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Sample records for increases antioxidant activities

  1. A novel technology to increase antioxidant activity of an antioxidant by reducing volatility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During frying, an antioxidant is lost by reaction with radicals for its antioxidant activity, but it is also lost by decomposition and evaporation before it is able to exert antioxidant activity. Some low molecular weight antioxidants are often so volatile that they show much reduced antioxidant act...

  2. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  3. Protecting cotton photosynthesis during moderate chilling at high light intensity by increasing chloroplastic antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Payton, P; Webb, R; Kornyeyev, D; Allen, R; Holaday, A S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the effect of increasing chloroplastic superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), or glutathione reductase (GR) activity via plant transformation of cotton on the initial recovery of photosynthesis following exposures to 10 degrees C and high photon flux density (PFD). Growing wild-type or non-expressing segregate plants (controls) and transformants at two PFDs (600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and full sun) resulted in a range of total antioxidant enzyme activities. Total SOD activities above that for control leaves grown in full sun did not substantially improve the recoveries of CO(2)-saturated photosynthesis, especially for stress treatments lasting more than 1 h, while elevated APX or GR activity did improve recoveries after 1-3 h of the chilling treatment. No synergistic effects were noted when the activities of more than one antioxidant enzyme were elevated in transgenic hybrids. Although these results suggest that the protection of photosynthesis can be realized by reducing either superoxide or H(2)O(2) levels, thereby reducing the possibility of hydroxyl radical formation, the situation is complicated, since elevated APX or GR activity can improve recoveries even when additional SOD activity has no effect. In conclusion, to enhance the protection of photosynthesis using stroma-targeted antioxidant enzymes, enhancing metabolism associated with H(2)O(2) is more effective than enhancing the capacity for superoxide scavenging. Although small, the improvement in the protection of photosynthetic capacity may be sufficient to improve cotton yield in temperate regions with large diurnal temperature fluctuations.

  4. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  5. Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer and the focus on finding chemotherapeutic agents have recently shifted to natural products. Piper betle is a medicinal plant with various biological activities. However, not much data is available on the anti-cancer effects of P. betle on breast cancer. Due to the current interest in the potential effects of antioxidants from natural products in breast cancer treatment, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the leaves of P. betle and its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Methods The leaves of P. betle were extracted with solvents of varying polarities (water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane) and their phenolic and flavonoid content were determined using colorimetric assays. Phenolic composition was characterized using HPLC. Antioxidant activities were measured using FRAP, DPPH, superoxide anion, nitric oxide and hyroxyl radical scavenging assays. Biological activities of the extracts were analysed using MTT assay and antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Overall, the ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolics towards the antioxidant activities. HPLC analyses revealed the presence of catechin, morin and quercetin in the leaves. The ethyl acetate extract also showed the highest inhibitory effect against the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (IC50=65 μg/ml). Treatment of MCF-7 cells with the plant extract increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Conclusions Ethyl acetate is the optimal solvent for the extraction of compounds with antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. The increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the treated cells

  6. Brassinolide alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activity of cowpea plants (Vigna sinensis).

    PubMed

    El-Mashad, Ali Abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most severe factors limiting growth and physiological response in Vigna sinensis plants. Plant salt stress tolerance requires the activation of complex metabolic activities including antioxidative pathways, especially reactive oxygen species and scavenging systems within the cells which can contribute to continued growth under water stress. The present investigation was carried out to study the role of brassinolide in enhancing tolerance of cowpea plants to salt stress (NaCl). Treatment with 0.05 ppm brassinolide as foliar spray mitigated salt stress by inducing enzyme activities responsible for antioxidation, e.g., superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and detoxification as well as by elevating contents of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and glutathione. On the other hand, total soluble proteins decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations in comparison with control plants. However, lipid peroxidation increased with increasing concentrations of NaCl. In addition to, the high concentrations of NaCl (100 and 150 mM) decreased total phenol of cowpea plants as being compared with control plants. SDS-PAGE of protein revealed that NaCl treatments alone or in combination with 0.05 ppm brassinolide were associated with the disappearance of some bands or appearance of unique ones in cowpea plants. Electrophoretic studies of α-esterase, β-esterase, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase isoenzymes showed wide variations in their intensities and densities among all treatments.

  7. The wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activities in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Ikram; Ebel, Chantal; Belgaroui, Nibras; Ghorbel, Mouna; Amara, Imène; Hanin, Moez

    2016-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are important negative regulators in the MAPK signaling pathways, which play crucial roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. We have previously shown that the heterologous expression of a durum wheat MKP, TMKP1, results in increased tolerance to salt stress in yeast but its particular contribution in salt stress tolerance in plants was not investigated. Here, TMKP1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and physiological changes were assessed in transgenic plants exposed to stress conditions. Under salt stress and especially LiCl, the TMKP1 overexpressors displayed higher germination rates in comparison to wild type plants. The enhancement of salt stress tolerance was accompanied by increased antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxydases. Such increases in antioxidant activities were concomitant with lower malondialdehyde, superoxide anion O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide levels in the TMKP1 transgenic seedlings. Moreover, we provide evidence that, in contrast to the Arabidopsis ortholog AtMKP1, TMKP1 acts as a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance via its ectopic expression in the Arabidopsis mkp1 mutant. PMID:26927025

  8. Increased antioxidant response and capability to produce ROS in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis L. exposed to anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Natalotto, Antonino; Alvarez, Elvira; Deudero, Salud

    2013-10-01

    Environmental pollutants exert immunotoxical effects on aquatic organisms. The aim was to determine the antioxidant response, markers of oxidative damage and reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes of Pinna nobilis, the largest endemic bivalve in the Mediterranean Sea, under anthropogenic pressure. P. nobilis individuals were collected from two locations along Mallorca Island waters attending to different degree of human impact and the hemocytes were obtained. Specimens from the impacted area showed increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes - catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase -, myeloperoxidase activity and reduced glutathione levels. No differences in oxidative damage markers - malondiahdehyde and carbonyl index - were evidenced between the pristine and polluted areas. Hemocytes from the polluted area presented increased capability to generate reactive oxygen species and nitrite/nitrate when activated. In conclusion, the human activities primed hemocytes for oxidative burst and increased the antioxidant mechanism without evidence of oxidative damage. PMID:23871388

  9. Increasing discordant antioxidant protein levels and enzymatic activities contribute to increasing redox imbalance observed during human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Chaiswing, Luksana; Zhong, Weixiong; Oberley, Terry D.

    2014-01-01

    A metabolomics study demonstrated a decrease in glutathione and an increase in cysteine (Cys) levels in human prostate cancer (PCa) tissues as Gleason scores increased, indicating redox imbalance with PCa progression. These results were extended in the present study by analyzing redox state of the protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) and sulfinylation (SO3) of peroxiredoxins (Prxs) (PrxsSO3) in PCa tissues and cell lines. Lysates of paired human PCa tissues with varying degree of aggressiveness and adjacent benign (BN) tissues were used for analysis. Redox western blot analysis of Trx1 demonstrated low levels of reduced and high levels of oxidized Trx1 (functional and non-functional, respectively) in high grade PCa (Gleason scores 4+4 to 4+5) in comparison to intermediate grade PCa (Gleason scores 3+3 to 3+4) or BN tissues. PrxsSO3 were increased in high grade PCa. Oxidized Trx1 and PrxsSO3 are indicators of oxidative stress. To study whether redox imbalance may potentially affect enzyme activities of antioxidant proteins (AP), we determined levels of selected AP in PCa tissues by western blot analysis and found that mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), Prx 3, and Trx1 were increased in high grade PCa tissues when compared with BN tissues. Enzyme activities of MnSOD in high grade PCa tissues were significantly increased but at a lower magnitude when compared with the levels of MnSOD protein (0.5 folds vs. 2 folds increase). Trx1 activity was not changed in high grade PCa tissues despite a large increase in Trx1 protein expression. Further studies demonstrated a significant increase in posttranslational modifications of tyrosine and lysine residues in MnSOD protein and oxidation of Cys at active site (Cys 32 and Cys 35) and regulatory site (Cys 62 and Cys 69) of Trx1 in high grade PCa compared to BN tissues. These discordant changes between protein levels and enzyme activities are consistent with protein inactivation by redox imbalance and

  10. Saengshik, a formulated health food, prevents liver damage in CCl4-induced mice and increases antioxidant activity in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwa-young; Kim, Joong-Hark; Lee, Seong-Ae; Chang, Hey-eun; Park, Mi-hyoun; Hwang, Sung-joo; Lee, Ju-yeon; Mok, Chulkyoon; Hong, Seong-gil

    2008-06-01

    Saengshik is a Korean noncooked food made with of more than 30 different whole gains, vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, and seaweeds. All of these ingredients are frozen and dried to minimize the loss of nutrients. Saengshik has become popular among health-conscious people in the Republic of Korea. The study aims to investigate antioxidant effects of Saengshik by in vivo and human experiments. In in vivo tests, mice were fed Saengshik for 4 weeks, and oxidative damage was induced by CCl(4). Then the effects of Saengshik on oxidative damage were examined. It was found that plasma lipid hydroperoxide and protein oxidative damages were significantly suppressed and antioxidants, glutathione, and thiol groups were increased. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was increased, and the level of glutamate pyruvate transaminase was decreased. In a human study, elderly people were given Saengshik for 24 weeks, and changes in antioxidant defense of the body were examined. Antioxidant activities in plasma were enhanced, although the difference was not significant. Therefore, it is expected that Saengshik is effective at removing oxidants from body tissues, preventing oxidative damage, and eventually boosting the antioxidant capacity of the body.

  11. Dietary selenium increases the antioxidant levels and ATPase activity in the arteries and veins of poultry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Changyu; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Jinxin; Luan, Yilin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-07-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency is associated with the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. It has been shown that oxidative levels and ATPase activity were involved in Se deficiency diseases in humans and mammals; however, the mechanism by how Se influences the oxidative levels and ATPase activity in the poultry vasculature is unclear. We assessed the effects of dietary Se deficiency on the oxidative stress parameters (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and hydroxyl radical) and ATPase (Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Ca(++)-ATPase, Mg(++)-ATPase, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase) activity in broiler poultry. A total of 40 broilers (1-day old) were randomly divided into a Se-deficient group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.08 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a diet containing sodium selenite at 0.20 mg/kg Se). Then, arteries and veins were collected following euthanasia when typical symptoms of Se deficiency appeared. Antioxidant indexes and ATPase activity were evaluated using standard assays in arteries and veins. The results indicated that superoxide dismutase activity in the artery according to dietary Se deficiency was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The catalase activity in the veins and hydroxyl radical inhibition in the arteries and veins by dietary Se deficiency were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the C group. The Se-deficient group showed a significantly lower (p < 0.05) tendency in Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity, Ca(++)-ATPase activity, and Ca(++)Mg(++)-ATPase activity. There were strong correlations between antioxidant indexes and Ca(++)-ATPase activity. Thus, these results indicate that antioxidant indexes and ATPases may have special roles in broiler artery and vein injuries under Se deficiency. PMID:26637493

  12. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression.

  13. Grape pomace extract exerts antioxidant effects through an increase in GCS levels and GST activity in muscle and endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    GOUTZOURELAS, NIKOLAOS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; HOUSMEKERIDOU, ANASTASIA; KARAPOULIOU, CHRISTINA; KERASIOTI, EFTHALIA; ALIGIANNIS, NEKTARIOS; SKALTSOUNIS, ALEXIOS L; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that a grape pomace extract (GPE) exerted antioxidant activity in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells through an increase in glutathione (GSH) levels. In the present study, in order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of GPE, its effects on the expression of critical antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD)1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) were assessed in EA.hy926 and C2C12 cells. Moreover, the effects of GPE on CAT, SOD and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzymatic activity were evaluated. For this purpose, the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells were treated with GPE at low and non-cytotoxic concentrations (2.5 and 10 µg/ml for the C2C12 cells; 0.068 and 0.250 µg/ml for the EA.hy926 cells) for 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Following incubation, enzymatic expression and activity were assessed. The results revealed that treatment with GPE significantly increased GCS levels and GST activity in both the C2C12 and EA.hy926 cells. However, GPE significantly decreased CAT levels and activity, but only in the muscle cells, while it had no effect on CAT levels and activity in the endothelial cells. Moreover, treatment with GPE had no effect on HO-1 and SOD expression and activity in both cell lines. Therefore, the present results provide further evidence of the crucial role of GSH systems in the antioxidant effects exerted by GPE. Thus, GPE may prove to be effective for use as a food supplement for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions of the cardiovascular and skeletal muscle systems, particularly those associated with low GSH levels. PMID:26082074

  14. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling.

  15. Increasing bioavailability of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid to boost antioxidant activity in the treatment of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Emilia; Marrese, Cinzia; Migliaro, Elisa; Marcuccio, Fortuna; Panico, Claudia; Salvati, Carmine; Citro, Giuseppe; Quercio, Marco; Roncagliolo, Federico; Torello, Carlo; Brufani, Mario

    2015-01-01

    a-lipoic acid (a-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant because it has a broad spectrum of action towards a great many free radical species and boosts the endogenous antioxidant systems.Although it is a multi-functional molecule, its pharmacokinetic characteristics pose restrictions to its use in the treatment of oxidative stress-dependent illnesses. Formulations that increase the bioavailability of a-LA have a better potential efficacy as adjuvants for the treatment of these conditions.This objective was achieved with a liquid formulation for oral use containing only R-aLA, the natural enantiomeric and most active form of a-lipoic acid.For the first time, the effects of this formulation were evaluated on neuropathic pain, a symptom caused by an increase in oxidative stress, regardless of the underlying cause. Neuropathic patients who have used this dietary supplement noticed an improvement in their quality of life and a significant reduction was observed in a number of certain descriptive pain parameters (intensity, burning, unpleasantness, superficial pain).Undoubtedly further, more in-depth, studies need to be conducted; however, this first investigation confirms the role of R-aLA as an anti-oxidant for the aetiological treatment of peripheral neuropathy. Increasing its plasma bioavailability even after a non-invasive administration through the oral route is a good starting point for proposing a valid adjuvant for the treatment of pain symptoms. PMID:26694149

  16. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  17. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  18. Increasing the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents by optimizing the germination conditions of amaranth seeds.

    PubMed

    Perales-Sánchez, Janitzio X K; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; Gómez-Favela, Mario A; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the germination conditions of amaranth seeds that would maximize the antioxidant activity (AoxA), total phenolic (TPC), and flavonoid (TFC) contents. To optimize the germination bioprocess, response surface methodology was applied over three response variables (AoxA, TPC, TFC). A central composite rotable experimental design with two factors [germination temperature (GT), 20-45 ºC; germination time (Gt), 14-120 h] in five levels was used; 13 treatments were generated. The amaranth seeds were soaked in distilled water (25 °C/6 h) before germination. The sprouts from each treatment were dried (50 °C/8 h), cooled, and ground to obtain germinated amaranth flours (GAF). The best combination of germination bioprocess variables for producing optimized GAF with the highest AoxA [21.56 mmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g sample, dw], TPC [247.63 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g sample, dw], and TFC [81.39 mg catechin equivalent (CAE)/100 g sample, dw] was GT = 30 ºC/Gt = 78 h. The germination bioprocess increased AoxA, TPC, and TFC in 300-470, 829, and 213%, respectively. The germination is an effective strategy to increase the TPC and TFC of amaranth seeds for enhancing functionality with improved antioxidant activity.

  19. A High Antioxidant Spice Blend Attenuates Postprandial Insulin and Triglyceride Responses and Increases Some Plasma Measures of Antioxidant Activity in Healthy, Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Teeter, Danette L.; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; West, Sheila G.

    2011-01-01

    There is much interest in the potential of dietary antioxidants to attenuate in vivo oxidative stress, but little characterization of the time course of plasma effects exists. Culinary spices have demonstrated potent in vitro antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine whether adding 14 g of a high antioxidant spice blend to a 5060-kJ (1200 kcal) meal exerted significant postprandial effects on markers of plasma antioxidant status and metabolism. Healthy overweight men (n = 6) consumed a control and spiced meal in a randomized crossover design with 1 wk between testing sessions. Blood was sampled prior to the meal and at 30-min intervals for 3.5 h (total of 8 samples). Mixed linear models demonstrated a treatment × time interaction (P < 0.05) for insulin and TG, corresponding with 21 and 31% reductions in postprandial levels with the spiced meal, respectively. Adding spices to the meal significantly increased the ferric reducing antioxidant power, such that postprandial increases following the spiced meal were 2-fold greater than after the control meal (P = 0.009). The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of plasma also was increased by spices (P = 0.02). There were no treatment differences in glucose, total thiols, lipophilic ORAC, or total ORAC. The incorporation of spices into the diet may help normalize postprandial insulin and TG and enhance antioxidant defenses. PMID:21697300

  20. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by an antioxidant chlorophyllin through increased stem cell activity and modulation of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Thoh, Maikho; Gota, Vikram; Sandur, Santosh K; Sainis, Krishna B

    2015-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells (HSPC) are low in abundance and exhibit high radiosensitivity and their ability to divide dramatically decreases following exposure to ionizing radiation. Our earlier studies have shown antiapoptotic, immune-stimulatory, and antioxidant effects of chlorophyllin, a constituent of the over the counter drug derifil. Here we describe the beneficial effects of chlorophyllin against radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome. Chlorophyllin administration significantly enhanced the abundance of HSPC in vivo. It induced a transient cell cycle arrest in lineage-negative cells in the bone marrow. However, the chlorophyllin-treated mice exposed to whole body irradiation (WBI) had a significantly higher proportion of actively dividing HSPC in the bone marrow as compared to only WBI-exposed mice. It significantly increased the number of colony forming units (CFUs) by bone marrow cells in vitro and spleen CFUs in irradiated mice in vivo. Pharmacokinetic study showed that chlorophyllin had a serum half-life of 141.8 min in mice. Chlorophyllin upregulated antiapoptotic genes and antioxidant machinery via activation of prosurvival transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB and increased the survival and recovery of bone marrow cells in mice exposed to WBI. Chlorophyllin stimulated granulocyte production in bone marrow and increased the abundance of peripheral blood neutrophils by enhancing serum levels of granulocyte-colony stimulation factor (GCSF). Most importantly, prophylactic treatment of mice with chlorophyllin significantly abrogated radiation-induced mortality. Chlorophyllin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells, enhancing granulopoiesis, and stimulating prosurvival pathways in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes.

  1. Liposome-containing Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract formulations with increased antioxidant activity, improved dermal penetration and reduced dermal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Ungphaiboon, Suwipa; Itharat, Arunporn

    2010-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn, or Roselle, is a medicinal plant used extensively in traditional Thai medicine since ancient times. The extracts of Roselle calyces possess antioxidant activity and have potential for development as active ingredients in cosmetic products. However the limitations of using Roselle extracts in cosmetics are its low skin permeation and dermal irritation. Liposome technology is an obvious approach that might overcome these problems. Liposome formulations of standardized Roselle extracts were developed with various lipid components. The formulation showing the highest entrapment efficiency was selected for stability, skin permeation and dermal irritability studies. The liposome formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (83%) and smalôlest particle size (332 mm) was formulated with phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SPC): Tween 80: deoxycholic acid (DA); 84:16:2.5 weight ratio, total lipid of 200 g/mL and 10% w/v Roselle extract in final liposomal preparation. This liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light, for 2 months. The in vitro skin permeation studies, using freshly excised pig skin and modified Franz-diffusion cells, showed that the liposome formulation was able to considerably increased the rate of permeation of active compounds in Roselle extracts compared to the Roselle extract solution. The in vivo dermal irritability testing on rabbit skin showed that the liposome formulation dramatically decreased skin irritability compared to the unformulated extract. These results showed that the liposomes containing Roselle extracts had good stability, high entrapment efficacy, increased skin permeation and low skin irritation. PMID:21294418

  2. Low concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal increases heme oxygenase-1 expression through activation of Nrf2 and antioxidative activity in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikado, Atsushi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Ugi, Satoshi; Kondo, Hajime; Makino, Taketoshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Low doses of 4-HHE and 4-HNE induce HO-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. {yields} 4-HHE and 4-HNE increase the intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2. {yields} 4-HHE and 4-HNE-induced HO-1 expression depends on the activation of Nrf2. {yields} Pretreatment with 4-HHE and 4-HNE prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Large-scale clinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids reduce cardiovascular events without improving classical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have proposed that direct actions of n-3 PUFAs themselves, or of their enzymatic metabolites, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on vascular cells. Although a recent study showed that plasma 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a peroxidation product of n-3 PUFA, increased after supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid, the antiatherogenic effects of 4-HHE in vascular cells remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that 4-HHE induces the antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulatory transcriptional factor, and prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in vascular endothelial cells. This mechanism could partly explain the cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with 1-10 {mu}M 4-HHE or 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE), a peroxidation product of n-6 PUFAs. Both 4-HHE and 4-HNE dose-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 at 5 {mu}M. Small interfering RNA for Nrf2 significantly reduced 4-HHE- or 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with 4-HHE or 4-HNE prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, 4-HHE, a peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, stimulated

  3. Antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Xi, Wanpeng; Hu, Yan; Nie, Chao; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2016-04-01

    Citrus is well-known for its nutrition and health-promotion values. This reputation is derived from the studies on the biological functions of phytochemicals in Citrus fruits and their derived products in the past decades. In recent years, the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits and their roles in the prevention and treatment of various human chronic and degenerative diseases have attracted more and more attention. Citrus fruits are suggested to be a good source of dietary antioxidants. To have a better understanding of the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, we reviewed a study on the antioxidant activity of the phytochemicals in Citrus fruits, introduced methods for antioxidant activity evaluation, discussed the factors which influence the antioxidant activity of Citrus fruits, and summarized the underlying mechanism of action. Some suggestions for future study were also presented.

  4. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  6. Enteromorpha compressa Exhibits Potent Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa M. M.; Shalaby, Emad A.; El-Fayoumy, Eman A.

    2011-01-01

    The green macroalgae, Enteromorpha compressa (Linnaeus) Nees, Ulva lactuca, and E. linza, were seasonally collected from Abu Qir bay at Alexandria (Mediterranean Sea) This work aimed to investigate the seasonal environmental conditions, controlling the green algal growth, predominance, or disappearance and determining antioxidant activity. The freshly collected selected alga (E. compressa) was subjected to pigment analysis (chlorophyll and carotenoids) essential oil and antioxidant enzyme determination (ascorbate oxidase and catalase). The air-dried ground alga was extracted with ethanol (crude extract) then sequentially fractionated by organic solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water). Antioxidant activity of all extracts was assayed using different methods (total antioxidant, DPPH [2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl], ABTS [2, 2 azino-bis ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid], and reducing power, and β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching methods). The results indicated that the antioxidant activity was concentration and time dependent. Ethyl acetate fraction demonstrated higher antioxidant activity against DPPH method (82.80%) compared to the synthetic standard butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 88.5%). However, the crude ethanolic extract, pet ether, chloroform fractions recorded lower to moderate antioxidant activities (49.0, 66.0, and 78.0%, resp.). Using chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, an active compound was separated and identified from the promising ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:21869863

  7. Liv.52 attenuate copper induced toxicity by inhibiting glutathione depletion and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv

    2010-07-01

    Altered copper metabolism plays a pivotal role in the onset of several hepatic disorders and glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in its homeostasis. Hepatic diseases are often implicated with decreased content of intracellular GSH. GSH depleted cells are prone to increased oxidative damage eventually leading to its death. Liv.52 is used to treat hepatic ailments since long time. Hence, in the present study the potential cytoprotective effect of Liv.52 against toxicity induced by copper (Cu2+) was evaluated in HepG2 cells. Cu2+ at 750 microM induced cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells as determined by MTT assay. The toxicity was brought about by increased lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and decreased GSH content. But, upon treatment with Liv.52 cell death induced by Cu2+ was significantly abrogated by inhibition of lipid peroxidation by 58% and DNA fragmentation by 37%. Liv.52 increased the GSH content by 74%. Activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were increased by 46%, 22% and 81% respectively in Liv.52 treated cells. Thus, it is apparent from these results that Liv.52 abrogates Cu2+ induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increased GSH content and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  8. Elevated carbon dioxide increases contents of flavonoids and phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activities in Malaysian young ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.) varieties.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2010-11-01

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (Family Zingiberaceae) is well known in Asia. The plant is widely cultivated in village gardens in the tropics for its medicinal properties and as a marketable spice in Malaysia. Ginger varieties are rich in physiologically active phenolics and flavonoids with a range of pharmacological activities. Experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of increasing levels of flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, kaempferol, naringenin, fisetin and morin) and phenolic acid (gallic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, tannic acid, cinnamic acid and salicylic acid), and antioxidant activities in different parts of Malaysian young ginger varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) with CO(2) enrichment in a controlled environment system. Both varieties showed an increase in phenolic compounds and flavonoids in response to CO(2) enrichment from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1 CO(2). These increases were greater in rhizomes compared to leaves. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that quercetin and gallic acid were the most abundant flavonoid and phenolic acid in Malaysian young ginger varieties. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, kaempferol and fisetin were among the flavonoid compounds, and gallic acid and vanillic acid were among the phenolic compounds whose levels increased in both varieties. As CO(2) concentration was increased from 400 to 800 µmol mol-1, free radical scavenging power (DPPH) increased about 30% in Halia Bentong and 21.4% in Halia Bara; and the rhizomes exhibited more enhanced free radical scavenging power, with 44.9% in Halia Bentong and 46.2% in Halia Bara. Leaves of both varieties also displayed good levels of flavonoid compounds and antioxidant activities. These results indicate that the yield and pharmaceutical quality of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced by controlled environment production and CO(2) enrichment. PMID:21060298

  9. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dewanto, Veronica; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-08-14

    Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than the fresh produce due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. Vitamin C in apples has been found to contribute <0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing at 115 degrees C for 25 min significantly elevated the total antioxidant activity of sweet corn by 44% and increased phytochemical content such as ferulic acid by 550% and total phenolics by 54%, although 25% vitamin C loss was observed. Processed sweet corn has increased antioxidant activity equivalent to 210 mg of vitamin C/100 g of corn compared to the remaining 3.2 mg of vitamin C in the sample that contributed only 1.5% of its total antioxidant activity. These findings do not support the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:12166989

  10. Antioxidant enzymes activities in obese Tunisian children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The oxidant stress, expected to increase in obese adults, has an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. It results when free radical formation is greatly increased or protective antioxidant mechanisms are compromised. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant response to obesity-related stress in healthy children. Methods A hundred and six healthy children (54 obese and 52 controls), aged 6–12 years old, participated in this study. The collected data included anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and enzymatic antioxidants (Superoxide dismutase: SOD, Catalase: CAT and Glutathione peroxidase: GPx). Results The first step antioxidant response, estimated by the SOD activity, was significantly higher in obese children compared with normal-weight controls (p < 0.05). Mean activities of anti-radical GPx and CAT enzymes were not affected by the BMI increase. Although, total cholesterol levels were statistically higher in the obese group, there was no significant association with the SOD activity. Conclusions The obesity-related increase of the oxidant stress can be observed even in the childhood period. In addition to the complications of an increased BMI, obesity itself can be considered as an independent risk factor of free radical production resulting in an increased antioxidant response. PMID:23360568

  11. Effects of Increasing Doses of UV-B on Main Phenolic Acids Content, Antioxidant Activity and Estimated Biomass in Lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia).

    PubMed

    Usano-Alemany, Jaime; Panjai, Lachinee

    2015-07-01

    Lavandin is a well-known aromatic plant cultivated mainly for its valuable essential oil. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid so far to the quantification of other natural products such as polyphenols. Accordingly, we examined the effect of increasing doses of UV-B radiation on the main phenolic content, antioxidant activity and estimated biomass of one year old lavandin pots compared with pots grown outdoors. Significantly higher total phenolic content and concentration of main polyphenols have been found in outdoor plants. Rosmarinic acid has been described as the major phenolic compound in methanolic extracts (max. 25.9 ± 9.7 mg/g(-1) DW). Furthermore, we found that increasing doses of UV-B promote the plant growth of this species as well as the accumulation of phenolic compounds although with less antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals. On the other hand, our results showed a remarkable variability among individual plants regarding the content of major phenolic acids. The application of UV-B doses during plant growth could be a method to promote biomass in this species along with the promotion of higher content of valuable secondary metabolites. PMID:26411027

  12. Tai Chi exercise increases SOD activity and total antioxidant status in saliva and is linked to an improvement of periodontal disease in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703

  13. Tai Chi Exercise Increases SOD Activity and Total Antioxidant Status in Saliva and Is Linked to an Improvement of Periodontal Disease in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Monjaraz, Beatriz; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Betancourt-Rule, José Miguel; Ruiz-Ramos, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Tai Chi on biological markers of oxidative stress in saliva and its relationship with periodontal disease (PD) in older adults. We carried out a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 71 sedentary volunteers with PD who were divided into a control group of 34 subjects and an experimental group of 37 subjects who performed Tai Chi 5 days a week for a period of 6 months. PD status was characterized using the Periodontal Disease Index (PDI). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS), and TBARS levels of both groups were measured by spectrophotometric methods. In addition, inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) were measured by flow cytometry. We found a statistically significant increase in SOD activity (P < 0.001) and TAS concentration (P < 0.05), whereas levels of IL-1β were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Likewise, a statistically significant decrease in the PDI (P < 0.05) was observed in subjects who performed Tai Chi during a period of 6 months. Our findings suggest that the practice of Tai Chi has both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that are linked to the improvement of PD in older adults. PMID:24790703

  14. Increases in endogenous antioxidant enzymes during asbestos inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Y M; Marsh, J P; Absher, M; Borm, P J; Mossman, B T

    1990-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pulmonary damage is still not completely understood, an important role has been attributed to active oxygen species. In the present paper we present results of a study investigating the effect of crocidolite asbestos inhalation on different lung antioxidant enzymes in rats. During the development of pulmonary fibrosis induced by crocidolite asbestos, lung superoxide dismutase, catalase and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities increased, indicating an adaptive response to increased pulmonary oxidant stress. However, this adaptive response obviously is not sufficient to protect the lung from asbestos-induced pulmonary damage. Considering the role of active oxygen species in both the fibrotic process and tumor promotion, it is hypothesized that antioxidants may also protect the lung from chronic asbestos-induced pulmonary damage such as bronchogenic carcinoma. PMID:1963619

  15. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    PubMed

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

  16. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats.

  17. Coffee intake can promote activity of antioxidant enzymes with increasing MDA level and decreasing HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jang, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coffee intake and exercise on the antioxidative activity and plasma cholesterol profile of physically trained rats while they were exercising. Forty eight rats were under either the control diet with water (C) or control diet with coffee (CF) and at the same time they were given physical training for 4 weeks. In terms of physical training, the rats were exercised on a treadmill for 30 minutes everyday. At the end of 4 weeks, animals in each dietary group were subdivided into 3 groups: before-exercise (BE); during-exercise (DE); after-exercise (AE). Animals in the DE group were exercised on a treadmill for one hour, immediately before being sacrificed. Animals in the AE group were allowed to take a rest for one hour after exercise. TG levels were significantly high in coffee intake group than in control group. Also TG level of AE group was significantly higher than that of BE group. Exercise and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in total cholesterol (P = 0.0004, 0.0170). The AE of coffee intake group showed highest total cholesterol levels. HDL-cholesterol was significantly lower in coffee intake group than in control group. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in SOD (P = 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.0001). The AE and BE of coffee intake group showed higher SOD levels than the other four groups. Catalase activities were significantly higher in coffee intake group than control group. No significant main effect was found in GSH/GSSG. Coffee, exercise, and coffee-exercise interaction effects were significant in MDA levels (P = 0.0464, 0.0016, and 0.0353). The DE and AE of coffee intake group and the DE of control group showed higher MDA levels than the BE of control group. Therefore, coffee intake can promote activities of antioxidant enzyme but it also increases MDA and decreases HDL-cholesterol in physically trained rats. PMID:20827343

  18. Studies on antioxidant activity of teasaponins after hydrolyzed by enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Sen; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Xiuying; Wang, Yi

    The biological activity of teasaponins and their molecular structure are closely related, and the activity of saponins may be increased with the change of their molecular structure. In this report, teasaponins were hydrolyzed by Aspergillus niger for increasing the antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of teasaponins before and after hydrolyzed was tested by DPPH, and the result showed four new teasaponins were produced after hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was increased significantly than the original teasaponins before hydrolysis, the radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was partly up to 95 %.

  19. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended.

  20. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, KAZUKI; WADA, RITSUKO; YAGUCHI, SHIGENORI; MAEDA, TOSHIMICHI; DATE, RIE; TOKUNAGA, TAKUSHI; KAZUMURA, KIMIKO; SHIMADA, KAZUKO; MATSUMOTO, MISATO; WAKO, TADAYUKI; YAMAUCHI, NAOKI; SHIGYO, MASAYOSHI

    2013-01-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  1. Supplementation with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) expressing a single alien chromosome from shallot increases the antioxidant activity of Kamaboko fish jelly paste in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Wada, Ritsuko; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Maeda, Toshimichi; Date, Rie; Tokunaga, Takushi; Kazumura, Kimiko; Shimada, Kazuko; Matsumoto, Misato; Wako, Tadayuki; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-05-01

    Kamaboko is a traditional type of processed seafood made from fish jelly paste that is unique to Japan. We supplemented Kamaboko with Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with an alien monosome from shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) and we measured in vitro the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value, an index of antioxidant activity. We also evaluated the results of sensory testing. The ORAC value of plain Kamaboko was 166±14 μmol trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g fresh weight (FW). The values of the edible Alliaceae powder, i.e., Japanese bunching onion (JBO, genome FF, 2n=2x=16) and the alien addition line of JBO carrying the 6A chromosome from shallot (FF+6A, 2n=2x+1=17), were 6,659±238 and 14,096±635 μmol TE/100 g dry weight (DW). We hypothesized that the 6A chromosome encoded the enhancement of polyphenol production. Subsequently, we created Kamaboko containing 4.8% JBO powder or 4.8% FF+6A powder. The ORAC value of each modified Kamaboko product was increased to 376±24 μmol TE/100 g FW for the JBO powder and to 460±16 μmol TE/100 g FW for the FF+6A powder, respectively. We next created Kamaboko containing 9.0% JBO powder or 9.0% FF+6A powder and the ORAC values of the respective modified Kamaboko products was increased to 671±16 and 740±21 μmol TE/100 g FW, i.e., 4.1- and 4.5-times the value of plain Kamaboko. Consequently, taking into consideration the sensory evaluation regarding taste and appearance as well, the use of Kamaboko supplemented with 4.8% FF+6A powder is recommended. PMID:24648948

  2. Antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysates obtained from the housefly larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qin, Qi-Lian; Wu, Yi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The housefly is an important resource insect and the housefly larvae are ideal source of food additives. The housefly larvae protein hydrolysates were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis by alcalase and neutral proteinase. Their antioxidant activities were investigated, including the superoxide and hydroxyl radicalscavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of both hydrolysates increased with their increasing concentrations. The alcalase hydrolysate (AH) showed higher scavenging activities against hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical at low concentrations and higher metal-chelating activity than the neutral proteinase hydrolysate (NPH). The NPH exhibited higher scavenging activity against DPPH free radical and higher reducing power than the AH. Both hydrolysates showed more than 50% superoxide anion radical-scavenging activity at 10 μg/mL. These results indicate that both housefly larvae protein hydrolysates display high antioxidant activities and they could serve as potential natural antioxidant food additives. PMID:27630047

  3. pH dependent antioxidant activity of lettuce (L. sativa) and synergism with added phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-01-01

    Influence of pH on the antioxidant activities of combinations of lettuce extract (LE) with quercetin (QC), green tea extract (GTE) or grape seed extract (GSE) was investigated for both reduction of Fremy's salt in aqueous solution using direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and in L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation assay measured following formation of conjugated dienes. All examined phenolic antioxidants showed increasing radical scavenging effect with increasing pH values by using both methods. QC, GTE and GSE acted synergistically in combination with LE against oxidation of peroxidating liposomes and with QC showing the largest effect. The pH dependent increase of the antioxidant activity of the phenols is due to an increase of their electron-donating ability upon deprotonation and to their stabilization in alkaline solutions leading to polymerization reaction. Such polymerization reactions of polyphenolic antioxidants can form new oxidizable -OH moieties in their polymeric products resulting in a higher radical scavenging activity.

  4. pH dependent antioxidant activity of lettuce (L. sativa) and synergism with added phenolic antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-01-01

    Influence of pH on the antioxidant activities of combinations of lettuce extract (LE) with quercetin (QC), green tea extract (GTE) or grape seed extract (GSE) was investigated for both reduction of Fremy's salt in aqueous solution using direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and in L-α-phosphatidylcholine liposome peroxidation assay measured following formation of conjugated dienes. All examined phenolic antioxidants showed increasing radical scavenging effect with increasing pH values by using both methods. QC, GTE and GSE acted synergistically in combination with LE against oxidation of peroxidating liposomes and with QC showing the largest effect. The pH dependent increase of the antioxidant activity of the phenols is due to an increase of their electron-donating ability upon deprotonation and to their stabilization in alkaline solutions leading to polymerization reaction. Such polymerization reactions of polyphenolic antioxidants can form new oxidizable -OH moieties in their polymeric products resulting in a higher radical scavenging activity. PMID:26212937

  5. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.

  6. The anti-oxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    PubMed

    Selvam, R; Subramanian, L; Gayathri, R; Angayarkanni, N

    1995-07-01

    The turmeric anti-oxidant protein (TAP) had been isolated from the aqueous extract of turmeric. The anti-oxidant principle was found to be a heat stable protein. Trypsin treatment abolished the anti-oxidant activity. The anti-oxidant principle had an absorbance maximum at 280 nm. After gel filtration, the protein showed a 2-fold increase in anti-oxidant activity and showed 2 bands in the SDS-PAGE with approximate molecular weight range of 24,000 Da. The protein showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the promoter induced lipid peroxidation. A 50% inhibitory activity of lipid peroxidation was observed at a protein concentration of 50 micrograms/ml. Ca(2+)-ATPase of rat brain homogenate was protected to nearly 50% of the initial activity from the lipid peroxidant induced inactivation by this protein. This protection of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found to be associated with the prevention of loss of -SH groups.

  7. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

    PubMed

    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  8. Application of KRL test to assess total antioxidant activity in pigs: sensitivity to dietary antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Pastorelli, Grazia; Corino, Carlo

    2013-04-01

    The application of Kit Radicaux Libres (KRL) test to assess total blood antioxidant activity in pigs was evaluated. The KRL has been validated and is widely used in humans for assessing the effectiveness of natural or pharmaceutical treatments, and in vitro to evaluate the antioxidant activities of natural or synthetic antioxidants. In this study the sensitivity of the KRL test in assessing the effectiveness of dietary antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E and plant extract) was evaluated in two different phases of pig breeding. The first trial, in post-weaned piglets (40 piglets/group) fed dietary vitamin E supplementation for 60 days, indicated that there was a higher total antioxidant activity (P=0.032) of whole blood and of red blood cells (P=0.001) than for control pigs. The second trial indicated that long-term supplementation of water soluble plant extract (20 pigs/group) from the leaves of Verbenaceae (Lippia spp.) tended (P=0.091) to increase antioxidant activity in the whole blood of treated, rather than control pigs. These results indicate that the KRL might be recommended as one of efficient means for evaluating antioxidant activity of dietary ingredients fed to pigs.

