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Sample records for increases tumour cell

  1. Tumour Cell Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Laura; Baker, Ann-Marie; Graham, Trevor A.

    2016-01-01

    The population of cells that make up a cancer are manifestly heterogeneous at the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic levels. In this mini-review, we summarise the extent of intra-tumour heterogeneity (ITH) across human malignancies, review the mechanisms that are responsible for generating and maintaining ITH, and discuss the ramifications and opportunities that ITH presents for cancer prognostication and treatment. PMID:26973786

  2. Needle biopsy through the abdominal wall for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumour - Does it increase the risk for tumour cell seeding and recurrence?

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Mikael; Reichardt, Peter; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; Schütte, Jochen; Cameron, Silke; Hohenberger, Peter; Bauer, Sebastian; Leinonen, Mika; Reichardt, Annette; Rejmyr Davis, Maria; Alvegård, Thor; Joensuu, Heikki

    2016-05-01

    Preoperative percutaneous transabdominal wall biopsy may be considered to diagnose gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) and plan preoperative treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors when an endoscopic biopsy is not possible. Hypothetically, a transabdominal wall biopsy might lead to cell seeding and conversion of a local GIST to a disseminated one. We investigated the influence of preoperative needle biopsy on survival outcomes. We collected the clinical data from hospital case records of the 397 patients who participated in the Scandinavian Sarcoma Group (SSG) XVIII/Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO) randomised trial and who had a transabdominal fine needle and/or core needle biopsy carried out prior to study entry. The SSG XVIII/AIO trial compared 1 and 3 years of adjuvant imatinib in a patient population with a high risk of GIST recurrence after macroscopically radical surgery. The primary end-point was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end-points included overall survival (OS). A total of 47 (12.0%) out of the 393 patients with data available underwent a percutaneous biopsy. No significant difference in RFS or OS was found between the patients who underwent or did not undergo a percutaneous biopsy either in the entire series or in subpopulation analyses, except for a statistically significant RFS advantage for patients who had a percutaneous biopsy and a tumour ≥10 cm in diameter. A preoperative diagnostic percutaneous biopsy of a suspected GIST may not increase the risk for GIST recurrence in a patient population who receive adjuvant imatinib after the biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumour cell dispersion by the ultrasonic aspirator during brain tumour resection.

    PubMed

    Preston, J K; Masciopinto, J; Salamat, M S; Badie, B

    1999-10-01

    Ultrasonic aspirators are commonly used to resect brain tumours because they allow safe, rapid and accurate removal of diseased tissue. Since ultrasonic aspirators generate a spray of aerosolized irrigating fluid around the instrument tip, we questioned whether this spray might contain viable tumours cells that could contribute to intraoperative spread of tumour fragments. To test this hypothesis, we collected the spray produced during the resection of nine brain tumours with an ultrasonic aspirator and semi-quantitatively analysed it for tumour presence. The aerosolized irrigation fluid was found to contain intact tumour cells or clumps of tumour cells in all nine instances, and there was a trend of increasing tumour cell dispersion with increasing ultrasonic aspiration times. Further examination is required to determine if this intraoperative dispersion of apparently viable tumour fragments contributes to local neoplasm recurrence.

  4. SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells bind fibroblasts via ICAM-1 and this is increased by tumour necrosis factor-α.

    PubMed

    David, Manu S; Kelly, Elizabeth; Cheung, Ivan; Xaymardan, Munira; Moore, Malcolm A S; Zoellner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported exchange of membrane and cytoplasmic markers between SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and human gingival fibroblasts (h-GF) without comparable exchange of nuclear markers, while similar h-GF exchange was seen for melanoma and ovarian carcinoma cells. This process of "cellular sipping" changes phenotype such that cells sharing markers of both SAOS-2 and h-GF have morphology intermediate to that of either cell population cultured alone, evidencing increased tumour cell diversity without genetic change. TNF-α increases cellular sipping between h-GF and SAOS-2, and we here study binding of SAOS-2 to TNF-α treated h-GF to determine if increased cellular sipping can be accounted for by cytokine stimulated SAOS-2 binding. More SAOS-2 bound h-GF pe-seeded wells than culture plastic alone (p<0.001), and this was increased by h-GF pre-treatment with TNF-α (p<0.001). TNF-α stimulated binding was dose dependent and maximal at 1.16 nM (p<0.05) with no activity below 0.006 nM. SAOS-2 binding to h-GF was independent of serum, while the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Polymyxin B did not affect results, and TNF-α activity was lost on boiling. h-GF binding of SAOS-2 started to increase after 30min TNF-α stimulation and was maximal by 1.5 hr pre-treatment (p<0.001). h-GF retained maximal binding up to 6 hrs after TNF-α stimulation, but this was lost by 18 hrs (p<0.001). FACS analysis demonstrated increased ICAM-1 consistent with the time course of SAOS-2 binding, while antibody against ICAM-1 inhibited SAOS-2 adhesion (p<0.04). Pre-treating SAOS-2 with TNF-α reduced h-GF binding to background levels (p<0.003), and this opposite effect to h-GF cytokine stimulation suggests that the history of cytokine exposure of malignant cells migrating across different microenvironments can influence subsequent interactions with fibroblasts. Since cytokine stimulated binding was comparable in magnitude to earlier reported TNF-α stimulated cellular sipping, we conclude that TNF

  5. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin-3 increase expression of type II tumour necrosis factor receptor, increasing susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor-induced apoptosis. Control of leukaemia cell life/death switching.

    PubMed

    Rae, C; MacEwan, D J

    2004-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) induces apoptosis in a range of cell types via its two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Here, we demonstrate that proliferation and TNFR2 expression was increased in human leukaemic TF-1 cells by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3), with TNFR1 expression unaffected. Consequently, they switch from a proliferative to a TNF-induced apoptotic phenotype. Raised TNFR2 expression and susceptibility to TNF-induced apoptosis was not a general effect of proliferation as IL-1beta and IFN-gamma both proliferated TF-1 cells with no effect on TNFR expression or apoptosis. Although raised TNFR2 expression correlated with the apoptotic phenotype, stimulation of apoptosis in GM-CSF-pretreated cells was mediated by TNFR1, with stimulation of TNFR2 alone insufficient to initiate cell death. However, TNFR2 did play a role in apoptotic and proliferative responses as they were blocked by the presence of an antagonistic TNFR2 antibody. Additionally, coincubation with cycloheximide blocked the mitotic effects of GM-CSF or IL-3, allowing only the apoptotic responses of TNF to persist. TNF life/death was also observed in K562, but not MOLT-4 and HL-60 human leukaemic cell types. These findings show a cooperative role of TNFR2 in the TNF life/death switching phenomenon.

  6. [Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours in the liver].

    PubMed

    Ellebæk, Signe Bremholm; Bjerring, Ole Steen; Mandi, Bassam; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-02-23

    The PEComa family is a group of tumours having perivascular epithelioid cells (PEC) as the predominating component. PEComas occur in various organs and are considered to be benign tumours. However, rare cases showing pleomorphic morphology, atypical mitoses or necrosis should be considered malignant sarcomas. The precise incidence is unknown but PEComas are reported with increasing frequency. Standard treatment is surgery but there are no guidelines on further follow-up or treatment. PEComa in the liver is a rare tumour, and to our knowledge this is the first published case from Denmark.

  7. Mediastinal germ cell tumour causing superior vena cava tumour thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Suman S; Vaid, Ashok K; Batra, Sandeep; Sharma, Devender

    2015-03-25

    We report a rare case of a 35-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of retrosternal chest pain of moderate intensity. A positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) showed a large fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG)-avid heterogeneously enhancing necrotic mass in the anterosuperior mediastinum with a focal FDG-avid thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC) suggestive of tumour thrombus and vascular invasion. α-Fetoprotein levels were raised (5690 IU/L). Image guided biopsy of the mediastinal mass was suggestive of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT). The patient received four cycles of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) along with therapeutic anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin. Follow-up whole body PET-CT revealed complete resolution of mediastinal mass and SVC tumour thrombosis. The documentation of FDG-PET-avid tumour thrombus resolving with chemotherapy supports the concept of circulating tumour cells being important not only in common solid tumours such as breast and colon cancer but also in relatively less common tumours such as NSGCT. The detection of circulating tumour cells could help deploy aggressive regimens upfront. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Enhancement of T cell recruitment and infiltration into tumours

    PubMed Central

    Oelkrug, C; Ramage, J M

    2014-01-01

    Studies have documented that cancer patients with tumours which are highly infiltrated with cytotoxic T lymphocytes show enhanced survival rates. The ultimate goal of cancer immunotherapy is to elicit high-avidity tumour-specific T cells to migrate and kill malignant tumours. Novel antibody therapies such as ipilumimab (a cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 blocking antibody) show enhanced T cell infiltration into the tumour tissue and increased survival. More conventional therapies such as chemotherapy or anti-angiogenic therapy and recent therapies with oncolytic viruses have been shown to alter the tumour microenvironment and thereby lead to enhanced T cell infiltration. Understanding the mechanisms involved in the migration of high-avidity tumour-specific T cells into tumours will support and provide solutions for the optimization of therapeutic options in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24828133

  9. Analysis of gene expression as relevant to cancer cells and circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Friel, Anne M; Crown, John; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Current literature provides significant evidence to support the concept that there are limited subpopulations of cells within a solid tumour that have increased tumour-initiating potential relative to the total tumour population. Such tumour-initiating cells have been identified in leukaemia and in a variety of solid tumours using different combinations of cell surface markers, suggesting that a tumour-initiating cell heterogeneity exists for each specific tumour. These studies have been extended to endometrial cancer; and herein we present several experimental approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, that can be used to determine whether such populations exist, and if so, to characterize them. These methods are adaptable to the investigation of tumour-initiating cells from other tumour types.

  10. Loss of the endothelial glycocalyx is associated with increased E-selectin mediated adhesion of lung tumour cells to the brain microvascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Rai, Srijana; Nejadhamzeeigilani, Zaynab; Gutowski, Nicholas J; Whatmore, Jacqueline L

    2015-09-25

    Arrest of metastasising lung cancer cells to the brain microvasculature maybe mediated by interactions between ligands on circulating tumour cells and endothelial E-selectin adhesion molecules; a process likely to be regulated by the endothelial glycocalyx. Using human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, we describe how factors secreted by NSCLC cells i.e. cystatin C, cathepsin L, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), damage the glycocalyx and enhance initial contacts between lung tumour and cerebral endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were treated with tumour secreted-proteins or lung tumour conditioned medium (CM). Surface levels of E-selectin were quantified by ELISA. Adhesion of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells was examined under flow conditions (1 dyne/cm(2)). Alterations in the endothelial glycocalyx were quantified by binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-linked wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-FITC). A549 and SK-MES-1 CM and secreted-proteins significantly enhanced endothelial surface E-selectin levels after 30 min and 4 h and tumour cell adhesion after 30 min, 4 and 24 h. Both coincided with significant glycocalyx degradation; A549 and SK-MES-1 CM removing 55 ± 12 % and 58 ± 18.7 % of WGA-FITC binding, respectively. Inhibition of E-selectin binding by monoclonal anti-E-selectin antibody completely attenuated tumour cell adhesion. These data suggest that metastasising lung cancer cells facilitate their own adhesion to the brain endothelium by secreting factors that damage the endothelial glycocalyx, resulting in exposure of the previously shielded adhesion molecules and engagement of the E-selectin-mediated adhesion axis.

  11. Cooperative tumour cell membrane targeted phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heegon; Lee, Junsung; Oh, Chanhee; Park, Ji-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The targeted delivery of therapeutics using antibodies or nanomaterials has improved the precision and safety of cancer therapy. However, the paucity and heterogeneity of identified molecular targets within tumours have resulted in poor and uneven distribution of targeted agents, thus compromising treatment outcomes. Here, we construct a cooperative targeting system in which synthetic and biological nanocomponents participate together in the tumour cell membrane-selective localization of synthetic receptor-lipid conjugates (SR-lipids) to amplify the subsequent targeting of therapeutics. The SR-lipids are first delivered selectively to tumour cell membranes in the perivascular region using fusogenic liposomes. By hitchhiking with extracellular vesicles secreted by the cells, the SR-lipids are transferred to neighbouring cells and further spread throughout the tumour tissues where the molecular targets are limited. We show that this tumour cell membrane-targeted delivery of SR-lipids leads to uniform distribution and enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy of the targeted photosensitizer.

  12. A giant testicular mixed germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Reekhaye, A; Harris, A; Nagarajan, S; Chadwick, D

    2016-11-01

    We present a case that we believe to be the largest mixed germ cell testicular tumour reported in the United Kingdom. A 23-year-old male was admitted to our urology department with a large scrotal swelling. The patient was found to have a giant left testicular tumour and a solitary lung metastasis at presentation. He underwent an emergency radical orchidectomy and subsequently received four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy. Four months after starting treatment, the tumour markers had normalised and a repeat staging computed tomography showed no active disease. The tumour reached that size because of the patient's failure to seek medical attention due to fear and embarrassment.

  13. Postchemotherapy changes in testicular germ cell tumours: biology and morphology.

    PubMed

    Berney, Daniel M; Lu, Yong-Jie; Shamash, Jonathan; Idrees, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Advances in modern chemotherapy and targeted treatments have resulted in lengthened survival in a variety of tumour types in the last decade. Increasingly in the 21st century, postchemotherapy resections are considered as a possible mode of treatment. Due to their exquisite chemosensitivity, resection of postchemotherapy masses has long been part of the armamentarium of treatment in testicular germ cell neoplasia, which has resulted in a variety of new morphological variants being described after treatment. Here we discuss the possible reasons for germ cell tumour chemosensitivity and hypotheses on the biological pathways leading to resistance to treatment, as well as an outline of the diverse morphology of those tumours which prove recalcitrant to standard treatment methods. The large range of morphologies and their diagnostic challenges may throw light upon the future problems to be encountered in non-germ cell solid tumour pathology, as the resection of postchemotherapy masses becomes increasingly important in patient management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sertoli cell tumour in an Amur tiger.

    PubMed

    Scudamore, C L; Meredith, A L

    2001-01-01

    The histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of a malignant Sertoli cell tumour in a 17-year-old Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) are described. Histological examination of the primary lesion in the right testis and metastatic lesions throughout the internal organs showed a variable cellular pattern with an admixture of tubular structures divided by fine stroma filled with fusiform to stellate cells, and sheets of polygonal cells with abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical techniques demonstrated strong positive staining for neuron-specific enolase and variable positive staining for vimentin in neoplastic cells, supporting a diagnosis of a tumour of Sertoli cell origin.

  15. Low tumour cell content in a lung tumour bank: implications for molecular characterisation.

    PubMed

    Goh, Felicia; Duhig, Edwina E; Clarke, Belinda E; McCaul, Elizabeth; Passmore, Linda; Courtney, Deborah; Windsor, Morgan; Naidoo, Rishendren; Franz, Louise; Parsonson, Kylie; Yang, Ian A; Bowman, Rayleen V; Fong, Kwun M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer encompasses multiple malignant epithelial tumour types, each with specific targetable, potentially actionable mutations, such that precision management mandates accurate tumour typing. Molecular characterisation studies require high tumour cell content and low necrosis content, yet lung cancers are frequently a heterogeneous mixture of tumour and stromal cells. We hypothesised that there may be systematic differences in tumour cell content according to histological subtype, and that this may have implications for tumour banks as a resource for comprehensive molecular characterisation studies in lung cancer. To investigate this, we estimated tumour cell and necrosis content of 4267 samples resected from 752 primary lung tumour specimens contributed to a lung tissue bank. We found that banked lung cancer samples had low tumour cell content (33%) generally, although it was higher in carcinoids (77.5%) than other lung cancer subtypes. Tumour cells comprise a variable and often small component of banked resected tumour samples, and are accompanied by stromal reaction, inflammation, fibrosis, and normal structures. This has implications for the adequacy of unselected tumour bank samples for diagnostic and molecular investigations, and further research is needed to determine whether tumour cell content has a significant impact on analytical results in studies using tissue from tumour bank resources. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of aspirin on tumour cell colony formation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Wodarz, Dominik; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C Richard; Komarova, Natalia L

    2017-09-01

    Aspirin is known to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In a previous study, we quantified the in vitro growth kinetics of different CRC tumour cell lines treated with varying doses of aspirin, measuring the rate of cell division and cell death. Here, we use these measured parameters to calculate the chances of successful clonal expansion and to determine the evolutionary potential of the tumour cell lines in the presence and absence of aspirin. The calculations indicate that aspirin increases the probability that a single tumour cell fails to clonally expand. Further, calculations suggest that aspirin increases the evolutionary potential of an expanding tumour cell colony. An aspirin-treated tumour cell population is predicted to result in the accumulation of more mutations (and is thus more virulent and more difficult to treat) than a cell population of the same size that grew without aspirin. This indicates a potential trade-off between delaying the onset of cancer and increasing its evolutionary potential through chemoprevention. Further work needs to investigate to what extent these findings apply to in vivo settings, and to what degree they contribute to the epidemiologically documented aspirin-mediated protection. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Cell adhesion heterogeneity reinforces tumour cell dissemination: novel insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Reher, David; Klink, Barbara; Deutsch, Andreas; Voss-Böhme, Anja

    2017-08-11

    Cancer cell invasion, dissemination, and metastasis have been linked to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of individual tumour cells. During EMT, adhesion molecules like E-cadherin are downregulated and the decrease of cell-cell adhesion allows tumour cells to dissociate from the primary tumour mass. This complex process depends on intracellular cues that are subject to genetic and epigenetic variability, as well as extrinsic cues from the local environment resulting in a spatial heterogeneity in the adhesive phenotype of individual tumour cells. Here, we use a novel mathematical model to study how adhesion heterogeneity, influenced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, affects the dissemination of tumour cells from an epithelial cell population. The model is a multiscale cellular automaton that couples intracellular adhesion receptor regulation with cell-cell adhesion. Simulations of our mathematical model indicate profound effects of adhesion heterogeneity on tumour cell dissemination. In particular, we show that a large variation of intracellular adhesion receptor concentrations in a cell population reinforces cell dissemination, regardless of extrinsic cues mediated through the local cell density. However, additional control of adhesion receptor concentration through the local cell density, which can be assumed in healthy cells, weakens the effect. Furthermore, we provide evidence that adhesion heterogeneity can explain the remarkable differences in adhesion receptor concentrations of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes observed during EMT and might drive early dissemination of tumour cells. Our results suggest that adhesion heterogeneity may be a universal trigger to reinforce cell dissemination in epithelial cell populations. This effect can be at least partially compensated by a control of adhesion receptor regulation through neighbouring cells. Accordingly, our findings explain how both an increase in intra-tumour adhesion heterogeneity and the

  18. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C; Chan, April S; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-04-29

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGFβ levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis.

  19. Single-cell-based computer simulation of the oxygen-dependent tumour response to irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harting, Christine; Peschke, Peter; Borkenstein, Klaus; Karger, Christian P.

