) or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group). High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4–V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria) whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio, and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified by digital

  16. Tissue-Associated Bacterial Alterations in Rectal Carcinoma Patients Revealed by 16S rRNA Community Profiling.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew M; Jesus, Eliane C; Lopes, Ademar; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D; Rocha, Rafael M; Carpinetti, Paola Avelar; Camargo, Anamaria A; Hoffmann, Christian; Freitas, Helano C; Silva, Israel T; Nunes, Diana N; Setubal, João C; Dias-Neto, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic and inflammatory forms of colorectal cancer (CRC) account for more than 80% of cases. Recent publications have shown mechanistic evidence for the involvement of gut bacteria in the development of both CRC-forms. Whereas, colon and rectal cancer have been routinely studied together as CRC, increasing evidence show these to be distinct diseases. Also, the common use of fecal samples to study microbial communities may reflect disease state but possibly not the tumor microenvironment. We performed this study to evaluate differences in bacterial communities found in tissue samples of 18 rectal-cancer subjects when compared to 18 non-cancer controls. Samples were collected during exploratory colonoscopy (non-cancer group) or during surgery for tumor excision (rectal-cancer group). High throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V4-V5 region was conducted on the Ion PGM platform, reads were filtered using Qiime and clustered using UPARSE. We observed significant increases in species richness and diversity in rectal cancer samples, evidenced by the total number of OTUs and the Shannon and Simpson indexes. Enterotyping analysis divided our cohort into two groups, with the majority of rectal cancer samples clustering into one enterotype, characterized by a greater abundance of Bacteroides and Dorea. At the phylum level, rectal-cancer samples had increased abundance of candidate phylum OD1 (also known as Parcubacteria) whilst non-cancer samples had increased abundance of Planctomycetes. At the genera level, rectal-cancer samples had higher abundances of Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides, Desulfovibrio, and Odoribacter whereas non-cancer samples had higher abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, and Bacillus. Two Bacteroides fragilis OTUs were more abundant among rectal-cancer patients seen through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, whose presence was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and enrichment verified by digital

  17. Technical feasibility of laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Takashi

    2016-01-14

    Relatively little is known about the oncologic safety of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. Recently, large randomized clinical trials showed that laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery, as evidenced by survival and local control rates. However, patients with T4 tumors were excluded from these trials. Technological advances in the instrumentation and techniques used by laparoscopic surgery have increased the use of laparoscopic surgery for advanced rectal cancer. High-definition, illuminated, and magnified images obtained by laparoscopy may enable more precise laparoscopic surgery than open techniques, even during extended surgery for T4 or locally recurrent rectal cancer. To date, the quality of evidence regarding the usefulness of laparoscopy for extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision has been low because most studies have been uncontrolled series, with small sample sizes, and long-term data are lacking. Nevertheless, laparoscopic extended surgery for rectal cancer, when performed by specialized laparoscopic colorectal surgeons, has been reported safe in selected patients, with significant advantages, including a clear visual field and less blood loss. This review summarizes current knowledge on laparoscopic extended surgery beyond total mesorectal excision for primary or locally recurrent rectal cancer.

  18. Prognostic value of rectal temperature at hospital admission in client-owned rabbits.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Toth, Giulia; Selleri, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether rectal temperature at hospital admission, independently or in conjunction with other parameters, was associated with all-cause mortality in client-owned rabbits. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. ANIMALS 316 client-owned rabbits consecutively hospitalized in an exotics-only animal hospital. PROCEDURES Rectal temperature of each hospitalized rabbit was measured at admission. Individual variables, including survival up to 1 week after hospital discharge, were recorded. Univariate, multivariate, and sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS Rabbits with hypothermia at admission had a risk of death before or within 1 week after hospital discharge 3 times that of rabbits without hypothermia (relative risk, 3.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.17 to 4.39). For each 1°C (1.8°F) decrease in admission rectal temperature, the odds of death were doubled (OR, 2.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.69 to 2.64). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the finding. Older age, suspected presence of a systemic disease, and presence of gastrointestinal stasis were also significantly associated with an increased risk of death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Rectal temperature was easily measured in rabbits and was a major predictor of death in the present patient cohort. Because of its association with death in both healthy and diseased rabbits in this study, rectal temperature should always be measured during physical examination of rabbits. Treatment of hypothermia in client-owned rabbits requires further research.

  19. Prickly pear fruit bezoar presenting as rectal perforation in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jordan M; Eitan, Arieh

    2003-07-01

    Prickly pear fruit rectal seed bezoars are an extremely rare entity. Only nine cases of rectal seed bezoar have been reported, only one of which involved the prickly pear fruit seed. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is also the first reported case presenting as rectal perforation. We report a case of prickly pear fruit bezoar occurring in the elderly whom presented with rectal perforation. Consistent with physical signs, laboratory results, and radiological findings the patient was diagnosed with acute perforation of the rectum. A Hartman procedure was performed, and a colostomy was placed. Currently there are very few data regarding seed bezoars reaching the rectum. There are even fewer data concerning this occurrence in the elderly, and the literature contains no report of this phenomenon presenting or even progressing into perforation. We report this rare entity to the existing literature. We report a rare but important case. A prickly pear fruit phytobezoar presenting as rectal perforation. This case may add to the increasing awareness of the danger associated with ingestion of certain foodstuffs. The previously benign sunflower and psyllium seeds are now known to cause bezoar. We feel that the prickly pear fruit should join this small but important list.

  20. Livin expression is an independent factor in rectal cancer patients with or without preoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Olsson, Birgit; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2013-12-02

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression significance of Livin in relation to radiotherapy (RT), clinicopathological and biological factors of rectal cancer patients. This study included 144 primary rectal cancer patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Tissue microarray samples from the excised primary rectal cancers, normal mucosa and lymph node metastases were immunostained with Livin antibody. The proliferation of colon cancer cell lines SW620 and RKO was assayed after Livin knock-down. The expression of Livin was significantly increased from adjacent (P = 0.051) or distant (P = 0.028) normal mucosa to primary tumors. 15.4% (2/13) and 39.7% (52/131) patients with Livin-negative and positive tumors died at 180 months after surgery, and the difference tended to be statistically significant (P = 0.091). In multivariate analyses, the difference achieved statistical significance, independent of TNM stage, local and distant recurrence, grade of differentiation, gender, and age (odds ratio = 5.09, 95% CI: 1.01-25.64, P = 0.048). The in vitro study indicated colon cancer cells with Livin knock-down exhibited decreased proliferation compared with controls after RT. The expression of Livin was was independently related to survival in rectal cancer patients, suggesting Livin as a useful prognostic factor for rectal cancer patients.

