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Sample records for increases arousal determined

  1. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway

  2. Eszopiclone increases the respiratory arousal threshold and lowers the apnoea/hypopnoea index in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with a low arousal threshold

    PubMed Central

    ECKERT, Danny J.; OWENS, Robert L.; KEHLMANN, Geoffrey B.; WELLMAN, Andrew; RAHANGDALE, Shilpa; YIM-YEH, Susie; WHITE, David P.; MALHOTRA, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Recent insights into sleep apnoea pathogenesis reveal that a low respiratory arousal threshold (awaken easily) is important for many patients. As most patients experience stable breathing periods mediated by upper-airway dilator muscle activation via accumulation of respiratory stimuli, premature awakening may prevent respiratory stimuli build up as well as the resulting stabilization of sleep and breathing. The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of a non-benzodiazepine sedative, eszopiclone, on the arousal threshold and the AHI (apnoea/hypopnoea index) in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. We hypothesized that eszopiclone would increase the arousal threshold and lower the AHI in patients with a low arousal threshold (0 to −15 cmH2O). Following a baseline overnight polysomnogram with an epiglottic pressure catheter to quantify the arousal threshold, 17 obstructive sleep apnoea patients, without major hypoxaemia [nadir SaO2 (arterial blood oxygen saturation) >70%], returned on two additional nights and received 3 mg of eszopiclone or placebo immediately prior to each study. Compared with placebo, eszopiclone significantly increased the arousal threshold [−14.0 (−19.9 to −10.9) compared with −18.0 (−22.2 to −15.1) cmH2O; P < 0.01], and sleep duration, improved sleep quality and lowered the AHI without respiratory event prolongation or worsening hypoxaemia. Among the eight patients identified as having a low arousal threshold, reductions in the AHI occurred invariably and were most pronounced (25 ± 6 compared with 14 ± 4 events/h of sleep; P < 0.01). In conclusion, eszopiclone increases the arousal threshold and lowers the AHI in obstructive sleep apnoea patients that do not have marked overnight hypoxaemia. The greatest reductions in the AHI occurred in those with a low arousal threshold. The results of this single night physiological study suggest that certain sedatives may be of therapeutic benefit for a definable

  3. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts

  4. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment. PMID:24762340

  5. Extremism reduces conflict arousal and increases values affirmation in response to meaning violations.

    PubMed

    Sleegers, Willem W A; Proulx, Travis; van Beest, Ilja

    2015-05-01

    In the social psychological threat-compensation literature, there is an apparent contradiction whereby relatively extreme beliefs both decrease markers of physiological arousal following meaning violations, and increase the values affirmation behaviors understood as a palliative responses to this arousal. We hypothesize that this is due to the differential impact of measuring extremism on behavioral inhibition and approach systems following meaning violations, whereby extremism both reduces markers of conflict arousal (BIS) and increases values affirmation (BAS) unrelated to this initial arousal. Using pupil dilation as a proxy for immediate conflict arousal, we found that the same meaning violation (anomalous playing cards) evoked greater pupil dilation, and that this pupillary reaction was diminished in participants who earlier reported extreme beliefs. We also found that reporting extreme beliefs was associated with greater affirmation of an unrelated meaning framework, where this affirmation was unrelated to physiological markers of conflict arousal. PMID:25857674

  6. Relationship between Arousal Intensity and Heart Rate Response to Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Hanly, Patrick; Younes, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The visual appearance of cortical arousals varies considerably, from barely meeting scoring criteria to very intense arousals. Arousal from sleep is associated with an increase in heart rate (HR). Our objective was to quantify the intensity of arousals in an objective manner using the time and frequency characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and to determine whether HR response to arousal correlates with arousal intensity so determined. Design: Post hoc analysis of 20 preexisting polysomnography (PSG) files. Setting: Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited). Participants: N/A. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were scored using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. The EEG signals' time and frequency characteristics were determined using wavelet analysis. An automatic algorithm was developed to scale arousal intensity based on the change in wavelet features and data from a training set obtained from 271 arousals visually scaled between zero and nine (most intense). There were 2,695 arousals in 20 PSGs that were scaled. HR response (ΔHR) was defined as the difference between the highest HR in the interval [arousal-onset to (arousal-end +8 sec)] and the highest HR between 2 and 12 sec preceding arousal onset. There was a strong correlation between arousal scale and ΔHR within each subject (average r: 0.95 ± 0.04). The slope of the relationship varied among subjects (0.7-2.4 min-1/unit scale). Conclusions: Arousal intensity, quantified by wavelet transform, is strongly associated with arousal-related tachycardia, and the gain of the relationship varies among subjects. Quantifying arousal intensity in PSGs provides additional information that may be clinically relevant. Citation: Azarbarzin A; Ostrowski M; Hanly P; Younes M. Relationship between arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal. SLEEP 2014;37(4):645-653. PMID:24899756

  7. Emotional arousal when watching drama increases pain threshold and social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Teasdale, Ben; Thompson, Jackie; Budelmann, Felix; Duncan, Sophie; van Emde Boas, Evert; Maguire, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Fiction, whether in the form of storytelling or plays, has a particular attraction for us: we repeatedly return to it and are willing to invest money and time in doing so. Why this is so is an evolutionary enigma that has been surprisingly underexplored. We hypothesize that emotionally arousing drama, in particular, triggers the same neurobiological mechanism (the endorphin system, reflected in increased pain thresholds) that underpins anthropoid primate and human social bonding. We show that, compared to subjects who watch an emotionally neutral film, subjects who watch an emotionally arousing film have increased pain thresholds and an increased sense of group bonding. PMID:27703694

  8. Neuropeptide W increases mean arterial pressure as a result of behavioral arousal

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Alicia T.; Yosten, Gina L. C.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptide W (NPW), an endogenous ligand for G protein-coupled receptors NPBWR1 (GPR7) and NPBWR2 (GPR8), has been detected in neurons in limbic and reticular activating system areas known to be important in arousal, as well as hypothalamic nuclei known to be important in food and water intake and the neuroendocrine response to stress. In rat, central administration of NPW increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and behaviors associated with locomotion and grooming. We hypothesized that the NPW-induced increase in MAP was secondary to those increases in physical activity. Since peptides that stimulate arousal have been shown to increase sympathetic activity (e.g., orexin), we tested the ability of the mixed α1- and α2-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, to block the NPW-23-induced rise in MAP. Phentolamine pretreatment abrogated the NPW-induced MAP increase. However, we noticed the animals no longer exhibited NPW-associated behavioral arousal when pretreated with phentolamine. Anesthesia also blocked the NPW-induced increase in MAP, although the animals still were able to respond with an increase in MAP to centrally administered ANG II. Additionally, pretreatment with an orexin type 1 receptor antagonist significantly reduced the behavioral action of NPW-23 and completely blocked the peptide's action to increase MAP, suggesting that orexin neurons are downstream targets of NPW. Our results suggest that NPW increased MAP secondary to increased behavioral arousal. PMID:23926134

  9. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    PubMed

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process.

  10. Effects of increasing and decreasing physiological arousal on anticipation timing performance during competition and practice.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma; Cook, Kathryn; Hankey, Joanne; Tallis, Jason; Clarke, Neil; Jones, Marc V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the effects of changes in physiological arousal on timing performance can be accurately predicted by the catastrophe model. Eighteen young adults (8 males, 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethical approval. After familiarisation, coincidence anticipation was measured using the Bassin Anticipation Timer under four incremental exercise conditions: Increasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety, increasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety, decreasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety and decreasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety. Incremental exercise was performed on a treadmill at intensities of 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% heart rate reserve (HRR) respectively. Ratings of cognitive anxiety were taken at each intensity using the Mental Readiness Form 3 (MRF3) followed by performance of coincidence anticipation trials at speeds of 3 and 8 mph. Results indicated significant condition × intensity interactions for absolute error (AE; p = .0001) and MRF cognitive anxiety intensity scores (p = .05). Post hoc analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in AE across exercise intensities in low-cognitive anxiety conditions. In high-cognitive anxiety conditions, timing performance AE was significantly poorer and cognitive anxiety higher at 90% HRR, compared to the other exercise intensities. There was no difference in timing responses at 90% HRR during competitive trials, irrespective of whether exercise intensity was increasing or decreasing. This study suggests that anticipation timing performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are high.

  11. Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone Increases Behavioral Arousal Through Modulation of Hypocretin/Orexin Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Junko; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Wisor, Jonathan P.; Sakurai, Takeshi; Xie, Xinmin (Simon); Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) has previously been shown to promote wakefulness and to induce arousal from hibernation. Expression of TRH receptor 1 (TRH-R1) is enriched in the tuberal and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), brain regions in which the hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) cells are located. Since the Hcrt system is implicated in sleep/wake control, we hypothesized that TRH provides modulatory input to the Hcrt cells. In vitro electrophysiological studies showed that bath application of TRH caused concentration-dependent membrane depolarization, decreased input resistance, and increased firing rate of identified Hcrt neurons. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, TRH induced inward currents that were associated with a decrease in frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature postsynaptic currents (PSCs). Ion substitution experiments suggested that the TRH-induced inward current was mediated in part by Ca2+ influx. Although TRH did not significantly alter either the frequency or amplitude of spontaneous excitatory PSCs, TRH (100nM) increased the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory PSCs by 2-fold without affecting the amplitude of these events, indicating increased presynaptic GABA release onto Hcrt neurons. In contrast, TRH significantly reduced the frequency, but not amplitude, of miniature excitatory PSCs without affecting miniature inhibitory PSC frequency or amplitude, indicating that TRH also reduces the probability of glutamate release onto Hcrt neurons. When injected into the LHA, TRH increased locomotor activity in wild type mice but not in orexin/ataxin-3 mice in which the Hcrt neurons degenerate postnatally. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that TRH modulates behavioral arousal, in part, through the Hcrt system. PMID:19321767

  12. Increased thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue under low temperature and its contribution to arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kitao, Naoya; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is thought to play a significant physiological role during arousal when body temperature rises from the extremely low body temperature that occurs during hibernation. The dominant pathway of BAT thermogenesis occurs through the β(3)-adrenergic receptor. In this study, we investigated the role of the β(3)-adrenergic system in BAT thermogenesis during arousal from hibernation both in vitro and in vivo. Syrian hamsters in the hibernation group contained BAT that was significantly greater in overall mass, total protein, and thermogenic uncoupling protein-1 than BAT from the warm-acclimated group. Although the ability of the β(3)-agonist CL316,243 to induce BAT thermogenesis at 36°C was no different between the hibernation and warm-acclimated groups, its maximum ratio over the basal value at 12°C in the hibernation group was significantly larger than that in the warm-acclimated group. Forskolin stimulation at 12°C produced equivalent BAT responses in these two groups. In vivo thermogenesis was assessed with the arousal time determined by the time course of BAT temperature or heart rate. Stimulation of BAT by CL316,243 significantly shortened the time of arousal from hibernation compared with that induced by vehicle alone, and it also induced arousal in deep hibernating animals. The β(3)-antagonist SR59230A inhibited arousal from hibernation either in part or completely. These results suggest that BAT in hibernating animals has potent thermogenic activity with a highly effective β(3)-receptor mechanism at lower temperatures.

  13. Lasting Increases in Basolateral Amygdala Activity after Emotional Arousal: Implications for Facilitated Consolidation of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Joe Guillaume; Likhtik, Ekaterina; Filali, Mohammed; Pare, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Manipulations that reduce or enhance the activity of basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons in the minutes to hours after training have been shown to respectively impair or facilitate retention on the inhibitory avoidance task. Although this suggests that BLA activity is altered after emotional arousal, such changes have not been directly…

  14. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  15. The exploratory power of sleep effort, dysfunctional beliefs and arousal for insomnia severity and polysomnography-determined sleep.

    PubMed

    Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Differences between subjective sleep perception and sleep determined by polysomnography (PSG) are prevalent, particularly in patients with primary insomnia, indicating that the two measures are partially independent. To identify individualized treatment strategies, it is important to understand the potentially different mechanisms influencing subjective and PSG-determined sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent three major components of insomnia models, i.e., sleep effort, dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, and presleep arousal, are associated with subjective insomnia severity and PSG-determined sleep. A sample of 47 patients with primary insomnia according to DSM-IV criteria and 52 good sleeper controls underwent 2 nights of PSG and completed the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Regression analyses were conducted to investigate the impact of the three predictors on subjective insomnia severity and PSG- determined total sleep time. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, depressive symptoms and group status. The results showed that subjective insomnia severity was associated positively with sleep effort. PSG-determined total sleep time was associated negatively with somatic presleep arousal and dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep. This pattern of results provides testable hypotheses for prospective studies on the impact of distinct cognitive and somatic variables on subjective insomnia severity and PSG-determined total sleep time.

  16. Public speaking in front of an unreceptive audience increases implicit power motivation and its endocrine arousal signature.

    PubMed

    Wiemers, Uta S; Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-05-01

    The present study explored the motivational characteristics of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). Seventy-two participants either completed the public-speaking component of the TSST or, as a control condition, the friendly TSST (Wiemers, Schoofs, & Wolf, 2013) and wrote picture stories both before and after treatment. Stories were coded for motivational imagery related to power, achievement, and affiliation as well as for activity inhibition, a marker of functional brain lateralization during stress. The TSST had a specific arousing effect on power motivation, but not on other motivational needs, on activity inhibition, or on story length. TSST-elicited increases in power imagery, but not in achievement or affiliation imagery, were associated with a relatively greater salivary alpha-amylase response and with a relatively lesser salivary cortisol response. These findings suggest that the TSST specifically induces power-related stress.

  17. The Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Determinants of Sexual Risk in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A.; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21–50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants’ viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms’ effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and “risk exposure,” derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  18. The effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on determinants of sexual risk in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Stephen A; Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E

    2012-08-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21-50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants' viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol's effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms' effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and "risk exposure," derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol's effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol's effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  19. On the intricate relationship between sexual motivation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Agmo, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Sexual motivation and sexual arousal are widely used concepts. While there seem to be considerable agreement as to the meaning of sexual motivation, there is certain confusion about the exact meaning of sexual arousal. Some use it as a synonym to sexual motivation and others make it equivalent to erection or vaginal lubrication. An unresolved question is the relationship between sexual arousal and general arousal as well as that between arousal and motivation. I present arguments for the view that arousal refers to the general state of alertness of the organism. Consequently, there is no such thing as a specific sexual arousal. I suggest that this term should be abandoned, or if that is not feasible, to make it a synonym to enhanced genital blood flow. The notion of a subjective sexual arousal, some kind of vaguely described mental state, seems to lack all explanatory value. I then show that general arousal is an important determinant of sexual motivation, and that the execution of copulatory acts leads to increased general arousal. This increase leads to enhanced sexual motivation, making the activation of sexual reflexes requiring high levels of motivation possible. Examples of such reflexes may be ejaculation in males of many species, and perhaps the psychic state of orgasm in women.

  20. White-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2013-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern United States and Canada. White-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Previous work has shown that WNS-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently than normal and that these too-frequent arousals are tied to severity of infection and death date. We quantified the behavior of bats during these arousal bouts to understand better the causes and consequences of these arousals. We hypothesized that WNS-affected bats would display increased levels of activity (especially grooming) during their arousal bouts from hibernation compared to WNS-unaffected bats. Behavior of both affected and unaffected hibernating bats in captivity was monitored from December 2010 to March 2011 using temperature-sensitive dataloggers attached to the backs of bats and infrared motion-sensitive cameras. The WNS-affected bats exhibited significantly higher rates of grooming, relative to unaffected bats, at the expense of time that would otherwise be spent inactive. Increased self-grooming may be related to the presence of the fungus. Elevated activity levels in affected bats likely increase energetic stress, whereas the loss of rest (inactive periods when aroused from torpor) may jeopardize the ability of a bat to reestablish homeostasis in a number of physiologic systems. PMID:24502712

  1. The interplay of experience-based affective and probabilistic cues in decision making: arousal increases when experience and additional cues conflict.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Hochman, Guy

    2011-01-01

    In a study using behavioral and physiological measures we induced experience-based affective cues (i.e., differential anticipatory arousal) toward a risky and a safe option by letting participants repeatedly select between two decks of cards with feedback. In later test decisions we presented choice tasks between these trained and new pairs of decks. In some of the trials a low-valid probabilistic cue was provided after stimulus onset but before the decision. Although we were successful in inducing experience-based affective cues these did not influence participants' choices. In decisions without any further cues available people choose the safe and the risky option about equally often. If an additional low-valid probabilistic cue was available people followed this cue. Although experience had no effect on choices it influenced arousal. Anticipatory physiological arousal increased if the probabilistic cue and experience were conflicting. Our results are in line with recent findings indicating diminished loss aversion in experience-based decision making. They are also consistent with parallel constraint satisfaction models and shed light on the interrelation between experience, probabilistic cues, and arousal in decision making.

  2. Cerebrovascular Response to Arousal from NREM and REM Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Muhammad Fuad; Xie, Ailiang; Skatrud, James B.; Reichmuth, Kevin J.; Barczi, Steven R.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the effect of arousal from sleep on cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in relation to associated ventilatory and systemic hemodynamic changes. Participants: Eleven healthy individuals (6 men, 5 women). Measurements: Pulsed Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure CBFV in the middle cerebral artery with simultaneous measurements of sleep state (EEG, EOG, and EMG), ventilation (inductance plethysmography), heart rate (ECG), and arterial pressure (finger plethysmography). Arousals were induced by auditory tones (range: 40–80 dB; duration: 0.5 sec). Cardiovascular responses were examined beat-by-beat for 30 sec before and 30 sec after auditory tones. Results: During NREM sleep, CBFV declined following arousals (-15% ± 2%; group mean ± SEM) with a nadir at 9 sec after the auditory tone, followed by a gradual return to baseline. Mean arterial pressure (MAP; +20% ± 1%) and heart rate (HR; +17% ± 2%) increased with peaks at 5 and 3 sec after the auditory tone, respectively. Minute ventilation (VE) was increased (+35% ± 10%) for 2 breaths after the auditory tone. In contrast, during REM sleep, CBFV increased following arousals (+15% ± 3%) with a peak at 3 sec. MAP (+17% ± 2%) and HR (+15% ± 2%) increased during arousals from REM sleep with peaks at 5 and 3 sec post tone. VE increased (+16% ± 7%) in a smaller, more sustained manner during arousals from REM sleep. Conclusions: Arousals from NREM sleep transiently reduce CBFV, whereas arousals from REM sleep transiently increase CBFV, despite qualitatively and quantitatively similar increases in MAP, HR, and VE in the two sleep states. Citation: Bangash MF; Xie A; Skatrud JB; Reichmuth KJ; Barczi SR; Morgan BJ. Cerebrovascular response to arousal from NREM and REM sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(3):321-327. PMID:18363307

  3. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving

    2003-01-01

    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  4. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined.

  5. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  6. Arousal responses to added inspiratory resistance during REM and non-REM sleep in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gugger, M; Bögershausen, S; Schäffler, L

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arousal in response to increased airflow resistance during sleep, especially rapid eye movement sleep (REM), could be an important protective mechanism against asphyxia. METHODS: The arousal response to the application of an external inspiratory resistance of 25 cm H2O/l/s was determined during REM and non-REM sleep in ten healthy men. RESULTS: The number of arousals occurring within two minutes of the load application was significantly higher during REM sleep than during either of the non-REM sleep stages 2 and 3/4, and was similar to that during stage 1. The proportion of arousals to non-arousals decreased significantly from stage 1 to stage 4. The mean time to arousal in REM was significantly shorter than in non-REM stages 1, 2 or 3/4 and increased significantly from stage 1 to stage 3/4. The duration of sleep (comparing the results of the first with the second half of the sleep period time) did not modify the arousal response in stages 2 and 3/4. CONCLUSIONS: The results show a significantly increased arousal response to an added inspiratory resistive load in REM sleep compared with non-REM sleep stages 2, 3 or 4 in normal men. In the context of previous studies these data could add support to the hypothesis that the decreased arousal response during REM sleep in patients with sleep apnoea might be due to an impairment of the normal "central processing" of this stimulus. PMID:8493624

  7. Adrenaline, arousal and sport.

    PubMed

    Krahenbuhl, G S

    1975-01-01

    In general, the literautre review provides theoretical explanations for the popular, common-sense belief that a little stress improves performance, whereas when stress becomes severe, performance declines and ultimately breaks down. In terms of psychological stress (as opposed to physiological) the single most important variable appears to be the subject's interpretation of the stress-producing stimuli. Increases in adrenaline and noradrenaline accompany a variety of emotional responses, but differential proportions are not seen as characterizing the various emotions. Noradrenaline secretion appears to be related to physiological stress, or the amount of work attempted by the organism. Adrenaline secretion seems to be more-directly related to mental stress and emotional response. As emotional involvement increases, adrenal medullary secretion of adrenaline increases. The accompanying physiological and metabolic responses faciltate performance to a point; however, extremely high levels of arousal may adversely affect the athlete's proficiency. This is expecially true of sport skills requiring steadiness, precision, and concentration. Finally, for the sake of perspective, it should be stated that any contribution or complication created by the catecholamines is minimal when the entire ability range of competitors is considered. Whereas near superhuman feats by ordinary individuals caught in life-threatening situations have been reported, variations of great magnitude are unlikely in sport. The average individual is not transformed into a world class athlete merely by "getting the adrenaline flowing." Among athletes of similar physical stature and physiological function, however, adrenaline and arousal may certainly tip the scale of performance in sport.

  8. Sex differences in mouse behavior following pyrilamine treatment: role of histamine 1 receptors in arousal.

    PubMed

    Easton, A; Norton, J; Goodwillie, A; Pfaff, D W

    2004-11-01

    Arousal, the activation of brain and behavior, is a fundamental component of behavior. While sex differences in behavior are pervasive, it is unknown whether they could be due to an underlying dimorphism in arousal mechanisms. Because histamine (HA) acting through histamine 1 (H1) receptors is one essential component of arousal neural circuitry, the aim of the current experiment was to measure sex differences in behavioral arousal following treatment with the H1 receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (PYRL). Castrated male and ovariectomized female Swiss-Webster mice were treated subcutaneously with either 15 or 35 mg/kg of PYRL. The effect of drug treatment was determined in an array of behaviors: sensory responsiveness, running wheel activity, and fearfulness. Surprisingly, the lower dose of PYRL increased some aspects of arousal, sensory responsiveness, and anxiety-like behavior, while the higher dose of PYRL resulted in decreases in arousal across tests, indicating that antagonism of histamine receptors does not have a linear relationship with arousal. Females were more sensitive to the arousal-reducing effects of PYRL than males in sensory and running wheel tasks but not in tests of emotion. In conclusion, antagonism of H1 receptors can alter arousal in a sex-dependent manner, independent of circulating gonadal steroids, in mice.

  9. High energy diets prevent the enhancing effects of emotional arousal on memory.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy P; Darling, Jenna N; Parent, Marise B

    2013-10-01

    Over the past five decades, per capita caloric intake has increased by approximately 28% in the United States. Excessive intake of calories from fats and sugars (high energy diets; HEDs) negatively impacts hippocampal-dependent memory. These deleterious effects of HEDs on hippocampal function involve HED-induced decreases in neuronal growth factors, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. Given that HEDs also alter responses to emotional arousal, the present experiment determined whether the effects of HEDs on memory depend on the emotional arousal produced by the memory task during encoding. Rats were fed a high fat/sugar cafeteria-style diet for 4 weeks and then tested in a low or high emotional arousal version of a spatial object place recognition task. The results demonstrated that the HED prevented the memory-enhancing effects of emotional arousal. Thus, altered responses to emotional arousal likely contribute to HED-induced memory impairments, particularly in stressful memory tasks such as the spatial water maze.

  10. Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of β- and α1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

  11. Hypocretin/Orexin in Arousal and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.; España, Rodrigo A.; Vittoz, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) participates in the regulation of arousal and arousal-related process. For example, HCRT axons and receptors are found within a variety of arousal-related systems. Moreover, when administered centrally, HCRT exerts robust wake-promoting actions. Finally, a dysregulation of HCRT neurotransmission is associated with the sleep/arousal disorder, narcolepsy. Combined, these observations suggested that HCRT might be a key transmitter system in the regulation of waking. Nonetheless, subsequent evidence indicates that HCRT may not play a prominent role in the initiation of normal waking. Instead HCRT may participate in a variety of processes such as consolidation of waking and/or coupling metabolic state with behavioral state. Additionally, substantial evidence suggests a potential involvement of HCRT in high-arousal conditions, including stress. Thus, HCRT neurotransmission is closely linked to high-arousal conditions, including stress, and HCRT administrations exerts a variety of stress-like physiological and behavioral effects that are superimposed on HCRT-induced increases in arousal. Combined, this evidence suggests the hypothesis that HCRT may participate in behavioral responding under high-arousal aversive conditions. Importantly, these actions of HCRT may not be limited to stress. Like stress, appetitive conditions are associated with elevated arousal levels and a stress-like activation of various physiological systems. These and other observations suggest that HCRT may, at least in part, exert affectively-neutral actions that are important under high-arousal conditions associated with elevated motivation and/or need for action. PMID:19748490

  12. Cognitive-motivational determinants of fat food consumption in overweight and obese youngsters: the implicit association between fat food and arousal.

    PubMed

    Craeynest, Mietje; Crombez, Geert; Koster, Ernst H W; Haerens, Leen; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive-motivational accounts of fat food intake propose an association between fat food and action dispositions, which are according to the biphasic emotion theory of Lang [(1995). The emotion probe. Studies of motivation and attention. American Psychologist, 50, 372-385; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, M.M. (1997). Motivated attention: Affect, activation and action. In P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons & M.T. Balaban (Eds.). Attention and orienting: Sensory and motivational processes (pp. 97-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.] characterized by high levels of arousal. In two experiments, this association was investigated in lean and overweight youngsters. In the first experiment, 29 overweight and 29 lean youngsters conducted two Implicit Association Tasks (IAT; Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E., & Schwartz, J.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.). In a positive arousal IAT, implicit associations between fat vs. lean food, and high and low arousal words with a positive valence were assessed. In a negative arousal IAT, high and low arousal words with a negative valence were used. A second experiment was conducted to replicate Experiment 1 in 29 youngsters with severe obesity and 29 lean peers. The results revealed strong implicit associations between fat food and arousal in both the overweight and the control group. No differences were found between the groups, nor between the positive and the negative arousal task. These results are related to cognitive-motivational theories of fat food intake.

  13. Arousal from sleep in response to intermittent hypoxia in rat pups is modulated by medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Robert A; Schneider, Robert W; Tobia, Christine M; Zemel, Benjamin M

    2012-03-01

    Arousal is an important defense against hypoxia during sleep. Rat pups exhibit progressive arousal impairment (habituation) with multiple hypoxia exposures. The mechanisms are unknown. The medullary raphe (MR) is involved in autonomic functions, including sleep, and receives abundant GABAergic inputs. We hypothesized that inhibiting MR neurons with muscimol, a GABA(A) receptor agonist, or preventing GABA reuptake with nipecotic acid, would impair arousal and enhance arousal habituation and that blocking GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline would enhance arousal and attenuate habituation. Postnatal day 15 (P15) to P25 rat pups were briefly anesthetized, and microinjections with aCSF, muscimol, bicuculline, or nipecotic acid were made into the MR. After a ∼30-min recovery, pups were exposed to four 3-min episodes of hypoxia separated by 6 min of normoxia. The time to arousal from the onset of hypoxia (latency) was determined for each trial. Latency progressively increased across trials (habituation) in all groups. The overall latency was greater after muscimol and nipecotic acid compared with aCSF, bicuculline, or noninjected controls. Arousal habituation was reduced after bicuculline compared with aCSF, muscimol, nipecotic acid, or noninjected pups. Increases in latency were mirrored by decreases in chamber [O2] and oxyhemoglobin saturation. Heart rate increased during hypoxia and was greatest in muscimol-injected pups. Our results indicate that the MR plays an important, not previously described, role in arousal and arousal habituation during hypoxia and that these phenomena are modulated by GABAergic mechanisms. Arousal habituation may contribute to sudden infant death syndrome, which is associated with MR serotonergic and GABAergic receptor dysfunction. PMID:22160541

  14. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  15. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-09-01

    Our understanding of the process and initiation of sexual arousal is being enhanced by both animal and human studies, inclusive of basic science principles and research on clinical outcomes. Sexual arousal is dependent on neural (sensory and cognitive) factors, hormonal factors, genetic factors and, in the human case, the complex influences of culture and context. Sexual arousal activates the cognitive and physiologic processes that can eventually lead to sexual behavior. Sexual arousal comprises a particular subset of central nervous system arousal functions which depend on primitive, fundamental arousal mechanisms that cause generalized brain activity, but are manifest in a sociosexual context. The neurophysiology of sexual arousal is seen as a bidirectional system universal to all vertebrates. The following review includes known neural and genomic mechanisms of a hormone-dependent circuit for simple sex behavior. New information about hormone effects on causal steps related to sex hormones' nuclear receptor isoforms expressed by hypothalamic neurons continues to enrich our understanding of this neurophysiology.

  16. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  17. Encoding of goal-relevant stimuli is strengthened by emotional arousal in memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Greening, Steven G; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Emotional information receives preferential processing, which facilitates adaptive strategies for survival. However, the presence of emotional stimuli and the arousal they induce also influence how surrounding non-emotional information is processed in memory (Mather and Sutherland, 2011). For example, seeing a highly emotional scene often leads to forgetting of what was seen right beforehand, but sometimes instead enhances memory for the preceding information. In two studies, we examined how emotional arousal affects short-term memory retention for goal-relevant information that was just seen. In Study 1, participants were asked to remember neutral objects in spatially-cued locations (i.e., goal-relevant objects determined by specific location), while ignoring objects in uncued locations. After each set of objects were shown, arousal was manipulated by playing a previously fear-conditioned tone (i.e., CS+) or a neutral tone that had not been paired with shock (CS-). In Study 1, memory for the goal-relevant neutral objects from arousing trials was enhanced compared to those from the non-arousing trials. This result suggests that emotional arousal helps to increase the impact of top-down priority (i.e., goal-relevancy) on memory encoding. Study 2 supports this conclusion by demonstrating that when the goal was to remember all objects regardless of the spatial cue, emotional arousal induced memory enhancement in a more global manner for all objects. In sum, the two studies show that the ability of arousal to enhance memory for previously encoded items depends on the goal relevance initially assigned to those items. PMID:26321988

  18. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia.

  19. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia. PMID:26483949

  20. The insula modulates arousal-induced reluctance to try novel tastes through adrenergic transmission in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Sebastián; Diaz-Galarce, Raúl; Jerez-Baraona, Juan Manuel; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Reluctance to try novel tastes (neophobia) can be exacerbated in arousing situations, such as when children are under social stress or in rodents, when the new taste is presented in a high arousal context (HA) compared to a low arousal context (LA). The present study aimed at determining whether adrenergic transmission at the Insula regulates the reluctance to try novel tastes induced by arousing contexts. To this end, a combination of systemic and intra-insular manipulations of adrenergic activity was performed before the novel taste (saccharin 0.1%) was presented either in LA or HA contexts in rats. Our results show that systemic adrenergic activity modulates reluctance to try novel tastes. Moreover, intra-insular microinjections of propranolol or norepinephrine (NE) were found to modulate the effects of arousing contexts on reluctance to try novel tastes. Finally, intra-insular propranolol blocked epinephrine-induced increased reluctance, while intra-insular NE blocked oral propranolol-induced decreases in reluctance and increased the reluctance to try novel tastes presented in low arousing contexts. In conclusion, our results suggest that the insula is a critical site for regulating the effects of arousal in the reluctance to try novel tastes via the adrenergic system. PMID:26175672

  1. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  2. Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J; Mullen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:25871605

  3. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  4. Conditioned Sexual Arousal in a Nonhuman Primate

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Ferris, Craig F.

    2010-01-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans, but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate’s ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory and decision making. In this study we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in postconditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking, and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  5. Processing radio PSAs: production pacing, arousing content, and age.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Schwartz, Nancy; Lee, Seungjo; Angelini, James

    2007-09-01

    This experiment uses the limited capacity model of mediated message processing (LC3MP) to investigate the effects of production pacing and arousing content in radio public service announcements (PSAs) on the emotional and cognitive responses of college-age and tween (9-12-year-olds) participants. The LC3MP predicts that both arousing content and production pacing should increase emotional arousal, physiological arousal, cognitive effort, and encoding up to the point of cognitive overload after which cognitive effort and encoding should decrease. Results showed that, as expected, arousing content did increase emotional arousal and cognitive effort for both tweens and college students, though the effect was larger for college students. For production pacing, however, the results were less clear cut. First, it was found that for radio PSAs pacing increased arousal for calm messages only. Further, the effects of production pacing on cognitive effort were larger for tweens and were experienced primarily during the first 25 seconds of the message, while college students were less affected by production pacing, and those effects appeared in the last 25 seconds of the messages. Finally, none of the messages in this experiment resulted in cognitive overload - thus both production pacing and arousing content increased memory for both groups of participants.

  6. Drug Induced Arousal and Fear Appeals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.

    It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…

  7. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions.

  8. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  9. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  10. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  11. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  12. Psychophysiological consequences of unexplained arousal: a posthypnotic suggestion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; LaBerge, S; Butler, L D

    1993-08-01

    This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons.

  13. Ecological determinism increases with organism size.

    PubMed

    Farjalla, Vinicius F; Srivastava, Diane S; Marino, Nicholas A C; Azevedo, Fernanda D; Dib, Viviane; Lopes, Paloma M; Rosado, Alexandre S; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Esteves, Francisco A

    2012-07-01

    After much debate, there is an emerging consensus that the composition of many ecological communities is determined both by species traits, as proposed by niche theory, as well as by chance events. A critical question for ecology is, therefore, which attributes of species predict the dominance of deterministic or stochastic processes. We outline two hypotheses by which organism size could determine which processes structure ecological communities, and we test these hypotheses by comparing the community structure in bromeliad phytotelmata of three groups of organisms (bacteria, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates) that encompass a 10 000-fold gradient in body size, but live in the same habitat. Bacteria had no habitat associations, as would be expected from trait-neutral stochastic processes, but still showed exclusion among species pairs, as would be expected from niche-based processes. Macroinvertebrates had strong habitat and species associations, indicating niche-based processes. Zooplankton, with body size between bacteria and macroinvertebrates, showed intermediate habitat associations. We concluded that a key niche process, habitat filtering, strengthened with organism size, possibly because larger organisms are both less plastic in their fundamental niches and more able to be selective in dispersal. These results suggest that the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes may be predictable from organism size.

  14. Conditions under which Arousal Does and Does Not Elevate Height Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation. PMID:24699393

  15. Autonomic arousal, interpersonal climate, and orality.

    PubMed

    Masling, J; O'Neill, R; Katkin, E S

    1982-03-01

    Electrodermal responses in male subjects who gave at least four oral-dependent Rorschach responses (n = 15) or no more than two such responses (n = 19) were assessed both before and after the subjects had either a warm, friendly interaction or a cold, unfriendly interaction with a confederate. There were no group differences on initial baseline measurements. Following a 10-minute warm or cold interaction, there was significant three-way interaction (Period X Condition X Orality) in tonic conductance, p less than .003. Analysis of the three-way interaction produced one simple effect: Highly oral subjects responded differentially to warm or cold treatment by the confederate, p less than .018. Three groups--nonorals in either condition and orals in the condition--increased in physiological arousal over time. Only the highly oral subjects interacting with the warm confederate showed no such increase in arousal, presumably because the presence of a warm, interested other inhibits physiological activation. PMID:7077523

  16. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  17. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  18. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. Methods We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Results Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Conclusions Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control. PMID:26079873

  19. Are tuberomammillary histaminergic neurons involved in CO2-mediated arousal?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip L; Moratalla, Rosario; Lightman, Stafford L; Lowry, Christopher A

    2005-05-01

    An increase in arousal in response to hypercapnia [elevated arterial PCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) levels] during awake or sleep states is an important component of mechanisms designed to maintain acid-base homeostasis. Since central histaminergic neurons are crucial for maintaining waking states and vigilance, a nonresponsive or dysfunctional histaminergic system could contribute to the lack of arousal in response to hypercapnia in some sleep-related disorders [e.g., sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and Ondine's curse]. Therefore, the present study attempted to determine if histaminergic neurons display functional responses to acute exposure to hypercapnic gas (i.e., gas with elevated CO2 concentrations). Healthy adult male rats were placed in flow cages during the light cycle, or inactive phase, and exposed to either atmospheric air or to environmental CO2 concentrations increasing from baseline up to 20% CO2 over a 5-min period. The expression of the protein product of the immediate-early gene c-fos was used as a measure of functional cellular responses within subpopulations of histaminergic neurons. Among the histaminergic subgroups (E1-E5), only the ventral tuberommamillary nucleus (VTMn)/E2 cell group showed significant increases in c-Fos expression following brief exposure to hypercapnic gas. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that histaminergic neuronal cell groups are heterogeneous and are involved in physiological and/or behavioral responses to acute hypercapnic challenge, potentially increasing vigilance during active waking and awakening from sleep during hypercapnic states. PMID:15817281

  20. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation

  1. Oral contraceptive use and female genital arousal: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brooke N; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2005-08-01

    This study explored effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on physiological sexual arousal as measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Sixteen women aged 18-29 viewed audiovisual neutral and erotic stimuli before and an average of 6 weeks following the onset of OCP use. Although subjective measures of sexual arousal, including perceptions of genital arousal, significantly increased in response to erotic stimuli both before and after OCP onset, physiological sexual arousal only increased before OCP use. A comparison of individual responses before and after OCP onset reveals a much higher degree of intrasubject variability after OCP onset. We discuss these findings as they relate to OCP use as a confounding methodological variable to consider in future investigations employing vaginal photoplethysmography. PMID:19817038

  2. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  3. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal.

  4. The polarizing effect of arousal on negotiation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ashley D; Curhan, Jared R

    2013-10-01

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, whereas prior research on misattribution of arousal suggests that arousal might polarize outcomes, either negatively or positively. In two experiments, we manipulated arousal and measured its effect on subjective and objective negotiation outcomes. Our results support the polarization effect. When participants had negative prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a detrimental effect on outcomes, whereas when participants had positive prior attitudes toward negotiation, arousal had a beneficial effect on outcomes. These effects occurred because of the construal of arousal as negative or positive affect, respectively. Our findings have important implications not only for negotiation, but also for research on misattribution of arousal, which previously has focused on the target of evaluation, in contrast to the current research, which focused on the critical role of the perceiver. PMID:23925306

  5. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory.

  6. Stereotype threat and arousal: effects on women's math performance.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Crandall, Christian S

    2003-06-01

    Theories of arousal suggest that arousal should decrease performance on difficult tasks and increase performance on easy tasks. An experiment tested the hypothesis that the effects of stereotype threat on performance are due to heightened arousal. The authors hypothesized that telling participants that a math test they are about to take is known to have gender differences would cause stereotype threat in women but not in men. In the experiment, each participant took two tests--a difficult math test and an easy math test. Compared to women in a "no differences" condition, women in the "gender differences" condition scored better on the easy math test and worse on the difficult math test. Men's performance was unaffected by the manipulation. These data are consistent with an arousal-based explanation of stereotype threat effects. Data were inconsistent with expectancy, evaluation apprehension, and persistence explanations of the stereotype threat phenomenon.