  9. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  10. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of new bio-antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Saso, L; Angelova, S E; Foti, M C; Slavova-Kasakova, A; Daquino, C; Enchev, V; Firuzi, O; Nechev, J

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants could be promising agents for management of oxidative stress-related diseases. New biologically active compounds, belonging to a rare class of natural lignans with antiangiogenic, antitumoral and DNA intercalating properties, have been recently synthesized. These compounds are benzo[kl]xanthene lignans (1,2) and dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (3,4). The radical scavenging and chain-breaking antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4 were studied by applying different methods: radical scavenging activity by DPPH rapid test, chain-breaking antioxidant activity and quantum chemical calculations. All studied compounds were found to be active as DPPH scavengers but reaction time with DPPH and compounds' concentrations influenced deeply the evaluation. The highest values of radical scavenging activity (%RSAmax) and largest rate constants for reaction with DPPH were obtained for compounds 2 and 3. Comparison of %RSAmax with that of standard antioxidants DL-α-tocopherol (TOH), caffeic acid (CA) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) give the following new order of %RSA max: TOH (61.1%) > CA (58.6%) > 3 (36.3%) > 2 (28.1%) > 4 (6.7%) > 1 (3.6%) = BHT (3.6%). Chain-breaking antioxidant activities of individual compounds (0.1-1.0 mM) and of their equimolar binary mixtures (0.1 mM) with TOH were determined from the kinetic curves of lipid autoxidation at 80 °C. On the basis of a comparable kinetic analysis with standard antioxidants a new order of the antioxidant efficiency (i.e., protection factor, PF) of compounds 1-4 were obtained: 2 (7.2) ≥ TOH (7.0) ≥ CA (6.7) > 1 (3.1) > 3 (2.2) > ferulic acid FA (1.5) > 4 (0.6); and of the antioxidant reactivity (i.e. inhibition degree, ID): 2 (44.0) > TOH (18.7) > CA (9.3) > 1 (8.4) > 3 (2.8) > FA (1.0) > 4 (0.9). The important role of the catecholic structure in these compounds, which is responsible for the high chain-breaking antioxidant activity, is discussed and a reaction

  11. Antioxidant Activities of Ginseng Seeds Treated by Autoclaving

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hye-Min; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Yang, Deok-Chun; Ko, Sung Kwon; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2012-01-01

    Ginseng seeds were treated with different autoclaving temperatures and autoclaving times, and extracted with 80% methanol to measure changes in antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of ginseng seeds treated by autoclaving was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, 2,2’-aziono-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase SOD-like activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and total phenolic compound content. As autoclaving temperature and time were increased, the L lightness value decreased and the redness value tended to increase. Total phenolic compound content was about three times higher in ginseng seeds treated with autoclaving at 130℃ than in ginseng seeds that were not treated. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity increased as autoclaving temperature and time were increased. In particular, when the concentration was 100 ppm, the ABTS radical scavenging activity was 91.80% in ginseng seeds treated by autoclaving at 130℃, which was the highest antioxidant activity. FRAP and SOD-like antioxidant activity tended to increase significantly as autoclaving temperature and time were increased. PMID:23717144

  12. Antioxidant activity of Rafflesia kerrii flower extract.

    PubMed

    Puttipan, Rinrampai; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2014-02-01

    Rafflesia kerrii has been used in Thai traditional remedies for treatment of several diseases. However, scientific data particularly on biological activities of this plant is very rare. The present study explores an antioxidant activity of R. kerrii flower (RKF). Extracting solvent and extraction procedure were found to play an important role on the activity of RKF extract. The extract obtained from water-ethanol system showed higher antioxidant activity than that from water-propylene glycol system. Fractionated extraction using different solvents revealed that methanol fractionated extract (RM) possessed the highest antioxidant activity with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and inhibitory concentration of 50% inhibition (IC50) values of approximately 39 mM/mg and 3 μg/mL, respectively. Phytochemical assays demonstrated that RM contained extremely high quantity of phenolic content with gallic antioxidant equivalent (GAE) and quercetin equivalent (QE) values of approximately 312 mg/g and 16 mg/g, respectively. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV- VIS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that gallic acid was a major component. RM which was stored at 40°C, 75% RH for 4 months showed slightly significant change (p < 0.05) in phytochemical content and antioxidant activity with zero order degradation. The results of this study could be concluded that R. kerrii flower was a promising natural source of strong antioxidant compounds. PMID:24647154

  13. Antioxidant Activities of 4-Methylumbelliferone Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of derivatives of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MUs), which are structurally interesting antioxidants, was performed in this study. The modification of 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) by different reaction steps was performed to yield the target compounds, the 4-MUs. The 4-MUs were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (Fourier transform infrared; FT-IR and Nuclear magnetic resonance; NMR) and micro-elemental analysis (CHNS). The in vitro antioxidant activity of the 4-MUs was evaluated in terms of their free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity assay, chelating activity and their (FRAP) ferric-reducing antioxidant power, which were compared with a standard antioxidant. Our results reveal that the 4-MUs exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities. The antioxidant mechanisms of the 4-MUs were also studied. Density Function Theory (DFT)-based quantum chemical studies were performed with the basis set at 3-21G. Molecular models of the synthesized compounds were studied to understand the antioxidant activity. The electron levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), for these synthesized antioxidants were also studied. PMID:27243231

  14. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Alkyl Nitroderivatives of Hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Elena; Palma-Valdés, Rocío; Sarriá, Beatriz; Gallardo, Irene; de la Cruz, José P; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel; Espartero, José L

    2016-01-01

    A series of alkyl nitrohydroxytyrosyl ether derivatives has been synthesized from free hydroxytyrosol (HT), the natural olive oil phenol, in order to increase the assortment of compounds with potential neuroprotective activity in Parkinson's disease. In this work, the antioxidant activity of these novel compounds has been evaluated using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and Oxygen Radical Scavenging Capacity (ORAC) assays compared to that of nitrohydroxytyrosol (NO₂HT) and free HT. New compounds showed variable antioxidant activity depending on the alkyl side chain length; compounds with short chains (2-4 carbon atoms) maintained or even improved the antioxidant activity compared to NO₂HT and/or HT, whereas those with longer side chains (6-8 carbon atoms) showed lower activity than NO₂HT but higher than HT. PMID:27213306

  15. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in "early potatoes".

    PubMed

    Leo, Lucia; Leone, Antonella; Longo, Cristiano; Lombardi, Domenico Antonio; Raimo, Francesco; Zacheo, Giuseppe

    2008-06-11

    The antioxidant content and the antioxidant capacity of both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant extracts from four "early potato" cultivars, grown in two different locations (Racale and Monteroni), were examined. There was a considerable variation in carotenoid content and weak differences in the ascorbic acid concentration of the examined cultivars of "early potato" and between the harvested locations. An increase in both methanol/water (8:2 v/v) and phosphate buffer soluble (PBS) free phenols (70%) and bound phenols (28%) in the extracts from the cultivars grown at Racale site was found and discussed. Examination of individual phenols revealed that chlorogenic acid and catechin were the major phenols present in potato tuber extracts; a moderate amount of caffeic acid and ferulic acid was also detected. The total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was higher in the Racale extracts and a highly positive linear relationship ( R (2) = 0.8193) between TEAC values and total phenolic content was observed. The oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) of methanol/water and PBS extracts of peel and whole potatoes against the reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl radicals, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radicals was also analyzed. A highly significant linear correlation ( R (2) = 0.9613) between total antioxidant capacity (as a sum of peroxyl radicals + peroxynitrite) and total phenol content of methanol/water extracts was established. Moreover, proliferation of human mammalian cancer (MCF-7) cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to potato extracts. These data can be useful for "early potato" tuber characterization and suggest that the "early potato" has a potential as a dietary source of antioxidants.

  16. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract. PMID:26868574

  17. Antioxidant activities from different rosemary clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Ban, Lan; Narasimhamoorthy, Brindha; Zhao, Liuqing; Greaves, John A; Schroeder, William D

    2016-06-15

    Rosemary extract is widely used in food industry and carnosic acid is reported to be the major component that is responsible for its antioxidant activities. However, it is unclear how the numerous plant metabolites interact and contribute to the overall antioxidant activity. In this study, with poultry fat as the model food system, rosemary extract from six clonal lines were evaluated that each represented a different genetic variant. As expected, rosemary extract with higher carnosic acid content had higher antioxidant activity. However, rosemary extract which had carnosic acid removed retained a significant amount of activity. Furthermore, when the individual contributions of carnosic acid and the portion without carnosic acid were evaluated separately, neither was shown to be responsible for the overall level of its stabilization effect from rosemary extract as a whole entity. The interactions among different plant metabolites have a major impact on the overall antioxidant capabilities of rosemary extract.

  18. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  19. Appraisal of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity potential of cornelian cherry leaves.

    PubMed

    Celep, Engin; Aydın, Ahmet; Kırmızıbekmez, Hasan; Yesilada, Erdem

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of the 80% methanolic extract of Cornus mas L. leaves (CMM) was evaluated by various methods both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro screening tests indicated that CMM had high antioxidant activity in terms of free radical scavenging and metal reducing activity. In vivo antioxidant activity studies in normal healthy rats demonstrated that the total antioxidant capacity of liver homogenates were increased, although no changes were observed in the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase or in the level of lipid peroxidation. Studies on CCl4-treated rats also showed that CMM restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, lowered the level of lipid peroxidation and elevated the total antioxidant capacities of both the total blood and liver homogenates of the animals. Further activity-guided fractionation studies led to the isolation of gallic acid, a well-known antioxidant, as one of the active components. PMID:24035707

  20. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Marine Algal Polyphenolic Compounds: A Mechanistic Approach.

    PubMed

    Fernando, I P Shanura; Kim, Misook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Polyphenolic compounds isolated from marine algae exhibit a broad spectrum of beneficial biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities, along with several other bioactivities centered on their antioxidant properties. Consequently, polyphenolic compounds are increasingly being investigated for their potential use in food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications. The antioxidant activities of these compounds have been explored widely through experimental studies. Nonetheless, a theoretical understanding of the structural and electronic properties could broaden research perspectives, leading to the identification and synthesis of efficient structural analogs with prophylactic uses. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding antioxidant polyphenolic compounds in marine algae with an attempt to describe the structure-activity relationship. PMID:27332715

  2. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. methanolic leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, P. S. Sujan; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Rai, S. Padmalatha

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidative potential of methanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica was evaluated using hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion scavenging and reducing power assays. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity in all in vitro antioxidant assays and contained high level of total phenolic content PMID:24826020

  4. Synergistic Exposure of Rice Seeds to Different Doses of γ-Ray and Salinity Stress Resulted in Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Gene-Specific Modulation of TC-NER Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Macovei, Anca; Garg, Bharti; Raikwar, Shailendra; Carbonera, Daniela; Bremont, Juan Francisco Jiménez; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ)-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ-rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ-rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ-irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ-rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival. PMID:24551849

  5. Synergistic exposure of rice seeds to different doses of γ-ray and salinity stress resulted in increased antioxidant enzyme activities and gene-specific modulation of TC-NER pathway.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Garg, Bharti; Raikwar, Shailendra; Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Buttafava, Armando; Bremont, Juan Francisco Jiménez; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ)-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ -rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ -rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ -irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ -rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival. PMID:24551849

  6. Synergistic exposure of rice seeds to different doses of γ-ray and salinity stress resulted in increased antioxidant enzyme activities and gene-specific modulation of TC-NER pathway.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Garg, Bharti; Raikwar, Shailendra; Balestrazzi, Alma; Carbonera, Daniela; Buttafava, Armando; Bremont, Juan Francisco Jiménez; Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports have underlined the potential of gamma (γ)-rays as tools for seed priming, a process used in seed industry to increase seed vigor and to enhance plant tolerance to biotic/abiotic stresses. However, the impact of γ -rays on key aspects of plant metabolism still needs to be carefully evaluated. In the present study, rice seeds were challenged with different doses of γ -rays and grown in absence/presence of NaCl to assess the impact of these treatments on the early stages of plant life. Enhanced germination efficiency associated with increase in radicle and hypocotyl length was observed, while at later stages no increase in plant tolerance to salinity stress was evident. APX, CAT, and GR were enhanced at transcriptional level and in terms of enzyme activity, indicating the activation of antioxidant defence. The profiles of DNA damage accumulation were obtained using SCGE and the implication of TC-NER pathway in DNA damage sensing and repair mechanisms is discussed. OsXPB2, OsXPD, OsTFIIS, and OsTFIIS-like genes showed differential modulation in seedlings and plantlets in response to γ -irradiation and salinity stress. Altogether, the synergistic exposure to γ -rays and NaCl resulted in enhanced oxidative stress and proper activation of antioxidant mechanisms, thus being compatible with plant survival.

  7. Vitamin E and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed Central

    Dormandy, T L

    1977-01-01

    Forty years after its discovery, vitamin E remains a biochemical Don Basilio, not to be trusted or believed but impossible to dismiss. It is a powerful antioxidant in vitro, in many animals and probably in the newborn. To assess its physiological role and possible therapeutic usefulness in the human adult we need to know more about the mechanisms which normally protect from autoxidative damage. PMID:859819

  8. A polysaccharide-peptide complex from abalone mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus) fruiting bodies increases activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduces lipid peroxidation in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Ng, T B; Song, M; Yuan, F; Liu, Z K; Wang, C L; Jiang, Y; Fu, M; Liu, F

    2007-06-01

    The antioxidant effects of a polysaccharide-peptide complex (F22) from mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus)-fruiting bodies were studied. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver, kidney, and brain of senescence-accelerated mice showed a marked increase after treatment with the polysaccharide-peptide complex. Concurrently, the gene expression levels of SOD, CAT, and GPx, as determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, were up-regulated in the liver, kidney, and brain, whereas the MDA content in these organs declined. The maximal lifespan of the mice was prolonged.

  9. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activity of Coffee

    PubMed Central

    Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461

  10. Antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Janet; Melchor, Gleiby; Martínez, Gregorio; Escobar, Arturo; Faure, Roberto

    2006-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of Rhizophora mangle bark aqueous extract and its majoritary component and high molecular weight polyphenols' fraction were studied using deoxyribose assay. The total extract and its fraction showed scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals and hability to chelate iron ions. PMID:16436316

  11. Antioxidant activity of Filipendula hexapetala flowers.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Zoran; Petrović, Silvana; Pavlović, Milica; Kovacević, Nada; Kukić, Jelena

    2007-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of Filipendula hexapetala flowers was assessed by the assay for ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the assay for DPPH free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) and the assay for the influence of lipid peroxidation in liposomes, induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate system and measured by the TBA test (LP). The activity of the investigated extract in all test-systems was found to be significant. The principal constituent responsible for the observed effects was isolated and identified as spiraeoside. PMID:17337331

  12. Increased antioxidant content in juice enriched with dried extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel.

    PubMed

    Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; Baroni Ferreira, Tânia Rachel; de Oliveira Biazotto, Fúvia; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu

    2012-03-01

    Antioxidants are compounds responsible for free radical scavenging in the body. They protect the organism from oxidative modification of cells and tissues. These modifications have been associated with degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Punica granatum displays high antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which are capable of disease prevention. The present study showed the highest antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel than in seeds and pulp. Based on these results, pomegranate peel was used to produce dried extract that was added to commercial tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. Analysis to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed on pomegranate pulp, seeds and peel and in juices enriched with dried extract of pomegranate peel. The dried extract was responsible for a significant increase in antioxidant activity of the juices, proportional to the concentrations added. However, although both flavors of enriched juices displayed high antioxidant levels, the samples with higher dried extract concentrations received the lowest scores from sensory analysis participants due to the characteristic astringent flavor of pomegranate peels. Therefore, to obtain greater acceptance in the consumer market, we concluded that the maximum addition of dried pomegranate peel extract is 0.5% in tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries.

  13. Increased antioxidant content in juice enriched with dried extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel.

    PubMed

    Mastrodi Salgado, Jocelem; Baroni Ferreira, Tânia Rachel; de Oliveira Biazotto, Fúvia; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu

    2012-03-01

    Antioxidants are compounds responsible for free radical scavenging in the body. They protect the organism from oxidative modification of cells and tissues. These modifications have been associated with degenerative diseases, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. Punica granatum displays high antioxidant potential due to the presence of phenolic compounds, which are capable of disease prevention. The present study showed the highest antioxidant activity in pomegranate peel than in seeds and pulp. Based on these results, pomegranate peel was used to produce dried extract that was added to commercial tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. Analysis to determine the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed on pomegranate pulp, seeds and peel and in juices enriched with dried extract of pomegranate peel. The dried extract was responsible for a significant increase in antioxidant activity of the juices, proportional to the concentrations added. However, although both flavors of enriched juices displayed high antioxidant levels, the samples with higher dried extract concentrations received the lowest scores from sensory analysis participants due to the characteristic astringent flavor of pomegranate peels. Therefore, to obtain greater acceptance in the consumer market, we concluded that the maximum addition of dried pomegranate peel extract is 0.5% in tomato juice and orange juice with strawberries. PMID:22392496

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    activity gradually improved with increasing concentrationsThe content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL-1 and BPL-2 might explain their high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BPL-1:Polysaccharide were isolated from the external mucilage of B. Schreberi; BPL-2: Polysaccharide were isolated from the plant in vivo of B. schreberi; BPL:Polysaccharide were isolated from B. Schreberi.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Water-soluble Polysaccharides from Brasenia schreberi

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Huiwen; Cai, Xueru; Fan, Yijun; Luo, Aoxue

    2016-01-01

    activity gradually improved with increasing concentrationsThe content of sulfuric radicals and uronic acid in BPL-1 and BPL-2 might explain their high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BPL-1:Polysaccharide were isolated from the external mucilage of B. Schreberi; BPL-2: Polysaccharide were isolated from the plant in vivo of B. schreberi; BPL:Polysaccharide were isolated from B. Schreberi. PMID:27601849

  16. Antioxidant activity of puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) as assessed by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Arlene; Thompson, Scott; Stark, Mirjam; Ou, Zong-Quan; Gould, Kevin S

    2011-12-01

    There is considerable interest in antioxidant dietary components that can be protective against degenerative diseases in humans. Puha (Sonchus oleraceus L.) is a rich source of polyphenols, and exhibits strong antioxidant activity as measured by the 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, the potential of puha to protect against degenerative diseases requires that low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWA) are absorbed by, and active in, human cells. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of puha leaf extracts. Preparation methods of freezing and freeze-drying reduced the total polyphenolic content compared with fresh puha, but did not affect the LMWA potential as determined by the DPPH assay. The IC(50) values were 0.012 ± 0.003 mg/mL and 0.010 ± 0.005 mg/mL for freeze-dried and fresh puha leaves, respectively. Using the CAA assay, it was shown that LMWAs from foliar extracts of puha were effectively absorbed into HepG2 cells, and exerted antioxidant activity at levels comparable to those of extracts from blueberry fruits, the much-touted antioxidant superfood. Methylene blue staining of HepG2 cells indicated that puha extracts were not cytotoxic at concentrations below 100 mg DW/mL. The data indicate the potential of puha as a nutraceutical supplement for human health.

  17. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources. PMID:22294387

  18. Antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera tissue extracts.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andréa F S; Argolo, Adriana C C; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Coelho, Luana C B B

    2012-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an important source of antioxidants, tools in nutritional biochemistry that could be beneficial for human health; the leaves and flowers are used by the population with great nutritional importance. This work investigates the antioxidant activity of M. oleifera ethanolic (E1) and saline (E2) extracts from flowers (a), inflorescence rachis (b), seeds (c), leaf tissue (d), leaf rachis (e) and fundamental tissues of stem (f). The radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of extracts was determined using dot-blots on thin layer chromatography stained with a 0.4 mM 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) solution; spectrophotometric assays were recorded (515 nm). Antioxidant components were detected in all E1 and E2 from a, b and d. The best RSC was obtained with E1d; the antioxidants present in E2 reacted very slowly with DPPH. The chromatogram revealed by diphenylborinate-2-ethylamine methanolic solution showed that the ethanolic extract from the flowers, inflorescence rachis, fundamental tissue of stem and leaf tissue contained at least three flavonoids; the saline extract from the flowers and leaf tissue revealed at least two flavonoids. In conclusion, M. oleifera ethanolic and saline extracts contain antioxidants that support the use of the plant tissues as food sources.

  19. Short communication: Effect of genetic type on antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Perna, Annamaria; Intaglietta, Immacolata; Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Caciocavallo cheese made from the milk of 2 breeds, Italian Brown and Italian Holstein, and ripened for 1, 30, 60, 90, and 150 d. The antioxidant activity of cheese was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and thiol assays. Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the studied factors. Italian Brown cheese had higher antioxidant activity than Italian Holstein cheese, and antioxidant activity increased during ripening of both cheeses types. Moreover, antioxidant activity varied during ripening depending on the rate of formation of soluble peptides. To date, few studies have evaluated the effect of genetic type on antioxidant capacity of the pasta filata cheeses; thus, this study forms the basis of new knowledge that could lead to the production of a pasta filata cheese with specific nutraceutical characteristics.

  20. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5-10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  1. Antioxidant Content, Antioxidant Activity, and Antibacterial Activity of Five Plants from the Commelinaceae Family

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Yap, Wei Jin; Tan, Shen Yeng; Lim, Yau Yan; Lee, Sui Mae

    2014-01-01

    Commelinaceae is a family of herbaceous flowering plants with many species used in ethnobotany, particularly in South America. However, thus far reports of their bioactivity are few and far between. The primary aim of this study was to quantify the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five Commelinaceae methanolic leaf extracts. The antioxidant content was evaluated by the total phenolic content (TPC), total tannin content (TTC), and total flavonoid content (TFC) assays. The antioxidant activities measured were DPPH free radical scavenging (FRS), ferric reducing power (FRP), and ferrous ion chelating (FIC); of the five plants, the methanolic leaf extract of Tradescantia zebrina showed the highest antioxidant content and activity, and exhibited antibacterial activity against six species of Gram-positive and two species of Gram-negative bacteria in a range of 5–10 mg/mL based on the broth microdilution method. PMID:26785239

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Withania frutescens.

    PubMed

    El Bouzidi, Laila; Larhsini, Mustapha; Markouk, Mohamed; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Hassani, Lahcen; Bekkouche, Khalid

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we report for the first time the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Withania frutescens (L.) Pauquy roots and leaves. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant activity was evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power methods. Antimicrobial activity tests were carried out against ten bacterial species involved in nosocomial infections and two opportunistic clinical yeast isolates. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol leaf fractions exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 = 4.53 +/- 0.12 and 8.49 +/- 0.46 microg/mL, respectively. The n-butanol root fraction showed the greatest reducing power comparable with that of quercetin at 0.4 mg/mL. The dichloromethane leaf fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MIC values ranging between 50 and 400 microg/mL, depending on the tested bacteria. However, none of the examined extracts exhibited anticandidal activity. The polyphenol and glycowithanolide constituents appeared to be responsible for the antioxidant capacity of W. frutescens, whereas the observed antimicrobial activity may be due to the presence of withanolides.

  3. Antioxidant and Antiacetylcholinesterase Activity of Teucrium hyrcanicum

    PubMed Central

    Golfakhrabadi, Fereshteh; Yousefbeyk, Fatemeh; Mirnezami, Tahmineh; Laghaei, Pedram; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teucrium hyrcanicum belonging to the Lamiaceae family is a native plant in Iran; it is called Maryam nokhodi-e-jangali in Farsi. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI), antioxidant activity and flavonoids content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract. Materials and Methods: The air-dried and the ground aerial parts of T. hyrcanicum were extracted by percolation method with methanol. Antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated by using 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) methods. In addition, AChEI and flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract were measured. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content of T. hyrcanicum in reference to the standard curve for quercetin was 20.70 ± 0.05 mg quercetin equivalents/g of extract. In the FRAP method, the antioxidant activity of T. hyrcanicum extract and butyl hydroxyanisole (BHA) (as a positive control) were 657.5 ± 0.04 and 880 ± 0.06 mmol Fe II/1 g dried extract. According to results of DPPH assay, half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for DPPH radical-scavenging activities of T. hyrcanicum methanol extract, vitamin E and BHA were 74.6, 14.12 and 7.8 μg/mL, respectively. IC50 value for AChEI of T. hyrcanicum and donepezil as a positive control were 2.12 mg/mL and 0.013 mg/mL. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed T. hyrcanicum is a natural antioxidant that the flavonoid content can be responsible for extract effects. PMID:26109782

  4. Aqueous extracts of microalgae exhibit antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Shanab, Sanaa MM; Mostafa, Soha SM; Shalaby, Emad A; Mahmoud, Ghada I

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and anticancer activities of aqueous extracts of nine microalgal species. Methods Variable percentages of major secondary metabolites (total phenolic content, terpenoids and alkaloids) as well as phycobiliprotein pigments (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin) in the aqueous algal extracts were recorded. Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and 2,2′- azino-bis (ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.+) radical cation assay. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma cell (EACC) and Human hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2). Results Antioxidant activity of the algal extracts was performed using DPPH test and ABTS.+ radical cation assays which revealed 30.1-72.4% and 32.0-75.9% respectively. Anticancer efficiency of the algal water extracts was investigated against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cell (EACC) and Human Hepatocellular cancer cell line (HepG2) with an activity ranged 87.25% and 89.4% respectively. Culturing the promising cyanobacteria species; Nostoc muscorum and Oscillatoria sp. under nitrogen stress conditions (increasing and decreasing nitrate content of the normal BG11 medium, 1.5 g/L), increased nitrate concentration (3, 6 and 9 g/L) led to a remarkable increase in phycobilin pigments followed by an increase in both antioxidant and anticancer activities in both cyanobacterial species. While the decreased nitrate concentration (0.75, 0.37 and 0.0 g/L) induced an obvious decrease in phycobilin pigments with complete absence of allophycocyanin in case of Oscillatoria sp. Conclusions Nitrogen starvation (0.00 g/L nitrate) induced an increase and comparable antioxidant and anticancer activities to those cultured in the highest nitrate content. PMID:23569980

  5. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  6. Extraction and antioxidant activity of flavonoids of Morus nigra

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Rui-Zhang; Wang, Qin; Tong, Wen-Zhi; Xiong, Juan; Wei, Qin; Zhou, Wan-Hai; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Yin, Xiao-Ya; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Ya-Qin; Lai, Yong-Hong; Huang, Hong-Yan; Luo, Qiao-Li; Wang, Lu; Jia, Ren-Yong; Song, Xu; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Li, Li-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Morus nigra has a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, but the study on it is limited, the flavonoids are one of the main biological active substances. In this study, the Morus nigra flavonoids were extracted by ultrasonic and antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo were measured. The results showed that hydroxyl radicals clearance rate and superoxide radical anion clearance rate in vitro increased with the concentration of the total flavonoids in the range of 0-1.05 mg/mL and the maximum clearance rate was 80.33% and 87.69%, respectively. After mice were treated with flavonoids, the content of malonaldehyde (MDA) in serum and liver decreased; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and liver, catalase (CAT) in liver and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood and liver increased; Langhans cells increased in spleen. These results revealed that the Morus nigra flavonoids possessed strong antioxidant activity. PMID:26885210

  7. In vitro synergistic antioxidant activity and identification of antioxidant components from Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia lactiflora.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Li, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Li, Pengcheng; Zhang, Xing; Wu, Zhaoxi; Li, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    Many traditionally used herbs demonstrate significantly better pharmacological effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the mechanism underlying this synergism is still poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic antioxidant activity of Astragalus membranaceus (AME) and Paeonia Lactiflora (PL), and identify the potential antioxidant components by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH) radical spiking test followed by a high performance liquid chromatography separation combined with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry analysis (DPPH-HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Eight AME-PL combined extracts (E1-E8) were prepared based on bioactivity-guided fractionation. Among them, E1 exhibited the strongest synergistic effect in scavenging DPPH radicals and reducing ferric ions (P<0.05). Moreover, E1 presented strong cytoprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in MRC-5 cells by suppressing the decrease of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities. A strong correlation between the increment of total phenolic/flavonoid and synergistic antioxidant activity, especially between the increment of total flavonoid and the increase in ferric reducing power was observed. Finally, seven antioxidant substances were identified in E1 as oxypaeoniflora, catechin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, fomononetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 9,10-dimethoxy-pterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin and 2'-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethyl-isoflavan-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:24816851

  8. In vitro and vivo antioxidant activities of daylily flowers and the involvement of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Que, Fei; Mao, Linchun; Zheng, Xiaojie

    2007-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts prepared from these dried flowers were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing capacity, and metal chelating activity. Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Ethanol was more efficiency to extract antioxidants than water, and freeze-drying preserved higher activities than air-drying. Rutin, (+)-catechin, and gallic acid were identified in the extracts by HPLC, and were highly related to the antioxidant activities. The antioxidant activity was further evaluated by feeding mice with ethanol extract from freeze-dried daylily flowers for 60 days. The results demonstrated that the extract at dosage of 40-225 mg/100 g significantly increased the activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and reduced the lipid peroxidation in both blood and liver of rat. PMID:17392104

  9. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common fruits.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Chu, Yi-Fang; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-12-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, especially phenolics, in fruits and vegetables are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds for the health benefits. However, the phenolic contents and their antioxidant activities in fruits and vegetables were underestimated in the literature, because bound phenolics were not included. This study was designed to investigate the profiles of total phenolics, including both soluble free and bound forms in common fruits, by applying solvent extraction, base digestion, and solid-phase extraction methods. Cranberry had the highest total phenolic content, followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, pineapple, banana, peach, lemon, orange, pear, and grapefruit. Total antioxidant activity was measured using the TOSC assay. Cranberry had the highest total antioxidant activity (177.0 +/- 4.3 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of fruit), followed by apple, red grape, strawberry, peach, lemon, pear, banana, orange, grapefruit, and pineapple. Antiproliferation activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver-cancer cells, and cranberry showed the highest inhibitory effect with an EC(50) of 14.5 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, followed by lemon, apple, strawberry, red grape, banana, grapefruit, and peach. A bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  10. Potentiometric study of antioxidant activity: development and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A V; Gerasimova, E L; Brainina, Kh Z

    2015-01-01

    The increasing interest in the study of the antioxidant activity of different objects is caused by an unbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the performance of the antioxidant system in humans under certain conditions, which leads to oxidative stress and pathological states of the organism. This article presents a brief critical review of the methods that are used to measure integrated antioxidant activity (AOA). It is shown that the most promising methods for measuring AOA are electrochemical ones, particularly potentiometry, as it best fits the nature of the processes causing oxidative stress. The article gives the theoretical rational for requirements that an oxidizer of antioxidants (AO) should meet. The work presents the thermodynamic grounds for the use of an earlier proposed mediator system, kinetics of chemical reactions between AO and the mediator system. In order to confirm reliability and accuracy of the results, numerous correlation studies were conducted, aiming to compare the data obtained with the use the proposed method and independent analytical methods. The article presents the results of the potentiometric study of AOA for a variety of objects, including individual antioxidant → nutritional supplements → food → blood and blood fractions.

  11. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  12. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  13. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A

    2009-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.

  14. Antioxidant activity of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Chia-Lin; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Kou, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Lisu

    2005-08-10

    Glossogyne tenuifolia is a native traditional anti-inflammatory herb in Taiwan. It has previously been shown that the ethanol extract of G. tenuifolia (GT) inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release from murine macrophage cell line and human whole blood. In the present work, the ethanol extracts of G. tenuifolia and its major constituent, luteolin-7-glucoside, were shown to be scavengers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation was suppressed by GT and luteolin-7-glucoside as measured by decreased formation of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene as well as reduced electrophoretic mobility. GT and luteolin-7-glucoside were also against N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, these data indicated that GT is a potential ROS scavenger and may prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting LDL oxidation or ROS production in human leukocytes. Moreover, luteolin-7-glucoside may serve as the active principal of GT.

  15. Antioxidant activity of Glossogyne tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Chia-Lin; Lian, Tzi-Wei; Kou, Mei-Chuan; Wang, Lisu

    2005-08-10

    Glossogyne tenuifolia is a native traditional anti-inflammatory herb in Taiwan. It has previously been shown that the ethanol extract of G. tenuifolia (GT) inhibited the LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release from murine macrophage cell line and human whole blood. In the present work, the ethanol extracts of G. tenuifolia and its major constituent, luteolin-7-glucoside, were shown to be scavengers of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals. Moreover, copper-induced low-density lipoprotein oxidation was suppressed by GT and luteolin-7-glucoside as measured by decreased formation of malondialdehyde and conjugated diene as well as reduced electrophoretic mobility. GT and luteolin-7-glucoside were also against N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, these data indicated that GT is a potential ROS scavenger and may prevent atherosclerosis via inhibiting LDL oxidation or ROS production in human leukocytes. Moreover, luteolin-7-glucoside may serve as the active principal of GT. PMID:16076111

  16. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of chamazulene.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) of chamomile contain several bioactive compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes and fatty acids. Hydrodistillation of chamomile EO induces the formation of chamazulene, a bioactive compound. Chamazulene was isolated from the EO by column chromatography. The total antioxidant capacity confirmed a higher antioxidant activity of chamazulene (IC50 = 6.4 μg mL(- 1)) than of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 12.8 μg mL(- 1)), α-tocopherol (IC50 = 20.5 μg mL(- 1)) and of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (IC50 = 30.8 μg mL(- 1)). Chamazulene was unable to react with DPPH√. However, when chamazulene was assayed with ABTS√, a strong and significantly (P < 0.05) higher free radical scavenging activity was observed (IC50 = 3.7 μg mL(- 1)), with respect to BHT (IC50 = 6.2 μg mL(- 1)) and α-tocopherol (IC50 = 11.5 μg mL(- 1)). The results of this work show that chamazulene is an important factor for the antioxidant power of chamomile oil. PMID:24980540

  17. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking.

    PubMed

    Harakotr, Bhornchai; Suriharn, Bhalang; Tangwongchai, Ratchada; Scott, Marvin Paul; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-12-01

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p⩽0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound and antioxidant activity. Steam cooking preserved more antioxidant compounds than boiling. Boiling caused a significant loss of anthocyanin and phenolic compounds into the cooking water. This cooking water is a valuable co-product because it is a good source of purple pigment. By comparing levels of antioxidant compounds in raw and cooked corn, we determined that degradation results in greater loss than leaching or diffusion into cooking water. Additionally, separation of kernels from the cob prior to cooking caused increased loss of antioxidant compounds. PMID:24996364

  18. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  19. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes activity of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 (Cyanobacterium) under simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gen-bao; Liu, Yong-ding; Wang, Gao-hong; Song, Li-rong

    2004-12-01

    It was found that reactive oxygen species in Anabaena cells increased under simulated microgravity provided by clinostat. Activities of intracellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase were higher than those in the controlled samples during the 7 days' experiment. However, the contents of gluathione, an intracellular antioxidant, decreased in comparison with the controlled samples. The results suggested that microgravity provided by clinostat might break the oxidative/antioxidative balance. It indicated a protective mechanism in algal cells, that the total antioxidant system activity increased, which might play an important role for algal cells to adapt the environmental stress of microgravity.

  20. Increased antioxidant efficacy of tocopherols by surfactant solubilization in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Kiralan, S Sezer; Doğu-Baykut, Esra; Kittipongpittaya, Ketinun; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2014-10-29

    The physical location of antioxidants in oil-in-water emulsions can have significant influence on their free radical scavenging activity and ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. We aimed to determine the effect of the surfactant concentration on the partitioning behavior of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ) in oil-in-water emulsions. Tween 20 (0.1, 0.5, and 1%) increased the partitioning of the tocopherols into the aqueous phase via the formation of Tween 20-tocopherol comicelles. Partitioning behavior of antioxidants was dependent upon the number of methyl groups and, thus, polarity of the tocopherols. δ-Tocopherol (one methyl group) exhibited the most partitioning into the aqueous phase, while α-tocopherol (three methyl groups) had the lowest partitioning. Lipid oxidation studies showed that the antioxidant activity of δ- and α-tocopherols was enhanced by adding Tween 20 to oil-in-water emulsions. This work suggests that surfactant micelles could increase the antioxidant activity of tocopherols by changing their physical location.

  1. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases.

  2. Assessment of red onion on antioxidant activity in rat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bora; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2012-11-01

    Oxidative stress related to the aging process can increase the risk of degenerative disease. Red onions contain antioxidative compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dietary red onion peel and/or flesh on antioxidative activity in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats (18 weeks old) were divided into four groups. Each group was raised for 4 weeks on a red onion free control diet (ND), red onion diet containing 5% red onion peel (RP), 5% red onion flesh (RF), or 5% red onion peel+flesh (RPF). The results demonstrated that serum SOD activity was significantly increased in the RP and RPF groups, whereas glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity was significantly higher in the RF group than in the ND group. Catalase activity and ORAC activity in liver showed upward tendency in the RP, RF, and RPF groups although the differences were not statistically significant. Liver malondialdehyde levels in the RPF group were significantly lower than those in the ND group were. In conclusion, red onion may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of plasma SOD and GPx activities and inhibited liver lipid peroxidation. Therefore, red onion may exert important protective effects against oxidative stress related diseases. PMID:22902824

  3. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  4. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M N; Khan, I U

    2008-06-01

    A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH) decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM) and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS)-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays) and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  5. Changes in whole grain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of six sorghum genotypes under different irrigation treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gangcheng; Johnson, Stuart K; Bornman, Janet F; Bennett, Sarita J; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum grain containing elevated polyphenolic antioxidant content may provide foods with benefits to human health. A study was undertaken to determine the potential role of irrigation on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant levels in sorghum grain. Bound, free and total polyphenols were investigated in six diverse sorghum genotypes grown under either full irrigation or a deficit irrigation regime. Results showed genotype, irrigation and their interaction had a significant effect on polyphenols and antioxidant activity (P⩽0.05). The deficit irrigation treatment significantly increased polyphenol content and antioxidant activity compared to the full irrigation treatment. Of the six genotypes Shawaya black short 1 and IS1311C (brown) showed the highest polyphenols levels and antioxidant activity. Therefore, both irrigation treatments and genotype need to be considered by sorghum breeders and farmers during sorghum production to produce grain with the required levels of polyphenolics and antioxidant activity for targeted end-use. PMID:27507466

  6. Evaluation of in vivo antioxidant activity of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Han, Zi-Hua; Ye, Jian-Min; Wang, Guan-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) is a traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, chemical composition and antioxidant activity of HEP was investigated. HPLC analysis showed that the HEP was composed of xylose (7.8%), ribose (2.7%), glucose (68.4%), arabinose (11.3%), galactose (2.5%) and mannose (5.2%). HEP was pre-administered to mice by gavage at a dose of 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Results found that HEP preadministration resulted in a significant decline in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and increase in creatinine clearance (CrCI) levels in HEP-pretreated group compared to renal ischemia reperfusion (IR) group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level significantly increased, whereas Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) markedly decreased in renal IR animals. These results indicate that IR induced renal oxidative injury damage, as indicated by a increase in MDA level, and decrease in GSH level as well as the antioxidant enzymes activity. Such effects reflect that HEP can significantly decrease lipid peroxidation level and increase antioxidant enzymes activities in experimental animals.

  7. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ae-Jung; Choi, Eun-Mi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the medicinal properties of pine pollen, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of pine pollen extract (PPE) were investigated. PPE displayed a strong free radical scavenger activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and hydrogen peroxide. It was observed also that the antioxidant activity, measured by the ferric thiocyanate method, increased with the addition of PPE to the linoleic acid emulsion system. PPE was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls formed from liver homogenate. Like the antioxidant activity, the reducing power of PPE was excellent. Thereafter, the study investigated the effects of PPE in modulating the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the effect of PPE on interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation in the human synovial sarcoma cell line, SW982. PPE was found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 in LPS-activated macrophages. Treatment with PPE at 10 microg/mL significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited IL-1beta-induced MMPs (MMP-1 and -3) production in SW982 cells. IL-1beta-induced JNK activation was inhibited by PPE (10 microg/mL), whereas p38 and ERK1/2 were not affected. These findings suggest that pine pollen is a potential antioxidant and beneficial for inflammatory conditions through down-regulation of JNK and MMPs.

  8. Theoretical investigation on antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic acids for designing a novel antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajeri, Afshan; Asemani, S. Somayeh

    2009-07-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed to predict antioxidant property for two interesting classes of compounds including phenolic acids and vitamins. Important characteristics of antioxidants such as O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and ionization potential (IP) were calculated in the gas-phase to analyze the effect of heterocyclic ring, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and presence of electron donating group near the O-H on the antioxidant activity. The results reveal that the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding through ortho-hydroxy group lowers BDE, IP and spin density. In general, phenolic acids were found to be more effective antioxidant than vitamins. The H-atom transfer (HAT) mechanism was selected to study the hydrogen abstraction from phenolic compounds by hydroperoxyl radical. It is found that the antioxidant with lower BDE undergoes hydrogen abstraction with low barrier and considerable exothermicity. On the basis of these results we were able to design a novel antioxidant with enhanced activity.

  9. Antioxidant activity of selected Spanish wines in corn oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, C; Satué-Gracia, M T; Frankel, E N

    2000-11-01

    Wines contain phenolic compounds that may be useful for preventing lipid oxidation as dietary antioxidants. This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity in corn oil emulsions of seventeen selected Spanish wines and two California wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) varied from 8.4% to 40.2% with the red wines, from 20.9% to 45.8% with the rosé wines, and from 6.5% to 47.0% with the white wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 11.9% to 34.1% with the red wines, from 0.1% to 34. 5% with the rosé wines, and from 3.3% to 37.2% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 10 microM GAE varied from 23. 6% to 64.4% with the red wines, from 42.7% to 68.5% with the rosé wines, and from 28.4% to 68.8% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 33.0% to 46.3% with the red wines, from 11.3% to 66.5% with the rosé wines, and from -16.7% to +21.0% with the white wines. The antioxidant effect decreased with increasing concentration. This antioxidant activity was related to the five main groups of phenolic compounds identified in wines by HPLC. The relative antioxidant activity correlated positively with the total phenol content of wines (by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and by HPLC), benzoic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols, for the inhibition of hydroperoxides and hexanal at 10 and 20 microM GAE.