  1. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  2. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  3. Male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. 1: Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dorey, G

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms include frequency, nocturia, urgency, urge incontinence, stress incontinence, post-micturition dribble and post-prostatectomy incontinence. All of these symptoms can be treated conservatively. In this article, the first of two parts, a detailed subjective and objective assessment is provided based on a Delphi study undertaken by the author. The objective assessment includes a digital rectal examination to assess the pelvic floor muscle strength in order to provide a patient-specific exercise programme. The diagnosis of stress incontinence, urge incontinence, post-prostatectomy incontinence, post-micturition dribble and functional incontinence is made from the assessment. Men with lower urinary tract symptoms need a detailed subjective and objective assessment before a diagnosis is made and individual treatment is planned.

  4. Study between axillary and rectal temperature measurements in children.

    PubMed

    Haddadin, R B; Shamo'on, H I

    2007-01-01

    We compared axillary and rectal temperatures in 216 patients to assess the reliability of axillary temperature for determining fever in children under 14 years of age. Beyond the neonatal period, the mean rectal temperature was significantly higher than the axillary temperature. The sensitivity of axillary temperature in detecting fever was 87.5% among neonates but only 46% among older children. Axillary temperature correlated well with rectal temperature in neonates but not older children. There was no direct mathematical relationship between axillary and rectal temperature. Axillary temperature should be taken in neonates as it is less hazardous; rectal temperature should be used beyond this age.

  5. A Diet High in Meat Protein and Potential Renal Acid Load Increases Absorption and Urinary Excretion of Calcium, As Well As Serum IGF-I in Postmenopausal Women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: The objective was to determine the effect of increasing protein and potential renal acid load (PRAL) on Ca retention and markers of bone metabolism. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, twenty postmenopausal women consumed two diets: one low protein, low PRAL (LPLP) and one high pr...

  6. Comparison of Digital Rectal Examination and Serum Prostate Specific Antigen in the Early Detection of Prostate Cancer: Results of a Multicenter Clinical Trial of 6,630 Men.

    PubMed

    Catalona, William J; Richie, Jerome P; Ahmann, Frederick R; Hudson, M'Liss A; Scardino, Peter T; Flanigan, Robert C; DeKernion, Jean B; Ratliff, Timothy L; Kavoussi, Louis R; Dalkin, Bruce L; Waters, W Bedford; MacFarlane, Michael T; Southwick, Paula C

    2017-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the early detection of prostate cancer, we conducted a prospective clinical trial at 6 university centers of 6,630 male volunteers 50 years old or older who underwent PSA determination (Hybritech Tandom-E or Tandem-R assays) and digital rectal examination. Quadrant biopsies were performed if the PSA level was greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination was suspicious, even if transrectal ultrasonography revealed no areas suspicious for cancer. The results showed that 15% of the men had a PSA level of greater than 4 μg./l., 15% had a suspicious digital rectal examination and 26% had suspicious findings on either or both tests. Of 1,167 biopsies performed cancer was detected in 264. PSA detected significantly more tumors (82%, 216 of 264 cancers) than digital rectal examination (55%, 146 of 264, p = 0.001). The cancer detection rate was 3.2% for digital rectal examination, 4.6% for PSA and 5.8% for the 2 methods combined. Positive predictive value was 32% for PSA and 21% for digital rectal examination. Of 160 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and pathological staging 114 (71%) had organ confined cancer: PSA detected 85 (75%) and digital rectal examination detected 64 (56%, p = 0.003). Use of the 2 methods in combination increased detection of organ confined disease by 78% (50 of 64 cases) over digital rectal examination alone. If the performance of a biopsy would have required suspicious transrectal ultrasonography findings, nearly 40% of the tumors would have been missed. We conclude that the use of PSA in conjunction with digital rectal examination enhances early prostate cancer detection. Prostatic biopsy should be considered if either the PSA level is greater than 4 μg./l. or digital rectal examination is suspicious for cancer, even in the absence of abnormal transrectal ultrasonography findings.

  7. Defining the distal margin of rectal cancer for surgical planning

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takashi; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the distal rectal tumor margin is essential in selecting the appropriate surgical procedure. However, there is no standard measurement method. The National Cancer Institute consensus group recommends use of the anal verge (AV) as a landmark, and the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology recommends use of the anorectal ring (ARR). In addition, whether measurements should be made on double contrast barium enema (BE) radiographs or magnetic resonance (MR) images remains controversial. We measured the distal tumor margin on both BE and MR images obtained preoperatively from 52 patients who underwent sphincter-saving resection for rectal cancer. The distances from the distal end of the tumor to the AV and the ARR were measured on both types of images, and the variability was investigated by Bland-Altman analysis. The mean distance from the tumor to the AV was 8.9 cm on the BE radiographs and 7.7 cm on the MR images (P=0.013). The mean distances to the ARR were 6.8 and 5.6 cm, respectively (P=0.070). Significant proportional bias was shown as the measured distances increased, the difference between the BE- and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements increased. Use of one or the other landmark did not affect selection of the appropriate surgical procedure. We conclude that an approximate 1-cm underestimation should be taken into account when MRI-based measurement of the distal rectal tumor margin is used to choose between sphincter-saving resection and abdominoperineal resection. PMID:28280625

  8. ETVARD (endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage) leads to complete but delayed closure of extraperitoneal rectal anastomotic leakage cavities following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Glitsch, Anne; Schreiber, André; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus Dieter

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to prospectively assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on the formation of major anastomotic rectal leaks and treatment by endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD). Twenty six patients with malignancies with rectal anastomotic leaks were prospectively treated, including 14 of 26 patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. ETVARD was the first-line treatment. In 23 of 26 patients, ETVARD was successfully completed. In patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy sizes of leakage cavities, duration of ETVARD, number of sponge exchanges, and endoscopies as well as time to closure of cavities were significantly increased (0.009 < p < 0.035) compared to patients after primary surgery. Increased age showed similar correlations, whereas the level of anastomoses did not influence these parameters. Patients without (ile)ostomies could also be treated by ETVARD. Follow-up endoscopies have not shown any major changes. Radiochemotherapy has a significant impact on development and treatment of major anastomotic rectal leaks. Most patients can be successfully treated by ETVARD, avoiding additional resective surgery or permanent (col)ostomies.

  9. Rectal bezoars due to pumpkin seeds.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Mohammad Salman; Al-Wahibi, Khalifa; Baloch, Shafiq; Al-Qadhi, Hani

    2009-01-01

    Rectal bezoars commonly occur due to seeds, especially in children living in countries south of the Mediterranean and in the Middle-East. Dried seeds are considered a delicacy and consumed widely. Inadequate chewing or hastily eating without removing the hull may lead to their impaction as bezoars, which may require manual removal under general anaesthesia.

  10. [Rectal cancer: diagnosis, screening and treatment].