  7. Circulating Endocannabinoid Concentrations and Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carolin; Hill, Matthew N.; Chang, Sabrina C.H.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species. Aim To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (n = 21). Methods Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and non-continuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal. Results Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of

  8. Familiarity mediates the relationship between emotional arousal and pleasure during music listening

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Iris; Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional arousal appears to be a major contributing factor to the pleasure that listeners experience in response to music. Accordingly, a strong positive correlation between self-reported pleasure and electrodermal activity (EDA), an objective indicator of emotional arousal, has been demonstrated when individuals listen to familiar music. However, it is not yet known to what extent familiarity contributes to this relationship. In particular, as listening to familiar music involves expectations and predictions over time based on veridical knowledge of the piece, it could be that such memory factors plays a major role. Here, we tested such a contribution by using musical stimuli entirely unfamiliar to listeners. In a second experiment we repeated the novel music to experimentally establish a sense of familiarity. We aimed to determine whether (1) pleasure and emotional arousal would continue to correlate when listeners have no explicit knowledge of how the tones will unfold, and (2) whether this could be enhanced by experimentally-induced familiarity. In the first experiment, we presented 33 listeners with 70 unfamiliar musical excerpts in two sessions. There was no relationship between the degree of experienced pleasure and emotional arousal as measured by EDA. In the second experiment, 7 participants listened to 35 unfamiliar excerpts over two sessions separated by 30 min. Repeated exposure significantly increased EDA, even though individuals did not explicitly recall having heard all the pieces before. Furthermore, increases in self-reported familiarity significantly enhanced experienced pleasure and there was a general, though not significant, increase in EDA. These results suggest that some level of expectation and predictability mediated by prior exposure to a given piece of music play an important role in the experience of emotional arousal in response to music. PMID:24046738

  9. Parents' empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants' arousal to others' emotions.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children's overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others' emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants' arousal toward others' emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants' (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant's emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants' pupil dilation in response to others' emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others' emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others' emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents' empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors.

  10. Parents’ empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants’ arousal to others’ emotions

    PubMed Central

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children’s overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others’ emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants’ arousal toward others’ emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants’ (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant’s emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants’ pupil dilation in response to others’ emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others’ emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others’ emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents’ empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors. PMID:25883577

  11. Parents' empathic perspective taking and altruistic behavior predicts infants' arousal to others' emotions.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2015-01-01

    Empathy emerges in children's overt behavior around the middle of the second year of life. Younger infants, however, exhibit arousal in response to others' emotional displays, which is considered to be a precursor to fully developed empathy. The goal of the present study was to investigate individual variability in infants' arousal toward others' emotional displays, as indexed by 12- and 15-month-old infants' (n = 49) pupillary changes in response to another infant's emotions, and to determine whether such variability is linked to parental empathy and prosociality, as indexed via self-report questionnaires. We found that increases in infants' pupil dilation in response to others' emotional displays were associated with aspects of parental empathy and prosociality. Specifically, infants who exhibited the greatest arousal in response to others' emotions had parents who scored highly on empathic perspective taking and self-reported altruism. These relations may have been found because arousal toward others' emotions shares certain characteristics with empathic and prosocial dispositions. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of early variability in a precursor to mature empathic responding in infancy, which is meaningfully linked to parents' empathic dispositions and prosocial behaviors. PMID:25883577

  12. Behaviorally-based couple therapies reduce emotional arousal during couple conflict

    PubMed Central

    Baucom, Brian R.; Sheng, Elisa; Christensen, Andrew; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.; Atkins, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional arousal during relationship conflict is a major target for intervention in couple therapies. The current study examines changes in conflict-related emotional arousal in 104 couples that participated in a randomized clinical trial of two behaviorally-based couple therapies. Emotional arousal is measured using mean fundamental frequency of spouse’s speech, and changes in emotional arousal from pre- to post-therapy are examined using multilevel models. Overall emotional arousal, the rate of increase in emotional arousal at the beginning of conflict, and the duration of emotional arousal declined for all couples. Reductions in overall arousal were stronger for TBCT wives than for IBCT wives but not significantly different for IBCT and TBCT husbands. Reductions in the rate of initial arousal were larger for TBCT couples than IBCT couples. Reductions in duration were larger for IBCT couples than TBCT couples. These findings suggest that both therapies can reduce emotional arousal, but that the two therapies create different kinds of change in emotional arousal. PMID:26183021

  13. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  14. Negative Arousal Amplifies the Effects of Saliency in Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Matthew R.; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from two experiments suggests that negative arousal increases biases in attention that result from differences in visual salience. Participants were exposed to negative arousing or neutral sounds before briefly viewing an array of letters. They reported as many of the letters as they could, and attention was biased to certain letters by increasing salience through visual contrast. Regardless of the type of sound heard, participants were more likely to recall high-salience letters than low-salience letters. However, on arousing trials recall of high-salience letters increased, while recall of low-salience letters did not. These findings indicate that negative emotional arousal increases the selectivity of attention, and provides evidence for arousal-biased competition (ABC) theory (Mather & Sutherland, 2011), which predicts that emotional arousal enhances representations of stimuli that have priority. PMID:22642352

  15. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  16. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  17. A practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Sheikh, Mahmood; Bagherzadeh, Fazlolah; Hemayattalab, Rasool; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2007-11-01

    The authors propose a practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance. The study included 37 healthy male physical education students whom they randomly assigned to a high-arousal (n = 19) or low-arousal group (n = 18). To manipulate participants' level of arousal, the authors used motivational techniques. They used heart rate and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (R. Martens, 1977) to measure the level of arousal that participants achieved. At the determined and given arousal state, the 2 groups performed the task (basketball free throws) for 18 sessions. Both groups performed a retention test at the 2 arousal levels immediately after the last exercise session, in the posttest, and after 10 days. Results showed that both groups learned the task similarly and achieved their peak performance at their experienced arousal level. When tested at an arousal level that differed from the one that they experienced throughout practice sessions, participants' performance had deteriorated significantly. Performance of the task seemed to have integrated with the arousal level of the participants during the task learning. The findings of this study suggest a practice-specificity-based explanation for achieving peak performance.

  18. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

  19. Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-09-15

    Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

  20. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Frank, Craig L.; Turner, Gregory G.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R.; Vodzak, Megan E.; Darling, Scott R.; Stihler, Craig W.; Hicks, Alan C.; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E.; Brownlee, Sarah A.; Muller, Laura K.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered.

  1. Frequent arousal from hibernation linked to severity of infection and mortality in bats with white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reeder, DeeAnn M; Frank, Craig L; Turner, Gregory G; Meteyer, Carol U; Kurta, Allen; Britzke, Eric R; Vodzak, Megan E; Darling, Scott R; Stihler, Craig W; Hicks, Alan C; Jacob, Roymon; Grieneisen, Laura E; Brownlee, Sarah A; Muller, Laura K; Blehert, David S

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging infectious disease that has killed over 5.5 million hibernating bats, is named for the causative agent, a white fungus (Geomyces destructans (Gd)) that invades the skin of torpid bats. During hibernation, arousals to warm (euthermic) body temperatures are normal but deplete fat stores. Temperature-sensitive dataloggers were attached to the backs of 504 free-ranging little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) in hibernacula located throughout the northeastern USA. Dataloggers were retrieved at the end of the hibernation season and complete profiles of skin temperature data were available from 83 bats, which were categorized as: (1) unaffected, (2) WNS-affected but alive at time of datalogger removal, or (3) WNS-affected but found dead at time of datalogger removal. Histological confirmation of WNS severity (as indexed by degree of fungal infection) as well as confirmation of presence/absence of DNA from Gd by PCR was determined for 26 animals. We demonstrated that WNS-affected bats aroused to euthermic body temperatures more frequently than unaffected bats, likely contributing to subsequent mortality. Within the subset of WNS-affected bats that were found dead at the time of datalogger removal, the number of arousal bouts since datalogger attachment significantly predicted date of death. Additionally, the severity of cutaneous Gd infection correlated with the number of arousal episodes from torpor during hibernation. Thus, increased frequency of arousal from torpor likely contributes to WNS-associated mortality, but the question of how Gd infection induces increased arousals remains unanswered. PMID:22745688

  2. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

  3. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

  4. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

  5. An ECG-based Algorithm for the Automatic Identification of Autonomic Activations Associated with Cortical Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Müller, Uwe; Plath, Gernot; Samel, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: EEG arousals are associated with autonomic activations. Visual EEG arousal scoring is time consuming and suffers from low interobserver agreement. We hypothesized that information on changes in heart rate alone suffice to predict the occurrence of cortical arousal. Methods: Two visual AASM EEG arousal scorings of 56 healthy subject nights (mean age 37.0 ± 12.8 years, 26 male) were obtained. For each of 5 heartbeats following the onset of 3581 consensus EEG arousals and of an equal number of control conditions, differences to a moving median were calculated and used to estimate likelihood ratios (LRs) for 10 categories of heartbeat differences. Comparable to 5 consecutive diagnostic tests, these LRs were used to calculate the probability of heart rate responses being associated with cortical arousals. Results: EEG and ECG arousal indexes agreed well across a wide range of decision thresholds, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) with an area under the curve of 0.91. For the decision threshold chosen for the final analyses, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 95.2% were obtained. ECG and EEG arousal indexes were poorly correlated (r = 0.19, P <0.001, ICC = 0.186), which could in part be attributed to 3 outliers. The Bland-Altman plot showed an unbiased estimation of EEG arousal indexes by ECG arousal indexes with a standard deviation of ± 7.9 arousals per hour sleep. In about two-thirds of all cases, ECG arousal scoring was matched by at least one (22.2%) or by both (42.5%) of the visual scorings. Sensitivity of the algorithm increased with increasing duration of EEG arousals. The ECG algorithm was also successfully validated with 30 different nights of 10 subjects (mean age 35.3 ▯ 13.6 years, 5 male). Conclusions: In its current version, the ECG algorithm cannot replace visual EEG arousal scoring. Sensitivity for detecting <10-s EEG arousals needs to be improved. However, in a nonclinical population, it may be valuable to

  6. Emotional arousal amplifies the effects of biased competition in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Sakaki, Michiko; Cheng, Ruth; Velasco, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The arousal-biased competition model predicts that arousal increases the gain on neural competition between stimuli representations. Thus, the model predicts that arousal simultaneously enhances processing of salient stimuli and impairs processing of relatively less-salient stimuli. We tested this model with a simple dot-probe task. On each trial, participants were simultaneously exposed to one face image as a salient cue stimulus and one place image as a non-salient stimulus. A border around the face cue location further increased its bottom-up saliency. Before these visual stimuli were shown, one of two tones played: one that predicted a shock (increasing arousal) or one that did not. An arousal-by-saliency interaction in category-specific brain regions (fusiform face area for salient faces and parahippocampal place area for non-salient places) indicated that brain activation associated with processing the salient stimulus was enhanced under arousal whereas activation associated with processing the non-salient stimulus was suppressed under arousal. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that arousal can enhance information processing for prioritized stimuli while simultaneously impairing processing of non-prioritized stimuli. Thus, it goes beyond previous research to show that arousal does not uniformly enhance perceptual processing, but instead does so selectively in ways that optimizes attention to highly salient stimuli. PMID:24532703

  7. Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Orr, Adrienne L; Lohse, Lonita A; Drew, Kelly L; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2009-06-01

    Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism.

  8. Adenosine Inhibition of Mesopontine Cholinergic Neurons: Implications for EEG Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Rainnie, Donald G.; Grunze, Heinz C. R.; McCarley, Robert W.; Greene, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Increased discharge activity of mesopontine cholinergic neurons participates in the production of electroencephalographic (EEG) arousal; such arousal diminishes as a function of the duration of prior wakefulness or of brain hyperthermia. Whole-cell and extracellular recordings in a brainstem slice show that mesopontine cholinergic neurons are under the tonic inhibitory control of endogenous adenosine, a neuromodulator released during brain metabolism. This inhibitory tone is mediated postsynaptically by an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance and by an inhibition of the hyperpolarization-activated current. These data provide a coupling mechanism linking neuronal control of EEG-arousal with the effects of prior wakefulness, brain hyperthermia, and the use of the adenosine receptor blockers caffeine and theophylline. PMID:8303279

  9. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired. PMID:18563971

  10. Arousal Cues Arousal-Related Material in Memory: Implications for Understanding Effects of Mood on Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses research showing that material people learn when in a high arousal state and material they learn when in a normal arousal state is subsequently best recalled when they are in a similar arousal state. Speculates that this effect may partially underlie mood cuing, mood-related material from memory. (EKN)

  11. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  12. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.

  13. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  14. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33 years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100 μl (p<0.001), saccharose 100 μl, citrate 50 μl & 100 μl, and quinine 100 μl (p<0.05). Capsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  15. Characteristics of the infant arousal response.

    PubMed

    McNamara, F; Wulbrand, H; Thach, B T

    1998-12-01

    Arousal is considered to be an important response to a life-threatening stimulus. Recently, it has been shown that the infant arousal response to an elevated inspired CO2 level occurs as a sequence of events involving presumptive brain stem responses before awakening (A. Lijowska, N. Reed, B. Chiodini, and B. T. Thach. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 151: A151, 1995; A. S. Lijowska, N. W. Reed, B. A. Mertins Chiodini, and B. T. Thach. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 219-228, 1997). We wanted to further evaluate the relationship of subcortical reflexes to cortical arousal in infants. We used a nonrespiratory (tactile) stimulus to elicit arousal in infants during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. We found that a tactile stimulus elicited an arousal sequence that commenced with a spinal withdrawal reflex, was followed by brain stem responses (respiratory and startle responses), and ended in a cortical arousal. The entire pathway or part of it in the order of spinal to cortical responses could be elicited. REM and NREM responses were similar except for significant differences in the latencies of spinal and subcortical reflexes. These observations suggest that the infant arousal response to a tactile stimulus involves a progression of central nervous system activation from the spinal to cortical levels. The different components of the arousal pathway may be important for an infant to respond appropriately to stimuli during sleep without necessarily disturbing sleep.

  16. Free Recall of Differentially Arousing Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, John W.

    Subjects in an independent groups free learning experiment recalled list of low- or high-arousal words, matched for imagery and frequency and exposed randomly for 3 seconds and 9 seconds. Extrapolating neural consolidation theory to previous work on serial position effects led to the predictions that (1) arousal facilitates primacy; (2) arousal…

  17. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    PubMed

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings. PMID:25387152

  18. Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.

    PubMed

    Boywitt, C Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.

  19. Influence of future choice importance and arousal upon the halo effect.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Two determinants of the magnitude of the influence of anticipated choice on the halo effect are investigated: importance of future choice and arousal. Male subjects ranked photographs on positive personality traits. Half of the photographs were of persons about which they anticipated making a choice. In confirmation of the hypotheses, (a) the intercorrelation of the rankings was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects anticipated an important choice, but not when they anticipated an unimportant choice; and (b) the intercorrelation was greater for the choice photographs than for the nonchoice photographs when the subjects were aroused by caffeine and uninformed as to the source of their arousal, but not when they were informed as to the source of their arousal or not aroused. PMID:17477207

  20. Regulation of circadian rhythms in mammals by behavioral arousal.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ian C; Antle, Michael C; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms in most mammals are synchronized to local time by phase and period resetting actions of daily light-dark cycles on a retino-recipient, light-entrainable circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN receives input from other brain regions, some of which mediate the phase and period resetting actions of behavioral arousal on circadian rhythms. We review historical milestones in the discovery of so-called "nonphotic" circadian clock resetting induced by environmentally stimulated arousal, or by feedback from clock-controlled rest-activity cycles. Topics include species generality, interactions between concurrent or successive photic and nonphotic inputs to the circadian clock, neural pathways, neurotransmitters, and clock cell responses that mediate resetting by behavioral arousal. The role of behavioral inputs to the circadian clock in determining the phase of entrainment to local time in natural environments is not well understood. Nonetheless, nonphotic effects are of sufficient magnitude to raise issues for the design of experiments in behavioral neuroscience (any procedure that is sufficiently arousing may alter the timing of circadian clocks that regulate dependent variables of primary interest). Nonphotic inputs to the clock may be exploited in strategies to reset or strengthen circadian rhythms in humans. PMID:24773430

  1. Regulation of circadian rhythms in mammals by behavioral arousal.

    PubMed

    Webb, Ian C; Antle, Michael C; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms in most mammals are synchronized to local time by phase and period resetting actions of daily light-dark cycles on a retino-recipient, light-entrainable circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN receives input from other brain regions, some of which mediate the phase and period resetting actions of behavioral arousal on circadian rhythms. We review historical milestones in the discovery of so-called "nonphotic" circadian clock resetting induced by environmentally stimulated arousal, or by feedback from clock-controlled rest-activity cycles. Topics include species generality, interactions between concurrent or successive photic and nonphotic inputs to the circadian clock, neural pathways, neurotransmitters, and clock cell responses that mediate resetting by behavioral arousal. The role of behavioral inputs to the circadian clock in determining the phase of entrainment to local time in natural environments is not well understood. Nonetheless, nonphotic effects are of sufficient magnitude to raise issues for the design of experiments in behavioral neuroscience (any procedure that is sufficiently arousing may alter the timing of circadian clocks that regulate dependent variables of primary interest). Nonphotic inputs to the clock may be exploited in strategies to reset or strengthen circadian rhythms in humans.

  2. Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.

    PubMed

    Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

  3. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  4. Physiological and subjective sexual arousal in self-identified asexual women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

    2011-08-01

    Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) and subjective sexual arousal in asexual and non-asexual women. Thirty-eight women between the ages of 19 and 55 years (10 heterosexual, 10 bisexual, 11 homosexual, and 7 asexual) viewed neutral and erotic audiovisual stimuli while VPA and self-reported sexual arousal and affect were measured. There were no significant group differences in the increased VPA and self-reported sexual arousal response to the erotic film between the groups. Asexuals showed significantly less positive affect, sensuality-sexual attraction, and self-reported autonomic arousal to the erotic film compared to the other groups; however, there were no group differences in negative affect or anxiety. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance was significantly positive for the asexual women and non-significant for the other three groups, suggesting higher levels of interoceptive awareness among asexuals. Taken together, the findings suggest normal subjective and physiological sexual arousal capacity in asexual women and challenge the view that asexuality should be characterized as a sexual dysfunction.

  5. Arousal and ventilatory responses to mild hypoxia in sleeping preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Marjan M A; Richardson, Heidi L; Parslow, Peter M; Walker, Adrian M; Harding, Richard; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2008-09-01

    A failure to adequately respond to hypoxia has been implicated in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Preterm infants are at increased risk for SIDS, thus we compared ventilatory and arousal responses to mild hypoxia [15% oxygen (O2)] in preterm and term infants. Eight preterm and 15 term infants were serially studied with daytime polysomnography during which nasal airflow was monitored by pneumotachograph at 2-5 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. At each age, in both groups, hypoxia induced a significant decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2) during both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS). Infants invariably aroused in AS; and in QS either aroused or failed to arouse. In preterm infants arousal latency in AS was longer than in term infants (P < 0.05) at 2-5 weeks. Compared with term infants, preterm infants reached significantly lower SpO2 levels at 2-5 weeks in both AS and QS non-arousing tests and at 2-3 months in QS. A biphasic hypoxic ventilatory response was observed in QS non-arousing tests in both groups of infants at all three ages. We conclude that the greater desaturation during a hypoxic challenge combined with the longer arousal latency in preterm infants could contribute to greater risk for SIDS. PMID:18503514

  6. Sexual desire, not hypersexuality, predicts self-regulation of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Moholy, Maxwell; Prause, Nicole; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; S Rahman, Ardeshir; Fong, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A person's ability to control their own sexual arousal is important both to reduce the risks associated with some sexual behaviours and to respond sexually with intimate partners. A lack of control over sexual urges is a proposed feature of "hypersexual disorder", though some evidence suggests that sexual desire predicts the self-regulation of sexual arousal better than hypersexuality. In the current study, a sample (N = 116) of men and women recruited from community ads viewed a series of 20-second neutral and sexual films. Before each sexual film, participants were instructed to increase their sexual arousal, decrease their sexual arousal or respond as usual. Higher levels of desire for sex with a partner consistently predicted failures to downregulate sexual arousal. Hypersexuality was unrelated. These findings replicate Winters et al.'s study and extend their findings by including upregulation, women, a new measure of hypersexuality and a higher-trial design. PMID:25559501

  7. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  8. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  9. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are

  10. Caffeine-induced arousal modulates somatomotor and autonomic differential classical conditioning in humans.

    PubMed

    Flaten, M A

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments (n = 48 and n = 45) investigated the effects of caffeine-induced arousal on differential classical conditioning of eyeblink (experiment 1) and autonomic (experiment 2) responses. Three groups of human subjects received double-blind administration of 0, 2, and 4 mg/kg oral caffeine (groups 0, 2, and 4, respectively). Twenty minutes after caffeine administration, a differential classical conditioning procedure was in effect. Physiological and subjective arousal was assessed by readings of blood pressure, skin conductance level, and a questionnaire, administered before caffeine administration, and after the conditioning procedure. The results showed increased indexes of physiological arousal in groups 2 and 4. In experiment 1, differential classical eyeblink conditioning was observed in groups 0 and 4, whereas no differential conditioning was seen in group 2. In experiment 2, differential classical conditioning was seen in group 0, whereas caffeine-induced arousal masked acquisition of conditioned skin conductance responses in group 4. This group displayed increased resistance to extinction compared to the other groups. Group 2, which had an intermediate level of arousal, did not display differential conditioning in either experiment. Taken together, the results indicate that small increases in arousal may be detrimental to learning, and larger increases in arousal may reverse this effect. PMID:9489937

  11. Impaired arousal in rat pups with prenatal alcohol exposure is modulated by GABAergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sirieix, Chrystelle M; Tobia, Christine M; Schneider, Robert W; Darnall, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) increases the risk for The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) in human infants. In rat pups, the arousal response to hypoxia is modulated by medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. We hypothesized that arousal to hypoxia is impaired by PAE, and is associated with an increase in medullary GABA and enhanced GABAergic activity. Pregnant dams received an ethanol liquid diet (ETOH), an iso-caloric pair fed diet (PF) or a standard chow diet (CHOW). We first measured the time to arousal (latency), during four episodes of hypoxia in P5, P15, and P21 CHOW, PF, and ETOH pups. We also measured brainstem GABA concentration in the same groups of pups. Finally, we injected artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), nipecotic acid (NIP) or gabazine into the medullary raphe of P15 and P21 pups receiving the three diets. For statistical analysis, the PF and CHOW groups were combined into a single CONTROL group. Our main finding was that compared to CONTROL, arousal latency to hypoxia is increased in ETOH pups at P15 and P21, and the concentration of brainstem GABA is elevated at P21. NIP administration in CONTROL pups led to arousal latencies similar in magnitude to those in ETOH pups after aCSF injection. NIP injected ETOH pups had no further increases in arousal latency. We conclude that PAE impairs arousal latency and this is mediated or modulated by medullary GABAergic mechanisms. PMID:26059034

  12. Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic regulation of blood flow and volume in hamsters arousing from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, P G; Sato, J; Shuke, N; Hashimoto, M

    2005-08-01

    Mammals arousing from hibernation display pronounced regional heterothermy, where the thoracic and head regions warm faster than the abdominal and hindlimb regions. We used laser-Doppler flowmetry to measure peripheral hind foot blood flow during hibernation and arousal and gamma imaging of technetium-labeled albumin to measure whole blood volume distribution in hamsters arousing from hibernation. It was discovered that the hibernating hamster responds to physical but not to sound or hypercapnic stimulation with rapid, 73% reduction of hind foot blood flow. Hind foot blood flow vasoconstriction was maintained from the onset of arousal until late in arousal when rectal temperature was rapidly increased. alpha-Adrenergic blockade early in arousal increased hind foot blood flow by 700%, suggesting that vasoconstriction was mediated by activation of sympathetic tone. Gamma imaging revealed that, by the early phase of arousal from hibernation, the blood volume of the body below the liver is greatly reduced, whereas blood volumes of the thorax and head are much greater than corresponding volumes in anesthetized hamsters. As arousal progresses and cardiac activity increases and regional heterothermy develops, this regional blood volume distribution is largely maintained; however, blood volume slowly decreases in the thoracic region and slowly increases in the shoulder and head regions. The rapid increase in rectal temperature, characteristic of mid- to late- arousal phases, is probably mediated, in part, by reduction of adrenergic tone on abdominal and hindlimb vasculature. Warm blood then moves into the hind body, produces an increase in temperature, blood flow, and blood volume in the hind body and compensatory reductions of blood volume in the neck, head, and thoracic regions.

  13. Searching arousals: A fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to detect spontaneous, chin tension and limb movement-related arousals by estimating neuronal and muscular activity. Features extraction is carried out by Time Varying Autoregressive Moving Average (TVARMA) models and recursive particle filtering. Classification is performed by a fuzzy inference system with rule-based decision scheme based upon the AASM scoring rules. Our approach yielded two metrics: arousal density and arousal index to comply with standardised clinical benchmarking. The obtained statistics achieved error deviation around ±1.5 to ±30. These results showed that our system can differentiate amongst 3 different types of arousals, subject to inter-subject variability and up-to-date scoring references. PMID:26736862

  14. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.

  15. Effects of voice on emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P; Li, H Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  16. Altered sleep latency and arousal regulation in mice lacking norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Hunsley, Melissa S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Latency to sleep and the amount of sensory stimulation required to awaken an animal are measures of arousal threshold, which are ultimately modulated by an arousal regulation system involving many brain areas. Among these brain areas and network connections are wake-promoting nuclei of the brainstem and their corresponding neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we used mice that are unable to produce NE to study its role in regulating sleep latency after a variety of interventions, and to study arousal from sleep after sleep deprivation (SD). Sleep latency was measured after gentle awakening or after injections of saline, caffeine or modafinil. Sleep latency was also measured before and after partial restoration of NE pharmacologically. Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by < 2 min sleep, followed by an additional 3 h SD). Results showed that when mice were awakened without being touched, there were no differences in sleep latency between the genotypes. However, after an injection of saline, the control mice increased their sleep latency, whereas the NE-deficient mice did not. There were no group differences in sleep latency after treatment with either stimulant. The sleep latency difference between the genotypes was ameliorated by partial restoration of NE. The arousal threshold experiments revealed that significantly more noise was required to wake the NE-deficient mice after 3 and 3 + 3 h of SD. These findings show that mice lacking NE fall asleep more rapidly only after a mild stressor, such as an intraperitoneal injection. NE-deficient mice are also more difficult to wake up using audio stimulation after SD. The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances.

  17. Not always a matter of context: direct effects of red on arousal but context-dependent moderations on valence

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Markus A.

    2016-01-01

    The arousal theory of color proposes that red is associated with arousal. Research on the color-in-context theory, in turn, states that the context in which red is perceived influences its valence-related meaning and behavioral responses to it. This study faces and integrates these theories by examining the influence of red on both arousal and valence perceptions of test-relevant and neutral stimuli, rendering a color 2 (red vs. blue) × context 2 (test vs. neutral) between-subjects design. Participants rated different pictures regarding their arousal and valence component, respectively. In line with the assumptions of both theories, red increased arousal perceptions of stimuli irrespective of their valence but a context × color interaction was found for valence perceptions: for participants viewing test-relevant pictures, red increased their perceptions of negativity compared to neutral pictures. The present study shows that both theories are actually compatible when differentiating the arousal and valence component. PMID:27703858

  18. Effect of inspiratory muscle unloading on arousal responses to CO2 and hypoxia in sleeping dogs.

    PubMed

    Kimoff, R J; Kozar, L F; Yasuma, F; Bradley, T D; Phillipson, E A

    1993-03-01

    Chemical respiratory stimuli can induce arousal from sleep, but the specific mechanisms involved have not been established. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mechanoreceptor stimuli arising in the ventilatory apparatus have a role in the arousal responses to progressive hypercapnia and hypoxia by comparing arousal responses during spontaneous ventilation with those obtained when the inspiratory muscles were unloaded by mechanical ventilatory assistance. Studies were performed in three trained dogs in which the adequacy of inspiratory muscle unloading was verified by diaphragmatic electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep the arousal threshold during progressive hypercapnia increased from 68.4 +/- 0.5 (SE) mmHg during spontaneous runs to 72.3 +/- 0.8 mmHg during mechanically assisted runs (P < 0.01). In contrast there were no changes in arousal responses to hypercapnia during non-REM (NREM) sleep or to hypoxia in either NREM or REM sleep. However, during the assisted hypoxic runs, EMG activity of the transversus abdominis muscle was increased compared with the unassisted runs; therefore, the effects on arousal threshold of unloading the inspiratory muscles may have been offset by increased loading of the expiratory muscles. The findings indicate that even in the absence of added mechanical loads, mechanoreceptor stimuli probably arising in the respiratory muscles contribute to the arousal response to hypercapnia during REM sleep.

  19. Happiness and arousal: framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bjalkebring, Par; Västfjäll, Daniel; Johansson, Boo E A

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to describe their happiness as lower in arousal when compared to younger adults. In addition, older adults prefer low arousal positive emotions over high arousal positive emotions in their daily lives. We experimentally investigated whether or not changing a few words in the description of happiness could influence a person's rating of their happiness. We randomly assigned 193 participants, aged 22-92 years, to one of three conditions (high arousal, low arousal, or control). In line with previous findings, we found that older participants rated their happiness lower when framed as high in arousal (i.e., ecstatic, to be bursting with positive emotions) and rated their happiness higher when framed as low in arousal (i.e., satisfied, to have a life filled with positive emotions). Younger adults remained uninfluenced by the manipulation. Our study demonstrates that arousal is essential to understanding ratings of happiness, and gives support to the notion that there are age differences in the preference for arousal.

  20. SCN controlled circadian arousal and the afternoon "nap zone".

    PubMed

    Broughton, R J

    1998-01-01

    This paper outlines a conceptual model for the regulation of the circasemidian sleep propensity process with emphasis on a possible mechanism of the afternoon "nap zone". It is proposed that the afternoon nap zone is due to increasing sleep propensity after morning wakening (Borb ly's Process-S) being overwhelmed by a light-sensitive SCN-dependent circadian arousal process of the type discovered by Edgar et al., (1993) and currently being identified in its pathways and neurochemistry by Jouvet and colleagues. It is maintained that this arousal process is reflected in the circadian core body temperature pattern, and that under normal entrained conditions the latter does not resemble a sine-wave or skewed sine-wave. Rather it is very asymmetrical in time and somewhat asymmetrical in amplitude. Cosinor type analyses which enforce symmetry in time and amplitude are therefore ill suited to adequately curve-fit the empirical data. The shape of the circadian arousal system was clarified by meta-analyses of data from three laboratories for three conditions: the normal entrained state, the constant routine, and temporal isolation. Under normal entrained conditions for about one-third of the circadian day core body temperature, and therefore the assumed intensity of the circadian arousal system, is below the mesor with the nadir being at about 0500h; and for about two-thirds of the circadian day it is above the mesor with the acrophase on average being at about 2100h. For modeling purposes, the homeostatic process (Process-S) employed the actual data of the Zurich laboratories for night sleep, but altered the equation for the daytime period to ensure an exponential increase after wake-up. Combining these modified processes indicated that the nap zone could be explained, as predicted, by an increasing homeostatic pressure for sleep across the daytime being reversed by the circadian arousal process. This 2-process combination predicted quite well the shape of the entire

  1. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep.

  2. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Elizabeth G; Toomey, John M; Balsters, Joshua H; Bokde, Arun L W

    2012-10-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants' ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic-cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck.

  3. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

  4. Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, John M.; Balsters, Joshua H.; Bokde, Arun L. W.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants’ ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic–cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck. PMID:21948954

  5. Development of Arousal-Modulated Visual Preferences in Early Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    1995-01-01

    Looking preferences to visual temporal frequencies were examined in 77 infants at 3 ages (newborn, 1 month, and 4 months) in 3 conditions: less aroused (after feeding), more aroused-internal (before feeding), and more aroused-external (after feeding with 8 Hertz visual stimulation). Found that infants preferred faster stimuli when less aroused and…

  6. Achievement Arousal Inhibits Helping Behavior Only in Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Glynis; Eagly, Alice H.

    1984-01-01

    Subjects (N=64) were given 20 minutes to work on a high-achievement-arousal or no-achievement-arousal task while faced with an opportunity to help a graduate student. Males proved significantly more likely to help in the no-achievement-arousal condition than in the high-arousal condition, whereas females' helping was not affected by…

  7. The Role of Arousal in the Induction of Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Nora P.; Morris, William N.

    The role of autonomic arousal in feeling states has long been of interest to psychologists. To examine the necessity of arousal for an effective mood induction, 60 college students were instructed either to exercise vigorously (high arousal group), exercise lightly with a rest period (low arousal group), or complete a questionnaire (no arousal…

  8. Trazodone Effects on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-REM Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Bradley A.; Deyoung, Pam N.; McSharry, David G.; Wellman, Andrew; Velasquez, Adrian; Owens, Robert; Orr, Jeremy E.; Malhotra, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: A low respiratory arousal threshold is a physiological trait involved in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) pathogenesis. Trazodone may increase arousal threshold without compromising upper airway muscles, which should improve OSA. Objectives: We aimed to examine how trazodone alters OSA severity and arousal threshold. We hypothesized that trazodone would increase the arousal threshold and improve the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in selected patients with OSA. Methods: Subjects were studied on two separate nights in a randomized crossover design. Fifteen unselected subjects with OSA (AHI ≥ 10/h) underwent a standard polysomnogram plus an epiglottic catheter to measure the arousal threshold. Subjects were studied after receiving trazodone (100 mg) and placebo, with 1 week between conditions. The arousal threshold was calculated as the nadir pressure before electrocortical arousal from approximately 20 spontaneous respiratory events selected randomly. Measurements and Main Results: Compared with placebo, trazodone resulted in a significant reduction in AHI (38.7 vs. 28.5 events/h, P = 0.041), without worsening oxygen saturation or respiratory event duration. Trazodone was not associated with a significant change in the non-REM arousal threshold (−20.3 vs. −19.3 cm H2O, P = 0.51) compared with placebo. In subgroup analysis, responders to trazodone spent less time in N1 sleep (20.1% placebo vs. 9.0% trazodone, P = 0.052) and had an accompanying reduction in arousal index, whereas nonresponders were not observed to have a change in sleep parameters. Conclusions: These findings suggest that trazodone could be effective therapy for patients with OSA without worsening hypoxemia. Future studies should focus on underlying mechanisms and combination therapies to eliminate OSA. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01817907). PMID:25719754

  9. Mood and the DRM paradigm: An investigation of the effects of valence and arousal on false memory.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Ilse

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies regarding the effect of mood on the DRM (Deese-Roediger-McDermott) illusion have not been able to clearly establish yet whether valence or arousal is most critical in determining susceptibility to false memories, nor what the underlying processes are. In three experiments, both the valence and the level of arousal of participants' mood were manipulated. Six conditions were used: positive mood with high/low arousal, negative mood with high/low arousal, neutral mood, and a control condition. Memory was tested by means of immediate and delayed recognition and immediate free recall. The mood induction procedure was effective. For recognition memory, there was an effect of arousal on the endorsement of critical lures. Low-arousal moods elicited more false recognition than high-arousal moods, regardless of valence. Based on signal detection analyses, the effect was attributed to more liberal response criteria with low arousal, in combination with a tendency towards improved item-specific memory with high arousal.

  10. Self-focused thinking predicts nighttime physiological de-arousal.

    PubMed

    Takano, Keisuke; Ueno, Mayumi; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2014-03-01

    Excessive focus on the internal self has maladaptive consequences for mental and physical health. Although the emotional functions of self-focus have been well established, no study has examined physiological arousal during the daily experience of self-focused thinking. The present study investigates the association between self-focus and autonomic activity using the experience sampling method with ambulatory monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-five students reported the content of their thoughts during their daily activities while their heart rate (HR) was being recorded. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that HRV was lower (and HR was higher) over the sampling day if participants engaged in more self-focus, while HRV increased (and HR decreased) from midday to nighttime if participants did not engage in self-focused thinking. These results suggest that self-focus at night is associated with increased physiological arousal, and leads to inhibition of de-arousal associated with normal sleep processes. Implications for insomnia are discussed.

  11. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    PubMed

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal.

  12. Personal space invasions in the lavatory: suggestive evidence for arousal.

    PubMed

    Middlemist, R D; Knowles, E S; Matter, C F

    1976-05-01

    The hypothesis that personal space invasions produce arousal was investigated in a field experiment. A men's lavatory provided a setting where norms for privacy were salient, where personal space invasions could occur in the case of men urinating, where the opportunity for compensatory responses to invasion were minimal, and where proximity-induced arousal could be measured. Research on micturation indicates that social stressors inhibit relaxation of the external urethral sphincter, which would delay the onset of micturation, and that they increase intravesical pressure, which would shorten the duration of micturation once begun. Sixty lavatory users were randomly assigned to one of three levels of interpersonal distance and their micturation times were recorded. In a three-urinal lavatory, a confederate stood immediately adjacent to a subject, one urinal removed, or was absent. Paralleling the results of a correlational pilot study, close interpersonal distances increased the delay of onset and decreased the persistence of micturation. These findings provide objective evidence that personal space invasions produce physiological changes associated with arousal. PMID:1271224

  13. Childhood Trauma is Associated with Altered Cortical Arousal: Insights from an EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Howells, Fleur Margaret; Stein, Dan J.; Russell, Vivienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioral inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which assesses physical neglect, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and denial of childhood trauma. These individuals underwent cortical (electroencephalography) and peripheral (heart rate, skin conductance responses, and salivary cortisol) physiological recordings at rest (eyes open and eyes closed) and during performance of a visual go/no-go (GNG) task. Associations between reported childhood trauma and physiological measures were determined. Results: Physical and emotional neglect were correlated with decreased left parietal tonic α band power during resting conditions and during the GNG task. Emotional abuse was correlated with decreased right frontal α band power during rest, increased θ band power during the GNG task, and cortisol at the end of the testing session. Physical and sexual abuse were correlated with delayed P300 latency and enhanced P300 amplitude during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. The denial scale was correlated with a decrease in θ and increase in α band power during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal and that the pattern of this association is dependent on the form of childhood trauma experienced. PMID:23269916

  14. Control of arousal by the orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Chloe; Andermann, Mark L; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus play an essential role in promoting arousal and maintaining wakefulness. These neurons receive a broad variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli; they project to almost every brain region involved in the regulation of wakefulness; and they fire most strongly during active wakefulness, high motor activation, and sustained attention. This review focuses on the specific neuronal pathways through which the orexin neurons promote wakefulness and maintain high level of arousal, and how recent studies using optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods have demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, the tuberomammillary nucleus, and the basal forebrain are some of the key sites mediating the arousing actions of orexins. PMID:23683477

  15. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. PMID:26374985

  16. Perception of arousal in social anxiety: Effects of false feedback during a social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; McManus, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that during social interactions, socially anxious individuals direct their attention to internal cues of arousal and use this information to erroneously infer how they appear to others. High (N=36) and low (N=36) socially anxious adults had a conversation with a stooge, and were led to believe by false feedback that they were experiencing either an increase or decrease in arousal, or evaluating the comfort level of the feedback equipment. Compared to the other groups, participants who believed their arousal had increased, reported greater anxiety, poorer perceived performance, more physical cues of anxiety, and greater underestimation of their performance and overestimation of the visibility of their anxiety. The effects were not specific to participants with high social anxiety. Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia. PMID:17223072

  17. Timing of caffeine's impact on autonomic and central nervous system measures: clarification of arousal effects.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2008-03-01

    The timing of caffeine effects on arousal levels was examined. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) was used as the marker of arousal increase, and we sought to identify the timing of this and related effects following caffeine ingestion. A single oral dose of caffeine (250 mg) was used in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eyes-closed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) and autonomic data (SCL, heart rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure) during 2 min epochs that commenced every 4 min after ingestion, were analysed. The SCL placebo data were used to identify potential arousal measures prior to examining caffeine effects. Caffeine was associated with increased SCL, increased respiratory rate and a global reduction in alpha power. There were no significant cardiovascular effects of caffeine-induced arousal. These caffeine results are consistent with our recent electrodermal and EEG studies of arousal, and confirm the potential use of caffeine as a simple means of experimentally modifying arousal levels without task-related confounds. PMID:18093716

  18. Multilevel modulation of a sensory motor circuit during C. elegans sleep and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Julie Y.; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is characterized by behavioral quiescence, homeostasis, increased arousal threshold, and rapid reversibility. Understanding how these properties are encoded by a neuronal circuit has been difficult, and no single molecular or neuronal pathway has been shown to be responsible for the regulation of sleep. Taking advantage of the well-mapped neuronal connections of Caenorhabditis elegans and the sleep-like states in this animal, we demonstrate the changed properties of both sensory neurons and downstream interneurons that mediate sleep and arousal. The ASH sensory neuron displays reduced sensitivity to stimuli in the sleep-like state, and the activity of the corresponding interneurons in ASH’s motor circuit becomes asynchronous. Restoration of interneuron synchrony is sufficient for arousal. The multilevel circuit depression revealed provides an elegant strategy to promote a robust decrease in arousal while allowing for rapid reversibility of the sleep state. PMID:24439380

  19. Effects of manipulating valence and arousal components of mood on specificity of autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    McBride, Carolina; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2004-10-01

    An important cognitive deficit in clinical depression is the inability to be specific in recalling personal memories, a phenomenon coined "overgeneral memory" by Williams and Broadbent. Although there is general consensus that overgeneral memory is not state-dependent, most of the evidence originates from studies of this effect in clinical populations. The two components of mood, valence and arousal, were manipulated to examine their influence on memory specificity in a nonclinical sample of university undergraduate students. In Exp. 1, a Velten procedure was used to induce elated, depressed, or neutral mood states. No difference was found in autobiographical memory specificity among the three groups. In Exp. 2, high and low arousal states were induced through physical exercise. A low arousal state resulted in an increased proportion of overgeneral memories, suggesting that this memory phenomenon may be influenced by the arousal component of mood.