    2007-08-01

    Optimization of treatment plans in radiotherapy requires the knowledge of tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Mathematical models may help to obtain quantitative estimates of TCP and NTCP. A single-cell-based computer simulation model is presented, which simulates tumour growth and radiation response on the basis of the response of the constituting cells. The model contains oxic, hypoxic and necrotic tumour cells as well as capillary cells which are considered as sources of a radial oxygen profile. Survival of tumour cells is calculated by the linear quadratic model including the modified response due to the local oxygen concentration. The model additionally includes cell proliferation, hypoxia-induced angiogenesis, apoptosis and resorption of inactivated tumour cells. By selecting different degrees of angiogenesis, the model allows the simulation of oxic as well as hypoxic tumours having distinctly different oxygen distributions. The simulation model showed that poorly oxygenated tumours exhibit an increased radiation tolerance. Inter-tumoural variation of radiosensitivity flattens the dose response curve. This effect is enhanced by proliferation between fractions. Intra-tumoural radiosensitivity variation does not play a significant role. The model may contribute to the mechanistic understanding of the influence of biological tumour parameters on TCP. It can in principle be validated in radiation experiments with experimental tumours.

  20. Brain tumour cells interconnect to a functional and resistant network.

    PubMed

    Osswald, Matthias; Jung, Erik; Sahm, Felix; Solecki, Gergely; Venkataramani, Varun; Blaes, Jonas; Weil, Sophie; Horstmann, Heinz; Wiestler, Benedikt; Syed, Mustafa; Huang, Lulu; Ratliff, Miriam; Karimian Jazi, Kianush; Kurz, Felix T; Schmenger, Torsten; Lemke, Dieter; Gömmel, Miriam; Pauli, Martin; Liao, Yunxiang; Häring, Peter; Pusch, Stefan; Herl, Verena; Steinhäuser, Christian; Krunic, Damir; Jarahian, Mostafa; Miletic, Hrvoje; Berghoff, Anna S; Griesbeck, Oliver; Kalamakis, Georgios; Garaschuk, Olga; Preusser, Matthias; Weiss, Samuel; Liu, Haikun; Heiland, Sabine; Platten, Michael; Huber, Peter E; Kuner, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Winkler, Frank

    2015-12-03

    Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting network allows multicellular communication through microtube-associated gap junctions. When damage to the network occurred, tumour microtubes were used for repair. Moreover, the microtube-connected astrocytoma cells, but not those remaining unconnected throughout tumour progression, were protected from cell death inflicted by radiotherapy. The neuronal growth-associated protein 43 was important for microtube formation and function, and drove microtube-dependent tumour cell invasion, proliferation, interconnection, and radioresistance. Oligodendroglial brain tumours were deficient in this mechanism. In summary, astrocytomas can develop functional multicellular network structures. Disconnection of astrocytoma cells by targeting their tumour microtubes emerges as a new principle to reduce the treatment resistance of this disease.

  1. A forgotten facial nerve tumour: granular cell tumour of the parotid and its implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Lerut, B; Vosbeck, J; Linder, T E

    2011-04-01

    We present a rare case of a facial nerve granular cell tumour in the right parotid gland, in a 10-year-old boy. A parotid or neurogenic tumour was suspected, based on magnetic resonance imaging. Intra-operatively, strong adhesions to surrounding structures were found, and a midfacial nerve branch had to be sacrificed for complete tumour removal. Recent reports verify that granular cell tumours arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerve branches. The rarity of this tumour within the parotid gland, its origin from peripheral nerves, its sometimes misleading imaging characteristics, and its rare presentation with facial weakness and pain all have considerable implications on the surgical strategy and pre-operative counselling. Fine needle aspiration cytology may confirm the neurogenic origin of this lesion. When resecting the tumour, the surgeon must anticipate strong adherence to the facial nerve and be prepared to graft, or sacrifice, certain branches of this nerve.

  2. Cell-production rates estimated by the use of vincristine sulphate and flow cytometry. II. Correlation between the cell-production rates of ageing ascites tumours and the number of S phase tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Barfod, I H; Barfod, N M

    1980-01-01

    A new method for the evaluation of cell production rates combining flow cytometry (FCM) and the stathmokinetic method using vincristine sulphate (VS) has been used for the analysis of three aneuploid ascites tumours at different stages of growth. Using this technique it was possible to estimate the well-known decrease in cell production rates of ageing ascites tumours. The percentage of normal host cells in the aneuploid tumours studied was easily determined by FCM prior to the calculation of the tumour cell-production rates. A correlation was found between the percentage of tumour cells in the S phase and the tumour cell-production rate. This correlation is probably explained by the gradual transfer of proliferating cells in S phase to resting G1 and G2 phases with increasing tumour age.

  3. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Tan To; Trendell-Smith, Nigel; Poon, Ronnie T P

    2013-07-10

    We present a case of a 53-year-old woman with abdominal discomfort for 6 months. The liver was enlarged. Contrast CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 10 cm hypervascular tumour at the right lobe of the liver. Right hepatectomy with complete excision of the tumour was achieved. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. She is regularly followed up with contrast CT assessment. There is no tumour recurrence 12 months after the operation.

  4. Delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumour cell-derived microparticles.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Huafeng; Xu, Pingwei; Liu, Jing; Ma, Jingwei; Lv, Meng; Li, Dapeng; Katirai, Foad; Shen, Guan-Xin; Zhang, Guimei; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Ye, Duyun; Huang, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Cellular microparticles are vesicular plasma membrane fragments with a diameter of 100-1,000 nanometres that are shed by cells in response to various physiological and artificial stimuli. Here we demonstrate that tumour cell-derived microparticles can be used as vectors to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that tumour cells incubated with chemotherapeutic drugs package these drugs into microparticles, which can be collected and used to effectively kill tumour cells in murine tumour models without typical side effects. We describe several mechanisms involved in this process, including uptake of drug-containing microparticles by tumour cells, synthesis of additional drug-packaging microparticles by these cells that contribute to the cytotoxic effect and the inhibition of drug efflux from tumour cells. This study highlights a novel drug delivery strategy with potential clinical application.

  5. Gene transfer preferentially selects MHC class I positive tumour cells and enhances tumour immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Ulrich T; Schildhauer, Ines; Barroso, Margarita Céspedes; Kofler, David M; Gerner, Franz M; Mysliwietz, Josef; Buening, Hildegard; Hallek, Michael; King, Susan B S

    2006-05-01

    The modulated expression of MHC class I on tumour tissue is well documented. Although the effect of MHC class I expression on the tumorigenicity and immunogenicity of MHC class I negative tumour cell lines has been rigorously studied, less is known about the validity of gene transfer and selection in cell lines with a mixed MHC class I phenotype. To address this issue we identified a C26 cell subline that consists of distinct populations of MHC class I (H-2D/K) positive and negative cells. Transient transfection experiments using liposome-based transfer showed a lower transgene expression in MHC class I negative cells. In addition, MHC class I negative cells were more sensitive to antibiotic selection. This led to the generation of fully MHC class I positive cell lines. In contrast to C26 cells, all transfectants were rejected in vivo and induced protection against the parental tumour cells in rechallenge experiments. Tumour cell specificity of the immune response was demonstrated in in vitro cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity assays. Transfectants expressing CD40 ligand and hygromycin phosphotransferase were not more immunogenic than cells expressing hygromycin resistance alone. We suggest that the MHC class I positive phenotype of the C26 transfectants had a bearing on their immunogenicity, because selected MHC class I positive cells were more immunogenic than parental C26 cells and could induce specific anti-tumour immune responses. These data demonstrate that the generation of tumour cell transfectants can lead to the selection of subpopulations that show an altered phenotype compared to the parental cell line and display altered immunogenicity independent of selection marker genes or other immune modulatory genes. Our results show the importance of monitoring gene transfer in the whole tumour cell population, especially for the evaluation of in vivo therapies targeted to heterogeneous tumour cell populations.

  6. Variation, "evolution", immortality and genetic instabilities in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Bignold, L P

    2007-08-18

    The pathological characteristics of tumour cells often include variation of their histopathological features (i.e. "degrees of de-differentiation") between cases of the same tumour type and between different foci within individual tumours. Usually, only a few cell lines from tumours are immortal. Currently, somatic mutation, replicative infidelity of DNA and aneuploidy are suggested as alternative mechanisms of genomic disturbance underlying tumours. Nevertheless, apart from Hansemann's ideas of "anaplasia" and "de-differentiation" (proposed in the 1890s), and supposed "evolutionary themes" in cancer cell biology, little has been published concerning how histopathologic variation and immortality in tumour cells might arise. This paper reviews applications of the concepts of "variation" to tumours, including concepts of "evolution" and "cellular Darwinism". It is proposed that combinations of somatic mutation, DNA replicative infidelity and aneuploidy may explain the variabilities in tumours, and provide immortality in occasional tumour cells. A possible model involves (i) an initial somatic mutation causing reduced replicative fidelity of DNA, which could be variable in intensity, and thus give rise to variations between cases; (ii) a phase of replicative infidelity of DNA causing daughter cells lines to develop various abnormalities to different degrees, and hence provide for variation between areas of the same tumour. As a last event (iii) occasional asymmetric chromosomal distributions (aneuploidy) might "refresh" the ability of a daughter cell to replicate DNA faithfully causing them to become immortal. Thus extensively mutant and variable, hyperploid, and occasionally immortal cells might arise.

  7. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  8. Tumour Heterogeneity: The Key Advantages of Single-Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Ory, Benjamin; Lamoureux, Francois; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Tumour heterogeneity refers to the fact that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation and metastatic potential. This phenomenon occurs both between tumours (inter-tumour heterogeneity) and within tumours (intra-tumour heterogeneity), and it is caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in using molecular prognostic markers as well as for classifying patients that might benefit from specific therapies. Thus, research efforts for characterizing heterogeneity would be useful for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. It has been suggested that the study of heterogeneity within Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) could also reflect the full spectrum of mutations of the disease more accurately than a single biopsy of a primary or metastatic tumour. In previous years, many high throughput methodologies have raised for the study of heterogeneity at different levels (i.e., RNA, DNA, protein and epigenetic events). The aim of the current review is to stress clinical implications of tumour heterogeneity, as well as current available methodologies for their study, paying specific attention to those able to assess heterogeneity at the single cell level. PMID:27999407

  9. Exosomes from heat-stressed tumour cells inhibit tumour growth by converting regulatory T cells to Th17 cells via IL-6.

    PubMed

    Guo, Danfeng; Chen, Yinghu; Wang, Shoujie; Yu, Lei; Shen, Yingying; Zhong, Haijun; Yang, Yunshan

    2018-05-01

    Exosomes derived from heat-stressed tumour cells (HS-TEXs), which contain abundant heat shock protein (HSP) 70, strongly induce antitumour immune responses. HSP70-induced interleukin (IL)-6 promotes IL-17 expression and causes rejection of established prostate tumours. However, it remains unclear whether HS-TEXs exhibit antitumour effects by converting regulatory T cells (T regs ) into T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. In this study, we found that compared with TEXs, HS-TEXs were more potent in stimulating secretion of IL-6 from dendritic cells. In vitro, IL-6 blocked tumour cell-derived transforming growth factor beta 1-induced T reg differentiation and promoted Th17 cell differentiation. HS-TEXs exerted strong antitumour effects, converting T regs into Th17 cells with high efficiency, a process that was entirely dependent upon IL-6. Neutralization of IL-17 completely abolished the antitumour effect of TEXs, but only partially inhibited that of HS-TEXs. In addition, we found higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17 in serum from tumour patients treated with hyperthermia, and an increase in Th17 cells and a decrease in T regs was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from these patients after hyperthermia. Therefore, our results demonstrate that HS-TEXs possess a powerful capacity to convert immunosuppressive T regs into Th17 cells via IL-6, which contributes to their potent antitumour effect. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Increased FOXP3 expression in tumour-associated tissues of horses affected with equine sarcoid disease.

    PubMed

    Mählmann, K; Hamza, E; Marti, E; Dolf, G; Klukowska, J; Gerber, V; Koch, C

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are associated with disease severity and progression in papilloma virus induced neoplasia. Bovine papilloma virus (BPV) is recognised as the most important aetiological factor in equine sarcoid (ES) disease. The aim of this study was to compare expression levels of Treg markers and associated cytokines in tissue samples of ES-affected equids with skin samples of healthy control horses. Eleven ES-affected, and 12 healthy horses were included in the study. Expression levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), interleukin 10 (IL10), interleukin 4 (IL4) and interferon gamma (IFNG) mRNA in lesional and tumour-distant samples from ES-affected horses, as well as in dermal samples of healthy control horses were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression levels were compared between lesional and tumour-distant as well as between tumour-distant and control samples. Furthermore, BPV-1 E5 DNA in samples of ES-affected horses was quantified using quantitative PCR, and possible associations of viral load, disease severity and gene expression levels were evaluated. Expression levels of FOXP3, IL10 and IFNG mRNA and BPV-1 E5 copy numbers were significantly increased in lesional compared to tumour-distant samples. There was no difference in FOXP3 and cytokine expression in tumour-distant samples from ES- compared with control horses. In tumour-distant samples viral load was positively correlated with IL10 expression and severity score. The increased expression of Treg markers in tumour-associated tissues of ES-affected equids indicates a local, Treg-induced immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing by radiation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J D

    2003-02-01

    To review the relative importance of the single-hit mechanism of radiation killing for tumour response to 1.8-2.0 Gy day(-1) fractions and to low dose-rate brachytherapy. Tumour cell killing by ionizing radiation is well described by the linear-quadratic equation that contains two independent components distinguished by dose kinetics. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves that contain six or more dose points usually provide good estimates of the alpha- and beta-inactivation coefficients. Superior estimates of tumour cell intrinsic radiosensitivity are obtained when synchronized populations are employed. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation of tumour cells are reviewed and compared with the characteristics of beta-inactivation. Potential molecular targets associated with single-hit inactivation are discussed along with strategies for potentiating cell killing by this mechanism. The single-hit mechanism of tumour cell killing shows no dependence on dose-rate and, consequently, no evidence of sublethal damage repair. It is uniquely potentiated by high linear-energy-transfer radiation, exhibits a smaller oxygen enhancement ratio and exhibits a larger indirect effect by hydroxyl radicals than the beta-mechanism. alpha-inactivation coefficients vary slightly throughout interphase but mitotic cells exhibit extremely high alpha-coefficients in the range of those observed for lymphocytes and some repair-deficient cells. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that chromatin in compacted form could be a radiation-hypersensitive target associated with single-hit radiation killing. Analyses of tumour cell survival curves demonstrate that it is the single-hit mechanism (alpha) that determines the majority of cell killing after doses of 2Gy and that this mechanism is highly variable between tumour cell lines. The characteristics of single-hit inactivation are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct from those of beta-inactivation. Compacted chromatin in tumour cells

  12. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tan To; Trendell-Smith, Nigel; Poon, Ronnie T P

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 53-year-old woman with abdominal discomfort for 6 months. The liver was enlarged. Contrast CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 10 cm hypervascular tumour at the right lobe of the liver. Right hepatectomy with complete excision of the tumour was achieved. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with perivascular epithelioid cell tumour. She is regularly followed up with contrast CT assessment. There is no tumour recurrence 12 months after the operation. PMID:23845671

  13. DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistantgerm cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Berney, D M; Shamash, J; Gaffney, J; Jordan, S; Oliver, R T D

    2002-01-01

    A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens. DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours. DNA topoisomerase IIα is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment. The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and IIα were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression. There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types. Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive. Strong topoisomerase IIα expression was found in embryonal carcinoma. There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and IIα expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase IIα after chemotherapy (P=0.02). Topoisomerase I expression appears to increase in those cases with residual teratoma, mature, but is largely unchanged in those cases remaining as embryonal carcinoma. These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 21, 624–629. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600472 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12237772

  14. Frequency of serum tumour marker monitoring in patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Seckl, M. J.; Rustin, G. J.; Bagshawe, K. D.

    1990-01-01

    In patients relapsing on surveillance following orchidectomy for stage 1 non-seminomatous germ cell tumours, it is essential that treatment is initiated before they develop advanced disease with a poor prognosis. Patients who start chemotherapy with levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) greater than 1,000 i.u. l-1 and/or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level greater than 500 ku l-1 have been shown to have a worse prognosis than patients with lower marker levels. We studied 64 patients between 1968 and 1987 with rising serial tumour markers. The potential time in which markers could rise to poor prognostic levels was calculated assuming an exponential rate of increase. Adverse levels were predicted in one patient (1.6%) within 7 days, in two patients (3.1%) within 14 days, in eight patients (12.5%) within 4 weeks and in 16 patients (25%) within 6 weeks. This suggests that, initially, weekly marker estimations should be performed on stage 1 surveillance patients. The extra cost to a specialist follow-up laboratory of weekly as opposed to the usual monthly marker measurements will be less than 33,600 pounds for every 400 patients on surveillance. One extra patient is likely to be cured for this sum. PMID:1695522

  15. Consensus on the management of intracranial germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Murray, Matthew J; Bartels, Ute; Nishikawa, Ryo; Fangusaro, Jason; Matsutani, Masao; Nicholson, James C

    2015-09-01

    The management of intracranial germ-cell tumours is complex because of varied clinical presentations, tumour sites, treatments and outcomes, and the need for multidisciplinary input. Participants of the 2013 Third International CNS Germ Cell Tumour Symposium (Cambridge, UK) agreed to undertake a multidisciplinary Delphi process to identify consensus in the clinical management of intracranial germ-cell tumours. 77 delegates from the symposium were selected as suitable experts in the field and were invited to participate in the Delphi survey, of which 64 (83%) responded to the invitation. Invited participants represented multiple disciplines from Asia, Australasia, Europe, and the Americas. 38 consensus statements encompassing aspects of intracranial germ-cell tumour work-up, staging, treatment, and follow-up were prepared. To achieve consensus, statements required at least 70% agreement from at least 60% of respondents. Overall, 34 (89%) of 38 statements met consensus criteria. This international Delphi approach has defined key areas of consensus that will help guide and streamline clinical management of patients with intracranial germ-cell tumours. Additionally, the Delphi approach identified areas of different understanding and clinical practice internationally in the management of these tumours, areas which should be the focus of future collaborative studies. Such efforts should translate into improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extragonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned out" phenomenon mimicking a retroperitioneal tumour of neurogenic origin.

    PubMed

    González, Rocío; Montoto Santomé, Paula; Iglesias Porto, Eva; Pérez Moreiras, M Isabel; Salem Ali, Mohammed; Mateo Cambón, Luis A; Bal Nieves, Fernando; Arija Val, J Felix

    2012-12-01

    To describe a case of retroperitoneal metastasis of a gonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned-out" phenomenon in a 35 year old patient with a suspected diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumour of neurogenic origin. With the clinical and radiological suspicion of retroperitoneal tumour of neurogenic origin the tumour was removed, via the retroperitoneal space. Pathology showed classic seminoma with foci of atypical or anaplastic seminoma, confined to the tissue sample. After a genital examination showing no alterations, a scrotal ultrasound was requested. This revealed a badly delimited hypoechogenic mass with microcalcifications in the left testis and a heterogeneous echostructure in the right testis, with hypoechogenic areas and some microcalcification. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed, with a pathological study compatible with residual scar tissue in the left testicle and focal findings of germ cell neoplasia, with no intratubular seminoma in the right testis. The suspicion of an extragonadal germ cell tumour with the "burned-out" phenomenon modifies the therapeutic attitude, which should begin with orchiectomy, followed by systemic chemotherapy and the surgery kept in reserve for those cases where residual malignant tissue persists.