    PubMed

    Decanini-Terán, César Oscar; González-Acosta, Jorge; Obregón-Méndez, Jorge; Vega-de Jesús, Martín

    2011-01-01

    Rectal cancer is one of the primary malignant neoplasms occurring in Mexican patients of reproductive age. Unfortunately, randomized studies in rectal cancer do not exist as they do with well-recognized colon cancer. We must individualize the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic approach, staging and treatment because management is different in rectal cancers affecting the mid- and lower third of the rectum than in the upper third and in colon cancers. Histological staging is the primary prognostic factor. TNM staging (tumor, node, and metastasis) is used internationally by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC). Staging is done with the assistance of endorectal ultrasound, which is best used in early-stage cancer; however, there are certain disadvantages in detecting node involvement. Magnetic resonance, on the other hand, allows for the evaluation of stenotic tumors and node involvement. Once the correct diagnosis and staging have been made, the next step is correct treatment. Neoadjuvant treatment has demonstrated to be better than adjuvant treatment. Abdominoperineal resection is rarely practiced currently, with sphincter preservation being the preferred procedure. Laparoscopic approach has conferred the advantages of the approach itself when performed by experts in the procedure but there is insufficient evidence to make it the "gold standard." Rectal cancer is a complex pathology that must be considered totally different from colon cancer for diagnosis and treatment. The patient must be staged completely and appropriately for individualizing correct treatment. More long-term studies are needed for optimizing treatment modalities.

  11. [Electronic rectal temperature measurement. A clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Ottesen, S; Nielsen, F T; Lund, H

    1993-05-24

    Rectal measurement of body temperature with an electronic device (Ivac) was compared to measurement with mercury thermometers in 157 adult patients on a medical ward. The electronic thermometers were less accurate, giving 3.6 times as many febrile patients. This was reduced to 1.6 after thermometer calibration. It is necessary to make regular calibrations of Ivac thermometers.

  12. Comparison of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens in Treating Patients With Stage II or Stage III Rectal Cancer Who Are Receiving Radiation Therapy and Fluorouracil Before or After Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  13. [Current MRI staging of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Wietek, B M; Kratt, T

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the second most prevalent cause for cancer, and has very variable outcomes. Advancements in surgery, the change from adjuvant to neo-adjuvant radio-chemo-therapies as well as in clinical diagnostics have improved the prognosis for patients in a multi-modal therapy concept. An accurate primary staging including a reliable prediction of the circumferential resection margin (CRM) has established MR Imaging (MRI) beside intraluminal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). MRI facilitates the selection of patients likely to benefit from a preoperative therapy, especially in cases of unfavorable factors. Currently the relationship of the tumor to the mesorectal fascia has become a more important prognostic factor than the T-staging, particularly for surgical therapy. In addition further prognostic factors like the depth of infiltration into the perirectal fat and the extramural venous infiltration (EMVI) have important impact on therapy and prognosis. High resolution MRI has proved useful in clarifying the relationship between the tumor and the mesorectal fascia, which represents the CRM at the total mesorectal excision (TME) especially in the upper and middle third. Preoperative evaluation of the other prognostic factors as well as the nodal status is still difficult. It is used increasingly not only for primary staging but also progressively for the monitoring of neoadjuvant therapy. The addition of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is an interesting option for the improvement of response evaluation. The following overview provides an introduction of MRI diagnosis as well as its importance for the evaluation of the clinically relevant prognostic factors leading to an improvement of therapy and prognosis of patients with rectal carcinoma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Electrophysiological characterization of human rectal afferents

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Kheng-Seong; Brookes, Simon J.; Montes-Adrian, Noemi A.; Mahns, David A.

    2016-01-01

    It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected. Extracellular visceral afferent nerve activity was recorded. Neuronal responses to chemical [capsaicin and “inflammatory soup” (IS)] and mechanical (Von Frey probing) stimuli were recorded and quantified as peak firing rate (range) in 1-s intervals. Twenty-eight separate nerve trunks from eight rectums were studied. Of these, spontaneous multiunit afferent activity was recorded in 24 nerves. Peak firing rates increased significantly following capsaicin [median 6 (range 3–25) spikes/s vs. 2 (1–4), P < 0.001] and IS [median 5 (range 2–18) spikes/s vs. 2 (1–4), P < 0.001]. Mechanosensitive “hot spots” were identified in 16 nerves [median threshold 2.0 g (range 1.4–6.0 g)]. In eight of these, the threshold decreased after IS [1.0 g (0.4–1.4 g)]. By comparison, spontaneous activity was recorded in only 3/30 nerves studied from 10 colons, and only one hot spot (threshold 60 g) was identified. This study confirms the anatomical/functional existence of extrinsic rectal afferent nerves and characterizes their chemo- and mechanosensitivity for the first time in humans. They have different electrophysiological properties to colonic afferents and warrant further investigation in disease states. PMID:27789454

  15. Electrophysiological characterization of human rectal afferents.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kheng-Seong; Brookes, Simon J; Montes-Adrian, Noemi A; Mahns, David A; Gladman, Marc A

    2016-12-01

    It is presumed that extrinsic afferent nerves link the rectum to the central nervous system. However, the anatomical/functional existence of such nerves has never previously been demonstrated in humans. Therefore, we aimed to identify and make electrophysiological recordings in vitro from extrinsic afferents, comparing human rectum to colon. Sections of normal rectum and colon were procured from anterior resection and right hemicolectomy specimens, respectively. Sections were pinned and extrinsic nerves dissected. Extracellular visceral afferent nerve activity was recorded. Neuronal responses to chemical [capsaicin and "inflammatory soup" (IS)] and mechanical (Von Frey probing) stimuli were recorded and quantified as peak firing rate (range) in 1-s intervals. Twenty-eight separate nerve trunks from eight rectums were studied. Of these, spontaneous multiunit afferent activity was recorded in 24 nerves. Peak firing rates increased significantly following capsaicin [median 6 (range 3-25) spikes/s vs. 2 (1-4), P < 0.001] and IS [median 5 (range 2-18) spikes/s vs. 2 (1-4), P < 0.001]. Mechanosensitive "hot spots" were identified in 16 nerves [median threshold 2.0 g (range 1.4-6.0 g)]. In eight of these, the threshold decreased after IS [1.0 g (0.4-1.4 g)]. By comparison, spontaneous activity was recorded in only 3/30 nerves studied from 10 colons, and only one hot spot (threshold 60 g) was identified. This study confirms the anatomical/functional existence of extrinsic rectal afferent nerves and characterizes their chemo- and mechanosensitivity for the first time in humans. They have different electrophysiological properties to colonic afferents and warrant further investigation in disease states. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Prevention and management of anastomotic bleeding after laparoscopic anterior resection of rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijie; Lin, Guole

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the laparoscopic anterior rectal cancer resection is increasingly applied in clinical practice, however, laparoscopic operations and stapling techniques can bring a series of related complications. The anastomotic bleeding is one of the early complications in laparoscopic anterior rectal cancer resections. If the continuous anastomotic bleeding is not diagnosed or managed in time, it could lead to serious consequences, such as secondary surgery and shock. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of anastomotic bleeding is meaningful. This paper investigates the reasons of anastomotic bleeding after laparoscopic anterior resection of rectal cancer, and introduces related preventions and treatments. Conservative treatment can be used first for small or delayed bleeding. As for acute bleeding from low anastomosis, transanal suture hemostasis can be considered. When the bleeding comes from high anastomosis and is massive and active, laparoscopic or open surgery must be performed immediately.