  20. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

  1. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  2. The role of arousal in the spontaneous regulation of emotions in healthy aging: a fMRI investigation

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Sanda; Katsumi, Yuta; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing negative emotions

  3. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense.

  4. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  5. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music.

  6. Distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence and their interaction in parallel following a temporal hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charis; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2015-04-15

    The cerebellum participates in emotion-related neural circuits formed by different cortical and subcortical areas, which sub-serve arousal and valence. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a functional specificity of cerebellar lobules in the processing of emotional stimuli. However, little is known about the temporal component of this process. The goal of the current study is to assess the spatiotemporal profile of neural responses within the cerebellum during the processing of arousal and valence. We hypothesized that the excitation and timing of distinct cerebellar lobules is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli. By using magnetoencephalography, we recorded magnetic fields from twelve healthy human individuals while passively viewing affective pictures rated along arousal and valence. By using a beamformer, we localized gamma-band activity in the cerebellum across time and we related the foci of activity to the anatomical organization of the cerebellum. Successive cerebellar activations were observed within distinct lobules starting ~160ms after the stimuli onset. Arousal was processed within both vermal (VI and VIIIa) and hemispheric (left Crus II) lobules. Valence (left VI) and its interaction (left V and left Crus I) with arousal were processed only within hemispheric lobules. Arousal processing was identified first at early latencies (160ms) and was long-lived (until 980ms). In contrast, the processing of valence and its interaction to arousal was short lived at later stages (420-530ms and 570-640ms respectively). Our findings provide for the first time evidence that distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence, and their interaction in a parallel yet temporally hierarchical manner determined by the emotional content of the stimuli. PMID:25665964

  7. Estrogens, androgens and generalized behavioral arousal in gonadectomized female and male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xi; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald; Ågmo, Anders

    2015-08-01

    General arousal has been operationally defined as an enhanced motor activity and enhanced intensity of response to sensory stimuli. Even though the effects of gonadal hormones on mating behavior have been much studied, their potential effect on generalized arousal, as defined above, has never been evaluated. In the present study we employed a thoroughly validated assay of general arousal to determine the effects of estradiol (E) and testosterone (T) in gonadectomized female and male mice, respectively. The steroids were administered in three different ways: A fast-acting, water soluble preparation given intraperitoneally, an oil solution given subcutaneously, and an oil solution in a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Motor activity and responses to sensory stimuli were recorded for 24h, 91h, and seven days following hormone administration, respectively. All measures of arousal varied according to the day/night cycle. The water soluble steroid preparation had no reliable effect. When the same doses of estradiol and testosterone were administered subcutaneously in an oil vehicle no effect of either treatment on arousal was observed. The subcutaneously implanted capsule containing estradiol or testosterone had a delayed effect on motor activity in females (four to seven days) but no effect in males. The long time required by the gonadal hormones for affecting arousal would be consistent with, but does not prove, a genomic action. The limited effects of E and T in our arousal assay suggest to us that the strongest actions of these hormones on arousal occur in the context of sequences of responses to sexually relevant stimuli. PMID:25936820

  8. Estrogens, androgens and generalized behavioral arousal in gonadectomized female and male C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Xi; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald; Ågmo, Anders

    2015-01-01

    General arousal has been operationally defined as enhanced motor activity and enhanced intensity of response to sensory stimuli. Even though the effects of gonadal hormones on mating behavior have been much studied, their potential effect on generalized arousal, as defined above, has never been evaluated. In the present study we employed a thoroughly validated assay of general arousal to determine the effects of estradiol (E) and testosterone (T) in gonadectomized female and male mice, respectively. The steroids were administered in three different ways: A fast-acting, water soluble preparation given intraperitoneally, an oil solution given subcutaneously, and an oil solution in a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Motor activity and responses to sensory stimuli were recorded for 24 h, 91 h, and seven days following hormone administration, respectively. All measures of arousal varied according to the day/night cycle. The water soluble steroid preparation had no reliable effect. When the same doses of estradiol and testosterone were administered subcutaneously in an oil vehicle no effect of either treatment on arousal was observed. The subcutaneously implanted capsule containing estradiol or testosterone had a delayed effect on motor activity in females (four to seven days) but no effect in males. The long time required by the gonadal hormones for affecting arousal would be consistent with, but does not prove, a genomic action. The limited effects of E and T in our arousal assay suggest to us that the strongest actions of these hormones on arousal occur in the context of sequences of responses to sexually relevant stimuli. PMID:25936820

  9. Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.

    PubMed

    Jouffre, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception.

  10. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  11. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  12. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  13. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  14. Valence, arousal, and cognitive control: a voluntary task-switching study.

    PubMed

    Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    The present study focused on the interplay between arousal, valence, and cognitive control. To this end, we investigated how arousal and valence associated with affective stimuli influenced cognitive flexibility when switching between tasks voluntarily. Three hypotheses were tested. First, a valence hypothesis that states that the positive valence of affective stimuli will facilitate both global and task-switching performance because of increased cognitive flexibility. Second, an arousal hypothesis that states that arousal, and not valence, will specifically impair task-switching performance by strengthening the previously executed task-set. Third, an attention hypothesis that states that both cognitive and emotional control ask for limited attentional resources, and predicts that arousal will impair both global and task-switching performance. The results showed that arousal affected task-switching but not global performance, possibly by phasic modulations of the noradrenergic system that reinforces the previously executed task. In addition, positive valence only affected global performance but not task-switching performance, possibly by phasic modulations of dopamine that stimulates the general ability to perform in a multitasking environment.

  15. Evidence of Dissociated Arousal States During NREM Parasomnia from an Intracerebral Neurophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Terzaghi, Michele; Sartori, Ivana; Tassi, Laura; Didato, Giuseppe; Rustioni, Valter; LoRusso, Giorgio; Manni, Raffaele; Nobili, Lino

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Arousal parasomnias are expressions of sleep/wake state dissociations in which wakefulness and NREM sleep seem to coexist. We describe the results of a neurophysiological (intracerebral EEG) investigation that captured an episode of confusional arousal. Design: Observational analysis. Setting: Tertiary sleep center. Subject: A 20-year-old male with refractory focal epilepsy. Measurements and Results: The intracerebral EEG findings documented the presence of a local arousal of the motor and cingulate cortices associated with increased delta activity in the frontoparietal associative cortices; these findings were noted preceding the onset and persisting throughout the episode. Conclusions: The presence of dissociated sleep/wake states in confusional arousals is the expression not of a global phenomenon, but rather of the coexistence of different local states of being: arousal of the motor and cingulate cortices and inhibition of the associative ones. Whether this is an exclusive feature of NREM parasomnias, or a common substrate on which other triggering elements act, needs to be clarified. Citation: Terzaghi M; Sartori I; Tassi L; Didato G; Rustioni V; LoRusso G; Manni R; Nobili L. Evidence of dissociated arousal states during NREM parasomnia from an intracerebral neurophysiological study. SLEEP 2009;32(3):409–412. PMID:19294961

  16. A role for primate subgenual cingulate cortex in sustaining autonomic arousal.

    PubMed

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Putnam, Philip T; Daniels, Teresa E; Yang, Tianming; Mitz, Andrew R; Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2014-04-01

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subgenual ACC) plays an important role in regulating emotion, and degeneration in this area correlates with depressed mood and anhedonia. Despite this understanding, it remains unknown how this part of the prefrontal cortex causally contributes to emotion, especially positive emotions. Using Pavlovian conditioning procedures in macaque monkeys, we examined the contribution of the subgenual ACC to autonomic arousal associated with positive emotional events. After such conditioning, autonomic arousal increases in response to cues that predict rewards, and monkeys maintain this heightened state of arousal during an interval before reward delivery. Here we show that although monkeys with lesions of the subgenual ACC show the initial, cue-evoked arousal, they fail to sustain a high level of arousal until the anticipated reward is delivered. Control procedures showed that this impairment did not result from differences in autonomic responses to reward delivery alone, an inability to learn the association between cues and rewards, or to alterations in the light reflex. Our data indicate that the subgenual ACC may contribute to positive affect by sustaining arousal in anticipation of positive emotional events. A failure to maintain positive affect for expected pleasurable events could provide insight into the pathophysiology of psychological disorders in which negative emotions dominate a patient's affective experience. PMID:24706828

  17. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  18. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  19. The Comparisons of Cerebral Hemodynamics Induced by Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Arousal and Periodic Limb Movement with Arousal: A Pilot NIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) with periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) are two sleep disorders characterized by repetitive respiratory or movement events associated with cortical arousals. We compared the cerebral hemodynamic changes linked to periodic apneas/hypopneas with arousals (AHA) in four OSA-patients with periodic limb movements (PLMA) with arousals in four patients with RLS-PLMS using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). AHA induced homogenous pattern of periodic fluctuations in oxygenated (HbO2) and deoxygenated (HHb) hemoglobin, i.e., the decrease of HbO2 was accompanied by an increase of HHb during the respiratory event and resolved to reverse pattern when cortical arousal started. Blood volume (BV) showed the same pattern as HHb but with relative smaller amplitude in most of the AHA events.These changing patterns were significant as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests gave p < 0.001 when comparing the area under the curve of these hemodynamic parameters to zero. By contrast, in PLMA limb movements induced periodic increments in HbO2 and BV (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, p < 0.001), but HHb changed more heterogeneously even during the events coming from the same patient. Heart rate (HR) also showed different patterns between AHA and PLMA. It significantly decreased during the respiratory event (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then increased after the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001); while in PLMA HR first increased preceding the occurrence of cortical arousal (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0.001) and then decreased. The results of this preliminary study show that both AHA and PLMA induce changes in cerebral hemodynamics. The occurrence of cortical arousal is accompanied by increased HR in both events, but by different BV changes (i.e., decreased/increased BV in AHA/PLMA, respectively). HR changes may partially account for the increased cerebral hemodynamics during PLMA

  20. [Increasing immunization coverage by intervening on determinants of refusal].

    PubMed

    Brunelli, M; Valsecchi, M; Speri, L; Simeoni, L; Campara, P; Porchia, S; Bolzonello, E; Russo, F; Bonavina, M G; Bovo, C

    2012-01-01

    With the regional decree 3664/2008, the Veneto Region adopted measures for improvements in the immunization program, among which the "Investigation into determinants for vaccine refusal in the Veneto Region", entrusted by the Department of Prevention Local Health Unit 20 (Ulss 20) of Verona. The objective of the study was to understand which type of parent that accessed immunization services (total adherent, partial adherent or complete refusals) and what factors lead to their choice regarding immmunizations in order to better plan strategies to maintain vaccination coverage.

  1. Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

  2. The carotid body and arousal in the fetus and neonate.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO(2). Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO(2) in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and do not know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  3. Effects of Arousal on Interpreting Other People's Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret S.; And Others

    Previous research has found that sympathetic arousal will cue information stored in memory with a similar level of arousal. To investigate the effect of arousal on the interpretation of other people's emotions, three studies were conducted. In the first study, 37 adult tennis players, who were either about to play tennis or who had just played,…

  4. Contingent negative variation indicates phasic arousal for externally cued unilateral eye blink in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Kropp, P; Hoffmeister, J; Verri, A; Galli, C; Gerber, W D

    1999-04-30

    The contingent negative variation (CNV) as a slow cortical potential was used to investigate cortical processing of externally cued, voluntary unilateral eye blink. Probands blinked as a response within a modified two-stimulus reaction time paradigm. Reaction time and amplitudes of CNV were determined. The activity of the orbicularis oculi muscles (OO) was registered by surface electromyography (EMG). Probands who performed unilateral eye blinks with accurately inhibiting contralateral OO activity showed a significantly higher negativity of the early CNV component compared with the bilateral eye blink condition. This effect was confined to the beginning of unilateral blinking performance. It is suggested that the unilateral eye blink is a challenging motor task, initially requiring an increased cortically driven arousal and attention as revealed by increased early CNV components. PMID:10336183

  5. Determinants of increases in stillbirth rates from 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, K.S.; Kinniburgh, Brooke; Hutcheon, Jennifer A.; Mehrabadi, Azar; Basso, Melanie; Davies, Cheryl; Lee, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Background: After decades of decline, stillbirth rates have increased in several industrialized countries in recent years. We examined data from the province of British Columbia, Canada, in an attempt to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Methods: We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all births in British Columbia from 2000 to 2010. Outcomes of interest included overall stillbirth rates, birth weight–and gestational age–specific stillbirth rates, rates of spontaneous stillbirths (excluding pregnancy terminations that satisfied the definition of stillbirth [fetal death with a birth weight ≥ 500 g or gestational age at delivery ≥ 20 wk], hereafter referred to as “pregnancy terminations”) and rates of congenital anomalies among live-born infants. We used logistic regression to adjust for changes in maternal age, parity, weight before pregnancy and multiple births. Results: Overall, stillbirth rates increased by 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13% to 50%), from 8.08 per 1000 total births in 2000 to 10.55 per 1000 in 2010. The rate of stillbirths with a birth weight of less than 500 g increased significantly (ptrend = 0.03), whereas the rate of stillbirths with a birth weight of 1000 g or more decreased significantly (ptrend = 0.009). The rate of spontaneous stillbirths decreased nonsignificantly by 16%, from 5.7 per 1000 total births in 2000 to 4.8 per 1000 in 2010. There was a significant decline of 30% (95% CI 6% to 47%) in the rate of spontaneous stillbirth with a birth weight of 1000 g or more between 2000 and 2010; adjustment for maternal factors did not appreciably change this temporal effect. The prevalence of congenital anomalies among live-born infants decreased significantly, from 5.21 per 100 live births during the first 3 years (2000–02) to 4.77 per 100 during the final 3 years (2008–10). Interpretation: Increases in pregnancy terminations were responsible for the increases observed in stillbirth rates and were

  6. Effects of characterological anxiety and situational arousal on the solving of a color-word interference task: hemispheric processing implications.

    PubMed

    Newman, J P

    1990-05-01

    Stroop color-word stimuli permit examination of relative hemispheric contributions to cognition. Subjects of varying trait anxiety levels underwent situational arousal manipulations. Discrete color-word stimuli were projected to the visual half-fields; motor matching responses were made. Trait anxiety affected left-hemisphere activation. Responding was faster and more accurate for moderate than low trait anxiety; at high levels, the left hemisphere became overactivated and inefficient. Situational arousal facilitated right-hemisphere performance; latencies were shorter and accuracy increased in the aroused compared with the relaxed condition. Situational arousal interacted with trait anxiety; highly trait-anxious subjects had longer latencies and decreased accuracy when relaxed than when aroused. A paradoxical effect of trait anxiety is rigidity and stereotypy of cognitive functioning, impairing ability to assume appropriate alternative cognitive modes.

  7. Disentangling desire and arousal: a classificatory conundrum.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda M; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2013-08-01

    A controversial proposal to collapse sexual disorders of desire and arousal is forthcoming in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.) (DSM-5). Yet, no study has attempted to empirically distinguish these disorders by using explicit criteria to recruit and compare distinct groups of low desire and arousal sufferers. The goal of the current study was to test the feasibility of finding medically healthy men and women meeting clearly operationalized DSM-IV-TR criteria for disorders of desire and/or arousal and compare them to matched controls. To assess operational criteria, participants completed a comprehensive telephone screening interview assessing DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria, as well as standardized self-report measures of sexual functioning. The use of operationalized DSM-IV-TR criteria to recruit participants led to the exclusion of over 75% of those reporting sexual difficulties, with the primary reason for exclusion being failure to meet at least one central diagnostic criterion. The application of the DSM-5 criteria was even more restrictive and led to the exclusion of all but four men and one woman using the original four-symptom criteria, and four men and five women using the revised three-symptom criteria. Cluster analyses supported the distinction between desire and genital arousal difficulties, and suggest that different groups with distinct clusters of symptoms may exist, two of which are consistent with the DSM-5 criteria. Overall, results highlight the need for revisions to the diagnostic criteria, which, as they stand, do not capture the full range of many people's sexual difficulties.

  8. [Determining the Bacillus subtilis biomass increase coefficient in weightlessness].

    PubMed

    Bergter, F; Kharts, D; Miuller, P Iu; Mund, K; Giunter, Iu

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a microbiological experiment carried out by the Soviet and GDR scientists onboard Salyut-6. The experiment was performed using a Bacillus subtilis suspension in the Jena unit. The purpose of the experiment was to study the time-course variations of the cell biomass increase in zero-g. The cell culture development was measured with respect to the utilization rate of glucose or casein hydrolyzate in the nutrient medium and the rate of protein accumulation in cells. It has been shown that the rate of biomass increment in zero-g lags behind the 1 g level. It can be concluded that the decreased metabolic activity of bacterial cells in zero-g is associated with changes in the cell population distribution and physicochemical parameters of the nutrient medium.

  9. Sequence determinants of protein aggregation: tools to increase protein solubility

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most widely used hosts for the production of recombinant proteins. However, very often the target protein accumulates into insoluble aggregates in a misfolded and biologically inactive form. Bacterial inclusion bodies are major bottlenecks in protein production and are hampering the development of top priority research areas such structural genomics. Inclusion body formation was formerly considered to occur via non-specific association of hydrophobic surfaces in folding intermediates. Increasing evidence, however, indicates that protein aggregation in bacteria resembles to the well-studied process of amyloid fibril formation. Both processes appear to rely on the formation of specific, sequence-dependent, intermolecular interactions driving the formation of structured protein aggregates. This similarity in the mechanisms of aggregation will probably allow applying anti-aggregational strategies already tested in the amyloid context to the less explored area of protein aggregation inside bacteria. Specifically, new sequence-based approaches appear as promising tools to tune protein aggregation in biotechnological processes. PMID:15847694

  10. Don’t Look Down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments we found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or non-arousing images before estimating the height of a two-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target size more than those who viewed non-arousing images. However, in Experiment 2, estimates of horizontal distances were not influenced by emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, we manipulated both valence and arousal cues and observed that arousal, but not valence, moderated height perception. In Experiment 4, participants either up-regulated or down-regulated their emotional experience while viewing emotionally arousing images, and a control group simply viewed the arousing images. Those participants who up-regulated their emotional experience overestimated height more than the control or down-regulated participants. In sum, emotional arousal influences estimates of height and this influence can be moderated by emotion regulation strategies. PMID:19203173

  11. Circadian clock resetting by behavioral arousal: neural correlates in the midbrain raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Webb, I C; Patton, D F; Landry, G J; Mistlberger, R E

    2010-03-31

    Some procedures for stimulating arousal in the usual daily rest period (e.g., gentle handling, novel wheel-induced running) can phase shift circadian rhythms in Syrian hamsters, while other arousal procedures are ineffective (inescapable stress, caffeine, modafinil). The dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DRN, MnR) have been implicated in clock resetting by arousal and, in rats and mice, exhibit strong regionally specific responses to inescapable stress and anxiogenic drugs. To examine a possible role for the midbrain raphe nuclei in the differential effects of arousal procedures on circadian rhythms, hamsters were aroused for 3 h in the mid-rest period by confinement to a novel running wheel, gentle handling (with minimal activity) or physical restraint (with intermittent, loud compressed air stimulation) and sacrificed immediately thereafter. Regional expression of c-fos and tryptophan hydroxylase (TrpOH) were quantified immunocytochemically in the DRN, MnR and locus coeruleus (LC). Neither gentle handling nor wheel running had a large impact on c-fos expression in these areas, although the manipulations were associated with a small increase in c-Fos in TrpOH-like and TrpOH-negative cells, respectively, in the caudal interfascicular DRN region. By contrast, restraint stress significantly increased c-Fos in both TrpOH-like and TrpOH-negative cells in the rostral DRN and LC. c-Fos-positive cells in the DRN did not express tyrosine hydroxylase. These results reveal regionally specific monoaminergic correlates of arousal-induced circadian clock resetting, and suggest a hypothesis that strong activation of some DRN and LC neurons by inescapable stress may oppose clock resetting in response to arousal during the daily sleep period. More generally, these results complement evidence from other rodent species for functional topographic organization of the DRN. PMID:20079808

  12. The impact of stimulus arousal level on emotion regulation effectiveness in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Skye; Kuo, Janice R

    2016-07-30

    Basic emotion theory suggests that the effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies vary with the intensity of the emotionally-salient stimulus. Although findings from studies using healthy samples are concordant with what is proposed by theory, it is unclear whether these relationships hold true among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty-five individuals with BPD and 30 HCs were exposed to negative images of varying levels of emotional arousal and were instructed to either react as they normally would, distract, or use mindful awareness. Self-reported negativity ratings, heart rate, and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored throughout. SCL data indicated that increases in image arousal resulted in larger reductions in SCL when distracting but not when implementing mindful awareness. Self-report data suggested that, in HCs, the effectiveness of mindful awareness decreased to a greater extent than distraction when image arousal increased. These findings are consistent with basic emotion research and suggest that some forms of emotion regulation (distraction) are more suited to high emotion arousal contexts than others (mindful awareness) and that, compared with HCs, individuals with BPD may be more resilient to the deteriorating effectiveness of mindful awareness with respect to increasing emotional arousal. PMID:27203152

  13. The effect of maternal smoking on respiratory and arousal patterns in preterm infants during sleep.

    PubMed

    Sawnani, Hemant; Jackson, Tonya; Murphy, Thomas; Beckerman, Robert; Simakajornboon, Narong

    2004-03-15

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. The effect of maternal smoking on apnea and arousal patterns in preterm infants is currently unknown. Multichannel polysomnographic studies were performed in preterm infants. Thirty infants were enrolled into the study: 16 exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke (S) and 14 control infants (C). There was no difference in the gestational and postconceptional ages at the time of study. Maternal smoking was associated with a significant increase in the apneic index in these infants (28.6 +/- 6.4/hour [S] vs. 13.2 +/- 3.9 [C]; p<0.05), and the difference was noted for obstructive events and only during active sleep. The arousal index was significantly decreased in the maternal smoking group (34.5 +/- 2.3/hour [S] vs. 46.3 +/- 5.6/hour [C]; p<0.05), with a specific decrease in percentage of arousal after respiratory events (10.7 +/- 2.1% [S] vs. 29.4 +/- 5.4% [C]; p<0.05). In conclusion, preterm infants exposed prenatally to cigarette smoke have increased respiratory events during active sleep, predominantly due to obstructive apnea, and possibly a higher arousal threshold during apneic events. These alterations in respiratory and arousal patterns in preterm infants born to smoking mothers may lead to significant vulnerability in this population. PMID:14684558

  14. Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

  15. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  16. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    PubMed

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions.

  17. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    PubMed

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness.

  18. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games.

  19. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P < 2E-13), the arousal/awakening index (r = 0.68, P < 5E-6), and with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). ORP-9 was consistent within each patient and did not change on continuous positive airway pressure despite marked improvement in sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity.

  20. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

  1. Sudden infant deaths: arousal as a survival mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Andre; Groswasser, Jose; Franco, Patricia; Scaillet, Sonia; Sawaguchi, Toshiko; Kelmanson, Igor; Bernanrd, Dan

    2002-12-01

    The mechanisms responsible for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are still largely unknown. To explain what factors contribute to the deaths, we suggest a model: the '3 S model for SIDS' that includes 'sicknesses', 'stages of development' and 'surroundings': (1) 'sicknesses' refers to infectious diseases or other medical condition. (2) 'Stages of development' relates to the maturation of vital systems including respiratory, neurovegetative or sleep-wake behavioral controls. (3) 'Surroundings' refers to environmental conditions that enhance the deficiency of cardiorespiratory, vegetative and/or arousal controls. Such conditions were identified by epidemiological studies and include the following main risk factors: the prone body position during sleep, high environmental temperature, maternal smoking or sleep deprivation. An infant could be at higher risk for SIDS because of a deficiency in breathing and cardiac autonomic controls during sleep, inducing repeated episodes of hypoxia and hypoxemia. The risk is increased when the infant has a lower propensity to arouse from sleep and so, to autoresuscitate. The accident has a greater probability to occur when an infection, or an unfavorable environmental factor aggravates the immature cardiorespiratory and sleep/wake behaviors of the infant. The clinical findings could be related to the changes reported in the brainstems of SIDS victims. PMID:14592372

  2. Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens☆

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A.C.; Radford, A.N.; Nicol, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

  3. Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Nicol, C J

    2013-10-24

    Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24513559

  4. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  5. Sensitization, subjective health complaints, and sustained arousal.

    PubMed

    Ursin, H; Eriksen, H R

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the possibility that sensitization is a psychobiological mechanism underlying not only multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS), but a much more general cluster of illness, referred to as "subjective health complaints". Sustained arousal, or sustained "stress" responses, may be an important factor for the development of these conditions. Patients with subjective complaints without objective changes are sometimes referred to as having "fashionable diagnoses" or "unexplained symptoms". They may be given diagnoses like MCS, epidemic fatigue, chronic fatigue syndrome, burnout, stress, a variety of intoxications, environmental illness, radiation, multiple chemical hypersensitivity, food intolerance, functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel, myalgic encephalitis, postviral syndrome, yuppie flu, fibromyalgia, or vital exhaustion. One issue is whether this is one general condition or separate entities. Another issue is whether sensitization may be the psychobiological mechanism for most or all of these conditions. Finally, is it likely that sustained arousal may facilitate the development of sensitization in some or many neural circuits? In this review, the main emphasis will be on musculoskeletal pain. This is the most frequent and most expensive condition for sickness compensation and disability. The comorbidity of other complaints, however, will also be taken into account.

  6. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  7. Psychophysiological sexual arousal in women with a history of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in women with CSA and PTSD. We measured physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women with CSA (n = 8), women with CSA and PTSD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) during exposure to nonerotic and erotic videos. After exercise, women with CSA and women with CSA and PTSD showed no significant differences in the physiological sexual response compared with no exercise, which was different from the increased physiological sexual response after exercise observed in control women. PMID:16234222

  8. Emotional arousal and discount rate in intertemporal choice are reference-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Many decisions involve weighing immediate gratification against future consequences. In such intertemporal choices, people often choose smaller, immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. It has been proposed that emotional responses to immediate rewards lead us to choose them at our long-term expense. Here we utilize an objective measure of emotional arousal – pupil dilation – to examine the role of emotion in these decisions. We show that emotional arousal responses, as well as choices, in intertemporal choice tasks are reference-dependent and reflect the decision-maker’s recent history of offers. Arousal increases when less predictable rewards are better than expected, whether those rewards are immediate or delayed. Furthermore, when immediate rewards are less predictable than delayed rewards, participants tend to be patient. When delayed rewards are less predictable, immediate rewards are preferred. Our findings suggest that we can encourage people to be more patient by changing the context in which intertemporal choices are made. PMID:25602754

  9. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external.

  10. The association between bullying behaviour, arousal levels and behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah; White, Eleanor

    2005-06-01

    Research into bullying behaviour has identified two main categories of bullying behaviour, direct bullying and relational bullying, within which different profiles are evident, namely 'pure' bullies, 'pure' victims, bully/victims and neutral children. The current study examined the relationship between direct and relational bullying profiles, arousal levels, and behaviour problems. 242 (males: 121, females: 121) Secondary school pupils (mean age 13.5 years) completed three questionnaires; the Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS) (Behav. Res. Therapy 26 (1988) 415); the School Relationships Questionnaire (SRQ) (detailed in J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 41(8) (2000) 989; Br. J. Psychol. 92 (2001) 673); the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 38(5) (1997) 581). Results revealed that the bully/victim profile for direct and relational bullying had the highest levels of arousal compared to other bullying profiles. Conversely, direct 'pure' bullies had low levels of arousal. Clinical behaviour problems as measured by the SDQ were associated with high levels of arousal. Clinically low arousal was not related to either bullying profiles, or behaviour problems. These findings were largely consistent with the arousal theory of behaviour (Crime and personality, 1964), which indicates that arousal levels are differentially associated with distinct behaviour patterns. The results provide implications for bullying intervention strategies, and methods to manage the school environment in relation to arousal levels.

  11. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  12. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  13. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Stein, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a component of nonrecollective retrieval) relative to…

  14. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology.

  15. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  16. Autonomic Arousal and Emotion in Victims of Interpersonal Violence: Shame Proneness But Not Anxiety Predicts Vagal Tone.

    PubMed

    Freed, Steven; D'Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The redefinition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, has highlighted a range of posttraumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. Although biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests that shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system that have previously been assumed to be fear related.

  17. Autonomic arousal and emotion in victims of interpersonal violence: Shame proneness but not anxiety predicts vagal tone

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Steven; D’Andrea, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The redefinition of PTSD in the DSM-5 has highlighted a range of post-traumatic affects beyond fear and anxiety. For survivors of interpersonal violence, shame has been shown to be an important contributor of self-reported symptomatology. While biological models of PTSD emphasize physiological arousal secondary to fear and anxiety, evidence suggests shame might be related to increased arousal as well. This study tested the contributions of anxiety, fear, and shame to autonomic arousal in a sample of female victims (N = 27) of interpersonal violence with PTSD. Shame proneness was the only significant correlate of autonomic arousal during a trauma-reminder paradigm. These findings indicate that shame corresponds to important indicators of changes to the autonomic nervous system, which have previously been assumed to be fear-related. PMID:25894989

  18. Neural Respiratory Drive and Arousal in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Si-Chang; He, Bai-Ting; Steier, Joerg; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Luo, Yuan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: It has been hypothesized that arousals after apnea and hypopnea events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea are triggered when neural respiratory drive exceeds a certain level, but this hypothesis is based on esophageal pressure data, which are dependent on flow and lung volume. We aimed to determine whether a fixed threshold of respiratory drive is responsible for arousal at the termination of apnea and hypopnea using a flow independent technique (esophageal diaphragm electromyography, EMGdi) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Setting: Sleep center of state Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease. Patients: Seventeen subjects (two women, mean age 53 ± 11 years) with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome were studied Methods: We recorded esophageal pressure and EMGdi simultaneously during overnight full polysomnography in all the subjects. Measurements and Results: A total of 709 hypopnea events and 986 apnea events were analyzed. There was wide variation in both esophageal pressure and EMGdi at the end of both apnea and hypopnea events within a subject and stage 2 sleep. The EMGdi at the end of events that terminated with arousal was similar to those which terminated without arousal for both hypopnea events (27.6% ± 13.9%max vs 29.9% ± 15.9%max, P = ns) and apnea events (22.9% ± 11.5%max vs 22.1% ± 12.6%max, P = ns). The Pes at the end of respiratory events terminated with arousal was also similar to those terminated without arousal. There was a small but significant difference in EMGdi at the end of respiratory events between hypopnea and apnea (25.3% ± 14.2%max vs 21.7% ± 13.2%max, P < 0.05]. Conclusions: Our data do not support the concept that there is threshold of neural respiratory drive that is responsible for arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Xiao SC, He BT, Steier J, Moxham J, Polkey MI, Luo YM. Neural respiratory drive and arousal in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea. SLEEP 2015

  19. Autonomic arousal explains social cognitive abilities in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mathersul, Danielle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline A

    2013-09-01

    Empirical research into behavioural profiles and autonomic responsivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is highly variable and inconsistent. Two preliminary studies of children with ASDs suggest that there may be subgroups of ASDs depending on their resting arousal levels, and that these subgroups show different profiles of autonomic responsivity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether (i) adults with high-functioning ASDs may be separated into subgroups according to variation in resting arousal; and (ii) these ASD arousal subgroups differ in their behavioural profiles for basic emotion recognition, judgements of trustworthiness, and cognitive and affective empathy. Thirty high-functioning adults with ASDs and 34 non-clinical controls participated. Resting arousal was determined as the average skin conductance (SCL) across a 2 min resting period. There was a subgroup of ASD adults with significantly lower resting SCL. These individuals demonstrated poorer emotion recognition, tended to judge faces more negatively, and had atypical relationships between SCL and affective empathy. In contrast, low cognitive empathy was a feature of all ASD adults. These findings have important implications for clinical interventions and future studies investigating autonomic functioning in ASDs.

  20. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  1. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  2. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  3. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  4. Prediction of Gymnastic Performance from Arousal and Anxiety Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    This study predicts gymnastic performance, arousal, and anxiety measures from past performances. Pulse rate and the Palmar Sweat Index were utilized as indicants of arousal. Anxiety was assessed by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Eighteen members of the Ithaca College women's varsity gymnastic team were tested throughout the 1973-74…

  5. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…

  6. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  7. Memory Performance After Arousal from Different Sleep Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)

  8. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  9. Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization

    PubMed Central

    Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

  10. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes. PMID:15811068

  11. The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

    2010-06-01

    Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase.

  12. Fasting activated histaminergic neurons and enhanced arousal effect of caffeine in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Qun; Li, Rui; Wu, Xu; Zhu, Fen; Takata, Yohko; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Li, Shan-Qun; Qu, Wei-Min

    2015-06-01

    Caffeine, a popular psychoactive compound, promotes wakefulness via blocking adenosine A2A receptors in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, which projects to the arousal histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The TMN controls several behaviors such as wakefulness and feeding. Fasting has been reported to activate the TMN histaminergic neurons to increase arousal. Therefore, we propose that caffeine may promote greater arousal under fasting rather than normal feeding conditions. In the current study, locomotor activity recording, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram recording and c-Fos expression were used in wild type (WT) and histamine H1 receptor (H1R) knockout (KO) mice to investigate the arousal effects of caffeine under fasting conditions. Caffeine (15mg/kg) enhanced locomotor activity in fasted mice for 5h, but only did so for 3h in normally fed animals. Pretreatment with the H1R antagonist pyrilamine abolished caffeine-induced stimulation on locomotor activity in fasted mice. EEG recordings confirmed that caffeine-induced wakefulness for 3h in fed WT mice, and for 5h in fasted ones. A stimulatory effect of caffeine was not observed in fasted H1R KO mice. Furthermore, c-Fos expression was increased in the TMN under fasting conditions. These results indicate that caffeine had greater wakefulness-promoting effects in fasted mice through the mediation of H1R.

  13. Norepinephrine is required to promote wakefulness and for hypocretin-induced arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Chanpreet; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Prober, David A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological studies in mammals suggest that norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in promoting arousal. However, the role of endogenous NE is unclear, with contradicting reports concerning the sleep phenotypes of mice lacking NE due to mutation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (dbh). To investigate NE function in an alternative vertebrate model, we generated dbh mutant zebrafish. In contrast to mice, these animals exhibit dramatically increased sleep. Surprisingly, despite an increase in sleep, dbh mutant zebrafish have a reduced arousal threshold. These phenotypes are also observed in zebrafish treated with small molecules that inhibit NE signaling, suggesting that they are caused by the lack of NE. Using genetic overexpression of hypocretin (Hcrt) and optogenetic activation of hcrt-expressing neurons, we also find that NE is important for Hcrt-induced arousal. These results establish a role for endogenous NE in promoting arousal and indicate that NE is a critical downstream effector of Hcrt neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07000.001 PMID:26374985

  14. Can arousing feedback rectify lapses in driving? Prediction from EEG power spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Chuang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Li-Wei; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Objective. This study explores the neurophysiological changes, measured using an electroencephalogram (EEG), in response to an arousing warning signal delivered to drowsy drivers, and predicts the efficacy of the feedback based on changes in the EEG. Approach. Eleven healthy subjects participated in sustained-attention driving experiments. The driving task required participants to maintain their cruising position and compensate for randomly induced lane deviations using the steering wheel, while their EEG and driving performance were continuously monitored. The arousing warning signal was delivered to participants who experienced momentary behavioral lapses, failing to respond rapidly to lane-departure events (specifically the reaction time exceeded three times the alert reaction time). Main results. The results of our previous studies revealed that arousing feedback immediately reversed deteriorating driving performance, which was accompanied by concurrent EEG theta- and alpha-power suppression in the bilateral occipital areas. This study further proposes a feedback efficacy assessment system to accurately estimate the efficacy of arousing warning signals delivered to drowsy participants by monitoring the changes in their EEG power spectra immediately thereafter. The classification accuracy was up 77.8% for determining the need for triggering additional warning signals. Significance. The findings of this study, in conjunction with previous studies on EEG correlates of behavioral lapses, might lead to a practical closed-loop system to predict, monitor and rectify behavioral lapses of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  15. A Streetcar Named "Derousal"? A Psychophysiological Examination of the Desire-Arousal Distinction in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Women.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that desire and arousal problems are highly interrelated in women. Therefore, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) were removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and a new diagnostic category, female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD), was created to include both arousal and desire difficulties. However, no research has tried to distinguish these problems based on psychosocial-physiological patterns to identify whether unique profiles exist. This study compared psychosocial-physiological patterns in a community sample of 84 women meeting DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ) criteria for HSDD (n = 22), FSAD (n = 18), both disorders (FSAD/HSDD; n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 19). Women completed self-report measures and watched neutral and erotic films while genital arousal (GA) and subjective arousal (SA) were measured. Results indicated that GA increased equally for all groups during the erotic condition, whereas women with HSDD and FSAD/HSDD reported less SA than controls or FSAD women. Women in the clinical groups also showed lower concordance and greater impairment on psychosocial variables as compared to controls, with women with FSAD/HSDD showing lowest functioning. Results have important implications for the classification and treatment of these difficulties. PMID:26457746

  16. Sexual arousal patterns: normal and deviant.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gene G; Coffey, Latricia; Osborn, Candice A

    2008-12-01

    The fetish objects in these case histories were unique enough, and the attraction to the objects strong enough, that the individuals could clearly track their interest from early childhood through adulthood. It is much easier to retrieve remote, explicit memories, such as events (eg, a party where balloons popped) or playing with objects, than to recall the process of sexual development with no distinct markers in the individual's history. Because these distinct experiences predated identified sexuality, became a focus of attention for the individual, and then were incorporated into the individual's sexual interests and masturbatory fantasies, it was possible to accurately track the patterns of sexual arousal. We were also able to clearly identify how these men attempted to blend their deviant interests into sexual relationships with partners and the consequences of their efforts. If we are to understand how sexual interests develop, a number of obstacles need to be overcome. Sexual interest has to be openly discussed. Parents need to appreciate how the early sexual interests of their children can go awry, contaminate their adult relationships, and lead to problematic lives. Researchers need a means of understanding how to communicate with children about their earliest interests, sexual interests, and sexual behaviors in a nonjudgmental manner. Until then, tracking unusual interests that lead to erotic interests is the first step in the overall process of understanding how sexual interest develops and is assimilated, either successfully or unsuccessfully, into an individual's adult sexual life. PMID:18996304

  17. A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception

    PubMed Central

    Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

  18. Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.