  10. Dietary antioxidant activities in different germplasms of Mucuna.

    PubMed

    Uma, Sundaram; Gurumoorthi, Parameswaran

    2013-07-01

    Mucuna pruriens, an underutilized native legume of South India has been reported to have high levels of L-Dopa, and used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Cellular damage arising from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is said to cause neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants could assuage this oxidative damage of tissue directly and/or indirectly by enhancing natural defenses and also scavenging the free radicals. In this context, the antioxidative potential of different germplasm of Mucuna species was analyzed. Assays were performed to evaluate the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants in the extracts. Methanolic extracts of Mucuna (black germplasm) yielded high levels dietary antioxidants viz., flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids and phlobotannins qualitatively. Tannins, total phenols, flavanoids, and steroids accounted for 13.60±1.8 tannic acid equivalents, 58.47±3.19 gallic acid equivalents, 23.7±3.12 quercetin equivalents, and 20.3±1.0 mg per 100 mg β-sitosterol equivalents, respectively. Percentage of scavenging activity against hydroxyl, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals were 39.12%; 57.1%; 41.26%, and 25.68%, respectively. Reducing capacity (17.74%) was seen to concurrently increase with extract concentration. Catalase, glutathione reductase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were found to be 30.15; 26.6 and 42.5 μmol/mg of protein, respectively. The methanolic extract yielded the most potent levels of dietary antioxidants and exhibited high free-radical-scavenging activity. PMID:23875901

  11. SAR and QSAR of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Amić, Dragan; Davidović-Amić, Dusanka; Beslo, Drago; Rastija, Vesna; Lucić, Bono; Trinajstić, Nenad

    2007-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of naturally occurring phytochemicals abundantly present in fruits, vegetables, and beverages such as wine and tea. In the past two decades, flavonoids have gained enormous interest because of their beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammatory, cardio-protective and anticancer activities. These findings have contributed to the dramatic increase in the consumption and use of dietary supplements containing high concentrations of plant flavonoids. The pharmacological effect of flavonoids is mainly due to their antioxidant activity and their inhibition of certain enzymes. In spite of abundant data, structural requirements and mechanisms underlying these effects have not been fully understood. This review presents the current knowledge about structure-activity relationships (SARs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. SAR and QSAR can provide useful tools for revealing the nature of flavonoid antioxidant action. They may also help in the design of new and efficient flavonoids, which could be used as potential therapeutic agents.

  12. Spirogyra varians mutant generated by high dose gamma-irradiation shows increased antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hak-Jyung; Yoon, Minchul; Sung, Nak-Yun; Choi, Jong-il

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of a Spirogyra varians mutant (Mut) produced by gamma irradiation. Methanol extracts were prepared from Spirogyra varians wild-type and Mut plants, and their antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC) were determined. Antioxidant parameters, including the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ferric-reducing/antioxidant power, were higher in the Mut extract. Moreover, the TPC level was higher (P<0.05) in the Mut methanol extract. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation-induced S. varians Mut has superior antioxidant properties.

  13. Reduced antioxidant level and increased oxidative damage in intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Váli, László; Taba, Gabriella; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Kurucz, Tímea; Pallai, Zsolt; Kupcsulik, Péter; Blázovics, Anna

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether increased blood flow of the liver can cause oxidative stress and hepatocyte damage, and to elaborate methods suitable for measuring the antioxidant defence during hepatic surgery on rat model. METHODS: In nembutal narcosis, the left lateral and the medial lobes of the liver were clipped for 45 min to make the total blood supply flow through the other lobes. Total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activity, as well as the concentrations of diene conjugates and free sulphydril groups, H-donating ability and reducing power of the liver samples were determined. Chemiluminescent intensity of the liver was also measured. Metal ions (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) and P and S concentrations of the liver were determined with an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and Se content was measured by cathodic stripping voltammetry. RESULTS: Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dysmutase activities of the liver decreased significantly in the hyperemia group compared to those observed in the sham operated group. The level of total antioxidant status was also significantly lower in the hyperemia group. H-donating ability, reducing power and free sulphydril group concentration showed the same tendency. A significant correlation (P<0.05) was found between the changes in non-specific antioxidant activities. This pointed to simultaneous activity of the antioxidant defence system. Al, Cu, Mn, Zn, and S were lower in the hyperemia group than in the sham operated group when the levels of Ca, Fe, Mg, Se and P ions were higher during hyperemia. CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is one of the main factors for the injury of intact liver lobes during ischaemia-reperfusion. PMID:16534850

  14. Relation between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and antihypertensive activity for six essential oils.

    PubMed

    Yvon, Yan; Raoelison, Emmanuel Guy; Razafindrazaka, René; Randriantsoa, Adolphe; Romdhane, Mehrez; Chabir, Naziha; Mkaddem, Mounira Guedri; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2012-08-01

    Six essential oils (EOs), Juniperus phoenicea (leaves and berries), Thymus capitatus, Lauris nobilis, Melaleuca armillaris, and Eucalyptus gracilis, were screened for their antioxidant and antihypertensive activity as well as their chemical compositions. We identified and quantified 24 compounds (representing 99.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea leaves, 14 compounds (representing 98.8% of total oil) for J. phoenicea berries, 11 compounds (representing 99.6% of total oil) for T. capitatus, 32 compounds (representing 98.9% of total oil) for L. nobilis, 32 compounds (representing 98.7% of total oil) for M. armillaris, and 26 compounds (representing 99.3% of total oil) for E. gracilis. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the antioxidant activity was in the range of 0.59 to 2183.6 mg/L, whereas T. capitatus (1.24 ± 0.05 mg/L) gave the best activity in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate assay. Antihypertensive activity was evaluated by testing the vasorelaxing capacity of EOs on rat aorta precontracted by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). T. capitatus and L. nobilis were most active for an antihypertensive activity (29 ± 3 and 59 ± 2 mg/L, respectively). Correlations between chemical composition or antioxidant activity and/or antihypertensive activity were studied. Significant correlation has been found for antihypertensive activity and p-cymene (R(2) = 0.86), β-elemene (R(2) = 0.90), and β-myrcene (R(2) = 0.76). A good correlation has been found between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay (R(2) = 0.98). Antioxidant activity can contribute to the prevention of the increase of the blood pressure. According to the literature, no study has been reported until now of correlation between antihypertensive activity and antioxidant activity. Natural EOs can find its interest and application in a medicinal area. PMID:22860587

  15. Structural elucidation and cellular antioxidant activity evaluation of major antioxidant phenolics in lychee pulp.

    PubMed

    Su, Dongxiao; Ti, Huihui; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhang, Mingwei; Wei, Zhengchen; Deng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Jinxin

    2014-09-01

    Lychee pulp contains phenolic compounds that are strong antioxidants, but the identities of the major antioxidants present are unknown. In the present study, the major contributors to the antioxidant activity of fresh lychee pulp were identified and their cellular antioxidant activities were investigated. Aqueous acetone extracts of lychee pulp were fractionated on polyamide resin, and those fractions with the largest antioxidant and radical scavenging activities were selected using cellular antioxidant activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assays. Three compounds that were major contributors to the antioxidant activity in these fractions were obtained by reverse-phase preparative HPLC and identified as quercetin 3-O-rutinoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnosidase (quercetin 3-rut-7-rha), quercetin 3-O-rutinoside (rutin) and (-)-epicatechin using NMR spectroscopy, HMBC, and ESI-MS spectrometry. The concentration of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha was 17.25mg per 100g of lychee pulp fresh weight. This is the first report of the identification and cellular antioxidant activity of quercetin 3-rut-7-rha from lychee pulp.

  16. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121

  17. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. “Unicon” exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity.

  18. Ripening-Dependent Changes in Antioxidants, Color Attributes, and Antioxidant Activity of Seven Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Shiva Ram; Lee, Jun Gu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients, seven commercial cultivars (two general and five cherry) of tomatoes were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. Fruits were harvested at breaker, turning, pink, light red, and red stages of each cultivar, and antioxidant contents, color attributes, and antioxidant activities were measured. During ripening process, lycopene content increased from the breaker to red stage, while lutein displayed the reverse accumulation pattern, with higher values during the breaker stage. In contrast, β-carotene showed the highest levels of synthesis in pink and light red stages. Furthermore, flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and luteolin) also showed similar ripening-dependent changes, with higher quantities in pink and light red stages. Ascorbic acid showed continuously increasing patterns throughout ripening until the red stage, while the accumulation of total phenolics was cultivar-dependent. These results indicate that each antioxidant compound has a unique pattern of accumulation and degradation during the ripening process. "Unicon" exhibited highest total carotenoid (110.27 mg/100 g), total phenol (297.88 mg GAE/100 g) and total flavonoid content (273.33 mg/100 g), and consequently highest antioxidant activity (2552.4 μmol TE/100 g) compared to other cultivars. Throughout the ripening processes, total phenolics showed the highest correlation with antioxidant activity, followed by β-carotene and total flavonoids. In conclusion, ripening in tomatoes is accompanied by incremental increases in various antioxidant compounds to some extent, as well as by concomitant increases in antioxidant activity. PMID:27668121

  19. Antioxidant activity of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers in unsaturated lipids.

    PubMed

    Cert, Rosa; Madrona, Andrés; Espartero, José Luis; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of ethyl and octyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers toward lipids was determined using the Rancimat and open cup methods at high temperatures and 50 °C, respectively. The effect of the unsaturation of the matrix was evaluated using sunflower, soya, and fish refined oils. The antioxidant activities of alkyl hydroxytyrosyl ethers (HTy ethers), hydroxytyrosyl esters, and free hydroxytyrosol are similar, and are much higher than that of α-tocopherol at the same millimolar concentration. The relationship between the induction period and the concentration of the HTy ethers is a sigmoidal curve; an accurate concentration of HTy ethers is necessary to achieve maximum activity, as it increases with the level of matrix unsaturation. The presence of tocopherols in commercial oils affects the antioxidant effect of HTy ethers. Thus, the addition of a low concentration of HTy ethers results in a positive effect, whereas the effect of the addition of high amounts of ethers is slightly less than that of the phenol alone. The addition of HTy ethers to commercial refined oils increases the stability of the oils and preserves tocopherols and polyunsaturated fatty acids from oxidation, enabling the oils to maintain their nutritional properties for longer periods of time.

  20. Effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Satoshi; Sugahara, Takuya; Matsugi, Junko; Someya, Tatsushi; Masuda, Toshiya; Kishida, Taro; Akiyama, Koichi; Maruyama, Masafumi

    2007-09-01

    The effect of the benzylic structure of lignan on antioxidant activity was evaluated. Secoisolariciresinol (1) and 3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)tetrahydrofuran (2), which have two secondary benzylic positions without oxygen, showed the highest antioxidant activity. Optically active verrucosin (4) was synthesized for the first time in this experiment.

  1. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Bauhinia racemosa L. stem bark.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R S; Sivakumar, T; Sunderam, R S; Gupta, M; Mazumdar, U K; Gomathi, P; Rajeshwar, Y; Saravanan, S; Kumar, M S; Murugesh, K; Kumar, K A

    2005-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of a methanol extract of Bauhinia racemosa (MEBR) (Caesalpiniaceae) stem bark in various systems. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extract increased in a concentration-dependent manner. About 50, 100, 250, and 500 microg MEBR inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 62.43, 67.21, 71.04, and 76.83%, respectively. Similarly, the effect of MEBR on reducing power increased in a concentration-dependent manner. In DPPH radical scavenging assays the IC50 value of the extract was 152.29 microg/ml. MEBR inhibited the nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside with an IC50 of 78.34 microg/ml, as opposed to 20.4 microg/ml for curcumin. Moreover, MEBR scavenged the superoxide generated by the PMS/NADH-NBT system. MEBR also inhibited the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton's reaction, with an IC50 value of more than 1000 microg/ml, as compared to 5 microg/ml for catechin. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined and 64.7 microg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in MEBR (1 mg). The antimicrobial activities of MEBR were determined by disc diffusion with five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative and four fungal species. MEBR showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. The results obtained in the present study indicate that MEBR can be a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  4. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  5. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry.

  6. Ultrasound extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Yang; Wan, Yi; Xu, Jian-Yi; Wu, Guo-Hua; Li, Long; Yao, Xiao-Hui

    2016-02-10

    A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves. Under the optimum conditions of an extraction temperature of 57 °C, an extraction time of 80 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 53 mL/g, the mulberry leaf polysaccharide (MLP) yield was 6.92 ± 0.29%. Then, three fractions of MLPs were obtained by deproteinization, dialysis and decolorization. The carbohydrate content, FT-IR spectrum and monosaccharide composition of the MLPs were also investigated. The antioxidant activities of the three fractions were compared, and the results indicated that the antioxidant activities decreased with the increasing MLP purity. Therefore, highly concentrated MLPs were shown to have very little antioxidant activity. After quercetin (10 μg/mL) was added, the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This result showed that MLPs and quercetin have a synergistic effect on the antioxidant activity. Although the MLPs have very little antioxidant activity alone, they greatly enhance the antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Thus, MLPs can be used as an antioxidant activity enhancer in the food industry. PMID:26686153

  7. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaves.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhi Ping; Zhang, Liang Liang; Lin, Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf extracts was investigated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The methanolic extract and its four water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane fractions were prepared and subjected to antioxidant evaluation. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fraction had stronger antioxidant activity than the other ones. HPLC data indicated that S. cumini leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, responsible for their antioxidant activity. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical-scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extracts supported this observation. PMID:18927517

  8. Orange Peel Extracts: Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant, Antioxidative Burst, and Phytotoxic Activities.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ebuehi, Osaretin A T; Iqbal Chaudhary, M; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Shukralla, Ahmed; Muhammad, Aliyu; Zaruwa, Moses Z; Elemo, Gloria N

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel drugs and alternative medicine has led to increased research in medicinal plants. Among such plants is the orange fruit. Its peels have been utilized for long as an active ingredient in most traditional medicines. This study aims at investigating the chemical properties of the hexane and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of orange peel as well as their biological potentials. Blended peels were extracted with n-hexane and n-dichloromethane, respectively. The resulting extracts were subjected to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) characterization. The extracts were also assayed for free radical scavenging ability against 1,1 -diphenyl -2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), antioxidative burst via measuring luminol -amplified chemiluminescence response in human blood, and phytotoxicity against lemna minor. GCMS analysis revealed a predominance of fatty acid methyl esters in the hexane extract, while the DCM extract had more ketone metabolites. The DCM extract had significant (p < .05) higher free radical scavenging and antioxidative burst activities compared to the hexane. Both extracts revealed a significantly (p < .05) high phytotoxicity activity. Results from this study indicated that solvent type played a vital a role in the extraction of secondary metabolites, which are responsible for the observed biological activities. The higher activities by the DCM extract can be attributed to its constituents as revealed by GCMS analysis. There is great need to explore the phytotoxicity potentials of both extracts as natural herbicides. PMID:26930349

  9. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  10. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  11. Edible bird's nest enhances antioxidant capacity and increases lifespan in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Li, G; Yao, H; He, S; Li, H; Liu, S; Wu, Y; Lai, X

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aims to investigate the effects of edible bird's nest (EBN) on anti-aging efficacy. In order to investigate lifespan and mortality rate of flies, we treated flies with various doses of EBN. Besides, fecundity, water content and food are determined and heat-stress test is conducted after flies treating with different medium. Effects of EBN on total antioxidant activity (T-AOC), super-oxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined in drosophila melanogaster. Results indicated that flies in EBN treated group illustrated significantly lower mortality rates and longer median and maximum lifespan compared to control group (P<0.05). The fecundity in EBN-treated group was increased compared to control group. SOD levels and CAT activity were significantly increased, and MDA levels decreased in EBN-treated group compared to control group (P<0.01). In conclusion, EBN can extend lifespan, decrease mortality rate and increase survival rate in heat-stress test, and which can also promote SOD and CAT activity and reduce MDA levels. EBN is able to delay drosophila melanogaster aging, attributing to the increasing antioxidant enzyme activities and decreasing content of lipid peroxidation products in drosophila melanogaster. PMID:27188745

  12. [Polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds and nuts].

    PubMed

    Padilla, F C; Rincón, A M; Bou-Rached, L

    2008-09-01

    Foods from plant origin not only provide human diet with certain antioxidant vitamins (C, E and beta-carotene), but also a complex mixture of polyphenols, with antioxidant activity. Numerous studies have been focused on the protective and preventing effect of this antioxidant activity on certain degenerative illnesses such as cardiovascular, cancer, and neurological diseases, cataracts and oxidative stress dysfunctions. The objective of this work was to evaluate total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of several seeds, nuts, or grains such as Theobroma cacao, Canpsiandra comosa Benth (chiga), Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench, Melicoccus bijugatus (genip). Total polyphenol content was assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the antioxidant activity by the beta carotene/linoleate, reducing power, and the anti-radical activity methods. Results showed genip pericarp with the lowest polyphenol content (1.40 gGAE/100 g), and cacao beans with the highest (6.66 gGAE/100 g). Reducing power of cacao beans was also the highest and similar to the reducing power of 5.80 g ascorbic acid/100 g, followed by Campsiandra comosa. Moreover, Campsiandra comosa and cacao seeds presented an antioxidant activity comparable to that of the butylhydroxianisol, a synthetic antioxidant. The highest anti-radical activity was shown by Campsiandra comosa with an EC50 of 2.67 g/gDPPH. Total polyphenol content shows a good correlation with the antioxidant activity. Moreover, these seeds might have the same health beneficial effects attributed to other fruits and vegetables.

  13. Incresing antioxidant activity and reducing decay of blueberries by essential oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several naturally occurring essential oils including carvacrol, anethole, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, perillaldehyde, linalool, and p-cymene were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing decay and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in ‘Duke’ blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum). Carv...

  14. Determination of antioxidant activity of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aloğlu, H Sanlıdere; Oner, Z

    2011-11-01

    In this study, physicochemical and microbiological properties of traditional and commercial yogurt samples were determined during 4 wk of storage. Proteolytic activity, which occurs during the storage period of yogurt samples, was also determined. Peptide fractions obtained from yogurts were investigated and the effect of proteolysis on peptide release during storage was determined. The antioxidant activities of peptides released from yogurt water-soluble extracts (WSE) and from HPLC fractions were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The antioxidant activity of WSE from traditional yogurt was greater than that of WSE from commercial yogurts. In analysis by the ABTS method, mean values increased from 7.697 to 8.739 mM Trolox/g in commercial yogurts, and from 10.115 to 13.182 mM Trolox/g in traditional yogurts during storage. Antioxidant activities of peptides released from HPLC fractions of selected yogurt samples increased 10 to 200 times. In all yogurt samples, the greatest antioxidant activity was shown in the F2 fraction. After further fractionation of yogurt samples, the fractions coded as F2.2, F2.3, F4.3, and F4.4 had the highest antioxidant activity values. Total antioxidant activity of yogurts was low but after purification of peptides by fractionation in HPLC, peptide fractions with high antioxidant activity were obtained.

  15. Swimming training attenuates oxidative damage and increases enzymatic but not non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Nonato, L.F.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Tossige-Gomes, R.; Soares, A.A.; Soares, B.A.; Freitas, D.A.; Oliveira, M.X.; Mendonça, V.A.; Lacerda, A.C.; Massensini, A.R.; Leite, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P<0.05) and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) with no effect on brain non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity, estimated by FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assay (P>0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05) and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain. PMID:27706439

  16. Antioxidant activities of a peptide derived from chicken dark meat.

    PubMed

    Fukada, Yoko; Mizutani, Saki; Nomura, Sarika; Hara, Wakana; Matsui, Riko; Nagai, Kumiko; Murakami, Yuki; Washio, Nanami; Ikemoto, Narumi; Terashima, Masaaki

    2016-05-01

    Antioxidant activities against hypochlorite ions and peroxyl radicals of a chicken dark meat hydrolysate digested with pepsin were examined with the myoglobin method based on the structure change of myoglobin due to redox reaction with reactive oxygen species (ROS). A peptide that showed strong antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical was isolated from the hydrolysate using HPLC equipped with a hydrophobic-interacting column. The sequence of the first five amino acid residues of the peptide was determined as YASGR (Tyr-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg), and this sequence matched with the amino acid residues 143-147 of chicken β-actin (GenBank: CAA25004.1). The synthetic peptide YASGR showed very high antioxidant activity against the peroxyl radical. Antioxidant activities of the free amino acids, confirmed that the tyrosine residue of this peptide was possibly responsible for antioxidant activity. PMID:27407214

  17. NRF2 activation by antioxidant antidiabetic agents accelerates tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Xiufei; Long, Min; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Liao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuren; Liao, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Tang, Zili; Tong, Qiang; Wang, Xiaocui; Fang, Fang; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Ouyang, Qin; Zhang, Donna D; Yu, Shicang; Zheng, Hongting

    2016-04-13

    Cancer is a common comorbidity of diabetic patients; however, little is known about the effects that antidiabetic drugs have on tumors. We discovered that common classes of drugs used in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) saxagliptin and sitagliptin, as well as the antineuropathic α-lipoic acid (ALA), do not increase tumor incidence but increase the risk of metastasis of existing tumors. Specifically, these drugs induce prolonged activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated antioxidant response through inhibition of KEAP1-C151-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NRF2, resulting in up-regulated expression of metastasis-associated proteins, increased cancer cell migration, and promotion of metastasis in xenograft mouse models. Accordingly, knockdown of NRF2 attenuated naturally occurring and DPP-4i-induced tumor metastasis, whereas NRF2 activation accelerated metastasis. Furthermore, in human liver cancer tissue samples, increased NRF2 expression correlated with metastasis. Our findings suggest that antioxidants that activate NRF2 signaling may need to be administered with caution in cancer patients, such as diabetic patients with cancer. Moreover, NRF2 may be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for tumor metastasis. PMID:27075625

  18. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries. PMID:26008718

  19. Study of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni antioxidant activities and cellular properties.

    PubMed

    Bender, Cecilia; Graziano, Sara; Zimmermann, Benno F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and proliferative properties in Stevia rebaudiana leaves and stems. Leaves extracts exhibited a higher antioxidant activity than stems extract, through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. Stevioside and rebaudioside A, the main sweetening metabolites in stevia leaves, exhibited a low ORAC value in comparison with plant extracts, while did not elicit any CAA. Stevia rebaudiana did not exhibit toxicity against HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cells. No proliferative nor catalase modulations were observed in cells treated with such extracts. Our findings support the promising role of stevia that, apart from its sweetness, can act as a source of antioxidants, even at the intracellular level. This activity makes S. rebaudiana crude extract an interesting resource of natural sweetness with antioxidant properties which may find numerous applications in foods and nutritional supplements industries.

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    PubMed

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential. PMID:24409635

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of Vetiveria Zizanioides root extract.

    PubMed

    Subhadradevi, Varadharajan; Asokkumar, Kuppusamy; Umamaheswari, Muthuswamy; Sivashanmugam, Andichettiarthirumalasia; Sankaranand, Rajakannu

    2010-10-01

    Free radicals induce numerous diseases by lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. It has been reported that some of the extracts from plants possess antioxidant properties capable of scavenging free radicals in vivo. Vetiveria zizanioides belonging to the family Gramineae, is a densely tufted grass which is widely used as a traditional plant for aromatherapy, to relieve stress, anxiety, nervous tension and insomnia. In this regard, the roots of V zizanioides was extracted with ethanol and used for the evaluation of various in vitro antioxidant activities such as reducing power ability, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity, deoxyribose degradation assay, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolics and total flavonoid composition. The various antioxidant activities were compared with suitable antioxidants such as butyl hydroxy toluene, ascorbic acid, quercetin, alpha tocopherol, pyrocatechol and curcumin respectively. The generation of free radicals O2, H2O2 OH and N O were effectively scavenged by the ethanolic extract of V zizanioides. In all these methods, the extract showed strong antioxidant activity in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained in the present study clearly indicates that V zizanioides scavenges free radicals, ameliorating damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions and serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic and antioxidant potential.

  2. Bio-antioxidants - a chemical base of their antioxidant activity and beneficial effect on human health.

    PubMed

    Kancheva, V D; Kasaikina, O T

    2013-01-01

    The paradox of aerobic life is that higher eukaryotic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, yet oxygen is inherently dangerous to their existence. Autoxidation of organic substances frequently occurs via free radical mechanism which generates different active radicals and peroxides OH(•), O2 (•-), LO2 (•), HOOH, LOOH, so called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which appear to be responsible for oxygen toxicity. To survive in such an unfriendly oxygen environment, living organisms generate - or obtain from food - a variety of water- and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds. Biologically active compounds with antioxidant potential, i.e. bio-antioxidants (natural and their synthetic analogues) have a wide range of applications. They are important drugs, antibiotics, agrochemical substitutes, and food preservatives. Many of the drugs today are synthetic modifications of naturally obtained substances. This review presents information about the chemical base of antioxidant activities and beneficial effects on human health of known and new bio-antioxidants. There is abundant literature on the phenolic antioxidants and tocopherols in particular. In this review the following bio-antioxidants are considered: A) Carotenoids, B) Cathecholamines, C) Phospholipids, D) Chalcones, E) Coumarins, F) Phenolic acids, G) Flavonoids, H) Lignans, and I) Tannins.

  3. Study of total antioxidant activity of human serum blood in the pathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Elena I; Freinbichler, Wolfhardt; Linert, Wolfgang; Dorozhko, Elena V; Bukkel, Mariya V; Plotnikov, Evgeniy V; Voronova, Olesya A

    2013-01-30

    The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of human serum blood of patients suffering from alcoholism was tested by cathode voltammetry with a model process of oxygen electroreduction. A known spectrophotometrical method was used for comparison. As results the total antioxidant activity of serum blood of patients with alcoholism was estimated by voltammetry during therapy in hospital. It was shown the TAA of serum blood of patients in pathology before and after treatment is lower than that one of healthy people. However, during the process of 10 days of alcoholism treatment the TAA coefficient increases. The relationship between the coefficient of total antioxidant activity of human serum blood and the stage of treatment was detected.

  4. Reviews on Mechanisms of In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqiao; Hu, Shuzhen; Nie, Shaoping; Yu, Qiang; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) induced oxidative stress will cause significant damage to cell structure and biomolecular function, directly or indirectly leading to a number of diseases. The overproduction of ROS/RNS will be balanced by nonenzymatic antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes. Polysaccharide or glycoconjugates derived from natural products are of considerable interest from the viewpoint of potent in vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities recently. Particularly, with regard to the in vitro antioxidant systems, polysaccharides are considered as effective free radical scavenger, reducing agent, and ferrous chelator in most of the reports. However, the underlying mechanisms of these antioxidant actions have not been illustrated systematically and sometimes controversial results appeared among various literatures. To address this issue, we summarized the latest discoveries and advancements in the study of antioxidative polysaccharides and gave a detailed description of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26682009

  5. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  6. Antioxidant activity of citrus limonoids, flavonoids, and coumarins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Wang, Limin; Walzem, Rosemary L; Miller, Edward G; Pike, Leonard M; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2005-03-23

    A variety of in vitro models such as beta-carotene-linoleic acid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and hamster low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were used to measure the antioxidant activity of 11 citrus bioactive compounds. The compounds tested included two limonoids, limonin (Lim) and limonin 17-beta-D-glucopyranoside (LG); eight flavonoids, apigenin (Api), scutellarein (Scu), kaempferol (Kae), rutin trihydrate (Rut), neohesperidin (Neh), neoeriocitrin (Nee), naringenin (Ngn), and naringin(Ng); and a coumarin (bergapten). The above compounds were tested at concentration of 10 microM in all four methods. It was found that Lim, LG, and Ber inhibited <7%, whereas Scu, Kae, and Rut inhibited 51.3%, 47.0%, and 44.4%, respectively, using the beta-carotene-linoleate model system. Lim, LG, Rut, Scu, Nee, and Kae showed 0.5% 0.25%, 32.2%, 18.3%, 17.2%, and 12.2%, respectively, free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH method. In the superoxide model, Lim, LG, and Ber inhibited the production of superoxide radicals by 2.5-10%, while the flavonoids such as Rut, Scu, Nee, and Neh inhibited superoxide formation by 64.1%, 52.1%, 48.3%, and 37.7%, respectively. However, LG did not inhibit LDL oxidation in the hamster LDL model. But, Lim and Ber offered some protection against LDL oxidation, increasing lag time to 345 min (3-fold) and 160 min (33% increase), respectively, while both Rut and Nee increased lag time to 2800 min (23-fold). Scu and Kae increased lag time to 2140 min (18-fold) and 1879 min (15.7-fold), respectively. In general, it seems that flavonoids, which contain a chromanol ring system, had stronger antioxidant activity as compared to limonoids and bergapten, which lack the hydroxy groups. The present study confirmed that several structural features were linked to the strong antioxidant activity of flavonoids. This is the first report on the antioxidant activity of limonin, limonin glucoside, and neoeriocitrin.

  7. Synthesis and Antioxidant Activity of Hydroxytyrosol Alkyl-Carbonate Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2016-07-22

    Three procedures have been investigated for the isolation of tyrosol (1) and hydroxytyrosol (2) from a phenolic extract obtained from the solid residue of olive milling. These three methods, which facilitated the recovery of these phenols, were chemical or enzymatic acetylation, benzylation, and carbomethoxylation, and subsequent carbonylation or acetonation reactions. Several new lipophilic alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol have been synthesized, coupling the primary hydroxy group of this phenol, through a carbonate linker, using alcohols with different chain lengths. The antioxidant properties of these lipophilic derivatives have been evaluated by different methods and compared with free hydroxytyrosol (2) and also with the well-known antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. Three methods were used for the determination of this antioxidant activity: FRAP and ABTS assays, to test the antioxidant power in hydrophilic media, and the Rancimat test, to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in a lipophilic matrix. These new alkyl-carbonate derivatives of hydroxytyrosol enhanced the antioxidant activity of this natural phenol, with their antioxidant properties also being higher than those of the commercial antioxidants BHT and α-tocopherol. There was no clear influence of the side-chain length on the antioxidant properties of the alkyl-carbonate derivatives of 2, although the best results were achieved mainly by the compounds with a longer chain on the primary hydroxy group of this natural phenolic substance. PMID:27337069

  8. Tannins and Antioxidant Activities of the Walnut (Juglans regia) Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Chen, Yang; Li, Ying; Wang, Ya-Rong; Liu, Chuan-Shui; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-12-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of the acetone extract and derived fractions from the walnut (Juglans regia) pellicle were estimated. The BuOH fraction exhibited the strongest antioxidant activity with the highest phenolic content. A phytochemical investigation of this fraction led to the isolation of three tannins, 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose (1), pedunculagin (2) and 2,3,4,6-tetragalloylglucose (3). Pedunculagin showed high content and powerful activity, which implied that this compound plays an important role in the antioxidant activity of the walnut pellicle.

  9. The preparation and antioxidant activity of glucosamine sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Wang, Lin; Cai, Shengbao; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-05-01

    Glucosamine sulfate was prepared from glucosamine hydrochloride that was produced by acidic hydrolysis of chitin by ion-exchange method. Optical rotation and elemental analysis characterized the degree of its purity. In addition, the antioxidant potency of chitosan derivative-glucosamine sulfate was investigated in various established in vitro systems, such as superoxide (O{2/-})/hydroxyl (·OH) radicals scavenging, reducing power, iron ion chelating. The following results are obtained: first, glucosamine sulfate had pronounced scavenging effect on superoxide radical. For example the O{2/-} scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was 92.11% at 0.8 mg/mL. Second, the ·OH scavenging activity of glucosamine sulfate was also strong, and was about 50% at 3.2 mg/mL. Third, the reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was more pronounced. The reducing power of glucosamine sulfate was 0.643 at 0.75 mg/mL. However, its potency for ferrous ion chelating was weak. Furthermore, except for ferrous ion chelating potency, the scavenging rate of radical and reducing power of glucosamine sulfate were concentration-dependent and increased with their increasing concentrations, but its ferrous ion chelating potency decreased with the increasing concentration. The multiple antioxidant activities of glucosamine sulfate were evidents of reducing power and superoxide/hydroxyl radicals scavenging ability. These in vitro results suggest the possibility that glucosamine sulfate could be used effectively as an ingredient in health or functional food, to alleviate oxidative stress.

  10. Antioxidant activity and nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: effects of weight recovery.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-03-30

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60 μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system.

  11. Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Status in Anorexia Nervosa: Effects of Weight Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-López, María-Jesús; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; De la Cerda, Francisco; Martín, Franz; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Few studies are focused on the antioxidant status and its changes in anorexia nervosa (AN). Based on the hypothesis that renutrition improves that status, the aim was to determine the plasma antioxidant status and the antioxidant enzymes activity at the beginning of a personalized nutritional program (T0) and after recovering normal body mass index (BMI) (T1). The relationship between changes in BMI and biochemical parameters was determined. Nutritional intake, body composition, anthropometric, hematological and biochemical parameters were studied in 25 women with AN (19.20 ± 6.07 years). Plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes activity were measured. Mean time to recover normal weight was 4.1 ± 2.44 months. Energy, macronutrients and micronutrients intake improved. Catalase activity was significantly modified after dietary intake improvement and weight recovery (T0 = 25.04 ± 1.97 vs. T1 = 35.54 ± 2.60μmol/min/mL; p < 0.01). Total antioxidant capacity increased significantly after gaining weight (T0 = 1033.03 ± 34.38 vs. T1 = 1504.61 ± 99.73 μmol/L; p < 0.01). Superoxide dismutase activity decreased (p < 0.05) and glutathione peroxidase did not change. Our results support an association between nutrition improvement and weight gain in patients with AN, followed by an enhancement of antioxidant capacity and catalase antioxidant system. PMID:25830944

  12. Investigation of Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Moclobemide in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Alp, Hamit H.; Suleyman, Halis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Even though there are many drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcers, these drugs sometimes cannot succeed. Since the 1950s, antidepressant drugs have been used for several non-psychiatric indications. Many antidepressant drugs have been shown experimentally to produce antiulcer activity in various ulcer models. Moclobemide is an antidepressant drug which inhibits monoamine oxidase-A (MAO) enzyme selectively. When it is compared to the classic antidepressants drugs, moclobemide is the first choice in depression treatment because of its effectiveness and less side effects. This study aimed to investigate the antiulcer effects of moclobemide and to determine its relationship with antioxidant mechanisms in rat gastric tissue. Materials and Methods: The antiulcer activities of 10, 20, 40, 80, 150 mg/kg moclobemide and 20 mg/kg famotidine have been investigated on indomethacin-induced ulcers in rats, and the results have been compared with that of the control group. Results: Moclobemide decreased the indomethacin-induced ulcers significantly at all doses used. While used doses of moclobemide increased the glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, it decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in stomach tissue when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It is determined that an antidepressant drug, moclobemide is a potent anti-ulcer agent. Inhibition of toxic oxidant radicals and activation of antioxidant mechanisms play a role in its anti-ulcer effect mechanisms. PMID:25745343

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity of extracts from common legumes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Du, Shuang-kui; Wang, Hanxin; Cai, Meng

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activity of pinto bean, cowpea, baby lima bean, lentil, chickpea, small red bean, red kidney bean, black kidney bean, navy bean, and mung bean extracts were investigated. Significant differences were observed in the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity amongst the legume extracts. Lentils demonstrated the highest phenolic content (47.6 mg/g), total antioxidant activity (720.68 U/g), DPPH• scavenging activity (38.5%), and total reducing power, whereas baby lima beans and navy beans had the lowest. Amongst the extracts, hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavenging was higher in black kidney bean (85.68%) and baby lima bean (74.97%) extracts. The total antioxidant activity (r=0.84), DPPH• scavenging activity (r=0.83), and total reducing power (r=0.84) were positively correlated with the total phenolic content. However, •OH scavenging and the phenolic content were not correlated. PMID:24444962

  14. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  15. Antioxidant activities of Toona Sinensis leaves extracts using different antioxidant models.

    PubMed

    Hseu, You-Cheng; Chang, Wen-Huei; Chen, Chee-Shan; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Huang, Chin-Jung; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Hseng-Kuang; Wu, Jia-Jiuan; Yang, Hsin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts of Toona sinensis (TS; 0-100 microg/mL) and gallic acid (0-50 microg/mL), with the purified natural phenolic components evaluated using different antioxidant models. It was found that the TS extracts and gallic acid possess effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the scavenging of free and superoxide anion radicals, reducing power, and metal chelation. However, antioxidant activity in terms of metal chelation was not observed for the gallic acid. Moreover, TS extracts and gallic acid appear to possess powerful antioxidant properties with respect to oxidative modification of human LDL induced by CuSO4, AAPH or sodium nitroprusside, as assessed by the relative electrophoretic mobility, TBARS formation, and cholesterol degradation of oxidized LDL. Furthermore, AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, and decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in human erythrocytes were prevented by both the TS extracts and the gallic acid. Our findings suggest that T. sinensis may act as a chemopreventative agent, providing antioxidant properties and offering effective protection from atherogenesis. PMID:17703862

  16. Isolation-hypoxia and re-oxygenation of the pallial cavity of female Crepipatella dilatata during estuarine salinity changes requires increased glyoxylase activity and antioxidant metabolism to avoid oxidative damage to female tissues and developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Cubillos, Víctor; Chaparro, Oscar; Segura, Cristian; Montory, Jaime; Cruces, Edgardo; Burritt, David

    2016-08-01

    The estuarine slipper limpet Crepipatella dilatata is a gastropod that can survive prolonged periods of low salinities (< 24 PSU) caused by tidal changes and/or prolonged periods of rain. During low salinity events, C. dilatata can isolate its body from the outside environment, by sealing its shell against the substrate on which it grows. Prolonged isolation periods from the surrounding environment can greatly lower available oxygen levels inside of the pallial cavity, impacting on the physiology of both females and their incubated encapsulated embryos. When salinity levels return to normal, isolation is terminated and the inflow of seawater results in re-oxygenation. In this study we show that when re-oxygenation of the pallial cavity takes place, oxidative damage, in the form of increased levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls, occurs in both maternal tissues and in incubated embryos. To avoid terminal oxidative damage both females and their embryos increase their levels of the glyoxalase pathway enzymes (GLX-I and GLX-II) and general antioxidant metabolism (SOD, CAT, GR, GPOX and GST). As a result the levels of oxidative damage decline to basal levels within 24 h of reoxygenation. Thus the combination of isolation, a behavioural strategy, combined with encapsulation of embryos and a capacity to up regulate relatively rapidly the glyoxylase pathway and general antioxidant metabolism, play major roles in facilitating the survival of C. dilatata in the small estuaries of Southern Chile. PMID:27232979

  17. Synthesis and antioxidant activities of Coenzyme Q analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Shuo; Yang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2014-10-30

    A series of 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinones (Coenzyme Q) substituted at the C-6 position with various groups were designed and synthesized based on the Coenzyme Q10 as potent antioxidant. In vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated and compared with commercial antioxidant Coenzyme Q10 employing DPPH assay. All these synthesized Coenzyme Q analogues are found to exhibit good antioxidant activities. Of which Compound 8b bearing a N-benzoylpiperazine group at the C-6 position showed more potent inhibition of DPPH radical than Coenzyme Q10. All these results suggested the applicability of the Coenzyme Q analogues as potent antioxidants for combating oxidative stress.