  17. Captopril inhibits tumour growth in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hii, S. I.; Nicol, D. L.; Gotley, D. C.; Thompson, L. C.; Green, M. K.; Jonsson, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of captopril on tumour growth was examined in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Inoculation of the human RCC cell line SN12K-1 (10(6) cells) under the left kidney capsule of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice resulted in the growth of large tumours, with an increase in weight of the inoculated kidney of 3.69+/-1.63-fold (mean+/-s.d.) when compared with the contralateral normal kidney. In mice treated with captopril (19 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or 94 mg kg(-1) day(-1) administered in the drinking water), there was a significant dose-related reduction in tumour development; the tumour bearing kidneys weighed 1.9+/-0.42 and 1.55+/-0.42 times the normal kidneys, respectively (P< 0.05 compared with untreated animals). In vitro, captopril at clinically achievable doses (0.1-10 microM) had no significant effect on the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into SN12K-1 cells. Thus, this highly significant attenuation by captopril of in vivo tumour growth does not appear to be due to a direct effect on the proliferation of the tumour cells. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism of inhibition of tumour growth by captopril, in particular to evaluate the role of angiotensin II in this process. Images Figure 1 PMID:9528828

  18. 'Tumour volume' as a predictor of survival after resection of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, M. F.; Pendleton, N.; Faragher, E. B.; Dixon, G. R.; Myskow, M. W.; Horan, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Many factors have been individually related to outcome in populations of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Factors responsible for the outcome of an individual after surgical resection are poorly understood. We have examined the importance of 'tumour volume' in determining prognosis of patients following resection of NSCLC in a multivariate model. Cox's proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the relative prognostic significance of stage, patient age, gender, tumour cell-type, nodal score and estimated 'tumour volume' in 669 cases with NSCLC treated with surgical resection, of which 280 had died. All factors (except tumour cell-type, P = 0.33) were individually related to survival (P < 0.05). When examined together, survival time was significantly and independently related to 'tumour volume' and stage (P < 0.001), and other factors ceased to be significant. In cases with stage I or II tumours, risk of death was found to increase significantly with increasing estimated 'tumour volume' (23.8% relative increase in hazard to death per doubling of 'tumour volume', 95% confidence interval 13.2-35.2%, P < 0.001 stage I; P < 0.006 stage II). In cases with stage IIIa tumours this factor alone was the significant prognostic variable. In conclusion, an estimate of 'tumour volume' significantly improves prediction of prognosis for individual NSCLC patients with UICC stage I or II tumours. PMID:8695364

  19. [Tumour lysis syndrome in small-cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, R C; Smit, A A J; Moons-Pasic, A; Bresser, P

    2016-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a rapidly proliferating malignancy. Dramatic response to chemotherapy can therefore be expected. Unfortunately, tumour lysis prophylaxis is not mentioned in the current Dutch guidelines on SCLC treatment. A 64-year-old female was diagnosed with extensive SCLC and metastases. Shortly after diagnosis, chemotherapy was initiated. Based on Dutch guidelines, no tumour lysis prophylaxis was given. In addition to paraplegia, the patient also developed a clinical tumour lysis syndrome (TLS), and she passed away 5 days after start of treatment. Although tumour lysis prophylaxis is not mentioned in SCLC guidelines, tumour lysis in SCLC can occur as reported previously. Retrospectively, based on parameters applied to haematological malignancies, our patient was assessed as being at high risk of developing TLS.

  20. Tumour T1 changes in vivo are highly predictive of response to chemotherapy and reflect the number of viable tumour cells – a preclinical MR study in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective chemotherapy rapidly reduces the spin–lattice relaxation of water protons (T1) in solid tumours and this change (ΔT1) often precedes and strongly correlates with the eventual change in tumour volume (TVol). To understand the biological nature of ΔT1, we have performed studies in vivo and ex vivo with the allosteric mTOR inhibitor, everolimus. Methods Mice bearing RIF-1 tumours were studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine TVol and T1, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) to determine levels of the proliferation marker choline and levels of lipid apoptosis markers, prior to and 5 days (endpoint) after daily treatment with vehicle or everolimus (10 mg/kg). At the endpoint, tumours were ablated and an entire section analysed for cellular and necrotic quantification and staining for the proliferation antigen Ki67 and cleaved-caspase-3 as a measure of apoptosis. The number of blood-vessels (BV) was evaluated by CD31 staining. Mice bearing B16/BL6 melanoma tumours were studied by MRI to determine T1 under similar everolimus treatment. At the endpoint, cell bioluminescence of the tumours was measured ex vivo. Results Everolimus blocked RIF-1 tumour growth and significantly reduced tumour T1 and total choline (Cho) levels, and increased polyunsaturated fatty-acids which are markers of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that everolimus reduced the %Ki67+ cells but did not affect caspase-3 apoptosis, necrosis, BV-number or cell density. The change in T1 (ΔT1) correlated strongly with the changes in TVol and Cho and %Ki67+. In B16/BL6 tumours, everolimus also decreased T1 and this correlated with cell bioluminescence; another marker of cell viability. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves (ROC) for everolimus on RIF-1 tumours showed that ΔT1 had very high levels of sensitivity and specificity (ROCAUC = 0.84) and this was confirmed for the cytotoxic patupilone in the same tumour model (ROCAUC = 0.97). Conclusion These studies

  1. Clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Lutke Holzik, Martijn F; Sijmons, Rolf H; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette Ehm; Sleijfer, Dirk T; Hoekstra, Harald J

    2008-02-15

    In this paper we review clinical and genetic aspects of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). TGCT is the most common type of malignant disorder in men aged 1540 years. Its incidence has increased sharply in recent years. Fortunately, survival of patients with TGCT has improved enormously, which can chiefly be attributed to the cisplatin-based polychemotherapy that was introduced in the nineteen eighties to treat patients with metastasized TGCT. In addition, new strategies have been developed in the surgical approach to metastasized/non-metastasized TGCT and alterations have been made to the radiotherapy technique and radiation dose for seminoma. Family history of TGCT is among the strongest risk factors for this tumour type. Although this fact and others suggest the existence of genetic predisposition to develop TGCT, no germline mutations conferring high risk of developing TGCT have been identified so far. A small deletion, referred to as gr/gr, identified on the Y chromosome is probably associated with only a modest increase in TGCT risk, and linkage of familial TGCT to the Xq27 region has not been confirmed yet. Whether highly penetrant TGCT-predisposing mutations truly exist or familial clustering of TGCT can be explained by combinations of weak predispositions, shared in utero or postnatal risks factors and coincidental somatic mutations is an intriguing puzzle, still waiting to be solved.

  2. T helper type 17 cells contribute to anti-tumour immunity and promote the recruitment of T helper type 1 cells to the tumour.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Sarah; Saez, Juan Jose; Fernandez, Dominique; Flores-Santibañez, Felipe; Alvarez, Karla; Tejon, Gabriela; Ruiz, Paulina; Maldonado, Paula; Hidalgo, Yessia; Manriquez, Valeria; Bono, Maria Rosa; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sauma, Daniela

    2013-05-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) lymphocytes are found in high frequency in tumour-burdened animals and cancer patients. These lymphocytes, characterized by the production of interleukin-17 and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, have a well-defined role in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies; however, their function in tumour immunity is less clear. We explored possible opposing anti-tumour and tumour-promoting functions of Th17 cells by evaluating tumour growth and the ability to promote tumour infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), regulatory T cells and CD4(+)  interferon-γ(+) cells in a retinoic acid-like orphan receptor γt (RORγt) -deficient mouse model. A reduced percentage of Th17 cells in the tumour microenvironment in RORγt-deficient mice led to enhanced tumour growth, that could be reverted by adoptive transfer of Th17 cells. Differences in tumour growth were not associated with changes in the accumulation or suppressive function of MDSC and regulatory T cells but were related to a decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T cells in the tumour. Our results suggest that Th17 cells do not affect the recruitment of immunosuppressive populations but favour the recruitment of effector Th1 cells to the tumour, thereby promoting anti-tumour responses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Single-cell mRNA profiling reveals transcriptional heterogeneity among pancreatic circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Lapin, Morten; Tjensvoll, Kjersti; Oltedal, Satu; Javle, Milind; Smaaland, Rune; Gilje, Bjørnar; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2017-05-31

    Single-cell mRNA profiling of circulating tumour cells may contribute to a better understanding of the biology of these cells and their role in the metastatic process. In addition, such analyses may reveal new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy resistance and tumour progression in patients with cancer. Single circulating tumour cells were isolated from patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer with immuno-magnetic depletion and immuno-fluorescence microscopy. mRNA expression was analysed with single-cell multiplex RT-qPCR. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis were performed to identify expression patterns. Circulating tumour cells were detected in 33 of 56 (59%) examined blood samples. Single-cell mRNA profiling of intact isolated circulating tumour cells revealed both epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like subpopulations, which were distinct from leucocytes. The profiled circulating tumour cells also expressed elevated levels of stem cell markers, and the extracellular matrix protein, SPARC. The expression of SPARC might correspond to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic circulating tumour cells. The analysis of single pancreatic circulating tumour cells identified distinct subpopulations and revealed elevated expression of transcripts relevant to the dissemination of circulating tumour cells to distant organ sites.

  4. Leukaemia cell of origin identified by chromatin landscape of bulk tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    George, Joshy; Uyar, Asli; Young, Kira; Kuffler, Lauren; Waldron-Francis, Kaiden; Marquez, Eladio; Ucar, Duygu; Trowbridge, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The precise identity of a tumour's cell of origin can influence disease prognosis and outcome. Methods to reliably define tumour cell of origin from primary, bulk tumour cell samples has been a challenge. Here we use a well-defined model of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to demonstrate that transforming haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and multipotent progenitors results in more aggressive AML than transforming committed progenitor cells. Transcriptome profiling reveals a gene expression signature broadly distinguishing stem cell-derived versus progenitor cell-derived AML, including genes involved in immune escape, extravasation and small GTPase signal transduction. However, whole-genome profiling of open chromatin reveals precise and robust biomarkers reflecting each cell of origin tested, from bulk AML tumour cell sampling. We find that bulk AML tumour cells exhibit distinct open chromatin loci that reflect the transformed cell of origin and suggest that open chromatin patterns may be leveraged as prognostic signatures in human AML. PMID:27397025

  5. Partial tolerance of subcutaneously transplanted xenogeneic tumour cell graft by Fas-mediated immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    SAWADA, TAKAHIRO; KOJI, TAKEHIKO; HISHIKAWA, YOSHITAKA; KISHIMOTO, KOJI; NAGAYASU, TAKESHI; TAKAHASHI, TAKAO; OKA, TADAYUKI; AYABE, HIROYOSHI

    2001-01-01

    Certain anti-Fas antibodies, such as RMF2, induce apoptosis of Fas-expressing cells. We applied the Fas/anti-Fas system to induce killing of Fas-expressing immunocytes with resultant immunosuppression. W7TM-1 tumour cells, a rat T-cell line, were inoculated subcutaneously in BALB/c mice and tumour growth was monitored in untreated mice and in mice treated with RMF2. Prior to treatment with RMF2, we examined the expression of Fas in isolated splenocytes and in tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. There was a remarkable increase in Fas-positive lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells, among splenocytes at day 5 after tumour cell inoculation. The number of Fas-positive infiltrating lymphocytes also increased markedly, from day 5 to day 10. We then examined whether RMF2 could induce apoptosis of Fas-positive activated lymphocytes isolated from the spleen at day 5 in vitro. Terminal deoxy (d) -UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and Annexin V staining methods showed apoptosis of isolated cells when incubated with RMF2, and typical apoptotic features were confirmed by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining. Furthermore, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity was noted in RMF2-treated mice by mixed lymphocyte reaction and assay of serum levels of immunoglobulin G, respectively. Finally, treatment of animals with RMF2 daily from day 5 to day 9 could maintain the tumour size, while the tumour mass began to diminish in untreated mice immediately after reaching a maximum size. We confirmed the enhancing effects of long-term treatment with RMF2, through the induction of immunosuppression, on the growth of unvascularized xenogeneic tumour cell grafts. PMID:11380695

  6. Chimaeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Huan-huan; Wang, Dan-dan; Yan, Da-li; Hu, Yong; Yang, Su-jin; Liu, Si-wen

    2017-01-01

    Chimaeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies, as one of the cancer immunotherapies, have heralded a new era of treating cancer. The accumulating data, especially about CAR-modified T cells against CD19 support that CAR T-cell therapy is a highly effective immune therapy for B-cell malignancies. Apart from CD19, there have been many trials of CAR T cells directed other tumour specific or associated antigens (TSAs/TAAs) in haematologic malignancies and solid tumours. This review will briefly summarize basic CAR structure, parts of reported TSAs/TAAs, results of the clinical trials of CAR T-cell therapies as well as two life-threatening side effects. Experiments in vivo or in vitro, ongoing clinical trials and the outlook for CAR T-cell therapies also be included. Our future efforts will focus on identification of more viable cancer targets and more strategies to make CAR T-cell therapy safer. PMID:28053197

  7. [Intra-abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumour].

    PubMed

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Corona-Cobián, Lilia Edith; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Duarte-Ojeda, Alfonso Tonatiuh; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv

    2015-01-01

    The desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare and aggressive intra-abdominal neoplasia, with only 200 cases reported, and a higher incidence in men and predilection for the second decade of life. Histologically characterized by the presence of small nests of undifferentiated tumour cells, wrapped in fibrous desmoplastic stroma. A 24 year old male started with abdominal pain of 4 weeks onset in the right upper quadrant, colic type, sporadic, self-limiting and accompanied by early satiety, decreased appetite, and involuntary weight loss of 10 kg in 3 months. At the time of admission the abdomen was globular, with decreased peristalsis, soft, depressible. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed multiple enlarged lymph nodes in the abdominal-pelvic cavity. A laparotomy was performed, with a subsequent omentum resection due to the presence of multiple tumours, which microscopically were characterised by groups of small, round, blue cells, separated by a desmoplastic stroma. The immunohistochemistry was positive for desmin (> 75%), epithelial membrane antigen (> 75%), CD99 (> 50%), and S100 (25%), concluding with an abdominal tumour of small, round, blue cells as a diagnosis. Chemotherapy treatment was initiated based on IMAP plus GM-CSF. The desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare neoplasia, with diagnostic complexity and a lethal course. Its clinical presentation is unspecific. Histologically, it is classified as an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma that shares similar characteristics with the family of the small and blue cells tumours. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. 3D extracellular matrix interactions modulate tumour cell growth, invasion and angiogenesis in engineered tumour microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Taubenberger, Anna V; Bray, Laura J; Haller, Barbara; Shaposhnykov, Artem; Binner, Marcus; Freudenberg, Uwe; Guck, Jochen; Werner, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between tumour cells and extracellular matrix proteins of the tumour microenvironment play crucial roles in cancer progression. So far, however, there are only a few experimental platforms available that allow us to study these interactions systematically in a mechanically defined three-dimensional (3D) context. Here, we have studied the effect of integrin binding motifs found within common extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins on 3D breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3, LNCaP) cancer cell cultures, and co-cultures with endothelial and mesenchymal stromal cells. For this purpose, matrix metalloproteinase-degradable biohybrid poly(ethylene) glycol-heparin hydrogels were decorated with the peptide motifs RGD, GFOGER (collagen I), or IKVAV (laminin-111). Over 14days, cancer spheroids of 100-200μm formed. While the morphology of poorly invasive MCF-7 and LNCaP cells was not modulated by any of the peptide motifs, the aggressive PC-3 cells exhibited an invasive morphology when cultured in hydrogels comprising IKVAV and GFOGER motifs compared to RGD motifs or nonfunctionalised controls. PC-3 (but not MCF-7 and LNCaP) cell growth and endothelial cell infiltration were also significantly enhanced in IKVAV and GFOGER presenting gels. Taken together, we have established a 3D culture model that allows for dissecting the effect of biochemical cues on processes relevant to early cancer progression. These findings provide a basis for more mechanistic studies that may further advance our understanding of how ECM modulates cancer cell invasion and how to ultimately interfere with this process. Threedimensional in vitro cancer models have generated great interest over the past decade. However, most models are not suitable to systematically study the effects of environmental cues on cancer development and progression. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an innovative hydrogel platform to study the interactions between breast and prostate cancer cells and

  9. The use of human tumour cell lines in the discovery of new cancer chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Bruce C; Marshall, Elaine S

    2008-02-01

    Human tumour cell lines have played a major role in anticancer drug discovery, but cell lines may model only some aspects of tumour behaviour in cancer patients. Growing evidence supports a theory that stem cells with self-renewing properties sustain tumours. This review considers the extent to which a deeper understanding of the origin and properties of tumour cell lines might lead to new strategies for anticancer drug discovery. Recent literature on normal and tumour stem cells is reviewed and placed in the context of a discussion on the derivation and properties of tumour cell lines. Early-passage cell lines may model the more rapidly proliferating cells in human tumours and, thus, retain some of the properties of tumour stem cells. The effects of anticancer drugs on cell lines should be considered not only with regards to the induction of apoptosis, but also to the induction of senescence or other pathways that lead to host immune and inflammatory responses.

  10. NANOG priming before full reprogramming may generate germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Grad, I; Hibaoui, Y; Jaconi, M; Chicha, L; Bergström-Tengzelius, R; Sailani, M R; Pelte, M F; Dahoun, S; Mitsiadis, T A; Töhönen, V; Bouillaguet, S; Antonarakis, S E; Kere, J; Zucchelli, M; Hovatta, O; Feki, A

    2011-11-09

    Reprogramming somatic cells into a pluripotent state brings patient-tailored, ethical controversy-free cellular therapy closer to reality. However, stem cells and cancer cells share many common characteristics; therefore, it is crucial to be able to discriminate between them. We generated two induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines, with NANOG pre-transduction followed by OCT3/4, SOX2, and LIN28 overexpression. One of the cell lines, CHiPS W, showed normal pluripotent stem cell characteristics, while the other, CHiPS A, though expressing pluripotency markers, failed to differentiate and gave rise to germ cell-like tumours in vivo. Comparative genomic hybridisation analysis of the generated iPS lines revealed that they were genetically more stable than human embryonic stem cell counterparts. This analysis proved to be predictive for the differentiation potential of analysed cells. Moreover, the CHiPS A line expressed a lower ratio of p53/p21 when compared to CHiPS W. NANOG pre-induction followed by OCT3/4, SOX2, MYC, and KLF4 induction resulted in the same tumour-inducing phenotype. These results underline the importance of a re-examination of the role of NANOG during reprogramming. Moreover, this reprogramming method may provide insights into primordial cell tumour formation and cancer stem cell transformation.