    PubMed

    Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

  19. 45 CFR 154.225 - Determination by CMS or a State of an unreasonable rate increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination by CMS or a State of an unreasonable... REQUIREMENTS Disclosure and Review Provisions § 154.225 Determination by CMS or a State of an unreasonable rate increase. (a) When CMS receives a Preliminary Justification for a rate increase subject to review and...

  20. How prevalent is wishful thinking? Misattribution of arousal causes optimism and pessimism in subjective probabilities.

    PubMed

    Vosgerau, Joachim

    2010-02-01

    People appear to be unrealistically optimistic about their future prospects, as reflected by theory and research in the fields of psychology, organizational behavior, behavioral economics, and behavioral finance. Many real-world examples (e.g., consumer behavior during economic recessions), however, suggest that people are not always overly optimistic. I suggest that people can be both overly optimistic and pessimistic in their beliefs about future events, depending on whether they focus on success or on failure. More specifically, people judge the likelihood of desirable and undesirable events to be higher than similar neutral events because they misattribute the arousal those events evoke to their greater perceived likelihood. I demonstrated this stake-likelihood effect in 4 studies. In Study 1, arousal was shown to increase likelihood judgments. Study 2 demonstrated that such elevated likelihood judgments are due to misattribution of the arousal from having a stake in the outcome. Study 3 demonstrated that such misattribution of arousal occurs for desirable and undesirable events. Study 4 showed the effects of optimism and pessimism on likelihood judgments in a field setting with soccer fans. Together, the findings suggest that wishful thinking might be less prevalent than previously believed. Pessimism might be as likely as optimism in subjective probabilities. PMID:20121311

  1. The role of arousal related brainstem reflexes in causing recovery from upper airway occlusion in infants.

    PubMed

    Wulbrand, Henning; McNamara, Frances; Thach, Bradley T

    2008-06-01

    During obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults upper airway reopening coincides with a sudden burst in activity of pharyngeal dilating muscles. This has been attributed to arousal from sleep as indicated by increased EEG activity. Recovery from OSA in infants often occurs in the absence of cortical arousal. To investigate mechanisms involved in recovery, we performed experimental airway occlusions in sleeping infants. Based on past work, our hypothesis was that a sleep startle combined with an augmented breath and heart rate acceleration would occur during the occlusion, and that such brainstem mediated reflexes might provide an explanation for recovery from OSA in the absence of cortical arousal. However, this is contrary to expectations, since lung inflation is believed to be necessary for occurrence of an augmented breath. We studied 16 healthy infants during sleep. We recorded EEG, EOG, ECG, oxygen saturation, diaphragmatic, nuchal and limb electromyograms, face mask pressure, and airflow. A startle, accompanied by neck extension, limb and nuchal EMG activation, as well as heart rate acceleration occurred during all airway occlusions. The startle occurred simultaneously with a large biphasic inspiratory effort, having characteristics of an augmented breath (sigh). In more than a third of cases, this occurred without any evidence of cortical arousal activity. The magnitude of startles as well as the increase in heart rate correlated positively with peak airway negative pressure, indicating that arousal processes are graded in intensity. We conclude that the neck extension and pharyngeal dilating muscle activity associated with the startle and augmented breath may account for recovery of airway patency in infants as they do adults. Lung inflation is not a prerequisite for the reflex to occur. PMID:18548828

  2. Exploring the role of neuropeptide S in the regulation of arousal: a functional anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Adori, Csaba; Barde, Swapnali; Vas, Szilvia; Ebner, Karl; Su, Jie; Svensson, Camilla; Mathé, Aleksander A; Singewald, Nicolas; Reinscheid, Rainer R; Uhlén, Mathias; Kultima, Kim; Bagdy, György; Hökfelt, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a regulatory peptide expressed by limited number of neurons in the brainstem. The simultaneous anxiolytic and arousal-promoting effect of NPS suggests an involvement in mood control and vigilance, making the NPS-NPS receptor system an interesting potential drug target. Here we examined, in detail, the distribution of NPS-immunoreactive (IR) fiber arborizations in brain regions of rat known to be involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. Such nerve terminals were frequently apposed to GABAergic/galaninergic neurons in the ventro-lateral preoptic area (VLPO) and to tyrosine hydroxylase-IR neurons in all hypothalamic/thalamic dopamine cell groups. Then we applied the single platform-on-water (mainly REM) sleep deprivation method to study the functional role of NPS in the regulation of arousal. Of the three pontine NPS cell clusters, the NPS transcript levels were increased only in the peri-coerulear group in sleep-deprived animals, but not in stress controls. The density of NPS-IR fibers was significantly decreased in the median preoptic nucleus-VLPO region after the sleep deprivation, while radioimmunoassay and mass spectrometry measurements showed a parallel increase of NPS in the anterior hypothalamus. The expression of the NPS receptor was, however, not altered in the VLPO-region. The present results suggest a selective activation of one of the three NPS-expressing neuron clusters as well as release of NPS in distinct forebrain regions after sleep deprivation. Taken together, our results emphasize a role of the peri-coerulear cluster in the modulation of arousal, and the importance of preoptic area for the action of NPS on arousal and sleep. PMID:26462664

  3. Social Attention, Affective Arousal and Empathy in Men with Klinefelter Syndrome (47,XXY): Evidence from Eyetracking and Skin Conductance

    PubMed Central

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barendse, Marjolein; van Goozen, Stephanie; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome (Klinefelter syndrome) are at risk for problems in social functioning and have an increased vulnerability for autism traits. In the search for underlying mechanisms driving this increased risk, this study focused on social attention, affective arousal and empathy. Seventeen adults with XXY and 20 non-clinical controls participated in this study. Eyetracking was used to investigate social attention, as expressed in visual scanning patterns in response to the viewing of empathy evoking video clips. Skin conductance levels, reflecting affective arousal, were recorded continuously during the clips as well. Empathic skills, i.e. participants' understanding of own and others' emotions in response to the clips was also assessed. Results showed reduced empathic understanding, decreased visual fixation to the eye region, but increased affective arousal in individuals with Klinefelter syndrome. We conclude that individuals with XXY tend to avoid the eye region. Considering the increased affective arousal, we speculate that this attentional deployment strategy may not be sufficient to successfully downregulate affective hyper-responsivity. As increased affective arousal was related to reduced empathic ability, we hypothesize that own affective responses to social cues play an important role in difficulties in understanding the feelings and intentions of others. This knowledge may help in the identification of risk factors for psychopathology and targets for treatment. PMID:24416272

  4. Fear and physiological arousal during a virtual height challenge--effects in patients with acrophobia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Julia; Lohkamp, Nora; Mühlberger, Andreas; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy is becoming increasingly established, but the mode of action is not well understood. One potential efficacy factor might be physiological arousal. To investigate arousal during VR exposure, we exposed 40 patients with acrophobia and 40 matched healthy controls to a VR height challenge and assessed subjective (fear ratings) and physiological (heart rate, skin conductance level, salivary cortisol) fear reactions. Patients experienced a significant increase of subjective fear, heart rate and skin conductance level. Unexpectedly, controls, who reported no subjective fear, also showed an increase in heart rate and skin conductance. There was no increase in salivary cortisol levels in either group. Physiological arousal in acrophobic patients, in contrast to subjective fear, might not be stronger than that of controls confronted with height cues in VR, indicating marked discordance across symptom domains. The lack of a cortisol response in a clearly stressful paradigm warrants further study.

  5. Attentional interference effects of emotional pictures: threat, negativity, or arousal?

    PubMed

    Schimmack, Ulrich; Derryberry, Douglas

    2005-03-01

    Attentional interference arising from emotional pictures was examined. Participants had to ignore emotional pictures while solving math problems (Study 1, N = 126) or detecting the location of a line (Study 2, N = 60). Data analyses tested predictions of 3 theories. Evolutionary threat theory predicts interference by snake pictures. Categorical negativity theory predicts interference by negative pictures regardless of their intensity. According to arousal theory, arousal level predicts interference effects. The results supported arousal theory, with the most arousing pictures (strong unpleasant pictures, oppositesex models) producing the strongest interference. The findings are interpreted in the context of process models of emotions that postulate an initial relevance check before further processing of valence and other appraisal dimensions.

  6. Alterations in grip strength during male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Jiao, C; Turman, B; Weerakoon, P; Knight, P

    2006-01-01

    Although it is known that alterations in grip strength occur under a number of conditions, little is known about relationships between grip strength and sexual arousal. This relationship was investigated in 30 healthy heterosexual males, who viewed both erotic and nonerotic videos. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of sexual arousal. The grip strengths of both hands were measured with a five-position (P1-P5) dynamometer, before and after watching the videos. After watching the erotic video, there was a statistically significant reduction in grip strength for the P2 position, with nonsignificant overall reductions in grip strength for all other positions tested. No such effect was observed in control tests. The results indicate that during sexual arousal, the neural system is likely to reduce the output to muscles not directly related to sexual function, presumably to enhance the physiological responses of sexual arousal. PMID:16254571

  7. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  8. The Effects on Arousal of Frustration and Aggressive Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doob, Anthony N.; Kirshenbaum, Hershi M.

    1973-01-01

    Research supported by grant from the Canada Council. Studies effects of film violence on aggressive behavior. Suggests that for high levels of arousal, an aggressive movie could stop frustration-produced stimuli and hostility. (DS)

  9. Molecular and cellular sex differences at the intersection of stress and arousal.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Rita J; Reyes, Beverly; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth; Bangasser, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex biases in the prevalence and severity of diseases can advance our understanding of their pathophysiological basis and serve as a guide for developing treatments. A well-established sex difference in psychiatry is the higher incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in females. These disorders share stress as a potential etiological contributor and hyperarousal as a core symptom, suggesting that the distinction between sexes lies at the intersection of stress and arousal systems. This review focuses on the link between the stress axis and the brain norepinephrine arousal system as a key point at which sex differences occur and are translated to differences in the expression of mood disorders. Evidence for a circuit designed to relay emotion-related information via the limbic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system to the locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine arousal system is reviewed. This is followed by recent novel findings of sex differences in CRF receptor signaling and trafficking that would result in an enhanced arousal response and a compromised ability to adapt to chronic stress in females. Finally, we discuss the evidence for sex differences in LC dendritic structure that allow for an increased receipt and processing of limbic information in females compared to males. Together these complementary sets of data suggest that in females, the LC arousal system is poised to process more limbic information and to respond to some of this information in an enhanced manner compared to males. The clinical and therapeutic considerations arising from this perspective are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21712048

  10. Enhanced post-learning memory consolidation is influenced by arousal predisposition and emotion regulation but not by stimulus valence or arousal.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Kristy A; Lorber, William

    2009-07-01

    Emotionally arousing stimuli are more memorable than neutral ones and arousal induced after learning enhances later retrieval. However, there is as yet little study of how stimulus qualities might interact with induced arousal and how individual differences might influence the modulation of memory. Thus, the present study examined the effect of arousal induced after learning on memory for words that varied in both arousal and valence quality, as well as the influence of three individual differences factors that are known to influence arousal response: emotional suppression, emotional reappraisal, and arousal predisposition. Seventy-six adults (57 female) viewed and rated 60 words that normatively ranged from high to low in arousal and valence. Ten minutes later, they viewed a 3-min comedic or neutral video clip. Arousal induced after learning enhanced 1-week delayed memory, spanning the lengthy task without preference for word type or serial position, contrasting with reports of arousal effects interacting with stimulus qualities. Importantly, being predisposed to arousal led to greater enhancement of long-term memory modulation, while the use of emotional reappraisal, which reduces arousal responding, inhibited the ability of arousal to induce memory enhancement. Thus, individual differences that influence arousal responding can contribute to or interfere with memory modulation.

  11. Women's genital sexual arousal to oral versus penetrative heterosexual sex varies with menstrual cycle phase at first exposure.

    PubMed

    Suschinsky, Kelly D; Bossio, Jennifer A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-03-01

    Reproductive-aged women show increased interest in sexual activity during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle that can motivate sexual behavior and thereby increase the likelihood of conception. We examined whether women demonstrated greater sexual responses (subjective and genital sexual arousal) to penetrative versus oral sexual activities during the fertile versus non-fertile phases of their cycles, and whether women's arousal responses were influenced by the phase during which they were first exposed to these sexual stimuli (e.g., Slob et al., 1991; Wallen and Rupp, 2010). Twenty-two androphilic women completed two identical sexual arousal assessments in which genital responses were measured with a vaginal photoplethysmograph and their feelings of sexual arousal were recorded. Women viewed an array of 90s films varying by couple type (female-female, male-male, female-male) and sexual activity type (oral or penetrative), during the fertile (follicular) and non-fertile (luteal) phases of their menstrual cycle, with the order of cycle phase at the first testing session counter-balanced. Women tested first in the fertile phase showed significantly greater genital arousal to female-male penetrative versus oral sex in both testing sessions, whereas self-reports of sexual arousal were not affected by cycle phase or testing order. These results contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that fertility status at first exposure to sexual stimuli has a significant effect on subsequent sexual responses to sexual stimuli, and that this effect may differ for subjective versus genital sexual arousal. PMID:24486567

  12. Infralimbic cortex activation and motivated arousal induce histamine release

    PubMed Central

    Forray, María Inés; Torrealba, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive behaviours occur in a state of behavioural and physiological activation that allows the optimal performance of these goal-directed behaviours. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histamine neurons under the command of the infralimbic cortex are important to provide behavioural activation. Extracellular histamine and serotonin were measured by microdialysis of the medial prefrontal cortex in behaving rats in parallel with a picrotoxin microinjection into the infralimbic cortex. The injection aroused the rats behaviourally, increased histamine release and decreased serotonin levels. Inhibition of the infralimbic cortex with muscimol produced the opposite effects on neurotransmitter release. The behavioural activation induced by motivating hungry rats with caged food was paralleled by an immediate histamine release, whereas awakening induced by tapping their microdialysis bowl increased serotonin, but not histamine levels. In conclusion, picrotoxin injection into the infralimbic cortex produces behavioural activation together with histamine release; in a similar manner, induction of an appetitive state produced histamine release, likely related to increased behavioural activation characteristic of an appetitive behaviour. PMID:25746330

  13. The influence of gender and upper airway resistance on the ventilatory response to arousal in obstructive sleep apnoea in humans

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; McEvoy, R Doug; Edwards, Jill K; Schory, Karen; Yang, Chang-Kook; Catcheside, Peter G; Fogel, Robert B; Malhotra, Atul; White, David P

    2004-01-01

    The termination of obstructive respiratory events is typically associated with arousal from sleep. The ventilatory response to arousal may be an important determinant of subsequent respiratory stability/instability and therefore may be involved in perpetuating obstructive respiratory events. In healthy subjects arousal is associated with brief hyperventilation followed by more prolonged hypoventilation on return to sleep. This study was designed to assess whether elevated sleeping upper airway resistance (RUA) alters the ventilatory response to arousal and subsequent breathing on return to sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Inspired minute ventilation (VI), RUA and end-tidal CO2 pressure (PET,CO2) were measured in 22 patients (11 men, 11 women) with OSA (mean ±s.e.m., apnoea–hypopnoea index (AHI) 48.9 ± 5.9 events h−1) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep with low RUA (2.8 ± 0.3 cmH2O l−1 s; optimal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) = 11.3 ± 0.7 cmH2O) and with elevated RUA (17.6 ± 2.8 cmH2O l−1 s; sub-optimal CPAP = 8.4 ± 0.8 cmH2O). A single observer, unaware of respiratory data, identified spontaneous and tone-induced arousals of 3–15 s duration preceded and followed by stable NREM sleep. VI was compared between CPAP levels before and after spontaneous arousal in 16 subjects with tone-induced arousals in both conditions. During stable NREM sleep at sub-optimal CPAP, PET,CO2 was mildly elevated (43.5 ± 0.8 versus 42.5 ± 0.8 Torr). However, baseline VI (7.8 ± 0.3 versus 8.0 ± 0.3 l min−1) was unchanged between CPAP conditions. For the first three breaths following arousal, VI was higher for sub-optimal than optimal CPAP (first breath: 11.2 ± 0.9 versus 9.3 ± 0.6 l min−1). The magnitude of hypoventilation on return to sleep was not affected by the level of CPAP and both obstructive and central respiratory events were rare following arousal. Similar results occurred after tone-induced arousals which led to

  14. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men. PMID:27113471

  15. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men.

  16. 78 FR 68133 - Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ...-3000. Correction In the Federal Register of November 5, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-26569, on page 66414, in... ADMINISTRATION Cost-of-Living Increases and Other Determinations for 2014; Correction AGENCY: Social Security... the Federal Register of November 5, 2013, concerning the cost-of-living increase in Social...

  17. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Payment for Tuition and Other Educational Costs § 57.3202 How will allowable increases be determined? (a) The Secretary is responsible for increases in tuition and other educational costs only if the same... participation for any discounts or rebates in tuition or other educational costs given to all other students...

  18. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment for Tuition and Other Educational Costs § 57.3202 How will allowable increases be determined? (a) The Secretary is responsible for increases in tuition and other educational costs only if the same... participation for any discounts or rebates in tuition or other educational costs given to all other students...

  19. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  20. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  1. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal.

  2. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    PubMed Central

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  3. Substantial similarity in amygdala neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Shabel, Steven J; Janak, Patricia H

    2009-09-01

    The amygdala is important for determining the emotional significance of environmental stimuli. However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. We also found that the activity of a large number of cells (> 43%) was correlated with blood pressure, a measure of emotional arousal. Together, our results suggest that a substantial proportion of neuronal circuits within the amygdala can contribute to both appetitive and aversive emotional arousal.

  4. Substantial similarity in amygdala neuronal activity during conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shabel, Steven J.; Janak, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    The amygdala is important for determining the emotional significance of environmental stimuli. However, the degree to which appetitive and aversive stimuli are processed by the same or different neuronal circuits within the amygdala remains unclear. Here we show that neuronal activity during the expression of classically conditioned appetitive and aversive emotional responses is more similar than expected by chance, despite the different sensory modalities of the eliciting stimuli. We also found that the activity of a large number of cells (> 43%) was correlated with blood pressure, a measure of emotional arousal. Together, our results suggest that a substantial proportion of neuronal circuits within the amygdala can contribute to both appetitive and aversive emotional arousal. PMID:19706473

  5. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  6. The stressed eyewitness: the interaction of thematic arousal and post-event stress in memory for central and peripheral event information

    PubMed Central

    Echterhoff, Gerald; Wolf, Oliver T.

    2012-01-01

    Both arousal during the encoding of stimuli and subsequent stress can affect memory, often by increasing memory for important or central information. We explored whether event-based (thematic) arousal and post-event stress interact to selectively enhance eyewitnesses' memory for the central aspects of an observed incident. Specifically, we argue that memory for stimuli should be enhanced when (1) the stimuli are encoded under arousal (vs. non-arousal), and (2) stress is experienced soon after the encoding episode. We designed an experiment that extended previous research by manipulating arousal without changing the stimulus material, distinguishing between central and peripheral event information, and using a dynamic, life-like event instead of static pictures. After watching a video depicting a burglary under high or low thematic arousal, psychosocial stress was induced or not induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was measured at standard intervals. Consistent with our prediction, we found a significant post-event stress × thematic arousal × centrality interaction, indicating that the recognition advantage for central event items over peripheral event items was most pronounced under both high thematic arousal and post-event stress. Because stress was induced after encoding this interaction cannot be explained by possible differences at encoding, such as narrowed attention. The centrality effect of post-event stress under high thematic arousal was statistically mediated by the cortisol increase, which suggests a key role of the stress hormone. We discuss implications of our findings for psychological and neuroscientific theories of emotional memory formation. PMID:22936900

  7. Optogenetic-mediated release of histamine reveals distal and autoregulatory mechanisms for controlling arousal.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rhannan H; Chee, Melissa J S; Kroeger, Daniel; Ferrari, Loris L; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria; Scammell, Thomas E; Arrigoni, Elda

    2014-04-23

    Histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) are an important component of the ascending arousal system and may form part of a "flip-flop switch" hypothesized to regulate sleep and wakefulness. Anatomical studies have shown that the wake-active TMN and sleep-active ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) are reciprocally connected, suggesting that each region can inhibit its counterpart when active. In this study, we determined how histamine affects the two branches of this circuit. We selectively expressed channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in TMN neurons and used patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices to examine the effects of photo-evoked histamine release in the ventrolateral TMN and VLPO. Photostimulation decreased inhibitory GABAergic inputs to the ventrolateral TMN neurons but produced a membrane hyperpolarization and increased inhibitory synaptic input to the VLPO neurons. We found that in VLPO the response to histamine was indirect, most likely via a GABAergic interneuron. Our experiments demonstrate that release of histamine from TMN neurons can disinhibit the TMN and suppresses the activity of sleep-active VLPO neurons to promote TMN neuronal firing. This further supports the sleep-wake "flip-flop switch" hypothesis and a role for histamine in stabilizing the switch to favor wake states.

  8. How fleeting emotions affect hazard perception and steering while driving: the impact of image arousal and valence.

    PubMed

    Trick, Lana M; Brandigampola, Seneca; Enns, James T

    2012-03-01

    Video-billboards and portable video-display devices are becoming increasingly common and the images they project can often be dramatic or provocative. This study investigated the lingering effects of emotion-evoking images on driving as measured in a driving simulator. Images were projected on an in-vehicle display while drivers followed a lead vehicle at a safe distance. To ensure attention to the images drivers were required to indicate whether each image was positive or negative by pressing a button. Occasional braking events (sudden decelerations in the lead vehicle that necessitated braking) occurred either 250 or 500 ms after the button press. In the 250 ms delay condition braking RT was faster after high arousal images (fastest for high arousal positive images); following a 500 ms delay braking RT was slower after high arousal images (slowest for high arousal negative images). Responding to all images reduced steering performance (in the period after the image but before the button press) but image valence had an effect on steering as well. Positive images were associated with better steering performance than negative images, especially when they were both low in arousal: a result that supports the broaden-and-build hypothesis of positive emotions and the theory that ambient (wide field/peripheral) vision controls steering performance. We discuss implications for both basic research on attention-emotion and applied research on driving.

  9. Unexpected arousal modulates the influence of sensory noise on confidence

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Micah; Frank, Darya; Schwarzkopf, D Samuel; Fardo, Francesca; Winston, Joel S; Hauser, Tobias U; Rees, Geraint

    2016-01-01

    Human perception is invariably accompanied by a graded feeling of confidence that guides metacognitive awareness and decision-making. It is often assumed that this arises solely from the feed-forward encoding of the strength or precision of sensory inputs. In contrast, interoceptive inference models suggest that confidence reflects a weighted integration of sensory precision and expectations about internal states, such as arousal. Here we test this hypothesis using a novel psychophysical paradigm, in which unseen disgust-cues induced unexpected, unconscious arousal just before participants discriminated motion signals of variable precision. Across measures of perceptual bias, uncertainty, and physiological arousal we found that arousing disgust cues modulated the encoding of sensory noise. Furthermore, the degree to which trial-by-trial pupil fluctuations encoded this nonlinear interaction correlated with trial level confidence. Our results suggest that unexpected arousal regulates perceptual precision, such that subjective confidence reflects the integration of both external sensory and internal, embodied states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18103.001 PMID:27776633

  10. Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.

  11. Tactile arousal threshold of sleeping king penguins in a breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Dewasmes, G; Telliez, F

    2000-09-01

    The tactile arousal threshold of sleeping birds has not been investigated to date. In this study, the characteristics of this threshold were assessed by stimulating either the upper back or a foot of two groups (one cutaneous site per group) of 60 sleeping king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica) in the breeding colony of Baie du Marin (Crozet Archipelago). Increasing weights were put onto one of the feet or the upper back of individuals that had been sleeping for more than 5 min until they showed behavioural signs of arousal (head raising). The weight applied to the upper back that was needed to awaken a sleeper (837 +/- 73 g) was 20 times greater than that applied to a foot (38 +/- 6 g). In terms of pressure, the difference remained five times higher for the back (209 +/- 18 g/cm(2)) than the foot (40 g +/- 7 g/cm(2)). Because the king penguin incubates its single egg and rears its young chick on its feet, the low threshold measured at this level could be viewed as an adaptation against progeny predation. Sleepers are frequently bumped by conspecifics walking through the colony. The increased arousal threshold associated with tactile stimulation of the back may help to preserve sleep continuity under these conditions.

  12. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects. PMID:24729134

  13. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects.

  14. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play.

  15. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

  16. Comparison of two isometric handgrip protocols on sympathetic arousal in women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Shawn E.; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Isometric handgrip is commonly used in stress research because the task reliably increases sympathetic arousal. Various handgrip protocols have been used; they vary in handgrip strength, duration of grip, and the number of cycles of handgrip and rest. However, most protocols require the calibration of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) prior to the handgrip task, which is not always convenient (i.e., in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study). Here, we wanted to test whether two handgrip protocols with different strength, duration and cycle protocols would reliably elicit sympathetic arousal in the absence of calibrating an MVC. Sixty-two healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception participated in one of the two isometric handgrip protocols using a hand therapy ball of medium resistance. Women completed one of the following handgrip protocols: 1) 30% of a perceived maximum voluntary contraction for 3 minutes or 2) 3 cycles of maximum voluntary contraction for 18 seconds with one minute rest in between. All handgrip blocks were counterbalanced with a control condition. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes and salivary alpha-amylase. Results indicate that in the absence of calibrating an MVC, the handgrip tasks elicited different changes in sympathetic arousal. Pupil dilation responses increased significantly in the handgrip versus control blocks only in participants in the 18-s protocol. Additionally, more participants exhibited a salivary alpha-amylase response to the handgrip block in the 18-s condition compared to the 3-min condition. Thus, these results suggest that neuroimaging and behavioral studies with isometric handgrip should be able to successfully induce sympathetic nervous activity with the 18-s paradigm, regardless of the handgrip device and the ability to calibrate an MVC. PMID:25637170

  17. Comparison of two isometric handgrip protocols on sympathetic arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Mather, Mara

    2015-04-01

    Isometric handgrip is commonly used in stress research because the task reliably increases sympathetic arousal. Various handgrip protocols have been used; they vary in handgrip strength, duration of grip, and the number of cycles of handgrip and rest. However, most protocols require the calibration of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) prior to the handgrip task, which is not always convenient (i.e., in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study). Here, we wanted to test whether two handgrip protocols with different strength, duration and cycle protocols would reliably elicit sympathetic arousal in the absence of calibrating an MVC. Sixty-two healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception participated in one of the two isometric handgrip protocols using a hand therapy ball of medium resistance. Women completed one of the following handgrip protocols: 1) 30% of a perceived maximum voluntary contraction for 3 min or 2) 3 cycles of maximum voluntary contraction for 18s with a one minute rest in between. All handgrip blocks were counterbalanced with a control condition. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes and salivary alpha-amylase. Results indicate that in the absence of calibrating an MVC, the handgrip tasks elicited different changes in sympathetic arousal. Pupil dilation responses increased significantly in the handgrip versus control blocks only in participants in the 18-s protocol. Additionally, more participants exhibited a salivary alpha-amylase response to the handgrip block in the 18-s condition compared to the 3-min condition. Thus, these results suggest that neuroimaging and behavioral studies with isometric handgrip should be able to successfully induce sympathetic nervous activity with the 18-s paradigm, regardless of the handgrip device and the ability to calibrate an MVC.

  18. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  19. Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants’ beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

  20. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis on the role of music in sexual selection. Further studies are clearly required. PMID:27372870

  1. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  2. Sexual arousal and rhythmic synchronization: A possible effect of vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Miani, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Music is ubiquitous. Yet, its biological relevance is still an ongoing debate. Supporting the view that music had an ancestral role in courtship displays, a pilot study presented here provides preliminary evidence on the link between music and sexual selection. The underlying hypothesis is based on the fact that the sexually dimorphic neuropeptide vasopressin has its receptors in the part of the brain involved in music and dance performance (the basal ganglia), and its concentrations rise during sexual arousal in men. In addition, music, dance, and courtship phenotypes seem to be in part regulated by vasopressin and its genes. Hence, to test this hypothesis, a rhythmic synchronization task was employed here on one male subject during sexual arousal. Results revealed a significant effect of sexual arousal on rhythm synchronization. This is the first report that empirically supports the hypothesis on the role of music in sexual selection. Further studies are clearly required.

  3. 42 CFR 57.2003 - Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determinations of increased enrollment solely for the program. 57.2003 Section 57.2003 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL...

  4. Stress activated protein kinases, JNKs and p38 MAPK, are differentially activated in ganglia and heart of land snail Helix lucorum (L.) during seasonal hibernation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Michaelidis, Basile; Hatzikamari, Maria; Antoniou, Vassiliki; Anestis, Andreas; Lazou, Antigone

    2009-06-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the phosphorylation and hence activation of stress activated protein kinases, p38 MAPK and JNKs in the tissues of the snail Helix lucorum during seasonal hibernation. Snails were put in large glass boxes, which were placed outdoors so that they were exposed to natural conditions of light and temperature. Phosphorylation and hence activation of JNKs and p38 MAPK was determined in both heart and ganglia. Deep hibernation caused significant increases in the levels of the phosphorylated form of JNK and p38-MAPK in both heart and ganglia. Phosphorylation of JNK remained elevated in the ganglia or increased after a transient drop in the heart, when the snails were prepared for arousal. In addition, phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was further increased in the heart during this period. These data support the conclusion that MAPK signalling cascade might contribute in the physiological and biochemical remodelling in the tissues of land snails during hibernation and upon preparation for arousal.

  5. Behavioral and biochemical dissociation of arousal and homeostatic sleep need influenced by prior wakeful experience in mice

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ayako; Sinton, Christopher M.; Greene, Robert W.; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms, and the low-frequency power in the electroencephalogram (delta power) during non-rapid eye movement sleep reflects homeostatic sleep need. Additionally, sleep is limited by circadian and environmentally influenced arousal. Little is known, however, about the underlying neural substrates for sleep homeostasis and arousal and about the potential link between them. Here, we subjected C57BL/6 mice to 6 h of sleep deprivation using two different methods: gentle handling and continual cage change. Both groups were deprived of sleep to a similar extent (>99%), and, as expected, the delta power increase during recovery sleep was quantitatively similar in both groups. However, in a multiple sleep latency test, the cage change group showed significantly longer sleep latencies than the gentle handling group, indicating that the cage change group had a higher level of arousal despite the similar sleep loss. To investigate the possible biochemical correlates of these behavioral changes, we screened for arousal-related and sleep need-related phosphoprotein markers from the diencephalon. We found that the abundance of highly phosphorylated forms of dynamin 1, a presynaptic neuronal protein, was associated with sleep latency in the multiple sleep latency test. In contrast, the abundance of highly phosphorylated forms of N-myc downstream regulated gene 2, a glial protein, was increased in parallel with delta power. The changes of these protein species disappeared after 2 h of recovery sleep. These results suggest that homeostatic sleep need and arousal can be dissociated behaviorally and biochemically and that phosphorylated N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 and dynamin 1 may serve as markers of homeostatic sleep need and arousal, respectively. PMID:23716651

  6. Perceived arousal of facial expressions of emotion modulates the N170, regardless of emotional category: Time domain and time-frequency dynamics.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Pedro R; Ferreira-Santos, Fernando; Chaves, Pedro L; Paiva, Tiago O; Barbosa, Fernando; Marques-Teixeira, João

    2016-01-01

    Findings concerning the emotional modulation of the N170 component of the visual event-related potential are mixed. In the present report we tested the hypothesis that the emotional modulation of the N170 may be driven by the perceived emotional arousal of the stimuli, rather than by specific emotional categories. Fifty-four participants viewed facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear and happiness, plus low arousal neutral faces. All emotional categories were matched in arousal, while stimuli within each category varied parametrically in this dimension. The modulation of the electrocortical activity on the N170 time-window was analyzed in the time domain and via time-frequency decomposition. The effects of emotion and arousal were analyzed separately. In the time domain N170 amplitudes co-varied parametrically with perceived arousal, regardless of emotional category. This modulation was linearly associated with the power of the theta, alpha, and beta frequency bands. Moreover, fear was associated with a trend for increased N170 amplitudes, enhanced alpha power, and increased broad band inter-trial phase coherence. These results support the views that a) the activity in N170 time window is fundamentally modulated by perceived arousal, b) the modulation of the N170 may be the product of an increased evoked response, rather than the result of phase resetting processes, and c) facial expressions of fear retain some processing primacy, that may be related to their increased value as environmental cues. PMID:26659012

  7. Abiotic and biotic interactions determine whether increased colonization is beneficial or detrimental to metapopulation management.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Darren M; Rhodes, Jonathan R; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Nicol, Sam; Helmstedt, Kate J; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the colonization rate of metapopulations can improve persistence, but can also increase exposure to threats. To make good decisions, managers must understand whether increased colonization is beneficial or detrimental to metapopulation persistence. While a number of studies have examined interactions between metapopulations, colonization, and threats, they have assumed that threat dynamics respond linearly to changes in colonization. Here, we determined when to increase colonization while explicitly accounting for non-linear dependencies between a metapopulation and its threats. We developed patch occupancy metapopulation models for species susceptible to abiotic, generalist, and specialist threats and modeled the total derivative of the equilibrium proportion of patches occupied by each metapopulation with respect to the colonization rate. By using the total derivative, we developed a rule for determining when to increase metapopulation colonization. This rule was applied to a simulated metapopulation where the dynamics of each threat responded to increased colonization following a power function. Before modifying colonization, we show that managers must understand: (1) whether a metapopulation is susceptible to a threat; (2) the type of threat acting on a metapopulation; (3) which component of threat dynamics might depend on colonization, and; (4) the likely response of a threat-dependent variable to changes in colonization. The sensitivity of management decisions to these interactions increases uncertainty in conservation planning decisions.

  8. The effects of valence and arousal on time perception in individuals with social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung-Yi; Lee, Jang-Han

    2015-01-01

    Time distortion in individuals with social anxiety has been defined as the seemingly slower passage of time in social situations and is related to both arousal and valence. Consequently, adaptive behavior is disrupted and interpersonal situations avoided. We explored the effects of valence and arousal on time distortion in individuals with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to two groups, High Anxiety (HA) and Low Anxiety (LA), presented with four types of facial expression stimuli (positive-high arousal, positive-low arousal, negative-high arousal, and negative-low arousal), and asked to estimate the duration of stimulus presentation. Results indicated that, relative to other stimuli, the HA and LA groups perceived longer presentation for high-arousal negative and low-arousal positive stimuli, respectively. These findings suggest that anxious individuals’ time distortion was more severe in situations that evoked high arousal and involved negative emotion. PMID:26347679

  9. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on subjective arousal, arousal to erotic stimulation, and nocturnal penile tumescence in male sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Wincze, J P; Bansal, S; Malamud, M

    1986-08-01

    Three chronic pedophiliac sex offenders were treated individually with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over a minimum of 3 months. Genital and subjective response to erotic stimulation, nocturnal penile tumescence, self-reporting of sexual urges, and testosterone levels were recorded repeatedly throughout the study. A single-subject reversal design was used and medication was administered through a double-blind procedure. The results showed that self-report of arousal outside of a laboratory setting was unreliable as a measure of the drug effect. In a laboratory setting, however, there appeared to be a significant reduction in the report of arousal to erotic stimuli while genital arousal decreased only slightly. Reversal of these responses occurred in only one subject during a final placebo phase. Nocturnal penile tumescence was significantly decreased during MPA administration and appeared to be related to decreases in total testosterone.

  10. Arousal, valence, and the uncanny valley: psychophysiological and self-report findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheetham, Marcus; Wu, Lingdan; Pauli, Paul; Jancke, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    The main prediction of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) is that observation of humanlike characters that are difficult to distinguish from the human counterpart will evoke a state of negative affect. Well-established electrophysiological [late positive potential (LPP) and facial electromyography (EMG)] and self-report [Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM)] indices of valence and arousal, i.e., the primary orthogonal dimensions of affective experience, were used to test this prediction by examining affective experience in response to categorically ambiguous compared with unambiguous avatar and human faces (N = 30). LPP and EMG provided direct psychophysiological indices of affective state during passive observation and the SAM provided self-reported indices of affective state during explicit cognitive evaluation of static facial stimuli. The faces were drawn from well-controlled morph continua representing the UVH’ dimension of human likeness (DHL). The results provide no support for the notion that category ambiguity along the DHL is specifically associated with enhanced experience of negative affect. On the contrary, the LPP and SAM-based measures of arousal and valence indicated a general increase in negative affective state (i.e., enhanced arousal and negative valence) with greater morph distance from the human end of the DHL. A second sample (N = 30) produced the same finding, using an ad hoc self-rating scale of feelings of familiarity, i.e., an oft-used measure of affective experience along the UVH’ familiarity dimension. In conclusion, this multi-method approach using well-validated psychophysiological and self-rating indices of arousal and valence rejects – for passive observation and for explicit affective evaluation of static faces – the main prediction of the UVH. PMID:26236260

  11. Ultrasonic vocalizations of adult male Foxp2-mutant mice: behavioral contexts of arousal and emotion.

    PubMed

    Gaub, S; Fisher, S E; Ehret, G

    2016-02-01

    Adult mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) occur in multiple behavioral and stimulus contexts associated with various levels of arousal, emotion and social interaction. Here, in three experiments of increasing stimulus intensity (water; female urine; male interacting with adult female), we tested the hypothesis that USVs of adult males express the strength of arousal and emotion via different USV parameters (18 parameters analyzed). Furthermore, we analyzed two mouse lines with heterozygous Foxp2 mutations (R552H missense, S321X nonsense), known to produce severe speech and language disorders in humans. These experiments allowed us to test whether intact Foxp2 function is necessary for developing full adult USV repertoires, and whether mutations of this gene influence instinctive vocal expressions based on arousal and emotion. The results suggest that USV calling rate characterizes the arousal level, while sound pressure and spectrotemporal call complexity (overtones/harmonics, type of frequency jumps) may provide indices of levels of positive emotion. The presence of Foxp2 mutations did not qualitatively affect the USVs; all USV types that were found in wild-type animals also occurred in heterozygous mutants. However, mice with Foxp2 mutations displayed quantitative differences in USVs as compared to wild-types, and these changes were context dependent. Compared to wild-type animals, heterozygous mutants emitted mainly longer and louder USVs at higher minimum frequencies with a higher occurrence rate of overtones/harmonics and complex frequency jump types. We discuss possible hypotheses about Foxp2 influence on emotional vocal expressions, which can be investigated in future experiments using selective knockdown of Foxp2 in specific brain circuits.