  18. Flaxseed hull: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity during development.

    PubMed

    Herchi, Wahid; Al Hujaili, Abdullah D; Sakouhi, Faouzi; Sebei, Khaled; Trabelsi, Hajer; Kallel, Habib; Boukhchina, Sadok

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 67.14 % at the first stage of maturity (St1). Flaxseed hull oil was of good quality, containing an abundance of omega-3 essential fatty acids. The iodine value increased, while the saponification value of oil decreased during seed development. The decrease in ascorbic acid content was steady. The maximum level of total phenolic acid content (128.3 mg/100 g oil) was reached at 7 DAF. The antioxidant activity of oilseed was assessed by means of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay. Radical scavenging activity for green hull was 52.74% and mature hull was 69.32%. PMID:24919478

  19. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  20. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  1. Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymolysis to Improve the Antioxidant Activities of Peanut (Arachin conarachin L.) Antioxidant Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lina; Sun, Jie; Liu, Shaofang; Bi, Jie; Zhang, Chushu; Yang, Qingli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical basis for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate in order to improve its antioxidant activities. Therefore, response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis for the purpose of preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. Results indicated that the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of peanut hydrolysate could reach 90.06% under the following optimum conditions: ultrasonic power of 150.0 w, reaction temperature of 62.0 °C, incubation time of 25.0 min, and initial pH value of 8.5. The DPPH free radical scavenging rate of peanut hydrolysate from ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis improved comparing with that of peanut hydrolysate from protease hydrolysis alone. The peanut antioxidant hydrolysate was found to display eight improved kinds of antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the optimal ultrasonic-assisted enzymolysis technology conditions described in this paper, appear to be beneficial for preparing peanut antioxidant hydrolysate. PMID:22942751

  2. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  3. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  4. Oxidative stress is increased in critically ill patients according to antioxidant vitamins intake, independent of severity: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Abilés, Jimena; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Castaño, José; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Aguayo, Eduardo; Moreno-Torres, Rosario; Llopis, Juan; Aranda, Pilar; Argüelles, Sandro; Ayala, Antonio; de la Quintana, Alberto Machado; Planells, Elena Maria

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients suffer from oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Although ROS/RNS are constantly produced under normal circumstances, critical illness can drastically increase their production. These patients have reduced plasma and intracellular levels of antioxidants and free electron scavengers or cofactors, and decreased activity of the enzymatic system involved in ROS detoxification. The pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance is of functional relevance during critical illness because it is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. In this study the objective was to evaluate the relation between oxidative stress in critically ill patients and antioxidant vitamin intake and severity of illness. Methods Spectrophotometry was used to measure in plasma the total antioxidant capacity and levels of lipid peroxide, carbonyl group, total protein, bilirubin and uric acid at two time points: at intensive care unit (ICU) admission and on day seven. Daily diet records were kept and compliance with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of antioxidant vitamins (A, C and E) was assessed. Results Between admission and day seven in the ICU, significant increases in lipid peroxide and carbonyl group were associated with decreased antioxidant capacity and greater deterioration in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. There was significantly greater worsening in oxidative stress parameters in patients who received antioxidant vitamins at below 66% of RDA than in those who received antioxidant vitamins at above 66% of RDA. An antioxidant vitamin intake from 66% to 100% of RDA reduced the risk for worsening oxidative stress by 94% (ods ratio 0.06, 95% confidence interval 0.010 to 0.39), regardless of change in severity of illness (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score). Conclusion The critical condition of patients admitted to the ICU is associated with worsening oxidative stress. Intake of

  5. Antioxidant activity of aerial parts of Tribulus alatus in rats.

    PubMed

    Kadry, H; Abou Basha, L; El Gindi, O; Temraz, A

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of Tribulus alatus was investigated by determination of blood glutathione, serum ascorbic acid and serum superoxide dismutase in rats. All groups treated with aerial parts without fruit, fruits and total herb showed a significant increase in all measured parameters (P<0.05). Upon fractionation of the alcoholic extracts using solvents with different polarities, all fractions revealed a significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase (P<0.05). On the other hand chloroformic fraction of aerial parts without fruit extract and ethylacetate fraction of fruits extract exhibited a significant increase in blood glutathione level. All fractions of fruits extract, chloroformic and ethylacetate fractions of aerial parts without fruit extract significantly increase the serum ascorbic acid concentration (P<0.05).

  6. Evaluation of Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Main Phyllanthus Emblica L. Cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Liu, D.; Wan, H. X.

    2015-01-01

    The cell-based antioxidant activity assay as more biological relevant assay was considered to be more accurate to predict antioxidant activity in vivo than chemical activity assays. In the present study, the five main Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars in China were subjected for cellular antioxidant activity based on HepG2 cells as well as antiproliferative activity. Total phenolics, total flavonoids and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were also measured. The results showed that Qingyougan, Binggan and Boligan (832±100, 774±52 and 704±28 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had higher cellular antioxidant activity than Tianyougan and Yougan (553±50 and 457±24 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) in phosphate buffered saline wash protocol whereas, Boligan (3735±217 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the highest cellular antioxidant activity and Tianyougan (2025±171 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the lowest cellular antioxidant activity in no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol. The highest and lowest antiproliferative activities were observed in Binggan and Tianyougan (median effective dose: 6.95±0.11 and 14.03±0.10 mg/ml), respectively. The significant correlation was only observed between total flavonoids and cellular antioxidant activity from no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol (R2 =0.908, P<0.05), and total flavonoids and antiproliferative activity (R2 =0.887, P<0.05), suggesting the major contribution of flavonoids to the bioactivities of emblica. Overall, the data obtained revealed that different Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars had strong cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, thus should be recommended to increase consumption for health. PMID:26180272

  7. Abrus precatorius Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Palvai, Vanitha; Mahalingu, Sowmya; Urooj, Asna

    2014-01-01

    Natural antioxidants present in foods and other biological materials have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Antioxidant constituents of plant materials act as radical scavengers and convert the radicals to less reactive species. Abrus precatorius (AP) was analyzed for its proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME) and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method, reducing power, ferric reducing capacity, and in vitro inhibition of Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation in oil emulsion and microsomes. In addition, the effect of temperature (100°C, 15, and 30 min) and pH (4.5, 7, and 9) C on the antioxidant activity of ME was investigated. The leaves were rich in total polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, glutathione, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. The ME exhibited varying degree of antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. The AP exhibited more inhibition of oxidation in microsomes (73%) than compared to oil emulsion (21%). Heat treatment resulted in an increase of radical scavenging activity of extract (28% to 43%). At pH 4.5 the extract exhibited more antioxidant activity and stability compared to pH 7 and 9. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Abrus precatorius as a natural antioxidant. PMID:25383222

  8. Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.

    PubMed

    Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

    2014-10-21

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders. PMID:25288763

  9. Antioxidant activity of minor components of tree nut oils.

    PubMed

    Miraliakbari, H; Shahidi, F

    2008-11-15

    The antioxidative components of tree nut oils were extracted using a solvent stripping process. Tree nut oil extracts contained phospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and tocopherols. The chloroform/methanol extracted oils had higher amounts of phenolic compounds than their hexane extracted counterparts. The antioxidant activity of tree nut oil minor component extracts were assessed using the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, β-carotene bleaching test, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and photochemiluminescence inhibition assays. Results of these studies demonstrated that extracts of chloroform/methanol extracted oils possessed higher antioxidant activities than extracts of their hexane extracted counterparts. Meanwhile the extract of chloroform/methanol extracted pecan oil possessed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:26047445

  10. Review of antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of chitosans in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    shellfish, arises from the fact that they are reported to exhibit numerous health-related beneficial effects, including strong antibiotic and antioxidative activities in foods. The extraordinary interest in the chemistry and application in agriculture, horticulture, environmental science, industry,...

  11. Antioxidant activity and haemolysis prevention efficiency of polyaniline nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Somik; Saikia, Jyoti P.; Kumar, A.; Konwar, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline (PAni) nanofibers have been synthesized by interfacial polymerization using hydrochloric acid (HCl) and camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) as dopants. The powder x-ray diffraction pattern of bulk polyaniline reveals ES I structure and has been indexed in a pseudo-orthorhombic lattice. The broadening of (110) reflection in the nanofiber samples has been analysed in terms of domain length and strain using a convolution method employing a Voigt function. The increase in d spacing for the (110) reflection in HCl-doped PAni nanofibers have been assigned to the change in structural conformation due to the increase in the tilt angle of the polymer chain, which is also evident from microRaman spectra. UV-vis spectra of the PAni nanofibers exhibit a remarkable blueshift in the absorption bands attributed to π-π* and π-polaron band transitions indicating a reduction in particle size, which is also observed in TEM micrographs. The antioxidant activity of the polyaniline nanofiber samples has been investigated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay by employing UV-visible spectroscopy. It has also been observed that polyaniline nanofibers are able to protect the haemolysis of red blood cells (RBCs) from cytotoxic agents, namely H2O2. The observed enhancement in the antioxidant and haemolysis prevention activity of the PAni nanofibers as compared to bulk has been attributed to the reduction in particle size and changes in structural conformation, as evident from TEM, XRD and microRaman spectroscopy.

  12. Antioxidant activities of fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation and acidic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sangyong; Choi, Jong-il; Park, Hyun

    2015-04-01

    Low molecular weight fucoidan, prepared by radical degradation using gamma ray was investigated for its antioxidant activities with different assay methods. As the molecular weight of fucoidan decreased with a higher absorbed dose, ferric-reducing antioxidant power values increased, but β-carotene bleaching inhibition did not change significantly. The antioxidant activity of acid-degraded fucoidan was also examined to investigate the effect of different degradation methods. At the same molecular weight, fucoidan degraded by gamma irradiation showed higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than that observed with the acidic method. This result reveals that in addition to molecular weight, the degradation method affects the antioxidant activity of fucoidan.

  13. Yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in response to different fertilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Sen; Gao, Qing-Han; Kjelgren, Roger Keith; Guo, Xu-Dan; Wang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest. PMID:24084012

  14. A Caco-2 cell-based quantitative antioxidant activity assay for antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hongxia; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiangying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Yan

    2015-05-15

    A Caco-2 cell-based antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for quantitative evaluation of antioxidants was developed by optimizing seeding density and culture time of Caco-2 cells, incubation time and concentration of fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, DCFH-DA), incubation way and incubation time of antioxidants (pure phytochemicals) and DCFH-DA with cells, and detection time of fluorescence. Results showed that the CAA assay was of good reproducibility and could be used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of antioxidants at the following conditions: seeding density of 5 × 10(4)/well, cell culture time of 24h, co-incubation of 60 μM DCFH-DA and pure phytochemicals with Caco-2 cells for 20 min and fluorescence recorded for 90 min. Additionally, a significant correlation was observed between CAA values and rat plasma ORAC values following the intake of antioxidants for selected pure phytochemicals (R(2) = 0.815, p < 0.01), demonstrating the good biological relevance of CAA assay.

  15. Antioxidant activity of low molecular weight alginate produced by thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Kelishomi, Zahra Habibi; Goliaei, Bahram; Mahdavi, Hossein; Nikoofar, Alireza; Rahimi, Mahmood; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Mamashli, Fatemeh; Bigdeli, Bahareh

    2016-04-01

    By definition, antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules. Therefore, such compounds have very important clinical roles. In this study alginate polymer was depolymerized by heat treatment. The resulting low molecular weight alginates were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, Viscometry, Dynamic light scattering and FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. Antioxidant properties of these heat products were studied by ABTS and superoxide radical scavenging assays. Results showed that heating caused breaks in the polymer chain and so generation of low molecular weight alginates. Antioxidant measurements confirmed antioxidant activity of alginate increased upon a decrease in molecular weight. Therefore, low molecular weight alginate produced by heating could be considered as a stronger antioxidant than alginate polymer. These products could be useful for industrial and biomedical applications.

  16. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry.

  17. Potent Antioxidant Dendrimers Lacking Pro-oxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon Young; Sharma, Ajit; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; Cheong, Jae Eun; Xu, Hao; Held, Rich A.; Upadhaya, Samik K.; Nelson, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that antioxidants have protective effects against oxidative stress. Unfortunately, in the presence of transition metals, antioxidants including polyphenols with potent antioxidant activities may also exhibit pro-oxidant effects, which may irreversibly damage DNA. Therefore, antioxidants with strong free radical scavenging abilities and devoid of pro-oxidant effects would be of immense biological importance. We report two antioxidant dendrimers with a surface rich in multiple phenolic hydroxyl groups, benzylic hydrogens and electron donating ring substituents that contribute to their potent free radical quenching property. In order to minimize their pro-oxidant effects, the dendrimers were designed with a metal chelating tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) core. The dendritic antioxidants were prepared by attachment of six syringaldehyde or vanillin molecules to TREN by reductive amination. They exhibited potent radical scavenging properties: 5 times stronger than quercetin and 15 times more potent than Trolox according to the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The antioxidant dendrimers also protected low-density lipoprotein, lysozyme and DNA against 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced free radical damage. More importantly, unlike quercetin and Trolox, the two TREN antioxidant dendrimers did not damage DNA via their pro-oxidant effects when incubated with physiological amounts of copper ions. The dendrimers also showed no cytotoxicity towards Chinese hamster ovary cells. PMID:20977937

  18. Effects of domestic cooking methods on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongnan; Mu, Taihua; Xi, Lisha; Song, Zhen

    2014-09-10

    In this study, effects of boiling, steaming, microwaving, baking, and frying on proximate composition, total and individual polyphenol contents, and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves were investigated. An increase of 9.44% in total polyphenol content was observed after steaming, whereas decreases of 30.51, 25.70, and 15.73% were noted after boiling, microwaving, and frying, respectively. Decreases of 63.82 and 32.35% in antioxidant activity were observed after boiling and microwaving, respectively, whereas increases of 81.40, 30.09, and 85.82% in antioxidant activity were observed after steaming, baking, and frying, respectively. Eight phenolic compounds were identified in sweet potato leaves. The correlation analysis between content of individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity suggested that antioxidant activity could be mainly attributed to 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid. It was suggested that steaming is a preferred method to maintain polyphenols and antioxidant activity of sweet potato leaves.

  19. Antioxidative activity of lactobacilli measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity.

    PubMed

    Saide, J A O; Gilliland, S E

    2005-04-01

    The reducing ability and antioxidative activity of some species of Lactobacillus were compared under in vitro conditions. Cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei were grown at 37 degrees C in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth supplemented with 0.5% 2,3,5 triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to evaluate reducing activity. Reduced TTC was extracted from the cultures with acetone, and the intensity of the red color measured colorimetrically at 485 nm was an indication of reducing activity. The lactobacilli varied significantly in relative ability to reduce TTC when grown in MRS broth for 15 h. The relative amounts of growth as indicated by pH values at 18 h appeared to influence the amount of reduction. Antioxidative activity was evaluated by the ability of the whole cells or the cell-free extracts from cultures to protect a protein from being attacked by free radicals. These analyses were performed using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. All cultures tested exhibited some degree of antioxidative activity. Among the treatments, the cell-free extracts from cells grown in MRS broth exhibited significantly higher values than did whole cells. There was no apparent relationship between the reducing and antioxidative activities of the cultures evaluated. The results from this study show that these cultures can provide a source of dietary antioxidants. Furthermore, selection of cultures that produce antioxidants as starters could provide yet another health or nutritional benefit from cultured or culture-containing dairy products.

  20. Trends in the use of natural antioxidants in active food packaging: a review.

    PubMed

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Costa, Denise; Albuquerque, Tânia G; Buonocore, Giovanna Giuliana; Ramos, Fernando; Castilho, Maria Conceição; Machado, Ana Vera; Costa, Helena S

    2014-01-01

    The demand for natural antioxidant active packaging is increasing due to its unquestionable advantages compared with the addition of antioxidants directly to the food. Therefore, the search for antioxidants perceived as natural, namely those that naturally occur in herbs and spices, is a field attracting great interest. In line with this, in the last few years, natural antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, caffeic acid, catechin, quercetin, carvacrol and plant extracts (e.g. rosemary extract) have been incorporated into food packaging. On the other hand, consumers and the food industry are also interested in active biodegradable/compostable packaging and edible films to reduce environmental impact, minimise food loss and minimise contaminants from industrial production and reutilisation by-products. The present review focuses on the natural antioxidants already applied in active food packaging, and it reviews the methods used to determine the oxidation protection effect of antioxidant active films and the methods used to quantify natural antioxidants in food matrices or food simulants. Lastly consumers' demands and industry trends are also addressed.

  1. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. PMID:25848974

  2. Antioxidant activities of crude phlorotannins from Sargassum hemiphyllum.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Li; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Gong, Zhong-Qing; Pan, Ming-Zhu; Han, Ya-Li; Liu, Yi

    2016-06-01

    Brown algae are well known as a source of biologically active compounds, especially those having antioxidant activities, such as phlorotannins. In this study we examined the antioxidant activities of crude phlorotannins extracts (CPEs) obtained from Sargassum hemiphyllum (SH) and fractionated according to the molecular weights. When CPEs were administrated at a dose of 30 mg/kg to Kunming mice pre-treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), the levels of oxidative stress indicators in the liver, kidney and brain were significantly reduced in vivo. All the components of various molecular weight fractions of CPEs exhibited greater scavenging capacities in clearing hydroxyl free radical and superoxide anion than the positive controls gallic acid, vitamin C and vitamin E. Particularly, the components greater than 30 kD obtained from ethyl acetate phase showed the highest antioxidant capacities. These results indicated that SH is a potential source for extracting phlorotannins, the algal antioxidant compounds. PMID:27376819

  3. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin.

  4. Relationships between antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of tartary buckwheat during germination.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Hao, Tingfeng; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Fang, Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Relationships of changes between major non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacities of tartary buckwheat during germination were evaluated by means of correlation analysis and principal component analysis in this paper. The changes of antioxidant compounds, including vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, carotenoids, and chlorophyll, and antioxidant activities were detected. A good accumulation in the content of vitamin C (0.71 mg/g), total flavonoids (19.53 mg rutin/g), and rutin (11.34 mg/g) was found after 7-day germination, but germination decreased the vitamin E activity. Germination improved the activities of buckwheat extracts to scavenge DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide free radicals by 107, 144, and 88 %, respectively. Furthermore, the correlation and principal component analysis showed that the vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin contents were closely related positively with free radicals scavenging properties, indicating that the compounds which play a key role in the elevated antioxidant activities during germination consisted of vitamin C, total flavonoids, and rutin, but not vitamin E and quercetin. PMID:25829633

  5. A genomic screen for activators of the antioxidant response element

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanxia; Kern, Jonathan T.; Walker, John R.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a cis-acting regulatory enhancer element found in the 5′ flanking region of many phase II detoxification enzymes. Up-regulation of ARE-dependent target genes is known to have neuroprotective effects; yet, the mechanism of activation is largely unknown. By screening an arrayed collection of ≈15,000 full-length expression cDNAs in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 with an ARE-luciferase reporter, we have identified several cDNAs not previously associated with ARE activation. A subset of cDNAs, encoding sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and dipeptidylpeptidase 3 (DPP3), activated the ARE in primary mouse-derived cortical neurons. Overexpression of SQSTM1 and DPP3 in IMR-32 cells stimulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) nuclear translocation and led to increased levels of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, a protein which is transcriptionally regulated by the ARE. When transfected into IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells that were depleted of transcription factor NRF2 by RNA interference, SQSTM1 and DPP3 were unable to activate the ARE or induce NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression, indicating that the ARE activation upon ectopic expression of these cDNAs is mediated by NRF2. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and protein kinase C signaling are essential for activity. Overexpression of these cDNAs conferred partial resistance to hydrogen peroxide or rotenone-induced toxicity, consistent with the induction of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes, which can protect from oxidative stress. This work and other such studies may provide mechanisms for activating the ARE in the absence of general oxidative stress and a yet-unexploited therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases and aging. PMID:17360324

  6. Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish

    2016-04-01

    Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total phenols, flavonids, tannins and carotenoids content and also the antioxidant activity in comparison to remaining vegetable extracts. Correlation studies indicated that FRAP test best described the antioxidant activity of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (r = 0.854, 0.692 and 0.915 respectively). HPTLC profiles revealed the presence of maximum number of phenolic acids and flavonoids in L. siceraria and M. charantia. PMID:27413209

  7. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893

  8. Antioxidative activities of hydrolysates from edible birds nest using enzymatic hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Nurul Nadia; Babji, Abdul Salam; Ayub, Mohd Khan

    2015-09-01

    Edible bird's nest protein hydrolysates (EBN) were prepared via enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate its antioxidant activity. Two types of enzyme (alcalase and papain) were used in this study and EBN had been hydrolysed with different hydrolysis time (30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Antioxidant activities in EBN protein hydrolysate were measured using DPPH, ABTS+ and Reducing Power Assay. From this study, increased hydrolysis time from 30 min to 120 min contributed to higher DH, as shown by alcalase (40.59%) and papain (24.94%). For antioxidant assay, EBN hydrolysed with papain showed higher scavenging activity and reducing power ability compared to alcalase. The highest antioxidant activity for papain was at 120 min hydrolysis time with ABTS (54.245%), DPPH (49.78%) and Reducing Power (0.0680). Meanwhile for alcalase, the highest antioxidant activity was at 30 min hydrolysis time. Even though scavenging activity for EBN protein hydrolysates were high, the reducing power ability was quite low as compared to BHT and ascorbic Acid. This study showed that EBN protein hydrolysate with alcalase and papain treatments potentially exhibit high antioxidant activity which have not been reported before.

  9. Antioxidant activities of ficus glomerata (moraceae) leaf gall extracts

    PubMed Central

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Iyer, Shanthi; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Richard, S Austin; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    An excess production or decreased scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse metabolic disorders such as diabetes, cancer, atherosclerosis and neurodegeneration. Hence the antioxidant therapy has gained an utmost importance in the treatment of such diseases linked to free radicals. The medicinal properties of plants have been investigated and explored for their potent antioxidant activities to counteract metabolic disorders. This research highlights the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and methanol) of Ficus glomerata (F. glomerata), which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications to treat various metabolic diseases. The presences of phenolics, flavonoids, phytosterols, terpenoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the methanol extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 370 ± 3.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g dw) and 155 ± 3.2 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (mg QUE/g dw), respectively. The antioxidant activities of leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. In all the methods, the methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant potential than the aqueous extract. A higher content of both total phenolics and flavonoids were found in the methanolic extract and the significantly high antioxidant activity can be positively correlated to the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract. The results of this study confirm the folklore use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts as a natural antioxidant and justify its ethnobotanical use. Further, the results of antioxidant properties encourage the use of F. glomerata leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals

  10. Antioxidant activity of gilan Mentha pulegium during growth.

    PubMed

    Shahmohamadi, Rezvan; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Rasa, Mahdi; Aghamali, Mahmudreza

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of methanolic and hydroalcoholic-acetone extracts of Iranian Mentha pulegium in two stages of maturity were investigated. The aim was to investigate the most suitable solvent for extraction of antioxidants and to find the correlation existed between plant growth stage and its antioxidant capacity. In vitro antioxidant properties of the extracts were examined by 1, 1 diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods. Moreover, total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. On the other hand, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by chromatographic methods, TLC and SPE-reversed phase-HPLC. The results revealed that the antioxidant capacities and total phenol contents of the extracts in flowering season were higher than pre-flowering season. A positive relationship was found between the results obtained from three different assay methods used, i.e. FRAP, DPPH and phenol contents. The TLC chromatogram of the two extracts showed differences in the number of separated compounds of extracts. HPLC results indicated that the fraction collected with washing buffer (pH = 6) had highest antioxidant activity.

  11. In vitro phytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of selected flavonoids.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities.

  12. In Vitro Phytotoxicity and Antioxidant Activity of Selected Flavonoids

    PubMed Central

    De Martino, Laura; Mencherini, Teresa; Mancini, Emilia; Aquino, Rita Patrizia; De Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of flavonoids involved in plant-plant interactions and their mechanisms of action are poor and, moreover, the structural characteristics required for these biological activities are scarcely known. The objective of this work was to study the possible in vitro phytotoxic effects of 27 flavonoids on the germination and early radical growth of Raphanus sativus L. and Lepidium sativum L., with the aim to evaluate the possible structure/activity relationship. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of the same compounds was also evaluated. Generally, in response to various tested flavonoids, germination was only slightly affected, whereas significant differences were observed in the activity of the various tested flavonoids against radical elongation. DPPH test confirms the antioxidant activity of luteolin, quercetin, catechol, morin, and catechin. The biological activity recorded is discussed in relation to the structure of compounds and their capability to interact with cell structures and physiology. No correlation was found between phytotoxic and antioxidant activities. PMID:22754304

  13. The pretreatment effects on the antioxidant activity of jujube polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chenling; Yu, Songcheng; Jin, Huali; Wang, Jinshui; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    Pretreatment is vital to keep the bioactivities of polysaccharides. In this paper, the effects of hot water, ultrasonic and microwave extraction, as well as the effects of protein and pigment removal steps, on the antioxidant activity of water soluble polysaccharides in jujube (WSPJ) were studied. Hydroxyl free radical (OH) scavenging activity was adopted to determine the antioxidant activity of WSPJ. The results showed that OH scavenging activity of WSPJ extracted by ultrasonic wave was higher than that extracted by hot water and by microwave. Furthermore, power parameter in both ultrasonic and microwave extraction affected the OH scavenging activity dramatically. On the other hand, Sevag reagent was better than trichloroacetic acid (TCA), TCA with 1-butanol (TCA-B) and hydrochloric acid for protein removal, and H2O2 was better than active carbon for pigment removal to keep the antioxidant activity of WSPJ.

  14. Quercetin reduced inflammation and increased antioxidant defense in rat adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gardi, C; Bauerova, K; Stringa, B; Kuncirova, V; Slovak, L; Ponist, S; Drafi, F; Bezakova, L; Tedesco, I; Acquaviva, A; Bilotto, S; Russo, G L

    2015-10-01

    Novel therapies for rheumatoid arthritis also include the use of naturally occurring compounds possessing antioxidant properties. In the present work, the effects of oral administration of quercetin were investigated in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis. Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat-inactivated Mycobacterium butyricum in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The experimental groups were treated with an oral daily dose of 150 mg/kg b.w. of quercetin for 28 days. Results indicated that quercetin was able to ameliorate all markers of inflammation and oxidative stress measured. Quercetin lowered levels of interleukin-1β, C-reactive protein, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and restored plasma antioxidant capacity. In addition, quercetin inhibited the enzymatic activity of pro-inflammatory 12/15-lipoxygenase in lung and liver and increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 in joint and lung of arthritic rats. Finally, quercetin inhibited the 2-fold increase of NF-қB activity observed in lung, liver and joint after induction of arthritis. PMID:26297952

  15. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) peel.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Young; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, Sun-Jung; Jeon, Kyung-Im; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2006-04-01

    Heat treatment of persimmon peel (PP) increased the antioxidative activity of the 70% ethanolic extract (EE) and water extract (WE) from PP. EE and WE both prevented H2O2-induced DNA damage to human peripheral lymphocytes. The antioxidative and antigenotoxic activities of the PP extracts were significantly affected by heating.

  17. Effect of freeze-drying on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of selected tropical fruits.

    PubMed

    Shofian, Norshahida Mohamad; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Osman, Azizah; Saari, Nazamid; Anwar, Farooq; Dek, Mohd Sabri Pak; Hairuddin, Muhammad Redzuan

    2011-01-01

    The effects of freeze-drying on antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity of five tropical fruits, namely starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.), muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.), and watermelon Citruluss lanatus (Thunb.) were investigated. Significant (p < 0.05) differences, for the amounts of total phenolic compounds (TPC), were found between the fresh and freeze-dried fruit samples, except muskmelon. There was no significant (p > 0.05) change, however, observed in the ascorbic acid content of the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Similarly, freeze-drying did not exert any considerable effect on β-carotene concentration of fruits, except for mango and watermelon, where significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels were detected in the fresh samples. The results of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and reducing power assays revealed that fresh samples of starfruit and mango had relatively higher antioxidant activity. In case of linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition measurement, a significant (p < 0.05) but random variation was recorded between the fresh and freeze-dried fruits. Overall, in comparison to β-carotene and ascorbic acid, a good correlation was established between the result of TPC and antioxidant assays, indicating that phenolics might have been the dominant compounds contributing towards the antioxidant activity of the fruits tested.

  18. Effect of domestic cooking on carotenoids, tocopherols, fatty acids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of lentils (Lens culinaris).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Deng, Zeyuan; Tang, Yao; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Ramdath, D Dan; Liu, Qiang; Hernandez, Marta; Tsao, Rong

    2014-12-31

    The phytochemicals and antioxidant activity in lipophilic and hydrophilic (extractable and bound) fractions of lentils before and after domestic cooking were investigated. The hydrophilic fractions in lentils contributed much more to the antioxidant activity than the lipophilic fraction. The phenolic content of lentils was mainly composed of extractable compounds. Significant changes (P < 0.05) in carotenoid, tocopherol, total phenolic, and condensed tannin contents of both extractable and bound phenolics fractions, as well as in antioxidant activities, were found in lentils before and after cooking. More specifically, cooking was found to favor the release of carotenoids and tocopherols and flavonols (kaempferol glycosides), but led to losses of flavanols (monomeric and condensed tannin). Whereas reduced flavanols and other phenolic compounds may have negatively affected the antioxidant activity, other components, especially the lipophilic antioxidants, were increased. The present study suggests that incorporation of cooked lentils into the diet will not cause significant loss to the phytochemical antioxidants and thus will retain the potential health benefits.

  19. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes—catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and ·O−2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells. PMID:26388737

  20. Antioxidative and Anticholinesterase Activity of Cyphomandra betacea Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Ali Hassan, Siti Hawa; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly

    2013-01-01

    Cyphomandra betacea is one of the underutilized fruits which can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. This study was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phytochemical contents in different parts (i.e., flesh and peel) of the fruits. Antioxidants were analyzed using DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging assays as well as FRAP assay. Anticholinesterase activity was determined using enzymatic assay using acetyl cholinesterase enzyme. For 80% methanol extract, the peel of the fruit displayed higher antioxidant activity in both FRAP and ABTS free radical scavenging assays while the flesh displayed higher antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content were higher in the peel with the values of 4.89 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 3.36 ± 0.01 mg rutin equivalent (RU)/g, respectively. Total anthocyanin and carotenoid content were higher in the flesh of the fruit with the values of 4.15 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 25.13 ± 0.35 mg/100 g. The anticholinesterase was also higher in the peel of C. betacea. The same trends of phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase were also observed in the distilled water extracts. These findings suggested that C. betacea has a potential as natural antioxidant-rich nutraceutical products. PMID:24298210

  1. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD. PMID:25815109

  2. In Vitro Larvicidal and Antioxidant Activity of Dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitriles

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, A.; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Many naturally occurring and synthetic compounds containing dihydrocyanopyridine and cyanopyran moiety show pharmacological properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal and antioxidant potential of dihydrophenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives 4a–f. A novel series of 2-amino-10-chloro-4,12-diphenyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydrobenzo[j][1,7]phenanthroline-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized by reacting different substituted acridine chalcones through Michel addition. The compounds were synthesized in excellent yields and the structures were corroborated on the basis of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and ESI Mass analysis data. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was studied by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay method. From the antioxidant assay, the compound 4c was reported with profound antioxidant potential. PMID:24868553

  3. Antioxidant activity of extracts from foxtail millet (Setaria italica).

    PubMed

    Suma, P Florence; Urooj, Asna

    2012-08-01

    The less explored, commercially available foxtail millet-milled fractions like whole flour & bran rich fraction were studied for its antioxidant potency. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, phenolics, reducing sugars and flavonoids were found only in methanolic & aqueous extracts, while tannins and terpenoids were present in all the solvent extracts of whole flour & bran rich fraction. Antioxidants were extracted using methanol, ethanol and water. Methanolic extracts of whole flour and bran rich fraction exhibited a significantly higher (P < 0.05) radical scavenging activity (44.62% & 51.80% respectively) using DPPH model system, and reducing power (0.381 & 0.455 respectively) at 2 mg, than the other solvents used for extraction. As bran rich fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, suggesting the presence of antioxidant components in the bran layer. PMID:23904660

  4. Effect of roasting on phenolic content and antioxidant activities of whole cashew nuts, kernels, and testa.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekara, Neel; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-05-11

    The effect of roasting on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of cashew nuts and testa was studied. Whole cashew nuts, subjected to low-temperature (LT) and high-temperature (HT) treatments, were used to determine the antioxidant activity of products. Antioxidant activities of cashew nut, kernel, and testa phenolics extracted increased as the roasting temperature increased. The highest activity, as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC), and reducing power, was achieved when nuts were roasted at 130 °C for 33 min. Furthermore, roasting increased the total phenolic content (TPC) in both the soluble and bound extracts from whole nut, kernel, and testa but decreased that of the proanthocyanidins (PC) except for the soluble extract of cashew kernels. In addition, cashew testa afforded a higher extract yield, TPC, and PC in both soluble and bound fractions compared to that in whole nuts and kernels. Phenolic acids, namely, syringic (the predominant one), gallic, and p-coumaric acids, were identified. Flavonoids, namely, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and epigallocatechin, were also identified, and their contents increased with increasing temperature. The results so obtained suggest that HT-short time (HTST) roasting effectively enhances the antioxidant activity of cashew nuts and testa.

  5. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  6. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Siqun; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF) grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics. PMID:25628774

  7. Increased Spreading Activation in Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paul S.; Yung, Raegan C.; Branch, Kaylei K.; Stringer, Kristi; Ferguson, Brad J.; Sullivan, William; Drago, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    The dopaminergic system is implicated in depressive disorders and research has also shown that dopamine constricts lexical/semantic networks by reducing spreading activation. Hence, depression, which is linked to reductions of dopamine, may be associated with increased spreading activation. However, research has generally found no effects of…

  8. Strategies to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity are well known and well publicized. Healthy People 2020 has determined that physical activity is one of their key interventions to improve health in America. Despite wide acceptance that physical activity is a low-cost alternative to disease treatment and prevention, most Americans still do not exercise the recommended minimum of 150 minutes per week. Underpinning such recommendations is the growing concern that unless we change our behavior around active living, health care costs to treat preventable disease will become unsustainable and have a substantial impact on the financial health of the US. For this reason, physicians, health care executives, and community leaders are working together to improve total health for all Americans. One key intervention to prevent preventable diseases and to make health care more affordable is to increase the percentage of Americans who are physically active. No single intervention will increase activity rates, but a group of interventions working together in synergy may be the stimulus needed to get Americans moving. The five strategies discussed in this paper include 1) measure physical activity as a vital sign; 2) encourage patients to be physically active at least 150 minutes per week; 3) create healthy environments by making it easier for patients to be physically active where they live, learn, work, play, and pray; 4) monitor disease incidence of patients who are physically active vs those who are not physically active; and 5) spread best practices. PMID:26517440

  9. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  10. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  11. The Antioxidant Profiles, Lysosomal and Membrane Enzymes Activity in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Milnerowicz, Halina; Bukowski, Radosław; Jabłonowska, Monika; Ściskalska, Milena; Milnerowicz, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, play an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. The study was aimed to assess the degree of the pro/antioxidative imbalance and estimate which antioxidant plays a role in the maintenance of pro/antioxidative balance during acute pancreatitis. The study was investigated in the blood of 32 patients with acute pancreatitis and 37 healthy subjects. IL-6 concentration as early marker of inflammation was determinated. The intensity of oxidative stress was assessed by TBARS concentration. To investigate antioxidative status, the GPx and Cu/Zn SOD activities and the levels of GSH, MT, SH groups, and TRAP were measured. The concentrations of Cu and Zn as ions participating in the maintenance of antioxidant enzymes stability and playing a role in the course of disease were determinated. The activities of GGT, AAP, NAG, and β-GD as markers of tissue damage were also measured. An increase in IL-6 concentration, which correlated with Ranson criteria, and an increase in GPx activity, levels of MT, TBARS, or GGT, and NAG activities in patients group compared to healthy subjects were demonstrated. A decrease in GSH level in patients group compared to control group was noted. The studies suggest that GPx/GSH and MT play the role of the first line of defence against oxidative stress and pro/antioxidant imbalance in the course of acute pancreatitis. PMID:25298618

  12. Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.

  13. Antioxidant Activity in Extracts of 27 Indigenous Taiwanese Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan’s indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  14. Antioxidant activity in extracts of 27 indigenous Taiwanese vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pi-Yu; Lin, Su-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Liu, Yu-Fen; Hsu, Ju-Ing; Yang, Chi-Ming; Lai, Jun-You

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify the antioxidants and antioxidant axtivity in 27 of Taiwan's indigenous vegetables. Lycium chinense (Lc), Lactuca indica (Li), and Perilla ocymoides (Po) contained abundant quercetin (Que), while Artemisia lactiflora (Al) and Gynura bicolor (Gb) were rich in morin and kaempferol, respectively. Additionally, Nymphoides cristata (Nc) and Sechium edule (Se)-yellow had significantly higher levels of myricetin (Myr) than other tested samples. Cyanidin (Cyan) and malvidin (Mal) were abundant in Gb, Abelmoschus esculentus Moench (Abe), Po, Anisogonium esculentum (Retz.) Presl (Ane), Ipomoea batatas (Ib)-purple, and Hemerocallis fulva (Hf)-bright orange. Relatively high levels of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenger were generated from extracts of Toona sinensis (Ts) and Po. Significant and positive correlations between antioxidant activity and polyphenols, anthocyanidins, Que, Myr, and morin were observed, indicating that these phytochemicals were some of the main components responsible for the antioxidant activity of tested plants. The much higher antioxidant activity of Po, Ts, and Ib (purple leaf) may be related to their higher Cyan, Que, and polyphenol content. PMID:24858497

  15. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Chang, Chen-Kang; Tso, Tim K; Huang, Ju-Jen; Chang, Wei-Wei; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2004-08-01

    Fruits and vegetables have been known to contain a variety of antioxidant components. It has been suggested that antioxidants may protect biomolecules from oxidative damage and therefore be associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and certain cancer. The antioxidant abilities of various parts of eight common fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan were investigated, including tomato, guava, squash, tangerine, wax gourd, pineapple, chayote, and eggplant. Squash, wax gourd, tomato, and guava seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in thiobarbituric acid assay. Wax guard and squash seeds showed the highest antioxidant activities in iodometric assay. At the level of 1 g fresh sample, low-density lipoprotein peroxidation was inhibited by at least 90% by tomato meat, guava meat, squash seed, wax gourd meat, core, and seed, and eggplant skin. The total phenolic content was significantly correlated with antioxidant activities measured by thiobarbituric acid (r=0.715, P<0.01) and iodometric (r=0.749, P<0.01) assays. The results of this study could be used for development of merchandise with potential health benefits from agricultural products.

  16. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  17. Antioxidants

    MedlinePlus

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  18. Characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharide purified from Rana chensinensis skin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Fei

    2015-08-01

    Preliminary characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo investigation of the polysaccharide fraction named as RCSP II, which was extracted from Rana chensinensis skin, were performed. Results indicated that RCSP II comprised glucose, galactose, and mannose in a molar ratio of 87.82:2.77:1.54 with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa. Antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that RCSP II exhibited 75.2% scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals at the concentration of 2500 mg/L and 85.1% against chelated ferrous ion at 4000 mg/L. Antioxidant activity assay in vivo further showed that RCSP II increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased the levels of malondialodehyde, and enhanced total antioxidant capabilities in livers and sera of d-galactose induced mice. These results suggested that RCSP II could have potential antioxidant applications as medicine or functional food.

  19. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Telma Angelina Faraldo; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Oliveira, Daniela Moura de; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Benites, Cibelem Iribarrem; Vinagre, Carmen Guilherme Christiano de Matos; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Tarasoutchi, Daniela; Tuda, Vera Lúcia; César, Luiz Antonio Machado; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2012-09-01

    We compared the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, 20 volunteers consumed 482 ± 61 ml/day of MLR or MR for four weeks. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), oxidized LDL and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at baseline and after the interventions. MLR had higher chlorogenic acids-(CGA; 334 mg/150 mL) and less caffeine (231 mg/150 ml) than MR had (210 and 244 mg/150 ml, respectively). MLR also had fewer Maillard reaction products (MRP) than MR had. Compared with baseline, subjects had an increase of 21 and 26 % in TAS, 13 and 13 % in CAT, 52 and 75 % in SOD, and 62 and 49 % in GPx after MLR and MR consumption (P < 0.001), respectively. ORAC increased after MLR (P = 0.004). No significant alteration in lipid peroxidation biomarkers was observed. Both coffees had antioxidant effects. Although MLR contained more CGA, there were similar antioxidant effects between the treatments. MRP may have contributed as an antioxidant. These effects may be important in protecting biological systems and reducing the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress. PMID:22766993

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Manihot esculenta Crantz in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish Eknath; Kale, Ranjana Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves (MEC) in wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 200 mg/kg were used in wistar rats of either sex. The oxidative stress was produced by overdose of acetaminophen and estimation of serum concentration of various enzymes such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) were measured by standard biochemical methods. Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug for assessment of antioxidant status. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Student's unpaired t-test. Results: When compared with the standard antioxidant silymarin, MEC extract did not exhibit antioxidant activity in terms of MDA level reduction. However, it significantly increased serum levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, and CAT) exerting a potent antioxidant effect in a graded manner. Conclusions: The observed results suggest that MEC could be a potential source of antioxidants. However, further studies are required to explore this therapeutic property of plant. PMID:27134463

  1. Antioxidant Activity of The Ancient Herb, Holy Basil in CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusam, Yuvaraj; Louis, Therasilin; Madhavachandran, V; Kumar, Suresh; Thoprani, Neelam; Hamblin, Michael R; Lakshmanan, Shanmugamurthy

    2015-01-01

    An herbal preparation called “holy basil plus herbal powder” (HBPP) containing Ocimum santum, Withania somnifera, Pongamia pinnata, Plumbago indica, Emblica officinalis and Curcuma longa was investigated as an antioxidant and hepatoprotective agent. The antioxidant activity of HBPP was investigated in rats with liver injury induced by oral administration of carbon tetrachloride:olive oil (1:1). HBPP was administered orally at 500 mg/kg daily for 7 days before. HBPP exhibited statistically significant antioxidant activity, as shown by increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and decreased level of lipid peroxidation (LPO). HBPP performed equally well as silymarin, a well-established antioxidant preparation used to protect against liver injury. PMID:26925464

  2. Comparative antioxidant activity appraisal of traditional Sudanese kisra prepared from two sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Zaroug, Marwa; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Senol, Fatma Sezer; Yagi, Sakina

    2014-08-01

    The effect of fermentation and heating on the antioxidant activity of the fermented and fermented baked (kisra) dough prepared from two Sorghum cultivars (Tabat and Wad Ahmed) was evaluated. Kisra prepared from Tabat cultivar showed higher DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) than that of the Wad Ahmed cultivar. Baking improves the DPPH and FRAP of the kisra prepared from two cultivars. Baking caused a variable effect on the total phenol, tannins and flavonoids content across different periods of fermentation where an increase was mainly observed for samples subjected to longer periods of fermentation. A positive high correlation between the total phenol and antioxidant activity, using the DPPH and FRAP assays, was obtained for kisra prepared from both cultivars. The same observation was obtained for tannin content. In conclusion, fermentation and heating improve the antioxidant capacity of the sorghum grains from Tabat and Wad Ahmed cultivars.