  17. Association of Increased Urinary Albumin With Risk of Incident Clinical Fracture and Rate of Hip Bone Loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Howard A; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cauley, Jane A; Schousboe, John T; Orwoll, Eric S; Canales, Muna T; Ishani, Areef; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-05-01

    Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-2005 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports. Total hip BMD was measured by DXA at the 2003-2005 visit and again an average of 3.5 years later. We estimated risk of incident clinical fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, and annualized BMD change using ANCOVA. Of 2982 men with calculable ACR, 9.4% had ACR ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and 1.0% had ACR ≥300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). During a mean of 8.7 years of follow-up, 20.0% of men had an incident clinical fracture. In multivariate-adjusted models, neither higher ACR quintile (p for trend 0.75) nor albuminuria (HR versus no albuminuria, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.20) was associated with increased risk of incident clinical fracture. Increased urine albumin had a borderline significant, multivariate-adjusted, positive association with rate of total hip bone loss when modeled in ACR quintiles (p = 0.06), but not when modeled as albuminuria versus no albuminuria. Macroalbuminuria was associated with a higher rate of annualized hip bone loss compared to no albuminuria (-1.8% more annualized loss than in men with ACR <30 mg/g; p < 0.001), but the limited prevalence of macroalbuminuria precluded reliable estimates of its fracture associations. In these community-dwelling older men, we found no association between urine albumin levels and risk of incident clinical fracture, but found a borderline significant, positive association with rate of hip

  18. [(18)F]Fluoromisonidazole PET in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Puri, Tanuj; Greenhalgh, Tessa A; Wilson, James M; Franklin, Jamie; Wang, Lia Mun; Strauss, Victoria; Cunningham, Chris; Partridge, Mike; Maughan, Tim

    2017-09-20

    There is an increasing interest in developing predictive biomarkers of tissue hypoxia using functional imaging for personalised radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer that are considered for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The study explores [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for predicting clinical response in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CRT. Patients with biopsy-proven rectal adenocarcinoma were imaged at 0-45 min, 2 and 4 h, at baseline and after 8-10 fractions of CRT (week 2). The first 6 patients did not receive an enema (the non-enema group) and the last 4 patients received an enema before PET-CT scan (the enema group). [(18)F]FMISO production failed on 2 occasions. Static PET images at 4 h were analysed using tumour-to-muscle (T:M) SUVmax and tumour-to-blood (T:B) SUVmax. The 0-45 min dynamic PET scans were analysed using Casciari model to report hypoxia and perfusion. Akaike information criteria (AIC) were used to compare data fittings for different pharmacokinetic models. Pathological tumour regression grade was scored using American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7.0. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to evaluate the normality of the data. Five out of eleven (5/11) patients were classed as good responders (AJCC 0/1 or good clinical response) and 6/11 as poor responders (AJCC 2/3 or poor clinical response). The median T:M SUVmax was 2.14 (IQR 0.58) at baseline and 1.30 (IQR 0.19) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 1.08 (IQR 1.31) cm(3) and 0 (IQR 0.15) cm(3), respectively. The median T:B SUVmax was 2.46 (IQR 1.50) at baseline and 1.61 (IQR 0.14) at week 2, and the corresponding median tumour hypoxia volume was 5.68 (IQR 5.86) cm(3) and 0.76 (IQR 0.78) cm(3), respectively. For 0-45 min tumour modelling, the median hypoxia was 0.92 (IQR 0.41) min(-1) at baseline and 0.70 (IQR 0.10) min(-1) at week 2. The median perfusion was 4.10 (IQR 1.71) ml g(-1)

  19. Increased urinary cobalt and whole blood concentrations of cadmium and lead in women with uterine leiomyomata: Findings from the ENDO Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Erica B.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Palmer, Christopher D.; Chen, Zhen; Sun, Liping; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Dorais, Jessie; Peterson, C. Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trace elements have estrogen receptor activity, but the association of these elements with uterine leiomyoma has not been defined. A cohort of 473 women aged 18–44 undergoing surgery for benign gynecologic indications provided whole blood and urine specimens for trace element analysis, which was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The surgeon documented whether fibroids were present. Geometric mean concentrations were compared between women with and without fibroids, and logistic regression models were generated to assess the impact of the concentration of each trace element on the odds of fibroids. In multivariate regressions, odds of a fibroid diagnosis was higher with increased whole blood cadmium (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.02, 2.04) and lead (AOR 1.31 95% CI 1.02, 1.69), and urine cobalt (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02, 1.70). Increased exposure to trace elements may contribute to fibroid growth, and fibroids may serve as a reservoir for these elements. PMID:24994689

  20. Low thrombospondin 2 expression is predictive of low tumor regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yi; Lin, Ching-Yih; Chang, I-Wei; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Li, Chien-Feng; Lee, Sung-Wei; Lin, Li-Ching; Lee, Ying-En; He, Hong-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery is the mainstay of treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. Several heparin-binding associated proteins have been reported to play a critical role in cancer progression. However, the clinical relevancies of such proteins and their associations with CCRT response in rectal cancer have not yet to be fully elucidated. Methods: The analysis of a public transcriptome of rectal cancer indicated that thrombospondin 2 (THBS2) is a predictive factor for CCRT response. Immunohistochemical analyses were conducted to evaluate the expression of THBS2 in pretreatment biopsy specimens from rectal cancer patients without distant metastasis. Furthermore, the relationships between THBS2 expression and various clinicopathological factors or survival were analyzed. Results: Low expression of THBS2 was significantly associated with advanced pretreatment tumor (P<0.001) and nodal status (P=0.004), post-treatment tumor (P<0.001) and nodal status (P<0.001), increased vascular invasion (P=0.003), increased perineural invasion (P=0.023) and inferior tumor regression grade (P=0.015). In univariate analysis, low THBS2 expression predicted worse outcomes for disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival (all P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, low expression of THBS2 still served as a negative prognostic factor for disease-free survival (Hazard ratio=3.057, P=0.002) and metastasis-free survival (Hazard ratio=3.362, P=0.012). Conclusion: Low THBS2 expression was correlated with advanced disease status and low tumor regression after preoperative CCRT and that it acted as an independent negative prognostic factor in rectal cancer. THBS2 may represent a predictive biomarker for CCRT response in rectal cancer. PMID:26807188

  1. Cross-Linked Hyaluronan Gel Reduces the Acute Rectal Toxicity of Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Barme, Greg A.; Gilbert, Ronald F.; Holevas, Richard E.; Kobashi, Luis I.; Reed, Richard R.; Solomon, Ronald S.; Walter, Nancy L.; Chittenden, Lucy; Mesa, Albert V.; Agustin, Jeffrey; Lizarde, Jessica; Macedo, Jorge; Ravera, John; Tokita, Kenneth M.