  12. Sleep during arousal episodes as a function of prior torpor duration in hibernating European ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Strijkstra, A M; Daan, S

    1997-03-01

    EEG's were recorded in hibernating European ground squirrels during euthermic arousal episodes at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C. Spontaneous torpor bouts ranged from 6 to 15 days, body temperature during torpor was 7.5 degrees C. The torpor duration prior to EEG measurements was experimentally manipulated: the animals were induced to arouse by gentle handling after torpor of less then 1 day (n = 3), 1-2 days (n = 6), 3-4 days (n = 9) and 5-12 days (n = 9). The animals slept 71.5% of euthermic time, of which 61.4% NREM and 10.2% REM sleep. NREM percentage was slightly positively and REM percentage negatively correlated with prior torpor duration (TD). Spectral analysis showed changes in EEG activity during the euthermic phase in the slow wave frequency range (1-4 Hz) and in higher frequencies. Prior TD specifically affected the slow waves. Slow wave activity decreased exponentially during the euthermic phase. The initial slow wave activity showed a systematic increase with prior TD, which could be described by an exponentially saturating function, albeit with a relatively small time constant compared with spontaneous torpor duration. It is concluded that sleep during arousal episodes following torpor at an ambient temperature of 5.5 degrees C is affected both in structure and intensity by prior TD. The results are consistent with the proposition that torpor inhibits the restorative function of sleep. PMID:9125697

  13. Arousal and affective differences between student gamblers and non-gamblers during a card game.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers. PMID:22057368

  14. Effect of arousing stimuli on circulating corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and locomotor activity in estradiol-treated ovariectomized (ovx+EB) Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Legan, S J; Peng, X; Yun, C; Duncan, M J

    2015-06-01

    In most proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure phase advances activity rhythms and blocks the preovulatory LH surge, which occurs 2h earlier the next day. Because wheel immobilization does not prevent these effects we hypothesized that arousal alone blocks and phase advances the LH surge. Ovariectomized (ovx) hamsters received a jugular vein cannula and estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle was injected sc. The next day (Day 1), at zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-5 (ZT 12 = lights off), after obtaining a blood sample, each hamster was exposed to constant darkness (DD), and either remained in her home cage or was transferred to a new cage and exposed to a running wheel or a 2-hour arousal paradigm. Blood samples were obtained in dim red light and activity was recorded hourly until ~ZT 10-11 on Days 1 and 2. For the next 1-2 weeks, activity was monitored in DD. Plasma LH and corticosterone were assessed by RIA. Novel wheel exposure or arousal at ZT 4 greatly attenuated the Day 1 LH surge in ovx+EB hamsters, and phase advanced the Day 2 LH surge by about 2h. In proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure led to a prolonged (>2h) increase in corticosterone levels only when LH surges were blocked. Phase advances in activity rhythms were enhanced by estradiol and arousal. The results suggest that estradiol modulates the effectiveness of non-photic stimuli. The role of the increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with novel wheel-induced attenuation of LH surges in ovx+EB hamsters remains to be determined.

  15. Effect of arousing stimuli on circulating corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of luteinizing hormone (LH) surges and locomotor activity in estradiol-treated ovariectomized (ovx+EB) Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Legan, S.J.; Peng, X.; Yun, C.; Duncan, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In most proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure phase advances activity rhythms and blocks the preovulatory LH surge, which occurs 2 h earlier the next day. Because wheel immobilization does not prevent these effects we hypothesized that arousal alone blocks and phase advances the LH surge. Ovariectomized (ovx) hamsters received a jugular vein cannula and estradiol benzoate (EB) or vehicle was injected sc. The next day (Day 1), at zeitgeber time (ZT) 4-5 (ZT 12=lights off), after obtaining a blood sample, each hamster was exposed to constant darkness (DD), and either remained in her home cage or was transferred to a new cage and exposed to a running wheel or a 2-h arousal paradigm. Blood samples were obtained in dim red light and activity was recorded hourly until ~ZT 10-11 on Days 1 and 2. For the next 1-2 weeks, activity was monitored in DD. Plasma LH and corticosterone were assessed by RIA. Novel wheel exposure or arousal at ZT 4 greatly attenuated the Day 1 LH surge in ovx+EB hamsters, and phase advanced the Day 2 LH surge by about 2 hours. In proestrous hamsters, novel wheel exposure led to a prolonged (>2 h) increase in corticosterone levels only when LH surges were blocked. Phase advances in activity rhythms were enhanced by estradiol and arousal. The results suggest that estradiol modulates the effectiveness of non-photic stimuli. The role of the increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis associated with novel wheel-induced attenuation of LH surges in ovx+EB hamsters remains to be determined. PMID:25958077

  16. Autonomic Arousals Related to Traffic Noise during Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Griefahn, Barbara; Bröde, Peter; Marks, Anke; Basner, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the heart rate (HR) response to traffic noise during sleep and the influence of acoustic parameters, time of night, and momentary sleep stage on these responses. Participants: Twelve women and 12 men (19–28 years). Measurements and Results: The participants slept in the laboratory for 4 consecutive nights in each of 3 consecutive weeks and were exposed to aircraft, road, or rail traffic noise with weekly permutations. The 4 nights of each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and 3 nights during which aircraft, rail traffic, or road traffic noises occurred with maximum levels of 45–77 dBA. The polysomnogram and the electrocardiogram were recorded during all nights. In case of awakenings, the HR alterations consisted of monophasic elevations for >1 min, with mean maximum HR elevations of 30 bpm. Though obviously triggered by the noise events, the awakenings per se rather than the acoustical parameters determined the extent and pattern of the response. Without awakenings, HR responses were biphasic and consisted of initial accelerations with maximum HR elevations of about 9 bpm followed by decelerations below the baseline. These alterations were clearly influenced by the acoustic parameters (traffic mode, maximum level, rate of rise) as well as by the momentary sleep stage. Conclusions: Cardiac responses did not habituate to traffic noise within the night and may therefore play a key role in promoting traffic noise induced cardiovascular disease. If so, these consequences are more likely for responses accompanied by awakenings than for situations without awakenings. Citation: Griefahn B; Bröde P; Marks A; Basner M. Autonomic arousals related to traffic noise during sleep. SLEEP 2008;31(4):569-577. PMID:18457245

  17. Extent and time-course of competition in visual cortex between emotionally arousing distractors and a concurrent task.

    PubMed

    Deweese, Menton M; Müller, Matthias; Keil, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Emotionally arousing cues automatically attract attentional resources, which may be at the cost of processing task-related information. Of central importance is how the visual system resolves competition for processing resources among stimuli differing in motivational salience. Here, we assessed the extent and time-course of competition between emotionally arousing distractors and task-related stimuli in a frequency-tagging paradigm. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were evoked using random-dot kinematograms that consisted of rapidly flickering (8.57 Hz) dots, superimposed upon emotional or neutral distractor pictures flickering at 12 Hz. The time-varying amplitude of the ssVEP evoked by the motion detection task showed a significant reduction to the task-relevant stream while emotionally arousing pictures were presented as distractors. Competition between emotionally arousing pictures and moving dots began 450 ms after picture onset and persisted for an additional 2600 ms. Competitive effects of the overlapping task and picture stream revealed cost effects for the motion detection task when unpleasant pictures were presented as distractors between 450 and 1650 ms after picture onset, where an increase in ssVEP amplitude to the flickering picture stimulus was at the cost of ssVEP amplitude to the flickering dot stimulus. Cost effects were generalized to all emotionally arousing contents between 1850 and 3050 ms after picture onset, where the greatest amount of competition was evident for conditions in which emotionally arousing pictures, compared to neutral, served as distractors. In sum, the processing capacity of the visual system as measured by ssVEPs is limited, resulting in prioritized processing of emotionally relevant cues. PMID:26790572

  18. The influence of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Park, Kevin Kiwon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory. We exposed 97 participants to an immersive eyewitness experience by creating four virtual reality stimulus environments. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: arousing and expected, arousing and unexpected, nonarousing and expected, and nonarousing and unexpected. The results revealed that memory performance for an arousing encounter was significantly lower than that for a nonarousing encounter, and that memory performance for an unexpected environment was significantly lower compared with an expected one. In addition, memory performance was lowest in the condition that was both arousing and unexpected. No interaction between arousal and expectation was found. PMID:25405783

  19. Effects of cyproterone acetate on sexual arousal patterns of pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Bradford, J M; Pawlak, A

    1993-12-01

    The antiandrogen treatment of sexual offenders has been shown to reduce the recidivism rate. The mechanism of action has been assumed to be through asexualization with its secondary effects on sexual behavior. This study shows that the mechanism may be more complex and may involve a differential effect on sexual arousal patterns. Treatment responses may differ in high and low plasma testosterone groups.

  20. A Dose of Kindness: Empathic Arousal and Helping Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel

    This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…

  1. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  2. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

  3. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  4. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  5. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

  6. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  7. Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

  8. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests.

  9. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  10. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K+ current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30–50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30–50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASKf/f mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity

  11. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  12. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Implications for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia.

  13. Metacognitive Confidence Increases with, but Does Not Determine, Visual Perceptual Learning

    PubMed Central

    Zizlsperger, Leopold; Kümmel, Florian; Haarmeier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    While perceptual learning increases objective sensitivity, the effects on the constant interaction of the process of perception and its metacognitive evaluation have been rarely investigated. Visual perception has been described as a process of probabilistic inference featuring metacognitive evaluations of choice certainty. For visual motion perception in healthy, naive human subjects here we show that perceptual sensitivity and confidence in it increased with training. The metacognitive sensitivity–estimated from certainty ratings by a bias-free signal detection theoretic approach–in contrast, did not. Concomitant 3Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) was applied in compliance with previous findings on effective high-low cross-frequency coupling subserving signal detection. While perceptual accuracy and confidence in it improved with training, there were no statistically significant tACS effects. Neither metacognitive sensitivity in distinguishing between their own correct and incorrect stimulus classifications, nor decision confidence itself determined the subjects’ visual perceptual learning. Improvements of objective performance and the metacognitive confidence in it were rather determined by the perceptual sensitivity at the outset of the experiment. Post-decision certainty in visual perceptual learning was neither independent of objective performance, nor requisite for changes in sensitivity, but rather covaried with objective performance. The exact functional role of metacognitive confidence in human visual perception has yet to be determined. PMID:26981702

  14. Impaired Arousal in Older Adults is Associated with Prolonged Hospital Stay and Discharge to Skilled Nursing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Yevchak, Andrea M.; Han, Jin Ho; Doherty, Kelly; Archambault, Elizabeth G.; Kelly, Brittany; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Ely, E. Wesley; Rudolph, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor cognitive function is associated with negative consequences across settings of care, but research instruments are arduous for routine clinical implementation. This study examined the association between impaired arousal, as measured using an ultra-brief screen, and risk of two adverse clinical outcomes: hospital length of stay and discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF). Design, Setting, & Participants A secondary data analysis was conducted using two separate groups of medical ward patients: a VA medical center in the northeast (N=1,487, between 2010 and 2012) 60 years and older and a large tertiary care, university-based medical center (N=669, between 2007 and 2013) 65 years and older in the southeastern United States. Measurements The impact of impaired arousal, defined by the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) as anything other than “awake and alert,” was determined using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression for time to hospital discharge and logistic regression for discharge to a SNF. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported, respectively. Both models were adjusted age, sex, and dementia. Results The 2,156 total patients included in these groups had a mean age of 76 years, of whom 16.4% in group one and 28.5% in group two had impaired arousal. In the first group, patients with normal arousal spent an average of 5.9 days (SD 6.2) in the hospital, while those with impaired arousal spent 8.5 days (9.2). On any given day, patients with impaired arousal had 27% lower chance of being discharged (adjusted hazard ratio 0.73 (95%CI: 0.63 – 0.84). In the second group, individuals with normal arousal spent 3.8 (4.1) days in the hospital compared to 4.7 (4.6) for those with impaired arousal; indicating a 21% lower chance of being discharged [adjusted HR 0.79 (95%CI: 0.66 – 0.95). With regard to risk of discharge to SNF, those with impaired arousal in group 1 had a 65% higher risk than

  15. Genetically Determined Amerindian Ancestry Correlates with Increased Frequency of Risk Alleles for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, E; Webb, R; Rasmussen, A.; Kelly, J.A; Riba, L.; Kaufman, K.M.; Garcia-de la Torre, I.; Moctezuma, J.F.; Maradiaga-Ceceña, M.A.; Cardiel, M.; Acevedo, E.; Cucho-Venegas, M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gamron, S.; Pons-Estel, B.A.; Vasconcelos, C.; Martin, J.; Tusié-Luna, T.; Harley, J.B.; Richardson, B.; Sawalha, A.H.; Alarcón-Riquelme, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyze if genetically determined Amerindian ancestry predicts the increased presence of risk alleles of known susceptibility genes for systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Single nucleotide polymorphisms within 16 confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for SLE were genotyped in a set of 804 Mestizo lupus patients and 667 Mestizo normal healthy controls. In addition, 347 admixture informative markers were genotyped. Individual ancestry proportions were determined using STRUCTURE. Association analysis was performed using PLINK, and correlation of the presence of risk alleles with ancestry was done using linear regression. Results A meta-analysis of the genetic association of the 16 SNPs across populations showed that TNFSF4, STAT4, PDCD1, ITGAM, and IRF5 were associated with lupus in a Hispanic-Mestizo cohort enriched for European and Amerindian ancestry. In addition, two SNPs within the MHC region, previously associated in a genome-wide association study in Europeans, were also associated in Mestizos. Using linear regression we predict an average increase of 2.34 risk alleles when comparing a lupus patient with 100% Amerindian ancestry to an SLE patient with 0% American Indian Ancestry (p<0.0001). SLE patients with 43% more Amerindian ancestry are predicted to carry one additional risk allele. Conclusion Amerindian ancestry increased the number of risk alleles for lupus. PMID:20848568

  16. Arousal from Sleep Does Not Lead to Reduced Dilator Muscle Activity or Elevated Upper Airway Resistance on Return to Sleep in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S.; Cori, Jennifer M.; Dawson, Andrew; Nicholas, Christian L.; O'Donoghue, Fergal J.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Eckert, Danny J.; McEvoy, R. Doug; Trinder, John

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare changes in end-tidal CO2, genioglossus muscle activity and upper airway resistance following tone-induced arousal and the return to sleep in healthy individuals with small and large ventilatory responses to arousal. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two sleep physiology laboratories. Patients or Participants: 35 men and 25 women with no medical or sleep disorders. Interventions: Auditory tones to induce 3-s to 15-s cortical arousals from sleep. Measurements and Results: During arousal from sleep, subjects with large ventilatory responses to arousal had higher ventilation (by analytical design) and tidal volume, and more marked reductions in the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 compared to subjects with small ventilatory responses to arousal. However, following the return to sleep, ventilation, genioglossus muscle activity, and upper airway resistance did not differ between high and low ventilatory response groups (Breath 1 on return to sleep: ventilation 6.7 ± 0.4 and 5.5 ± 0.3 L/min, peak genioglossus activity 3.4% ± 1.0% and 4.8% ± 1.0% maximum, upper airway resistance 4.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 1.0 cm H2O/L/s, respectively). Furthermore, dilator muscle activity did not fall below the pre-arousal sleeping level and upper airway resistance did not rise above the pre-arousal sleeping level in either group for 10 breaths following the return to sleep. Conclusions: Regardless of the magnitude of the ventilatory response to arousal from sleep and subsequent reduction in PETCO2, healthy individuals did not develop reduced dilator muscle activity nor increased upper airway resistance, indicative of partial airway collapse, on the return to sleep. These findings challenge the commonly stated notion that arousals predispose to upper airway obstruction. Citation: Jordan AS, Cori JM, Dawson A, Nicholas CL, O'Donoghue FJ, Catcheside PG, Eckert DJ, McEvoy RD, Trinder J. Arousal from sleep does not lead to reduced dilator muscle activity or

  17. Photo-induced arousal response by hornets.

    PubMed

    Pertsis, Vitaly; Sverdlov, Ana; Kozhevnikov, Maria; Ishay, Jacob S

    2003-01-01

    When an Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis is subjected to ether anesthesia and then exposed to ultraviolet A light (UVAL) (at a wavelength of 366 nm), it commences showing signs of awakening by starting to move its limbs. While in the process of waking the voltage on its body surface surges sharply from 17-180 mV (median = 71.0) to a level of 93-570 mV (median = 327.5). This elevated level is maintained for several minutes but subsequently drops sharply to starting level. The increase in voltage is throughout accompanied by fluttering of the wings and movements of the legs, as well as attempts to extricate itself from the bindings to the electrodes. These movements by the awakening hornet persist for several minutes even after the irradiation source is turned off but shortly after the switch-off the hornet lapses into sleep again. The described scenario is generally similar in worker, queen and drone hornets, and may even occur in decapitated specimens. The same type of awakening can be repeated in the same fashion after a while, but then the increase in voltage will be smaller than the first time. Continuous UV irradiation of an anesthetized hornet results in a generalized and protracted awakening which, however, is significantly shorter than in a hornet left anesthetized in the dark.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESESSION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVIANT AROUSAL

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession masturbation lowered arousal levels and both participants suppressed arousal to varying degrees. These outcomes suggest the potential for consideration and manipulation of presession factors as treatment components for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. PMID:22219524

  19. Anger Arousal and Behavioral Anger Regulation in Everyday Life among Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: Relationships to Patient Pain and Function

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W.; Gerhart, James I.; Bruehl, Stephen; Peterson, Kristina M.; Smith, David A.; Porter, Laura S.; Schuster, Erik; Kinner, Ellen; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Marie Fras, Anne; Keefe, Francis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the degree to which patient anger arousal and behavioral anger regulation (expression, inhibition) occurring in the course of daily life was related to patient pain and function as rated by patients and their spouses. Method Married couples (N = 105) (one spouse with chronic low back pain) completed electronic daily diaries, with assessments 5 times/day for 14 days. Patients completed items on their own state anger, behavioral anger expression and inhibition, and pain-related factors. Spouses completed items on their observations of patient pain-related factors. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test concurrent and lagged relationships. Results Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to their reports of concurrent increases in pain and pain interference and to spouse reports of patient pain and pain behavior. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger expression were related to lagged increases in pain intensity and interference and decreases in function. Most of these relationships remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in behavioral anger inhibition were related to concurrent increases in pain interference and decreases in function, which also remained significant with state anger controlled. Patient-reported increases in state anger were related to lagged increases in spouse reports of patient pain intensity and pain behaviors. Conclusions Results indicate that in patients with chronic pain, anger arousal and both behavioral anger expression and inhibition in everyday life are related to elevated pain intensity and decreased function as reported by patients. Spouse ratings show some degree of concordance with patient reports. PMID:25110843

  20. Determinants of increased risk of schizophrenia in immigrants. What could be done by our western governments?

    PubMed

    Martens, W H J

    2006-12-01

    Some categories of immigrants run an increased risk of suffering from schizophrenia Such vulnerability might be determined by virus infections, diabetes mellitus and obesity during pregnancy, racism, socio-economic disadvantage, a lack of social support/network, stressful events and alienating environments, culture shock (as in the cases of immigrants and refugees), technological dominance, lack of coping skills (wrong coping strategies), social-emotional adjustment and acculturation problems. The governments and mental health services of our civilized countries should prepare prevention and intervention programs that are geared to deal with the correlates and causes of schizophrenia in immigrants.

  1. Lysophosphatidylcholine cell depolarization: increased membrane permeability for use in the determination of cell membrane potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, R.L.; Wersto, R.P.; Notter, R.H.; Finkelstein, J.N.

    1984-12-01

    Current techniques for the determination of cellular membrane potentials based on the uptake of a radiolabeled lipophilic cation, (3H)triphenylmethylphosphonium, and the cyanine dye, DiOC5(3), were analyzed in terms of the proportions of these probes which are accumulated due to potential-dependent and potential-independent forces. Measurements were made of probe uptake in two model systems: rabbit type II pneumocytes and human promyelocytic HL60 cells. For both cell types, the membrane potential-independent component of triphenylmethylphosphonium uptake was found to be a function of several variables, including the length of exposure of the cells to the transport facilitator tetraphenylboron, the concentration of tetraphenylboron, and the integrity of the cell membrane. To accurately determine the magnitude of the potential-independent component of probe uptake by type II and HL60 cells, the cell-permeabilizing agent lysophosphatidylcholine was used. The ability of lysophosphatidylcholine to depolarize cell membranes and accurately predict membrane potential-independent accumulation was found to be equal to or superior to several other techniques commonly used to achieve membrane depolarization (e.g. gramicidin, valinomycin plus high external potassium). Lysophosphatidylcholine cell treatment was found to be a simple, rapid, and accurate technique to increase cell membrane permeability and allow equilibration of intra- and extracellular ions. The method is shown to be useful for determining membrane potential-independent accumulation of both radiolabeled and fluorescent probes of membrane potential.

  2. Arousal, working memory, and conscious awareness in contingency learning.

    PubMed

    Cosand, Louise D; Cavanagh, Thomas M; Brown, Ashley A; Courtney, Christopher G; Rissling, Anthony J; Schell, Anne M; Dawson, Michael E

    2008-12-01

    There are wide individual differences in the ability to detect a stimulus contingency embedded in a complex paradigm. The present study used a cognitive masking paradigm to better understand individual differences related to contingency learning. Participants were assessed on measures of electrodermal arousal and on working memory capacity before engaging in the contingency learning task. Contingency awareness was assessed both by trial-by-trial verbal reports obtained during the task and by a short post-task recognition questionnaire. Participants who became aware had fewer non-specific skin conductance responses and tended to score higher on a digit span assessment. Skin conductance level was not significantly lower in the aware group than in the unaware group. These findings are consistent with studies showing that lower arousal and greater cognitive processing capacity facilitate conscious perception of a greater breadth of information within a scene or a task. PMID:18573667

  3. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2006-06-01

    There is considerable debate regarding the extent to which limbic regions respond differentially to items with different valences (positive or negative) or to different stimulus types (pictures or words). In the present event-related fMRI study, 21 participants viewed words and pictures that were neutral, negative, or positive. Negative and positive items were equated on arousal. The participants rated each item for whether it depicted or described something animate or inanimate or something common or uncommon. For both pictures and words, the amygdala, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), and ventromedial PFC responded equally to all high-arousal items, regardless of valence. Laterality effects in the amygdala were based on the stimulus type (word = left, picture = bilateral). Valence effects were most apparent when the individuals processed pictures, and the results revealed a lateral/medial distinction within the PFC: The lateral PFC responded differentially to negative items, whereas the medial PFC was more engaged during the processing of positive pictures.

  4. Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory.

    PubMed

    Cahill, L; McGaugh, J L

    1998-07-01

    Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site of long-term explicit or declarative memory storage, but serves to influence memory-storage processes in other brain regions, such as the hippocampus, striatum and neocortex. Human-subject studies confirm the prediction of animal work that the amygdala is involved with the formation of enhanced declarative memory for emotionally arousing events.

  5. Increased precision for analysis of protein-ligand dissociation constants determined from chemical shift titrations.

    PubMed

    Markin, Craig J; Spyracopoulos, Leo

    2012-06-01

    NMR is ideally suited for the analysis of protein-protein and protein ligand interactions with dissociation constants ranging from ~2 μM to ~1 mM, and with kinetics in the fast exchange regime on the NMR timescale. For the determination of dissociation constants (K ( D )) of 1:1 protein-protein or protein-ligand interactions using NMR, the protein and ligand concentrations must necessarily be similar in magnitude to the K ( D ), and nonlinear least squares analysis of chemical shift changes as a function of ligand concentration is employed to determine estimates for the parameters K ( D ) and the maximum chemical shift change (Δδ(max)). During a typical NMR titration, the initial protein concentration, [P (0)], is held nearly constant. For this condition, to determine the most accurate parameters for K ( D ) and Δδ(max) from nonlinear least squares analyses requires initial protein concentrations that are ~0.5 × K ( D ), and a maximum concentration for the ligand, or titrant, of ~10 × [P (0)]. From a practical standpoint, these requirements are often difficult to achieve. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that co-variation of the ligand and protein concentrations during a titration leads to an increase in the precision of the fitted K ( D ) and Δδ(max) values when [P (0)] > K ( D ). Importantly, judicious choice of protein and ligand concentrations for a given NMR titration, combined with nonlinear least squares analyses using two independent variables (ligand and protein concentrations) and two parameters (K ( D ) and Δδ(max)) is a straightforward approach to increasing the accuracy of measured dissociation constants for 1:1 protein-ligand interactions.

  6. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Sherri L; Rasley, Brian T; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T; Harris, Michael B; Drew, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ≤ 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling. PMID:24847278

  7. Assessment of Wakefulness and Brain Arousal Regulation in Psychiatric Research.

    PubMed

    Sander, Christian; Hensch, Tilman; Wittekind, Dirk Alexander; Böttger, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, much knowledge has been gained about sleep being a heterogeneous condition with several distinct sleep stages that represent fundamentally different physiological states. The same applies for the wake state which also comprises distinct global functional states (called vigilance stages). However, various terms and concepts have been introduced describing different aspects of wakefulness, and accordingly several methods of assessment exist, e.g. sleep laboratory assessments (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), behavioural tasks (Psychomotor Vigilance Test) or electroencephalography (EEG)-based assessments (Alpha Attenuation Test, Karolinska Drowsiness Test). Furthermore, several theoretical concepts about the regulation of sleep and wakefulness have been put forward, and physiological correlates have been identified. Most relevant for healthy functioning is the regulation of brain arousal and the adaption of wakefulness to the environmental and situational needs so that the optimal balance between energy conservation and responsiveness can be obtained. Since one approach to the assessment of brain arousal regulation is the classification of EEG vigilance stages, a computer-based algorithm (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig) has been introduced, allowing classification of EEG vigilance stages in EEG recordings under resting conditions. The time course of EEG vigilance stages in EEGs of 15-20 min duration allows estimation of the individual arousal regulation (hyperstable, adaptive, or unstable vigilance pattern). The vigilance model of affective disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder links a disturbed arousal regulation to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and accordingly helps to explain and possibly also predict treatment effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions. PMID:26901462

  8. D-amphetamine boosts language learning independent of its cardiovascular and motor arousing effects.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, Caterina; Wailke, Stefanie; Bushuven, Stefan; Kamping, Sandra; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    D-Amphetamine (AMPH) was effective in a number of studies on motor and language recovery after stroke, but given safety concerns, its general use after stroke is still debated. Most stroke patients are excluded from treatment because of a significant risk of cardiovascular dysregulation. AMPH acts on multiple transmitter systems, and mainly the noradrenergic actions are related to the cardiovascular effects. If AMPH's cardiovascular and arousal effects were correlated with its plasticity-enhancing effects in humans, this would imply that desired and undesired effects are inevitably tied. If not, improved cerebral reorganization may not be mediated by AMPH's arousing effects and could be achieved with substances lacking the undesired cardiovascular effects. As a model for language recovery after stroke, we used a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design and taught 40 healthy male subjects an artificial vocabulary of 50 concrete nouns over the course of five consecutive training days (high-frequency training). The associative learning principle involved higher co-occurrences of 'correct' picture-pseudoword pairings as compared to 'incorrect' pairings. Subjects received either AMPH (0.25 mg/kg) or placebo 90 min prior to training on each day. Novel word learning was significantly faster and better in the AMPH as compared to the placebo group. Increased learning success was maintained 1 month post-training. No correlation was found between training success and drug-induced increases in blood pressure, heart rate, or a facilitation of simple motor reaction time. Our data show that AMPH's plasticity-enhancing effect in humans is not related to its cardiovascular arousal. This suggests that the beneficial effects in stroke patients could also be obtained by less cardiovascular active drugs.

  9. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically innervated sweat glands

  10. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically innervated sweat glands

  11. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV). PMID:21315908

  12. Germanium determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: an increased vapor pressure-chloride generation system.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Murat; Volkan, Mürvet

    2011-03-15

    A new chloride generation system was designed for the direct, sensitive, rapid and accurate determination of the total germanium in complex matrices. It was aimed to improve the detection limit of chloride generation technique by increasing the vapor pressure of germanium tetrachloride (GeCl(4)). In order to do so, a novel joint vapor production and gas-liquid separation unit equipped with a home-made oven was incorporated to an ordinary nitrous oxide-acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Several variables such as reaction time, temperature and acid concentration have been investigated. The linear range for germanium determination was 0.1-10 ng mL(-1) for 1 mL sampling volume with a detection limit (3s) of 0.01 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.4% for nine replicates of a 1 ng mL(-1) germanium solution. The method was validated by the analysis of one non-certified and two certified geochemical reference materials, respectively, CRM GSJ-JR-2 (Rhyolite), and GSJ-JR-1 (Rhyolite), and GBW 07107 (Chinese Rock). Selectivity of the method was investigated for Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Ga(3+), Hg(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Sn(2+), and Zn(2+) ions and ionic species of As(III), Sb(III), Te(IV), and Se(IV).

  13. Self-appraisals of arousal-oriented online sexual activities in university and community samples.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Clowater, Sarah L; Kalinowski, Alana

    2014-08-01

    Arousal-oriented online sexual activities (OSAs) are any activities on the Internet that involve sexually explicit and/or sexually arousing stimuli. These can be solitary-arousal activities, requiring only one person be involved. They can also be partnered-arousal activities that involve at least two people interacting (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Most researchers have focused on the negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs on users' sexual life and life in general. Yet, these activities can also have positive outcomes. In two separate studies, we examined men's and women's perceptions of the positive and negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience. Study 1 included heterosexual university students (N = 191); Study 2 consisted of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals from the community (N = 316). Participants completed a background questionnaire and measures of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience and outcomes of these experiences. Overall, solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA was common among study participants. In both studies, participants reported significantly greater positive than negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs, albeit the overall impact was small. We did not find significant gender differences or differences by sexual orientation in positive or negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs. Our results suggest that, for most people, participating in solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs has little impact on them. PMID:23740466

  14. Arousal Modulates Activity in the Medial Temporal Lobe during a Short-Term Relational Memory Task.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Christian; Jensen, Jimmy; Sigvartsen, Niels Petter B; Bolstad, Ingeborg; Server, Andres; Nakstad, Per H; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of arousal on short-term relational memory and its underlying cortical network. Seventeen healthy participants performed a picture by location, short-term relational memory task using emotional pictures. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the blood-oxygenation-level dependent signal relative to task. Subjects' own ratings of the pictures were used to obtain subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal was found to have a dose-dependent effect on activations in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and in higher order visual areas. Serial position analyses showed that high arousal trials produced a stronger primacy and recency effect than low arousal trials. The results indicate that short-term relational memory may be facilitated by arousal and that this may be modulated by a dose-response function in arousal-driven neuronal regions.

  15. Sex differences in concordance rates between auditory event-related potentials and subjective sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Taylor L; Meana, Marta; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-08-01

    Much research indicates men show a greater concordance between subjective and genital sexual arousal than do women. We investigated the relationship between subjective sexual arousal and brain activation in men and women. Subjective sexual arousal and auditory N1 and P3b ERP amplitudes were measured while 38 participants viewed erotic and non-erotic films. Most notably, there was a significant correlation between N1 amplitude and sexual arousal in men; for women, there was a significant correlation between the P3b amplitude and sexual arousal. ERP amplitudes were inversely associated with reported arousal, suggesting that sexual arousal interferes with early tone processing for men, and with later tone processing for women. Lastly, for women, pornography/erotica consumption was negatively correlated with P3b amplitudes, suggesting that women who consume more pornography/erotica may also show greater attention to erotic films. PMID:27125689

  16. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  17. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  18. Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

    2004-01-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac. PMID:15803965

  19. Steady-State Methadone Effect on Generalized Arousal in Male and Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Devidze, N.; Ho, A.; Zhang, Q.; Pfaff, D.W.; Kreek, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Methadone is widely used in treatment of short-acting opiate addiction. The on-off effects of opioids have been documented to have profound differences from steady-state opioids. We hypothesize that opioids play important roles in either generalized arousal (GA) or aversive state of arousal during opioid withdrawal. Both male and female C57BL6 mice received steady-state methadone (SSM) through osmotic pumps at 10 or 20 mg/kg/day and GA was measured in voluntary motor activity, sensory responsivity, and contextual fear conditioning. SSM did not have any effect on those GA behaviors in either sex. Females had higher activity and less fear conditioning than males. The effects of SSM on stress responsive orexin gene expression in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and medial hypothalamus (MH, including perifornical and dorsomedial areas) were measured after the behavioral tests. Females showed significantly lower basal LH (but not MH) orexin mRNA levels than males. A panel of GA stressors increased LH orexin mRNA levels in females only; these increases were blunted by SSM at 20 mg/kg. In summary, SSM had no effect on GA behaviors. In females, SSM blunted the GA stress-induced LH orexin gene expression. PMID:19045944

  20. Arousal Predisposition as a Vulnerability Indicator for Psychosis: A General Population Online Stress Induction Study

    PubMed Central

    Clamor, Annika; Warmuth, A. Malika; Lincoln, Tania M.

    2015-01-01

    Explanatory models ascribe to arousability a central role for the development of psychotic symptoms. Thus, a disposition to hyperarousal (i.e., increased arousal predisposition (AP)) may serve as an underlying vulnerability indicator for psychosis by interacting with stressors to cause symptoms. In this case, AP, stress-response, and psychotic symptoms should be linked before the development of a diagnosable psychotic disorder. We conducted a cross-sectional online study in a population sample (N = 104; Mage = 27.7 years, SD = 11.2, range 18–70). Participants rated their AP and subclinical psychotic symptoms. Participants reported their stress-levels before and after two stress inductions including an arithmetic and a social stressor. The participants with an increased AP generally felt more stressed. However, AP was not associated with the specific stress-response. As expected, positive psychotic symptoms were significantly associated with AP, but this was not mediated by general stress-levels. Its association to subtle, nonclinical psychotic symptoms supports our assumption that AP could be a vulnerability indicator for psychosis. The trait is easily accessible via a short self-report and could facilitate the identification of people at risk and be a promising target for early stress-management. Further research is needed to clarify its predictive value for stress-responses. PMID:26199758

  1. Phenylalanine and aspartame fail to alter feeding behavior, mood and arousal in men.

    PubMed

    Ryan-Harshman, M; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were designed to investigate the neurobehavioral effects of phenylalanine (PHE; 0.84, 2.52, 5.04, and 10.08 g) and aspartame (APM; 5.04 and 10.08 g) on energy and macronutrient selection and on subjective feelings of hunger, mood and arousal in normal weight adult males. Neither phenylalanine nor aspartame altered mean energy intakes or macronutrient selection at a lunch begun 60 to 105 min after the amino acids were consumed. During this time, increased (p less than 0.05) visual analog scale (VAS) scores for emptiness, rumbling, weakness, degree of hunger and urge to eat were found in both experiments, but no treatment effects or interactions were seen for any variable in either experiment. Plasma PHE levels and ratios to other large neutral amino acids (NAA) rose significantly (p less than 0.05) after all treatments except 0.84 g PHE; plasma tyrosine (TYR) levels increased (p less than 0.05) only when greater than or equal to 2.52 g PHE was given. TYR/NAA ratios were higher (p less than 0.05) after 2.52 and 5.04 g PHE, and 10.08 g APM. No relationships were found between food intake and plasma amino acid levels. We conclude that, in normal weight men, PHE and APM, in doses up to 10 g, do not affect short-term energy and macronutrient intakes, or subjective feelings of hunger, mood and arousal.

  2. Methods to Inhibit Bacterial Pyomelanin Production and Determine the Corresponding Increase in Sensitivity to Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ketelboeter, Laura M; Bardy, Sonia L

    2015-01-01

    Pyomelanin is an extracellular red-brown pigment produced by several bacterial and fungal species. This pigment is derived from the tyrosine catabolism pathway and contributes to increased oxidative stress resistance. Pyomelanin production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is reduced in a dose dependent manner through treatment with 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). We describe a titration method using multiple concentrations of NTBC to determine the concentration of drug that will reduce or abolish pyomelanin production in bacteria. The titration method has an easily quantifiable outcome, a visible reduction in pigment production with increasing drug concentrations. We also describe a microtiter plate method to assay antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in bacteria. This method uses a minimum of resources and can easily be scaled up to test multiple antibiotics in one microtiter plate for one strain of bacteria. The MIC assay can be adapted to test the affects of non-antibiotic compounds on bacterial growth at specific concentrations. Finally, we describe a method for testing bacterial sensitivity to oxidative stress by incorporating H2O2 into agar plates and spotting multiple dilutions of bacteria onto the plates. Sensitivity to oxidative stress is indicated by reductions in colony number and size for the different dilutions on plates containing H2O2 compared to a no H2O2 control. The oxidative stress spot plate assay uses a minimum of resources and low concentrations of H2O2. Importantly, it also has good reproducibility. This spot plate assay could be adapted to test bacterial sensitivity to various compounds by incorporating the compounds in agar plates and characterizing the resulting bacterial growth. PMID:26382879

  3. Discrete telencephalic lesions accelerate the habituation rate of behavioral arousal responses in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Marino-Neto, J; Sabbatini, R M

    1983-10-01

    Stereotaxic electrolytic lesions were made in the dorsomedial telencephalic area, laterally to the dorsal commissure, in male Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens). The startle and orienting responses to regularly delivered taps on the side of the aquarium were recorded for lesioned, sham-operated and unoperated groups. Lesioned fish showed increased reactivity to environmental modifications, including tonic immobility and changes in body color. Although no changes in the arousal responses were detected, the lesioned fish showed an increased frequency of startle responses and habituated to the orienting responses faster than sham-operated and unoperated animals. The long-term inter-session retention of habituation was also decreased. The effects observed are the opposite of those obtained after complete or unilateral telencephalic ablation in teleosts and suggest the existence of antagonic telencephalic systems playing a modulatory role in arousal control.

  4. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical. PMID:2673137

  5. Differential arousal regulation by prokineticin 2 signaling in the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun-Yong; Burton, Katherine J; Neal, Matthew L; Qiao, Yu; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Sun, Yanjun; Xu, Xiangmin; Ma, Yuanye; Li, Xiaohan

    2016-01-01

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the active phase to either day or night period for the diurnal and the nocturnal mammals are unclear. Here we report that prokineticin 2, previously shown as a circadian clock output molecule, is expressed in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, and the expression of prokineticin 2 in the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells is oscillatory in a clock-dependent manner. We further show that the prokineticin 2 signaling is required for the activity and arousal suppression by light in the mouse. Between the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey, a signaling receptor for prokineticin 2 is differentially expressed in the retinorecipient suprachiasmatic nucleus and the superior colliculus, brain projection targets of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Blockade with a selective antagonist reveals the respectively inhibitory and stimulatory effect of prokineticin 2 signaling on the arousal levels for the nocturnal mouse and the diurnal monkey. Thus, the mammalian diurnality or nocturnality is likely determined by the differential signaling of prokineticin 2 from the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells onto their retinorecipient brain targets. PMID:27535380

  6. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical.