  3. Evaluation to the antioxidant activity of total flavonoids extract from persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Zhang, Jianbao; Lu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Liyu; Zhang, Yali

    2011-10-01

    Persimmon leaves are commonly consumed as beverages, but are also used as a popular folk medicine in China. The purpose of this work is to assess the antioxidant activity of an extract of total flavonoids from persimmon leaves (TFPL). The effect of TFPL on total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH()) radical scavenging, superoxide anion (()O(2)(-)) radical scavenging, hydroxyl (OH()) radical scavenging and metal chelating activities was examined. We found that TFPL possesses considerable amounts of flavonoids (192μg catechin equivalent/g of extract). The effect of this extract in total antioxidant activity, scavenging activity of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, reducing power and iron chelating activity was significantly better than that of rutin. However, the effect of TFPL in free radical scavenging of DPPH() was significantly not as good as than rutin. In addition, TFPL significantly decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), while increasing the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TFPL possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. These antioxidant activities could contribute, at least in part, to the traditionally claimed therapeutic benefits of persimmon leaves.

  4. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties. PMID:27433585

  5. Bovine Serum Albumin Nanoparticles Containing Quercetin: Characterization and Antioxidant Activity.

    PubMed

    Antônio, Emilli; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2016-02-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid reported as anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antineurodegenerative and antitumoral. However, due to its low water solubility, its efficacy is restricted. Nanotechnology can be an importante tool to improve the quercetin properties and increase its bioavailability. In this study, bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles containing quercetin were developed by desolvation technique, characterized the mean particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, physical state of drug in nanoparticles and drug release profile as well as their antioxidant activity was evaluated. The influence of glutaraldehyde percentage in nanoparticles properties was evaluated and did not influence the nanoparticles parameters. Nanoparticles presented a mean size around 130 nm and encapsulation efficiency around 85%. Results from X-ray diffractometry showed that the crystal of the drug was converted to an amorphous state in polymeric matrix. Quercetin release profile demonstrated a biphasic pattern and after 96 h approximately 18% of drug was released. Kinetic models demonstrated that the quercetin release followed a second-order model and the release was governed by Fickian diffusion. After 96 h, quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were more effective than free quercetin for scanvenger of radical ABTS + and hypochlorous acid. BSA nanoparticles represents potential carriers for improve quercetin properties.

  6. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells.

  7. Quinclorac-habituation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultured cells is related to an increase in their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; de Castro, María; Alonso-Simón, Ana; García-Angulo, Penélope; Acebes, José L; Encina, Antonio; Álvarez, Jesús M

    2016-10-01

    The habituation of bean cells to quinclorac did not rely on cell wall modifications, contrary to what it was previously observed for the well-known cellulose biosynthesis inhibitors dichlobenil or isoxaben. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the bean cells habituation to quinclorac is related to an enhancement of antioxidant activities involved in the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species. Treating non-habituated bean calluses with 10 μM quinclorac reduced the relative growth rate and induced a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation. However, the exposition of quinclorac-habituated cells to a concentration of quinclorac up to 30 μM neither affected their growth rate nor increased their lipid peroxidation levels. Quinclorac-habituated calluses had significantly higher constitutive levels of three antioxidant activities (class-III peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase) than those observed in non-habituated calluses, and the treatment of habituated calluses with 30 μM quinclorac significantly increased the level of class III-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The results reported here indicate that the process of habituation to quinclorac in bean callus-cultured cells is related, at least partially, to the development of a stable antioxidant capacity that enables them to cope with the oxidative stress caused by quinclorac. Class-III peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities could play a major role in the quinclorac-habituation. Changes in the antioxidant status of bean cells were stable, since the increase in the antioxidant activities were maintained in quinclorac-dehabituated cells. PMID:27318799

  8. Effect of UV treatment on antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzyme activity and decay in strawberry fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changes in antioxidant capacity, enzyme activity and decay inhibition in strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa) illuminated with different UV-C dosages were investigated. Three UV-C illumination durations and dosages, 1 min, 5 min and 10 min, (0.43, 2.15 and 4.30 kJ m-2) tested promoted the anti...

  9. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  10. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important.

  11. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  12. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  13. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower

    PubMed Central

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Prihanto, Asep Awaludin; Nurdiani, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius (A. ilicifolius). Methods Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test. Results A. ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid, phenolic compounds, and alkaloid. The methanol extract of A. ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency (AE=1.41×10−3) against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity (LC50=22 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii. Conclusions It is suggested that active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii. The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:23570011

  14. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  15. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation. PMID:23909570

  16. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.

  17. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    PubMed

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity.

  19. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D. Halide, H. Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Effect of sprouting and light cycle on antioxidant activity of Brassica oleracea varieties.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ana Paula; Cidade, Honorina; Pinto, Madalena; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-15

    The antioxidant activity of sprouts from four Brassica oleracea varieties was evaluated using "in vitro" methods (total phenolic and flavonoid content; radical scavenging assays: DPPH, hydroxyl and peroxyl; and Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability Assay). Light cycles and sprouting influenced the potential antioxidant activity of sprouts and significant differences were observed between varieties. Generally, antioxidant activity decreased with sprouting and increased in the presence of light, whose discriminant effect was highly significant (P<0.001). Red cabbage sprouts produced under light cycles showed the highest antioxidant activity (57.11 μg mL(-1) Ferrous Ion-chelating Ability, 221.46 μg mL(-1) Hydroxyl radical scavenging, 279.02 μg mL(-1) Peroxyl radical scavenging). Among the traditional Portuguese brassica varieties, Penca cabbage sprouts produced under light presented higher antioxidant capacity, and also higher phenolic and flavonoid content (54.04 mg GAEg(-1) d.w. extract and 21.33 QEg(-1) d.w. extract, respectively) than Galega kale. The phenolic content of Brassica sprouts had a significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Orange Flesh and Peel Extracted with Various Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hee; Lee, Minhee; Park, Eunju

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of orange (Citrus auranthium) flesh (OF) and peel (OP) extracted with acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Antioxidant potential was examined by measuring total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (RSA), total radical-trapping anti-oxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA). The comet assay was used to determine the protective effects of OF and OP against H2O2-induced DNA damage. TPC was highest in the acetone extracts of OF and OP. DPPH RSA was also higher in the acetone extracts than in the ethanol extracts. The DPPH RSA was highest in the acetone extracts of OF. The TRAP and ORAC values of the all extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the TRAP assay, the acetone extracts of OF and OP had the lowest IC50 values. In the CAA assay, the methanol and acetone extracts of OP had the lowest IC50 values. All of the samples protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in human leukocytes, as measured by the comet assay, but the acetone extracts of OP had the strongest effect. These results suggest that acetone is the best solvent for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from OF and OP. Furthermore, the high antioxidant activity of OP, which is a by-product of orange processing, suggests that it can be used in nutraceutical and functional foods. PMID:25580393

  2. Red and black rice decrease atherosclerotic plaque formation and increase antioxidant status in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ling, W H; Cheng, Q X; Ma, J; Wang, T

    2001-05-01

    The influence of white, red and black rice consumption on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in rabbits. Male rabbits (n = 36) were divided into five groups. They were fed a normal laboratory purified diet (normal group, n = 6), a high cholesterol (0.5 g/100 g) diet (HC group, n = 6), a high cholesterol diet with 30 g/100 g white rice (WR group, n = 8), 30 g/100 g red rice (RR group, n = 8), or 30 g/100 g black rice (BR group, n = 8) for 10 wk. Blood samples were collected for lipid measurements and aorta were removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the protocol. The oxidant and antioxidant status of blood, erythrocytes, liver and aorta was evaluated. The area of atherosclerotic plaque was 50% lower in rabbits fed the red or black rice diets than in those fed the white rice diet. Compared with the HC and WR groups, serum HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I concentration were greater (P < 0.05) in the RR and BR groups. Liver reactive oxygen species (ROS) and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly lower, and the liver total antioxidative capacity (TAC) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were significantly higher in the RR and BR groups compared with the HC and WR groups. Red or black rice consumption reduced or retarded the progression of atherosclerotic plaque development induced by dietary cholesterol. The enhanced serum HDL cholesterol and apo A-I concentrations, and the increased antioxidant and decreased oxidative status may be mechanisms of the antiatherogenic effect of red or black rice. PMID:11340093

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested.

  4. Effect of cyclodextrin complexation on phenylpropanoids’ solubility and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Miriana; Landy, David; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Summary The complexation abilities of five cyclodextrins (CDs) with seven phenylpropanoids (PPs) were evaluated by UV–visible spectroscopy, phase solubility studies and molecular modeling. Formation constants (K f), complexation efficiency (CE), PP:CD molar ratio, increase in formulation bulk and complexation energy were assessed. All complexes exhibited a 1:1 stoichiometry but their stability was influenced by the nature and the position of the phenyl ring substituents. A relationship between the intrinsic solubility of guests (S 0) and the solubilizing potential of CD was proposed. Molecular modeling was used to investigate the complementarities between host and guest. Finally, the antioxidant activity of encapsulated PPs was evaluated by scavenging of the stable DPPH radical. PMID:25298799

  5. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  6. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  7. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activities of five cultivars of daylily flowers from China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Maorun; Mao, Linchun

    2008-05-10

    Different cultivars of functional vegetables may vary in an antioxidant capacity. In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from five cultivars of daylily flower grown in China was compared by various antioxidant assays, including total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging and reducing power, the various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and ascorbic acid. All the extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in all tested methods. Among the five cultivars, Panlonghua and Mengzihua were found to possess the highest antioxidant activity, while Xiye and Baihua were found to possess the lowest antioxidant activity. In addition, a high positive correlation between the antioxidant properties and total phenolic content was observed. PMID:18569695

  9. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    PubMed

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound. PMID:26166137

  11. Antioxidant Activity and Induction of mRNA Expressions of Antioxidant Enzymes in HEK-293 Cells of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Mangmool, Supachoke; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2015-08-01

    The leaves of Moringa oleifera, collected in different provinces in Thailand, were determined for the contents of total phenolics, total flavonoids, major components, and antioxidant activity. The extract and its major active components were investigated for the inhibition of H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production and the effects on antioxidant enzymes mRNA expression. The extract, crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin and astragalin, significantly reduced the reactive oxygen species production inducing by H2O2 in HEK-293 cells. Treatment with isoquercetin significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and heme oxygenase 1. These results confirm that M. oleifera leaves are good sources of natural antioxidant with isoquercetin as an active compound.

  12. Antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of Brazilian blueberries.

    PubMed

    Pertuzatti, Paula Becker; Barcia, Milene Teixeira; Rodrigues, Daniele; da Cruz, Pollyanna Nogueira; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Smith, Robert; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts of ten cultivars of Highbush and Rabbiteye Brazilian blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and Vacciniumashei Reade, respectively) that are used for commercial production were analysed for antioxidant activity by the FRAP, ORAC, ABTS and β-carotene-linoleate methods. Results were correlated to the amounts of carotenoids, total phenolics and anthocyanins. Brazilian blueberries had relatively high concentration of total phenolics (1,622-3,457 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g DW) and total anthocyanins (140-318 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents per 100 g DW), as well as being a good source of carotenoids. There was a higher positive correlation between the amounts of these compounds and the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic compared to lipophilic extracts. There were also significant differences in the level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities between different cultivars, production location and year of cultivation.

  13. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. PMID:27664697

  14. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  15. Antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of semi-synthetic α-phenylseleno citronellal.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Francine Novack; Anversa, Roberta; Penteado, Filipe; Castro, Micheli; Lenardão, Eder João; Savegnago, Lucielli

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of the semi-synthetic compound α-phenylseleno citronellal (PhSeCIT) and the natural terpenoid R-citronellal (CIT) were evaluated. The biological potential of PhSeCIT and CIT was evaluated by antioxidant in vitro assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and linoleic acid oxidation. The compounds were also assessed by ex vivo tests to determine the acute toxicity, levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-Ala-D) and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities. The antidepressant-like activity of compounds in the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the addition of an organoselenium group to (R)-citronellal increased its antioxidant properties, since PhSeCIT showed better activity than CIT. The treatment of mice with both compounds did not cause death of any animals. The levels of TBARS were significantly reduced by PhSeCIT in liver and cortex of animals, whereas CIT did not alter these parameters. In the TST and FST, PhSeCIT showed promising antidepressant-like activity, while CIT was not active in this test. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of selenium in the antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities of (R)-citronellal.

  16. Determining antioxidant activities of lactobacilli cell-free supernatants by cellular antioxidant assay: a comparison with traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875

  17. Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

    2013-01-01

    Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

  18. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. PMID:27155370

  20. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients. PMID:27208744

  1. Enhanced oral bioavailability and in vivo antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acid via liposomal formulation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingshu; Sun, Congyong; Yuan, Yangyang; Zhu, Yuan; Wan, Jinyi; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Xu, Yang; Pu, Zunqin; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-03-30

    In the present study, a formulation system consisting of cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline was used to prepare an effective chlorogenic acid-loaded liposome (CAL) with an improved oral bioavailability and an increased antioxidant activity. The developed liposomal formulation produced regular, spherical and multilamellar-shaped distribution nanoparticles. The pharmacokinetic analysis of CAL compared with chlorogenic acid (CA), showed a higher value of Cmax(6.42 ± 1.49 min versus 3.97 ± 0.39 min) and a delayed Tmax(15 min versus 10 min), with 1.29-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability. The tissue distribution in mice also demonstrated that CAL predominantly accumulated in the liver which indicated hepatic targeting potential of the drug. The increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total Superoxide Dismutase (T-SOD) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px)) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), in addition to decreased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity study further revealed that CAL exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. Collectively, these findings present a liposomal formulation with significantly improved oral bioavailability and an increased in vivo antioxidant activity of CA. PMID:26861689

  2. Assessment of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating Ceiba pentandra (kapok) seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Kiran, Chekuboyina; Rao, Dadi Bhaskara; Sirisha, Nagala; Rao, Tamanam Raghava

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine the significance of germination on phytochemical constituents and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities of Ceiba pentandra seed extracts. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of raw and germinating seeds of Ceiba pentandra were estimated by different methods. The levels of phytochemical constituents were influenced by germination and increased except alkaloids and tannins, which were decreased significantly during germination. Among non-enzymatic antioxidants like DPPH, FRAP, reducing assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity all showed improved activity compared with non-germinating seeds. This may be due to various reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were generated as by-products of metabolism during germination. This group of ROS included superoxide radicals (O2), hydrogen peroxide radicals (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (OH). The formation of these oxygen radicals resulted in the accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides by radical chain oxidation via phospholipids peroxy radicals within membranes. Therefore, it was hypothesized that this could be related to the increase of antioxidant activity in large unilamellar vesicles observed in germinated seeds. The implication of this study is that the Ceiba pentandra seeds as natural antioxidant agents and put forward the possibility of employing for therapeutic potential. PMID:26442618

  3. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (P<0.05) only for seaweed treated with 5% lemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  4. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  5. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  6. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities. PMID:27390727

  7. Antioxidant Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Colored Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Oh, Seung Hee; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Woo, Shun Hee; Kim, Hong Sig; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the antioxidant substance content and antioxidant activities of white (Superior) and colored (Hongyoung, Jayoung, Jasim, Seohong, and Jaseo) potatoes. The potatoes were extracted with 80% ethanol and were evaluated for the total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents and for 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and ferrous metal ion chelating effect. The total polyphenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents of Hongyoung and Jayoung were higher than white and other colored potatoes. All colored potato extracts, except for Jaseo and Seohong, showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activities than the general white potato extract. Hongyoung and Jayoung had the highest ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Optical density values for the reducing power of Jayoung and Jaseo at concentration of 2 mg/mL were 0.148 and 0.090, respectively. All colored potato extracts had lower ferrous metal ion chelating effect than the white potato. A significant (P<0.05) positive correlation was observed between total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content (r=0.919), anthocyanin content (r=0.992), and ABTS radical scavenging activity (r=0.897). Based on these results, this research may be useful in developing the Hongyoung and Jayoung cultivars with high antioxidant activities. PMID:27390727

  8. Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Rubus parvifolius L.*

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Sun, Cui-rong; Yang, Jie-hong; Shi, Jian-mei; Du, Yue-guang; Zhang, Yu-yan; Li, Jin-hui; Wan, Hai-tong

    2011-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the n-butanol extract of Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL), a widely used medicinal plant, were evaluated. Results demonstrated that RPL extract possessed pronounced hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in mice, which was at least partially attributed to its strong antioxidant capacity. Treatment with RPL extract markedly attenuated the increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels caused by CCl4 intoxication. It also significantly prevented the decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content of liver tissue. Meanwhile, histopathological changes of hepatic damage were also remarkably ameliorated. Phytochemical analysis based on high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) revealed the presence of various phenolic compounds, including caffeic acid conjugates, ellagic acid glycosides, and flavonol glycosides, which might be responsible for the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of RPL. PMID:21265045

  9. Biocompatible novel starch/polyaniline composites: characterization, anti-cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyoti Prasad; Banerjee, Somik; Konwar, Bolin Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-11-01

    Starch/polyaniline composites have been synthesized using oxidative polymerization of polyaniline in an aqueous dispersion of starch isolated from Colocasia esculenta corm. Scanning electron micrographs reveals the growth of polyaniline over the surface of the starch granules. DPPH scavenging and haemolysis prevention assay have been performed to estimate the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of the composites. Formation of new properties of the composites as compared to starch and poloyaniline was evident from the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Characterization done using UV-Vis, FTIR and DSC analysis provide evidence of composite formation. Composite possesses antioxidant nature which increases with the concentration of polyaniline. The haemolysis prevention activity of these novel composite materials is found to increase as compared to the pure polyaniline with minor compromise in the antioxidant activity. The materials show tremendous potential for biomedical applications. PMID:20674287

  10. Commercial dietary antioxidant supplements assayed for their antioxidant activity by different methodologies.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Alberto; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2003-04-23

    Seven commercial dietary antioxidant supplements were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant capacity by different methodologies: antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.), inhibition of methyl linoleate (MeLo) autoxidation, and resistance to ion-dependent oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Great variability in antioxidant activity was seen among the supplements, as well as different patterns of antioxidant capacity depending on the method used. The same orders of activity were found for the MeLo autoxidation and LDL-induced oxidation methods, but the differences recorded by the former were wider. "Food/compound intake equivalents" of the doses recommended by the manufacturers were calculated in terms of quercetin, strawberries, and red wine for each of the supplements studied. Food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7.9 and 190 mg of quercetin according to the DPPH. scavenging method, between 0.20 and 98 mg according to the MeLo autoxidation method, and between 3.4 and 83 mg according to LDL-induced oxidation. In equivalent terms of red wine, the food/compound intake equivalents varied between 7 and 159 mL, between 3 and 1354 mL, and between 4 and 89 mL for the same three methods. In terms of equivalents of strawberry, they varied between 14 and 343 mg according to the DPPH. scavenging method and between 57 g and 26 kg according to the MeLo autoxidation method. These results show the need to standardize dietary supplements in terms of their antioxidant capacity to match required doses to the oxidative status of consumers. PMID:12696929

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Picrorhiza kurroa (Leaves) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kant, K.; Walia, M.; Agnihotri, V. K.; Pathania, Vijaylata; Singh, B.

    2013-01-01

    Picrorhiza kurroa is a well-known herb in Ayurvedic medicine. Although it shows antioxidant, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, it is most valued for its hepatoprotective effect. The rhizomes are widely used against indigestion problems since ancient times due to improper digestive secretions. Aim of this study was to explore antioxidant study of P. kurroa leaves for a new source of naturally occurring antioxidants. Two pure compounds, luteolin-5-O-glucopyranoside (1) and picein (2) were isolated from butanol extract through column chromatography. Different extracts of P. kurroa leaves (ethanol, ethyl acetate, butanol) were quantified for isolated compound (2) by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for its antioxidant activity using two assays, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay. The linear detection range was 1.56-200 μg/ml for picein. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for picein were 2.34 and 7.81 μg/ml, respectively. Butanol and ethyl acetate extract showed greater antioxidant activity as compare to ethanol extract. Compound 1 and ascorbic acid showed nearly similar antioxidant activity where as 2 showed no activity at standard concentration. The IC50 values for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay for ascorbic acid, compound 1, ethanol extract and its different fractions (ethyl acetate and butanol) were found to be 0.81, 1.04, 67.48, 39.58, 37.12 and 2.59, 4.02, 48.36, 33.24, 29.48 μg, respectively. PMID:24082348

  12. UV-induced changes of active components and antioxidant activity in postharvest pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuo-Fu; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Li, Chun-Ying; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2013-02-13

    In this study, the effect of UV irradiation (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) on phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of postharvest pigeon pea leaves was evaluated. The response of pigeon pea leaves to UV irradiation was phytochemical specific. UV-B and UV-C induced higher levels of phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity in pigeon pea leaves compared with UV-A. Furthermore, UV-B irradiation proved to possess a long-lasting effect on the levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity. After adapting for 48 h at 4 °C following 4 h UV-B irradiation, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were approximately 1.5-fold and 2.2-fold increased from 39.4 mg GAE/g DM and 15.0 μmol GAE/g DM to 59.1 mg GAE/g DM and 32.5 μmol GAE/g DM, respectively. These results indicate that UV irradiation of pigeon pea leaves can be beneficial in terms of increasing active components and antioxidant activity. PMID:23320913

  13. UV-induced changes of active components and antioxidant activity in postharvest pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zuo-Fu; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Li, Chun-Ying; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Wei; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2013-02-13

    In this study, the effect of UV irradiation (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) on phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity of postharvest pigeon pea leaves was evaluated. The response of pigeon pea leaves to UV irradiation was phytochemical specific. UV-B and UV-C induced higher levels of phytochemicals, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity in pigeon pea leaves compared with UV-A. Furthermore, UV-B irradiation proved to possess a long-lasting effect on the levels of phenolics and antioxidant activity. After adapting for 48 h at 4 °C following 4 h UV-B irradiation, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were approximately 1.5-fold and 2.2-fold increased from 39.4 mg GAE/g DM and 15.0 μmol GAE/g DM to 59.1 mg GAE/g DM and 32.5 μmol GAE/g DM, respectively. These results indicate that UV irradiation of pigeon pea leaves can be beneficial in terms of increasing active components and antioxidant activity.

  14. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality. PMID:25977015

  15. Harvest date affects aronia juice polyphenols, sugars, and antioxidant activity, but not anthocyanin stability.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bradley W; Taheri, Rod; Pei, Ruisong; Kranz, Sarah; Yu, Mo; Durocher, Shelley N; Brand, Mark H

    2015-11-15

    The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality.

  16. Structure-activity relationships for antioxidant activities of a series of flavonoids in a liposomal system.

    PubMed

    Arora, A; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M

    1998-06-01

    Structurally diverse plant phenolics were examined for their abilities to inhibit lipid peroxidation induced either by Fe(II) and Fe(III) metal ions or by azo-derived peroxyl radicals in a liposomal membrane system. The antioxidant abilities of flavonoids were compared with those of coumarin and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ). The antioxidant efficacies of these compounds were evaluated on the basis of their abilities to inhibit the fluorescence intensity decay of an extrinsic probe, 3-(p-(6-phenyl)-I,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenylpropionic acid (DPH-PA), caused by the free radicals generated during lipid peroxidation. All the flavonoids tested exhibited higher antioxidant efficacies against metal-ion-induced peroxidations than peroxyl-radical-induced peroxidation, suggesting that metal chelation may play a larger role in determining the antioxidant activities of these compounds than has previously been believed. Distinct structure-activity relationships were also revealed for the antioxidant abilities of the flavonoids. Presence of hydroxyl substituents on the flavonoid nucleus enhanced activity, whereas substitution by methoxy groups diminished antioxidant activity. Substitution patterns on the B-ring especially affected antioxidant potencies of the flavonoids. In cases where the B-ring could not contribute to the antioxidant activities of flavonoids, hydroxyl substituents in an catechol structure on the A-ring were able to compensate and become a larger determinant of flavonoid antioxidant activity. PMID:9641252

  17. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level in ion-beam-bombarded rice seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semsang, Nuananong; Yu, LiangDeng

    2013-07-01

    Low-energy ion beam bombardment has been used to mutate a wide variety of plant species. To explore the indirect effects of low-energy ion beam on biological damage due to the free radical production in plant cells, the increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation level was investigated in ion-bombarded rice seeds. Local rice seeds were bombarded with nitrogen or argon ion beams at energies of 29-60 keV and ion fluences of 1 × 1016 ions cm-2. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation level were assayed in the germinated rice seeds after ion bombardment. The results showed most of the enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in both the argon and nitrogen bombarded samples were higher than those in the natural control. N-ion bombardment could induce higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activities in the rice samples than the Ar-ion bombardment. Additional effects due to the vacuum condition were found to affect activities of some antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. This study demonstrates that ion beam bombardment and vacuum condition could induce the antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation level which might be due to free radical production in the bombarded rice seeds.

  18. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Hamelia patens extracts.

    PubMed

    Perez-Meseguer, Jonathan; Delgado-Montemayor, Cecilia; Ortíz-Torres, Tania; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Cordero-Perez, Paula; de Torres, Noemí Waksman

    2016-01-01

    Hamelia patens is widely used in the traditional medicine of Mexico and Central America for the treatment of illnesses associated with inflammatory processes. In this study, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity were assayed on the methanolic crude (ME), hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (AE), and butanol (BE) extracts of H. patens. The total phenolic content (TPC) as mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of dry extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's method (ME=141.58±11.99, HE=33.96±1.13, AE=375.18±13.09, BE=132.08±3.62), and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method (EC(50) ME=77.87±5.67, HE=236.64±26.32, AE=45.87±2.24, BE=50.97±0.85μg/mL). Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through AST activity on HepG2 cells subjected to damage with CCl(4) (ME=62.5±3.41, HE=72.25±2.87, AE=63.50±4.20, BE=43.74±4.03). BE showed the greater hepatoprotective activity and a good antioxidant capacity, while HE did not show hepatoprotective or antioxidant activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated on Vero cells cultures; none showed significant toxicity.

  19. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  20. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2010-01-01

    A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

  1. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    PubMed

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines.

  3. Dispersants having antioxidant activity and lubricating compositions containing them

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, J.; Hill, G. A.

    1981-02-03

    Lubricating oil additives having both dispersant and antioxidant activity, particularly useful for incorporation in two-stroke petrol engine lubricating oil compositions, are produced when a dispersant having free >n-h groups, E.G., a substituted succinimide, is reacted with an aldehyde and a compound having antioxidant activity containing in its molecular structure a group or groups capable of condensing with the aldehyde and >n-h groups present in the dispersant, thereby chemically bonding the compound to the dispersant. Representative antioxidants are mononuclear and polynuclear substituted phenols having at least one unsubstituted ortho- or para-position, E.G. 2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and secondary aromatic amines. Typical reaction conditions are a temperature in the range 100* to 175/sup 0/C, and atmospheric pressure.

  4. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  5. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  6. Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sujay; Wahile, Atul; Mukherjee, Kakali; Saha, Bishnu Pada; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2006-04-01

    Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds (HANN) was studied using in vitro and in vivo models. Total phenolic content in HANN was found to be 7.61 +/- 0.04% (w/w). Characteristic HPTLC fingerprints of HANN were also made using different solvent systems. The HANN exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC(50) values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (6.12 +/- 0.41 microg/ml) and nitric oxide (84.86 +/- 3.56 microg/ml) methods. The values were found to be less than those of rutin, the standard used. Acute toxicity of HANN was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice, no signs of toxicity were observed up to the oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of HANN to Wistar rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment caused a significant dose dependent increase (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and a significant decrease (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared to CCl(4) treated control in both liver and kidney. These changes observed at 100 mg/kg body weight treatment were comparable to those observed for standard Vitamin E at 50 mg/kg treatment. Nelumbo nucifera seeds contain alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and carbohydrates. The results support significant antioxidant nature of HANN.

  7. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  8. Immunomodulatory and antioxidative activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements. PMID:26853825

  9. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (P<0.01) in the White Koluda(®) than in chickens, whereas SOD activity was less (P<0.01) than in chickens. This is the first study describing the presence of CAT in avian semen and the occurrence of indicator of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in geese. Data from the present study clearly show the species-specific differences in the activity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality.

  10. Antifungal activity of redox-active benzaldehydes that target cellular antioxidation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy. Methods Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1Δ, sod2Δ, glr1Δ) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakAΔ, mpkCΔ), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective

  11. Antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids from Bidens tripartita.

    PubMed

    Wolniak, Michał; Tomczykowa, Monika; Tomczyk, Michał; Gudej, Jan; Wawer, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from herb and flowers of Bidens tripartita L. (Asteraceae), obtained using solvents of different polarity, were studied for their radical scavenging effects. Antioxidant activities of pure flavonoids: flavanomarein (isookanin 7-O-glucoside), cynaroside (luteolin 7-O-glucoside) and luteolin, which had been isolated from this plant, were also evaluated. Radical-scavenging activity was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The content of flavonoids in flower heads is half of that found in the herb; however, the extract from flowers showed that the antioxidant activity was almost two times higher there. Some extracts (n-BuOH fraction) showed long lasting radical scavenging activity and the EPR spectra were recorded in time to follow the reaction kinetics. Scavenging of DPPH showed second-order kinetics at the beginning of the assay period and later the first-order one. Different kinetics suggested the presence of polymerized and/or less active antioxidants with different scavenging mechanisms for particular polyphenolic compounds. Bur-marigold extracts are a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used in pharmaceutical or food industry. PMID:18540165

  12. Diabetes-induced activation of nuclear transcriptional factor in the retina, and its inhibition by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, Renu A; Koppolu, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Chen, Shali

    2003-11-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in the retina in diabetes, and long-term administration of antioxidants inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic rats. The purpose of this study is to determine how diabetes affects the activation of a redox-sensitive nuclear transcriptional factor in the retina, NF-kappaB, and its inhibition by antioxidants. Alloxan diabetic rats were assigned to receive standard diet or the diet supplemented with multiple antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, Trolox, dl alpha-tocopherol acetate, N-acetyl cysteine, beta-carotene, and selenium for up to 14 months. NF-kappaB activation, oxidative stress and nitric oxides were measured in the retina at 2, 8 and 14 months of diabetes. Retinal NF-kappaB was activated by about 60% at two months after induction of diabetes, remained activated for up to 14 months of diabetes, and the duration of diabetes had no effect on the intensity of NF-kappaB activation. Similarly, oxidative stress and nitric oxides were elevated by over 50% in the retina of rats diabetic for 14 months, and nitrotyrosine levels were elevated by over two folds. Administration of the antioxidants to the rats for the entire duration of diabetes inhibited activation of NF-kappaB and elevations in oxidative stress, nitric oxides and nitrotyrosine formation without ameliorating the severity of hyperglycemia. These in vivo results were confirmed by in vitro studies showing that high glucose activates NF-kappaB and elevates NO and lipid peroxides in both retinal endothelial cells and pericytes that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Thus, the results suggest that the activation of retinal NF-KB in diabetes is an early event in the development of retinopathy, and it remains active when the retinal capillary cell death is accelerating, and histopathology is developing. Beneficial effects of antioxidants on the development of diabetic retinopathy might involve inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and its downstream pathways in the retina.

  13. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of extracts from Cirsium japonicum roots

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Heo, Seong-Il

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of methanol (MeOH) and water extracts from roots of Cirsium japonicum in vitro. MeOH extract showed a stronger free radical scavenging activity than water extract. However, both of extracts showed a concentration dependent hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating ability. MeOH extract had greater phenolic and flavonoid contents than water extract. The antidiabetic activity of these two extracts was evaluated by the α-glucosidase inhibition assay. The water extract showed a considerable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. To our knowledge, this may be the first time to report the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in Cirsium japonicum roots. PMID:20016726

  14. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

  15. Antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil under frying conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant activity of sesamol was investigated in soybean oil using a miniaturized frying experiment with potato cubes fried at 180 °C. Oxidation of soybean oil was determined by gel permeation chromatography for polymerized triacylglycerols and by 1H NMR spectroscopy for reactions at reactive si...

  16. Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Marja; Kylli, Petri; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Heinonen, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Ellagitannins from red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. The main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by ESI-MS to consist of the dimeric sanguiin H-6 and the trimeric lambertianin C. Monomeric ellagitannins such as casuarictin in raspberries and pedunculagin in cloudberries were also found. The antioxidant activity of the berry phenolic isolate, ellagitannin isolate (mixture), ellagitannin main fraction (dimer and trimer), and ellagic acid was studied in bulk and emulsified methyl linoleate, in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro, and the radical scavenging activity was studied in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Cloudberry and red raspberry ellagitannins were highly effective as radical scavengers. Berry ellagitannins also showed significant antioxidant activity toward oxidation of both human LDL and methyl linoleate emulsions. However, only weak or moderate antioxidant activity was exhibited by ellagitannins toward oxidation of bulk oil. Thus, ellagitannins contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of cloudberries and red raspberries in lipoprotein and lipid emulsion environments, the latter being more relevant for food applications.

  17. Antioxidant activity and kinetics studies of eugenol and 6-bromoeugenol.

    PubMed

    Mahboub, Radia; Memmou, Faiza

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of 6-bromoeugenol and eugenol. EC50, the concentration providing 50% inhibition, is calculated and the antioxidant activity index (AAI) is evaluated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method. EC50 values of 6-bromoeugenol, ascorbic acid and eugenol were 34.270 μg/mL, 54.888 μg/mL and 130.485 μg/mL, respectively. 6-Bromoeugenol showed higher AAI value (1.122) followed by ascorbic acid (0.700), then by eugenol (0.295). We also investigate the kinetics of DPPH radical scavenging activity of our products to determine the useful parameter TEC50 to evaluate their antiradical efficiency (ARE). Our results have shown high ARE. This study has provided the following ARE ( × 10(-3)) order for the tested antioxidants: ascorbic acid (70.119)>6-bromoeugenol (34.842) > eugenol (21.313). Finally, we classify ascorbic acid and eugenol as fast kinetics reaction (TEC50 8.82 and 11.38 min, respectively) and 6-bromoeugenol as medium kinetics reaction (TEC50 39.24 min).

  18. Antioxidant activities of selective gluten free ancient grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ancient grains were known for special nutritional values along with gluten free qualities. Amaranth, quinoa, teff, buckwheat flours were evaluated for pasting properties, water holding capacity, phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities (free and bound). They all had higher water holding capacit...

  19. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  20. Vernonia kotschyana roots: therapeutic potential via antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Vasincu, Alexandru; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Vasincu, Ioana; Aprotosoaie, Ana C; Bild, Veronica; Charalambous, Christiana; Constantinou, Andreas I; Miron, Anca; Gavrilescu, Cristina M

    2014-11-19

    The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress.

  1. Antioxidative activities of aroma extracts isolated from natural plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Natural leaves and flowers containing numerous aroma chemicals are widely used in aromatherapy since ancient times. In addition to their pleasant smells, aroma chemicals might have some beneficial health effects. Aroma extracts, isolated from coffee beans, soybeans, and mung beans by steam distillation under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 85 mm Hg) were examined for their antioxidative activities. The inhibitory effect of these extracts toward hexanal/hexanoic acid conversion was measured in the testing solution over prolonged time periods. The inhibitory effects of these extracts toward malonaldehyde formation from lipids oxidized by Fenton's reagent were also measured. The antioxidative activity of these extracts, in particular coffee bean extract, was consistent with that of BHT or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Soybeans and mung beans extract contained maltol, which inhibits hexanal oxidation significantly. Eugenol, which is one of the major constituents of mung bean extract, exhibited potent antioxidative activity in an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Antioxidants such as eugenol and maltol may play an important role in the pharmaceutical activities of natural plant extracts used for aromatherapy. PMID:11237179

  2. Arbutin content and antioxidant activity of some Ericaceae species.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, R D; Lakusić, B; Doslov-Kokorus, Z; Kovacević, N

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative analyses and investigation of antioxidant activity of herb and dry ethanolic extracts of five species from Ericaceae family (Arbutus unedo L., Bruckentalia spiculifolia Rchb., Calluna vulgaris Salisb., Erica arborea L. and Erica carnea L.) were performed. Total polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically and arbutin content was measured both spectrophotometrically and by HPLC coupled with DAD detection. Antioxidative properites of the ethanolic extracts were tested by means of FRAP (total antioxidant capacity), lipid peroxidation and DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A significant amount of arbutin was detected only in Arbutus unedo. All samples investigated showed excellent antioxidant activity. The best inhibition of lipid peroxidation has been shown by Bruckentalia spiculifolia herb extract (62.5 microg/ml; more than 95%), which contained the highest amount of flavonoids (11.79%). The highest scavenging activity was obtained with leave extract of Arbutus unedo (IC50 = 7.14 microg/ml). The leaves of A. unedo contained a small amount of flavonoids but high content of non-tannins polyphenols. PMID:19947168

  3. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  4. Antioxidant activity of carotenoid lutein in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sindhu, Edakkadath R; Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoid lutein was evaluated for its antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo. Lutein was found to scavenge superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation. Concentrations needed for 50% inhibition (IC50) were 21, 1.75 and 2.2 microg/mL respectively. It scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (IC50 35 microg/mL) and nitric oxide radicals (IC50 3.8 microg/mL) while 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals were inhibited at higher concentration. Ferric reducing power (50%) of lutein was found to be equal 0.3 micromols/mL of FeSO4.7H2O. Its oral administration inhibited superoxide generation in macrophages in vivo by 34.18, 64.32 and 70.22% at doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of lutein in mice for 1 month significantly increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in blood and liver while the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were found to be increased in the liver tissue. Implication of these results in terms of its role in reducing degenerative diseases is discussed. PMID:21341544

  5. Engineering flax plants to increase their antioxidant capacity and improve oil composition and stability.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Magdalena; Prescha, Anna; Stryczewska, Monika; Szopa, Jan

    2012-05-16

    The composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues is very important to human health and strongly depends on dietary intake. Since flax seeds are the richest source of polyunsaturated acids, their consumption might be beneficial for human health. Unfortunately, they are highly susceptible to auto-oxidation, which generates toxic derivatives. The main goal of this study was the generation of genetically modified flax plants with increased antioxidant potential and stable and healthy oil production. Since among phenylpropanoid compounds those belonging to the flavonoid route have the lowest antioxidant capacity, the approach was to inhibit this route of the pathway, which might result in accumulation of other compounds more effective in antioxidation. The suppression of the chalcone synthase gene resulted in hydrolyzable tannin accumulation and thus increased antioxidant status of seeds of the transgenic plant. This was due to the partial redirecting of substrates for flavonoid biosynthesis to the other routes of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Consequently, transgenic plants produced more (20-45%) polyunsaturated fatty acids than the control and mainly α-linolenic acid. Thus, increasing the antioxidant potential of flax plants has benefits in terms of the yield of suitable oil for human dietary consumption.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio ( Pistachia vera) hull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behgar, M.; Ghasemi, S.; Naserian, A.; Borzoie, A.; Fatollahi, H.

    2011-09-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 kGy) on tannin, total phenolics, antioxidants activity and in vitro digestion of pistachio hulls has been investigated in this study. The possibility of using the radial diffusion method based on software measurement of the rings area has also been investigated in this study. The software based method in radial diffusion method showed a higher r2 (0.995) value when compared to the traditional method. Irradiation reduced the tannin content ( P<0.01) and activity of antioxidants ( P<0.05) of pistachio hull extracts but increased the total phenolic content ( P<0.05). There was no effect of gamma irradiation on the in vitro digestion of the pistachio hull. Irradiation decreased the digestion rate of the pistachio hull at the dose of 40 kGy when compared to the control. This study showed that gamma irradiation decreased tannin and antioxidants activity of pistachio hull.

  7. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  8. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor.