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To prospectively analyze whether cross-linked hyaluronan gel reduces the mean rectal dose and acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between September 2008 and March 2009, we transperitoneally injected 9mL of cross-linked hyaluronan gel (Hylaform; Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA) into the anterior perirectal fat of 10 early-stage prostate cancer patients to increase the separation between the prostate and rectum by 8 to 18mm at the start of radiotherapy. Patients then underwent high-dose rate brachytherapy to 2,200cGy followed by intensity-modulated radiation therapy to 5,040cGy. We assessed acute rectal toxicity using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grading scheme. Results: Median follow-up was 3 months. The anteroposterior dimensions of Hylaform at the start and end of radiotherapy were 13 {+-} 3mm (mean {+-} SD) and 10 {+-} 4mm, respectively. At the start of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, daily mean rectal doses were 73 {+-} 13cGy with Hylaform vs. 106 {+-} 20cGy without Hylaform (p = 0.005). There was a 0% incidence of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 Grade 1, 2, or 3 acute diarrhea in 10 patients who received Hylaform vs. a 29.7% incidence (n = 71) in 239 historical controls who did not receive Hylaform (p = 0.04). Conclusions: By increasing the separation between the prostate and rectum, Hylaform decreased the mean rectal dose. This led to a significant reduction in the acute rectal toxicity of radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  2. [Clinical and histopathological results after the neo-adjuvant treatment of advanced rectal tumors].

    PubMed

    Varga, László; Baradnay, Gellért; Hohn, József; Simonka, Zsolt; Hideghéthy, Katalin; Maráz, Anikó; Nikolényi, Alíz; Veréb, Blanka; Tiszlavicz, László; Németh, István; Mán, Eszter; Lázár, György

    2010-06-01

    The role of the surgical intervention is decisive in treating colorectal tumors. The neo-adjuvant radio-chemotherapy has improved the efficacy of the treatment of advanced rectum tumors. In order to decrease the size and stage of advanced rectal carcinoma and to increase the rate of resecability, we introduced neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy. We carried out neo-adjuvant and surgical treatment in case of 67 patients with rectal adenocarcinoma (T 2-4 N 1-2 M 0 ) between June 1, 2005 and July 31, 2008. The average age of the patients was 61.2 years, the division according to sex was 44 males/23 females. Regarding the local stage of the rectal process or the proximity to the sphincter, we applied radio-chemotherapy (radiotherapy 25 times altogether 45 Gy and on the first and last week for 5-5 days they received 350 mg/m 2 /day 5-FU and 20 mg/m 2 /day leucovorin chemotherapy, recently complemented with 3 x 1.8 Gy advanced boost radiation aiming at the macroscopic tumor site with security zone). Patients underwent surgery 8 weeks on average after restaging examinations. Thirty-eight patients underwent anterior rectal resection with double stapler procedure; there were 18 abdominoperineal rectal extirpations, 7 Hartmann operations and 4 per annum excisions. Compared to the preoperative staging, the histological evaluation of the resected specimens showed total remission (pT 0 N 0 ) in 11% and partial remission in 43%. The morbidity necessitating reoperation was 5.9%, without mortality and suture insufficiency. The long-term neo-adjuvant oncological treatment led to down-staging of rectal tumors in most cases and increased the resecability and rate of resection operations.

  3. The management of urinary tract infections in octogenarian women.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dudley; Giarenis, Ilias; Cardozo, Linda

    2015-07-01

    Urinary Tract Infections are common in women of all ages and the incidence increases with age. Whilst they are a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in all women they may be associated with increased morbidity in the elderly. Appropriate investigation and treatment in primary and secondary care are essential to effectively manage urinary tract infection and decrease morbidity and hospitalisation rates. Loss of endogenous oestrogen at the time of the menopause is associated with the urogenital atrophy and an increased incidence of urinary tract infection. Consequently vaginal oestrogen therapy may offer a rationale for treatment and prevent of urinary tract infection. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical management of elderly women presenting with primary and recurrent urinary tract infection.

  4. Patient factors may predict anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338

  5. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia Karagiannis, Georgios Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  6. Bladder urothelial carcinoma extending to rectal mucosa and presenting with rectal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Aneese, Andrew M; Manuballa, Vinayata; Amin, Mitual; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2017-01-01

    An 87-year-old-man with prostate-cancer-stage-T1c-Gleason-6 treated with radiotherapy in 1996, recurrent prostate cancer treated with leuprolide hormonal therapy in 2009, and bladder-urothelial-carcinoma in situ treated with Bacillus-Calmette-Guerin and adriamycin in 2010, presented in 2015 with painless, bright red blood per rectum coating stools daily for 5 mo. Rectal examination revealed bright red blood per rectum; and a hard, fixed, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass at the normal prostate location. The hemoglobin was 7.6 g/dL (iron saturation = 8.4%, indicating iron-deficiency-anemia). Abdominopelvic-CT-angiography revealed focal wall thickening at the bladder neck; a mass containing an air cavity replacing the normal prostate; and adjacent rectal invasion. Colonoscopy demonstrated an ulcerated, oozing, multinodular, friable, 2.5 cm × 2.5 cm mass in anterior rectal wall, at the usual prostate location. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of colonoscopic biopsies of the mass revealed poorly-differentiated-carcinoma of urothelial origin. At visceral angiography, the right-superior-rectal-artery was embolized to achieve hemostasis. The patient subsequently developed multiple new metastases and expired 13 mo post-embolization. Comprehensive literature review revealed 16 previously reported cases of rectal involvement from bladder urothelial carcinoma, including 11 cases from direct extension and 5 cases from metastases. Patient age averaged 63.7 ± 9.6 years (all patients male). Rectal involvement was diagnosed on average 13.5 ± 11.8 mo after initial diagnosis of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Symptoms included constipation/gastrointestinal obstruction-6, weight loss-5, diarrhea-3, anorexia-3, pencil thin stools-3, tenesmus-2, anorectal pain-2, and other-5. Rectal examination in 9 patients revealed annular rectal constriction-6, and rectal mass-3. The current patient had the novel presentation of daily bright red blood per rectum coating the stools simulating

  7. Complications and outcomes following rectal pull-through surgery in dogs with rectal masses: 74 cases (2000-2013).

    PubMed

    Nucci, Daniel J; Liptak, Julius M; Selmic, Laura E; Culp, William T N; Durant, April M; Worley, Deanna; Maritato, Karl C; Thomson, Maurine; Annoni, Maurizio; Singh, Ameet; Matz, Brad; Benson, John; Buracco, Paolo