  7. Caffeine effects on resting-state electrodermal levels in AD/HD suggest an anomalous arousal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; McCarthy, Rory; Selikowitz, Mark; MacDonald, Brett; Dupuy, Franca E

    2012-03-01

    The effect of a single oral dose of caffeine was examined in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled repeated-measures cross-over study. Eighteen children with AD/HD, aged between 8 and 13 years, were individually age- and gender-matched with a control group. All children participated in two sessions, one week apart. Skin conductance level (SCL) from a 3 min eyes-closed epoch, commencing 30 min after ingestion of caffeine or placebo, was examined. Across conditions, mean SCL was lower in the AD/HD group than controls, confirming hypoarousal in AD/HD. Caffeine produced an increase in SCL, and this increase did not differ between the groups. However, arousal increases were dose-dependent in controls, but not in AD/HD. Rather, caffeine-induced arousal increases in the AD/HD group were positively related to their hyperactivity/impulsivity levels. This suggests an anomalous arousal mechanism in AD/HD functionally related to impairment in one symptom dimension. PMID:22266163

  8. A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noël de Fontréaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID

  9. Optogenetic Control of Hypocretin (Orexin) Neurons and Arousal Circuits

    PubMed Central

    de Lecea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    In 1998, our group discovered a cDNA that encoded the precursor of two putative neuropeptides that we called hypocretins for their hypothalamic expression and their similarity to the secretin family of neuropeptides. In the last 16 years, numerous studies have placed the hypocretin system as an integrator of homeostatic functions with a crucial, non-redundant function as arousal stabilizer. We recently applied optogenetic methods to interrogate the role of individual neuronal circuits in sleep-to-wake transitions. The neuronal connections between the hypocretin system and the locus coeruleus (LC) seem to be crucial in establishing the appropriate dynamic of spontaneous awakenings. PMID:25502546

  10. Stress-induced changes in the expression of monocytic beta2-integrins: the impact of arousal of negative affect and adrenergic responses to the Anger Recall Interview.

    PubMed

    Greeson, Jeffrey M; Lewis, James G; Achanzar, Karen; Zimmerman, Eugene; Young, Kenneth H; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-02-01

    Adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular endothelium is one of the earliest steps in the development of atherosclerosis. This leukocyte-to-endothelium interaction is mediated in part by beta2-integrins, a group of cell adhesion molecules that bind to endothelial ligands. Given the significance of this interaction to atherogenesis, we examined the effects of stress, operationalized as the arousal of negative affect (NA) and cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to the Anger Recall Interview (ARI), on the expression of LFA-1 (CD11a), Mac-1 (CD11b) and p150/95 (CD11c) on circulating monocytes (CD14+). Subjects were 173 healthy, nonsmoking men and women (60% men, 40% minorities, aged 18-49 year). Arousal of NA, cardiovascular responses (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP]), circulating catecholamines (epinephrine [Epi], norepinephrine [Ne]) and beta2-integrin (CD11/CD18) expression were determined prior to and following the ARI. The principal findings were that the ARI, on average, induced a decrease in monocyte expression of beta2-integrins. However, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, exercise status, and baseline level of beta2-integrin expression, those individuals who showed the largest increases in NA, Ne and DBP during the ARI showed an increase in monocyte beta2-integrin expression. Thus, heightened psychological and physiological stress responses induced phenotypic changes in monocytic expression of beta2-integrins that are consistent with the role of monocytes/macrophages in vascular inflammation and increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  11. Electrophysiological evidence for emotional valence and competitive arousal effects on insight problem solving.

    PubMed

    Li, Yadan; Xiao, Xiao; Ma, Wenjuan; Jiang, Jun; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-11-13

    Accumulating evidence suggests that insight can be substantially influenced by task-irrelevant emotion stimuli and interpersonal competitive situation, and a close link might exist between them. Using a learning-testing paradigm and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), the present study investigated the independent and joint effects of emotional and competitive information on insight problem solving especially their neural mechanisms. Subjects situated in either competitive or non-competitive condition learned heuristic logogriphs first and then viewed task-irrelevant positive or negative emotional pictures, which were followed by test logogriphs to solve. Both behavioral and ERP findings showed a more evident insight boost following negative emotional pictures in competitive context. Results demonstrated that negative emotion and competitive situation might promote insight by a defocused mode of attention (as indicated by N1 and P2), the enhanced semantic integration and breaking mental set (as indicated by N450), and the increased forming of novel associations activated by motivational arousal originating from competition (as indicated by P800-1600 and P1600-2500). These results indicate that the dynamic interactions between emotional valence and competitive arousal effects on insight.

  12. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen E; Porges, Eric C; Norman, Greg J; Connelly, Jessica J; Decety, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To address these questions, 51 male participants (18-35 years of age), genotyped for OXTR rs53576, viewed a social interaction containing high levels of individual distress and apparent physical pain. Electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, was collected during the presentation of the stimuli. Participants also completed a self-report dispositional measure of empathy prior to starting the study and provided ratings of arousal while viewing the stimuli. OXTR variant rs53576 GG individuals showed increased levels of sympathetic and subjective arousal in response to the stimuli compared to A allele carriers. GG homozygotes also expressed greater levels of empathic concern. These findings support the importance of the oxytocin receptor variation in emotional and physiological reactions to the affective experiences of other conspecifics. PMID:24295535

  13. Startle reflex hyporeactivity in Parkinson's disease: an emotion-specific or arousal-modulated deficit?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, K.M.; Okun, M.S.; Marsiske, M.; Fennell, E.B.; Bowers, D.

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrate reduced psychophysiologic reactivity to unpleasant pictures as indexed by diminished startle eyeblink magnitude (Bowers et al., 2006). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that this hyporeactivity was primarily driven by diminished reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli as opposed to other types of aversive pictures. This hypothesis was based on previous evidence suggesting amygdalar abnormalities in PD patients coupled with the known role of the amygdala in fear processing. To test this hypothesis, 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 controls viewed standardized sets of emotional pictures that depicted fear, disgust (mutilations, contaminations), pleasant, and neutral contents. Startle eyeblinks were elicited while subjects viewed these emotional pictures. Results did not support the hypothesis of a specific deficit to fear pictures. Instead, the PD patients had reduced reactivity to mutilation pictures relative to other types of negative pictures in the context of normal subjective ratings. Further analyses revealed that controls displayed a pattern of increased startle eyeblink magnitude for “high arousal” versus “low arousal” negative pictures, regardless of picture category, whereas startle eyeblink magnitude in the PD group did not vary by arousal level. These results suggest that previous findings of decreased aversion-modulated startle is driven by reduced reactivity to highly arousing negative stimuli rather than to a specific category (i.e., fear or disgust) of emotion stimuli. PMID:19428424

  14. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Greg J.; Connelly, Jessica J.; Decety, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To address these questions, fifty-one male participants (18–35 years of age), genotyped for OXTR rs53576, viewed a social interaction containing high levels of individual distress and apparent physical pain. Electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, was collected during the presentation of the stimuli. Participants also completed a self-report dispositional measure of empathy prior to starting the study and provided ratings of arousal while viewing the stimuli. OXTR variant rs53576 GG individuals showed increased levels of sympathetic and subjective arousal in response to the stimuli compared to A allele carriers. GG homozygotes also expressed greater levels of empathic concern. These findings support the importance of the oxytocin receptor variation in emotional and physiological reactions to the experiences of other conspecifics. PMID:24295535

  15. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size. PMID:27491014

  16. How to handle anxiety: The effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and suppression strategies on anxious arousal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T; Asnaani, Anu

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the Acceptance group was instructed to accept their anxiety. As expected, the Suppression group showed a greater increase in heart rate from baseline than the Reappraisal and Acceptance groups. Moreover, the Suppression group reported more anxiety than the Reappraisal group. However, the Acceptance and Suppression groups did not differ in their subjective anxiety response. These results suggest that both reappraising and accepting anxiety is more effective for moderating the physiological arousal than suppressing anxiety. However, reappraising is more effective for moderating the subjective feeling of anxiety than attempts to suppress or accept it.

  17. Associations of emotional arousal, dissociation and symptom severity with operant conditioning in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Hoesterey, Steffen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Schmahl, Christian

    2016-10-30

    Those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display altered evaluations regarding reward and punishment compared to others. The processing of rewards is basal for operant conditioning. However, studies addressing operant conditioning in BPD patients are rare. In the current study, an operant conditioning task combining learning acquisition and reversal was used. BPD patients and matched healthy controls (HCs) were exposed to aversive and neutral stimuli to assess the influence of emotion on learning. Picture content, dissociation, aversive tension and symptom severity were rated. Error rates were measured. Results showed no group interactions between aversive versus neutral scenes. The higher emotional arousal, dissociation and tension, the worse the acquisition, but not reversal, scores were for BPD patients. Scores from the Borderline Symptom List were associated with more errors in the reversal, but not the acquisition phase. The results are preliminary evidence for impaired acquisition learning due to increased emotional arousal, dissociation and tension in BPD patients. A failure to process punishment in the reversal phase was associated with symptom severity and may be related to neuropsychological dysfunctioning involving the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conclusions are limited due to the correlational study design and the small sample size.

  18. An Improved Technique for Increasing the Accuracy of Photometrically Determined Redshifts for ___Blended___ Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Ashley Marie; /Marietta Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The redshift of a galaxy can be determined by one of two methods; photometric or spectroscopic. Photometric is a term for any redshift determination made using the magnitudes of light in different filters. Spectroscopic redshifts are determined by measuring the absorption spectra of the object then determining the difference in wavelength between the 'standard' absorption lines and the measured ones, making it the most accurate of the two methods. The data for this research was collected from SDSS DR8 and then separated into blended and non-blended galaxy sets; the definition of 'blended' is discussed in the Introduction section. The current SDSS photometric redshift determination method does not discriminate between blended and non-blended data when it determines the photometric redshift of a given galaxy. The focus of this research was to utilize machine learning techniques to determine if a considerably more accurate photometric redshift determination method could be found, for the case of the blended and non-blended data being treated separately. The results show a reduction of 0.00496 in the RMS error of photometric redshift determinations for blended galaxies and a more significant reduction of 0.00827 for non-blended galaxies, illustrated in Table 2.

  19. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats.

  20. Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    PubMed

    Vollono, Catello; Testani, Elisa; Losurdo, Anna; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-06-10

    We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli.

  1. Brain structures mediating cardiovascular arousal and interoceptive awareness.

    PubMed

    Pollatos, Olga; Schandry, Rainer; Auer, Dorothee P; Kaufmann, Christian

    2007-04-13

    Different emotions are accompanied by different bodily states and it is unclear which brain structures are involved in both, the cerebral representation of the bodily change and the representation of its perception. Structures connecting bodily signals and interoceptive awareness could trigger, in a feedforward manner, behavioral responses appropriate to maintain a desired state of the cardiovascular system. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at identifying brain structures that are mutually activated during interoceptive awareness of heartbeats and during cardiovascular arousal. Additionally, we searched for brain regions connecting interoception with feelings. During the interoceptive task (directing attention towards heartbeats in relation to an exteroceptive task) the thalamus, the insula, the medial frontal/dorsal cingulate and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as the somatomotor cortex were activated. The conjunction of the interoceptive awareness of heartbeats and cardiovascular arousal revealed structures presumably connecting both conditions, i.e. the right thalamus, insula, somatomotor cortex, and the dorsal cingulate as well as medial frontal gyrus. Furthermore, the degree of interoceptive awareness predicted the degree of activation of both the insula and the medial frontal/dorsal cingulate gyrus. Negative feelings correlated with the BOLD response of the interoceptive awareness condition in the dorsal cingulate gyrus extending into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. We provide evidence that the insula, the dorsal cingulate gyrus, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex are specifically involved in processing cardiac sensations. The dorsal cingulate gyrus and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex presumably represent the neural substrates of experiencing negative emotions. PMID:17296169

  2. Does the arousal system contribute to near death experience?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kevin R; Mattingly, Michelle; Lee, Sherman A; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2006-04-11

    The neurophysiologic basis of near death experience (NDE) is unknown. Clinical observations suggest that REM state intrusion contributes to NDE. Support for the hypothesis follows five lines of evidence: REM intrusion during wakefulness is a frequent normal occurrence, REM intrusion underlies other clinical conditions, NDE elements can be explained by REM intrusion, cardiorespiratory afferents evoke REM intrusion, and persons with an NDE may have an arousal system predisposing to REM intrusion. To investigate a predisposition to REM intrusion, the life-time prevalence of REM intrusion was studied in 55 NDE subjects and compared with that in age/gender-matched control subjects. Sleep paralysis as well as sleep-related visual and auditory hallucinations were substantially more common in subjects with an NDE. These findings anticipate that under circumstances of peril, an NDE is more likely in those with previous REM intrusion. REM intrusion could promote subjective aspects of NDE and often associated syncope. Suppression of an activated locus ceruleus could be central to an arousal system predisposed to REM intrusion and NDE.

  3. Mineralocorticoid receptors in control of emotional arousal and fear memory.

    PubMed

    Brinks, V; Berger, S; Gass, P; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2009-08-01

    The stress hormone corticosterone acts via two receptor types in the brain: the mineralocorticoid (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Both receptors are involved in processing of stressful events. A disbalance of MR:GR functions is thought to promote stress-related disorders. Here we studied the effect of stress on emotional and cognitive behaviors in mice with forebrain-specific inactivation of the MR gene (MR(CaMKCre), 4 months old; and control littermates). MR(CaMKCre) mice responded to prior stress (5 min of restraint) with higher arousal and less locomotor activity in an exploration task. A fear conditioning paradigm allowed assessing in one experimental procedure both context- and cue-related fear. During conditioning, MR(CaMKCre) mice expressed more cue-related freezing. During memory test, contextual freezing remained potentiated, while control mice distinguished between cue (more freezing) and context episodes (less freezing) in the second memory test. At this time, plasma corticosterone levels of MR(CaMKCre) mice were 40% higher than in controls. We conclude that control of emotional arousal and adaptive behaviors is lost in the absence of forebrain MR, and thus, anxiety-related responses are and remain augmented. We propose that such a disbalance in MR:GR functions in MR(CaMKCre) mice provides the conditions for an animal model for anxiety-related disorders.

  4. How arousal modulates memory: disentangling the effects of attention and retention.

    PubMed

    Sharot, Tali; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2004-09-01

    Emotion may influence memory both by altering attention and perception during encoding and by affecting memory retention. To date, studies have focused on the enhancement of memory consolidation by arousal. However, they have failed to rule out a role for attention. To specifically link memory enhancement of arousing material to modulation of memory retention, we examined recognition of neutral and arousing words at two time points and under conditions that manipulate attention during encoding. Participants were briefly presented with an arousing or neutral word at the periphery, while fixating on a central word. Recognition of peripheral words was assessed either immediately or after 24 h. Whereas recognition of neutral words became worse over time, recognition of arousing words remained the same and was better than neutral word recognition at delay. The results indicate that arousal supports slower forgetting even when the difference in attentional resources allocated to stimuli is minimized.

  5. Generalized CNS arousal: An elementary force within the vertebrate nervous system.

    PubMed

    Calderon, D P; Kilinc, M; Maritan, A; Banavar, J R; Pfaff, D

    2016-09-01

    Why do animals and humans do anything at all? Arousal is the most powerful and essential function of the brain, a continuous function that accounts for the ability of animals and humans to respond to stimuli in the environment by producing muscular responses. Following decades of psychological, neurophysiological and molecular investigations, generalized CNS arousal can now be analyzed using approaches usually applied to physical systems. The concept of "criticality" is a state that illustrates an advantage for arousal systems poised near a phase transition. This property provides speed and sensitivity and facilitates the transition of the system into different brain states, especially as the brain crosses a phase transition from less aroused to more aroused states. In summary, concepts derived from applied mathematics of physical systems will now find their application in this area of neuroscience, the neurobiology of CNS arousal. PMID:27216213

  6. Increasing Self-Determination: Teaching Students To Plan, Work, Evaluate, and Adjust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James E.; Mithaug, Dennis E.; Cox, Phil; Peterson, Lori Y.; Van Dycke, Jamie L.; Cash, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the effect of self-determination contracts for 8 students (ages 9-10) with severe emotional/behavioral problems. Students completed daily self-determination contracts to schedule their work, plan for work outcomes, evaluate progress, and adjust for the next day's activity. Pre- and post-assessment found significant academic…

  7. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies. PMID:27193900

  8. Spectral determination of concentrations of functionally diverse pigments in increasingly complex arctic tundra canopies.

    PubMed

    Boelman, Natalie T; Magney, Troy S; Logan, Barry A; Griffin, Kevin L; Eitel, Jan U H; Greaves, Heather; Prager, Case M; Vierling, Lee A

    2016-09-01

    As the Arctic warms, tundra vegetation is becoming taller and more structurally complex, as tall deciduous shrubs become increasingly dominant. Emerging studies reveal that shrubs exhibit photosynthetic resource partitioning, akin to forests, that may need accounting for in the "big leaf" net ecosystem exchange models. We conducted a lab experiment on sun and shade leaves from S. pulchra shrubs to determine the influence of both constitutive (slowly changing bulk carotenoid and chlorophyll pools) and facultative (rapidly changing xanthophyll cycle) pigment pools on a suite of spectral vegetation indices, to devise a rapid means of estimating within canopy resource partitioning. We found that: (1) the PRI of dark-adapted shade leaves (PRIo) was double that of sun leaves, and that PRIo was sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (V + A + Z) (r (2) = 0.59) and Chla/b (r (2) = 0.64); (2) A corrected PRI (difference between dark and illuminated leaves, ΔPRI) was more sensitive to variation among sun and shade leaves in changes to the epoxidation state of their xanthophyll cycle pigments (dEPS) (r (2) = 0.78, RMSE = 0.007) compared to the uncorrected PRI of illuminated leaves (PRI) (r (2) = 0.34, RMSE = 0.02); and (3) the SR680 index was correlated with each of (V + A + Z), lutein, bulk carotenoids, (V + A + Z)/(Chla + b), and Chla/b (r (2) range = 0.52-0.69). We suggest that ΔPRI be employed as a proxy for facultative pigment dynamics, and the SR680 for the estimation of constitutive pigment pools. We contribute the first Arctic-specific information on disentangling PRI-pigment relationships, and offer insight into how spectral indices can assess resource partitioning within shrub tundra canopies.

  9. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. PMID:24799137

  10. Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Pettersson, I C; Yang, F P; Nicol, C J

    2015-02-03

    The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals.

  11. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions.

  12. Age differences in arousal and vigilance in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi).

    PubMed

    Hanson, M T; Coss, R G

    2001-11-01

    Newly emerged pup, juvenile, and adult California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi douglasii) were videorecorded at a seminatural field site in northern California. Video data revealed age differences in the budgeting of ground squirrel behavior, habitat use, and physiological arousal as indicated by morphometric analyses of tail piloerection. Adults and juveniles devoted their time to foraging in the open at feeding stations while displaying low to moderate levels of arousal, respectively. Pups remained vigilant on the fringe of covered habitats while displaying comparatively higher levels of arousal. Higher pup arousal may facilitate memory formation during early stages of development. PMID:11745313

  13. "Not for all the tea in China!" political ideology and the avoidance of dissonance-arousing situations.

    PubMed

    Nam, H Hannah; Jost, John T; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2013-01-01

    People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed.

  14. "Not for all the tea in China!" political ideology and the avoidance of dissonance-arousing situations.

    PubMed

    Nam, H Hannah; Jost, John T; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2013-01-01

    People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a "better president." This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed. PMID:23620724

  15. Strategies of arousal control: biofeedback, meditation, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, B; Kristeller, J; Simons, R; Hodes, R; Lang, P J

    1981-12-01

    A series of four experiments assessed the effects of instructions to lower heart rate on heart rate change and general arousal reduction. Various conditions of biofeedback, cognitive load, incentive, knowledge of results, and the experimenter-subject relationship were tested. Experiment 1 compared physiological responses to the delivery of direct organ feedback (i.e., heart rate) with responses to electromyographic biofeedback from the frontalis muscle area and with responses to a nonfeedback tracking task. The results suggest that neither heart rate nor muscle tension feedback is an especially powerful method for achieving sustained reductions in heart rate. Furthermore, although some specificity of physiologic pattern is apparent, biofeedback is no more effective in lowering general activation level than simple instructions to relax accompanied by a general knowledge of results. The second experiment was designed to assess the role of cognitive load in arousal reduction. Heart rate biofeedback was compared with a procedure involving minimal external information processing--the secular meditation exercise of Wallace and Benson. The results indicated a clear superiority for the meditation strategy in effecting reductions in cardiac rate and lowering activation. However, in a third experiment, meditation subjects lowered heart rate much less than observed in the previous study, and this time the reduction did not exceed that achieved by feedback subjects. Subsequent analysis suggested that the quality of the subject-experimenter relationship (active-supportive vs. formal-distant) was a significant variable in accounting for outcome differences. The above hypothesis was supported by a fourth experiment. Under conditions of high subject-experimenter involvement, the superior meditation performance of Experiment 2 was reproduced; under low-involvement conditions the Experiment 3 result of no difference between training groups was obtained. The findings suggest that the

  16. Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

  17. High Concentrations of Manganese in Mueller-Hinton Agar Increase MICs of Tigecycline Determined by Etest▿

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Mazarrasa, Carlos; Mazarrasa, Olav; Calvo, Jorge; del Arco, Asunción; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    MICs of tigecycline determined by Etest were 4 to 12 times (three ATCC strains) and 2 to 8 times (50 clinical isolates) higher in Mueller-Hinton agar from Merck than in Mueller-Hinton agar from either Oxoid or Difco. This was related to a much higher concentration of manganese in the medium from Merck. PMID:19144806

  18. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Effects of psychostimulant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Francisco J.; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A.; Luster, Brennon; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal’s voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:26779323

  19. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Effects of psychostimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal's voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration.

  20. The Mozart effect: evidence for the arousal hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roth, Edward A; Smith, Kenneth H

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of music listening for performance on a 25-question portion of the analytical section of the Graduate Record Exam by 72 undergraduate students (M age 21.9 yr.). Five levels of an auditory condition were based on Mozart Piano Sonata No. 3 (K. 281), Movement I (Allegro); a rhythm excerpt; a melody excerpt; traffic sounds; and silence. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the stimuli. After a 5-min., 43-sec. (length of the first Allegro movement) listening period, participants answered the questions. Analysis indicated participants achieved significantly higher mean scores after all auditory conditions than those in the silent condition. No statistically significant pairwise mean difference appeared between scores for the auditory conditions. Findings were interpreted in terms of an arousal framework, suggesting the higher means in all auditory conditions may reflect immediate exposure to auditory stimuli.

  1. Female nudity in advertisements, arousal and response: a parsimonious extension.

    PubMed

    LaTour, M S; Henthorne, T L

    1994-12-01

    This study extended a 1990 report of LaTour, Pitts, and Snook-Luther by further analysis. Relationships between the key dimensions of High Activation (tension) and General Activation (energy) and ratings of attitude toward the advertisement were analyzed in a test of two hypothetical models performed on ratings by 134 undergraduate business students who responded to the paper-and-pencil tests which operationalized the constructs. In addition, attitude toward the brand was added to the formulation to evaluate the tenability of direct effects of arousal on attitude toward the brand (Ab) and indirect effects "filtered through" attitude toward the advertisement (Aad). Analysis supported the idea that excessive rated tension induced from an erotic advertisement has negative consequences. As predicted, different structural relations between these variables occur under different conditions. PMID:7886193

  2. Arousal, motor control, and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; Luster, B.; D’Onofrio, S.; Mahaffey, S.

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the most important discovery in the reticular activating system (RAS) in the last 10 years, the manifestation of gamma band activity in cells of the RAS, especially in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), which is in charge of the high frequency states of waking and REM sleep. This discovery is critical to understanding the modulation of movement by the RAS and how it sets the background over which we generate voluntary and triggered movements. The presence of gamma band activity in the RAS is proposed to participate in the process of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions. Early findings using stimulation of this region to induce arousal, and also to elicit stepping, are placed in this context. This finding also helps explain the novel use of PPN deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), although considerable work remains to be done.

  3. 42 CFR 406.34 - Determination of months to be counted for premium increase: Reenrollment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Peter M enrolled during his initial enrollment period, terminated his first coverage period in August... through March, 1980) were not enough to require any increase in the premium. Peter terminated his...

  4. Arousal and attention re-orienting in autism spectrum disorders: evidence from auditory event-related potentials

    PubMed Central

    Orekhova, Elena V.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2014-01-01

    The extended phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) includes a combination of arousal regulation problems, sensory modulation difficulties, and attention re-orienting deficit. A slow and inefficient re-orienting to stimuli that appear outside of the attended sensory stream is thought to be especially detrimental for social functioning. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and magnetic fields (ERFs) may help to reveal which processing stages underlying brain response to unattended but salient sensory event are affected in individuals with ASD. Previous research focusing on two sequential stages of the brain response—automatic detection of physical changes in auditory stream, indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN), and evaluation of stimulus novelty, indexed by P3a component,—found in individuals with ASD either increased, decreased, or normal processing of deviance and novelty. The review examines these apparently conflicting results, notes gaps in previous findings, and suggests a potentially unifying hypothesis relating the dampened responses to unattended sensory events to the deficit in rapid arousal process. Specifically, “sensory gating” studies focused on pre-attentive arousal consistently demonstrated that brain response to unattended and temporally novel sound in ASD is already affected at around 100 ms after stimulus onset. We hypothesize that abnormalities in nicotinic cholinergic arousal pathways, previously reported in individuals with ASD, may contribute to these ERP/ERF aberrations and result in attention re-orienting deficit. Such cholinergic dysfunction may be present in individuals with ASD early in life and can influence both sensory processing and attention re-orienting behavior. Identification of early neurophysiological biomarkers for cholinergic deficit would help to detect infants “at risk” who can potentially benefit from particular types of therapies or interventions. PMID:24567709

  5. Arousal vs. relaxation: a comparison of the neurophysiological and cognitive correlates of Vajrayana and Theravada meditative practices.

    PubMed

    Amihai, Ido; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Based on evidence of parasympathetic activation, early studies defined meditation as a relaxation response. Later research attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems. Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies investigated Theravada style meditative practices. In this study, we compared neurophysiological (EEG, EKG) and cognitive correlates of meditative practices that are thought to utilize either focused or distributed attention, from both Theravada and Vajrayana traditions. The results of Study 1 show that both focused (Shamatha) and distributed (Vipassana) attention meditations of the Theravada tradition produced enhanced parasympathetic activation indicative of a relaxation response. In contrast, both focused (Deity) and distributed (Rig-pa) meditations of the Vajrayana tradition produced sympathetic activation, indicative of arousal. Additionally, the results of Study 2 demonstrated an immediate dramatic increase in performance on cognitive tasks following only Vajrayana styles of meditation, indicating enhanced phasic alertness due to arousal. Furthermore, our EEG results showed qualitatively different patterns of activation between Theravada and Vajrayana meditations, albeit highly similar activity between meditations within the same tradition. In conclusion, consistent with Tibetan scriptures that described Shamatha and Vipassana techniques as those that calm and relax the mind, and Vajrayana techniques as those that require 'an awake quality' of the mind, we show that Theravada and Vajrayana meditations are based on different neurophysiological mechanisms, which give rise to either a relaxation or arousal response. Hence, it may be more appropriate to categorize meditations in terms of relaxation vs. arousal, whereas classification methods that rely on the focused vs. distributed attention dichotomy may need to be reexamined.

  6. Arousal vs. relaxation: a comparison of the neurophysiological and cognitive correlates of Vajrayana and Theravada meditative practices.

    PubMed

    Amihai, Ido; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Based on evidence of parasympathetic activation, early studies defined meditation as a relaxation response. Later research attempted to categorize meditation as either involving focused or distributed attentional systems. Neither of these hypotheses received strong empirical support, and most of the studies investigated Theravada style meditative practices. In this study, we compared neurophysiological (EEG, EKG) and cognitive correlates of meditative practices that are thought to utilize either focused or distributed attention, from both Theravada and Vajrayana traditions. The results of Study 1 show that both focused (Shamatha) and distributed (Vipassana) attention meditations of the Theravada tradition produced enhanced parasympathetic activation indicative of a relaxation response. In contrast, both focused (Deity) and distributed (Rig-pa) meditations of the Vajrayana tradition produced sympathetic activation, indicative of arousal. Additionally, the results of Study 2 demonstrated an immediate dramatic increase in performance on cognitive tasks following only Vajrayana styles of meditation, indicating enhanced phasic alertness due to arousal. Furthermore, our EEG results showed qualitatively different patterns of activation between Theravada and Vajrayana meditations, albeit highly similar activity between meditations within the same tradition. In conclusion, consistent with Tibetan scriptures that described Shamatha and Vipassana techniques as those that calm and relax the mind, and Vajrayana techniques as those that require 'an awake quality' of the mind, we show that Theravada and Vajrayana meditations are based on different neurophysiological mechanisms, which give rise to either a relaxation or arousal response. Hence, it may be more appropriate to categorize meditations in terms of relaxation vs. arousal, whereas classification methods that rely on the focused vs. distributed attention dichotomy may need to be reexamined. PMID:25051268

  7. 5-HT2A receptor activation is necessary for CO2-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Haleigh R.; MacAskill, Amanda; Richerson, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypercapnia-induced arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism pertinent to a number of diseases. Most notably among these are the sudden infant death syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Serotonin (5-HT) plays a significant role in hypercapnia-induced arousal. The mechanism of 5-HT's role in this protective response is unknown. Here we sought to identify the specific 5-HT receptor subtype(s) involved in this response. Wild-type mice were pretreated with antagonists against 5-HT receptor subtypes, as well as antagonists against adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic, and orexinergic receptors before challenge with inspired CO2 or hypoxia. Antagonists of 5-HT2A receptors dose-dependently blocked CO2-induced arousal. The 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, RS-102221, and the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, attenuated but did not completely block CO2-induced arousal. Blockade of non-5-HT receptors did not affect CO2-induced arousal. None of these drugs had any effect on hypoxia-induced arousal. 5-HT2 receptor agonists were given to mice in which 5-HT neurons had been genetically eliminated during embryonic life (Lmx1bf/f/p) and which are known to lack CO2-induced arousal. Application of agonists to 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT2C, receptors, dose-dependently restored CO2-induced arousal in these mice. These data identify the 5-HT2A receptor as an important mediator of CO2-induced arousal and suggest that, while 5-HT neurons can be independently activated to drive CO2-induced arousal, in the absence of 5-HT neurons and endogenous 5-HT, 5-HT receptor activation can act in a permissive fashion to facilitate CO2-induced arousal via another as yet unidentified chemosensor system. PMID:25925320

  8. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger. PMID:25224182

  9. Vaginal physiological changes in a model of sexual arousal in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, F; Allard, J; Compagnie, S; Alexandre, L; Droupy, S; Bernabe, J

    2001-07-01

    The understanding of the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction suffers from the lack of a convenient model for the study of female genital sexual response. In this study, systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) as well as partial oxygen tension, temperature, and blood engorgement of the vagina [using laser-Doppler flowmetry in arbitrary units (AU)] were measured in anesthetized, ovariectomized (1 wk before the start of the experiment) female rats. Vaginal sexual arousal was replicated by electrical stimulation of the pelvic nerve (PNS). PNS induced reproducible increases in the different vaginal parameters (from baseline value, respectively: 16 +/- 10 to 30 +/- 12 mmHg; 34.9 +/- 0.6 to 36 +/- 0.6 degrees C; 450 +/- 196 to 1,500 +/- 360 AU; P < 0.05, paired t-test) and BP (90 +/- 7 to 123 +/- 13 mmHg, P < 0.05, paired t-test). Vaginal vascular resistance was significantly decreased during PNS (from 0.23 +/- 0.15 to 0.08 +/- 0.02 mmHg/AU). Vaginal wall tension was also measured with a force transducer. PNS induced an increase in vaginal wall tension (1.0 +/- 0.2 g), followed by a decrease under the prestimulation value. Intravenous atropine sulfate (1 mg/kg) injection abolished the increase in vaginal wall tension without significantly affecting vaginal vascular resistance. Intravenous vercuronium bromide (2 mg/kg) injection abolished the decrease in vaginal wall tension. Concomitant electrical stimulation of the paravertebral sympathetic chain inhibited vaginal response induced by PNS. Electrical stimulation of the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus induced a response qualitatively equivalent to PNS with a significant decrease of vaginal vascular resistance. These data support that vaginal contractions involve both smooth and striated muscles and indicate that neural control of vaginal sexual arousal have great similarities in male and female rats. PMID:11404287

  10. Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Veronique; Boikos, Constantina; Richardson, Robin; Harper, Sam

    2014-01-01

    We review evidence of determinants contributing to increased opioid-related mortality in the United States and Canada between 1990 and 2013. We identified 17 determinants of opioid-related mortality and mortality increases that we classified into 3 categories: prescriber behavior, user behavior and characteristics, and environmental and systemic determinants. These determinants operate independently but interact in complex ways that vary according to geography and population, making generalization from single studies inadvisable. Researchers in this area face significant methodological difficulties; most of the studies in our review were ecological or observational and lacked control groups or adjustment for confounding factors; thus, causal inferences are difficult. Preventing additional opioid-related mortality will likely require interventions that address multiple determinants and are tailored to specific locations and populations. PMID:24922138

  11. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS... increase is charged to all students in the same category (for example, the same class year or place of residence) and without regard to whether the student is receiving support under the scholarship programs....

  12. 42 CFR 57.3202 - How will allowable increases be determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS... increase is charged to all students in the same category (for example, the same class year or place of residence) and without regard to whether the student is receiving support under the scholarship programs....

  13. Increasing Self-Determination: Teaching People with Mental Retardation to Evaluate Residential Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faw, Gerald D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Four institutionalized adults with mild mental retardation were taught to obtain information regarding their living preferences during tours of community group homes, to report the information to their social workers, and to evaluate the homes. All four participants increased these skills, indicating their ability to participate in such major…

  14. Tachykinin-expressing neurons control male-specific aggressive arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-16

    Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. PMID:24439378

  15. The Effects of Televised Consequences of Aggression upon Physiological Arousal (Heart Rate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotring, C. Edward; Porter, D. Thomas

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study using heart rate as an index of autonomic arousal to measure the effects on television viewers of depicting the consequences of violence, violence with no consequence, and nonviolence. Supports the conclusion that specific content manipulations of aggressive stimuli affect levels of arousal. (JMF)

  16. The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, David C.

    The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

  17. Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

  18. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  19. Frightening Information and Extraneous Arousal: Changing Cognitions and Behavior Regarding Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Bem P.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of the physical effects of fear on 236 college-age students. Compares pulse rates and the ability to perform physical exercise while viewing a video on a nuclear war or a nonfrightening incident. Finds that fear was effective at moderate levels of arousal, but high levels of arousal eliminated or reversed the effects. (CFR)

  20. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  1. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  2. Pre-Sleep Arousal and Sleep Problems of Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Pina, Armando A.; Zerr, Argero A.; Villalta, Ian K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal among 52 anxious children and adolescents, aged 7-14 years, in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, and primary anxiety disorder. Assessment included structured diagnostic interviews and parent and child completed measures of sleep problems and pre-sleep arousal. Overall, 85% of parents…

  3. Arousing Primary Vulnerable Emotions in the Context of Unresolved Anger: "Speaking about" versus "Speaking to"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Rochman, Daniel; Amir, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Arousing and processing primary vulnerable emotions is a core change mechanism across a wide range of psychotherapies and clinical populations. This study examined the utility of 2 emotion-focused interventions--relational reframes and empty-chair enactments--in terms of arousing primary sadness associated with loss and longing among individuals…

  4. Direct Manipulation of Physiological Arousal in Induced Anxiety Therapy-Biofeedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappington, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Induced Anxiety is a brief psychotherapy procedure that teaches individuals to cope with negative effect by using relaxation techniques. This research investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students suffering from…

  5. Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

  6. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  7. Autonomic Arousal to Direct Gaze Correlates with Social Impairments among Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaartinen, Miia; Puura, Kaija; Makela, Tiina; Rannisto, Mervi; Lemponen, Riina; Helminen, Mika; Salmelin, Raili; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether autonomic arousal to direct gaze is related to social impairments among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Arousal was measured through skin conductance responses (SCR) while the participants (15 children with ASD and 16 control children) viewed a live face of another person. Impairments in social…

  8. [Dietary and physical activity factors as determinants of the increase in overweight/obesity in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Cristina Pinheiro; dos Anjos, Luiz Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Data from Brazilian national surveys conducted since the 1970s have indicated an increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. The two most frequently cited causes of this trend have been dietary changes and reduction in physical activity, characterizing a "contemporary Western lifestyle". The objective of this paper is to identify and assess some indicators associated with changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns in the Brazilian population in the last 30 years. Despite the lack of detailed data, the following factors appear to play an important role in the process: internal migration; dining out; increased consumption of fast food; labor changes; transportation; and the use of home appliances. More information on dietary and physical activity patterns in association with anthropometric data on the Brazilian population are needed for a better understanding of each factor's role in these relationships. Meanwhile, inter-sector programs and projects with well-defined targets and outcomes are needed for the population's adherence to a healthier lifestyle, in order to control the increase in overweight/obesity. PMID:15263980

  9. Effectiveness of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on coma arousal after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyun; Davis, Alice E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of direct and non-direct auditory stimulation on arousal in coma patients with severe traumatic brain injury and to compare the effects of direct vs. non-direct auditory stimulation. A crossover intervention study design was used. Nine participants who were comatose after a severe traumatic brain injury underwent direct and non-direct auditory stimulation. Direct auditory stimulation requires a higher level of interpersonal interaction between the patient and stimuli such as voices of family members, orientation by a nurse or family member and familiar music. In contrast, non-direct auditory stimuli were characterized as more general, less familiar, less interactive, indirect and not lively such as general music and TV sounds. Participants received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation in randomized order for 15 minutes. Recovery of consciousness was measured with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Sensory Stimulation Assessment Measure (SSAM). The Friedman test with post hoc analysis by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test comparisons was used for data analysis. Patients who received both direct and non-direct auditory stimulation exhibited significantly increased GCS (p = 0.008) and SSAM scores (p = 0.008) over baseline. The improvement in SSAM scores after direct auditory stimulation was significantly greater than that after non-direct auditory stimulation (p = 0.021), but there was no statistically significant difference in GCS scores (p = 0.139). Auditory stimulation, in particular direct auditory stimulation, might be useful for improving the recovery of consciousness and increasing the arousal of comatose patients. The SSAM is more useful for detecting subtle changes from stimulation intervention than the GCS. PMID:27241789

  10. Determination of increase in shear strength of soil reinforced with plant roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudan Acharya, Madhu; Alvarez Suarez, Sandra Patricia; Rauchecker, Markus

    2013-04-01

    The stability of a slope depends on the strength of the soil material comprising of the slope, the triggering factors and slope geometry. Vegetation growing on the slope can have mechanical, biological and hydrological roles which influence the strength characteristics of the material on the slope. The mechanical contributions arise from the physical interactions of either the foliage or the root system of the plant with the slope (Gray & Sotir, 1996). The plant roots increase the soil suction reducing pore water pressures, which significantly increases the cohesion (c) and also the friction angle (φ) to some extent. In an experimental investigation carried out in a highway embankment in Germany, an increase of effective cohesion from 1.1 kN/m² to 6.3 kN/m² and friction angle from 33.1° to 34.7° were observed. (Katzenbach & Werner, 2005). Considering the complex nature of influences of plants on slope stability, more field oriented experimental research works on different vegetative systems are required to quantify the role of different plants in slope stability. In the above context, in order to observe the increase in the shear strength of soil by different types of plant roots, an experiment has been carried out at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU). This experiment consist of 10 wooden boxes of size 50x50x60 cm and 5 boxes of size 50x50x40 cm filled with normal soil suitable for growth of plants. The ten number of bigger size boxes are planted with acer campestre plants. In the other five boxes of smaller size, a mixed seed of 21 different grass species has been sowed. All the boxes are kept in an experimental field and regular take care is being done. The grass will be cut each year and the biomass will be measured. The undisturbed soil samples from each of these boxes in first and second year will be taken to the large frame (50x50cm) direct shear test equipment and tested for direct shear. A comparison of shear strength of soil

  11. The moderating effects of stimulus valence and arousal on memory suppression.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Marshall, Peter J; Castro, Frank

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the separate and combined effects of stimulus valence and arousal on retrieval inhibition. Participants performed Anderson and Green's (2001) memory suppression task with stimuli varying across dimensions of valence and arousal. Memory was tested through free and cued recall as well as speeded recognition. Results showed that both stimulus valence and arousal influenced the extent to which participants successfully inhibited retrieval, but not in the ways anticipated. Specifically, the strongest inhibition effects were for highly arousing, pleasant words. In addition, unpleasant stimuli that were suppressed were better recalled during both cued and free-recall tasks than pleasant stimuli that were suppressed. Across all tests of memory performance, there were no significant differences between the experimental conditions for highly arousing, unpleasant words. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18410194

  12. Can fear arousal in public health campaigns contribute to the decline of HIV prevalence?

    PubMed

    Green, Edward C; Witte, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Most American health professionals who work in HIV/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical evidence, which suggests that the use of fear arousal in public health campaigns often works in promoting behavior change, when combined with self-efficacy. The authors provide overviews of the prevailing American expert view, African national views, and the most recent findings on the use of fear arousal in behavior change campaigns. Their analysis suggests that American, post-sexual-revolution values and beliefs may underlie rejection of fear arousal strategies, whereas a pragmatic realism based on personal experience underlies Africans' acceptance of and use of the same strategies in AIDS prevention campaigns. PMID:16624790

  13. Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. PMID:18561301

  14. Upbeat and happy: arousal as an important factor in studying attention.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Shore, David I

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of music-induced mood changes on different components of visual attention. Affective valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (high vs. low) were manipulated by having participants listen to one of four versions of a Mozart Sonata that varied in mode (major or minor) and tempo (fast or slow). Attention was measured in three domains-alerting, orienting, and executive control. Affective valence and arousal had an effect on executive control, but not on alerting or orienting. Individuals who experienced positive valence had less efficient control over their responses than those who experienced negative valence, but only when arousal levels were high. Positive and negative valence did not influence executive control measures when arousal levels were low. These findings demonstrate that affective valence and arousal interact with one another to influence the processing of items in visual attention.