  9. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  10. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  11. Increased Antioxidant Defense Mechanism in Human Adventitia-Derived Progenitor Cells Is Associated with Therapeutic Benefit in Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Iacobazzi, Dominga; Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Gubernator, Miriam; Hofner, Manuela; Wielscher, Matthias; Vierlinger, Klemens; Reni, Carlotta; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Spinetti, Gaia; Vono, Rosa; Sangalli, Elena; Montagnani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Vascular wall-resident progenitor cells hold great promise for cardiovascular regenerative therapy. This study evaluates the impact of oxidative stress on the viability and functionality of adventitia-derived progenitor cells (APCs) from vein remnants of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We also investigated the antioxidant enzymes implicated in the resistance of APCs to oxidative stress-induced damage and the effect of interfering with one of them, the extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD/SOD3), on APC therapeutic action in a model of peripheral ischemia. Results: After exposure to hydrogen peroxide, APCs undergo apoptosis to a smaller extent than endothelial cells (ECs). This was attributed to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, especially SODs and catalase. Pharmacological inhibition of SODs increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in APCs and impairs their survival. Likewise, APC differentiation results in SOD down-regulation and ROS-induced apoptosis. Oxidative stress increases APC migratory activity, while being inhibitory for ECs. In addition, oxidative stress does not impair APC capacity to promote angiogenesis in vitro. In a mouse limb ischemia model, an injection of naïve APCs, but not SOD3-silenced APCs, helps perfusion recovery and neovascularization, thus underlining the importance of this soluble isoform in protection from ischemia. Innovation: This study newly demonstrates that APCs are endowed with enhanced detoxifier and antioxidant systems and that SOD3 plays an important role in their therapeutic activity in ischemia. Conclusions: APCs from vein remnants of CABG patients express antioxidant defense mechanisms, which enable them to resist stress. These properties highlight the potential of APCs in cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1591–1604. PMID:24512058

  12. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property. PMID:26084988

  13. In vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of seven common oats.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Wise, Mitchell L; Gulvady, Apeksha A; Chang, Tony; Kendra, David F; Jan-Willem van Klinken, B; Shi, Yuhui; O'Shea, Marianne

    2013-08-15

    Oats are gaining increasing scientific and public interest for their purported antioxidant-associated health benefits. Most reported studies focused on specific oat extracts or particular oat components, such as β-glucans, tocols (vitamin E), or avenanthramides. Studies on whole oats with respect to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are still lacking. Here the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from whole oat groats of seven common varieties were evaluated. All oat varieties had very similar oxygen radical absorption capacity compared with other whole grains. In an anti-inflammatory assay, oat variety CDC Dancer inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation by 27.5% at 2 mg/ml, whereas variety Deiter showed 13.7% inhibition at a comparable dose. Avenanthramide levels did not correlate with the observed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Further investigations are needed to pinpoint the specific antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, and potential synergistic and/or matrix effects that may help explain the mechanisms of oat's anti-inflammatory actions.

  14. Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages

    PubMed Central

    Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 μg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols. PMID:25320718

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of vitex honey against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Li, Dan; Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Sun, Liping

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen vitex honeys from China were investigated to evaluate its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage. All honey samples exhibited high total phenolic content (344-520 mg GAE per kg), total flavonoid content (19-31 mg Rutin per kg), and strong antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power and Ferrous ion-chelating ability. Nine phenolic acids were detected in vitex honey samples, in which caffeic acid was the main compound. Honey from Heibei Zanhuang (S2) ranked the highest antioxidant activity was orally administered to mice (5 g kg(-1), 20 g kg(-1)) for 70 days. In high-dose (20 g kg(-1)), vitex honey pretreatment resulting in significant increase in serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (15.07%) and decrease in Cu(2+)-mediate lipoprotein oxidation (80.07%), and suppression in alanine aminotransferase (75.79%) and aspartate aminotransferase (74.52%), enhancement in the superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduction in malondialdehyde (36.15%) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (19.6%) formation compared with paracetamol-intoxicated group. The results demonstrated the hepatoprotection of vitex honey against paracetamol-induced liver damage might attribute to its antioxidant and/or perhaps pro-oxidative property.

  16. Bioactive Compound Contents and Antioxidant Activity in Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Leaves Collected at Different Growth Stages.

    PubMed

    Thi, Nhuan Do; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of aronia leaves at different stages of maturity were identified and evaluated. Young and old leaves were approximately 2 months of age and 4 months of age, respectively. The young leaves contained more polyphenols and flavonoids than the old leaves. Three phenolic compounds (i.e., chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin) were detected by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was measured using 2,2-di-phenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. The reducing power of aronia leaf extracts increased in a concentration-dependent manner (0~100 μg/mL). The antioxidant activity of the 80% ethanol extract was greater than that of distilled water extract. The high phenolic compound content indicated that these compounds contribute to antioxidant activity. The overall results indicate that aronia leaves contain bioactive compounds, and that younger aronia leaves may be more favorable for extracting antioxidative ingredients because they contain more polyphenols.

  17. Alkyl Caffeates Improve the Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Property and Oxidation Stability of Edible Oil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Pang, Na; Wang, Fang-Qin; Pang, Fei; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is distributed widely in nature and possesses strong antioxidant activity. However, CA has lower solubility in non-polar media, which limits its application in fat-soluble food. To increase the lipophilicity of natural antioxidant CA, a series of alkyl caffeates were synthesized and their antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated. The antioxidant parameters, including the induction period, acid value and unsaturated fatty acid content, of the alkyl caffeates in edible oil were firstly investigated. The results indicated that alkyl caffeates had a lower DPPH IC50 (14–23 µM) compared to CA, dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) and Vitamin C (24–51 µM), and significantly inhibited four human cancer cells (SW620, SW480, SGC7901 and HepG2) with inhibition ratio of 71.4–78.0% by a MTT assay. With regard to the induction period and acid value assays, methyl and butyl caffeates had higher abilities than BHT to restrain the oxidation process and improve the stability of edible oil. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil allowed maintenance of a higher unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content (68.53%) at high temperatures. Overall, the alkyl caffeats with short chain length (n<5) assessed better oxidative stability than those with long chain length. To date, this is the first report to the correlations among the antioxidant activity, anticancer activity and oxidative stability of alkyl caffeates. PMID:24760050

  18. Alkyl caffeates improve the antioxidant activity, antitumor property and oxidation stability of edible oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Pang, Na; Wang, Fang-Qin; Pang, Fei; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Wu, Xiang-Yang; Wu, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid (CA) is distributed widely in nature and possesses strong antioxidant activity. However, CA has lower solubility in non-polar media, which limits its application in fat-soluble food. To increase the lipophilicity of natural antioxidant CA, a series of alkyl caffeates were synthesized and their antioxidant and antitumor activities were investigated. The antioxidant parameters, including the induction period, acid value and unsaturated fatty acid content, of the alkyl caffeates in edible oil were firstly investigated. The results indicated that alkyl caffeates had a lower DPPH IC₅₀ (14-23 µM) compared to CA, dibutyl hydroxy toluene (BHT) and Vitamin C (24-51 µM), and significantly inhibited four human cancer cells (SW620, SW480, SGC7901 and HepG2) with inhibition ratio of 71.4-78.0% by a MTT assay. With regard to the induction period and acid value assays, methyl and butyl caffeates had higher abilities than BHT to restrain the oxidation process and improve the stability of edible oil. The addition of ethyl caffeate to oil allowed maintenance of a higher unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content (68.53%) at high temperatures. Overall, the alkyl caffeats with short chain length (n<5) assessed better oxidative stability than those with long chain length. To date, this is the first report to the correlations among the antioxidant activity, anticancer activity and oxidative stability of alkyl caffeates. PMID:24760050

  19. [Study on antioxidant activity of two major secoiridoid glucosides in the fruits of Ligustrum lucidum Ait].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zuo, Yan; Sun, Wen-Ji

    2007-05-01

    The antioxidant effects of two major secoiridoid glucosides (nuezhenoside and G13, separated in our laboratory) from Fructus Ligustri Lucidi had already been assayed though DPPH radicals, respectively. The results revealed that these ingredients showed significant antioxidant activities. A positive correlation existed between total content and antioxidant activity. G13 had shown higher antioxidant activity than nuezhenoside. It implied that the structure of secoiridoid glucoside was postitive to antioxidant activity. Otherwise, the results could promote the deep research of Furctus Ligustri Lucidi on antioxidant mechanism. PMID:17727057

  20. Antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates and glycosyl alkyl gallates in fish oil in water emulsions: relevance of their surface active properties and of the type of emulsifier.

    PubMed

    González, María J; Medina, Isabel; Maldonado, Olivia S; Lucas, Ricardo; Morales, Juan C

    2015-09-15

    The antioxidant activity of gallic acid and a series of alkyl gallates (C4-C18) and glycosylated alkyl gallates (C4-C18) on fish oil-in-water emulsions was studied. Three types of emulsifiers, lecithin, Tween-20 and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were tested. A nonlinear behavior of the antioxidant activity of alkyl gallates when increasing alkyl chain length was observed for emulsions prepared with lecithin. Medium-size alkyl gallates (C6-C12) were the best antioxidants. In contrast, for emulsions prepared with Tween-20, the antioxidants seem to follow the polar paradox. Glucosyl alkyl gallates were shown previously to be better surfactants than alkyl gallates. Nevertheless, they exhibited a worse antioxidant capacity than their corresponding alkyl gallates, in emulsions prepared with lecithin or Tween-20, indicating the greater relevance of having three OH groups at the polar head in comparison with having improved surfactant properties but just a di-ortho phenolic structure in the antioxidant.

  1. Composition and antioxidant activity of red fruit liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Wińska, Katarzyna; Szumny, Antoni; Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Mizgier, Paulina; Wyspiańska, Dorota

    2014-08-15

    Fruits traditionally used for liqueurs are a good source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to compare the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of liqueurs made from red fruits. The liqueurs were made from fruits of 10 species: chokeberry, cornelian cherry, black rose, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, mahonia, sloe, strawberry, and sour cherry. The liqueurs from black rose, chokeberry, sloe and mahonia fruits contained the most of substances which react with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (671, 329, 271 and 218 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity. The samples stored at a temperature of 30 °C had antioxidant activity from 3% to 11% lower than the fresh samples. After 6 months, anthocyanins degraded almost completely in the samples stored at 30 °C and at 15 °C there was from 0% (blackcurrant liqueurs) to 47% (sloe liqueurs) of their initial content and slightly more in sweet liqueurs. PMID:24679815

  2. Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, CIELAB parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. The highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 58.10%, 1081 mg/l gallic acid equivalents), respectively. The highest values for A420 nm, A520 nm, A620 nm, the proportion of blue, wine colour, wine total colour of pigments, wine polymeric pigment colour and K-K values logarithmic colour intensity) were determined in bilberry fruit wine. Positive correlation was found between antioxidant activities and total phenols (r=0.958, P = 0.001). The results of grouping of different parameters in n-dimensional space with different fruit wines demonstrated the importance of bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines as natural antioxidants and colourants. PMID:16849114

  3. Composition and antioxidant activity of red fruit liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Wińska, Katarzyna; Szumny, Antoni; Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Mizgier, Paulina; Wyspiańska, Dorota

    2014-08-15

    Fruits traditionally used for liqueurs are a good source of phenolic compounds endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to compare the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and the antioxidant capacity of liqueurs made from red fruits. The liqueurs were made from fruits of 10 species: chokeberry, cornelian cherry, black rose, blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, mahonia, sloe, strawberry, and sour cherry. The liqueurs from black rose, chokeberry, sloe and mahonia fruits contained the most of substances which react with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (671, 329, 271 and 218 mg GAE/100 mL, respectively) and had the highest antioxidant activity. The samples stored at a temperature of 30 °C had antioxidant activity from 3% to 11% lower than the fresh samples. After 6 months, anthocyanins degraded almost completely in the samples stored at 30 °C and at 15 °C there was from 0% (blackcurrant liqueurs) to 47% (sloe liqueurs) of their initial content and slightly more in sweet liqueurs.

  4. Anthocyanins and antioxidant activity in coloured waxy corn at different maturation stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrations of anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in kernels of 20 genotypes of waxy corn were investigated at two maturation stages, namely milky and mature. The levels of anthocyanins increased throughout the development of each genotype of corn, while phenolic compound...

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of lignin from residue of corn stover to ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve the economic viability of the biofuel production from biomass resource, a value-added lignin byproduct from this process is increasingly interested. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of lignin extracted from residue of corn stover to ethanol production were investigated. The lignin...

  6. Effects of lead on the activities of antioxidant enzymes in watercress, Nasturtium officinale R. Br.

    PubMed

    Keser, Gonca; Saygideger, Saadet

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the oxidative effects of lead with increased concentrations by the determination of antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and ascorbate peroxidase (AP)) and lipid peroxidation levels in the stem and leaves of watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.) which was exposed to lead acetate, Pb (CH3COOH)2 regime with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 mg/L Pb in a hydroponic culture. After 14 days, accumulation of lipid peroxidation in stems and leaves and changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The maximum accumulation was observed in the highest concentration group. In this group, lipid peroxidation levels were three times higher than the control group in the stem and leaves. The highest induction in SOD and GR activities were determined at 200 mg/L Pb group in stem, whereas CAT and AP activities were higher than other groups at the concentration of 250 and 100 mg/L Pb, respectively. The increase in CAT activity was found to be greater than GR, SOD, and AP activities in stems of watercress under Pb treatment. Both lead accumulation and antioxidant enzyme responses were higher in stems than in leaves. The results of the present study suggested that the induction in antioxidant responses could be occurring as an adaptive mechanism to the oxidative potential of lead accumulation.

  7. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  8. Purification, structural characterization, and antioxidant activity of antioxidant substance from the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax.

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung-Lak; Ryu, Il-Hwan

    2009-04-01

    An antioxidant substance (AOS) obtained from an enzymatic extract of the red seaweed Gloiopeltis tenax was purified by DEAE-Sephadex CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The purification yield of AOS was 14.3%. The AOS predominantly contained fucose, mannose, and galactose but also contained a sulfate group. The structure of AOS was investigated by periodate oxidation, desulfation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AOS was mainly composed of alternating units of beta-D-Glc(1 --> 2)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal(1 --> 4)alpha-D-Man(1 --> 4)beta-D-Gal alpha-D-Man (1 --> 4) beta-D-Glc (or Xyl)- and branched linkage of alpha-D-Man(1 --> 3) alpha-D-Fuc. In addition, the fucose residues were shown to be 2-O- and 4-O-sulfated and, therefore, were either terminal or 3-linked. The antioxidative activity of AOS was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the beta-carotene-linoleate assay systems and was compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid (AscA). The results showed that AOS exhibited higher antioxidative activity than AscA in the DPPH assay model and in the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system at all of the four concentration levels tested (from 50 to 200 microg/mL). These results suggested that AOS from the red seaweed G. tenax is an efficient novel antioxidant. PMID:19459750

  9. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiangqiang; Huang, Yunxuan; Qin, Chuixin; Liang, Ming; Mao, Xinliang; Li, Shuiming; Zou, Yongdong; Jia, Weizhang; Li, Haifeng; Ma, Chung Wah; Huang, Zebo

    2016-01-01

    Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa) was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps), which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps) are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction. PMID:26941890

  10. Antioxidant activity of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio

    2005-12-01

    Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruit juice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power.

  11. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  12. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  13. Phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Erica herbacea L.

    PubMed

    Vucić, Dragana M; Petković, Miroslav R; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B; Stefanović, Olgica D; Vasić, Sava M; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2013-01-01

    Antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of Erica herbacea L. were studied. In vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) have been determined. Testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris. The values for MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. The most sensitive bacterial strains were Proteus vulgaris strains. The aqueous extract from E. herbacea was found the most active. The total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 14.98 and 119.88 mg GA/g. The concentration of flavonoids in extracts was determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminium chloride and obtained results varied from 16.19 to 26.90 mg RU/g. Antioxidant activity was monitored spectrophotometrically using DPPH reagent. The highest capacity to neutralize DPPH radicals was found in the aqueous extract from E. herbacea. The results of the total phenolic content determination of the examined extracts indicate that E. herbacea extracts are a rich source of phenolic compounds and also possess a significant antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial activity.

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karaosmanoglu, Hande; Soyer, Ferda; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen

    2010-07-28

    Turkish extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from different varieties/geographical origins and their phenolic compounds were investigated in terms of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in comparison to refined olive, hazelnut, and canola oils. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella Enteritidis. Although all EVOOs showed a bactericidal effect, the individual phenolic compounds demonstrated only slight antimicrobial activity. Moreover, refined oil samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. Among the phenolic compounds, cinnamic acid (2 mg/kg of oil) had the highest percent inhibition value with 0.25 log reduction against L. monocytogenes. The synergistic interactions of tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic, and cinnamic acids were also observed against Salmonella Enteritidis. The antioxidant activities of oils were tested by beta-carotene-linoleate model system and ABTS method. In both methods, EVOOs showed higher antioxidant activities, whereas refined oils had lower activity. The ABTS method provided a higher correlation (0.89) with total phenol content.

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of burr parsley (Caucalis platycarpos L.).

    PubMed

    Plazonić, Ana; Mornar, Ana; Maleš, Željan; Kujundžić, Nikola

    2013-07-22

    Since C. platycarpos contains a wide variety of antioxidants, in the present study total flavonoid and phenolic acid content as well as antioxidative activity of various C. platycarpos extracts were investigated. The results obtained show a significant polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the investigated plant. Moreover, a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was found, indicating the responsibility of these compounds for the antioxidant effectiveness of C. platycarpos extracts and making C. platycarpos a good potential source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Antioxidant activity of simvastatin prevents ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Ali, Reem Mustafa; Shotar, Ali Muhammad; Alkaraki, Almuthanna Khalaf

    2016-03-01

    Ifosfamide is an anticancer agent used largely in treatment of solid tumors. The mainstay dose-limiting toxicity of ifosfamide is nephrotoxicity. This is largely believde to be a result of ifosfamide-induced oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of simvastatin and the possible protective role of simvastatin against ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty Sprague-Dawely rats were divided into five groups and given orally different drug combinations. Group I and II were regarded as control groups and received 0.1% DMSO and normal saline, respectively. Group III received ifosfamide at 50 mg/kg, group IV received simvastatin at 0.3 mg/kg and group V received both ifosfamide and simvastatin. All animals were decapitated 2 days after the last ifosfamide administration. Findings revealed that ifosfamide induced nephrotoxicity as indicated by a significant increase in plasma creatinine and lipid per oxidation. This increase was significantly inhibited in animals pretreated with simvastatin. Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical parameters in that simvastatin minimized ifosfamide-induced renal tubular damage. The above results promote a future use of simvastatin in combination with ifosfamide in treatment of cancer patients to indicate that simvastatin protectics against ifosfamide-induced nephrotoxicity in terms of oxidative stress and might be given in combination.

  17. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar.

    PubMed

    Custodio, L; Fernandes, E; Escapa, A L; Fajardo, A; Aligue, R; Albericio, F; Neng, N R; Nogueira, J M F; Romano, A

    2011-07-13

    Extracts from fruit pulps of six female cultivars and two hermaphrodite Portuguese carob trees [(Ceratonia siliqua L., Fabaceae)] exhibited strong antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds. The extracts decreased the viability of different human cancer cell lines on a dose- and time-dependent manner. Gender and cultivar significantly influenced the chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts. Extracts from hermaphrodite trees had a higher content of phenolic compounds, and exhibited higher antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Among females, cv. Aida had the highest radical scavenging activity and total content of phenolics, Mulata the highest capacity to inhibit lipid oxidation and Gasparinha the strongest cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells. The decrease in cell viability was associated with apoptosis on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 lines. (+)-Catechin and gallic acid (GA) were the main compounds identified in the extracts, and GA contributed to the antioxidant activity. Our results show that the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of carob tree fruit pulps are strongly influenced by gender and cultivar, and provide new knowledge about the advantages of hermaphrodite trees over female cultivars, namely, as a source of compounds with biological interest, which may represent an increase of their agronomic interest.

  18. Nitric oxide fumigation stimulates flavonoid and phenolic accumulation and enhances antioxidant activity of mushroom.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jufang; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Li; Sun, Lina; Xu, Maojun

    2012-12-01

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on antioxidant activity and contents of phenolics and flavonoids in mushroom Russula griseocarnosa were investigated. Freshly harvested mushrooms were fumigated with 0, 10, 20 and 30μLL(-1) NO at 20°C for 2h and then taken to examine the antioxidant activities using assays of reducing power, chelating effect on ferrous ions, scavenging effect on hydroxyl free radicals, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the antioxidant activities of the mushrooms fumigated with NO were significantly increased when compared to the controls. Moreover, NO fumigation significantly enhanced phenolic and flavonoid contents and stimulated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and chalcone synthase. The results indicated that NO fumigation might have potential application for enhancing the bioactive compounds and improving antioxidant activities in the mushrooms. Furthermore, the data suggested that the NO-induced phenolic and flavonoid accumulation was due to the activation of the biosynthetic pathways in the mushrooms.

  19. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers. PMID:27032212

  20. Bioactive Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Some Carpathian Basin honeys.

    PubMed

    Gyergyák, Kinga; Boros, Borbála; Marton, Krisztina; Felinger, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Farkas, Ágnes

    2016-02-01

    Unifloral honeys have a high commercial value and should undergo a strict quality control before marketing. This study aimed at determining floral origin, polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in 7 samples marketed as lavender and thyme honeys. The samples were subjected to pollen analysis to confirm their botanical origin. Coupled chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) were optimized for the separation and identification of polyphenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties of the samples were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Pollen profile analysis revealed that only 3 out of 5 alleged lavender honeys contained a low percentage (0.6-1.5) of lavender pollen; and there were only traces (0.1-0.6%) of thyme pollen in the alleged thyme honeys. Polyphenolic constituents did not allow for the clear separation of honey samples, revealing no marker compounds previously associated with lavender and thyme honeys. All samples contained large amounts of chlorogenic acid, chrysin, hesperetin, kaempferol and p-coumaric acid; as well as abscisic acid, a plant hormone known to be present in floral nectar and honey. Our results suggest that only one of five alleged lavender honeys and neither of the two alleged thyme honeys are true unifloral honeys. However, they can still provide various health benefits, such as being good sources of antioxidants. There was no relationship between the antioxidant activity and the uni- or multifloral character of the honey samples. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was the lowest in the honey sample with lavender and the highest in one of the alleged lavender honeys. Our findings highlight the importance of microscopical and phytochemical analyses of honeys before marketing, to ensure satisfactory quality for customers.

  1. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.

  2. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Dunaliella salina in Paracetamol-induced Acute Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Fedekar F.; Abdel-Daim, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:24591738

  3. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption. PMID:26471599

  4. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activity of Dunaliella salina in Paracetamol-induced Acute Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Fedekar F; Abdel-Daim, M M

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol has a reasonable safety profile when taken in therapeutic doses. However, it could induce hepatotoxicity and even more severe fatal acute hepatic damage when taken in an overdose. The green alga, Dunaliella salina was investigated for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Male albino Wistar rats overdosed with paracetamol showed liver damage and oxidative stress as indicated by significantly (P<0.05) increased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide. At the same time, there were decreased activities of serum superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity compared with the control group. Treatment with D. salina methanol extract at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight or silymarin could significantly (P<0.05) decrease the liver damage marker enzymes, total and direct bilirubin, malondialdehyde, cholesterol and nitric oxide levels and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum when compared with paracetamol intoxicated group. Liver histopathology also showed that D. salina reduced the centrilobular necrosis, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration evoked by paracetamol overdose. These results suggest that D. salina exhibits a potent hepatoprotective effect on paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats, which may be due to both the increase of antioxidant enzymes activity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  5. Bioaccessibility, in vitro antioxidant activities and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a purple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Deng, Zeyuan; Liu, Ronghua; Loewen, Steven; Tsao, Rong

    2014-09-15

    The bioaccessibility, antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory activities of phytochemicals in a purple tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) V118 was studied using a simulated gastrointestinal digestion model, chemical and cell based antioxidant assays. The total phenolic and carotenoid contents and the antioxidant activities were significantly lowered (37-72%) and degradation seemed to have occurred during the in vitro digestion. Results indicated that these phytochemicals were bioavailable to the cells as demonstrated by the cell based antioxidant assay. Extracts from the purple tomato showed significant and dose dependent anti-inflammatory effect in the in vivo carrageenan-induced paw oedema rat study (oedematous inhibition: 7.48% and 13.8%), suggesting that anthocyanins may play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect. Direct antioxidant actions as indicated by reduced MDA and NO production and indirect actions as shown in increased GPx and SOD activities in oedematous tissue support the conclusion that tomatoes containing anthocyanins can potentially provide better protection against oxidative stress related chronic diseases of humans. PMID:24767066

  6. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of Corylus colurna.

    PubMed

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergo; Alberti, Agnes; Sonati, Mirella; Kéry, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    Corylus colurna L. (Turkish hazel), a common hazel species in Europe, could be considered as a source of pharmacologically important natural compounds, since other members of the Corylus genus have been reported to contain several constituents with beneficial biological activity. Nevertheless, its phytochemical exploration is still incomplete. In this study the potent antioxidant phenolic compounds in different parts of the plant were investigated. The phenolics in the leaves, bark, catkins and involucre of C. colurna possess notable scavenger activity on both DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The total polyphenol content shows significant correlation with the antioxidant activity of the samples. Twenty-three phenolic compounds - hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoid derivatives and diarylheptanoids - were characterized in the C. colurna extracts by LC-DAD, LC-ESI-TOF and LC-ESI-QQQ-MS.

  7. [Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of dimeric phenol compounds].

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masahiro

    2008-08-01

    We studied the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of monomeric and dimeric phenol compounds. Dimeric compounds had higher antioxidant activities than monomeric compounds. Electron spin resonance spin-trapping experiments showed that phenol compounds with an allyl substituent on their aromatic rings directly scavenged superoxide, and that only eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals. We developed a generation system of the hydroxyl radical without using any metals by adding L-DOPA and DMPO to PBS or MiliQ water in vitro. We found that eugenol trapped hydroxyl radicals directly and is metabolized to a dimer. On the other hand, dipropofol, a dimer of propofol, has strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. However, it lacks solubility in water and this property is assumed to limit its efficacy. We tried to improve the solubility and found a new solubilization method of dipropofol in water with the addition of a monosaccharide or ascorbic acid.

  8. In vivo Raman spectroscopy detects increased epidermal antioxidative potential with topically applied carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lademann, J.; Caspers, P. J.; van der Pol, A.; Richter, H.; Patzelt, A.; Zastrow, L.; Darvin, M.; Sterry, W.; Fluhr, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the distribution of the carotenoids as a marker for the complete antioxidative potential in human skin was investigated before and after the topical application of carotenoids by in vivo Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 785 nm. The carotenoid profile was assessed after a short term topical application in 4 healthy volunteers. In the untreated skin, the highest concentration of natural carotenoids was detected in different layers of the stratum corneum (SC) close to the skin surface. After topical application of carotenoids, an increase in the antioxidative potential in the skin could be observed. Topically applied carotenoids penetrate deep into the epidermis down to approximately 24 μm. This study supports the hypothesis that antioxidative substances are secreted via eccrine sweat glands and/or sebaceous glands to the skin surface. Subsequently they penetrate into the different layers of the SC.

  9. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  10. Antioxidant enzyme activity in endemic Baikalean versus Palaearctic amphipods: tagma- and size-related changes.

    PubMed

    Timofeyev, M A

    2006-03-01

    The activities of key antioxidant enzymes in two endemic Baikalean amphipod species: Pallasea cancelloides (Gerstf), Eulimnogammarus verrucosus (Gerstf) and the widely distributed Palearctic species Gammarus lacustris (Sars) were studied. This work was done to prove or disprove the hypothesis that Baikalean endemics have specifics in antioxidants system different from Palearctic species. The activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were measured in different sections (tagmata) of the amphipods' bodies as well as in different size groups. Well expressed tagma-related differences in peroxidase activity as well as smaller differences in catalase activity were shown in all studied species. There were no measured differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity among body sections. The existence of size-related changes in some antioxidant enzymes and the difference in such changes between Baikalean and Palearctic amphipods were noted. A significant increase in peroxidase activity with the size was found in both Baikalean species while a significant decrease in peroxidase activity was observed in the Palearctic G. lacustris. In Baikalean P. cancelloides, a significant decrease of catalase activity with the increase in age of crustaceans was noted, while in E. verrucosus no such relationship was found. In the Palearctic G. lacustris, a significant increase in catalase activity with the increase in size was noted. All species are shown to have no size-related differences in glutathione-S-transferase activity. The differences between species as well as between both different tagmata and size-classes within a particular species were estimated. It was assumed that the estimated differences in enzymes activity most likely depend on interspecific variation, rather than on conditional specifics in Lake Baikal. PMID:16460977

  11. Trace element water improves the antioxidant activity of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ling; Chen, Yih-Shyuan; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Chiang, Been-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Kuang

    2007-10-31

    Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was grown in trace element water (TEW) (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ppm) and deionized water (DIW) to evaluate whether the beneficial effects of trace elements on the antioxidant activity could be accomplished with the supplement of TEW. At 300 ppm, TEW significantly increased the Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe contents in buckwheat sprout but not the Se content. However, the levels of rutin, isoorientin, vitexin, and isovitexin did not differ between buckwheat sprouts grown in TEW and DIW. The ethanolic extract from buckwheat sprout grown in 300 ppm of TEW showed higher ferrous ion chelating activity and inhibitory activity toward lipid peroxidation than that grown in DIW. The extract in the TEW group also enhanced intracellular superoxide dismutase activity and lowered reactive oxygen species and superoxide anion in the human Hep G2 cell. It was concluded that TEW could increase the antioxidant activities of buckwheat sprouts.

  12. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase and antioxidative activity of Gentiana lutea extracts.

    PubMed

    Nastasijević, Branislav; Lazarević-Pašti, Tamara; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana; Pašti, Igor; Vujačić, Ana; Joksić, Gordana; Vasić, Vesna

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Gentiana lutea extracts on the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO), as well as the antioxidant activity of these extracts and their correlation with the total polyphenol content. Extracts were prepared using methanol (100%), water and ethanol aqueous solutions (96, 75, 50 and 25%v/v) as solvents for extraction. Also, isovitexin, amarogentin and gentiopicroside, pharmacologically active constituents of G. lutea were tested as potential inhibitors of MPO. Antioxidant activity of extracts was determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test and also using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among all extracts, the antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanol aqueous extract was the highest, both when measured using the DPPH test, with IC(50)=20.6 μg/ml, and when using CV. Also, 50% ethanol extract, showed the best inhibition of MPO activity in comparison with other extracts. In the group of the selected G. lutea constituents, gentiopicroside has proved to be the strongest inhibitor of MPO, with IC(50)=0.8 μg/ml. Also, the concentration of G. lutea constituents were determined in all extracts, using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC).

  13. Chemical Constituents Antioxidant and Anticholinesterasic Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to analyze the alkaloid content of the ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae family) and its fractions as well as to evaluate their antioxidant and anticholinesterasic activities. The analyses of the ethanolic extract of T. catharinensis by mass spectrometry allowed identifying the presence of the alkaloids 16-epi-affinine, coronaridine-hydroxyindolenine, voachalotine, voacristine-hydroxyindolenine, and 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, as well as an alkaloid with m/z 385.21 whose spectrum suggests a derivative of voacristine or voacangine. The extract and its alkaloid rich fractions showed antioxidant activity, especially those that contain the alkaloid m/z 385.21 or 16-epi-affinine with DPPH scavenging activity (IC50) between 37.18 and 74.69 μg/mL. Moreover, the extract and its fractions exhibited anticholinesterasic activity, particularly the fractions characterized by the presence of 12-methoxy-n-methyl-voachalotine, with IC50 = 2.1 to 2.5 μg/mL. Fractions with 16-epi-affinine combined good antioxidant (IC50 = 65.59 to 74.69 μg/mL) and anticholinesterasic (IC50 = 7.7 to 8.3 μg/mL) activities, representing an option for further studies aimed at treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23983637

  14. Antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Shabana; Shaheen, Ghazala; Akram, Muhammad; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit. The parent extract was ethanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). N-butanol fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.0±1.15 activity but the activity was less than ascorbic acid i.e. 93.74±0.12. Highly significant urease inhibition was shown by crude ethanolic extract (71.00±0.2a) with IC50 (392.66±2.1) followed by aqueous fraction (68.00±0.5e) with IC50 (159.83±2.8). The results of crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts were highly significant (p<0.05) than standard Thiourea. Present study showed that Vaccinium macrocarpon exhibits potent antiurease and antioxidant activities. PMID:27592488

  15. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of Carum copticum fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh

    2010-06-01

    The ajowain (Carum copticum (L.)) is a popular spice and traditionally used in Indian system of medicine. Considering the importance of natural products in modern phytomedicine, the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of C. copticum fruits extract and its fractions were evaluated. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum (2087.7 micromol) and DPPH assay (90.2%) followed by other fractions comparable to ascorbic acid and BHT. Based on antioxidant activity, methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens sodium azide (NaN(3)) and methyl methane sulphonate (MMS) and indirect acting mutagens 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), using Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102) tester strains. The methanolic fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentrations (25-100 microg/plate). Antimutagenic activity was recorded with inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 10.8% to 83.1% in a concentration dependent manner. The phytochemical analysis by IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and total phenolic assay revealed a high content of phenolic terpenoids. Further, characterization of active principle is needed to understand the mechanism of action and therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  16. Antioxidant activities of hot water extracts from various spices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Suk; Yang, Mi-Ra; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the natural spices and herbs such as rosemary, oregano, and caraway have been used for the processing of meat products. This study investigates the antioxidant activity of 13 spices commonly used in meat processing plants. The hot water extracts were then used for evaluation of total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities. Our results show that the hot water extract of oregano gave the highest extraction yield (41.33%) whereas mace (7.64%) gave the lowest. The DPPH radical scavenging ability of the spice extracts can be ranked against ascorbic acid in the order ascorbic acid > clove > thyme > rosemary > savory > oregano. The values for superoxide anion radical scavenging activities were in the order of marjoram > rosemary > oregano > cumin > savory > basil > thyme > fennel > coriander > ascorbic acid. When compared to ascorbic acid (48.72%), the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of turmeric and mace were found to be higher (p < 0.001). Clove had the highest total phenolic content (108.28 μg catechin equivalent (CE)/g). The total flavonoid content of the spices varied from 324.08 μg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g for thyme to 3.38 μg QE/g for coriander. Our results indicate that hot water extract of several spices had a high antioxidant activity which is partly due to the phenolic and flavonoid compounds. This provides basic data, having implications for further development of processed food products.

  17. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF) enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules. PMID:22974481

  18. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient.

  19. Antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Shabana; Shaheen, Ghazala; Akram, Muhammad; Rashid, Abid; Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    The objective of present study was to evaluate the antiurease and anti-oxidant activity of Vaccinium macrocarpon fruit. The parent extract was ethanolic extract while its sub fractions were prepared in n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol. The method based on scavenging activity and reduction capability of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). N-butanol fraction was the most effective antioxidant with 87.0±1.15 activity but the activity was less than ascorbic acid i.e. 93.74±0.12. Highly significant urease inhibition was shown by crude ethanolic extract (71.00±0.2a) with IC50 (392.66±2.1) followed by aqueous fraction (68.00±0.5e) with IC50 (159.83±2.8). The results of crude ethanolic extract and aqueous extracts were highly significant (p<0.05) than standard Thiourea. Present study showed that Vaccinium macrocarpon exhibits potent antiurease and antioxidant activities.

  20. Tomato waste: Carotenoids content, antioxidant and cell growth activities.

    PubMed

    Stajčić, Sladjana; Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Djilas, Sonja; Mandić, Anamarija; Četojević-Simin, Dragana

    2015-04-01

    The carotenoid content, antioxidant and cell growth activities of tomato waste extracts, obtained from five different tomato genotypes, was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify the main carotenoids present in tomato waste extracts. The antioxidant activity of tomato waste extracts was tested using spectrophotometric methods, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and reducing power assay. The highest DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.057 mg/ml) was obtained for Bačka extract. The Knjaz extract showed the best reducing power (IC50 = 2.12 mg/ml). Cell growth effects were determined in HeLa, MCF7 and MRC-5 cell lines by sulforhodamine B test. Anti-proliferative effects were observed in all cell lines at higher concentrations (⩾ 0.125 mg/ml). The carotenoid contents exhibited a strong correlation with antioxidant and anti-proliferation activity. The results obtained indicated that tomato waste should be regarded as potential nutraceutic resource and may be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:25442547

  1. Optimization Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from Suillus granulatus and Their Antioxidant and Immunological Activities In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Yan, Song; Chen, Shuang; Gong, Liying; Su, Tingting; Wang, Zhanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suillus granulatus is an edible and medicinal fungus in China. S. granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) was considered as the main bioactivity compounds in S. granulatus. Therefore, the extraction of SGP and their antioxidant activities were studied in this work. Materials and Methods: Fruiting bodies of S. granulatus were purchased from a local market (Fushun, China). Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions of SGP. The antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro were also assayed. Results: The extraction of SGP was optimized by a Box–Behnken design. The optimal conditions for the extraction of polysaccharides were as follows: Pre-extraction time, 2 h; extraction temperature, 94°C; ratio of water to raw material, 25; and extraction frequency, 2. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 5.38% ±0.15%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The antioxidant assay in vitro showed that SGPs had relatively high scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals and higher scavenging ability for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. However, the scavenging ability of SGPs for superoxide anion radical and reducing power was relatively low. The polysaccharides also significantly increased splenocyte proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: SGP possessed good antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro and explored as a novel natural antioxidant or functional food. SUMMARY The predictive model of Suillus granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) extraction is adequate for the extraction processSGP possessed a good antioxidant activity in vitroLymphocyte proliferation in vitro was significantly increased by SGPPictorial abstract (in MS Powerpoint Format) is submitted as a separated file in the online submission system. Abbreviation used: SGP: Suillus granulatus polysaccharides, RSM: Response surface methodology, BBD: Box–Behnken design, Vc: Ascorbic acid, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, MTT: 3

  2. Orally active antioxidative copper(II) aspirinate: synthesis, structure characterization, superoxide scavenging activity, and in vitro and in vivo antioxidative evaluations.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, T; Yamada, S; Yasui, H; Sakurai, H; In, Y; Ishida, T

    2005-12-01

    Ever since it was proposed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathogeneses of various diseases, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-mimetic complexes have been intensively studied. We prepared copper(II) aspirinate [Cu2(asp)4] from Cu(II) and aspirin, which has been in use for many years as an antipyretic, an analgesic, and an anti-inflammatory agent. However, Cu2(asp)4 has been found to have additional activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, anti-ischemic/reperfusion agent, anticancer, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial activities. The activity of copper salicylate [Cu(sal)2] was also compared with that of Cu2(asp)4. The structure of the Cu2(asp)4 was determined using X-ray structure analysis. Its SOD-mimetic activity was determined using cytochrome c, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and ESR spin trap methods. The activity of Cu2(asp)4 was slightly greater than CuSO4 and copper acetate [Cu(ace)2] and slightly less than that of Cu(sal)2. The in vitro antioxidant activity, evaluated in human epithelial or transformed neoplastic keratinocyte cells, HaCaT, and normal dermal fibroblasts in terms of cell survival following ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, was significantly increased in the presence of Cu2(asp)4, Cu(sal)2, and CuSO4. Further, ROS generation following UVA irradiation in the skin of hairless mice following oral treatment with Cu2(asp)4 for three consecutive days was significantly suppressed compared to the vehicle- or Cu(ace)2-treated mice. On the basis of these results, Cu2(asp)4 was observed to be a potent antioxidative compound possessing antioxidative activity in biological systems. In conclusion, Cu2(asp)4 is a potent antioxidative agent that may be useful for future treatment of diseases resulting from ROS. PMID:16261369

  3. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main aim of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of forty four traditional Chinese medicinal herbal extracts and to examine these activities in relation to their antioxidant content. Methods The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method and yeast model. The anti-inflammatory properties of the herbal extracts were evaluated by measuring their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and TNF-α in RAW 264.7 macrophages activated by LPS and IFN- γ, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the herbal extracts were determined by Alomar Blue assay by measuring cell viability. In order to understand the variation of antioxidant activities of herbal extracts with their antioxidant contents, the total phenolics, total flavonoids and trace metal (Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and Mo) quantities were estimated and a correlation analysis was carried out. Results Results of this study show that significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal contents were found in Ligustrum lucidum, Paeonia suffuticosa, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Sanguisorba officinalis, Spatholobus suberectus, Tussilago farfara and Uncaria rhyncophylla, which correlated well with their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the plants displayed high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities but contained low levels of phenolics and flavonoids. Interestingly, these plants contained significant levels of trace metals (such as Zn, Mg and Se) which are likely to be responsible for their activities. Conclusions The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in the antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds. PMID:23038995

  4. Use of photochemiluminescence for the determination of antioxidant activities of carotenoids and antioxidant capacities of selected tomato products.