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following rectal pull-through (RPT) surgery and the outcome for dogs with rectal tumors. Retrospective case series. 74 dogs with rectal masses. Information regarding signalment, history, diagnostic testing, type of rectal disease, surgical details, and postoperative complications, treatments, and outcomes was obtained from medical records and follow-up communications. Survival times were calculated. Descriptive statistics were generated. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of various variables on the development of postsurgical complications and survival time. 58 (78.4%) dogs developed postsurgical complications, the most common of which was fecal incontinence with 42 (56.8%) dogs affected, of which 23 (54.8%) developed permanent incontinence. Other complications included diarrhea (n = 32), tenesmus (23), stricture formation (16), rectal bleeding (8), constipation (7), dehiscence (6), and infection (4). The rectal tumor recurred in 10 dogs. The median survival time was 1,150 days for all dogs and 726 days for dogs with malignant tumors. The 2 most common rectal masses were rectal carcinoma and rectal carcinoma in situ, and the dogs with these tumors had median survival times of 696 and 1,006 days, respectively. Dogs with rectal diseases that underwent RPT surgery had a high incidence of complications; however, those dogs had good local tumor control and survival times. The risk and impact of postsurgical complications on the quality of life and oncological outcomes should be discussed with owners before RPT surgery is performed in dogs with rectal masses.

  8. Novel Parameter Predicting Grade 2 Rectal Bleeding After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy Combined With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Hanada, Takashi; Ohashi, Toshio; Yorozu, Atsunori; Toya, Kazuhito; Saito, Shiro; Shigematsu, Naoyuki

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To propose a novel parameter predicting rectal bleeding on the basis of generalized equivalent uniform doses (gEUD) after {sup 125}I prostate brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy and to assess the predictive value of this parameter. Methods and Materials: To account for differences among radiation treatment modalities and fractionation schedules, rectal dose–volume histograms (DVHs) of 369 patients with localized prostate cancer undergoing combined therapy retrieved from corresponding treatment planning systems were converted to equivalent dose-based DVHs. The gEUDs for the rectum were calculated from these converted DVHs. The total gEUD (gEUD{sub sum}) was determined by a summation of the brachytherapy and external-beam radiation therapy components. Results: Thirty-eight patients (10.3%) developed grade 2+ rectal bleeding. The grade 2+ rectal bleeding rate increased as the gEUD{sub sum} increased: 2.0% (2 of 102 patients) for <70 Gy, 10.3% (15 of 145 patients) for 70-80 Gy, 15.8% (12 of 76 patients) for 80-90 Gy, and 19.6% (9 of 46 patients) for >90 Gy (P=.002). Multivariate analysis identified age (P=.024) and gEUD{sub sum} (P=.000) as risk factors for grade 2+ rectal bleeding. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate gEUD to be a potential predictive factor for grade 2+ late rectal bleeding after combined therapy for prostate cancer.

  9. Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lissauer, David; Morris, Rachel K; Kilby, Mark D

    2007-12-01

    Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction affects 2.2 per 10,000 births. It is a consequence of a range of pathological processes, most commonly posterior urethral valves (64%) or urethral atresia (39%). It is a condition of high mortality and morbidity associated with progressive renal dysfunction and oligohydramnios, and hence fetal pulmonary hypoplasia. Accurate detection is possible via ultrasound, but the underlying pathology is often unknown. In future, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be increasingly used alongside ultrasound in the diagnosis and assessment of fetuses with lower urinary tract obstruction. Fetal urine analysis may provide improvements in prenatal determination of renal prognosis, but the optimum criteria to be used remain unclear. It is now possible to decompress the obstruction in utero via percutaneous vesico-amniotic shunting or cystoscopic techniques. In appropriately selected fetuses intervention may improve perinatal survival, but long-term renal morbidity amongst survivors remains problematic.

  10. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  11. Urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    MacLean, A B

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most frequently seen 'medical' complications in pregnancy. The pioneering work of Edward Kass discovered that 6% of pregnant women had asymptomatic bacteriuria associated with increased prematurity and perinatal mortality compared to women with sterile urine. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy has become routine. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria as well as the associated complications described by Kass in 1962 are higher compared to most data collected in the 1980s and late 1990s in different populations in various parts of the world. Other factors such as vaginal colonization have been recognized as important contributors to preterm labour. The value of screening for bacteriuria has to be re-addressed considering methods, significance and costs. Treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnancy is critically reviewed.

  12. Urinary interleukin-1 alpha levels are increased by intravesical instillation with keyhole limpet hemocyanin in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Jurincic-Winkler, C D; Gallati, H; Alvarez-Mon, M; Sippel, J; Carballido, J; Klippel, K F

    1995-01-01

    Intravesical instillation of keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a possible treatment for decreasing tumor recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR) in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (stages pTa-pT1, grades 1-3). Our study confirms the theory that instillation of KLH stimulates production of cytokines, resulting in their secretion in urine. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) stimulates the immune cascade through a domino effect and is produced mainly by activated macrophages. The instillation program was started 5-7 days after TUR of primary superficial cell carcinoma. 20 mg KLH in 20 ml of 0.9% NaCl was instilled into the bladder each week for 6 consecutive weeks and then monthly for 1 year. When KLH is instilled into the bladder, IL-1 alpha is secreted in the urine. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for analysis. The ELISA for IL-1 alpha was established in our laboratory and showed a detection limit of 5 pg/ml. This IL-1 alpha ELISA deviation amounts to 3-7% within a series of measurements, and 5-15% from series to series. In the therapy group the IL-1 alpha secretion ranged from 0 to 30,905 pg/24 h and in the control group from 0 (collection period) to 2,472 pg/4 h. IL-1 alpha production increased significantly after KLH instillation in bladder cancer patients; however, the level varied considerably from patient to patient. Maximum production was achieved within a period of 4-8 h, decreasing within 24 h. There was a striking difference between the amount of IL-1 alpha produced over the 24-hour period in the control group and that of the KLH group. 8 of 14 patients (57%) who responded to KLH therapy had higher urine IL-1 alpha levels after 6 weeks of KLH treatment than those who failed to respond within 12 months, but the levels were not of statistical significance. The secretion of IL-1 alpha in urine is the biological response of the bladder to the antigen stimulus of KLH. No IL-2 was detected in the urine

  13. Neonatal isolated rectal bleeding and the risk of hypersensitivity syndromes.

    PubMed

    Reiter, O; Morag, I; Mazkereth, R; Strauss, T; Maayan-Metzger, A

    2014-01-01

    When rectal bleeding occurs in an otherwise asymptomatic child, it can be classified as isolated rectal bleeding (IRB). Among the different etiologies suggested for IRB, one of the most common is a hypersensitivity reaction of the bowel mucosa to digested antigens. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term outcomes and the risk of developing hypersensitivity syndromes among infants following an IRB event. A historical prospective comparative study was carried out. The study compared 77 infants who were born at the Sheba Medical Center in Israel during the period 2002 to 2009 and who experienced a neonatal IRB event to 77 infants with the same gestational age, but without IRB. Data were obtained from hospital records and from phone interviews with the parents regarding hypersensitivity syndrome between the ages of 3 and 10 years. The IRB group was not at an increased risk of developing a hypersensitivity syndrome or gastrointestinal symptoms compared to the control group. Longer duration of breast-feeding was found to be related to a lower incidence of hypersensitivity symptoms. An IRB event in the neonatal period does not increase the risk of developing hypersensitivity syndromes or food allergies during childhood.