  15. PWD/PhJ mice have a genetically determined increase in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Ho, Maggie M; Johnson, James D; Clee, Susanne M

    2015-04-01

    PWD/PhJ (PWD) is a wild-derived inbred mouse strain unrelated to commonly studied strains, such as C57BL/6J (B6). A chromosome substitution panel with PWD chromosomes transferred into the B6 background is commercially available and will facilitate genetic analysis of this strain. We have previously shown that the PWD strain is a model of primary fasting hyperinsulinemia. To identify more specific phenotypes affected by the genetic variation in PWD compared to B6 mice, we examined physiological mechanisms that may contribute to their elevated insulin levels. PWD mice had increased nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion due to factors inherent to their pancreatic islets. Insulin secretion responses to glucose, palmitate, and the metabolic intermediate α-ketoisocaproate were increased ~2-fold in islets from PWD mice compared to B6 islets. In contrast, there were no strain differences in processes affecting insulin secretion downstream of β cell depolarization. PWD mice tended to have larger but fewer islets than B6 mice, resulting in similar insulin-staining areas and insulin content per unit of pancreatic tissue. However, pancreata of PWD mice were smaller, resulting in reduced total β cell mass and pancreatic insulin content compared to B6 mice. Combined, these data suggest that the elevated fasting insulin levels in PWD mice result from increased generation of metabolic signals leading to β cell depolarization and insulin secretion. Identification of the genetic differences underlying the enhanced nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in this model may lead to new approaches to appropriately modulate insulin secretion for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  16. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  17. Increased occipital delta dipole density in major depressive disorder determined by magnetoencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Alberto; Rodriguez-Palancas, Alfonso; López-Ibor, MarÍa; Zuluaga, Pilar; Turrero, AgustÍn; Maestú, Fernando; Amo, Carlos; López-Ibor, Juan José; Ortiz, Tomás

    2005-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that there is increased low-frequency activity located predominantly in the frontal lobe in patients with major depressive disorder using magnetoencephalography. Methods We carried out an unmatched or separate sampling case–control study of 31 medication-free patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), criteria for major depressive disorder and were outpatients of the Hospital Central de la Defensa, Madrid, and 22 healthy control subjects with no history of mental illness. A logistic regression analysis was employed to examine the predictive value of magnetoencephalography dipole density scores in the diagnosis of depression. We attempted to locate generators of focal magnetic slow waves by employing a single moving dipole model and by calculating dipole densities in prefrontal, frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas. The study lasted from February 2001 to January 2003. Results Only 2 dipole density scores, right occipital delta and left temporal delta, were significantly related to depression. According to the comparison of univariate and multivariate models and odds ratios, the right occipital delta dipole density is the factor with the greatest predictive power for depression, and the only one to show a significant correlation with severity of depression. Conclusions We did not find any frontal lobe functional alteration. Our study provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of abnormal focal magnetic low-frequency activity in the occipital lobe of untreated patients with depression. Increased occipital lobe delta dipole density seems to be a reliable risk factor for depression, which correlates with disease severity according to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. PMID:15644993

  18. Method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and pre-determined increase in cetane number

    DOEpatents

    Waller, Francis Joseph; Quinn, Robert

    2004-07-06

    The present invention relates to a method of producing a diesel fuel blend having a pre-determined flash-point and a pre-determined increase in cetane number over the stock diesel fuel. Upon establishing the desired flash-point and increase in cetane number, an amount of a first oxygenate with a flash-point less than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number equal to or greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number. Thereafter, an amount of a second oxygenate with a flash-point equal to or greater than the flash-point of the stock diesel fuel and a cetane number greater than the cetane number of the stock diesel fuel is added to the stock diesel fuel in an amount sufficient to achieve the pre-determined increase in cetane number.

  19. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  20. Using pay-for-success to increase investment in the nonmedical determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Ian

    2014-11-01

    The combination of fee-for-service payments and the US health care system's standing commitment to treating existing illness discourages spending on the behavioral, social, and environmental (that is, the nonmedical) conditions that contribute most to long-term health. Pay-for-success, alternatively known as social impact bonds, or SIBs, offers a possible solution. The pay-for-success model relies on an investor that is willing to fund a nonmedical intervention up front while bearing the risk that the intervention may fail to prevent disease in the future. Should the intervention succeed, however, the investor is repaid in full by a predetermined payer (such as a public health agency) and receives an additional return on its investment as a reward for taking on the risk. Pay-for-success pilots are being developed to reduce asthma-related emergencies among children, poor birth outcomes, and the progression of prediabetes to diabetes, among other applications. These efforts, supported by key policy reforms such as public agency data sharing and coordinated care, promise to increase the number of evidence-based nonmedical service providers and seed a new market that values health, not just health care.

  1. [A determinant study on population increasing and declining in Chinese feudal society].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Z

    1991-02-01

    The population change in China in feudal times did not follow a continuous curve of growth, instead, it featured steady increases and sharp declines in the population size. The following mechanism caused the growth in population. 1st, the traditional farming system stimulated the reproduction of children to meet the needs for labor power, especially male. 2nd, in the feudal society, land and people were important resources for tax collection and for expansion of territory. And the government often followed a pronatal population policy. 3rd, the cultural tradition and social values of the country have been in favor of large families. Carrying on family lineage and improving family status through many children were important social values. Households with 3 or 4 generations living together were a major form of family structure. These were the factors that contributed to high fertility and population growth. In terms of causes of reduction of population size, it was principally wars and famine. In the feudal history of China, land ownership was always the key issue in the government policy and regulations and in the change of dynasty. Land was the most important and reliable means of production and form of wealth. Polarization of wealth from ownership of land intensified the conflicts between social classes, which caused instability in economics and in the society. War was a manifestation of social instability. In all the dynasties, incessant wars because of struggles within power structures and rebellion from peasants to fight against oppression resulted in massive killings, devastated the economy, and caused drastic reductions in the population numbers. Similar to wars, famine and natural calamities in the imperial dynasties often reversed the population growth trend. In a peasant economy, production was individualized, and the social structure was loose. The minimal means of rural farming families were unable to resist natural disasters. Under severe exploitation

  2. Pupillary Contagion in Infancy: Evidence for Spontaneous Transfer of Arousal.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Christine; Wesevich, Victoria; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-07-01

    Pupillary contagion-responding to pupil size observed in other people with changes in one's own pupil-has been found in adults and suggests that arousal and other internal states could be transferred across individuals using a subtle physiological cue. Examining this phenomenon developmentally gives insight into its origins and underlying mechanisms, such as whether it is an automatic adaptation already present in infancy. In the current study, 6- and 9-month-olds viewed schematic depictions of eyes with smaller and larger pupils-pairs of concentric circles with smaller and larger black centers-while their own pupil sizes were recorded. Control stimuli were comparable squares. For both age groups, infants' pupil size was greater when they viewed large-center circles than when they viewed small-center circles, and no differences were found for large-center compared with small-center squares. The findings suggest that infants are sensitive and responsive to subtle cues to other people's internal states, a mechanism that would be beneficial for early social development.

  3. Changes in electrocortical arousal following acute trimethylbenzene administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Tomas, T; Lutz, P; Wiaderna, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the neurotoxic potential of trimethylbenzene (TMB) isomers (the solvents) with that of benzene derivatives with a smaller number of methyl groups (toluene). The experiments were performed on WAG/Rij rats with EEG recording electrodes implanted in the fronto-parietal cortex. The solvents, toluene or TMB isomers: 1,3,5-TMB (mesitylene), 1,2,3-TMB (hemimellitene) or 1,2,4-TMB (pseudocumene), were diluted with olive oil and administered intragastrically via gavage at an acute dose of 0.002, 0.008, or 0.032 mol/kg. The electrocortical activity was recorded for 20 min before, and for 60 min after the solvent administration. The electrocorticograms were analysed with respect to the number and duration of the high-voltage spindles (HVS), a form of activity sensitive to the arousal level. In case of each solvent the observed effect--inhibition of the HVS activity--was dose-related. However, the effect produced by TMB isomers was in each case less pronounced than that of toluene. Among TMBs, pseudocumene displayed the least significant effect, and the efficacy of two other TMB isomers was similar. PMID:10846847

  4. Dynamics of time matching: Arousal makes better seem worse.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, J

    1995-06-01

    Matching of time allocation across alternatives in proportion to relative reinforcement rates is a ubiquitous finding in the animal-learning literature on choice. The dynamics of the underlying mechanism, however, remain poorly understood. A recent finding by Belke (1992) profoundly challenges scalar expectancy theory (SET; Gibbon et al., 1988) and other accounts of matching in concurrent variable interval (VI) schedules. He studied concurrent probe tests of stimuli associated with equal VIs but trained in alternative concurrent pairs. In training, one was preferred and the other not. Unreinforced probes revealed a strong preference for the alternative preferred in training. An experiment is reported replicating this result and showing that it is not due to generalization of preference levels from training. When the probe is between the two preferred training stimuli, the richer schedule is unpreferred. A SET account of these results is presented which implicates two processes in time allocation: (1) the choice between alternatives based on memory for delays to reinforcement, and (2) the times at which such choices are made. The former process is sensitive to reinforcement scheduling; the latter is sensitive to arousal levels induced by overall reinforcement rates in training.

  5. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  6. Voluntary heart rate lowering following a cardiovascular arousing task.

    PubMed

    Malcuit, G; Beaudry, J

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of the research was to evaluate the effect of feedback-assisted voluntary control to lower heart rate (HR), following a non-somatic mediated task designed to induce cardiovascular activation. Twenty-seven male subjects participated in this study and were randomly divided into three groups. All subjects were submitted to an arousing mental arithmetic task for a 1 min period, followed either by a feedback-assisted HR lowering task (FG), by an unassisted HR lowering task (ICG), or by a relaxation period (RCG). During this period (2 min duration), ICG and RCG subjects were required, as a help for HR deceleration or relaxation, to track visually a sweeping line similar in form to the continuous analogue feedback of the FG subjects. This sequence, interspaced by a 1 min rest period, was repeated 10 times. Results showed that the mental arithmetic task was effective in producing consistent and repetitive HR acceleration. All three groups showed significative HR lowering during the following voluntary HR control or relaxation period. However, there was no difference in the speed or depth of HR lowering. It appeared that continuous-analogue feedback was not more effective than instructions to relax to assist HR return to lower levels.

  7. Dissociable Modulation of Overt Visual Attention in Valence and Arousal Revealed by Topology of Scan Path

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jianguang; Jiang, Huihui; Jin, Yixiang; Chen, Nanhui; Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhengbo; Luo, Yuejia; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion), have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low). Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal) elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence) elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal. PMID:21494331

  8. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  9. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models. PMID:24215647

  10. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  11. Functional wiring of hypocretin and LC-NE neurons: implications for arousal

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Matthew E.; de Lecea, Luis; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    To survive in a rapidly changing environment, animals must sense their external world and internal physiological state and properly regulate levels of arousal. Levels of arousal that are abnormally high may result in inefficient use of internal energy stores and unfocused attention to salient environmental stimuli. Alternatively, levels of arousal that are abnormally low may result in the inability to properly seek food, water, sexual partners, and other factors necessary for life. In the brain, neurons that express hypocretin neuropeptides may be uniquely posed to sense the external and internal state of the animal and tune arousal state according to behavioral needs. In recent years, we have applied temporally precise optogenetic techniques to study the role of these neurons and their downstream connections in regulating arousal. In particular, we have found that noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) are particularly important for mediating the effects of hypocretin neurons on arousal. Here, we discuss our recent results and consider the implications of the anatomical connectivity of these neurons in regulating the arousal state of an organism across various states of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:23730276

  12. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  13. 75 FR 74123 - Office of the Commissioner; Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Federal Register of October 26, 2010, Cost-of-Living Increase and Other Determinations for 2011. (75 FR 65696; FR Doc. 2010-26983) Subsequently we identified two wage- reporting irregularities. We have now... alcoholism or drug addiction condition that leaves him or her incapable of managing benefits) in 2011;...

  14. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of Entry Period for the Fiscal Year 2012 Raw Sugar Tariff- Rate Quota...

  15. Affective processing in natural scene viewing: valence and arousal interactions in eye-fixation-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Simola, Jaana; Le Fevre, Kevin; Torniainen, Jari; Baccino, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    Attention is drawn to emotionally salient stimuli. The present study investigates processing of emotionally salient regions during free viewing of emotional scenes that were categorized according to the two-dimensional model comprising of valence (unpleasant, pleasant) and arousal (high, low). Recent studies have reported interactions between these dimensions, indicative of stimulus-evoked approach or withdrawal tendencies. We addressed the valence and arousal effects when emotional items were embedded in complex real-world scenes by analyzing both eye movement behavior and eye-fixation-related potentials (EFRPs) time-locked to the critical event of fixating the emotionally salient items for the first time. Both data sets showed an interaction between the valence and arousal dimensions. First, the fixation rates and gaze durations on emotionally salient regions were enhanced for unpleasant versus pleasant images in the high arousal condition. In the low arousal condition, both measures were enhanced for pleasant versus unpleasant images. Second, the EFRP results at 140-170 ms [P2] over the central site showed stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition. In addition, the parietal LPP responses at 400-500 ms post-fixation were enhanced for stimuli reflecting congruent stimulus dimensions, that is, stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition and stronger responses for low versus high arousing images in the pleasant condition. The present findings support the interactive two-dimensional approach, according to which the integration of valence and arousal recruits brain regions associated with action tendencies of approach or withdrawal.

  16. The strength of sexual arousal as a function of the age of the sex offender: comparisons among pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Barbaree, Howard E

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual arousability in human males declines from its peak in early adolescence until old age. This study compared the rates of decline in three groups of males: those most attracted sexually to prepubescent children (pedophiles), those most attracted to pubescent children (hebephiles), and those most attracted to physically mature persons (teleiophiles). The participants were 2,028 patients referred to Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health from 1995 to 2004 for evaluation of criminal or otherwise disturbing sexual behavior, but not for erectile or ejaculatory problems. All underwent phallometric assessment for erotic age-preference. This is a psychophysiological technique in which an individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults. The experimental measure of sexual arousability was the average of the participant's three greatest penile responses to any stimulus category, expressed in cubic cm of blood volume increase. The results showed that sexual arousability was an inverse function of age, and that there were no differences between the pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles in the rate at which arousability declined. PMID:16341604

  17. State-dependent regulation of cortical blood flow and respiration in hamsters: response to hypercapnia during arousal from hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, P G; Hashimoto, M

    2003-01-01

    Hibernation is characterised by a global reduction of metabolism, body temperature and blood flow, while arousal from hibernation is achieved by the reversal of these processes. Our experiments were performed on Syrian hamsters that had been chronically implanted with a cortical thermocouple and an optical fibre over the contralateral cortex, and acutely implanted with thermocouples in the rectal, cheek pouch and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). Measurements revealed large thermal gradients in the body of the arousing animals. Maximum whole-body metabolic rate, which was 2.4 times normal cenothermic resting metabolic rate, coincided not with rectal temperature but more closely with respiratory rate (RR) or BAT temperature. Regional cortical blood flow (rCBF), as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, changed in parallel with whole-body metabolic rate, peaking at 3.8 times the normal cenothermic resting levels, when rectal temperature was 15 °C. When BAT temperature was less than 25 °C, RR, rCBF and heart rate (HR) were decreased by breathing hypercapnic gas, but these parameters were unresponsive to hyperoxic gases. At cenothermia the RR and rCBF of anaesthetised hamsters was increased by exposure to hypercapnic gases. Exposure to hyperoxic gas decreased RR but had no effect on rCBF. The mechanisms regulating rCBF, HR and RR exhibit state-dependent sensitivities to hypercapnic and hyperoxic stimuli. The large increase in rCBF observed during arousal implies that cerebral autoregulation is temporarily suspended and suggests that hamsters effectively use endogenous mechanisms to minimise the pathology normally associated with dramatic increases in rCBF. PMID:12576499

  18. Get aroused and be stronger: emotional facilitation of physical effort in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Liane; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Lafargue, Gilles; Valabrègue, Romain; Fossati, Philippe; Dubois, Bruno; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2009-07-29

    Effort magnitude is commonly thought to reflect motivation, but little is known about the influence of emotional factors. Here, we manipulated the emotional state of subjects, via the presentation of pictures, before they exerted physical effort to win money. After highly arousing pictures, subjects produced more force and reported lower effort sensation, regardless of monetary incentives. Functional neuroimaging revealed that emotional arousal, as indexed by postscan ratings, specifically correlated with bilateral activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. We suggest that this region, by driving the motor cortex, constitutes a brain pathway that allows emotional arousal to facilitate physical effort. PMID:19641108

  19. Capability for suicide interacts with states of heightened arousal to predict death by suicide beyond the effects of depression and hopelessness

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Yen, Shirley; Joiner, Thomas; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2016-01-01

    Background States of heightened arousal (e.g., agitation, sleep disturbance) have been repeatedly linked to suicidal thoughts and behaviors, including attempts and death. Studies have further indicated that these states may be particularly pernicious among individuals who evidence high suicidal capability. The objective of this study was to examine the interactive effects of heightened arousal and the capability for suicide in the prospective prediction of death by suicide. We examine this relation beyond the effects of robust predictors of suicide, namely depression and hopelessness. Methods Participants were drawn from a larger study of undergraduates who completed baseline assessments during their freshman year and were then followed to time of death. The sample in this study only included individuals who had died by suicide (n=96) or other causes (n=542). Proxy measures to assess predictor variables were constructed using items from the MMPI, which was administered at baseline. An independent sample of clinical outpatients (n=was used to evaluate the construct validity of the proxy measures). Results Results were in line with expectation: heightened arousal interacted with capability for suicide to prospectively predict death by suicide, such that, as severity of heightened arousal symptoms increased, the likelihood of death by suicide increased among individuals high but not low on capability for suicide. Limitations Limitations include the use of proxy measures, the extended length of follow-up, and the homogeneity of the sample (i.e., primarily White males). Conclusion These findings add to an emerging literature that supports the moderating influence of capability for suicide on the relationship between states of heightened arousal on the likelihood of death by suicide. PMID:26342889

  20. Answer to comment on "sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study".

    PubMed

    Engstrøm, Morten; Hagen, Knut; Bjørk, Marte; Sand, Trond

    2013-07-01

    We discuss the comments on our article "Sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs. A blinded controlled polysomnographic study" published in JHP 2013 Feb 14;14(1):12. We hypothesize that migraineurs need more sleep than healthy controls and more sleep than they manage to achieve. Some migraineurs probably have a decreased ability to process incoming stimuli. Increased spontaneous pain may follow either sleep restriction or sleep disturbance. A comparison of migraineurs with attack onset related to sleep, migraineurs with attack onset not related to sleep and controls will be reported in another paper.

  1. Central Control of Circadian Phase in Arousal-Promoting Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Carrie E.; McKinley Brewer, Judy; Bittman, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Cells of the dorsomedial/lateral hypothalamus (DMH/LH) that produce hypocretin (HCRT) promote arousal in part by activation of cells of the locus coeruleus (LC) which express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives endogenous daily rhythms, including those of sleep and wakefulness. These circadian oscillations are generated by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop in which the Period (Per) genes constitute critical components. This cell-autonomous molecular clock operates not only within the SCN but also in neurons of other brain regions. However, the phenotype of such neurons and the nature of the phase controlling signal from the pacemaker are largely unknown. We used dual fluorescent in situ hybridization to assess clock function in vasopressin, HCRT and TH cells of the SCN, DMH/LH and LC, respectively, of male Syrian hamsters. In the first experiment, we found that Per1 expression in HCRT and TH oscillated in animals held in constant darkness with a peak phase that lagged that in AVP cells of the SCN by several hours. In the second experiment, hamsters induced to split their locomotor rhythms by exposure to constant light had asymmetric Per1 expression within cells of the middle SCN at 6 h before activity onset (AO) and in HCRT cells 9 h before and at AO. We did not observe evidence of lateralization of Per1 expression in the LC. We conclude that the SCN communicates circadian phase to HCRT cells via lateralized neural projections, and suggests that Per1 expression in the LC may be regulated by signals of a global or bilateral nature. PMID:23826226

  2. Entrainment of circadian clocks in mammals by arousal and food.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Ralph E; Antle, Michael C

    2011-06-30

    Circadian rhythms in mammals are regulated by a system of endogenous circadian oscillators (clock cells) in the brain and in most peripheral organs and tissues. One group of clock cells in the hypothalamic SCN (suprachiasmatic nuclei) functions as a pacemaker for co-ordinating the timing of oscillators elsewhere in the brain and body. This master clock can be reset and entrained by daily LD (light-dark) cycles and thereby also serves to interface internal with external time, ensuring an appropriate alignment of behavioural and physiological rhythms with the solar day. Two features of the mammalian circadian system provide flexibility in circadian programming to exploit temporal regularities of social stimuli or food availability. One feature is the sensitivity of the SCN pacemaker to behavioural arousal stimulated during the usual sleep period, which can reset its phase and modulate its response to LD stimuli. Neural pathways from the brainstem and thalamus mediate these effects by releasing neurochemicals that inhibit retinal inputs to the SCN clock or that alter clock-gene expression in SCN clock cells. A second feature is the sensitivity of circadian oscillators outside of the SCN to stimuli associated with food intake, which enables animals to uncouple rhythms of behaviour and physiology from LD cycles and align these with predictable daily mealtimes. The location of oscillators necessary for food-entrained behavioural rhythms is not yet certain. Persistence of these rhythms in mice with clock-gene mutations that disable the SCN pacemaker suggests diversity in the molecular basis of light- and food-entrainable clocks. PMID:21819388

  3. Allocation of attentional resources during habituation and dishabituation of male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; Over, R

    1999-12-01

    A secondary-task probe (tone) was presented intermittently while men viewed erotic film segments across a session involving 18 trials with the same film segment (habituation), then 2 trials with different film segments (novelty) and 2 trials with reinstatement of the original segment (dishabituation). Reaction time to the tone (an index of the extent processing resources were being committed to the erotic stimulus) shifted during the session in parallel with changes that occurred in penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal. The decrease in sexual arousal over the first 18 trials in the session was accompanied by a progressively faster reaction to the tone, novel stimulation led to recovery of sexual arousal and a slower reaction to the tone, and on trials 21 and 22 sexual arousal and reaction time levels were above the values that prevailed immediately prior to novel stimulation. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between habituation and attention. PMID:10650440

  4. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intravenous anesthetics by relating their behavioral and physiological features to the molecular targets and neural circuits at which these drugs are purported to act. The altered states of arousal are sedation-unconsciousness, sedation-analgesia, dissociative anesthesia, pharmaco-logic non-REM sleep, and neuroleptic anesthesia. Each altered arousal state results from the anesthetic drugs acting at multiple targets in the central nervous system. Our analysis shows that general anesthesia is less mysterious than currently believed. PMID:21513454

  5. Alexithymia is associated with an augmenter profile, but not only: evidence for anticipation to arousing music.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Delphine; Davydov, Dmitry M; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-10-01

    It has been suggested that high alexithymia scorers have an 'augmenter' profile which amplifies their physiological and subjective responses to highly arousing stimuli. The aim of this study was to test this theory using several physiological measures. Participants listened to musical excerpts either in a 'weak-to-strong' or a 'strong-to-weak' order of arousing levels of stimuli. The results show that alexithymia was associated with an augmenter profile for subjective reports for the most arousing stimulus and with stronger skin conductance level responses in the 'strong-to-weak' order. These results partially support the augmenter profile and reveal that alexithymia may be associated with higher anticipation for the most arousing excerpt.

  6. Amygdala responses to Valence and its interaction by arousal revealed by MEG.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)× 2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing.

  7. Neural modulation of directed forgetting by valence and arousal: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Sara N; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2016-10-01

    Intentional forgetting benefits memory by removing no longer needed information and promoting processing of more relevant materials. This study sought to understand how the behavioural and neurophysiological representation of intentional forgetting would be impacted by emotion. We took a novel approach by examining the unique contribution of both valence and arousal on emotional directed forgetting. Participants completed an item directed forgetting task for positive, negative, and neutral words at high and lower levels of arousal while brain activity was recorded using electroencephalography (EEG). Behaviourally, recognition of to-be-remembered (TBR) and to-be-forgotten (TBF) items varied as a function of valence and arousal with reduced directed forgetting for high arousing negative and neutral words. In the brain, patterns of frontal and posterior activation in response to TBF and TBR cues respectively replicated prior EEG evidence to support involvement of inhibitory and selective rehearsal mechanisms in item directed forgetting. Interestingly, emotion only impacted cue-related posterior activity, which varied depending on specific interactions between valence and arousal. Together, results suggest that the brain handles valence and arousal differently and highlights the importance of considering in a collective manner the multidimensional nature of emotion in experimentation. PMID:27507422

  8. Sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal: evidence for domain specificity in men and women.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F

    2014-08-01

    Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies, male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or non-sexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focused on a plausible explanation for this effect. PMID:25091213

  9. The structure of EEG arousal as a dynamic ensemble of neuronal activities in cat motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Ezure, K; Oshima, T

    1981-01-01

    1. Intracellular potentials were recorded from 164 cells in cat precruciate cortex, and their responses were examined during the phasic and tonic phases of EEG arousal. 2. According to the initial responses corresponding to phasic EEG arousal, these cells were classified into 71 E (excitation), 49 I (inhibition), 38 DF (disfacilitation), and 6 DI (disinhibition) cells. 3. The late responses corresponding to tonic EEG arousal varied among these cells. Thirty-two of the 164 cells were unresponsive. Of the remaining cells, 102 showed excitation, 16 inhibition, 12 disfacilitation, and 2 disinhibition. These cells were retermed +E, +I, +DF, and +DI cells, respectively. 4. +E cells were located at all depths through laminae I to VI, but the majority were found in laminae IIIb-VI. +I cells were between lamina I and the lower half of lamina III (IIIb), and +DF and +DI cells were between lamina I and the upper half of lamina III (IIIa). From these characteristic layer distributions it is postulated that an upward cascade transmission from deep to superficial layers occurs during tonic EEG arousal. 5. Nine types of combinations of the initial and late responses were found: E, I, DF or DI with +E, E or I with +I, E or I with +DF, and I with +DI. To explain these various activity patterns, an 'arousal' circuit model was proposed by combining the downward and upward cascade transmission patterns. The elementary structure of cortical arousal was thus formulated, and discussed from the development aspect of behavior.

  10. Emotions, arousal, and frontal alpha rhythm asymmetry during Beethoven's 5th symphony.

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian; Altorfer, Andreas; Strik, Werner; Koenig, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Music is capable of inducing emotional arousal. While previous studies used brief musical excerpts to induce one specific emotion, the current study aimed to identify the physiological correlates of continuous changes in subjective emotional states while listening to a complete music piece. A total of 19 participants listened to the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th symphony (duration: ~7.4 min), during which a continuous 76-channel EEG was recorded. In a second session, the subjects evaluated their emotional arousal during the listening. A fast fourier transform was performed and covariance maps of spectral power were computed in association with the subjective arousal ratings. Subjective arousal ratings had good inter-individual correlations. Covariance maps showed a right-frontal suppression of lower alpha-band activity during high arousal. The results indicate that music is a powerful arousal-modulating stimulus. The temporal dynamics of the piece are well suited for sequential analysis, and could be necessary in helping unfold the full emotional power of music.

  11. How deeply does your mutant sleep? Probing arousal to better understand sleep defects in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Faville, R.; Kottler, B.; Goodhill, G. J.; Shaw, P. J.; van Swinderen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a critical model system for investigating sleep functions. Most studies use duration of inactivity to measure sleep. However, a defining criterion for sleep is decreased behavioral responsiveness to stimuli. Here we introduce the Drosophila ARousal Tracking system (DART), an integrated platform for efficiently tracking and probing arousal levels in animals. This video-based platform delivers positional and locomotion data, behavioral responsiveness to stimuli, sleep intensity measures, and homeostatic regulation effects – all in one combined system. We show how insight into dynamically changing arousal thresholds is crucial for any sleep study in flies. We first find that arousal probing uncovers different sleep intensity profiles among related genetic background strains previously assumed to have equivalent sleep patterns. We then show how sleep duration and sleep intensity can be uncoupled, with distinct manipulations of dopamine function producing opposite effects on sleep duration but similar sleep intensity defects. We conclude by providing a multi-dimensional assessment of combined arousal and locomotion metrics in the mutant and background strains. Our approach opens the door for deeper insights into mechanisms of sleep regulation and provides a new method for investigating the role of different genetic manipulations in controlling sleep and arousal. PMID:25677943

  12. A Novel Clustering Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Based on Determination of Virtual Links' Weight to Increase Network Stability

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Abbas; Afsharfarnia, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S. A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of clusters is a serious issue in mobile ad hoc networks. Low stability of clusters may lead to rapid failure of clusters, high energy consumption for reclustering, and decrease in the overall network stability in mobile ad hoc network. In order to improve the stability of clusters, weight-based clustering algorithms are utilized. However, these algorithms only use limited features of the nodes. Thus, they decrease the weight accuracy in determining node's competency and lead to incorrect selection of cluster heads. A new weight-based algorithm presented in this paper not only determines node's weight using its own features, but also considers the direct effect of feature of adjacent nodes. It determines the weight of virtual links between nodes and the effect of the weights on determining node's final weight. By using this strategy, the highest weight is assigned to the best choices for being the cluster heads and the accuracy of nodes selection increases. The performance of new algorithm is analyzed by using computer simulation. The results show that produced clusters have longer lifetime and higher stability. Mathematical simulation shows that this algorithm has high availability in case of failure. PMID:25114965

  13. A novel clustering algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks based on determination of virtual links' weight to increase network stability.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Abbas; Afsharfarnia, Abbas; Zarafshan, Faraneh; Al-Haddad, S A R

    2014-01-01

    The stability of clusters is a serious issue in mobile ad hoc networks. Low stability of clusters may lead to rapid failure of clusters, high energy consumption for reclustering, and decrease in the overall network stability in mobile ad hoc network. In order to improve the stability of clusters, weight-based clustering algorithms are utilized. However, these algorithms only use limited features of the nodes. Thus, they decrease the weight accuracy in determining node's competency and lead to incorrect selection of cluster heads. A new weight-based algorithm presented in this paper not only determines node's weight using its own features, but also considers the direct effect of feature of adjacent nodes. It determines the weight of virtual links between nodes and the effect of the weights on determining node's final weight. By using this strategy, the highest weight is assigned to the best choices for being the cluster heads and the accuracy of nodes selection increases. The performance of new algorithm is analyzed by using computer simulation. The results show that produced clusters have longer lifetime and higher stability. Mathematical simulation shows that this algorithm has high availability in case of failure.

  14. Emotional arousal predicts observed social support in German and American couples talking about breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Atkins, David C; Porter, Laura S; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process. PMID:26075737

  15. Warming up and shipping out: arousal and emergence timing in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Czenze, Zenon J; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-07-01

    Phenology refers to the timing of events in the annual cycle of organisms. For temperate-zone mammals, hibernation is one such event, but little is known about its phenology. Hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts interspersed with energetically expensive arousals to normothermic Tb, and hibernators should benefit from mechanisms which reduce arousal costs and help them time arousals to coincide with foraging opportunities. In a previous study, we showed that, in contrast to hibernating bats from warmer climates, little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from central Canada abandon a circadian pattern to arousal in the middle of winter when there is no chance of feeding. Here, we used temperature telemetry to test whether they would re-synchronize arousals with normal foraging time (i.e. sunset) during late winter as the chance of foraging or emergence opportunities improves, and whether they would synchronize arousals with conspecifics, possibly to exploit social thermoregulation. We also used passive transponders to test whether energy reserves and/or sex differences in reproductive timing influence phenology and the sensitivity of emergence timing to environmental cues. In contrast to patterns in mid-winter, after 7 April 2013, bats synchronized arousals with sunset and with conspecifics. Females emerged earlier than males, and females in the best condition emerged first while body condition had no influence on male emergence timing. Both male and female bats appeared to time emergence with falling barometric pressure, a cue that predicts favourable foraging conditions for bats but which, unlike outside temperature, would have been readily detectable by bats inside the hibernaculum. Our results highlight hibernation traits associated with extreme winter energy limitation for insect-eating bats in cold climates and illustrate the influence of reproductive timing and environmental conditions on hibernation energetics and phenology.

  16. Melatonin receptor signaling contributes to neuroprotection upon arousal from torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Ballinger, Mallory A; Andrews, Matthew T

    2015-11-15

    The brain of mammalian hibernators is naturally protected. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme changes in body temperature and brain perfusion as they cycle between lengthy torpor bouts and brief periods of euthermia called interbout arousals (IBAs). Arousal from torpor to IBA occurs rapidly, but there is no evidence of brain injury accompanying this extreme physiological transition. Production of the hormone melatonin accompanies arousal, suggesting that it plays a protective role at this time. Here, we investigated mechanisms of melatonin receptor-mediated protection in the brain of the hibernating ground squirrel. We administered the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (30 mg/kg ip) to ground squirrels at the predicted end of a torpor bout, triggering an arousal. We found that luzindole-treated animals exhibited caspase-3 activity two times higher than vehicle-treated animals in the hypothalamus at midarousal (P = 0.01), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for protection in this brain region. We also found a 30% decline in succinate-fueled mitochondrial respiration in luzindole-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals (P = 0.019), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for optimal mitochondrial function during arousal from torpor. The mitochondrial effects of luzindole treatment were seen only during the hibernation season, indicating that this effect is specifically important for arousal from torpor. These data provide evidence for the protective role of melatonin receptor signaling during the extreme physiological transition that occurs when a hibernating mammal arouses from torpor and provide further evidence for regional and seasonal changes in the hibernator brain.

  17. Emotional arousal predicts observed social support in German and American couples talking about breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Atkins, David C; Porter, Laura S; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process.

  18. Warming up and shipping out: arousal and emergence timing in hibernating little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).

    PubMed

    Czenze, Zenon J; Willis, Craig K R

    2015-07-01

    Phenology refers to the timing of events in the annual cycle of organisms. For temperate-zone mammals, hibernation is one such event, but little is known about its phenology. Hibernation consists of energy-saving torpor bouts interspersed with energetically expensive arousals to normothermic Tb, and hibernators should benefit from mechanisms which reduce arousal costs and help them time arousals to coincide with foraging opportunities. In a previous study, we showed that, in contrast to hibernating bats from warmer climates, little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from central Canada abandon a circadian pattern to arousal in the middle of winter when there is no chance of feeding. Here, we used temperature telemetry to test whether they would re-synchronize arousals with normal foraging time (i.e. sunset) during late winter as the chance of foraging or emergence opportunities improves, and whether they would synchronize arousals with conspecifics, possibly to exploit social thermoregulation. We also used passive transponders to test whether energy reserves and/or sex differences in reproductive timing influence phenology and the sensitivity of emergence timing to environmental cues. In contrast to patterns in mid-winter, after 7 April 2013, bats synchronized arousals with sunset and with conspecifics. Females emerged earlier than males, and females in the best condition emerged first while body condition had no influence on male emergence timing. Both male and female bats appeared to time emergence with falling barometric pressure, a cue that predicts favourable foraging conditions for bats but which, unlike outside temperature, would have been readily detectable by bats inside the hibernaculum. Our results highlight hibernation traits associated with extreme winter energy limitation for insect-eating bats in cold climates and illustrate the influence of reproductive timing and environmental conditions on hibernation energetics and phenology. PMID:25809999

  19. Maternal and child contributions to cortisol response to emotional arousal in young children from low-income, rural communities.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Kivlighan, Katie T; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark T; Hibel, Leah C; Fortunato, Christine K

    2008-07-01

    Relations of maternal and child characteristics to child cortisol reactivity to and recovery from emotional arousal were examined prospectively at approximately 7 months of age (infancy) and then again at approximately 15 months of age (toddlerhood). The sample was diverse and population based (N = 1,292 mother-infant dyads) and included families from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Maternal behavior, family income-to-need ratio and social advantage, and child temperament, attention, and mental development were assessed, and children's saliva was sampled before and after standardized procedures designed to elicit emotional arousal. Maternal engagement in infancy was associated with greater cortisol reactivity at the infancy assessment and with reduced overall cortisol level at the toddler assessment. Also at the toddler assessment, child attention, mental development, and temperamental distress to novelty were associated with increased cortisol reactivity and regulation, whereas temperamental distress to limitations and African American ethnicity were associated with reduced cortisol reactivity. Findings are consistent with prior work linking early caregiving to the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system and with a conceptual model in which developing temperament is characterized by the interplay of emotional reactivity and the emergence of the ability to effortfully regulate this reactivity using attention.