  11. Cabazitaxel overcomes cisplatin resistance in germ cell tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Gerwing, Mirjam; Jacobsen, Christine; Dyshlovoy, Sergey; Hauschild, Jessica; Rohlfing, Tina; Oing, Christoph; Venz, Simone; Oldenburg, Jan; Oechsle, Karin; Bokemeyer, Carsten; von Amsberg, Gunhild; Honecker, Friedemann

    2016-09-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is highly effective in metastasized germ cell tumours (GCT). However, 10-30 % of patients develop resistance to cisplatin, requiring salvage therapy. We investigated the in vitro activity of paclitaxel and the novel taxane cabazitaxel in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant GCT cell lines. In vitro activity of paclitaxel and cabazitaxel was determined by proliferation assays, and mode of action of cabazitaxel was assessed by western blotting and two screening approaches, i.e. whole proteome analysis and a human apoptosis array. Activity of paclitaxel and cabazitaxel was not affected by cisplatin resistance, suggesting that there is no cross-resistance between these agents in vitro. Cabazitaxel treatment showed a strong inhibitory effect on colony formation capacity. Cabazitaxel induced classical apoptosis in all cell lines, reflected by cleavage of PARP and caspase 3, without inducing specific changes in the cell cycle distribution. Using the proteomic and human apoptosis array screening approaches, differential regulation of several proteins, including members of the bcl-2 family, was found, giving first insights into the mode of action of cabazitaxel in GCT. Cabazitaxel shows promising in vitro activity in GCT cells, independent of levels of cisplatin resistance.

  12. Sonic Hedgehog promotes proliferation of Notch-dependent monociliated choroid plexus tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Grausam, Katie B.; Wang, Jun; Lun, Melody P.; Ohli, Jasmin; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Calicchio, Monica L.; Zeng, Erliang; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Schüller, Ulrich; Zhao, Haotian

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Notch signaling has been linked to many cancers including choroid plexus (CP) tumours, a group of rare and predominantly pediatric brain neoplasms. We developed animal models of CP tumours by inducing sustained expression of Notch1 that recapitulate properties of human CP tumours with aberrant NOTCH signaling. Whole transcriptome and functional analyses showed that tumour cell proliferation is associated with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the tumour microenvironment. Unlike CP epithelial cells, which have multiple primary cilia, tumour cells possess a solitary primary cilium as a result of Notch-mediated suppression of multiciliate diffferentiation. A Shh-driven signaling cascade in the primary cilium occurs in tumour cells but not in epithelial cells. Lineage studies show that CP tumours arise from mono-ciliated progenitors in the roof plate characterized by elevated Notch signaling. Abnormal SHH signaling and distinct ciliogenesis are detected in human CP tumours, suggesting SHH pathway and cilia differentiation as potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:26999738

  13. Primary pulmonary spindle cell tumour (haemangiopericytoma) in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vignoli, M; Buchholz, J; Morandi, F; Laddaga, E; Brunetti, B; Rossi, F; Terragni, R; Sarli, G

    2008-10-01

    Haemangiopericytoma is a soft tissue sarcoma believed to originate from pericytes. These tumours are commonly located on the skin and subcutaneous tissue of dogs and are most commonly found on the limbs. To the authors' knowledge, primary lung haemangiopericytomas have not been previously described in dogs. This case report describes the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of a primary haemangiopericytoma of the lung in a 10-year-old male, neutered, Siberian husky dog. Staging of the tumour was performed using a computed tomography scan of the thorax and a computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the lesion. Treatment was a right caudal lobectomy from a right lateral approach. No regional lymph node changes were noted on computed tomography or intraoperative assessments. Histopathology confirmed a spindle cell tumour that stained positive for vimentin and negative for desmin and S-100.

  14. Brain tumour stem cells: implications for cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Martin, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    The cancer relapse and mortality rate suggest that current therapies do not eradicate all malignant cells. Currently, it is accepted that tumorigenesis and organogenesis are similar in many respects, as for example, homeostasis is governed by a distinct sub-population of stem cells in both situations. There is increasing evidence that many types of cancer contain their own stem cells: cancer stem cells (CSC), which are characterized by their self-renewing capacity and differentiation ability. The investigation of solid tumour stem cells has gained momentum particularly in the area of brain tumours. Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumours. Nearly two-thirds of gliomas are highly malignant lesions with fast progression and unfortunate prognosis. Despite recent advances, two-year survival for glioblastoma (GBM) with optimal therapy is less than 30%. Even among patients with low-grade gliomas that confer a relatively good prognosis, treatment is almost never curative. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a small fraction of glioma cells endowed with features of primitive neural progenitor cells and a tumour-initiating function. In general, this fraction is characterized for forming neurospheres, being endowed with drug resistance properties and often, we can isolate some of them using sorting methods with specific antibodies. The molecular characterization of these stem populations will be critical to developing an effective therapy for these tumours with very dismal prognosis. To achieve this aim, the development of a mouse model which recapitulates the nature of these tumours is essential. This review will focus on glioma stem cell knowledge and discuss future implications in brain cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.

  15. Re-programming tumour cell metabolism to treat cancer: no lone target for lonidamine.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Yangzom D; Babu, Ellappan; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2016-06-01

    Tumour cell metabolism is very different from normal cell metabolism; cancer cells re-programme the metabolic pathways that occur in normal cells in such a manner that it optimizes their proliferation, growth and survival. Although this metabolic re-programming obviously operates to the advantage of the tumour, it also offers unique opportunities for effective cancer therapy. Molecules that target the tumour cell-specific metabolic pathways have potential as novel anti-cancer drugs. Lonidamine belongs to this group of molecules and is already in use in some countries for cancer treatment. It has been known for a long time that lonidamine interferes with energy production in tumour cells by inhibiting hexokinase II (HKII), a glycolytic enzyme. However, subsequent studies have uncovered additional pharmacological targets for the drug, which include the electron transport chain and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, thus expanding the pharmacological effects of the drug on tumour cell metabolism. A study by Nancolas et al. in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal identifies two additional new targets for lonidamine: the pyruvate transporter in the mitochondria and the H(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporters in the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus becoming increasingly apparent that the anti-cancer effects of lonidamine do not occur through a single target; the drug works at multiple sites. Irrespective of the molecular targets, what lonidamine does in the end is to undo what the tumour cells have done in terms of re-programming cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  16. Crosstalk between cancer and immune cells: role of STAT3 in the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Kortylewski, Marcin; Pardoll, Drew

    2007-01-01

    Immune cells in the tumour microenvironment not only fail to mount an effective anti-tumour immune response, but also interact intimately with the transformed cells to promote oncogenesis actively. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is a point of convergence for numerous oncogenic signalling pathways, is constitutively activated both in tumour cells and in immune cells in the tumour microenvironment. Constitutively activated STAT3 inhibits the expression of mediators necessary for immune activation against tumour cells. Furthermore, STAT3 activity promotes the production of immunosuppressive factors that activate STAT3 in diverse immune-cell subsets, altering gene-expression programmes and, thereby, restraining anti-tumour immune responses. As such, STAT3 propagates several levels of crosstalk between tumour cells and their immunological microenvironment, leading to tumour-induced immunosuppression. Consequently, STAT3 has emerged as a promising target for cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Tumour Vascular Shutdown and Cell Death Following Ultrasound-Microbubble Enhanced Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    El Kaffas, Ahmed; Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Farhat, Golnaz; Tran, William Tyler; Hashim, Amr; Giles, Anoja; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    High-dose radiotherapy effects are regulated by acute tumour endothelial cell death followed by rapid tumour cell death instead of canonical DNA break damage. Pre-treatment with ultrasound-stimulated microbubbles (USMB) has enabled higher-dose radiation effects with conventional radiation doses. This study aimed to confirm acute and longitudinal relationships between vascular shutdown and tumour cell death following radiation and USMB in a wild type murine fibrosarcoma model using in vivo imaging. Methods: Tumour xenografts were treated with single radiation doses of 2 or 8 Gy alone, or in combination with low-/high-concentration USMB. Vascular changes and tumour cell death were evaluated at 3, 24 and 72 h following therapy, using high-frequency 3D power Doppler and quantitative ultrasound spectroscopy (QUS) methods, respectively. Staining using in situ end labelling (ISEL) and cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) of tumour sections were used to assess cell death and vascular distributions, respectively, as gold standard histological methods. Results: Results indicated a decrease in the power Doppler signal of up to 50%, and an increase of more than 5 dBr in cell-death linked QUS parameters at 24 h for tumours treated with combined USMB and radiotherapy. Power Doppler and quantitative ultrasound results were significantly correlated with CD31 and ISEL staining results (p < 0.05), respectively. Moreover, a relationship was found between ultrasound power Doppler and QUS results, as well as between micro-vascular densities (CD31) and the percentage of cell death (ISEL) (R2 0.5-0.9). Conclusions: This study demonstrated, for the first time, the link between acute vascular shutdown and acute tumour cell death using in vivo longitudinal imaging, contributing to the development of theoretical models that incorporate vascular effects in radiation therapy. Overall, this study paves the way for theranostic use of ultrasound in radiation oncology as a diagnostic modality to

  18. Radioimmunotargeting of human tumour cells in immunocompetent animals.

    PubMed Central

    Fjeld, J. G.; Bruland, O. S.; Benestad, H. B.; Schjerven, L.; Stigbrand, T.; Nustad, K.

    1990-01-01

    A tumour model system is reported that for many purposes may be an alternative to xenografted nude mice. The model allows immunotargeting of human tumour cells in immunocompetent animals. The target cells are contained in i.p. diffusion chambers (DC) with micropore membrane walls that are permeable to molecules, including the cell specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAb), but impermeable to cells. Thus, the tumour cells are protected from the host immunocompetent cells. In the work here presented the model was tested in immunocompetent mice and pigs, with tumour cells and antibody preparations that had demonstrated specific targeting in the nude mouse xenograft model. Hence, the DC were filled with cells from the human cell lines Hep-2 (expressing placental alkaline phosphatase, PLALP), or OHS (a sarcoma cell line), and the MoAb preparations injected i.v. were a 125I-labelled Fab fragment of the PLALP specific antibody H7, or a 125I-labelled F(ab')2 fragment of the sarcoma specific antibody TP-1. Specific targeting of the human tumour cells was demonstrated in both mice and pigs. The target: blood ratios were comparable in the two species, reaching a maximum of about 15 after 24 h with the Fab preparation, and a ratio of 25 after 72 h with the F(ab')2. The target uptake relative to injected dose was lower in pigs than in mice, but the difference between the two species was smaller than expected, presumably due to a slower antibody clearance in the pigs than in the mice. An artificial cell targeting system like this has several advantages in the search for solutions to many of the fundamental problems experienced in immunotargeting. Firstly, parallel binding experiments can be carried out in vitro with the same target. Because in vitro results are only influenced by the diffusion into the DC and the immunological binding characteristics of the antibodies, targeting differences between antibody preparations due to these factors can then be distinguished from differences

  19. Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linghua; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Burstein, Matthew D; Terashima, Keita; Chang, Kyle; Ng, Ho-Keung; Nakamura, Hideo; He, Zongxiao; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Lewis, Lora; Wang, Mark; Suzuki, Tomonari; Nishikawa, Ryo; Natsume, Atsushi; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adekunle, Adesina; Sun, Jiayi; Qiao, Yi; Marth, Gábor; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Leal, Suzanne M; Wheeler, David A; Lau, Ching C

    2014-07-10

    Intracranial germ cell tumours (IGCTs) are a group of rare heterogeneous brain tumours that are clinically and histologically similar to the more common gonadal GCTs. IGCTs show great variation in their geographical and gender distribution, histological composition and treatment outcomes. The incidence of IGCTs is historically five- to eightfold greater in Japan and other East Asian countries than in Western countries, with peak incidence near the time of puberty. About half of the tumours are located in the pineal region. The male-to-female incidence ratio is approximately 3-4:1 overall, but is even higher for tumours located in the pineal region. Owing to the scarcity of tumour specimens available for research, little is currently known about this rare disease. Here we report the analysis of 62 cases by next-generation sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array and expression array. We find the KIT/RAS signalling pathway frequently mutated in more than 50% of IGCTs, including novel recurrent somatic mutations in KIT, its downstream mediators KRAS and NRAS, and its negative regulator CBL. Novel somatic alterations in the AKT/mTOR pathway included copy number gains of the AKT1 locus at 14q32.33 in 19% of patients, with corresponding upregulation of AKT1 expression. We identified loss-of-function mutations in BCORL1, a transcriptional co-repressor and tumour suppressor. We report significant enrichment of novel and rare germline variants in JMJD1C, which codes for a histone demethylase and is a coactivator of the androgen receptor, among Japanese IGCT patients. This study establishes a molecular foundation for understanding the biology of IGCTs and suggests potentially promising therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway.

  20. Giant cell arteritis mimicking a testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Smith, D H

    2001-07-01

    Giant cell arteritis involving the testis was identified incidentally upon orchidectomy of a right testicular mass. The mass looked like a malignant process on ultrasound. The patient also had generalised disease and was treated appropriately. Giant cell arteritis involving the bladder, prostate, uterus, and adnexa have been described before. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of giant cell arteritis affecting the testis.

  1. 31P NMR spectroscopy studies of phospholipid metabolism in human melanoma xenograft lines differing in rate of tumour cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lyng, H; Olsen, D R; Petersen, S B; Rofstad, E K

    1995-04-01

    The concentration of phospholipid metabolites in tumours has been hypothesized to be related to rate of cell membrane turnover and may reflect rate of cell proliferation. The purpose of the study reported here was to investigate whether 31P NMR resonance ratios involving the phosphomonoester (PME) or phosphodiester (PDE) resonance are correlated to fraction of cells in S-phase or volume-doubling time in experimental tumours. Four human melanoma xenograft lines (BEX-t, HUX-t, SAX-t, WIX-t) were included in the study. The tumours were grown subcutaneously in male BALB/c-nu/nu mice. 31P NMR spectroscopy was performed at a magnetic field strength of 4.7 T. Fraction of cells in S-phase was measured by flow cytometry. Tumour volume-doubling time was determined by Gompertzian analysis of volumetric growth data. BEX-t and SAX-t tumours differed in fraction of cells in S-phase and volume-doubling time, but showed similar 31P NMR resonance ratios. BEX-t and WIX-t tumours showed significantly different 31P NMR resonance ratios but similar fractions of cells in S-phase. The 31P NMR resonance ratios were significantly different for small and large HUX-t tumours even though fraction of cells in S-phase and volume-doubling time did not differ with tumour volume. None of the 31P NMR resonance ratios showed significant increase with increasing fraction of cells in S-phase or significant decrease with increasing tumour volume-doubling time across the four xenograft lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. [Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis to renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mosholt, Karina Sif Søndergaard; Pilt, Anette Pedersen; Wittendorff, Hans-Erik

    2015-04-06

    Breast carcinoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and tumour-to-tumour metastasis is rare. We describe a case of a 71-year-old woman with previous breast cancer presenting with dyspepsia, nausea and weight-loss. Biopsies from the pylorus revealed what appeared to be a gastric carcinoma. A CT scan showed large kidney mass and biopsies revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with areas of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of breast carcinoma in both locations.

  3. Evidence for label-retaining tumour-initiating cells in human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Deleyrolle, Loic P.; Harding, Angus; Cato, Kathleen; Siebzehnrubl, Florian A.; Rahman, Maryam; Azari, Hassan; Olson, Sarah; Gabrielli, Brian; Osborne, Geoffrey; Vescovi, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    Individual tumour cells display diverse functional behaviours in terms of proliferation rate, cell–cell interactions, metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. Moreover, sequencing studies have demonstrated surprising levels of genetic diversity between individual patient tumours of the same type. Tumour heterogeneity presents a significant therapeutic challenge as diverse cell types within a tumour can respond differently to therapies, and inter-patient heterogeneity may prevent the development of general treatments for cancer. One strategy that may help overcome tumour heterogeneity is the identification of tumour sub-populations that drive specific disease pathologies for the development of therapies targeting these clinically relevant sub-populations. Here, we have identified a dye-retaining brain tumour population that displays all the hallmarks of a tumour-initiating sub-population. Using a limiting dilution transplantation assay in immunocompromised mice, label-retaining brain tumour cells display elevated tumour-initiation properties relative to the bulk population. Importantly, tumours generated from these label-retaining cells exhibit all the pathological features of the primary disease. Together, these findings confirm dye-retaining brain tumour cells exhibit tumour-initiation ability and are therefore viable targets for the development of therapeutics targeting this sub-population. PMID:21515906

  4. [Postchemotherapy residual tumour resection in complex metastatic sites of advanced testicular germ cell tumours].

    PubMed

    Paffenholz, P; Pfister, D; Heidenreich, A

    2016-05-01

    Postchemotherapy residual tumour resection (PC-RTR) is an integral part of the multimodal therapy for advanced testicular germ cell tumours. Depending on the extent and localisation of the residual mass, PC-RTR may necessitate a multidisciplinary procedure (which should be planned preoperatively), to resolve even complex situations in an oncologically sound manner, with lower treatment-related morbidity The aim of article is to report on the interdisciplinary management of complex residual masses. Of a total of 162 patients who underwent PC-RTR, 24 (17.8 %) patients underwent, in addition to a bilateral postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (PC-RPLND), complex adjunctive resections including the abdominal aorta, the inferior vena cava, or the thoracic/lumbar spine, and the neighbouring vessels (n = 15). We performed a retrospective analysis of treatment-associated complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and of progression-free, cancer-specific and overall survival. Median patient age was 24.5 (18-52) years. All patients had an intermediate or poor prognosis according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaboration Group (IGCCCG). Median tumour diameter at the time of surgery was 18.6 (9.0-35) cm. In 5 patients 1-2 metastatic lumbar vertebral bodies were completely resected, stabilised and replaced by means of a cage. In 6 patients resection of the abdominal aorta/inferior vena cava with vascular prosthesis replacement was required owing to infiltration. In 2 patients the common iliac artery or vein was resected and replaced. In addition, retrocrural lymph nodes had to be resected in 5 patients and 3 patients required adjunctive nephrectomy. In another 4 patients the Whipple procedure was required owing to infiltration into the pancreas and/or duodenum. The median operating time was 7.8 (6-15) h, the median blood loss was around 1,450 (900-3,400) ml, and 2 Clavien-Dindo grade IVa complications occurred. Pathohistology

  5. MEK inhibition prevents tumour-shed transforming growth factor-β-induced T-regulatory cell augmentation in tumour milieu.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Dewan M S; Panda, Abir K; Chakrabarty, Sreeparna; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Kajal, Kirti; Mohanty, Suchismita; Sarkar, Irene; Sarkar, Diptendra K; Kar, Santosh K; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2015-04-01

    Tumour progression is associated with immune-suppressive conditions that facilitate the escape of tumour cells from the regimen of immune cells, subsequently paralysing the host defence mechanisms. Induction of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells has been implicated in the tumour immune escape mechanism, although the novel anti-cancer treatment strategies targeting Treg cells remain unknown. The focus of this study is to define the interaction between tumour and immune system, i.e. how immune tolerance starts and gradually leads to the induction of adaptive Treg cells in the tumour microenvironment. Our study identified hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) -signalling as a potential target for reversing Treg cell augmentation in breast cancer patients. In more mechanistic detail, pharmacological inhibitors of MEK/ERK signalling inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in tumour cells that essentially blocked TGF-β-SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated induction of CD25/interleukin-2 receptor α on CD4(+) T-cell surface. As a result high-affinity binding of interleukin-2 on those cells was prohibited, causing lack of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK3-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/STAT5 activation required for FoxP3 expression. Finally, for a more radical approach towards a safe MEK inhibitor, we validate the potential of multi-kinase inhibitor curcumin, especially the nano-curcumin made out of pure curcumin with greater bioavailability; in repealing tumour-shed TGF-β-induced Treg cell augmentation. © 2014 Bose Institute.