  14. Reduction of prostate intrafraction motion using gas-release rectal balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Su Zhong; Zhao Tianyu; Li Zuofeng; Hoppe, Brad; Henderson, Randy; Mendenhall, William; Nichols, R. Charles; Marcus, Robert; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To analyze prostate intrafraction motion using both non-gas-release (NGR) and gas-release (GR) rectal balloons and to evaluate the ability of GR rectal balloons to reduce prostate intrafraction motion. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with NGR rectal balloons and 29 patients with GR balloons were randomly selected from prostate patients treated with proton therapy at University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute (Jacksonville, FL). Their pretreatment and post-treatment orthogonal radiographs were analyzed, and both pretreatment setup residual error and intrafraction-motion data were obtained. Population histograms of intrafraction motion were plotted for both types of balloons. Population planning target-volume (PTV) margins were calculated with the van Herk formula of 2.5{Sigma}+ 0.7{sigma} to account for setup residual errors and intrafraction motion errors. Results: Pretreatment and post-treatment radiographs indicated that the use of gas-release rectal balloons reduced prostate intrafraction motion along superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. Similar patient setup residual errors were exhibited for both types of balloons. Gas-release rectal balloons resulted in PTV margin reductions from 3.9 to 2.8 mm in the SI direction, 3.1 to 1.8 mm in the AP direction, and an increase from 1.9 to 2.1 mm in the left-right direction. Conclusions: Prostate intrafraction motion is an important uncertainty source in radiotherapy after image-guided patient setup with online corrections. Compared to non-gas-release rectal balloons, gas-release balloons can reduce prostate intrafraction motion in the SI and AP directions caused by gas buildup.

  15. Brain responses to mechanical rectal stimulation in patients with faecal incontinence: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mirbagheri, N; Hatton, S; Ng, K-S; Lagopoulos, J; Gladman, M A

    2017-10-01

    Continence is dependent on anorectal-brain interactions. Consequently, aberrations of the brain-gut axis may be important in the pathophysiology of faecal incontinence (FI) in certain patients. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation in patients with FI using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A prospective, cohort pilot study was performed to assess brain responses during rectal stimulation in 14 patients [four men, mean (SD) age 62 (15) years]. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals were measured by fMRI during rest and mechanical distension, involving random repetitions of isobaric phasic rectal distensions at fixed (15 and 45 mmHg) and variable (10% above sensory perception threshold) pressures. Increases in BOLD signals in response to high pressure rectal distension (45 mmHg) and maximum toleration were observed in the cingulate gyrus, thalamus, insular cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, supramarginal gyrus, putamen and amygdala. Additionally, activation of the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus with inconsistent activity in the frontal lobe was observed. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of recording brain responses to rectal mechanical stimulation using fMRI in patients with FI, revealing activity in widespread areas of the brain involved in visceral sensory processing. The observed activity in the supplementary motor cortex and caudate nucleus, with relative paucity of activity in the frontal lobes, warrants investigation in future studies to determine whether aberrations in cerebral processing of rectal stimuli play a role in the pathogenesis of FI. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Rectal Cancer in Patients Under 50 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Dinaux, A M; Leijssen, L G J; Bordeianou, L G; Kunitake, H; Berger, D L

    2017-08-25

    General population screening for colorectal cancer starts at 50, and incidence rates of rectal cancer in patients over 50 years old are decreasing. However, incidence of rectal cancer under age 50 is increasing. This paper analyzes short-and long-term outcomes for rectal cancer patients under 50 years of age. Retrospective analyses of consecutive patient cohort, who all received surgical treatment for primary rectal adenocarcinoma at a single institute were used in the study. Outcomes were stratified based on age under or over 50 at the time of surgery. A total of 582 patients was included, of whom 125 were younger than 50. ASA-score was higher for older patients, with no other significant differences in baseline characteristics. AJCC-staging, based on surgical pathology, differed significantly due to higher stage II-rate in the older group and higher stages III- and IV-rates in the younger group. Percentages of high-grade disease, small vessel-, and perineural invasion were higher for younger patients. Stage-for-stage oncologic survival analyses did not demonstrate a significant difference between younger and older patients. Additionally, an age under/over 50 did not have a significant effect in multivariable analyses for disease free-, and disease specific survival. Patients who present with rectal cancer under the age of 50 do not seem to have more aggressive disease, while they present with more advanced disease when compared to patients older than 50. Identifying young people at risk of developing rectal cancer and start screening earlier in a selective group might improve disease stage on presentation.

  17. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  19. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Jay, J; Staskin, D

    1998-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of urinary incontinence, most affected women don't seek help, primarily because of embarrassment or because they are not aware that effective treatment is available. Failure to store urine may be caused by an abnormality in any component of the lower urinary tract. Common abnormalities are poor bladder compliance and bladder outlet failure. Patients who experience failure to empty can present with recurrent urinary tract infections, retention or incontinence. Using a symptom-based classification of incontinence, this would be referred to as overflow incontinence. Other possible categories of urinary incontinence are failure to store and empty and functional incontinence. A combination of a failure to store and empty is difficult to diagnose and treat clinically. Treatments are directed at the particular cause of incontinence and can include medical or surgical therapies.

  20. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for rectal cancer: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Kang; Chen, Nan-Zheng; Zheng, Jian-Bao; He, Sai; Sun, Xue-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the main malignant tumors threatening human health. Surgery plays a pivotal role in treating colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to compare the clinical effect in patients with rectal cancer undergoing laparoscopic versus open surgery by meta-analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the past 20 years. The data showed that 14 RCTs comparing laparoscopic surgery with conventional open surgery for rectal cancer matched the selection criteria and reported on 2,114 subjects, of whom 1,111 underwent laparoscopic surgery and 1,003 underwent open surgery for rectal cancer. Blood loss (P<0.00001), days to passage of flatus (P=0.0003), first bowel movement (P=0.0006), fluids intake (P<0.00001), walking independently (P<0.00001), length of hospital duration (P=0.003) and the rate of wound infection (P=0.04) were all significantly reduced following laparoscopic surgery. The incidence of complications, such as ureteric injury (P=0.33), urinary retention (P=0.43), ileus (P=0.05), anastomotic leakage (P=0.09) and incisional hernia (P=0.88), were not significantly different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in lymph nodes harvested (P=0.88), length of specimen (P=0.60), circumferential resection margin (CRM) (P=0.86), regional recurrence ((P=0.08), port site or wound metastasis (P=0.67), distant metastasis (P=0.12), 3-year overall survival (OS) (P=0.42), 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.44), 5-year OS (P=0.60) and 5-year DFS (P=0.70). Therefore, laparoscopy for the treatment of patients with rectal cancer has the advantage of recovery and the same complications and prognosis as laparotomy, which indicates that laparoscopy may provide a potential survival benefit for patients with rectal cancer.