  20. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    PubMed

    Osterhagen, Lasse; Breteler, Marinus; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF training on seizure occurrence have been described in epileptic patients. Little research has been done about differentiating NF effectiveness by type of epilepsy, particularly, whether idiopathic generalized seizures are susceptible to NF. In this experiment, seizures that manifest themselves as spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG were reinforced during 10 sessions in 6 rats of the WAG/Rij strain, an animal model for absence epilepsy. EEG's were recorded before and after the training sessions. Reinforcing SWDs let to decreased SWD occurrences during training; however, the changes during training were not persistent in the post-training sessions. Because behavioural states are known to have an influence on the occurrence of SWDs, it is proposed that the reinforcement situation increased arousal which resulted in fewer SWDs. Additional tests supported this hypothesis. The outcomes have implications for the possibility to train SWDs with operant learning techniques.

  1. Sleep Propensity under Forced Desynchrony in a Model of Arousal State Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Postnova, Svetlana; Lockley, Steven W; Robinson, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    An improvement to our current quantitative model of arousal state dynamics is presented that more accurately predicts sleep propensity as measured with sleep dynamics depending on circadian phase and prior wakefulness. A nonlinear relationship between the circadian variables within the dynamic circadian oscillator model is introduced to account for the skewed shape of the circadian rhythm of alertness that peaks just prior to the onset of the biological night (the "wake maintenance zone") and has a minimum toward the end of the biological night. The revised circadian drive thus provides a strong inhibitory input to the sleep-active neuronal population in the evening, counteracting the excitatory effects of the increased homeostatic sleep drive as originally proposed in the opponent process model of sleep-wake regulation. The revised model successfully predicts the sleep propensity profile as reflected in the dynamics of the total sleep time, sleep onset latency, wake/sleep ratio, and sleep efficiency during a wide range of experimental protocols. Specifically, all of these sleep measures are predicted for forced desynchrony schedules with day lengths ranging from 1.5 to 42.85 h and scheduled time in bed from 0.5 to 14.27 h. The revised model is expected to facilitate more accurate predictions of sleep under normal conditions as well as during circadian misalignment, for example, during shiftwork and jetlag. PMID:27432116

  2. In vivo functional connectome of human brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, autonomic and motor systems by high spatial resolution 7 Tesla fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Eichner, Cornelius; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Setsompop, Kawin; Brown, Emery N.; Hamalainen, Matti S.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2016-01-01

    Object To map the in vivo human functional connectivity of several brainstem nuclei with the rest of the brain by using seed-based correlation of ultra-high magnetic field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Materials and Methods We used the recently developed template of 11 brainstem nuclei derived from multi-contrast structural MRI at 7 Tesla as seed regions to determine their connectivity to the rest of the brain. To achieve this, we utilized the increased contrast-to-noise ratio of 7 Tesla fMRI compared to 3 Tesla and the time efficient simultaneous multi-slice imaging to cover the brain with high spatial resolution (1.1 mm-isotropic nominal resolution) while maintaining a short repetition time (2.5 s). Results The delineated Pearson’s correlation-based functional connectivity diagrams (connectomes) of 11 brainstem nuclei of the ascending arousal, motor and autonomic systems from 12 controls are presented and discussed in the context of existing histology and animal work. Conclusion Considering that the investigated brainstem nuclei play a crucial role in several vital functions, the delineated preliminary connectomes might prove useful for future in vivo research and clinical studies of human brainstem function and pathology, including disorders of consciousness, sleep disorders, autonomic disorders, Parkinson’s disease and other motor disorders. PMID:27126248

  3. Positive Affect and Cognitive Restoration: Investigating the Role of Valence and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Positive moods are thought to restore self-control resources following depletion. However, it is not well understood whether this effect is due to affective valence (pleasantness), arousal (activation), or a combination of both. Across four studies, we set out to investigate the role of positive moods on cognitive and behavioral measures of self-regulation in an ego-depletion paradigm. In studies 1 and 2, we independently manipulated affective valence and arousal and assessed self-regulation with a Stroop task. Results did not suggest a restorative effect of either on cognitive resources. In study 3, we employed both behavioral (the ‘handgrip task’) and cognitive (Stroop) assessments of self-regulation. Again, no significant effect of mood was observed on the Stroop task. Additionally, participants did not persist significantly longer on the handgrip task following a positive mood induction. Finally, in study 4, high vs. low states of arousal were manipulated and self-regulation was assessed via pre- and post-manipulation Stroop performance. In study 4, Stroop performance improved slightly more across time points for those in the high arousal condition than for those in the low arousal condition. Therefore, across four studies, we failed to find a consistent pattern of results suggesting that positive moods restore cognitive resources. PMID:26784026

  4. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies

    PubMed Central

    Briefer, Elodie F.; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies (“F0” and “G0”), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  5. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (<2 s) and long (>2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  6. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain. PMID:27217115

  7. The association between testosterone, sexual arousal, and selective attention for erotic stimuli in men.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Sherwin, B B

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-six, eugonadal men between the ages of 18 and 27 participated in this investigation of the relationship between sexual arousal, testosterone (T) levels, and the processing of sexual information. At each of the two test sessions, subjects gave a blood sample, listened to an erotic or neutral priming audiotape, and completed a dichotic listening task designed to assess selective attention for sexual stimuli. Subjective levels of sexual arousal to the audiotape and sexual attitudes and sexual experience were assessed by self-report measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no relationship between levels of free T and the strength of the selective attention bias for sexual stimuli. However, men who were more distracted by the sexual material in the task reported higher levels of sexual arousal to erotic imagery than men who were less distracted by the sexual material in the task (P less than 0.01). Moreover, men who were more sexually aroused by the erotic audiotape made significantly less shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition then they did during the neutral prime condition (P less than 0.05). There was a negative association between T and shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that lower thresholds for sexual arousal are associated with a greater bias to attend to sexual information and that T may have effects on cognitive-motivational aspects of sexual behavior by enhancing attention to relevant stimuli. PMID:1937428

  8. Time-limited effects of emotional arousal on item and source memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Sun, Bukuan

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the time-limited effects of emotional arousal on consolidation of item and source memory. In Experiment 1, participants memorized words (items) and the corresponding speakers (sources) and then took an immediate free recall test. Then they watched a neutral, positive, or negative video 5, 35, or 50 min after learning, and 24 hours later they took surprise memory tests. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that (a) a reality monitoring task was used; (b) elicitation delays of 5, 30, and 45 min were used; and (c) delayed memory tests were given 60 min after learning. Both experiments showed that, regardless of elicitation delay, emotional arousal did not enhance item recall memory. Second, both experiments showed that negative arousal enhanced delayed item recognition memory only at the medium elicitation delay, but not in the shorter or longer delays. Positive arousal enhanced performance only in Experiment 1. Third, regardless of elicitation delay, emotional arousal had little effect on source memory. These findings have implications for theories of emotion and memory, suggesting that emotion effects are contingent upon the nature of the memory task and elicitation delay.

  9. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie F; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-04-21

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies ("F0" and "G0"), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution.

  10. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  11. Disentangling the roles of arousal and amygdala activation in emotional declarative memory.

    PubMed

    de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Hermans, Erno J

    2016-09-01

    A large body of evidence in animals and humans implicates the amygdala in promoting memory for arousing experiences. Although the amygdala can trigger threat-related noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, in humans amygdala activation and noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal do not always concur. This raises the question how these two processes play a role in enhancing emotional declarative memory. This study was designed to disentangle these processes in a combined subsequent-memory/fear-conditioning paradigm with neutral items belonging to two conceptual categories as conditioned stimuli. Functional MRI, skin conductance (index of sympathetic activity), and pupil dilation (indirect index of central noradrenergic activity) were acquired throughout procedures. Recognition memory for individual items was tested 24 h later. We found that pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were higher on CS+ (associated with a shock) compared with CS- trials, irrespective of later memory for those items. By contrast, amygdala activity was only higher for CS+ items that were later confidently remembered compared with CS+ items that were later forgotten. Thus, amygdala activity and not noradrenergic-sympathetic arousal, predicted enhanced declarative item memory. This dissociation is in line with animal models stating that the amygdala integrates arousal-related neuromodulatory changes to alter mnemonic processes elsewhere in the brain.

  12. An assessment of the construct distinctiveness of stress arousal and burnout.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kenneth J; Davy, Jeanette A; Everly, George S

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the construct and discriminant validity of stress arousal and burnout as measured on the Stress Arousal Scale and the multidimensional role-specific version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, respectively. The analyses utilized data from 148 individuals randomly selected from a database of 563 respondents to a larger study. The sample responded to a survey sent to members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). Sample size used in this study fell within Loehlin's 1992 prescription that for confirmatory factor analysis with two to four factors, a minimum of 100 to 200 cases should be collected. Forty-six respondents indicated that they were partners, principals, or sole practitioners in accounting firms, and 103 indicated that they were staff members (juniors, seniors, or managers). Latent variables were first constructed for the stress arousal and burnout factors. Confirmatory factor analysis was then conducted on the scale data to assess whether the factors would load on their respective underlying theoretical constructs. Finally, a nested model constraining stress arousal and burnout to load on one underlying construct was tested against the hypothesized two-factor model. The results indicated good model fit for the two-factor model and a significant loss of fit for the one-factor model, thus providing strong support for the conceptualization of stress arousal and burnout as distinct constructs.

  13. Negative Emotional Arousal Impairs Associative Memory Performance for Emotionally Neutral Content in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Guez, Jonathan; Saar-Ashkenazy, Rotem; Mualem, Liran; Efrati, Matan; Keha, Eldad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA) on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test), and for associations (associative recognition test). In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress. PMID:26186001

  14. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W T

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  15. The Eye is Listening: Music-Induced Arousal and Individual Differences Predict Pupillary Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M.; Puig-Waldmüller, Estela; Fitch, W. T.

    2015-01-01

    Pupillary responses are a well-known indicator of emotional arousal but have not yet been systematically investigated in response to music. Here, we measured pupillary dilations evoked by short musical excerpts normalized for intensity and selected for their stylistic uniformity. Thirty participants (15 females) provided subjective ratings of music-induced felt arousal, tension, pleasantness, and familiarity for 80 classical music excerpts. The pupillary responses evoked by these excerpts were measured in another thirty participants (15 females). We probed the role of listener-specific characteristics such as mood, stress reactivity, self-reported role of music in life, liking for the selected excerpts, as well as of subjective responses to music, in pupillary responses. Linear mixed model analyses showed that a greater role of music in life was associated with larger dilations, and that larger dilations were also predicted for excerpts rated as more arousing or tense. However, an interaction between arousal and liking for the excerpts suggested that pupillary responses were modulated less strongly by arousal when the excerpts were particularly liked. An analogous interaction was observed between tension and liking. Additionally, males exhibited larger dilations than females. Overall, these findings suggest a complex interplay between bottom-up and top-down influences on pupillary responses to music. PMID:26617511

  16. Is There a Relationship Between Tic Frequency and Physiological Arousal? Examination in a Sample of Children With Co-Occurring Tic and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Conelea, Christine A; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Walther, Michael R; Freeman, Jennifer B; Garcia, Abbe M

    2014-03-01

    Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress-induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic frequencies) and physiological (heart rate [HR]) data were synchronized using The Observer XT, and tic frequencies were compared across periods of high and low HR. Tic frequencies across the entire experiment did not increase during periods of higher HR. During the speech task, tic frequencies were significantly lower during periods of higher HR. Results suggest that tic exacerbations may not be associated with heightened physiological arousal and highlight the need for further tic research using integrated measurement of behavioral and biological processes.

  17. Arousal and stability - The effects of five new sympathomimetic drugs suggest a new principle for the prevention of space motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Calkins, D. S.; Mandell, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Sympathomimetic agents are frequent components in antimotion-sickness drug combinations because of their usefulness in counteracting the sedation caused by stressful motion or resulting from the administration of other antimotion-sickness drugs. The noradrenergic neurochemistry of the brain's arousal-attentional systems prompted us to evaluate the efficacy of five new sympathomimetic drugs and to further define the role of arousal in susceptibility to motion. Subjects were orally administered methamphetamine (20 mg), phenmetrazine (25 mg), phentermine (37.5 mg), methylphenidate (20 mg), or pemoline (75 mg) 2 h prior to taking a Staircase Profile Test. All of the drugs increased resistance to stressful coriolis stimulation by 80-120 percent. Methylphenidate and pemoline showed fewer side effects. These findings, interpreted in conjunction with the documented inefficacy of most anticholinergic and antihistaminergic drugs tested to date, suggest that sympathomimetic drugs or a generalized state of arosusal can inhibit the development of motion sickness.

  18. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders.

  19. The impact of threat appeals on fear arousal and driver behavior: a meta-analysis of experimental research 1990-2011.

    PubMed

    Carey, Rachel N; McDermott, Daragh T; Sarma, Kiran M

    2013-01-01

    The existing empirical research exploring the impact of threat appeals on driver behavior has reported inconsistent findings. In an effort to provide an up-to-date synthesis of the experimental findings, meta-analytic techniques were employed to examine the impact of threat-based messages on fear arousal and on lab-based indices of driving behavior. Experimental studies (k = 13, N = 3044), conducted between 1990 and 2011, were included in the analyses. The aims of the current analysis were (a) to examine whether or not the experimental manipulations had a significant impact on evoked fear, (b) to examine the impact of threat appeals on three distinct indices of driving, and (c) to identify moderators and mediators of the relationship between fear and driving outcomes. Large effects emerged for the level of fear evoked, with experimental groups reporting increased fear arousal in comparison to control groups (r = .64, n = 619, p<.01). The effect of threat appeals on driving outcomes, however, was not significant (r = .03, p = .17). This analysis of the experimental literature indicates that threat appeals can lead to increased fear arousal, but do not appear to have the desired impact on driving behavior. We discuss these findings in the context of threat-based road safety campaigns and future directions for experimental research in this area.

  20. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  1. Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Graham, C A; Janssen, E; Sanders, S A

    2000-01-01

    The effects of fragrance on sexual response in women were investigated using subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal and of mood. Responses were obtained from female participants in three different fragrance conditions (female fragrance, male fragrance, and a "blank" or neutral substance), as they viewed erotic and sexually neutral films, and fantasized about sexual situations. Each woman was tested twice: during the midfollicular and periovulatory phases of her menstrual cycle. Menstrual cycle phase effects were apparent; self-report data indicated greater sexual arousal and more positive mood during the periovulatory than during the follicular phase. Results demonstrated a positive effect of the male fragrance on genital arousal during erotic fantasy, but this finding was apparent only during the follicular phase testing session. This effect did not appear to be mediated by any effects of fragrance on mood. PMID:10705769

  2. Sensory Neurons Arouse C. elegans Locomotion via Both Glutamate and Neuropeptide Release

    PubMed Central

    Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Hu, Zhitao; Schafer, William R.; Kaplan, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans undergoes periods of behavioral quiescence during larval molts (termed lethargus) and as adults. Little is known about the circuit mechanisms that establish these quiescent states. Lethargus and adult locomotion quiescence is dramatically reduced in mutants lacking the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1. Here, we show that the aroused locomotion of npr-1 mutants results from the exaggerated activity in multiple classes of sensory neurons, including nociceptive (ASH), touch sensitive (ALM and PLM), and stretch sensing (DVA) neurons. These sensory neurons accelerate locomotion via both neuropeptide and glutamate release. The relative contribution of these sensory neurons to arousal differs between larval molts and adults. Our results suggest that a broad network of sensory neurons dictates transitions between aroused and quiescent behavioral states. PMID:26154367

  3. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and PMID:26789555

  4. Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

  5. Chronic procrastination among Turkish adults: exploring decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Ozer, Bilge Uzun; Demir, Ayhan

    2009-06-01

    The authors examined the prevalence of chronic procrastination (decisional, avoidant, and arousal styles) as functions of demographic variables among 354 Turkish adults (148 men, 206 women; M age = 38.7 years, SD = 8.26 years). Prevalence analyses showed that among Turkish participants, 17.5% were indecisive procrastinators, 13.8% were avoidant procrastinators, and 14.7% were arousal procrastinators. Results did not yield significant differences for gender or age on any forms of procrastination, which is consistent with other international samples. However, significant differences emerged depending on the number of children such that Turkish adults who had more than 3 children claimed to be more indecisive than they claimed to be arousal or avoidant procrastinators. Respondents with less than a graduate degree reported higher rates of indecision than did respondents with at least a graduate degree.

  6. Arousal effect of orexin A depends on activation of the histaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z L; Qu, W M; Li, W D; Mochizuki, T; Eguchi, N; Watanabe, T; Urade, Y; Hayaishi, O

    2001-08-14

    Orexin neurons are exclusively localized in the lateral hypothalamic area and project their fibers to the entire central nervous system, including the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). Dysfunction of the orexin system results in the sleep disorder narcolepsy, but the role of orexin in physiological sleep-wake regulation and the mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. Here we provide several lines of evidence that orexin A induces wakefulness by means of the TMN and histamine H(1) receptor (H1R). Perfusion of orexin A (5 and 25 pmol/min) for 1 hr into the TMN of rats through a microdialysis probe promptly increased wakefulness for 2 hr after starting the perfusion by 2.5- and 4-fold, respectively, concomitant with a reduction in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Microdialysis studies showed that application of orexin A to the TMN increased histamine release from both the medial preoptic area and the frontal cortex by approximately 2-fold over the baseline for 80 to 160 min in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, infusion of orexin A (1.5 pmol/min) for 6 hr into the lateral ventricle of mice produced a significant increase in wakefulness during the 8 hr after starting infusion to the same level as the wakefulness observed during the active period in wild-type mice, but not at all in H1R gene knockout mice. These findings strongly indicate that the arousal effect of orexin A depends on the activation of histaminergic neurotransmission mediated by H1R.

  7. “Not for All the Tea in China!” Political Ideology and the Avoidance of Dissonance-Arousing Situations

    PubMed Central

    Nam, H. Hannah; Jost, John T.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2013-01-01

    People often avoid information and situations that have the potential to contradict previously held beliefs and attitudes (i.e., situations that arouse cognitive dissonance). According to the motivated social cognition model of political ideology, conservatives tend to have stronger epistemic needs to attain certainty and closure than liberals. This implies that there may be differences in how liberals and conservatives respond to dissonance-arousing situations. In two experiments, we investigated the possibility that conservatives would be more strongly motivated to avoid dissonance-arousing tasks than liberals. Indeed, U.S. residents who preferred more conservative presidents (George W. Bush and Ronald Reagan) complied less than Americans who preferred more liberal presidents (Barack Obama and Bill Clinton) with the request to write a counter-attitudinal essay about who made a “better president.” This difference was not observed under circumstances of low perceived choice or when the topic of the counter-attitudinal essay was non-political (i.e., when it pertained to computer or beverage preferences). The results of these experiments provide initial evidence of ideological differences in dissonance avoidance. Future work would do well to determine whether such differences are specific to political issues or topics that are personally important. Implications for political behavior are discussed. PMID:23620724

  8. Avoid violence, rioting, and outrage; approach celebration, delight, and strength: Using large text corpora to compute valence, arousal, and the basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris; Keith, Jeff; Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Aristotle discussed the issue in Book II of his Rhetoric, humans have attempted to identify a set of "basic emotion labels". In this paper we propose an algorithmic method for evaluating sets of basic emotion labels that relies upon computed co-occurrence distances between words in a 12.7-billion-word corpus of unselected text from USENET discussion groups. Our method uses the relationship between human arousal and valence ratings collected for a large list of words, and the co-occurrence similarity between each word and emotion labels. We assess how well the words in each of 12 emotion label sets-proposed by various researchers over the past 118 years-predict the arousal and valence ratings on a test and validation dataset, each consisting of over 5970 items. We also assess how well these emotion labels predict lexical decision residuals (LDRTs), after co-varying out the effects attributable to basic lexical predictors. We then demonstrate a generalization of our method to determine the most predictive "basic" emotion labels from among all of the putative models of basic emotion that we considered. As well as contributing empirical data towards the development of a more rigorous definition of basic emotions, our method makes it possible to derive principled computational estimates of emotionality-specifically, of arousal and valence-for all words in the language.

  9. Avoid violence, rioting, and outrage; approach celebration, delight, and strength: Using large text corpora to compute valence, arousal, and the basic emotions.

    PubMed

    Westbury, Chris; Keith, Jeff; Briesemeister, Benny B; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Ever since Aristotle discussed the issue in Book II of his Rhetoric, humans have attempted to identify a set of "basic emotion labels". In this paper we propose an algorithmic method for evaluating sets of basic emotion labels that relies upon computed co-occurrence distances between words in a 12.7-billion-word corpus of unselected text from USENET discussion groups. Our method uses the relationship between human arousal and valence ratings collected for a large list of words, and the co-occurrence similarity between each word and emotion labels. We assess how well the words in each of 12 emotion label sets-proposed by various researchers over the past 118 years-predict the arousal and valence ratings on a test and validation dataset, each consisting of over 5970 items. We also assess how well these emotion labels predict lexical decision residuals (LDRTs), after co-varying out the effects attributable to basic lexical predictors. We then demonstrate a generalization of our method to determine the most predictive "basic" emotion labels from among all of the putative models of basic emotion that we considered. As well as contributing empirical data towards the development of a more rigorous definition of basic emotions, our method makes it possible to derive principled computational estimates of emotionality-specifically, of arousal and valence-for all words in the language. PMID:26147614

  10. Elevated p62/SQSTM1 determines the fate of autophagy-deficient neural stem cells by increasing superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chenran; Chen, Song; Yeo, Syn; Karsli-Uzunbas, Gizem; White, Eileen; Mizushima, Noboru; Virgin, Herbert W.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy plays important roles in many biological processes, but our understanding of the mechanisms regulating stem cells by autophagy is limited. Interpretations of earlier studies of autophagy using knockouts of single genes are confounded by accumulating evidence for other functions of many autophagy genes. Here, we show that, in contrast to Fip200 deletion, inhibition of autophagy by deletion of Atg5, Atg16L1, or Atg7 does not impair the maintenance and differentiation of postnatal neural stem cells (NSCs). Only Fip200 deletion, but not Atg5, Atg16L1, or Atg7 deletion, caused p62/sequestome1 aggregates to accumulate in NSCs. Fip200 and p62 double conditional knockout mice demonstrated that p62 aggregate formation triggers aberrant superoxide increases by impairing superoxide dismutase functions. By comparing the inhibition of autophagy by deletion of Atg5, Atg16L1, or Atg7 with Fip200 deletion, we revealed a critical role of increased p62 in determining the fate of autophagy-deficient NSCs through intracellular superoxide control. PMID:26929451

  11. The Increase in Frictional Resistance Caused by Various Types of Rivet Heads as Determined by Tests of Planing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscott, Starr; Parkinson, J B

    1938-01-01

    The increase in the frictional resistance of a surface caused by the presence of rivet heads was determined by towing four planing surfaces of the same dimensions. One surface was smooth and represented a surface without rivet heads or one with perfectly flush countersunk rivets. The other three surfaces were each fitted with the same number of full-size rivet heads but of a different type arranged in the same pattern on each surface. The surfaces were towed at speeds representative of the high water speeds encountered by seaplanes during take-off and the range of Reynolds Number covered by the test was from 4 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The rivet heads investigated were oval countersunk, brazier, and round for rivets having shanks 5/32 inch in diameter. The oval countersunk heads were sunk below the surface by dimpling the plating around them. The results of the tests showed that, for the rivet heads investigated, the increase in the friction coefficient of the surface is directly proportional to the height of the rivet head. The order of merit in regard to low resistance is flush countersunk, oval countersunk (whether sunk below the surface or not), brazier, and round.

  12. Neurophysiological foundations of sleep, arousal, awareness and consciousness phenomena. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Iwańczuk, Waldemar; Guźniczak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a state of the art review of the anatomical and physiological foundations of awareness, consciousness, arousal and sleep phenomena and provides current definitions. We describe 20(th) century discoveries that were milestones in the understanding of central nervous system function. Structures that are specifically involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of awareness are characterised here. We also describe the relationships between particular groups of neurons, their positive and negative feedback loops, and the neurotransmitters engaged in states of arousal and sleep. PMID:25940332

  13. Effects of pre-learning stress on memory for neutral, positive and negative words: Different roles of cortisol and autonomic arousal.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Bohringer, Andreas; Chatterjee, Monischa; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2008-07-01

    Stress can have enhancing or impairing effects on memory. Here, we addressed the effect of pre-learning stress on subsequent memory and asked whether neutral and emotionally valent information are differentially affected by specific stress components, autonomic arousal and stress-induced cortisol. Ninety-six healthy men and women underwent either a stressor (modified cold pressor test) or a control warm water exposure. During stress, participants showed comparable autonomic arousal (heart rate, blood pressure), while 60 percent showed an increase of cortisol (responders vs. 40 percent non-responders). Ten minutes after the cold pressor test neutral, positive and negative words were presented. Free recall was tested 1 and 24h later. Overall, positive and negative words were better recalled than neutral words. Stress enhanced the recall of neutral words independently of cortisol response. In contrast, the free recall of negative words was enhanced in cortisol responders in the 1-h but not 24-h test which might suggest different effects of cortisol on consolidation and reconsolidation processes. Recall for positive words was unaffected by stress-induced cortisol. To summarize, (i) pre-learning stress can enhance memory for neutral words independently of cortisol and (ii) stress effects on memory for negative words appear to rely on stress-induced cortisol elevations, the absence of this effect for positive words might be at least partly due to differences in arousal evoked by positive vs. negative words.

  14. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  15. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior.

  16. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D.; Smith, Trever C.; Small, Christina M.; Thomas, Derek P.; Seshu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox−⁄− and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sod

  17. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Smith, Trever C; Small, Christina M; Thomas, Derek P; Seshu, J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sod

  18. Absence of sodA Increases the Levels of Oxidation of Key Metabolic Determinants of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria D; Smith, Trever C; Small, Christina M; Thomas, Derek P; Seshu, J

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, alters its gene expression in response to environmental signals unique to its tick vector or vertebrate hosts. B. burgdorferi carries one superoxide dismutase gene (sodA) capable of controlling intracellular superoxide levels. Previously, sodA was shown to be essential for infection of B. burgdorferi in the C3H/HeN model of Lyme disease. We employed two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific to carbonylated proteins to identify targets that were differentially oxidized in the soluble fractions of the sodA mutant compared to its isogenic parental control strain following treatment with an endogenous superoxide generator, methyl viologen (MV, paraquat). HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of oxidized proteins revealed that several proteins of the glycolytic pathway (BB0057, BB0020, BB0348) exhibited increased carbonylation in the sodA mutant treated with MV. Levels of ATP and NAD/NADH were reduced in the sodA mutant compared with the parental strain following treatment with MV and could be attributed to increased levels of oxidation of proteins of the glycolytic pathway. In addition, a chaperone, HtpG (BB0560), and outer surface protein A (OspA, BBA15) were also observed to be oxidized in the sodA mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed reduced levels of Outer surface protein C (OspC), Decorin binding protein A (DbpA), fibronectin binding protein (BBK32), RpoS and BosR in the sodA mutant compared to the control strains. Viable sodA mutant spirochetes could not be recovered from both gp91/phox-⁄- and iNOS deficient mice while borrelial DNA was detected in multiple tissues samples from infected mice at significantly lower levels compared to the parental strain. Taken together, these observations indicate that the increased oxidation of select borrelial determinants and reduced levels of critical pathogenesis-associated lipoproteins contribute to the in vivo deficit of the sod

  19. Stress and performance: an application of Gray's three-factor arousal theory to basketball free-throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, R; Butz, J W; Kozar, B; Vaughn, R E

    1996-10-01

    The suitability of Gray's (1975) three-factor arousal theory as a model of human performance under stress was investigated in a study of basketball free-throw shooting. Free-throw attempts, made by members of an NCAA Division I men's varsity team, were videotaped during one full season. On the basis of Gray's theory, we predicted that increased stress (assumed to be present in games as opposed to practices) would be associated with longer pre-shot preparations and a greater incidence of overthrow shots. The prediction was confirmed by the results. Moreover, we found that free-throws were more frequently overthrown when attempted during crucial rather than non-crucial game situations. Further tests of the utility of Gray's theory are suggested.

  20. The Effects of Emotional Arousal on Short Versus Long Term Retention of Continuously Presented Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavach, John F.

    Previous research has indicated that for discretely (paired associate) as well as continuously (sound-film) presented information, high arousal during acquisition results in poor immediate recall, but is characterized by a strong reminiscence effect. Low arousal learning results in better immediate recall with poor retention. The hypothesis that…

  1. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  2. Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

  3. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  4. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  5. PTSD's latent structure in Malaysian tsunami victims: assessing the newly proposed Dysphoric Arousal model.

    PubMed

    Armour, Cherie; Raudzah Ghazali, Siti; Elklit, Ask

    2013-03-30

    The underlying latent structure of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is widely researched. However, despite a plethora of factor analytic studies, no single model has consistently been shown as superior to alternative models. The two most often supported models are the Emotional Numbing and the Dysphoria models. However, a recently proposed five-factor Dysphoric Arousal model has been gathering support over and above existing models. Data for the current study were gathered from Malaysian Tsunami survivors (N=250). Three competing models (Emotional Numbing/Dysphoria/Dysphoric Arousal) were specified and estimated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The Dysphoria model provided superior fit to the data compared to the Emotional Numbing model. However, using chi-square difference tests, the Dysphoric Arousal model showed a superior fit compared to both the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the Dysphoric Arousal model better represents PTSD's latent structure and that items measuring sleeping difficulties, irritability/anger and concentration difficulties form a separate, unique PTSD factor. These results are discussed in relation to the role of Hyperarousal in PTSD's on-going symptom maintenance and in relation to the DSM-5.

  6. Pro- and Anti-Social Behaviors Subsequent to Arousal and Observational Learning from Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; And Others

    Ninety-five college students participated in an investigation of the arousal and observational learning effects produced by television viewing. The subjects were assigned to one of three experimental television viewing conditions: a serious dramatic presentation with high physical and verbal violence, a comedy with high verbal conflict but no…

  7. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  8. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  9. Robust Unsupervised Arousal Rating: A Rule-Based Framework with Knowledge-Inspired Vocal Features

    PubMed Central

    Bone, Daniel; Lee, Chi-Chun; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2015-01-01

    Studies in classifying affect from vocal cues have produced exceptional within-corpus results, especially for arousal (activation or stress); yet cross-corpora affect recognition has only recently garnered attention. An essential requirement of many behavioral studies is affect scoring that generalizes across different social contexts and data conditions. We present a robust, unsupervised (rule-based) method for providing a scale-continuous, bounded arousal rating operating on the vocal signal. The method incorporates just three knowledge-inspired features chosen based on empirical and theoretical evidence. It constructs a speaker’s baseline model for each feature separately, and then computes single-feature arousal scores. Lastly, it advantageously fuses the single-feature arousal scores into a final rating without knowledge of the true affect. The baseline data is preferably labeled as neutral, but some initial evidence is provided to suggest that no labeled data is required in certain cases. The proposed method is compared to a state-of-the-art supervised technique which employs a high-dimensional feature set. The proposed framework achieves highly-competitive performance with additional benefits. The measure is interpretable, scale-continuous as opposed to discrete, and can operate without any affective labeling. An accompanying Matlab tool is made available with the paper. PMID:25705327

  10. Effect of Transcendental Meditation versus resting on physiological and subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D S; Solomon, S; Cappo, B M; Greenberg, J L

    1983-06-01

    On four successive days, 10 highly trained and experienced meditators were asked to relax for 5 minutes, meditate for 20 minutes, and then relax for 5 minutes. In contrast, 10 other subjects who had no training or experience with meditation were asked to relax for 5 minutes, rest for 20 minutes, and then relax for 5 minutes. Physiological arousal (heart rate, skin resistance, respiration rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and subjective arousal (cognitive, somatic, relaxation) were measured throughout the experiment. Results indicated that (a) prior to meditating or resting, meditators tended to have higher heart rates and diastolic blood pressure than did nonmeditators, (b) meditation was associated with generally reduced arousal, but (c) while meditating, meditators did not evidence lower levels of arousal than nonmeditators did while resting. This investigation employed controls, which were not used in previous investigations, and the results place qualifications on previously reported results. The results have implications for the study of personality functioning, stress management, and psychotherapy.

  11. Dissociation of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Arousal and Semantic Cohesion During Emotional Word Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Daniel G.; Cooper, Julie J.; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Woldorff, Marty G.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli. This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional stimuli are also more semantically coherent than uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during encoding of positive,…

  12. Neural pathways in processing of sexual arousal: a dynamic causal modeling study.

    PubMed

    Seok, J-W; Park, M-S; Sohn, J-H

    2016-09-01

    Three decades of research have investigated brain processing of visual sexual stimuli with neuroimaging methods. These researchers have found that sexual arousal stimuli elicit activity in a broad neural network of cortical and subcortical brain areas that are known to be associated with cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological components. However, it is not completely understood how these neural systems integrate and modulated incoming information. Therefore, we identify cerebral areas whose activations were correlated with sexual arousal using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and used the dynamic causal modeling method for searching the effective connectivity about the sexual arousal processing network. Thirteen heterosexual males were scanned while they passively viewed alternating short trials of erotic and neutral pictures on a monitor. We created a subset of seven models based on our results and previous studies and selected a dominant connectivity model. Consequently, we suggest a dynamic causal model of the brain processes mediating the cognitive, emotional, motivational and physiological factors of human male sexual arousal. These findings are significant implications for the neuropsychology of male sexuality. PMID:27278664

  13. Beyond pleasure and arousal: appetitive erotic stimuli modulate electrophysiological brain correlates of early attentional processing.

    PubMed

    Kuhr, Benjamin; Schomberg, Jessica; Gruber, Thomas; Quirin, Markus

    2013-03-27

    Previous studies investigating affective reactions to pictures that elicit a specific effect have mainly focused on the dimensions valence and arousal. Using an event-related picture-viewing paradigm in electroencephalography, we investigated whether erotica - that is appetitive, evolutionarily relevant stimuli - have effects on early stages of attentional processing that are distinct from those of other positive and arousing stimuli. Seventeen male students viewed arousing photos of erotic, nude women or pictures of extreme sport scenes, as well as control pictures of attractive, dressed women or daily activities. Erotic pictures differed from extreme sport pictures not only in late but also in early attentional processes, as indicated by event-related potentials appearing from 130 ms after stimulus onset (P1). The findings suggest (a) that the dimension of appetence should be considered in addition to valence and arousal when investigating psychophysiological reactions to affective-motivational stimuli and (b) that early attentional processing as mirrored by the P1 can be influenced by motivational systems. PMID:23426107

  14. The accessory stimulus effect is mediated by phasic arousal: A pupillometry study.

    PubMed

    Tona, Klodiana-Daphne; Murphy, Peter R; Brown, Stephen B R E; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2016-07-01

    People usually respond faster to a visual stimulus when it is immediately preceded by a task-irrelevant, auditory accessory stimulus (AS). This AS effect occurs even in choice reaction time tasks, despite the fact that the AS carries no information about the correct response. Researchers often assume that the AS effect is mediated by a phasic arousal burst evoked by the AS, but direct evidence for that assumption is lacking. We conducted a pupillometry study to directly test the phasic arousal hypothesis. Participants carried out a demanding choice reaction time task with accessory stimuli occurring on 25% of the trials. Pupil diameter, a common index of arousal, was measured throughout the task. Standard analyses of task performance and pupil diameter showed that participants exhibited the typical AS effect, and that accessory stimuli evoked a reliable early pupil dilation on top of the more protracted dilation associated with the imperative stimulus. Moreover, regression analyses at the single-trial level showed that variation in reaction times on AS trials was selectively associated with pupil dilation during the early time window within which the AS had an effect, such that particularly large AS-evoked dilations were associated with especially fast responses. These results provide the first evidence that the AS effect is mediated by AS-evoked phasic arousal.

  15. The Experience of a Modern Dance Group: Arousal, Motivation, and Self-Rated Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, John H.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Wilson, George V.; Nakamori, Kayo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the findings obtained in previous reversal theory based dance research by investigating dancers' perceptions of their own arousal levels and performance and their motivational states when performing. A group of modern dancers (n = 21), performing at a dance competition, acted as volunteer…

  16. Relationship of Cognitive and Emotional Components of Test Anxiety to Physiological Arousal and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Larry W.; Liebert, Robert M.

    1970-01-01

    Worry was found to be more highly negatively related to examination grades than was Emotionality or pulse rate and worry was more highly negatively related to expectancy than was Emotionality. However, pulse rate was no more highly related to Emotionality than to Worry, suggesting that questionnaire and direct measures of autonomic arousal are…

  17. Flooding and Systematic Desensitization: Efficacy in Subclinical Phobics as a Function of Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez, Yolanda; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Flooding and systematic desensitization procedures were investigated for possible interactions with subject arousal level on reduction in phobic reactions. No such interaction was found. Behaviorally and on GSR response, both flooding and systematic desensitization were effective, but only the latter was effective on subjective reports. (NG)

  18. How does music arouse "chills"? Investigating strong emotions, combining psychological, physiological, and psychoacoustical methods.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2005-12-01

    Music can arouse ecstatic "chill" experiences defined as "goose pimples" and as "shivers down the spine." We recorded chills both via subjects' self-reports and physiological reactions, finding that they do not occur in a reflex-like manner, but as a result of attentive, experienced, and conscious musical enjoyment.

  19. Arousal Rather than Basic Emotions Influence Long-Term Recognition Memory in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Marchewka, Artur; Wypych, Marek; Moslehi, Abnoos; Riegel, Monika; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Jednoróg, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Emotion can influence various cognitive processes, however its impact on memory has been traditionally studied over relatively short retention periods and in line with dimensional models of affect. The present study aimed to investigate emotional effects on long-term recognition memory according to a combined framework of affective dimensions and basic emotions. Images selected from the Nencki Affective Picture System were rated on the scale of affective dimensions and basic emotions. After 6 months, subjects took part in a surprise recognition test during an fMRI session. The more negative the pictures the better they were remembered, but also the more false recognitions they provoked. Similar effects were found for the arousal dimension. Recognition success was greater for pictures with lower intensity of happiness and with higher intensity of surprise, sadness, fear, and disgust. Consecutive fMRI analyses showed a significant activation for remembered (recognized) vs. forgotten (not recognized) images in anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula as well as in bilateral caudate nuclei and right thalamus. Further, arousal was found to be the only subjective rating significantly modulating brain activation. Higher subjective arousal evoked higher activation associated with memory recognition in the right caudate and the left cingulate gyrus. Notably, no significant modulation was observed for other subjective ratings, including basic emotion intensities. These results emphasize the crucial role of arousal for long-term recognition memory and support the hypothesis that the memorized material, over time, becomes stored in a distributed cortical network including the core salience network and basal ganglia.

  20. The Effects of Novel Stimulation on Arousal Level in Young Children Alone and with a Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, J. Conrad

    To assess the effects of familiar social stimuli on arousal in a novel and mildly stressful environment, skin conductance was measured in 4-year-old nursery school children who experienced this environment under two conditions: (a) alone, and (b) in the presence of a close friend. The study was intended to test Zajonc's (1965) social facilitation…