    PubMed

    Bauerfeind, Jasmin; Hintze, Victoria; Kschonsek, Josephine; Killenberg, Margrit; Böhm, Volker

    2014-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antioxidant activity of carotenoids to that of α-tocopherol by using a photochemiluminescence method (PCL). Comparisons to results obtained by using other established methods (α-TEAC, FRAP, DPPH, LPSC) were carried out. A relationship between the chemical structure of carotenoids and their antioxidant activity could be discussed. The number of conjugated double bonds and functional groups had a positive influence. Additionally, the lipophilic antioxidant capacities of selected tomato products were analyzed using PCL and α-TEAC. HPLC was used to identify and quantify contents of carotenoids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The raw material fresh tomatoes had the lowest antioxidant effect in both assays due to the lower carotenoid content. Tomato ketchup had the highest AOC in PCL, and tomato puree, in α-TEAC. The antioxidant capacities were mainly dependent on the water content of the samples. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent effect could be observed in both assays. PMID:25026001

  5. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of lichen species Ramalina roesleri.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, R; Geol, M; Verma, S; Rani, A; Dureja, P

    2013-01-01

    Solvent extracts of Ramalina roesleri Nyl were assayed for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Hexane extract was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of extracts ranged from 29.42% to 87.90%. Atranorin, protolichesterinic acid, usnic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-6-propyl benzoic acid, homosekikaic acid, sekikaic acid, benzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxy-6-propyl and 2,4-dihydroxy-3,6-dimethyl benzoate were isolated from the hexane extract. Maximum DPPH radical scavenging activity was exhibited by sekikaic acid followed by homosekikaic acid. PMID:23822758

  6. Standardization and in vitro antioxidant activity of jatamansi rhizome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Mohammad A.; Khan, Masood S.; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nardostachys jatamansi Linn. commonly known as jatamansi is a well notorious drug in Indian systems of medicines having various health-related benefits and employed in various herbal formulations due to the presence of high levels of valuable phenolic constituents. The present study was aimed to quality assessment of Jatamansi rhizome by studying macro- and micro-scopic characters along with physicochemical tests, chemo-profiling using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in vitro antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines and contaminant estimation was carried out by analyzing the samples for the determination of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins. Chemo-profiling was done with TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The GC-MS chemo-profiling was also carried out by using hexane soluble fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract. The drug is well known for a protective role in the human body as an antioxidant, so total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy was also determined by using established methods. Results: The results of quality control and anatomical studies were very much useful for its identification, whereas significant antioxidant efficacy was also observed. The drug was found free of contaminants when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins, whereas heavy metals were found under the pharmacopeial limit. Conclusion: The findings of the present research can be utilized for the identification and quality control of the jatamansi rhizome. PMID:26681882

  7. Vasorelaxant and Antioxidant Activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

    PubMed Central

    Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of l-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED50 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants. PMID:19330100

  8. Vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr.

    PubMed

    Wongsawatkul, Orapin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2008-12-01

    This study reports the effect of Spilanthes acmella Murr. extracts on phenylephrine-induced contraction of rat thoracic aorta as well as their antioxidant activity. Results show that the extracts exert maximal vasorelaxations in a dose-dependent manner, but their effects are less than acetylcholine-induced nitric oxide (NO) vasorelaxation. Significant reduction of vasorelaxations is observed in both N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (INDO). In the presence of l-NAME plus INDO, synergistic effects are observed, leading to loss of vasorelaxation of both acetylcholine and the extracts. Similarly, the vasorelaxations of the extracts are completely abolished upon the removal of endothelial cells. This demonstrates that the extracts exhibit vasorelaxation via partially endothelium-induced NO and prostacyclin in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, the ethyl acetate extract exerts immediate vasorelaxation (ED(50) 76.1 ng/mL) and is the most potent antioxidant (DPPH assay). The chloroform extract shows the highest vasorelaxation and antioxidation (SOD assay). These reveal a potential source of vasodilators and antioxidants. PMID:19330100

  9. Compost as a soil supplement increases the level of antioxidant compounds and oxygen radical absorbance capacity in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiow Y; Lin, Hsin-Shan

    2003-11-01

    Compost as a soil supplement significantly enhanced levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) and ratios of AsA/dehydroascorbic acid (DHAsA) and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in fruit of two strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cultivars, Allstar and Honeoye. The peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) as well as the superoxide radical (O(2)(*)(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hydroxyl radical (OH(*)), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) absorbance capacity in strawberries increased significantly with increasing fertilizer strength and compost use. The planting medium (compost) x fertilizer interaction for phenolics and flavonoids was significant. Fruit from plants grown in full-strength fertilizer with 50% soil plus 50% compost and 100% compost yielded fruit with the highest levels of phenolics, flavonol, and anthocyanin content. A positive relationship between antioxidant activities and contents of AsA and GSH and ratios of AsA/DHAsA and GSH/GSSG existed in fruit of both strawberry cultivars. Correlation coefficients for the content of antioxidant components versus antioxidant activity [against ROO(*), O(2)(*)(-), H(2)O(2), OH(*), or (1)O(2)] ranged from r( )()= 0.7706 for H(2)O(2) versus GSH/GSSH in cv. Allstar to r = 0.9832 for O(2)(*)(-) versus total flavonoids in cv. Allstar.

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of standardized herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hiraganahalli, Bhaskarmurthy Deepak; Chinampudur, Velusami Chandrasekaran; Dethe, Shekhar; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Pandre, Manoj Kumar; Balachandran, Jaya; Agarwal, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus emblica, Camellia sinensis, Mangifera indica, Punica granatum, and Acacia catechu have been shown to possess widespread pharmacological application against multitude of diseases namely cancer, diabetes, liver disorders, and oxidative stress. Objective: We evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the standardized herbal extracts against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH) induced toxicity and their mechanism of hepatoprotective action in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 cell line). Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of these herbal extracts on t-BH induced reduction in cell viability of HepG2 cells. In addition, the reducing power of the extracts and their ability to scavenge free radicals were evaluated using two antioxidant assay systems: cell free [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and [2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid)] (ABTS)] and cell based [cellular antioxidant activity (CAA)]. Results and Discussion: The results obtained showed that these extracts possess significant hepatoprotective activity. This may indicate that the plant extracts contain compounds, which can remove toxic metabolites following t-BH induced toxicity. The extracts exhibited significant antioxidant property as evident by the Trolox values and effective scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals. The extracts also demonstrated inhibition of AAPH-induced fluorescence in HepG2 cells. These results indicate the ability of the plant extracts to protect the liver cells from chemical-induced damage, which might be correlated to their radical scavenging potential. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that these extracts have potential hepatoprotective activity which is mainly attributed to the antioxidant potential, which might occur by reduction of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage. PMID:22701284

  11. Abscisic acid induced changes in production of primary and secondary metabolites, photosynthetic capacity, antioxidant capability, antioxidant enzymes and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate and distinguish the relationships in the production of total phenolics, total flavonoids, soluble sugars, H2O2, O2-, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, leaf gas exchange, antioxidant activity, antioxidant enzyme activity [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity (LOX)] under four levels of foliar abscisic acid (ABA) application (0, 2, 4, 6 µM) for 15 weeks in Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. It was found that the production of plant secondary metabolites, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was influenced by foliar application of ABA. As the concentration of ABA was increased from 0 to 6 µM the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, sucrose, H2O2, O2-, PAL activity and LOX inhibitory activity was enhanced. It was also observed that the antioxidant capabilities (DPPH and ORAC) were increased. This was followed by increases in production of antioxidant enzymes APX, CAT and SOD. Under high application rates of ABA the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was found to be reduced. The production of primary and secondary metabolites displayed a significant positive relationship with H2O2 (total phenolics, r2 = 0.877; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.812; p ≤ 0.05) and O2- (total phenolics, r2 = 0.778; total flavonoids, r2 = 0.912; p ≤ 0.05). This indicated that increased oxidative stress at high application rates of ABA, improved the production of phytochemicals. PMID:23884129

  12. HPLC-Analysis of Polyphenolic Compounds in Gardenia jasminoides and Determination of Antioxidant Activity by Using Free Radical Scavenging Assays

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Riaz; Saha, Moni Rani; Subhan, Nusrat; Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Akter, Raushanara; Alam, Ashraful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gardenia jasminoides is a traditional medicinal plant rich in anti-inflammatory flavonoids and phenolic compounds and used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and pain. In this present study, antioxidant potential of Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract was evaluated by using various antioxidant assays. Methods: Various antioxidant assays such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent to ascorbic acid were employed. Moreover, phenolic compounds were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode-array detection. Results: The methanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assays compared to the reference antioxidant ascorbic acid. Total antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. The extract also showed strong reducing power. The total phenolic content was determined as 190.97 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. HPLC coupled with diode-array detection was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the extracts. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, rutin hydrate and quercetin have been identified in the plant extracts. Among the phenolic compounds, catechin and rutin hydrate are present predominantly in the extract. The accuracy and precision of the presented method were corroborated by low intra- and inter-day variations in quantitative results in leaves extract. Conclusion: These results suggest that phenolic compounds and flavonoids might contribute to high antioxidant activities of Gardenia jasminoides leaves. PMID:24754012

  13. Benzofuranyl Esters: Synthesis, Crystal Structure Determination, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C S Chidan; Then, Li Yee; Chia, Tze Shyang; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Win, Yip-Foo; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Hashim, Nurul Shafiqah; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-09-11

    A series of five new 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl 4-(un/substituted)benzoates 4(a-e), with the general formula of C₈H₅O(C=O)CH₂O(C=O)C₆H₄X, X = H, Cl, CH₃, OCH₃ or NO₂, was synthesized in high purity and good yield under mild conditions. The synthesized products 4(a-e) were characterized by FTIR, ¹H-, (13)C- and ¹H-(13)C HMQC NMR spectroscopic analysis and their 3D structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The tested compounds showed antimicrobial ability in the order of 4b < 4a < 4c < 4d < 4e and the highest potency with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) value of 125 µg/mL was observed for 4e. The results of antioxidant activities revealed the highest activity for compound 4e (32.62% ± 1.34%) in diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 4d (31.01% ± 4.35%) in ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and 4a (27.11% ± 1.06%) in metal chelating (MC) activity.

  14. Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural antioxidant products are increasingly being used to treat various pathological liver conditions considering the role of oxidative stress in their pathogenesis. Rosemary essential oil has already being used as a preservative in food industry due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, but it was shown to possess additional health benefits. The aim of our study was to evaluate the protective effect of rosemary essential oil on carbon tetrachloride - induced liver injury in rats and to explore whether its mechanism of action is associated with modulation of hepatic oxidative status. Methods Chemical composition of isolated rosemary essential oil was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro using DPPH assay. Activities of enzyme markers of hepatocellular damage in serum and antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates were measured using the kinetic spectrophotometric methods. Results In this research, we identified 29 chemical compounds of the studied rosemary essential oil, and the main constituents were 1,8-cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). Investigated essential oil was found to exert hepatoprotective effects in the doses of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg by diminishing AST and ALT activities up to 2-fold in serum of rats with carbon tetrachloride - induced acute liver damage. Rosemary essential oil prevented carbon tetrachloride - induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Furthermore, pre-treatment with studied essential oil during 7 days significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in liver homogenates, especially in the dose of 10 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil, beside exhibiting free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH assay, mediates its hepatoprotective effects also through activation of

  15. Consequences of age on ischemic wound healing in rats: altered antioxidant activity and delayed wound closure.

    PubMed

    Moor, Andrea N; Tummel, Evan; Prather, Jamie L; Jung, Michelle; Lopez, Jonathan J; Connors, Sarah; Gould, Lisa J

    2014-04-01

    Advertisements targeted at the elderly population suggest that antioxidant therapy will reduce free radicals and promote wound healing, yet few scientific studies substantiate these claims. To better understand the potential utility of supplemental antioxidant therapy for wound healing, we tested the hypothesis that age and tissue ischemia alter the balance of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Using a bipedicled skin flap model, ischemic and non-ischemic wounds were created on young and aged rats. Wound closure and the balance of the critical antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione in the wound bed were determined. Ischemia delayed wound closure significantly more in aged rats. Lower superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione in non-ischemic wounds of aged rats indicate a basal deficit due to age alone. Ischemic wounds from aged rats had lower superoxide dismutase 2 protein and activity initially, coupled with decreased ratios of reduced/oxidized glutathione and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. De novo glutathione synthesis, to restore redox balance in aged ischemic wounds, was initiated as evidenced by increased glutamate cysteine ligase. Results demonstrate deficiencies in two antioxidant pathways in aged rats that become exaggerated in ischemic tissue, culminating in profoundly impaired wound healing and prolonged inflammation.

  16. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides from Anoectochilus roxburghii.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Biyu; Su, Minghua; Chen, Qingxi; Chang, Qiang; Wang, Wei; Li, Huihua

    2016-11-20

    The physicochemical properties (molecular weights and monosaccharide compositions), antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of polysaccharides (ARPPs: ARPP30, ARPP60 and ARPP80) isolated from Anoectochilus roxburghii were investigated. ARPP80 exhibited relatively strong antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner. In mice subjected to carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, ARPP80 pretreatment significantly (p<0.01) reduced the levels of aspartate and alanine amino transferases and malonyldialdehyde, prominently (p<0.01) restored the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione in serum or liver homogenate. These hepatoprotective effects were comparable to those of the standard drug silymarin at the same dose (200mg/kg). The study clearly demonstrated that ARPPs, especially ARPP80, might be suitable as functional foods or hepatoprotective drugs. PMID:27561510

  17. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of commercial Portuguese honeys.

    PubMed

    Aazza, Smail; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Antunes, Dulce; Miguel, Maria Graça

    2013-08-01

    The present study evaluated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activity of 13 commercial honeys from diverse floral origin, produced in Portugal. The values of electrical conductivity of cardoon and pennyroyal honeys were superior to the maximum limits defined by European legislation. Citrus, strawberry tree, and 1 sample of lavender honeys had values of diastase activity below those determined by European legislation. Strawberry tree, pennyroyal, and cardoon honeys had the highest amounts of potassium that coincided with the highest electrical conductivity. Strawberry tree honey was the most effective as antioxidant along with cardoon and heather honeys. This ability was strongly correlated with the amounts of phenols and flavonoids and not with the levels of vitamin C or proline.

  18. Novel macromolecules derived from coumarin: synthesis and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Al-Majedy, Yasameen K.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2015-07-01

    The rational design of 4-hydroxycoumarins with tailor-made antioxidant activities is required nowadays due to the wide variety of pharmacologically significant, structurally interesting of coumarins and researcher orientation toward green chemistry and natural products. A simple and unique coumarins have been achieved by reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarin with aromatic aldehyde accompanied with the creation of a macromolecules have 2-aminothiazolidin-4-one. The molecular structures of the compounds were characterized by the Fourier transformation infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, in addition to CHN analysis. The scavenging abilities of new compounds against stable DPPH radical (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide were done and the results show that the compounds exhibited high antioxidant activates.

  19. In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Trianthema portulacastrum L. Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Yaqoob, Sadaf; Sultana, Bushra; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Hydrolysates of Trianthema portulacastrum in acidified methanol were evaluated for their total phenolic (TP) constituents and respective antioxidant activities using in vitro assays (i.e., 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, percent inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, and ferric reducing power). The observed results indicate that root, shoot, and leaf fractions of T. portulacastrum contain 50.75~98.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight of TP. In addition, these fractions have substantial reducing potentials (0.10~0.59), abilities to inhibit peroxidation (43.26~89.98%), and DPPH radical scavenging capabilities (6.98~311.61 μg/mL IC50). The experimental data not only reveal T. portulacastrum as potential source of valuable antioxidants, but also indicate that acidified methanol may be an ideal choice for the enhanced recovery of phenolic compounds with retained biological potential for the food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24772406

  20. Antioxidant activity of a Mediterranean food product: "fig syrup".

    PubMed

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

  1. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, A; Çinbilgel, I; Gün, S Ş; Çetin, A

    2015-01-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50 = 18.66 μg mL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50 = 145.17 and 372.03 μg mL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26 μg mL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  2. Effect of sunlight-exposure on antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activities in 'd'Anjou' pear in relation to superficial scald development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xie, Xingbin; Shen, Xiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Influence of preharvest sunlight exposure on superficial scald development in 'd'Anjou' pears during cold storage was investigated. The biochemical changes related to scald including α-farnesene, conjugated trienols (CTols), antioxidants, antioxidant enzyme activities were monitored among separated blushed and shaded peels of unbagged fruit as well as the whole peel of bagged fruit. In unbagged fruit, scald symptom was restricted to shaded peel; while there was no difference in α-farnesene between blushed and shaded peels, CTols increased significantly in shaded peel along with scald development after 3months storage. Bagging treatment increased both α-farnesene and CTols significantly and enhanced scald. Preharvest sunlight exposure significantly increased certain antioxidant contents and antioxidant enzyme activities in blushed peel at harvest and during storage. These results reveal a direct role of CTols during development of scald, however, antioxidant systems may play an important role in α-farnesene oxidation to CTols and scald susceptibility in 'd'Anjou pears. PMID:27211615

  3. Surface-active properties of lipophilic antioxidants tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters: a potential explanation for the nonlinear hypothesis of the antioxidant activity in oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ricardo; Comelles, Francisco; Alcántara, David; Maldonado, Olivia S; Curcuroze, Melanie; Parra, Jose L; Morales, Juan C

    2010-07-14

    Our group has recently observed a nonlinear tendency in antioxidant capacity of different hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters in fish oil-in-water emulsions, where a maximum of antioxidant efficiency appeared for hydroxytyrosol octanoate. These results appear to disagree with the antioxidant polar paradox. Because the physical location of the antioxidants in an oil-water interface has been postulated as an important factor in explaining this behavior, we have prepared a series of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters with different chain length and studied their surface-active properties in water, because these physicochemical parameters could be directly related to the preferential placement at the interface. We have found that tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol fatty acid esters are relevant surfactants when the right hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is attained and, in some cases, as efficient as emulsifiers commonly used in industry, such as Brij 30 or Tween 20. Moreover, a nonlinear dependency of surfactant effectiveness is observed with the increase in chain length of the lipophilic antioxidants. This tendency seems to fit quite well with the reported antioxidant activity in emulsions, and the best antioxidant of the series (hydroxytyrosol octanoate) is also a very effective surfactant. This potential explanation of the nonlinear hypothesis will help in the rational design of antioxidants used in oil-in-water emulsions.

  4. Region specific increase in the antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in the brain of rats exposed to lead.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Christopher; Bettaiya, Rajanna; Rajanna, Sharada; Baker, Levenia; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Brice, Jon J; White, Samuel L; Bokara, Kiran Kumar

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of lead (pb) on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in different regions of rat brain. Wistar male rats were treated with lead acetate (500 ppm) through drinking water for a period of 8 weeks. Control animals were maintained on sodium acetate. Treated and control rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1st, 4th and 8th week and the whole brains were dissected on ice into four regions namely the cerebellum, the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the brain stem. Antioxidant enzymes namely catalase and superoxide dismutase in all the four regions of brain were determined. In addition, lipid peroxidation products were also estimated. The results indicated a gradual increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different regions of the brain and this response was time-dependent. However, the increase was more in the cerebellum and the hippocampus compared to other regions of the brain. The lipid peroxidation products also showed a similar trend suggesting increased effect of lead in these two regions of the brain. The data indicated a region-specific oxidative stress in the brain exposed to lead. PMID:17364954

  5. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  6. Antioxidant activity of glycoprotein purified from Undaria pinnatifida measured by an in vitro digestion model.

    PubMed

    Rafiquzzaman, S M; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Yu-Ri; Nam, Taek-Jeong; Kong, In-Soo

    2013-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of glycoprotein purified from Undaria pinnatifida Harvey (UPGP). On SDS-PAGE, UPGP migrated as a single band with a molecular weight of approximately 10 kDa and confirmed by staining with Schiff's reagent as glycoprotein. It consists of a carbohydrate component (42.53%) and protein component (57.47%). Amino acid profile, FT-IR spectrum and enzymatic glycosylation analysis suggested that protein is linked with carbohydrate by O-glycosylation. UPGP showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities as detected by different assays before and after in vitro digestion. The IC50 values of undigested UPGP were 0.25 ± 0.03, 0.08 ± 0.005, 0.69 ± 0.12, and 0.25 ± 0.08 mg/mL for DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and NO, respectively. Following in vitro digestion, the antioxidant activities of UPGP were decreased during the gastric phase compared to those of undigested UPGP, with an increase occurring during the duodenal phase in all assays. However, the reducing power was unchanged after in vitro digestion. Furthermore, UPGP showed protective activity against oxidative DNA damage both undigested, after saliva and duodenal phase of digestion. These results indicate that the antioxidant and DNA protection activities of UPGP may be pH-dependent and assay specific.

  7. The influence of cadmium on the antioxidant enzyme activities in polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiutang; Chen, Aihua; Zhou, Yibing; Liu, Haiying; Yang, Dazuo

    2010-07-01

    The infaunal polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis Grube, distributed widely along Asian coasts and estuaries, is considered a useful animal model in ecotoxicological tests and a promising candidate in biomonitoring programs. This paper deals with the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) in infaunal polychaete P. aibuhitensis exposed to a series of sublethal water-bound cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 0.34, 1.72, 3.44, 6.89, and 17.22 mg L-1) under a short-term exposure (1-8 d). The results indicate that the SOD and GSH-Px activities in P. aibuhitensis are stimulated first and then renewed to the original level. The CAT activity of worms decreases at an earlier exposure time but increases to the control values at a later exposure time. Our study suggests that Cd can interfere with the antioxidant defense system of P. aibuhitensis. However, the changes in antioxidant enzyme activities for this species do not show the best promise as biomarkers in Cd biomonitoring of estuarine and coastal zones because weak or non-dose-effect relationships between the antioxidant enzymes activities and Cd levels are found.

  8. Macronutrients, Phytochemicals, and Antioxidant Activity of Soybean Sprout Germinated with or without Light Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeming; Chang, Sam K C

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the macronutrients, phytochemicals, and antioxidant activities of yellow soybean sprout (YSS) and green soybean sprout (GSS) with different germination days. YSS and GSS were obtained by sprouting soybean in darkness or with light exposure at 21 °C. Lipid, protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents were analyzed before and after soybean germination. Phytochemicals (total phenolic compounds, saponin, and isoflavone) were also determined. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were determined to examine the antioxidant activities of soybean sprout. Results showed YSS had a higher yield than GSS. Based on dry mass composition, 7-d germination of GSS decreased 14% protein, 37% lipid, 22% carbohydrate, and 16% ash, whereas 7-d germination of YSS decreased 6% protein and 47% lipid. Carbohydrate did not change and ash significantly increased for the 7-d germinated YSS. Lipid was greatly metabolized in germination, which explained why the protein relative percentage in dried soybean sprout was higher than that in the corresponding soybean. Total phenolic compounds and saponin (mg/g soybean sprout, dry basis) had the same accumulation trend in soybean sprout with the increases in germination days. Aglycone isoflavones (genistein, glycitein, and daidzein) and daidzin showed an increased trend, whereas malonylgenistin and malonylglycitin showed a decreased trend with germination days for both GSS and YSS. The change in other isoflavones did not show definite trends. GSS had 20% more antioxidant activities than YSS (7-d germinated soybean sprout). The increases in ORAC antioxidant activity suggest eating GSS may be more beneficial than GSS for promoting human health.

  9. Antidiarrheal, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Musa sapientum Seed

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Sarowar; Alam, M. Badrul; Asadujjaman, M.; Zahan, Ronok; Islam, M. Monirul; Mazumder, M. Ehsanul H.; Haque, Md. Ekramul

    2011-01-01

    Musa sapientum (M.sapientum) commonly known as ‘banana’ is widely used in Bangladeshi folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate antidiarrheal, antioxidant and antibacterial potential of the methanolic extract of M.sapientum seed (MMSS). The extract was studied for antidiarrheal property using castor oil and magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal model and charcoal induced gastrointestinal motility test in mice. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, as well as nitric oxide (NO) and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MMSS. In addition, disc diffusion methods were used for antibacterial assay using various diarrheal induced bacterial strains. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, the extract reduced the frequency and severity of diarrhea in test animals throughout the study period. At the same doses, the extracts significantly (p<0.001) delayed the intestinal transit of charcoal meal in test animals as compared to the control. In DPPH and NO scavenging method, MMSS showed good antioxidant potentiality in a dose dependent manner with the IC50 value of 12.32±0.33 µg/ml and 18.96±1.01 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.001) good reducing power. The extract also displayed strong anti-bacterial effect against when tested against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Altogether, these results suggest that the MMSS could be used as a potential antidiarrheal agent along with its antioxidant and antibacterial potentiality. PMID:23407989

  10. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The

  11. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The

  12. Phytochemicals, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of selected traditional wild edible plants of lower Assam

    PubMed Central

    Swargiary, Ananta; Daimari, Abhijita; Daimari, Manita; Basumatary, Noymi; Narzary, Ezekiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clerodendrum viscosum, Eryngium foetidum, Lippia javanica, and Murraya koenigii are one among the common wild edible plants in Northeast India which are also used as antidiabetic, stomach-ache relieving drugs, etc., The present study was aimed to reveal the phytochemical, antioxidant, and anthelmintic activity of the plants. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of plants was studied by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power, TBARS, and total antioxidant activity (TAA). Total phenolics, flavonoids, Vitamin C, carbohydrate, and protein are also estimated following standard protocols. Anthelmintic activity of the extracts has also been studied in vitro against trematode parasites. Results: The result showed that the methanolic extracts of plants possess a substantial quantity of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, and Vitamin C. Phenolics, flavonoids, and Vitamin C contents were found higher in C. viscosum followed by M. koenigii, L. javanica, and E. foetidum. The in vitro antioxidant assays revealed substantial free radical scavenging property in all the plants. TAA increased in the order C. viscosum > M. koenigii > L. javanica > E. foetidum. Similarly, C. viscosum displayed a better antioxidant capacity with IC50 values 29.74 ± 3.63 μg and 148.77 ± 18.38 μg for DPPH and thiobarbituric acid reactive species, respectively. In addition, the plant extracts also showed good anthelmintic activity against Paramphistomum sp. Time taken for paralysis and death were 0:56 ± 0:09 h and 1:35 ± 0:07 h for L. javanica at 50 mg/mL concentration. Conclusion: The study therefore suggests the importance of tested plants as a natural source of free radical scavenger and plausible veterinary uses. PMID:27756954

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Badrul; Akter, Fahima; Parvin, Nahida; Sharmin Pia, Rashna; Akter, Sharmin; Chowdhury, Jesmin; Sifath-E-Jahan, Kazi; Haque, Ekramul

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL). Materials and Methods: MPBL was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model. Analgesic activity of MPBL was evaluated by hot plate, writhing, and formalin tests. Total phenolic and flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, peroxynitrate (ONOO) as well as inhibition of total ROS generation, and assessment of reducing power were used to evaluate antioxidant potential of MPBL. Results: The extract of MPBL, at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, produced a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hot plate method whereas significantly (p<0.05) reduced the writhing caused by acetic acid and the number of licks induced by formalin in a dose-dependent manner. The same ranges of doses of MPBL caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema after 4 h in a dose-dependent manner. In DPPH, ONOO-, and total ROS scavenging method, MPBL showed good antioxidant potentiality with the IC50 value of 16.33±1.02, 25.16±0.61 , and 41.72±0.48 µg/ml, respectively with a significant (p<0.05) good reducing power. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that MPBL has strong analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects, conforming the traditional use of this plant for inflammatory pain alleviation to its antioxidant potentiality. PMID:25050265

  14. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activities comparison in fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuxin; Hong, Yan; Han, Yanquan; Wang, Yongzhong; Xia, Lunzhu

    2016-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, and is also an important Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different processing methods can produce different processed gingers with dissimilar chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS) was applied to identify the complicated components from fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger extracts. All of the 27 compounds were identified from four kinds of ginger samples (fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized ginger). Five main constituents (zingerone, 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol and 10-gingerol) in these four kinds of ginger sample extracts were simultaneously determined by UPLC-PDA. Meanwhile, the antioxidant effect of fresh, dried, stir-frying and carbonized gingers were evaluated by three assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)). The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity of dried ginger was the highest, for its phenolic contents are 5.2-, 1.1- and 2.4-fold higher than that of fresh, stir-frying and carbonized ginger, respectively, the antioxidant activities' results indicated a similar tendency with phenolic contents: dried ginger>stir-frying ginger>fresh ginger>carbonized ginger. The processing contributed to the decreased concentration of gingerols and the increased levels of shogaols, which reducing the antioxidant effects in pace with processing. This study elucidated the relationship of the heating process with the constituents and antioxidant activity, and provided a guide for choosing different kinds of ginger samples on clinical application.

  15. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity1

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Rebecca M.; Xiong, Youling L.; True, Alma D.; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:24879706

  16. Dietary antioxidant supplementation enhances lipid and protein oxidative stability of chicken broiler meat through promotion of antioxidant enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Delles, Rebecca M; Xiong, Youling L; True, Alma D; Ao, Touying; Dawson, Karl A

    2014-06-01

    Recent nutrigenomic studies have shown that animal nutrition can have a major influence on tissue gene expression. Dietary antioxidant supplements can enhance the quality of meat through modification of tissue metabolic processes. This study investigated the influence of dietary antioxidants and quality of oil on the oxidative and enzymatic properties of chicken broiler breast meat stored in an oxygen-enriched package (HiOx: 80% O2/20% CO2) in comparison with air-permeable polyvinylchloride (PVC) or skin packaging systems during retail display at 2 to 4°C for up to 21 d. Broilers were fed either a diet with a low-oxidized (peroxide value 23 mEq of O2/kg) or high-oxidized (peroxide value 121 mEq of O2/kg) oil, supplemented with or without an algae-based Se yeast and organic mineral antioxidant pack for 42 d. Lipid and protein oxidation and tissue enzymatic activity were analyzed. In all packaging systems, lipid oxidation (TBA reactive substances) was inhibited by up to 32.5% (P < 0.05) with an antioxidant-supplemented diet when compared with diets without antioxidants, particularly in the HiOx and PVC systems. Protein sulfhydryls were significantly protected by antioxidant diets (e.g., by 14.6 and 17.8% for low-and high-oxidized dietary groups, respectively, in PVC d 7 samples). Glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in antioxidant-supplemented diets compared with the basal diet, regardless of oil quality. Also, serum carbonyls were lower in broilers fed a low-oxidized antioxidant-supplemented treatment. The results demonstrate that dietary antioxidants can minimize the oxidative instability of proteins and lipids, and the protection may be linked to improved cellular antioxidant enzymatic activity.

  17. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  18. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  19. Evaluating Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activity of Marrubium crassidens

    PubMed Central

    Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Sharifi, Simin; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Naturally occurring substances as novel drugs in cancer therapy, at all times, represent a challenge to science since medicinal plants are proving to be brilliant sources of new chemopreventive agents. Methods: In the present study, methanol extract from aerial parts of Marrubium crassidens was assessed for its antiproliferative activity in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through MTT bioassay using cell viability and cytotoxicity indices. The antioxidant property of M. crassidens extract together with its phenolic and flavonoids content were evaluated, as well. Results: According to data obtained in the study, M. crassidens exhibited antiproliferative activity with a gradual rise in cytotoxicty effect setting out on 240µg/mL concentration of the extract. Moreover, the RC50 value for antioxidant activity of the extract was determined as 40µg/mL and values for the total phenolic and flavonoids were calculated as 512.64mg gallic acid equivalent and 212.73mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. Conclusion: Generally, the observed antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of M. crassidens could be certified to the high amounts of phenolic and flavonoid content detected in the extract. PMID:25364663

  20. Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of Randia echinocarpa fruit.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cervantes, María Elena; Ibarra-Zazueta, María Emilia; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Paredes-López, Octavio; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco

    2007-06-01

    We report for the first time the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of fractions from Randia echinocarpa fruit, which is a Rubiaceae plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico. This fruit has been traditionally used in the prevention or treatment of cancer, among other diseases. The pulp of the fruit was sequentially extracted with solvents of different polarity (i.e. hexane, chloroform, methanol and water). A high extraction yield was obtained with methanol (72.17% d.w.). The aqueous extract showed the highest content of phenolics (2.27 mg/g as ferulic acid equivalents) and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene bleaching method (486.15). The commercial antioxidant BHT was used as control (835.05). Antimutagenic activity of the aqueous extract (0-500 microg/tube) was evaluated using the Salmonella microsuspension assay (YG1024 strain) and 1-NP as the mutagen (50 and 100 ng/tube). The aqueous extract was neither toxic nor mutagenic and the percentage of inhibition on 1-NP mutagenicity was 32 and 53% at doses of 50 and 100 ng/tube, respectively. The results of the double incubation assay suggest that the extract inhibited the mutagenicity of 1-NP by a combination of desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic effects.

  1. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Salvia chloroleuca Aerial Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Salimikia, Iraj; Reza Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Salek, Mehrnoosh

    2016-01-01

    Background Salvia, known as Maryam Goli in the Persian language, is an important genus that includes approximately 900 species in the Lamiaceae family. There are 58 Salvia species growing naturally in Iran, including Salvia chloroleuca Rech. f. and Allen., which grows wild in the northeastern and central parts of the country. Objectives This study was designed to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant activity, and total phenol content of various extracts of S. chloroleuca. Materials and Methods Dried aerial parts of the plant were crushed, then sequentially extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The fractions of S. chloroleuca were subjected to silica gel column chromatography and Sephedex LH-20. The antioxidant activities of these extracts were measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the total phenolic contents of the extracts were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results The separation and purification processes were carried out using different chromatographic methods. Structural elucidation was on the basis 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data, in comparison with that reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were salvigenin (1), luteolin (2), cirsiliol (3), β-sitosterol (4), and daucosterol (5). Ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest level of total antioxidants and total polyphenols compared to the other analyzed extracts (n-hexane and methanol). In the FRAP assay, ethyl acetate extract had the highest (230.4±10.5) FRAP value, followed by methanol (211.4 ± 8.3) and n-hexane (143.4 ± 12.04). Total phenol contents were calculated to be 13.8 ± 0.3, 58.25 ± 0.05, and 43.48 ± 0.38 mg of gallic acid/100 g in the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts, respectively. Conclusions The above-mentioned compounds were isolated for the first time from S. chloroleuca. The antioxidant activity of this plant could be in part related to isolated flavonoids and sterols. The results of this study

  2. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Priftis, Alexandros; Stagos, Dimitrios; Konstantinopoulos, Konstantinos; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-11-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+)- radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non‑cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical‑induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying

  3. Comparison of antioxidant activity between green and roasted coffee beans using molecular methods

    PubMed Central

    PRIFTIS, ALEXANDROS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; KONSTANTINOPOULOS, KONSTANTINOS; TSITSIMPIKOU, CHRISTINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDES M.; TZATZARAKIS, MANOLIS N.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its pleasant taste and aroma. A number of studies have been performed to elucidate the possible beneficial effects of coffee consumption on human health and have shown that coffee exhibits potent antioxidant activity, which may be attributed mainly to its polyphenolic content. However, there is also evidence to suggest that coffee roasting (the procedure which turns green coffee beans to the dark, roasted ones from which the beverage derives) may alter the polyphenolic profile of the beans (e.g., via the Maillard reaction) and, concomitantly, their antioxidant activity. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of 13 coffee varieties was examined in both green and roasted coffee bean extracts using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-eth-ylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging assays. In addition, 5 selected varieties were also examined for their protective effects against peroxyl and hydroxyl radical-induced DNA strand cleavage. Finally, C2C12 murine myoblasts were treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of the most potent extract in order to examine its effects on the cellular redox status by measuring the glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by flow cytometry. Our results revealed that, in 8 out of the 13 coffee varieties, roasting increased free radical scavenging activity as shown by DPPH and ABTS•+ assays. Moreover, we found that when one coffee variety was roasted for different amounts of time, the increase in the antioxidant activity depended on the roasting time. By contrast, in 5 varieties, roasting reduced the antioxidant activity. Similar differences between the roasted and green beans were also observed in the free radical-induced DNA strand cleavage assay. The observed differences in the antioxidant activity between the different coffee varieties may be attributed to their varying polyphenolic

  4. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  5. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  6. Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory and Anti-Oxidant Activities of Sea Cucumber (Actinopyga lecanora) Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Raheleh; Zarei, Mohammad; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, food protein-derived hydrolysates have received considerable attention because of their numerous health benefits. Amongst the hydrolysates, those with anti-hypertensive and anti-oxidative activities are receiving special attention as both activities can play significant roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities of Actinopyga lecanora (A. lecanora) hydrolysates, which had been prepared by alcalase, papain, bromelain, flavourzyme, pepsin, and trypsin under their optimum conditions. The alcalase hydrolysate showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity (69.8%) after 8 h of hydrolysis while the highest anti-oxidative activities measured by 2,2-diphenyl 1-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (56.00%) and ferrous ion-chelating (FIC) (59.00%) methods were exhibited after 24 h and 8 h of hydrolysis, respectively. The ACE-inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities displayed dose-dependent trends, and increased with increasing protein hydrolysate concentrations. Moreover, strong positive correlations between angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and anti-oxidative activities were also observed. This study indicates that A. lecanora hydrolysate can be exploited as a source of functional food owing to its anti-oxidant as well as anti-hypertension functions. PMID:26690117

  7. Changes in antioxidant activity and phenolic acid composition of tarhana with steel-cut oats.

    PubMed

    Kilci, A; Gocmen, D

    2014-02-15

    Steel-cut oats (SCO) was used to replace wheat flour in the tarhana formulation (control) at the levels of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% (w/w). Control sample included no SCO. Substitution of wheat flour in tarhana formulation with SCO affected the mineral contents positively. SCO additions also increased phenolic acid contents of tarhana samples. The most abundant phenolic acids were ferulic and vanillic acids, followed by syringic acid in the samples with SCO. Tarhana samples with SCO also showed higher antioxidant activities than the control. Compared with the control, the total phenolic content increased when the level of SCO addition was increased. SCO addition did not have a deteriorative effect on sensory properties of tarhana samples and resulted in acceptable soup properties in terms of overall acceptability. SCO addition improved the nutritional and functional properties of tarhana by causing increases in antioxidant activity, phenolic content and phenolic acids.

  8. Citrus juice extraction systems: effect on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of clementine juice.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Rafael; Carvalho, Catarina P; Sierra, Jelver; Lara, Oscar; Cardona, David; Londoño-Londoño, Julian

    2012-01-25

    Clementines are especially appreciated for their delicious flavor, and recent years have seen a great increase in the consumption of clementine juice. In previous decades, antioxidant compounds have received particular attention because of widely demonstrated beneficial health effects. In this work, the organoleptic, volatile flavor, and antioxidant quality of clementine juice were studied with regard to the influence on them by different juice extraction systems: plug inside fruit and rotating cylinders. The results showed that juice extracted by the former method presented higher yields and hesperidin content, which was related to higher antioxidant activity, demonstrated by ORAC and LDL assays. The organoleptic quality was not affected by the processing technique, whereas there were significant differences in the chemical flavor profile. There are important differences in chemical and functional quality between juice extraction techniques, which must be taken into account when employing processing systems to produce high-quality products.

  9. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, B

    2002-06-01

    Residues of the oil-extracting process of oilseeds contain bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, which could be used as natural antioxidants for the protection of fats and oils against oxidative deterioration. Thus, the extraction of such constituents from residual material can be considered to contribute to the added value of these residues, which could justify their isolation. In the present work the fat-free residues of eight different oilseeds whose oils are usable for nutritional applications, and also as renewable resources, were extracted with 70% methanol, 70% acetone, water, and ethyl acetate/water, respectively. The resulting extracts were investigated regarding their content of total phenolic compounds by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, sinapine, flavanoids, and the UV-absorption spectra. Further, the antioxidant activity of the extracts was characterized by the DPPH method, the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay, and ESR investigations. The fat-free residues of the different oilseeds contained considerable amounts of extractable substances. The yields decreased with decreasing polarity of the solvent in the order water, 70% methanol, 70% acetone, and ethyl acetate. The ratio of total phenolic compounds to the extractable compounds ranged from 3 to 19%. There was no significant correlation between the amount of total extractable compounds and the total phenolic compounds (p < 0.001). All extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activities determined with the different methods. The effects depended strongly on the solvent used for the extraction as well as on the extracted residue. A correlation between the methods used for the characterization of the antioxidant activity and the composition of the residues could not be shown.