  1. Rectal Dose-Volume Differences Using Proton Radiotherapy and a Rectal Balloon or Water Alone for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos Mahajan, Chaitali; Fryer, Amber; Indelicato, Daniel; Henderson, Randal H.; McKenzie, Craig C.; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng; Oliver, Kenneth; Keole, Sameer

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To describe dose-volume values with the use of water alone vs. a rectal balloon (RB) for the treatment of prostate cancer with proton therapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 30 proton plans for 15 patients who underwent CT and MRI scans with an RB or water alone. Simulation was performed with a modified MRI endorectal coil and an RB with 100 mL of water or water alone. Doses of 78-82 gray equivalents were prescribed to the planning target volume. The two groups were compared for three structures: rectum, rectal wall (RW), and rectal wall 7 cm (RW7) at the level of the planning target volume. Results: Rectum and RW volumes radiated to low, intermediate, and high doses were small: rectum V10, 33.7%; V50, 17.3%; and V70, 10.2%; RW V10, 32.4%; V50, 20.4%; and V70, 14.6%. The RB effectively increased the rectal volume for all cases (139.8 {+-} 44.9 mL vs. 217.7 {+-} 32.2 mL (p < 0.001). The RB also decreased the volume of the rectum radiated to doses V10-V65 (p {<=} 0.05); RW for V10-V50; and RW7 for V10-V35. An absolute rectum V50 improvement >5% was seen for the RB in 5 of 15 cases, for a benefit of 9.2% {+-} 2.3% compared with 2.4% {+-} 1.3% for the remaining 10 cases (p < 0.001). Similar benefit was seen for the rectal wall. No benefit was seen for doses {>=}70 gray equivalents for the rectum, RW, or RW7. No benefit of {<=}1% was seen with an RB in 46% for the rectum V70 and in 40% for the rectal wall V70. Conclusions: Rectum and rectal wall doses with proton radiation were low whether using water or an RB. Selected patients will have a small but significant advantage with an RB; however, water alone was well tolerated and will be an alternative for most patients.

  2. Urogenital and Rectal Multisystem Organ Injury After Detonation of an Explosive Substance in the Rectum of a Schizophrenic Man

    PubMed Central

    Zumrutbas, Ali E.; Baser, Aykut; Acar, Cenk I.; Ozlulerden, Yusuf; Okutan, Aysegul; Sahin, Umit Y.; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating injuries are caused by the injury of perineal area with gun or stab wounds, which may cause complex injuries or multiple organ injuries. Infections, bleeding, necrotizing fasciitis, ureterocutaneous fistulas, diverticulum, abscesses, narrowing, and incontinence may arise after urethral injuries. Although there are several case reports of urogenital system traumas in the literature, this case reports a schizophrenic patient who had a multisystem genitourinary and rectal trauma after self-detonation of an explosive in the rectum and managed with reconstructive surgery without any postoperative complications. Lower urinary tract anatomy was preserved and full continence was achieved after the surgical procedure. PMID:26955556

  3. Evidence of improving survival of patients with rectal cancer in France: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Finn-Faivre, C; Maurel, J; Benhamiche, A; Herbert, C; Mitry, E; Launoy, G; Faivre, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Over the past 20 years there have been many changes in the management of rectal cancer. Their impact on the overall population is not well known. 
AIMS—To determine trends in management and prognosis of rectal cancer in two French regions. 
SUBJECTS—1978 patients with a rectal carcinoma diagnosed between 1978 and 1993. 
METHODS—Time trends in treatment, stage at diagnosis, operative mortality, and survival were studied on a four year basis. A non-conditional logistic regression was performed to obtain an odds ratio for each period adjusted for the other variables. To estimate the independent effect of the period a multivariate relative survival analysis was performed. 
RESULTS—Over the 16 year period resection rates increased from 66.0% to 80.1%; the increase was particularly noticeable for sphincter saving procedures (+30.6% per four years, p=0.03). The percentage of patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy increased from 24.0% to 40.0% (p=0.02). The proportion of patients with Dukes' type A cancer increased from 17.7% to 30.6% with a corresponding decrease in those with more advanced disease. Operative mortality decreased by 31.1% per four years (p=0.03). All these improvements have resulted in a dramatic increase in relative survival (from 35.4% for the 1978-1981 period to 57.0% for the 1985-1989 period). 
CONCLUSIONS—Substantial advances in the management of rectal cancer have been achieved, but there is evidence that further improvements can be made in order to increase survival. 

 Keywords: rectal cancer; treatment; stage at diagnosis; survival; time trends; cancer registries PMID:10026324

  4. Transanal local excision of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Read, D R; Sokil, S; Ruiz-Salas, G

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with invasive rectal cancer treated by transanal excision between 1978-1989 are presented. Two patients had poorly differentiated tumours and were converted to abdominoperineal resection and one patient had extensive liver metastases documented preoperatively. The remaining twenty-two, mean age 64 years, fulfilled the criteria for local treatment. Eighty-two percent of tumours were T1 or T2 stage. There was no operative mortality. Six complications in five patients occurred, none requiring surgical intervention. Five patients died of unrelated causes without evidence of recurrence at 4, 4, 14, 26 and 58 months. The length of follow-up for the surviving group (17 patients) was 16 to 115 months (mean 63 months). Two patients developed local recurrence at 32 and 60 months. Transanal excision can be curative for selected rectal cancers.

  5. [Fatal intoxication following rectal instillation of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D; Werp, J

    1990-01-01

    A 62-year old man who had been living on a remote farm was found dead in his bed. Inserted in his rectum was a synthetic flexible tube filled with brandy (43 vol. %) and connected to a bicycle pump. Samples taken during autopsy from 3 different parts of the body showed ethanol concentrations from 4.87% to 5.35% in the blood and 6.73% in the urine. The ethanol concentrations in the small and large intestine were considerably higher (more than 29%) than in the stomach (9%). The decreased had a tumor as large as a tennis ball on the base of his tongue, almost completely filling the oropharynx, making swallowing very difficult, which probably was the reason of the rectal instillation of alcohol. The report deals with this unusual case of rectal alcohol instillation, and with the different