  6. MEK inhibition prevents tumour-shed transforming growth factor-β-induced T-regulatory cell augmentation in tumour milieu

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Dewan M S; Panda, Abir K; Chakrabarty, Sreeparna; Bhattacharjee, Pushpak; Kajal, Kirti; Mohanty, Suchismita; Sarkar, Irene; Sarkar, Diptendra K; Kar, Santosh K; Sa, Gaurisankar

    2015-01-01

    Tumour progression is associated with immune-suppressive conditions that facilitate the escape of tumour cells from the regimen of immune cells, subsequently paralysing the host defence mechanisms. Induction of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells has been implicated in the tumour immune escape mechanism, although the novel anti-cancer treatment strategies targeting Treg cells remain unknown. The focus of this study is to define the interaction between tumour and immune system, i.e. how immune tolerance starts and gradually leads to the induction of adaptive Treg cells in the tumour microenvironment. Our study identified hyperactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) -signalling as a potential target for reversing Treg cell augmentation in breast cancer patients. In more mechanistic detail, pharmacological inhibitors of MEK/ERK signalling inhibited transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in tumour cells that essentially blocked TGF-β-SMAD3/SMAD4-mediated induction of CD25/interleukin-2 receptor α on CD4+ T-cell surface. As a result high-affinity binding of interleukin-2 on those cells was prohibited, causing lack of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/JAK3-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/STAT5 activation required for FoxP3 expression. Finally, for a more radical approach towards a safe MEK inhibitor, we validate the potential of multi-kinase inhibitor curcumin, especially the nano-curcumin made out of pure curcumin with greater bioavailability; in repealing tumour-shed TGF-β-induced Treg cell augmentation. PMID:25284464

  7. RNA interference as a key to knockdown overexpressed cyclooxygenase-2 gene in tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Strillacci, A; Griffoni, C; Spisni, E; Manara, M C; Tomasi, V

    2006-01-01

    Silencing those genes that are overexpressed in cancer and contribute to the survival and progression of tumour cells is the aim of several researches. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the most intensively studied genes since it is overexpressed in most tumours, mainly in colon cancer. The use of specific COX-2 inhibitors to treat colon cancer has generated great enthusiasm. Yet, the side effects of some inhibitors emerging during long-term treatment have caused much concern. Genes silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) has led to new directions in the field of experimental oncology. In this study, we detected sequences directed against COX-2 mRNA, that potently downregulate COX-2 gene expression and inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced angiogenesis in vitro in a specific, nontoxic manner. Moreover, we found that the insertion of a specific cassette carrying anti-COX-2 short hairpin RNA sequence into a viral vector (pSUPER.retro) greatly increased silencing potency in a colon cancer cell line (HT29) without activating any interferon response. Phenotypically, COX-2 deficient HT29 cells showed a significant impairment of their in vitro malignant behaviour. Thus, the retroviral approach enhancing COX-2 knockdown, mediated by RNAi, proved to be an useful tool to better understand the role of COX-2 in colon cancer. Furthermore, the higher infection efficiency we observed in tumour cells, if compared to normal endothelial cells, may disclose the possibility to specifically treat tumour cells without impairing endothelial COX-2 activity. PMID:16622456

  8. Inflammatory pseudo-tumours of the abdomen: plasma cell granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jane P.; Yunis, Eduardo J.; Fetterman, George; Jaeschke, Walter F.; Gilbert, Enid F.

    1973-01-01

    Pseudo-tumours of the plasma cell granuloma type are reported in two patients. One was retroperitoneal and the other intraabdominal. Most of the cases of plasma cell granulomas described in the literature have been in the lung (Brunn, 1939; Childress and Adie, 1950; Cotton, 1952; Umiker and Iverson, 1954; Lane, Krohn, Kolozai, and Whitehead, 1955; Liebow and Hubbell, 1956; Titus, Harrison, Clagett, Anderson, and Knaff, 1962; Mason, Keats, and Baker, 1963; Wentworth, Lynch, Fallis, Turner, Lowden, and Conen, 1968; Bahadori and Liebow, 1973). A retroperitoneal site has not to our knowledge been reported previously. The postinflammatory nature of such lesions and the significance of a previous history of abdominal surgery are emphasized. It is important to be aware of such benign lesions which may simulate malignant tumours so that unnecessary radical treatment can be avoided. Images PMID:4784503

  9. Methylator phenotype of malignant germ cell tumours in children identifies strong candidates for chemotherapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapalan, J N; Noor, D A Mohamed; Lee, S-H; Tan, C L; Appleby, V A; Kilday, J P; Palmer, R D; Schwalbe, E C; Clifford, S C; Walker, D A; Murray, M J; Coleman, N; Nicholson, J C; Scotting, P J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas are the two major pure histological subtypes of germ cell tumours. To date, the role of DNA methylation in the aetiology of this class of tumour has only been analysed in adult testicular forms and with respect to only a few genes. Methods: A bank of paediatric tumours was analysed for global methylation of LINE-1 repeat elements and global methylation of regulatory elements using GoldenGate methylation arrays. Results: Both germinomas and YSTs exhibited significant global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements. However, in germinomas, methylation of gene regulatory regions differed little from control samples, whereas YSTs exhibited increased methylation at a large proportion of the loci tested, showing a ‘methylator' phenotype, including silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the methylator phenotype of YSTs was coincident with higher levels of expression of the DNA methyltransferase, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B, suggesting a mechanism underlying the phenotype. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of a large number of potential tumour suppressor genes in YSTs might explain why they exhibit a more aggressive natural history than germinomas and silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent cell death might explain the relative resistance of YSTs to conventional therapy. PMID:21712824

  10. Methylator phenotype of malignant germ cell tumours in children identifies strong candidates for chemotherapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, J N; Noor, D A Mohamed; Lee, S-H; Tan, C L; Appleby, V A; Kilday, J P; Palmer, R D; Schwalbe, E C; Clifford, S C; Walker, D A; Murray, M J; Coleman, N; Nicholson, J C; Scotting, P J

    2011-08-09

    Yolk sac tumours (YSTs) and germinomas are the two major pure histological subtypes of germ cell tumours. To date, the role of DNA methylation in the aetiology of this class of tumour has only been analysed in adult testicular forms and with respect to only a few genes. A bank of paediatric tumours was analysed for global methylation of LINE-1 repeat elements and global methylation of regulatory elements using GoldenGate methylation arrays. Both germinomas and YSTs exhibited significant global hypomethylation of LINE-1 elements. However, in germinomas, methylation of gene regulatory regions differed little from control samples, whereas YSTs exhibited increased methylation at a large proportion of the loci tested, showing a 'methylator' phenotype, including silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the methylator phenotype of YSTs was coincident with higher levels of expression of the DNA methyltransferase, DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3B, suggesting a mechanism underlying the phenotype. Epigenetic silencing of a large number of potential tumour suppressor genes in YSTs might explain why they exhibit a more aggressive natural history than germinomas and silencing of genes associated with Caspase-8-dependent cell death might explain the relative resistance of YSTs to conventional therapy.

  11. The Immunomodulatory Small Molecule Imiquimod Induces Apoptosis in Devil Facial Tumour Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Amanda L; Darby, Jocelyn M; Tovar, Cesar; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The survival of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD). This transmissible cancer is usually fatal, and no successful treatments have been developed. In human studies, the small immunomodulatory molecule imiquimod is a successful immunotherapy, activating anti-tumour immunity via stimulation of toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) signaling pathways. In addition, imiquimod is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines via TLR7 independent mechanisms. Here we investigate the potential of imiquimod as a DFTD therapy through analysis of treated DFTD cell lines and Tasmanian devil fibroblasts. WST-8 proliferation assays and annexin V apoptosis assays were performed to monitor apoptosis, and changes to the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were analysed using qRT-PCR. Our results show that DFTD cell lines, but not Tasmanian devil fibroblasts, are sensitive to imiquimod-induced apoptosis in a time and concentration dependent manner. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 and BCLXL genes, and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic BIM gene. Continuous imiquimod treatment was required for these effects to occur. These results demonstrate that imiquimod can deregulate DFTD cell growth and survival in direct and targeted manner. In vivo, this may increase DFTD vulnerability to imiquimod-induced TLR7-mediated immune responses. Our findings have improved the current knowledge of imiquimod action in tumour cells for application to both DFTD and human cancer therapy.

  12. Diminished origin licensing capacity specifically sensitises tumour cells to replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Kristin M.; Jones, Rebecca M.; Petermann, Eva; Jeggo, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that dormant licensed replication origins can be exploited to enhance recovery from replication stress. Since tumour cells express high levels of origin licensing proteins, we examined whether depletion of such factors might specifically sensitise tumour versus non-tumour cells. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that three tumour-derived cell lines overexpress ORC1, a licensing component, compared to four non-tumour cell lines and that a greater level of ORC1 was required to maintain viability in the tumour cells. We determined siRNA-mediated knockdown conditions for each line that maximally reduced ORC1 but did not impact upon viability, which we considered would optimally deplete dormant origins. ORC1 depletion hypersensitised the tumour-derived cells to hydroxyurea (HU) and H202 but did not affect the sensitivity of the non-tumour lines. Similar results were observed following depletion of ORC6 or CDC6. Further, co-depletion of p53 and ORC1 modestly impaired viability of 1BR3hTERT non-tumour fibroblasts and more dramatically caused hypersensitivity to HU. Finally, overexpression of the c-Myc oncogene combined with ORC1 depletion in non-tumour BJhTERT cells diminished viability. Collectively, these findings suggest that tumour cells may have a reliance on origin licensing capacity, suggesting that licensing factors could represent a target for drug-based cancer therapy. PMID:23364533

  13. Influence of anaesthetics on tumour-cell kill and repopulation in B16 melanoma treated with melphalan.

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, J. H.; Stephens, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of anaesthetics on the in vivo response of B16 melanoma to melphalan was studied using an in vitro cell-survival assay. Three anaesthetics were used, Saffan (Althesin) Sagatal (Nembutal) and Hypnorm. When Saffan was administered to tumour-bearing animals before melphalan there was a significant increase in tumour-cell kill. This effect was not observed with Sagatal or Hypnorm. Maximum increase in tumour-cell kill was achieved when Saffan was administered about 1 h before melphalan, and was dependent on Saffan dose. Clonogenic tumour-cell repopulation after melphalan was rapid (TD - 1 day) and the rate was similar from 2 levels of cell kill. When Saffan was combined with melphalan the repopulation rate was the same as with melphalan alone, and the increased cell kill was reflected in increased growth delay. The in vitro response of B16 melanoma cells to melphalan was unaltered by pretreatment with, or simultaneous exposure to Saffan. The results suggest that the mechanism of the enhanced cell kill in vivo is probably due to an indirect systemic effect, rather than a direct effect on the tumour cells. PMID:743490

  14. Primary tonsillar mast cell tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Shekell, C C; Thomson, M J; Miller, R I; Mackie, J T

    2018-05-01

    A 6-year-old speyed female Bull Arab-cross dog was found to have a small tonsillar nodule. Histological examination revealed a well-differentiated mast cell tumour (MCT). At initial staging, no evidence of concurrent cutaneous or visceral MCTs was found on a complete blood count, a single lateral thoracic radiograph, abdominal ultrasound or cytology of the spleen and regional lymph nodes. A diagnosis of primary tonsillar MCT was made. At 40 months postoperatively, the dog is alive with no evidence of gross tumour progression, in contrast to some previous reports of rapid disease progression and metastasis in dogs with primary oral MCTs. To the authors' knowledge, no previous reports of a primary MCT of the tonsil in dogs exist in the veterinary literature. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Heterogeneity of circulating epithelial tumour cells from individual patients with respect to expression profiles and clonal growth (sphere formation) in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pizon, M; Zimon, D; Carl, S; Pachmann, U; Pachmann, K; Camara, O

    2013-01-01

    The detection of tumour cells circulating in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer is a sign that cells have been able to leave the primary tumour and survive in the circulation. However, in order to form metastases, they require additional properties such as the ability to adhere, self-renew, and grow. Here we present data that a variable fraction among the circulating tumour cells detected by the Maintrac(®) approach expresses mRNA of the stem cell gene NANOG and of the adhesion molecule vimentin and is capable of forming tumour spheres, a property ascribed to tumour-initiating cells (TICs). Between ten and 50 circulating epithelial antigen-positive cells detected by the Maintrac approach were selected randomly from each of 20 patients with breast cancer before and after surgery and were isolated using automated capillary aspiration and deposited individually onto slides for expression profiling. In addition, the circulating tumour cells were cultured without isolation among the white blood cells from 39 patients with breast cancer in different stages of disease using culture methods favouring growth of epithelial cells. Although no epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-positive cells expressing stem cell genes or the adhesion molecule vimentin was detected before surgery, 10%-20% of the cells were found to be positive for mRNA of these genes after surgery. Tumour spheres from circulating cells of 39 patients with different stages of breast cancer were grown without previous isolation in a fraction increasing with the aggressivity of the tumour. Here we show that among the peripherally circulating tumour cells, a variable fraction is able to express stem cell and adhesion properties and can be grown into tumour spheres, a property ascribed to cells capable of initiating tumours and metastases.

  16. Clinical utility of circulating tumour cell detection in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alberto; Metcalf, Robert; Krebs, Matthew; Dive, Caroline; Blackhall, Fiona

    2013-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed increased interest in the detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment decision making in patients with cancer. Factors that have led to accelerated research in this field include advances in technologies for examination of intact CTCs, personalised medicine with treatment selection according to molecular characteristics, and continued lack of understanding of the biology of treatment resistance and metastasis. CTCs offer promise as a surrogate for tissue where there is insufficient tissue for molecular analysis and where there is a requirement to serially monitor molecular changes in cancer cells through treatment or on progression. In patients with either small cell or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is evidence that CTC number is prognostic and that CTCs counted before and after treatment mirror treatment response. In patients with molecularly defined subtypes of NSCLC, CTCs demonstrate the same molecular changes as the cancer cells of the tumour. However, CTCs are not quite ready for "primetime" in the lung cancer clinic. There are still more questions than answers with respect to the optimal technologies for their detection and analysis, their biological significance, and their clinical utility. Despite this the current pace of progress in CTC technology development seems set to make "liquid biopsies" a clinical reality within the next decade. For the everyday clinician and clinical trialist, it will be important to maintain knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the technologies and evolving evidence base for CTCs as a routinely used diagnostic tool.

  17. A hybrid mathematical model of solid tumour invasion: the importance of cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Alexander R A

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid mathematical model of the invasion of healthy tissue by a solid tumour. In particular we consider early vascular growth, just after angiogenesis has occurred. We examine how the geometry of the growing tumour is affected by tumour cell heterogeneity caused by genetic mutations. As the tumour grows, mutations occur leading to a heterogeneous tumour cell population with some cells having a greater ability to migrate, proliferate or degrade the surrounding tissue. All of these cell properties are closely controlled by cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and as such the physical geometry of the whole tumour will be dependent on these individual cell interactions. The hybrid model we develop focuses on four key variables implicated in the invasion process: tumour cells, host tissue (extracellular matrix), matrix-degradative enzymes and oxygen. The model is considered to be hybrid since the latter three variables are continuous (i.e. concentrations) and the tumour cells are discrete (i.e. individuals). With this hybrid model we examine how individual-based cell interactions (with one another and the matrix) can affect the tumour shape and discuss which of these interactions is perhaps most crucial in influencing the tumour's final structure.

  18. Genomic evolution and chemoresistance in germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Zack, Travis; O'Donnell, Elizabeth; Guerriero, Jennifer L; Bernard, Brandon; Reddy, Anita; Han, G Celine; AlDubayan, Saud; Amin-Mansour, Ali; Schumacher, Steven E; Litchfield, Kevin; Turnbull, Clare; Gabriel, Stacey; Beroukhim, Rameen; Getz, Gad; Carter, Scott L; Hirsch, Michelle S; Letai, Anthony; Sweeney, Christopher; Van Allen, Eliezer M

    2016-11-30

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are derived from germ cells and occur most frequently in the testes. GCTs are histologically heterogeneous and distinctly curable with chemotherapy. Gains of chromosome arm 12p and aneuploidy are nearly universal in GCTs, but specific somatic genomic features driving tumour initiation, chemosensitivity and progression are incompletely characterized. Here, using clinical whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of precursor, primary (testicular and mediastinal) and chemoresistant metastatic human GCTs, we show that the primary somatic feature of GCTs is highly recurrent chromosome arm level amplifications and reciprocal deletions (reciprocal loss of heterozygosity), variations that are significantly enriched in GCTs compared to 19 other cancer types. These tumours also acquire KRAS mutations during the development from precursor to primary disease, and primary testicular GCTs (TGCTs) are uniformly wild type for TP53. In addition, by functional measurement of apoptotic signalling (BH3 profiling) of fresh tumour and adjacent tissue, we find that primary TGCTs have high mitochondrial priming that facilitates chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Finally, by phylogenetic analysis of serial TGCTs that emerge with chemotherapy resistance, we show how TGCTs gain additional reciprocal loss of heterozygosity and that this is associated with loss of pluripotency markers (NANOG and POU5F1) in chemoresistant teratomas or transformed carcinomas. Our results demonstrate the distinct genomic features underlying the origins of this disease and associated with the chemosensitivity phenotype, as well as the rare progression to chemoresistance. These results identify the convergence of cancer genomics, mitochondrial priming and GCT evolution, and may provide insights into chemosensitivity and resistance in other cancers.

  19. HOX Genes as Potential Markers of Circulating Tumour Cells.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; El-Tanani, M

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have significant diagnostic potential as they can reflect both the presence and recurrence of a wide range of cancers. However, this potential continues to be limited by the lack of robust and accessible isolation technologies. An alternative to isolation might be their direct detection amongst other peripheral blood cells, although this would require markers that allow them to be distinguished from an exceptionally high background signal. This review assesses the potential role of HOX genes, a family of homeodomain containing transcription factors with key roles in both embryonic development and oncogenesis, as unique and possibly disease specific markers of CTCs.