  10. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  11. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Brassinosteroid alleviates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Ruan, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants often found in the atmosphere. Phytoremediation of airborne PCBs is an emerging new concept to minimize potential human exposure. However, effects of atmospheric PCBs on plant growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant defence system are poorly understood area. Brassinosteroids have been reported to alleviate different abiotic stresses including organic pollutants-induced stress. Hence, we studied the effects of PCBs and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on biomass accumulation, photosynthetic machinery and antioxidant system in tomato plants. PCBs (0.4, 2.0 and 10 μg/l) mist spray significantly decreased dry weight, photosynthesis, chlorophyll contents in a dose dependent manner. Both stomatal and non-stomatal factors were involved in PCBs-induced photosynthetic inhibition. Likewise, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient were increasingly decreased by various levels of PCBs, suggesting an induction of photoinhibition. Increased accumulation of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-) accompanied with high lipid peroxidation confirmed occurrence of oxidative stress upon PCBs exposure. Meanwhile, antioxidant enzymes activity was decreased following exposure to PCBs. Foliar application of EBR (100 nM) increased biomass, photosynthetic capacity, chlorophyll contents and alleviated photoinhibition by enhancing Fv/Fm, Φ(PSII) and qP. EBR significantly decreased harmful ROS accumulation and lipid peroxidation through the induction of antioxidant enzymes activity. Our results suggest a protective role of EBR against PCBs stress which may strengthen phytoremediation approaches by enhancing plant tolerance.

  13. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    PubMed

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  14. [Comparative evaluation of antioxidant activity and content of prooxidant factors in different classes of foods].

    PubMed

    Bykov, I M; Basov, A A; Bykov, M I; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2014-01-01

    By using the biophysical methods (chemiluminescence, amperometry) in laboratory in vitro experiments it was demonstrated that the study of antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of different food groups allows to perform a preliminary assessment of their pro-oxidant-antioxidant capacity. It have been shown that some food prevails ability to exert pro-oxidant effects (in vitro) due to the short-term induction of free radical oxidation. Thus, among the fresh juices the increase of the maximum of flash chemiluminescence has been detected in avocado (1080, 89%) and pearjuices (136,33%), whereas the lowest ability to enhance the intensity of free radical processes has been marked for pomegranate (1,63%), orange (9, 68%) and apples juices (12, 84%). Among milk products it has been marked for sour milk (9, 06%) and yogurt (15, 11-16,02%), that allows the use of the past to correct pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance diet for people with potential danger gain peroxide processes, such as special physiological states, sport endurance, mental and emotional overload. The ability to increase the intensity of free radical oxidation have been also identified for snacks, especially buns, biscuits, bread sticks, showing the risk of formation of oxidative stress in the body during their prolonged use, particularly under the above described conditions. In some cases, foods (processed cheese and cheese curds) showed dominance factors sustained oxidative effect (in 2,1-20,7%), that indicates the possibility of an imbalance in the pro-oxidant-antioxidant system after its prolonged use in the diet, even in small quantities, especially in individuals with a reduced level of antioxidant potential of the nonspecific defense system. Investigation of antioxidant activity of foods revealed significant predominance of reducing equivalents in all freshly squeezed and some packaged fruit juices, as well as dairy products, indicating their possibility to increase the capacity of reducing components of

  15. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiaoli; Sun, Yanhong; Lin, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O{2/-}). The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H. pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O{2/-}. Astaxanthin reacted with ROS much faster than did the protective enzymes, and had the strongest antioxidative capacity to protect against lipid peroxidation. The defensive mechanisms varied significantly between the three cell types and were related to the level of astaxanthin that had accumulated in those cells. Astaxanthin-enriched red cells had the strongest antioxidative capacity, followed by brown cells, and astaxanthin-deficient green cells. Although there was no significant increase in expression of protective enzymes, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in red cells was sustained at a low level because of the antioxidative effect of astaxanthin, which quenched O{2/-} before the protective enzymes could act. In green cells, astaxanthin is very low or absent; therefore, scavenging of ROS is inevitably reliant on antioxidative enzymes. Accordingly, in green cells, these enzymes play the leading role in scavenging ROS, and the expression of these enzymes is rapidly increased to reduce excessive ROS. However, because ROS were constantly increased in this study, the enhance enzyme activity in the green cells was not able to repair the ROS damage, leading to elevated MDA content. Of the four defensive enzymes measured in astaxanthin-deficient green cells, SOD eliminates O{2/-}, POD eliminates H2O2, which is a by-product of SOD activity, and APX and CAT are then initiated to scavenge excessive ROS.

  16. Age effect on the antioxidant activity of Daphnia magna (Anomopoda: Daphniidae): does younger mean more sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Alberto, Arzate-Cárdenas Mario; Rocío, Ortiz-Butrón; Fernando, Martínez-Jerónimo

    2011-07-01

    It has been accepted that for most species newborns and senescent organisms are more sensitive than other ages to environmental stressors. Nevertheless, it must be considered that there are several biochemical and physiological compensatory processes which are not expressed with the same magnitude during the whole life cycle. With this aim, Daphnia magna individuals of different age were exposed to hexavalent chromium, Cr (VI), at two different sublethal concentrations (0.032 and 0.0064 mg l(-1)), and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were evaluated during most of the life cycle of this cladoceran. The antioxidant enzymatic activity showed an inverse relationship with respect to age. The activity of CAT, GR and GPx were increased in the two treated groups, at all life stages tested. On the other hand, the activity of SOD decreased in the same groups. Both, increase and decrease in the antioxidant enzymatic activities, showed significant differences with respect to the control group, being higher for the 0.032 mg l(-1) group. The Cr (VI) LC50 was also estimated for these age groups, finding statistical differences among them. Even though adults exhibited higher responses, these enzymatic activity changes should not be interpreted as higher sensitivity, since the daphnids acute chromium toxicity followed a different pattern, with increasing LC50 values according to age.

  17. Effect of Thermal Processing and Maceration on the Antioxidant Activity of White Beans

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:24991931

  18. Free radical scavenging activity, metal chelation and antioxidant power of some of the Indian spices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amit Singh; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    Food constituents are the major source of various phytochemicals and micronutrients. The importance of these dietary constituents has been stressed in recent years due to their antioxidant and anticarcinogenic potential. Spices used in Indian foods such as cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), mace (aril of Myristica fragans), and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) were tested for their antioxidant properties in vitro. The metal chelating activity, bleomycin dependent DNA oxidation, diphenyl-p-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing /antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in rat liver homogenate in presence of spices. Metal chelating activity was significantly high with all the spice extracts except mace. The spices due to higher reducing potential (in presence of bleomycin-FeCl_{3}) showed increased DNA oxidation. Cloves showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, followed by licorice, mace and cardamom. FRAP values for cloves were also the highest, while other spices showed comparatively lesser FRAP values. The results show that the spices tested are strong antioxidants and may have beneficial effects on human health.

  19. Effect of thermal processing and maceration on the antioxidant activity of white beans.

    PubMed

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity.

  20. Antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharides from brown and red seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Rocha de Souza, Micheline Cristiane; Marques, Cybelle Teixeira; Guerra Dore, Celina Maria; Ferreira da Silva, Fernando Roberto; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antioxidant activities of the following six sulfated polysaccharides were investigated: iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, which are widely used in the food industry, fucoidan (homofucan) from the edible seaweed Fucus vesiculosus and fucans (heterofucans) F0.5 and F1.1 from the seaweed Padina gymnospora. With respect to the inhibition of superoxide radical formation, fucoidan had an IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) of 0.058 mg·mL−1, while the IC50 for the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans were 0.112, 0.332 and 0.046 mg·mL−1, respectively. All of the samples had an inhibitory effect on the formation of hydroxyl radicals. The results of peroxidation tests showed that fucoidan had an IC50 of 1.250 mg·mL−1 and that the kappa, iota and lambda carrageenans had an IC50 of 2.753 and 2.338 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, respectively. Fucan fractions showed low antioxidant activity relative to fucoidan. These results clearly indicate the beneficial effect of algal polysaccharides as antioxidants. PMID:19396353

  1. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  2. Chemical properties and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Slovenian propolis.

    PubMed

    Mavri, Ana; Abramovič, Helena; Polak, Tomaž; Bertoncelj, Jasna; Jamnik, Polona; Smole Možina, Sonja; Jeršek, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    The chemical composition as well as the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of two EtOH extracts of propolis (PEEs) from Slovenia were determined. EtOH was used as extracting solvent at 70 and 96%, providing the extracts PEE70 and PEE96, respectively. The extraction with 70% EtOH was more efficient than that with 96% EtOH, as the PEE70 was richer in total phenolic compounds than the PEE96. The Slovenian propolis was characterized by different phenolic acids and flavonoids. The PEE96 was slightly richer in three specific compounds, i.e., caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and luteolin, while all other substances detected showed higher contents in the PEE70. The PEE70 showed a stronger reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals and metal ions than the PEE96. Both PEEs were in the main more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than against fungi and Gram-negative bacteria like Salmonella and Escherichia coli, with the exception of Campylobacter. The PEE96 decreased the intracellular oxidation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a dose-dependent manner. The antimicrobial activities and antioxidant properties were related to the total phenolic contents. The two PEEs have the potential for use as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in foods.

  3. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-09-14

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  4. Comparative antioxidant activities and synergism of resveratrol and oxyresveratrol.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Nan; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-11-01

    Resveratrol (1) and oxyresveratrol (2) are phytoalexins with antioxidant activities (AAs) and proposed effects against several pathological processes. The main objective of this study was to provide a novel, comparative assessment of their AAs, and to test for potential synergism in their combined activities, or in combination with another phytochemical antioxidant, curcumin (3). The phytochemicals were tested at 10 µM total concentrations in a heme-based assay that involved, as the final step, quantification of tetramethyl-phenylene-diamine oxidation. Significant AAs were observed for both 1 and 2, 27-33% inhibition of oxidation (p < 0.05 relative to non-phytochemical control). The combination of 1 and 2 in the same assay (5 µM each) suggested a moderate synergistic effect of about 10% (41% inhibition of oxidation by 1/2 under the same conditions as for 1 and 2 separately). Combinations of 1/3 and 2/3 were also synergistic, but 1/3 had a two-fold greater AA (p < 0.05) than 2/3 (or 1/2). Our results indicate that (i) 1 and 2 are effective antioxidants in the assay, (ii) in combination, their AAs can synergise, and (iii) in relation to 2, 1 has a much greater synergistic potential with 3. The latter suggests different synergy mechanisms of the curcuminoid with each of the two stilbene phytoalexins.

  5. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of "Chian Xen Queen" contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  6. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: evidence from animal studies.

    PubMed

    Frei, Balz; Higdon, Jane V

    2003-10-01

    Tea is particularly rich in polyphenols, including catechins, theaflavins and thearubigins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of tea. Tea polyphenols act as antioxidants in vitro by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelating redox-active transition metal ions. They may also function indirectly as antioxidants through 1) inhibition of the redox-sensitive transcription factors, nuclear factor-kappaB and activator protein-1; 2) inhibition of "pro-oxidant" enzymes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases and xanthine oxidase; and 3) induction of phase II and antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferases and superoxide dismutases. The fact that catechins are rapidly and extensively metabolized emphasizes the importance of demonstrating their antioxidant activity in vivo. Animal studies offer a unique opportunity to assess the contribution of the antioxidant properties of tea and tea polyphenols to the physiological effects of tea administration in different models of oxidative stress. Most promising are the consistent findings in animal models of skin, lung, colon, liver and pancreatic cancer that tea and tea polyphenol administration inhibit carcinogen-induced increases in the oxidized DNA base, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. In animal models of atherosclerosis, green and black tea administration has resulted in modest improvements in the resistance of lipoproteins to ex vivo oxidation, although limited data suggest that green tea or green tea catechins inhibit atherogenesis. To determine whether tea polyphenols act as effective antioxidants in vivo, future studies in animals and humans should employ sensitive and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins and DNA.

  7. Strawberry and human health: effects beyond antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of a diet rich in vegetables and fruits on human health has been widely recognized: a high intake of antioxidant and bioactive compounds may in fact play a crucial role in the prevention of several diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other chronic pathologies. The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) possesses a remarkable nutritional composition in terms of micronutrients, such as minerals, vitamin C, and folates, and non-nutrient elements, such as phenolic compounds, that are essential for human health. Although strawberry phenolics are known mainly for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, recent studies have demonstrated that their biological activities also spread to other pathways involved in cellular metabolism and cellular survival. This paper has the main objective of reviewing current information about the potential mechanisms involved in the effects elicited by strawberry polyphenols on human health, devoting special attention to the latest findings. PMID:24450925

  8. Antiangiogenesis and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium jiringa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts. Methods P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Results Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 ± 0.81 μg/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 ± 0.63 μg/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of

  9. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS.

  10. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  11. Effects of Drying Temperature on Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Powder and Storage Stability of Pork Patties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of oven-dried tomato powder (OTP) as affected by drying temperature and the effect of OTP on the product quality of pork patties. Three OTP products were obtained by drying of fresh tomato at 60, 80 and 100℃ oven until constant weight was obtained. Total phenolic content of three kinds of OTPs ranged from 1.95 to 5.94 g/100 g. The highest amount of total phenolic compound was observed in OTP dried at 100℃. Antioxidant activity of three kinds of OTPs was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging activity, iron chelating ability, reducing power and measurement of lipid peroxide in linoleic acid emulsion system. In all parameters, OTP at 100℃ showed the higher antioxidant activity than other temperatures (p<0.05). Based on the model study, the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of pork patties containing 1% OTP were measured. Redness of pork patties were increased with the addition of OTPs (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of raw pork patties containing OTPs were lower than those of control (CTL) until 7 d of storage, regardless of drying temperatures (p<0.05). Peroxide values of pork patties made with OTP (1%) were lower than those of CTL until the end of storage time (p<0.05). However, no antimicrobial activities were observed among the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, OTPs could be used as a natural antioxidant in meat products. PMID:27499664

  12. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract from Jacaranda decurrens Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Junior Cesar; Macorini, Luis Fernando Benitez; Antunes, Katia Avila; dos Santos, Uilson Pereira; Campos, Jaqueline Ferreira; Dias-Júnior, Nelson Miguel; Sangalli, Andréia; Lima Cardoso, Claudia Andrea; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Leaves of Jacaranda decurrens are used in traditional Brazilian medicine to treat metabolic diseases related to increased reactive oxygen species. The present study evaluated the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of hydroethanolic extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata. Experimental Approach Phenolic compounds, flavonoids and saponins were evaluated in an ethanol∶water (80∶20, v/v) extract from the leaves of Jacaranda decurrens subsp. symmetrifoliolata (E-Jds). The antioxidant activity of E-Jds was investigated by assessing the following: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity; protection against 2,2′-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes; in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde dosage; and the ability to activate antioxidant enzymes. K562 leukemia cells were used for the cytotoxic evaluation of E-Jds and for the assessment of the cell death profile through flow cytometry. Key Results Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were quantified as 14.38% and 2.15%, respectively, of E-Jds. These phenolic and flavonoid compounds proved to be able to scavenge DPPH free radicals with an IC50 of 9.3±3.3 µg/mL, to protect up to 50% of erythrocytes against AAPH-induced hemolysis and to reduce in vitro and in vivo malondialdehyde levels up to 84% and 22%, respectively. E-Jds also increased glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, with a concomitant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxic activity on K562 erythroleukemia cells with cell death occurring via both late apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusions E-Jds exhibits in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential, which may be the mechanism mediating the metabolic activities reported in folk medicine. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity identified in this study contributes with the knowledge of antiproliferative activities that have been described in

  13. [Express evaluation of antioxidant activity of uracil derivatives].

    PubMed

    Gimadieva, A R; Khazimullina, Yu Z; Belaya, E A; Zimin, Yu S; Abdrakhmanov, I B; Mustafin, A G

    2015-01-01

    Using photometric methods the antioxidant activity of 19 uracil derivatives has been analyzed. The test using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals can be applied for the rapid assessment of antioxidant activity of uracils. Among uracil derivatives studied the compounds possesing a proton-donor group in C-5 position--free or alkylated amino group, as well as hydroxyl group were the most active: 5-aminouracil (IC50 3 mg/ml), 5-amino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 5 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-hydroxy-1,3,6-trimethyluracil (IC50 of 15 mg/ml), 5-ethylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-methylamino-6-methyluracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-allylaminouracil (IC50 of 20 mg/ml), 5-amino-1,3,6- trimethyluracil (IC50 of 25 mg/ml). These uracil derivatives were more active than the reference compounds ionol (IC50 of 30 mg/ml) and a-naphthylamine (IC50 of 45 mg/ml), but less active than ascorbic acid (IC50 0.8 mg/ml). There was a correlation between the results of DPPH test (IC50) and coupling constants of uracil derivatives with peroxide radicals of 1,4-dioxane (fk7). Uracil with proton-donor group at C-5 also showed high ferrum-reducing activity as determined by FRAP.

  14. Thermal treatment of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) increases the antioxidant content and the inhibitory effect on human neutrophil burst.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, Roberto; Fibiani, Marta; Mennella, Giuseppe; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Spallino, Alessandra; Braga, Pier Carlo

    2010-03-24

    The aim of this study was to compare the amount and activity of phytonutrients in raw, grilled, and boiled eggplant fruit using chemical measures and a biological assay of oxidative bursts in human neutrophils. The thermally treated samples showed various changes in their chemical composition (dry matter, soluble solids, acidity, and the amount of alcohol insoluble substances) due to the cooking processes and were much richer in the main phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, which are known to be antioxidants. Consequently, their free radical scavenging activity was significantly higher, especially that of superoxide anion. The biological assay of oxidative bursts from human neutrophils in the presence of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine confirmed the greater activity of extracts of the cooked eggplants with respect to raw eggplants. Successive extract dilutions showed a significant activity up to 1.25 microg/mL after cooking, while raw fruits resulted in an activity up to 10.00 microg/mL. These results showed that the thermal treatment commonly used before consumption can increase the content and biological activity of antioxidant compounds of eggplants.

  15. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

  16. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad Shahzad; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

    2016-01-01

    Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

  17. Coated with nanomaterials intraocular lenses, ophthalmic and human body implantable devices with high catalytic antioxidant activities: a new nanotechnology strategy of peroxidase cellular enzyme mimics increasing the biocompatibility and therapeutic deployment of the medical prosthetic device.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    While cataract surgery is generally recognized as being one of the safest operations, there is still a significant complication rate. From 30 to 50% of all patients in the United States having cataract extraction develop opacification of the posterior lens capsule within two years and require laser treatment with its own significant risk of complications. Of the patients having cataract surgery, 0.8% develop retinal detachments, from 0.6% to 1.3% were rehospitalized for corneal edema or required corneal transplantation and about 0.1% presented with endophthalmitis . Thus, aside from secondary cataract, about 2% of 1.3 million people, or 26,000 individuals in the United States annually develop serious complications as a result of cataract surgery. The aim of this investigation was to increase the safety and effectiveness of an individual intraocular lens (IOL) preventing an impairment in peroxide metabolism of the mature human cataractous lenses compared to normal lenses employing the specific nanotechnology coating which substitutes the inhibitory effect of the implantable device towards the active species of oxygen and the ability of IOL to regulate the H2O2 and lipid hydroperoxides levels in the surrounding medium. The implantation of IOLs with metabolic activity improves the capability of the surrounding ocular tissues to withstand oxidative stress induced in ocular humors by the photochemical and other metabolic reactions. The coated implantable medical device with thin film of platinum applied with magnetron sputtering, reacts as a body enzyme with deleterious peroxide compounds and free radical oxygen species in body fluids and tissue when said device is implanted into human body. The IOL having haptics coated with thin film of platinum, catalyzes the reduction of peroxide compounds to decrease their levels within the aqueous humor. Further, the coatings also scavenge toxic free radicals of oxygen, thus preventing cellular dysfunction resulting from oxidative

  18. Physical Properties, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Films Containing Carvacrol and Pomegranate Peel Extract.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Lv, Hua; Yang, Bingjie; Chen, Xiaoe; Sun, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan-based active films were developed by incorporation of carvacrol (10 g/L), pomegranate peel extract (PPE, 10 g/L) and carvacrol + PPE (10 g/L of each) and their physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Incorporation of carvacrol and carvacrol + PPE into the films significantly decreased the water vapor permeability, tensile strength and percentage of elongation at break. Incorporation of carvacrol, PPE and carvacrol + PPE into the films decreased the transparency, but significantly increased the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. All the films, with the exception of PPE-incorporated film, exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus of the film incorporated with carvacrol + PPE was moderately higher than that incorporated with carvacrol or PPE alone, suggesting a synergistic action between carvacrol and PPE. PMID:26083037

  19. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from citrus peels.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Kim, Dong-Ryul; Jo, Seong-Chun; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2004-06-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu peels was evaluated. Citrus peels (CP) (5 g) were placed in Pyrex Petri dishes (8.0 cm diameter) and heat-treated at 50, 100, or 150 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min in an electric muffle furnace. After heat treatment, 70% ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) (0.1 g/10 mL) of CP were prepared, and total phenol contents (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power of the extracts were determined. The antioxidant activities of CP extracts increased as heating temperature increased. For example, heat treatment of CP at 150 degrees C for 60 min increased the TPC, RSA, and reducing power of EE from 71.8 to 171.0 microM, from 29.64 to 64.25%, and from 0.45 to 0.82, respectively, compared to non-heat-treated control. In the case of WE from CP heat-treated at the same conditions (150 degrees C for 60 min), the TPC, RSA, and reducing power also increased from 84.4 to 204.9 microM, from 15.81 to 58.26%, and from 0.27 to 0.96, respectively. Several low molecular weight phenolic compounds such as 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzaldoxime, 5-hydroxyvaleric acid, 2,3-diacetyl-1-phenylnaphthalene, and vanillic acid were newly formed in the CP heated at 150 degrees C for 30 min. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of CP extracts was significantly affected by heating temperature and duration of treatment on CP and that the heating process can be used as a tool for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP. PMID:15161203

  20. New p-Substituted Salicylaldehyde Phenylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Yorur-Goreci, Cigdem; Altas-Kiymaz, Nilay; Peksel, Aysegul; Bilgin-Eran, Belkis; Sonmez, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A series of new p-nitrophenylhydrazone derivatives 3a–f were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their antioxidant activities. These compounds have been synthesized by refluxing (p-nitrophenyl)hydrazine with 4-sub-stituted salicylaldehydes. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, and MS data. The antioxidant activities (free radical-scavenging activity, reducing power, metal chelating activity, and total anti-oxidant activity) of the hydrazone compounds were evaluated. All of the compounds exhibited significant activities, while compound 3a, with the shortest chain, showed the highest antioxidant activity in all of the tests. PMID:26279974

  1. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments.

  2. Anti-oxidative activity of pectin and its stabilizing effect on retinyl palmitate.

    PubMed

    Ro, Jieun; Kim, Yeongseok; Kim, Hyeongmin; Jang, Soung Baek; Lee, Hyun Joo; Chakma, Suharto; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Lee, Jaehwi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-oxidative activity of pectin and other polysaccharides in order to develop a cosmeceutical base having anti-oxidative effects towards retinyl palmitate (RP). The anti-oxidative stabilizing effects of pectin and other polysaccharides on RP were evaluated by DPPH assay and then the stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was examined as a function of time. Among the polysaccharides we examined, pectin exhibited a considerably higher anti-oxidative activity, with an approximately 5-fold greater DPPH radical scavenging effect compared to other polysaccharides. The DPPH radical scavenging effect of pectin increased gradually with increasing concentrations of pectin. At two different RP concentrations, 0.01 and 0.1% in ethanol, addition of pectin improved the stability of RP in a concentration dependent manner. The stabilizing effect of pectin on RP was more effective for the lower concentration of RP (0.01%, v/v). Further, degradation of RP was reduced following the addition of pectin as measured over 8 hours. From the results obtained, it can be suggested that pectin may be a promising ingredient for cosmeceutical bases designed to stabilize RP or other pharmacological agents subject to degradation by oxidation. PMID:23776395

  3. Protein glycation inhibitory activity and antioxidant capacity of clove extract.

    PubMed

    Suantawee, Tanyawan; Wesarachanon, Krittaporn; Anantsuphasak, Kanokphat; Daenphetploy, Tanuch; Thien-Ngern, Sroshin; Thilavech, Thavaree; Pasukamonset, Porntip; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2015-06-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) (clove) is one of the most widely cultivated spices in many tropical countries. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical content, the antioxidant properties and the antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of clove against fructose-mediated protein glycation and oxidation. The result showed that the content of total phenolics and flavonoids in clove extract was 239.58 ± 0.70 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dried extract and 65.67 ± 0.01 mg catechin equivalents/g dried extract, respectively. In addition, clove exhibited antioxidant properties including DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 0.29 ± 0.01 mg/ml), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (4.69 ± 0.03 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), ferric reducing antioxidant power (20.55 ± 0.11 μmol ascorbic acid equivalents/mg dried extract), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (31.12 ± 0.21 μmol Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (0.15 ± 0.04 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract), and superoxide radical scavenging activity (18.82 ± 0.50 mg Trolox equivalents/mg dried extract). The aqueous extract of clove (0.25-1.00 mg/ml) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and non-fluorescent AGEs (N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)) in glycated BSA during 4 weeks of incubation. The extract also markedly prevented oxidation-induced protein damage by decreasing protein carbonyl formation and protecting against the loss of protein thiol group. These results clearly demonstrated that a polyphenol enriched clove extract, owing to its antioxidant, was capable to inhibit the formation of AGEs and protein glycation. The findings might lead to the possibility of using the clove extract for targeting diabetic complications.

  4. Antioxidant and anti-ageing activities of citrus-based juice mixture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Hye-Jin; Choe, Soo Young; Park, In-Jae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2016-03-01

    The production of excessive reactive oxygen species by exposure to oxidative stress and solar radiation are primary factors in skin damage. We examined the effects of a citrus-based juice mixture and its bioactive compounds on antioxidant and anti-ageing activities in human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mice via the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. The citrus-based juice mixture reduced H2O2-induced cell damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species production in human dermal fibroblasts. Citrus-based juice mixture pretreatment suppressed the activation of the H2O2-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by activating the expression of activator protein 1 and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, it increased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase. In addition, oral administration of the citrus-based juice mixture decreased skin thickness and wrinkle formation and increased collagen content on an ultraviolet light B-exposed hairless mouse. These results indicate that the citrus-based juice mixture is a potentially healthy beverage for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced premature skin ageing.

  5. An effective strategy to develop active cinnamic acid-directed antioxidants based on elongating the conjugated chains.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Dai, Fang; Jin, Xiao-Ling; Ma, Meng-Meng; Wang, Yi-Hua; Ren, Xiao-Rong; Zhou, Bo

    2014-09-01

    To optimize antioxidant activity and lipophilicity of cinnamic acid derivatives (CAs) including ferulic acid, sinapic acid, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, four analogs bearing an additional double bond between their aromatic ring and propenoic acid moiety were designed and synthesized based on the conjugated chain elongation strategy. The antioxidant performance of the CAs were investigated by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, cyclic voltammetry, DNA strand breakage-inhibiting and anti-haemolysis activity assays. It was found that CAs with elongation of conjugated chains display increased DPPH-scavenging, DNA strand breakage-inhibiting and anti-haemolysis activities as compared to their parent molecules, due to their improved hydrogen atom-donating ability and lipophilicity. Overall, this work highlights an effective strategy to develop potential CA-directed antioxidants by elongating their conjugated chain.

  6. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    PubMed

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method.

  7. Free radical mediated grafting of chitosan with caffeic and ferulic acids: structures and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two water soluble chitosan derivatives were synthesized by grafting caffeic acid (CA) and ferulic acid (FA) onto chitosan via a free radical mediated method. The structural characterization, antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of chitosan derivatives were determined. Results showed that the UV-vis absorption peaks of chitosan derivatives shifted toward longer wavelengths. FT-IR spectroscopy exhibited the typical phenolic characteristics within 1450-1600 cm(-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed new peaks of phenyl protons at 6.2-7.6 ppm. (13)C NMR spectroscopy showed additional peaks between 110 and 150 ppm assigned to the C=C of phenolic groups. These results all confirmed the successful grafting of CA and FA onto chitosan backbones. The chitosan derivatives had decreased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to chitosan. In vitro assays showed that the antioxidant activity decreased in the order of CA-g-chitosan>FA-g-chitosan>chitosan. Moreover, administration of the chitosan derivatives could significantly increase antioxidant enzymes activities and decrease malondialdehyde levels in both serums and livers of d-galactose induced aging mice. Our results indicated the potential of CA-g-chitosan and FA-g-chitosan in the development of novel antioxidant agents.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from Acacia nilotica wood.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath; Jha, Harit

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant Acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. The extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus Aspergillus flavus and Emericella nidulans. These modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. The structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by FTIR, functional group analysis and (13)C solid state NMR. All lignin samples were tested for antioxidant efficiency, reducing power and H2O2 scavenging power. Modifications in all lignin samples showed correlation with their antioxidant scavenging activity and reducing power. Antidiabetic properties were evaluated in terms of in vitro glucose movement inhibition and α-amylase inhibition assay. Modified samples exhibited increased glucose binding efficiency as demonstrated by the decreased glucose diffusion (55.5-76.3%) and 1.16-1.18-fold enhanced α-amylase inhibition in comparison to their control samples. The results obtained demonstrate that the structure and functional modifications in lignin significantly affects its bioefficacy in term of antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  9. Stability and antioxidant activity of gossypol derivative immobilized on N-polyvinylpyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Maksim; Gordiyenko, Nataliya V; Zukowska, Izabela; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Mareninova, Olga A; Baram, Nina; Ziyaev, Khairulla; Rezhepov, Kuralbay; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is analysis of stability and antioxidant and antiradical activities of the gossypol derivative - megosin conjugated with N-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The results of study have shown the greater stability of megosin+PVP than megosin in aqueous solution of wide range of pH. Here we also demonstrated that megosin+PVP, named rometin, possess high antioxidant activity in the same range as well known antioxidant trolox as determined by its ability to scavenge free ABTS(+) and DPPH radicals in vitro. In addition, megosin+PVP was able to prevent accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and diene conjugates) and lysophospholipids formation in mitochondria membranes caused by CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver in vivo. Furthermore, megosin+PVP rescued mitochondrial functions, such as respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, which declined after CCl(4) administration. Thus we present that the conjugation of megosin to PVP increase its stability and remain antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Increased sensitivity of heat-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to food-grade antioxidants.

    PubMed Central

    Eubanks, V L; Beuchat, L R

    1982-01-01

    Unheated and heat-stressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were examined for their relative sensitivities to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), and propyl gallate. Heated cells had significant (P less than or equal to 0.05) increases in sensitivity to 50 micrograms of BHA, 100 micrograms of TBHQ, and 1,000 micrograms of propyl gallate per ml as compared with unheated cells when surface plated on antioxidant-supplemented recovery agar. The rate of increase in size of colonies developed by heated cells was slower than that of unheated cells, and the presence of antioxidants in recovery agar enhanced this effect. Heat-stressed cells also had increased sensitivity to ethanol. Incubation temperatures of 15, 21, 30, and 37 degrees C for enumerating unheated cells had no significant effect on the numbers of colonies formed on unsupplemented recovery agar; however, incorporation of 100 micrograms of BHA, 200 micrograms of TBHQ, or 1,000 micrograms of propyl gallate per ml into agar resulted in significant decreases in the number of colonies formed by heated cells at various incubation temperatures. The detrimental effects of TBHQ and propyl gallate on repair of heat-injured cells are apparently expressed at a temperature higher than that observed for BHA. It is suggested that the adverse effects of antioxidants on repair of heat-injured S. cerevisiae cells may be associated with oxygen availability. PMID:6753745

  11. Antioxidant activity of sesamol and omega-oryzanol towards fish oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two natural antioxidants, sesamol and omega-oryzanol, were examined for their antioxidant activity towards omega-3 oil. Sesamol and omega-oryzanol have been known to provide antioxidant effects at high temperatures such as those used for frying. In this study, the effects of 0.84 mM and 8.4 mM oryza...

  12. Anthocyanin, phenolics and antioxidant activity changes in purple waxy corn as affected by traditional cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant components, including anthocyanins and phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and their changes during traditional cooking of fresh purple waxy corn were investigated. As compared to the raw corn, thermal treatment caused significant (p < 0.05) decreases in each antioxidant compound a...

  13. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  14. Effect of Drought Stress on Total Phenolic, Lipid Peroxidation, and Antioxidant Activity of Achillea Species.

    PubMed

    Gharibi, Shima; Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed; Saeidi, Ghodratollah; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2016-02-01

    The changes in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and antioxidant activity were assessed based on three model systems in three Achillea species (Achillea millefolium, A. nobilis, and A. filipendulina) growing under four irrigation regimes, including 100% FC (field capacity as normal irrigation) 75% FC (low stress), 50% FC (moderate stress), and 25% FC (severe stress) conditions. The highest TPC (47.13 mg tannic acid/g DW) and TFC (20.86 mg quercetin/g W) were obtained in A. filipendulina under moderate and severe stress conditions. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, the highest and the lowest antioxidant activity was obtained for A. millefolium (70.28%) and A. filipendulina (53.21%), respectively, while in the FTC model system A. nobilis revealed the highest antioxidant activity (1.934) in severe drought condition. In the linoleic model system, the highest antioxidant activity was observed under low drought stress condition in A. nobilis. MDA and H2O2 content were increased due to both low (75% FC) and moderate (50% FC) drought stress, but they were decreased under severe stress condition (25% FC). Furthermore, A. millefolium revealed the lowest H2O2 (4.96 nm/g FW) and MDA content (176.32 μmol/g). Investigation of the relationship among different metabolites showed a strong positive correlation with TPC and TFC. Finally, the moderate drought stress treatment (50% FC) was introduced as the optimum condition to obtain appreciable TPC and TFC,, while the highest antioxidant activity was obtained in severe stress condition (25%FC).

  15. Resveratrol-loaded Nanoparticles Induce Antioxidant Activity against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Eun-Young; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Jo, Chan-Mi; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol acts as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant in the inhibition of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). The function of resveratrol and resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles in protecting human lung cancer cells (A549) against hydrogen peroxide was investigated in this study. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) assay was performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties. Resveratrol had substantially high antioxidant capacity (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value) compared to trolox and vitamin E since the concentration of resveratrol was more than 50 μM. Nanoparticles prepared from β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) were successfully developed. The β-lg nanoparticle showed 60 to 146 nm diameter in size with negatively charged surface. Non-cytotoxicity was observed in Caco-2 cells treated with β-lg nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocynate-conjugated β-lg nanoparticles were identified into the cell membrane of Caco-2 cells, indicating that nanoparticles can be used as a delivery system. Hydrogen peroxide caused accumulation of ROS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles restored H2O2-induced ROS levels by induction of cellular uptake of resveratrol in A549 cells. Furthermore, resveratrol activated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch ECH associating protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1) signaling in A549 cells, thereby accumulation of Nrf2 abundance, as demonstrated by western blotting approach. Overall, these results may have implications for improvement of oxidative stress in treatment with nanoparticles as a biodegradable and non-toxic delivery carrier of bioactive compounds. PMID:26732454

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  17. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  18. Dihydroasparagusic acid: antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and improved synthesis.

    PubMed

    Venditti, Alessandro; Mandrone, Manuela; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Iannello, Carmelina; Poli, Ferruccio; Antognoni, Fabiana

    2013-07-17

    Dihydroasparagusic acid (DHAA) is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. In this work, DHAA was synthetically produced by modifying some published protocols, and the synthesized molecule was tested in several in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP-ferrozine, BCB, deoxyribose assays) to evaluate its radical scavenging activity. Results show that DHAA is endowed with a significant in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable to that of Trolox. DHAA was also evaluated for its inhibitory activity toward tyrosinase, an enzyme involved, among others, in melanogenesis and in browning processes of plant-derived foods. DHAA was shown to exert an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the inhibitor kinetics, analyzed by a Lineweaver-Burk plot, exhibited a competitive mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that DHAA may be considered as a potentially active molecule for use in various fields of application, such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics, agronomic and food. PMID:23790134

  19. Caffeine inhibits erythrocyte membrane derangement by antioxidant activity and by blocking caspase 3 activation.

    PubMed

    Tellone, Ester; Ficarra, Silvana; Russo, Annamaria; Bellocco, Ersilia; Barreca, Davide; Laganà, Giuseppina; Leuzzi, Ugo; Pirolli, Davide; De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Giardina, Bruno; Galtieri, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of caffeine on band 3 (the anion exchanger protein), haemoglobin function, caspase 3 activation and glucose-6-phosphate metabolism during the oxygenation-deoxygenation cycle in human red blood cells. A particular attention has been given to the antioxidant activity by using in vitro antioxidant models. Caffeine crosses the erythrocyte membrane and interacts with the two extreme conformational states of haemoglobin (the T and the R-state within the framework of the simple two states allosteric model) with different binding affinities. By promoting the high affinity state (R-state), the caffeine-haemoglobin interaction does enhance the pentose phosphate pathway. This is of benefit for red blood cells since it leads to an increase of NADPH availability. Moreover, caffeine effect on band 3, mediated by haemoglobin, results in an extreme increase of the anion exchange, particularly in oxygenated erythrocytes. This enhances the transport of the endogenously produced CO(2) thereby avoiding the production of dangerous secondary radicals (carbonate and nitrogen dioxide) which are harmful to the cellular membrane. Furthermore caffeine destabilizes the haeme-protein interactions within the haemoglobin molecule and triggers the production of superoxide and met-haemoglobin. However this damaging effect is almost balanced by the surprising scavenger action of the alkaloid with respect to the hydroxyl radical. These experimental findings are supported by in silico docking and molecular dynamics studies and by what we may call the "caspase silence"; in fact, there is no evidence of any caspase 3 activity enhancement; this is likely due to the promotion of positive metabolic conditions which result in an increase of the cellular reducing power.

  20. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)).

  1. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in different maturation stages of broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica) biofortified with selenium.

    PubMed

    Bachiega, Patricia; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; Schwarz, Kélin; Tezotto, Tiago; Morzelle, Maressa Caldeira

    2016-01-01

    In this work, three different broccoli maturity stages subjected to biofortification with selenium were evaluated for antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Antioxidant trials have shown that the maturation stages biofortified with selenium had significantly higher amounts of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, especially seedlings. Although non-polar extracts of all samples show antiproliferative activity, the extract of broccoli seedlings biofortified with selenium stood out, presenting cytocidal activity for a glioma line (U251, GI50 28.5 mg L(-1)). PMID:26213037

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Artemisia ciniformis extracts on PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Nasseri, Sajjad; Hosseinzadeh, Leila; Farahani, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study antioxidant capacities of five different extracts of Artemisia ciniformis aerial parts were evaluated by cell-free methods. Then seven fractions of the potent extract were selected and their antioxidant capacity was assayed by cell free and cell based methods. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant ability was measured using the: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test, β-carotene bleaching (BCB) method and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. Total phenolic contents (TPC) of all the samples also were determined. The cytoprotective effect of fractions was evaluated by measuring the viability of cells after exposure to doxorubicin (DOX). The mechanism of action was studied by investigating caspase-3, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), the level of super-oxide dismutase (SOD) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Results: Hydroethanolic extract exhibited a notably higher antioxidant activity and phenolic content. Among the fractions (A to G) of hydroethanolic extract, the highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the Fraction E. Moreover, 24 hr pretreatment of PC12 cells with fractions B, C and D decreased DOX-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, pre-treatment of cells with fraction B resulted in significant decrease in generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in the activity of SOD. We were able to demonstrate remarkable reduction in the activity of caspase-3 and increase in MMP in PC12 cells following pretreatment with fraction B. Conclusion: Our observations indicated that the fraction B of A. ciniformis hydroetanolic extract possessed protective effect on oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by DOX in PC12 cells. PMID:27279988

  3. Antioxidant supplementation normalizes elevated protein kinase C activity in the proximal tubules of old rats.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2004-03-01

    Aging is associated with increase in oxidative stress. Earlier, we have shown that higher basal protein kinase C (PKC) activity in the proximal tubules (PTs) of old rats contributes to the hyperphosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase and subsequent decrease in basal Na,K-ATPase activity, resulting in diminished natriuretic response to dopamine in these animals. We hypothesized that the increase in PKC activity in PTs of old rats is caused by increased oxidative stress and that antioxidants administration should reduce/normalize the elevated PKC activity in the renal PTs of old rats. We studied the effect of two antioxidants, namely, alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and tempol, on oxidants level and PKC activity in the PTs of adult (6-month) and old (24-month) Fischer 344 rats. We found that the accumulation of fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF), an indicator of oxidant production, was higher in the PTs of old compared to adult rats. Dietary supplementation with LA for 2 weeks normalized the increased DCF level in old rats. Carboxymethylysine and malondialdehyde, markers of oxidative damage, were elevated in the PTs of old rats, which were normalized to the level of adult rats when tempol was provided in drinking water for 3 weeks. Both LA and tempol treatment also normalized the higher basal PKC activity in the PTs of old rats to the level seen in adult rats. These results suggest that increase in oxidative stress causes an increase in PKC activity, and that antioxidants, while reducing oxidative stress, also normalize PKC activity in the PTs of old rats.