  20. From pericytes to perivascular tumours: correlation between pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mravic, Marco; Asatrian, Greg; Soo, Chia; Lugassy, Claire; Barnhill, Raymond L; Dry, Sarah M; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W

    2014-09-01

    Pericytes were once thought only to aid in angiogenesis and blood pressure control. Gradually, the known functions of pericytes and other perivascular stem cells (PSC) have broadly increased. The following review article will summarize the known functions and importance of pericytes across disciplines of pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. A literature review was performed for studies examining the importance of pericytes in pathology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering. The importance of pericytes most prominently includes the identification of the perivascular identity of mesenchymal stem cells (or MSC). Now, pericytes and other PSC are known to display surface markers and multilineage differentiation potential of MSC. Accordingly, interest in the purification and use of PSC for mesenchymal tissue formation and regeneration has increased. Significant demonstration of in vivo efficacy in bone and muscle regeneration has been made in laboratory animals. Contemporaneously with the uncovering of an MSC identity for pericytes, investigators in tumour biology have found biologically relevant roles for pericytes in tumor formation, lymphovascular invasion, and perivascular tumor spread. As well, the contribution of pericytes to perivascular tumors has been examined (and debated), including glomus tumour, myopericytoma and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma. In addition, an expanding recognition of pericyte mimicry and perivascular tumour invasion has occurred, encompassing common malignancies of the brain and skin. In summary, pericytes have a wide range of roles in health and disease. Pericytes are being increasingly studied for their role in tumour formation, growth and invasion. Likewise, the application of pericytes/PSC for mesenchymal tissue engineering is an expanding field of interest.

  1. Further investigation of the increased transfer ribonucleic acid methylase activity in tumours of the mouse colon

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, Anthony E.; Hawks, Andrew M.

    1974-01-01

    1. Extracts prepared from tumours of the mouse colon induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine were considerably more active in catalysing the methylation of tRNA than were extracts from normal colon. The enhanced activity was observed when both unfractionated `methyl-deficient' tRNA and purified tRNA preparations from yeast and bacteria were used as substrates for methylation. 2. The methylated bases produced in these reactions were identified. There were no differences between the products of the reaction catalysed by extracts of tumour and normal colon. 3. The increased activity of tRNA methylases was not due to the presence in the extracts of stimulatory or inhibitory molecules of low molecular weight such as polyamines or S-adenosylhomocysteine. 4. Other enzymes concerned with tRNA metabolism (RNA polymerase, ATP–tRNA adenylyltransferase, aminoacyl-tRNA ligases) were also increased in activity in the tumour tissue. 5. The extent of methylation of a limiting amount of tRNA was greater when tumour extracts were compared with controls, but in no case was it possible to achieve a stoicheiometric methylation of the purified tRNA preparations used as substrates, and the tumour extracts were not able to methylate tRNA obtained from normal mouse colon. We conclude that the tumours contained greater activities of tRNA methylases but that there was no evidence for changes in the specificity of these enzymes during neoplastic growth. PMID:4596140

  2. Sublytic complement protects prostate cancer cells from tumour necrosis factor-α-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, W; Li, Z; Kirschfink, M

    2012-08-01

    Inflammation is a critical component of tumour progression. Although complement and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α potentially exert significant anti-tumour effects, both mediators may also promote tumour progression. It has been demonstrated that sublytic complement confers resistance on tumour cells not only against lytic complement, but also other danger molecules such as perforin. In low concentrations, TNF promotes survival of malignant cells rather than exerting cytotoxic activity. In this study, we tested if sublytic complement is able to interfere with TNF-mediated tumour cell killing. Our results demonstrate that either subcytotoxic concentrations of TNF or sublytic complement rescue prostate carcinoma cells (DU145) from TNF-α-mediated cell death. Upon pretreatment with low-dose TNF-α, but not upon pre-exposure to sublytic complement, TNF resistance was associated with the down-regulation of TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) expression. Complement-induced protection against TNF-mediated apoptosis accompanied the induction of anti-apoptotic proteins [B cell leukaemia/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-xL] at an early stage followed by inhibition of the TNF-induced decrease in the amount of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Cell protection also accompanied the inhibition of caspase-8 activation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 cleavage and the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Our data extend our current view on the induction of tumour cell resistance against cytotoxic mediators supporting the role of the tumour microenvironment in mediating protection against the anti-cancer immune response. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: increased risk associated with use for > or =10 years.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Morgan, L Lloyd

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones. Two cohort studies and 16 case-control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for use of mobile phone for > or =10 years and ipsilateral exposure if presented. The cohort study was of limited value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 16 case-control studies, 11 gave results for > or =10 years' use or latency period. Most of these results were based on low numbers. An association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies in the group with at least 10 years' use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Six studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased odd ratios (OR), especially for ipsilateral exposure. In a meta-analysis, ipsilateral cell phone use for acoustic neuroma was OR = 2.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.3) and OR = 2.0, (1.2 to 3.4) for glioma using a tumour latency period of > or =10 years. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > or =10 years give a consistent pattern of increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.

  4. Non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth supports sub-clonal heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Marusyk, Andriy; Tabassum, Doris P; Altrock, Philipp M; Almendro, Vanessa; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-10-02

    Cancers arise through a process of somatic evolution that can result in substantial sub-clonal heterogeneity within tumours. The mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of distinct sub-clones and the biological consequences of this coexistence remain poorly understood. Here we used a mouse xenograft model to investigate the impact of sub-clonal heterogeneity on tumour phenotypes and the competitive expansion of individual clones. We found that tumour growth can be driven by a minor cell subpopulation, which enhances the proliferation of all cells within a tumour by overcoming environmental constraints and yet can be outcompeted by faster proliferating competitors, resulting in tumour collapse. We developed a mathematical modelling framework to identify the rules underlying the generation of intra-tumour clonal heterogeneity. We found that non-cell-autonomous driving of tumour growth, together with clonal interference, stabilizes sub-clonal heterogeneity, thereby enabling inter-clonal interactions that can lead to new phenotypic traits.

  5. Effect of anti-glycolytic agents on tumour cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    A metabolic change is one of the tumour hallmarks, which has recently attracted a great amount of attention. One of the main metabolic characteristics of tumour cells is a high level of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. The energy production is much less in a glycolysis pathway than that in a tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Warburg effect constitutes a fundamental adaptation of tumour cells to a relatively hostile environment, and supports the evolution of aggressive and metastatic phenotypes. As a result, tumour glycolysis may become an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we research the effect of potential anticancer agents on tumour cells in vitro. In our study, we found a high sensitivity of tumour cells to anti-glycolityc drugs. In addition, tumour cells are more resistant to the agents studied in comparison with normal cells. We also observed an atypical cooperative interaction of tumour cells in the median lethal dose of drugs. They formed the specific morphological structure of the surviving cells. This behavior is not natural for the culture of tumour cells. Perhaps this is one of the mechanisms of cells' adaptation to the aggressive environment.

  6. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Global DNA methylation in fetal human germ cells and germ cell tumours: association with differentiation and cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Wermann, Hendrik; Stoop, Hans; Gillis, Ad J M; Honecker, Friedemann; van Gurp, Ruud J H L M; Ammerpohl, Ole; Richter, Julia; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2010-08-01

    Differences in the global methylation pattern, ie hyper- as well as hypo-methylation, are observed in cancers including germ cell tumours (GCTs). Related to their precursor cells, GCT methylation status differs according to histology. We investigated the methylation pattern of normal fetal, infantile, and adult germ cells (n = 103) and GCTs (n = 251) by immunohistochemical staining for 5-(m)cytidine. The global methylation pattern of male germ cells changes from hypomethylation to hypermethylation, whereas female germ cells remain unmethylated at all stages. Undifferentiated GCTs (seminomas, intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified, and gonadoblastomas) are hypomethylated, whereas more differentiated GCTs (teratomas, yolk sac tumours, and choriocarcinomas) show a higher degree of methylation. Embryonal carcinomas show an intermediate pattern. Resistance to cisplatin was assessed in the seminomatous cell line TCam-2 before and after demethylation using 5-azacytidine. Exposure to 5-azacytidine resulted in decreased resistance to cisplatin. Furthermore, after demethylation, the stem cell markers NANOG and POU5F1 (OCT3/4), as well as the germ cell-specific marker VASA, showed increased expression. Following treatment with 5-azacytidine, TCam-2 cells were analysed using a high-throughput methylation screen for changes in the methylation sites of 14,000 genes. Among the genes revealing changes, interesting targets were identified: ie demethylation of KLF11, a putative tumour suppressor gene, and hypermethylation of CFLAR, a gene previously described in treatment resistance in GCTs.

  8. Tumourigenic non-small-cell lung cancer mesenchymal circulating tumour cells: a clinical case study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Trapani, F; Metcalf, R L; Bertolini, G; Hodgkinson, C L; Khandelwal, G; Kelly, P; Galvin, M; Carter, L; Simpson, K L; Williamson, S; Wirth, C; Simms, N; Frankliln, L; Frese, K K; Rothwell, D G; Nonaka, D; Miller, C J; Brady, G; Blackhall, F H; Dive, C

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, numerous reports describe the generation and increasing utility of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient-derived xenografts (PDX) from tissue biopsies. While PDX have proven useful for genetic profiling and preclinical drug testing, the requirement of a tissue biopsy limits the available patient population, particularly those with advanced oligometastatic disease. Conversely, 'liquid biopsies' such as circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are minimally invasive and easier to obtain. Here, we present a clinical case study of a NSCLC patient with advanced metastatic disease, a never smoker whose primary tumour was EGFR and ALK wild-type. We demonstrate for the first time, tumorigenicity of their CTCs to generate a patient CTC-derived eXplant (CDX). CTCs were enriched at diagnosis and again 2 months later during disease progression from 10 ml blood from a 48-year-old NSCLC patient and implanted into immunocompromised mice. Resultant tumours were morphologically, immunohistochemically, and genetically compared with the donor patient's diagnostic specimen. Mice were treated with cisplatin and pemetrexed to assess preclinical efficacy of the chemotherapy regimen given to the donor patient. The NSCLC CDX expressed lung lineage markers TTF1 and CK7 and was unresponsive to cisplatin and pemetrexed. Examination of blood samples matched to that used for CDX generation revealed absence of CTCs using the CellSearch EpCAM-dependent platform, whereas size-based CTC enrichment revealed abundant heterogeneous CTCs of which ∼80% were mesenchymal marker vimentin positive. Molecular analysis of the CDX, mesenchymal and epithelial CTCs revealed a common somatic mutation confirming tumour origin and showed CDX RNA and protein profiles consistent with the predominantly mesenchymal phenotype. This study shows that the absence of NSCLC CTCs detected by CellSearch (EpCAM(+)) does not preclude CDX generation, highlighting epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the

  9. Direct comparison study of DNA methylation markers in EpCAM-positive circulating tumour cells, corresponding circulating tumour DNA, and paired primary tumours in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chimonidou, Maria; Strati, Areti; Malamos, Nikos; Kouneli, Sophia; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Lianidou, Evi

    2017-09-22

    Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) represent a non-invasive liquid biopsy approach for the follow-up and therapy management of cancer patients. We evaluated whether DNA methylation status in CTCs and ctDNA is comparable and whether it reflects the status of primary tumours. We compared the methylation status of three genes, SOX17, CST6 and BRMS1 in primary tumours, corresponding CTCs and ctDNA in 153 breast cancer patients and healthy individuals, by using real time methylation specific PCR. We report a clear association between the EpCAM-positive CTC-fraction and ctDNA for SOX17 promoter methylation both for patients with early ( P = 0.001) and metastatic breast cancer ( P = 0.046) but not for CST6 and BRMS1. In early breast cancer, SOX17 promoter methylation in the EpCAM-positive CTC-fraction was associated with CK-19 mRNA expression ( P = 0.006) and worse overall survival (OS) ( P = 0.044). In the metastatic setting SOX17 promoter methylation in ctDNA was highly correlated with CK-19 ( P = 0.04) and worse OS ( Ρ = 0.016). SOX17 methylation status in CTCs and ctDNA was comparable and was associated with CK-19 expression but was not reflecting the status of primary tumours in breast cancer. DNA methylation analysis of SOX17 in CTCs and matched ctDNA provides significant prognostic value.

  10. HMGA2 expression distinguishes between different types of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Lars; Gottlieb, Andrea; Helmke, Burkhard; Wosniok, Werner; Löning, Thomas; Burchardt, Käte; Belge, Gazanfer; Günther, Kathrin; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    The group of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours encompasses lesions with highly diverse differentiation - seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Heterogeneous differentiation is often present within individual tumours and the correct identification of the components is of clinical relevance. HMGA2 re-expression has been reported in many tumours, including testicular germ cell tumours. This is the first study investigating HMGA2 expression in a representative group of testicular germ cell tumours with the highly sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR as well as with immunohistochemistry. The expression of HMGA2 and HPRT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 59 postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours. Thirty specimens contained only one type of tumour and 29 were mixed neoplasms. With the exception of choriocarcinomas, at least two pure specimens from each subgroup of testicular germ cell tumour were included. In order to validate the quantitative real-time PCR data and gather information about the localisation of the protein, additional immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody specific for HMGA2 was performed in 23 cases. Expression of HMGA2 in testicular germ cell tumours depended on the histological differentiation. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas showed no or very little expression, whereas yolk sac tumours strongly expressed HMGA2 at the transcriptome as well as the protein level. In teratomas, the expression varied and in choriocarcinomas the expression was moderate. In part, these results contradict data from previous studies but HMGA2 seems to represent a novel marker to assist pathological subtyping of testicular germ cell tumours. The results indicate a critical role in yolk sac tumours and some forms of teratoma.

  11. Monocytic and granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells differentially regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity during metastatic cascade.

    PubMed

    Ouzounova, Maria; Lee, Eunmi; Piranlioglu, Raziye; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Demirci, Mehmet F; Marasco, Daniela; Asm, Iskander; Chadli, Ahmed; Hassan, Khaled A; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Zhou, Gang; Arbab, Ali S; Cowell, John K; Korkaya, Hasan

    2017-04-06

    It is widely accepted that dynamic and reversible tumour cell plasticity is required for metastasis, however, in vivo steps and molecular mechanisms are poorly elucidated. We demonstrate here that monocytic (mMDSC) and granulocytic (gMDSC) subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells infiltrate in the primary tumour and distant organs with different time kinetics and regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity. Using co-culture experiments and mouse transcriptome analyses in syngeneic mouse models, we provide evidence that tumour-infiltrated mMDSCs facilitate tumour cell dissemination from the primary site by inducing EMT/CSC phenotype. In contrast, pulmonary gMDSC infiltrates support the metastatic growth by reverting EMT/CSC phenotype and promoting tumour cell proliferation. Furthermore, lung-derived gMDSCs isolated from tumour-bearing animals enhance metastatic growth of already disseminated tumour cells. MDSC-induced 'metastatic gene signature' derived from murine syngeneic model predicts poor patient survival in the majority of human solid tumours. Thus spatiotemporal MDSC infiltration may have clinical implications in tumour progression.

  12. Monocytic and granulocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells differentially regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity during metastatic cascade

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounova, Maria; Lee, Eunmi; Piranlioglu, Raziye; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar; Kolhe, Ravindra; Demirci, Mehmet F.; Marasco, Daniela; Asm, Iskander; Chadli, Ahmed; Hassan, Khaled A.; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Zhou, Gang; Arbab, Ali S.; Cowell, John K.; Korkaya, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that dynamic and reversible tumour cell plasticity is required for metastasis, however, in vivo steps and molecular mechanisms are poorly elucidated. We demonstrate here that monocytic (mMDSC) and granulocytic (gMDSC) subsets of myeloid-derived suppressor cells infiltrate in the primary tumour and distant organs with different time kinetics and regulate spatiotemporal tumour plasticity. Using co-culture experiments and mouse transcriptome analyses in syngeneic mouse models, we provide evidence that tumour-infiltrated mMDSCs facilitate tumour cell dissemination from the primary site by inducing EMT/CSC phenotype. In contrast, pulmonary gMDSC infiltrates support the metastatic growth by reverting EMT/CSC phenotype and promoting tumour cell proliferation. Furthermore, lung-derived gMDSCs isolated from tumour-bearing animals enhance metastatic growth of already disseminated tumour cells. MDSC-induced ‘metastatic gene signature' derived from murine syngeneic model predicts poor patient survival in the majority of human solid tumours. Thus spatiotemporal MDSC infiltration may have clinical implications in tumour progression. PMID:28382931

  13. Redox status evaluation in dogs affected by mast cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Finotello, R; Pasquini, A; Meucci, V; Lippi, I; Rota, A; Guidi, G; Marchetti, V

    2014-06-01

    Oxidative stress status has been evaluated in depth in human medicine and its role in carcinogenesis has been clearly established. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate antioxidant concentrations and oxidative stress in dogs with mast cell tumours (MCTs) that had received no previous treatments, and to compare them to healthy controls. In 23 dogs with mast cell tumour and 10 healthy controls, oxidative status was assessed using the Reactive Oxygen Metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) test, antioxidant activity was measured by the Biological Antioxidant Potential (BAP) test, and α-tocopherol levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet analysis. At baseline, dogs with MCT had significantly higher d-ROMs (P < 0.00001) and lower BAP (P < 0.0002) compared with healthy controls. However, no significant difference was observed for α-tocopherol (P = 0.95). Results suggest that oxidative stress pattern and oxidative defence barrier are altered in dogs with newly diagnosed MCT compared with control dogs. Future studies are needed in order to assess the prognostic role of oxidative stress and to evaluate the impact of different therapeutic approaches. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. HPV vaccine stimulates cytotoxic activity of killer dendritic cells and natural killer cells against HPV-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Guerti, Khadija; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Goossens, Herman; Vorsters, Alex; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Damme, Pierre; Smits, Evelien L J M

    2014-01-01

    Cervarix™ is approved as a preventive vaccine against infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) strains 16 and 18, which are causally related to the development of cervical cancer. We are the first to investigate in vitro the effects of this HPV vaccine on interleukin (IL)-15 dendritic cells (DC) as proxy of a naturally occurring subset of blood DC, and natural killer (NK) cells, two innate immune cell types that play an important role in antitumour immunity. Our results show that exposure of IL-15 DC to the HPV vaccine results in increased expression of phenotypic maturation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxic activity against HPV-positive tumour cells. These effects are mediated by the vaccine adjuvant, partly through Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Next, we demonstrate that vaccine-exposed IL-15 DC in turn induce phenotypic activation of NK cells, resulting in a synergistic cytotoxic action against HPV-infected tumour cells. Our study thus identifies a novel mode of action of the HPV vaccine in boosting innate immunity, including killing of HPV-infected cells by DC and NK cells. PMID:24979331

  15. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  16. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  17. Outcome following treatment of feline gastrointestinal mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Barrett, L E; Skorupski, K; Brown, D C; Weinstein, N; Clifford, C; Szivek, A; Haney, S; Kraiza, S; Krick, E L

    2018-06-01

    Prognosis of feline gastrointestinal mast cell tumours (FGIMCT), based on limited available literature, is described as guarded to poor, which may influence treatment recommendations and patient outcome. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical findings, treatment response, and outcome of FGIMCT. Medical records of 31 cats diagnosed with and treated for FGIMCT were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included signalment, method of diagnosis, tumour location (including metastatic sites), treatment type, cause of death and survival time. Mean age was 12.9 y. Diagnosis was made via cytology (n = 15), histopathology (n = 13) or both (n = 3). Metastatic sites included abdominal lymph node (n = 10), abdominal viscera (n = 4) and both (n = 2). Therapeutic approaches included chemotherapy alone (n = 15), surgery and chemotherapy (n = 7), glucocorticoid only (n = 6) and surgery and glucocorticoid (n = 3). Lomustine (n = 15) and chlorambucil (n = 12) were the most commonly used chemotherapy drugs. Overall median survival time was 531 d (95% confidence interval 334, 982). Gastrointestinal location, diagnosis of additional cancers, and treatment type did not significantly affect survival time. Cause of death was tumour-related or unknown (n = 12) and unrelated (n = 8) in the 20 cats dead at the time of analysis. The prognosis for cats with FGIMCT may be better than previously reported, with 26% of cats deceased from an unrelated cause. Surgical and medical treatments (including prednisolone alone) were both associated with prolonged survival times. Treatment other than prednisolone may not be necessary in some cats. Continued research into prognostic factors and most effective treatment strategies are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Challenging tumour immunological techniques that help to track cancer stem cells in malignant melanomas and other solid tumours.

    PubMed

    Kotlan, Beatrix; Plotar, Vanda; Eles, Klara; Horvath, Szabolcs; Balatoni, Timea; Csuka, Orsolya; Újhelyi, Mihaly; Sávolt, Ákos; Szollar, Andras; Vamosi-Nagy, Istvan; Toth, Laszlo; Farkas, Emil; Toth, Jozsef; Kasler, Miklos; Liszkay, Gabriella

    2018-03-01

    The arsenal of questions and answers about the minor cancer initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) population put responsible for cancer invasiveness and metastases, has left with an unsolved puzzle. Specific aims of a complex project were partly focused on revealing new biomarkers of cancer. We designed and set up novel techniques to facilitate the detection of cancerous cells. As a novel approach, we investigated B cells infiltrating breast carcinomas and melanomas (TIL-B) in terms of their tumour antigen binding potential. By developing the TIL-B phage display technology we provide here a new technology for the specific detection of highly tumour-associated antigens. Single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment phage ELISA, immunofluorescence (IF) FACS analysis, chamber slide technique with IF confocal laser microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in paraffin-embedded tissue sections were set up and standardized. We showed strong tumour-associated disialylated glycosphingolipid expression levels on various cancer cells using scFv antibody fragments, generated previously by uniquely invasive breast carcinoma TIL-B phage display library technology. We report herein a novel strategy to obtain antibody fragments of human origin that recognise tumour-associated ganglioside antigens. Our investigations have the power to detect privileged molecules in cancer progression, invasiveness, and metastases. The technical achievements of this study are being harnessed for early diagnostics and effective cancer therapeutics.

  19. Perioperative detection of circulating tumour cells in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Dimple; Burnside, Nathan; Beeson, Julie; Karteris, Emmanouil; Rice, Alexandra; Anikin, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of mortality and despite surgical resection a proportion of patients may develop metastatic spread. The detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) may allow for improved prediction of metastatic spread and survival. The current study evaluates the efficacy of the ScreenCell® filtration device, to capture, isolate and propagate CTCs in patients with primary lung cancer. Prior to assessment of CTCs, the present study detected cancer cells in a proof-of-principle- experiment using A549 human lung carcinoma cells as a model. Ten patients (five males and five females) with pathologically diagnosed primary non-small cell lung cancer undergoing surgical resection, had their blood tested for CTCs. Samples were taken from a peripheral vessel at the baseline, from the pulmonary vein draining the lobe containing the tumour immediately prior to division, a further central sample was taken following completion of the resection, and a final peripheral sample was taken three days post-resection. A significant increase in CTCs was observed from baseline levels following lung manipulation. No association was able to be made between increased levels of circulating tumour cells and survival or the development of metastatic deposits. Manipulation of the lung during surgical resection for non-small cell lung carcinoma results in a temporarily increased level of CTCs; however, no clinical impact for this increase was observed. Overall, the study suggests the ScreenCell® device has the potential to be used as a CTC isolation tool, following further work, adaptations and improvements to the technology and validation of results.

  20. Evaluating cell lines as tumour models by comparison of genomic profiles

    PubMed Central

    Domcke, Silvia; Sinha, Rileen; Levine, Douglas A.; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are frequently used as in vitro tumour models. Recent molecular profiles of hundreds of cell lines from The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and thousands of tumour samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas now allow a systematic genomic comparison of cell lines and tumours. Here we analyse a panel of 47 ovarian cancer cell lines and identify those that have the highest genetic similarity to ovarian tumours. Our comparison of copy-number changes, mutations and mRNA expression profiles reveals pronounced differences in molecular profiles between commonly used ovarian cancer cell lines and high-grade serous ovarian cancer tumour samples. We identify several rarely used cell lines that more closely resemble cognate tumour profiles than commonly used cell lines, and we propose these lines as the most suitable models of ovarian cancer. Our results indicate that the gap between cell lines and tumours can be bridged by genomically informed choices of cell line models for all tumour types. PMID:23839242

  1. Intensification of chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumours: feasibility of a 3-fold increase in dose intensity with peripheral blood progenitor cells and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Leyvraz, S.; Ketterer, N.; Perey, L.; Bauer, J.; Vuichard, P.; Grob, J. P.; Schneider, P.; von Fliedner, V.; Lejeune, F.; Bachmann, F.

    1995-01-01

    Dose intensity may be an important determinant of the outcome in cancer chemotherapy, but is often limited by cumulative haematological toxicity. The availability of haematopoietic growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and of peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation has allowed the development of a new treatment strategy in which several courses of high-dose combination chemotherapy are administered for the treatment of solid tumours. PBPCs were mobilised before chemotherapy using 12 or 30 micrograms kg-1 day-1 G-CSF (Filgrastim) for 10 days, and were collected by 2-5 leucaphereses. The yields of mononuclear cells, colony-forming units and CD34-positive cells were similar at the two dose levels of Filgrastim, and the numbers of PBPCs were sufficient for rescue following multiple cycles of chemotherapy. High-dose chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide 2.5 g m-2 for 2 days, etoposide 300 mg m-2 for 3 days and cisplatin 50 mg m-2 for 3 days) was administered sequentially for a median of three cycles (range 1-4) to ten patients. Following the 30 evaluable cycles, the median duration of leucopenia < or = 0.5 x 10(9) l-1 and < or = 1.0 x 10(9) l-1 was 7 and 8 days respectively. The median time of thrombopenia < or = 20 x 10(9) l-1 was 6 days. There was no cumulative haematological toxicity. The duration of leucopenia, but not of thrombopenia, was inversely related to the number of reinfused CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units). In the majority of patients, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity became dose limiting after three cycles of therapy. However, the average dose intensity delivered was about three times higher than in a standard regimen. The complete response rate in patients with small-cell lung cancers was 66% (95% CI 30-92%) and the median progression-free survival and overall survival were 13 months and 17 months respectively. These results are encouraging and should be compared, in a randomised fashion, with

  2. Proton pump inhibitor-induced tumour cell death by inhibition of a detoxification mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fais, S

    2010-05-01

    This review presents a possible new approach against cancer, as represented by inhibition of proton pumps, a mechanism used by tumour cells to avoid intracellular accumulation of toxic substances. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) belong to a family of pro-drugs that are currently used in the treatment of peptic diseases needing acidity to be activated. PPIs target the acidic tumour mass, where they are metabolized, thus blocking proton traffic. Proton pump inhibition triggers a rapid cell death as a result of intracellular acidification, caspase activation and early accumulation of reactive oxygen species into tumour cells. As a whole, the devastating effect of PPIs on tumour cells suggest the triggering of a fatal cell toxification. Many human tumours, including melanoma, osteosarcoma, lymphomas and various adenocarcinomas are responsive to PPIs. This appears highly conceivable, in as much as almost all human tumours are acidic and express high levels of proton pumps. Paradoxically, metastatic tumours appear to be more responsive to PPIs being more acidic than the majority of primary tumours. However, two clinical trials test the effectiveness of PPIs in chemosensitizing melanoma and osteosarcoma patients. Indeed, tumour acidity represents a very potent mechanism of chemoresistance. A majority of cytotoxic agents, being weak bases, are quickly protonated outside and do not enter the cells, thus preventing drugs to reach specific cellular targets. Clinical data will provide the proof of concept on the use of PPIs as a new class of antitumour agent with a very low level of systemic toxicity as compared with standard chemotherapeutic agents.

  3. Prognostic Value of Occult Isolated Tumour Cells within Regional Lymph Nodes of Dogs with Malignant Mammary Tumours.

    PubMed

    Coleto, A F; Wilson, T M; Soares, N P; Gundim, L F; Castro, I P; Guimarães, E C; Bandarra, M B; Medeiros-Ronchi, A A

    2018-01-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common type of neoplasm in bitches. As in women, the presence of metastasis in regional lymph nodes is an important prognostic factor in bitches with mammary carcinomas, but the clinical significance of occult isolated tumour cells (ITCs) within lymph nodes is still undefined in this species. The effectiveness of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in identifying occult ITCs and micrometastasis (MIC) was compared with that of the conventional haematoxylin and eosin staining technique. The relationship between tumour size, histological type, histological grade and the presence of metastasis was evaluated. The overall survival (OS) of female dogs with occult mammary carcinomas and ITCs within lymph nodes was analysed. Fragments of mammary carcinoma and regional lymph nodes of 59 female dogs were also evaluated. Histological sections of mammary carcinoma and lymph node samples were studied for tumour diagnosis and lymph node samples were tested by IHC using a pan-cytokeratin antibody. It was found that 35.2% of occult ITCs and 2.8% of hidden MIC were detected when IHC was used. There was a good correlation between the size of the tumour and metastasis to the lymph nodes (P = 0.77). ITCs were observed more frequently in the medullary region (60.7%) and metastases in the cortical region (44.4%). There was no significant difference in the OS between female dogs with occult ITCs and lymph nodes without ITCs. IHC can detect occult tumour cells in lymph nodes that are negative by histopathological examination. Female dogs with nodal ITCs do not have lower survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carcinoma in situ testis, the progenitor of testicular germ cell tumours: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Daugaard, G; Skakkebaek, N E

    2005-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), including seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours, have a common precursor, the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. Recent gene expression studies displaying close similarity of CIS cells to embryonic stem cells support the longstanding theory that CIS most likely originates in utero from fetal gonocytes. The clinical association between the testicular dysgenesis syndrome components (TGCT, cryptorchidism, genital malformations, some forms of decreased spermatogenesis) also implies a prenatal origin. Despite high cure rates of TGCT, efforts should be made to obtain diagnosis at the CIS stage, as intervention is possible before an invasive tumour develops, thus reducing the necessity for intensive therapy. CIS may be suspected in patients with an assumed extragonadal GCT or cryptorchidism, and in intersex patients and selected cases with infertility (presenting with atrophic testes and ultrasonic microlithiasis). Surgical testicular biopsy seems the only reliable diagnostic method. The management of choice of unilateral CIS is orchidectomy, or localised irradiation in bilateral cases. At least 5% of TGCT patients present with contralateral CIS; therefore, contralateral biopsy is recommended at the time of orchidectomy. Further research is warranted to identify causal factors explaining the increasing incidence of TGCT and to obtain a method of non-invasive CIS detection.

  5. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  6. Radiological findings of perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the falciform ligament.

    PubMed

    Handa, Atsuhiko; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Kono, Tatsuo; Komori, Koji; Hirobe, Seiichi; Fukuzawa, Ryuji

    2016-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) encompasses a group of mesenchymal tumours composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. A subset of PEComa that typically arises from the falciform ligament and/or ligamentum teres is termed clear cell myomelanocytic tumour of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres. To date, its imaging findings have not been described. Here, we report the first radiological description of a pathologically confirmed tumour. The patient was a 5-year-old girl with a palpable abdominal mass. US, CT, MR and FDG-PET revealed a midline, well-defined, solid anterior abdominal wall tumour below the rectus abdominis and contiguous with the umbilicus that was hypervascular and FDG avid. Awareness of these imaging findings facilitates the diagnosis of this distinctive tumour. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  7. Targeting PTPRK-RSPO3 colon tumours promotes differentiation and loss of stem-cell function.

    PubMed

    Storm, Elaine E; Durinck, Steffen; de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Tremayne, Jarrod; Kljavin, Noelyn; Tan, Christine; Ye, Xiaofen; Chiu, Cecilia; Pham, Thinh; Hongo, Jo-Anne; Bainbridge, Travis; Firestein, Ron; Blackwood, Elizabeth; Metcalfe, Ciara; Stawiski, Eric W; Yauch, Robert L; Wu, Yan; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2016-01-07

    Colorectal cancer remains a major unmet medical need, prompting large-scale genomics efforts in the field to identify molecular drivers for which targeted therapies might be developed. We previously reported the identification of recurrent translocations in R-spondin genes present in a subset of colorectal tumours. Here we show that targeting RSPO3 in PTPRK-RSPO3-fusion-positive human tumour xenografts inhibits tumour growth and promotes differentiation. Notably, genes expressed in the stem-cell compartment of the intestine were among those most sensitive to anti-RSPO3 treatment. This observation, combined with functional assays, suggests that a stem-cell compartment drives PTPRK-RSPO3 colorectal tumour growth and indicates that the therapeutic targeting of stem-cell properties within tumours may be a clinically relevant approach for the treatment of colorectal tumours.

  8. Antibody-peptide-MHC fusion conjugates target non-cognate T cells to kill tumour cells.

    PubMed

    King, Ben C; Hamblin, Angela D; Savage, Philip M; Douglas, Leon R; Hansen, Ted H; French, Ruth R; Johnson, Peter W M; Glennie, Martin J

    2013-06-01

    Attempts to generate robust anti-tumour cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses using immunotherapy are frequently thwarted by exhaustion and anergy of CTL recruited to tumour. One strategy to overcome this is to retarget a population of virus-specific CTL to kill tumour cells. Here, we describe a proof-of-principle study using a bispecific conjugate designed to retarget ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CTL to kill tumour cells via CD20. A single-chain trimer (SCT) consisting of MHCI H-2K(b)/SIINFEKL peptide/beta 2 microglobulin/BirA was expressed in bacteria, refolded and chemically conjugated to one (1:1; F2) or two (2:1; F3) anti-hCD20 Fab' fragments. In vitro, the [SCT × Fab'] (F2 and F3) redirected SIINFEKL-specific OT-I CTL to kill CD20(+) target cells, and in the presence of CD20(+) target cells to provide crosslinking, they were also able to induce proliferation of OT-I cells. In vivo, activated OT-I CTL could be retargeted to kill [SCT × Fab']-coated B cells from hCD20 transgenic (hCD20 Tg) mice and also EL4 and B16 mouse tumour cells expressing human CD20 (hCD20). Importantly, in a hCD20 Tg mouse model, [SCT × Fab'] administered systemically were able to retarget activated OT-I cells to deplete normal B cells, and their performance matched that of a bispecific antibody (BsAb) comprising anti-CD3 and anti-CD20. [SCT × Fab'] were also active therapeutically in an EL4 tumour model. Furthermore, measurement of serum cytokine levels suggests that [SCT × Fab'] are associated with a lower level of inflammatory cytokine release than the BsAb and so may be advantageous clinically in terms of reduced toxicity.

  9. Mixed malignant germ cell tumour of third ventricle with hydrocephalus: a rare case with recurrence.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Manjari; Monappa, Vidya; Rao, Lakshmi; Kudva, Ranjini

    2014-11-01

    Malignant Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) are rare, accounting for 3% of intracranial tumours and just like their extracranial counterparts represent a wide array of disease. Combination of Germinoma with Teratoma is very rare. Here in, we describe a case of Mixed Malignant Germ cell tumor of third ventricle with recurrence with emphasis on histopathological and radiological findings.

  10. Paediatric germ cell tumours and congenital abnormalities: a Children's Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, K J; Ross, J A; Poynter, J N; Linabery, A M; Robison, L L; Shu, X O

    2009-01-01

    Methods: Maternally reported congenital abnormalities (CAs) were examined in a case–control study of 278 cases of paediatric germ cell tumours (GCTs) and 423 controls. Results and conclusions Germ cell tumours were significantly associated with cryptorchidism in males (OR=10.8, 95% CI: 2.1–55.1), but not with any other specific CA in either sex. PMID:19603020

  11. Tumour cell heterogeneity maintained by cooperating subclones in Wnt-driven mammary cancers.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Allison S; Leonard, Travis L; Gestl, Shelley A; Gunther, Edward J

    2014-04-03

    Cancer genome sequencing studies indicate that a single breast cancer typically harbours multiple genetically distinct subclones. As carcinogenesis involves a breakdown in the cell-cell cooperation that normally maintains epithelial tissue architecture, individual subclones within a malignant microenvironment are commonly depicted as self-interested competitors. Alternatively, breast cancer subclones might interact cooperatively to gain a selective growth advantage in some cases. Although interclonal cooperation has been shown to drive tumorigenesis in fruitfly models, definitive evidence for functional cooperation between epithelial tumour cell subclones in mammals is lacking. Here we use mouse models of breast cancer to show that interclonal cooperation can be essential for tumour maintenance. Aberrant expression of the secreted signalling molecule Wnt1 generates mixed-lineage mammary tumours composed of basal and luminal tumour cell subtypes, which purportedly derive from a bipotent malignant progenitor cell residing atop a tumour cell hierarchy. Using somatic Hras mutations as clonal markers, we show that some Wnt tumours indeed conform to a hierarchical configuration, but that others unexpectedly harbour genetically distinct basal Hras mutant and luminal Hras wild-type subclones. Both subclones are required for efficient tumour propagation, which strictly depends on luminally produced Wnt1. When biclonal tumours were challenged with Wnt withdrawal to simulate targeted therapy, analysis of tumour regression and relapse revealed that basal subclones recruit heterologous Wnt-producing cells to restore tumour growth. Alternatively, in the absence of a substitute Wnt source, the original subclones often evolve to rescue Wnt pathway activation and drive relapse, either by restoring cooperation or by switching to a defector strategy. Uncovering similar modes of interclonal cooperation in human cancers may inform efforts aimed at eradicating tumour cell communities.

  12. Cytosine-based nucleoside analogs are selectively lethal to DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumour cells by enhancing levels of intracellular oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Hewish, M; Martin, S A; Elliott, R; Cunningham, D; Lord, C J; Ashworth, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: DNA mismatch repair deficiency is present in a significant proportion of a number of solid tumours and is associated with distinct clinical behaviour. Methods: To identify the therapeutic agents that might show selectivity for mismatch repair-deficient tumour cells, we screened a pair of isogenic MLH1-deficient and MLH1-proficient tumour cell lines with a library of clinically used drugs. To test the generality of hits in the screen, selective agents were retested in cells deficient in the MSH2 mismatch repair gene. Results: We identified cytarabine and other related cytosine-based nucleoside analogues as being selectively toxic to MLH1 and MSH2-deficient tumour cells. The selective cytotoxicity we observed was likely caused by increased levels of cellular oxidative stress, as it could be abrogated by antioxidants. Conclusion: We propose that cytarabine-based chemotherapy regimens may represent a tumour-selective treatment strategy for mismatch repair-deficient cancers. PMID:23361057

  13. Antigen-specific primed cytotoxic T cells eliminate tumour cells in vivo and prevent tumour development, regardless of the presence of anti-apoptotic mutations conferring drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Catalán, Elena; Uranga-Murillo, Iratxe; Aguiló, Nacho; Santiago, Llipsy; M Lanuza, Pilar; de Miguel, Diego; A Arias, Maykel; Pardo, Julián

    2018-05-09

    Cytotoxic CD8 + T (Tc) cells are the main executors of transformed and cancer cells during cancer immunotherapy. The latest clinical results evidence a high efficacy of novel immunotherapy agents that modulate Tc cell activity against bad prognosis cancers. However, it has not been determined yet whether the efficacy of these treatments can be affected by selection of tumoural cells with mutations in the cell death machinery, known to promote drug resistance and cancer recurrence. Here, using a model of prophylactic tumour vaccination based on the LCMV-gp33 antigen and the mouse EL4 T lymphoma, we analysed the molecular mechanism employed by Tc cells to eliminate cancer cells in vivo and the impact of mutations in the apoptotic machinery on tumour development. First of all, we found that Tc cells, and perf and gzmB are required to efficiently eliminate EL4.gp33 cells after LCMV immunisation during short-term assays (1-4 h), and to prevent tumour development in the long term. Furthermore, we show that antigen-pulsed chemoresistant EL4 cells overexpressing Bcl-X L or a dominant negative form of caspase-3 are specifically eliminated from the peritoneum of infected animals, as fast as parental EL4 cells. Notably, antigen-specific Tc cells control the tumour growth of the mutated cells, as efficiently as in the case of parental cells. Altogether, expression of the anti-apoptotic mutations does not confer any advantage for tumour cells neither in the short-term survival nor in long-term tumour formation. Although the mechanism involved in the elimination of the apoptosis-resistant tumour cells is not completely elucidated, neither necroptosis nor pyroptosis seem to be involved. Our results provide the first experimental proof that chemoresistant cancer cells with mutations in the main cell death pathways are efficiently eliminated by Ag-specific Tc cells in vivo during immunotherapy and, thus, provide the molecular basis to treat chemoresistant cancer cells with CD8 Tc

  14. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the inferior vena cava presenting as an adrenal mass.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Lal, Anupam; Acharya, Naveen; Sharma, Varun

    2010-03-16

    A 54-year-old woman had a mass located in the right suprarenal area. On imaging, this mass appeared to be infiltrating the inferior vena cava (IVC). Exploratory laparotomy was undertaken and excision of the tumour was done with the sleeve of the involved IVC. The mass turned out to be a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) on histopathological examination. This report describes previously reported cases of PEComa in brief and highlights the problems associated with the management of this tumour.

  15. Direct comparison study of DNA methylation markers in EpCAM-positive circulating tumour cells, corresponding circulating tumour DNA, and paired primary tumours in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chimonidou, Maria; Strati, Areti; Malamos, Nikos; Kouneli, Sophia; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Lianidou, Evi

    2017-01-01

    Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) and circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) represent a non-invasive liquid biopsy approach for the follow-up and therapy management of cancer patients. We evaluated whether DNA methylation status in CTCs and ctDNA is comparable and whether it reflects the status of primary tumours. We compared the methylation status of three genes, SOX17, CST6 and BRMS1 in primary tumours, corresponding CTCs and ctDNA in 153 breast cancer patients and healthy individuals, by using real time methylation specific PCR. We report a clear association between the EpCAM-positive CTC-fraction and ctDNA for SOX17 promoter methylation both for patients with early (P = 0.001) and metastatic breast cancer (P = 0.046) but not for CST6 and BRMS1. In early breast cancer, SOX17 promoter methylation in the EpCAM-positive CTC-fraction was associated with CK-19 mRNA expression (P = 0.006) and worse overall survival (OS) (P = 0.044). In the metastatic setting SOX17 promoter methylation in ctDNA was highly correlated with CK-19 (P = 0.04) and worse OS (Ρ = 0.016). SOX17 methylation status in CTCs and ctDNA was comparable and was associated with CK-19 expression but was not reflecting the status of primary tumours in breast cancer. DNA methylation analysis of SOX17 in CTCs and matched ctDNA provides significant prognostic value. PMID:29069768

  16. Malignant mixed germ cell tumour of ovary--an unusual combination and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Sharanjit; Kawatra, Kanwardeep

    2014-11-04

    Mixed germ cell tumours of the ovary are malignant neoplasms of the ovary comprising of two or more types of germ cell components. Most of the malignant mixed germ cell tumours consists of dysgerminoma accompanied by endodermal sinus tumours, immature teratoma or choriocarcinoma. There are only few case reports of mixed germ cell tumours with different combinations of malignant components. We report a very rare case of mixed germ cell tumours consisted of malignant components of endodermal sinus tumour, emryonal carcinoma, and benign component of teratomatuos and trophoblastic differentiation. This is the first case report in the literature with both benign and malignant component of type described to best of our knowledge. Patient was an 18 year old girl, who presented with pain abdomen, abdominal mass and irregular bleeding. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a huge mass with solid and cystic component. Tumour markers i.e alpha feto- protein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), lactate dehydrogenate (LDH) and Ca-125 were raised. We performed fertility sparing surgery by preserving one ovary, tube and uterus. Conclusion: Malingnant mixed germ cell tumours of ovary are highly aggressive neoplasm and early intervention and fertility sparing surgery is required for any adolescent girl presenting with rapidly enlarging pelvic mass.

  17. Glucose starvation impairs DNA repair in tumour cells selectively by blocking histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Ampferl, Rena; Rodemann, Hans Peter; Mayer, Claus; Höfling, Tobias Tim Alexander; Dittmann, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis and thus have high glucose consumption. Because repairing radiation-induced DNA damage is an energy-demanding process, we hypothesized that glucose starvation combined with radiotherapy could be an effective strategy to selectively target tumour cells. We glucose-starved tumour cells (A549, FaDu) in vitro and analysed their radiation-induced cell responses compared to normal fibroblasts (HSF7). Irradiation depleted intracellular ATP levels preferentially in cancer cells. Consequently, glucose starvation impaired DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and radiosensitized confluent tumour cells but not normal fibroblasts. In proliferating tumour cells glucose starvation resulted in a reduction of proliferation, but failed to radiosensitize cells. Glucose supply was indispensable during the late DSB repair in confluent tumour cells starting approximately 13 h after irradiation, and glucose starvation inhibited radiation-induced histone acetylation, which is essential for chromatin relaxation. Sirtinol - an inhibitor of histone deacetylases - reverted the effects of glucose depletion on histone acetylation and DNA DSB repair in tumour cells. Furthermore, a glucose concentration of 2.8 mmol/L was sufficient to impair DSB repair in tumour cells and reduced their clonogenic survival under a fractionated irradiation regimen. In resting tumour cells, glucose starvation combined with irradiation resulted in the impairment of late DSB repair and the reduction of clonogenic survival, which was associated with disrupted radiation-induced histone acetylation. However, in normal cells, DNA repair and radiosensitivity were not affected by glucose depletion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells producing TNFα have tumour suppressing effect on human melanoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Tyciakova, Silvia; Matuskova, Miroslava; Bohovic, Roman; Polakova, Katarina; Toro, Lenka; Skolekova, Svetlana; Kucerova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a promising tool for targeted cancer therapy due to their tumour-homing ability. Intrinsic resistance enables the MSC to longer tolerate therapeutic factors, such as prodrug converting enzymes, cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is known to be cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cells and exert a tumour-destructive capacity. MSC were retrovirally transduced to stable express an exogenous gene encoding the desired therapeutic agent hTNFα. The effect of a TNFα-producing adipose tissue-derived MSC (AT-MSC/hTNFα) was tested on the tumour cell lines of different origins: melanoma (A375), breast carcinoma (SKBR3, MDA-MB-231), colon carcinoma (HT29), ovarian carcinoma (SKOV3) and glioblastoma (U87-MG) cells. The tumour suppressing effect of AT-MSC/hTNFα on A375 melanoma xenografts was monitored in an immunodeficient mouse model in vivo. Engineered AT-MSC are able to constitutively secrete human TNFα protein, induce apoptosis of tumour cell lines via caspase 3/7 activation and inhibit the tumour cell proliferation in vitro. Melanoma A375 and breast carcinoma SKBR3 cells were the most sensitive, and their proliferation in vitro was reduced by conditioned media produced by AT-MSC/hTNFα to 60% and 40%, respectively. The previously reported tumour supportive effect of AT-MSC on subcutaneous A375 melanoma xenograft growth was neutralised and suppressed by engineered AT-MSC stably producing hTNFα. When AT-MSC/hTNFα were coinjected with A375 melanoma cells, the tumour mass inhibition was up to 97.5%. The results of the present study demonstrate that tumour cells respond to hTNFα-based treatment mediated by genetically engineered AT-MSC/hTNFα both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Circulating tumour cells, their role in metastasis and their clinical utility in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Flaherty, John D; Gray, Steven; Richard, Derek; Fennell, Dean; O'Leary, John J; Blackhall, Fiona H; O'Byrne, Kenneth J

    2012-04-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have attracted much recent interest in cancer research as a potential biomarker and as a means of studying the process of metastasis. It has long been understood that metastasis is a hallmark of malignancy, and conceptual theories on the basis of metastasis from the nineteenth century foretold the existence of a tumour "seed" which is capable of establishing discrete tumours in the "soil" of distant organs. This prescient "seed and soil" hypothesis accurately predicted the existence of CTCs; microscopic tumour fragments in the blood, at least some of which are capable of forming metastases. However, it is only in recent years that reliable, reproducible methods of CTC detection and analysis have been developed. To date, the majority of studies have employed the CellSearch™ system (Veridex LLC), which is an immunomagnetic purification method. Other promising techniques include microfluidic filters, isolation of tumour cells by size using microporous polycarbonate filters and flow cytometry-based approaches. While many challenges still exist, the detection of CTCs in blood is becoming increasingly feasible, giving rise to some tantalizing questions about the use of CTCs as a potential biomarker. CTC enumeration has been used to guide prognosis in patients with metastatic disease, and to act as a surrogate marker for disease response during therapy. Other possible uses for CTC detection include prognostication in early stage patients, identifying patients requiring adjuvant therapy, or in surveillance, for the detection of relapsing disease. Another exciting possible use for CTC detection assays is the molecular and genetic characterization of CTCs to act as a "liquid biopsy" representative of the primary tumour. Indeed it has already been demonstrated that it is possible to detect HER2, KRAS and EGFR mutation status in breast, colon and lung cancer CTCs respectively. In the course of this review, we shall discuss the biology of CTCs

  20. Multiscale biomechanics of brain tumours favours cancer invasion by cell softening and tissue stiffening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef; Fritsch, Anatol; Grosser, Steffen; Friebe, Sabrina; Reiss-Zimmermann, Martin; Müller, Wolf; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Sack, Ingolf

    Cancer progression needs two contradictory mechanical prerequisites. For metastasis individual cancer cells or small clusters have to flow through the microenvironment by overcoming the yield stress exerted by the surrounding. On the other hand a tumour has to behave as a solid to permit cell proliferation and spreading of the tumour mass against its surrounding. We determine that the high mechanical adaptability of cancer cells and the scale controlled viscoelastic properties of tissues reconcile both conflicting properties, fluid and solid, simultaneously in brain tumours. We resolve why different techniques that assess cell and tissue mechanics have produced apparently conflicting results by our finding that tumours generate different viscoelastic behaviours on different length scales, which are in concert optimal for tumour spreading and metastasis. Single cancer cells become very soft in their elastic behavior which promotes cell unjamming. On the level of direct cell-to-cell interactions cells feel their micro-environment as rigid elastic substrate that stimulates cancer on the molecular level. All over a tumour has predominately a stiff elastic character in terms of viscoelastic behaviour caused by a solid backbone. Simultaneously, the tumour mass is characterized by a large local variability in the storage and loss modulus that is caused by areas of a more fluid nature.

  1. How does the metabolism of tumour cells differ from that of normal cells

    PubMed Central

    Amoêdo, Nívea Dias; Valencia, Juan Perez; Rodrigues, Mariana Figueiredo; Galina, Antonio; Rumjanek, Franklin David

    2013-01-01

    Tumour cells thrive in environments that would be hostile to their normal cell counterparts. Survival depends on the selection of cell lines that harbour modifications of both, gene regulation that shifts the balance between the cell cycle and apoptosis and those that involve the plasticity of the metabolic machinery. With regards to metabolism, the selected phenotypes usually display enhanced anaerobic glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen, the so-called Warburg effect, and anabolic pathways that provide precursors for the synthesis of lipids, proteins and DNA. The review will discuss the original ideas of Otto Warburg and how they initially led to the notion that mitochondria of tumour cells were dysfunctional. Data will be presented to show that not only the organelles are viable and respiring, but that they are key players in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Likewise, interconnecting pathways that stand out in the tumour phenotype and that require intact mitochondria such as glutaminolysis will be addressed. Furthermore, comments will be made as to how the peculiarities of the biochemistry of tumour cells renders them amenable to new forms of treatment by highlighting possible targets for inhibitors. In this respect, a case study describing the effect of a metabolite analogue, the alkylating agent 3BP (3-bromopyruvate), on glycolytic enzyme targets will be presented. PMID:24079832

  2. Mps1 inhibitors synergise with low doses of taxanes in promoting tumour cell death by enhancement of errors in cell division.

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Rita R; Linder, Simon; Song, Ji-Ying; Vaarting, Chantal; Boon, Ute; Pritchard, Colin E J; Velds, Arno; Huijbers, Ivo J; van Tellingen, Olaf; Jonkers, Jos; Medema, René H

    2018-05-08

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a common trait of cancer characterised by the continuous gain and loss of chromosomes during mitosis. Excessive levels of CIN can suppress tumour growth, providing a possible therapeutic strategy. The Mps1/TTK kinase has been one of the prime targets to explore this concept, and indeed Mps1 inhibitors synergise with the spindle poison docetaxel in inhibiting the growth of tumours in mice. To investigate how the combination of docetaxel and a Mps1 inhibitor (Cpd-5) promote tumour cell death, we treated mice transplanted with BRCA1 -/- ;TP53 -/- mammary tumours with docetaxel and/or Cpd-5. The tumours were analysed regarding their histopathology, chromosome segregation errors, copy number variations and cell death to understand the mechanism of action of the drug combination. The enhanced efficacy of combining an Mps1 inhibitor with clinically relevant doses of docetaxel is associated with an increase in multipolar anaphases, aberrant nuclear morphologies and cell death. Tumours treated with docetaxel and Cpd-5 displayed more genomic deviations, indicating that chromosome stability is affected mostly in the combinatorial treatment. Our study shows that the synergy between taxanes and Mps1 inhibitors depends on increased errors in cell division, allowing further optimisation of this treatment regimen for cancer therapy.

  3. Relative biological effectiveness of light ions in human tumoural cell lines: role of protein p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggio, L.; Cavinato, M.; Cherubini, R.; Conzato, M.; Cucinotta, F.; Favaretto, S.; Gerardi, S.; Lora, S.; Stoppa, P.; Williams, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Protons and alpha particles of high linear energy transfer (LET) have shown an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with respect to X/gamma rays for several cellular and molecular endpoints in different in vitro cell systems. To contribute to understanding the biochemical mechanisms involved in the increased effectiveness of high LET radiation, an extensive study has been designed. The present work reports the preliminary result of this study on two human tumoural cell lines, DLD1 and HCT116, (with different p53 status), which indicate that for these cell lines, p53 does not appear to take a part in the response to radiation induced DNA damage, suggesting an alternative p53-independent pathway and a cell biochemical mechanism dependent on the cell type.

  4. Immunization of mice with baculovirus-derived recombinant SV40 large tumour antigen induces protective tumour immunity to a lethal challenge with SV40-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, M H; Bright, R K; Lanford, R E; Kennedy, R C

    1993-01-01

    In this study, we examined the humoral immune responses and in vivo tumour immunity induced by baculovirus recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumour antigen (rSV40 T-ag). BALB/c mice immunized with rSV40 T-ag produced antibody responses that recognized SV40 large tumour antigen (T-ag) by ELISA. Analysis of these anti-SV40 T-ag responses indicated that the antibodies recognized epitopes associated with both the carboxy and amino terminus of SV40 T-ag. This pattern of SV40 T-ag epitope recognition was similar to that observed in anti-SV40 T-ag responses induced by inoculation with irradiated SV40-transformed cells. Mice immunized with either rSV40 T-ag or with the inactivated transformed cells were protected from a subsequent in vivo lethal tumour challenge with live SV40-transformed cells. These studies suggest that humoral immune responses induced by rSV40 T-ag are similar in epitope specificity to that induced by inactivated SV40-transformed cells. In addition, recombinant tumour-specific antigens from papovaviruses, such as SV40, can be used to induce tumour immunity which protects from a subsequent lethal tumour challenge. This study may provide insight into the use of recombinant tumour antigens as putative tumour vaccines and in the development of active immunotherapeutic strategies for treating virus-induced cancers. PMID:7679059

  5. Circulating Cell-Free Tumour DNA in the Management of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Glenn; Stein, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    With the development of new sensitive molecular techniques, circulating cell-free tumour DNA containing mutations can be identified in the plasma of cancer patients. The applications of this technology may result in significant changes to the care and management of cancer patients. Whilst, currently, these “liquid biopsies” are used to supplement the histological diagnosis of cancer and metastatic disease, in the future these assays may replace the need for invasive procedures. Applications include the monitoring of tumour burden, the monitoring of minimal residual disease, monitoring of tumour heterogeneity, monitoring of molecular resistance and early diagnosis of tumours and metastatic disease. PMID:26101870

  6. Expression of CD44s and CD44v6 in transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder: comparison with tumour grade, proliferative activity and p53 immunoreactivity of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Kuncová, Jitka; Urban, Michael; Mandys, Václav

    2007-11-01

    Alterations of CD44 glycoproteins have been shown to play an important role in progression of various malignancies, including urothelial cancer. We investigated expression patterns of CD44s and CD44v6 in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder in relation to tumour grade, proliferative activity, and immunoreactivity for p53. The selected markers were detected immunohistochemically in 122 samples of TCC. We found a close relationship between CD44s and CD44v6 expression and tumour grade. The extension of positive staining for CD44s and CD44v6 towards the luminal surface was a predominant feature of differentiated carcinomas (grades 1 and 2), suggesting deranged maturation of cancer cells related to their neoplastic transformation. Heterogeneous expression of CD44s and CD44v6 predominated in poorly differentiated tumours (G3-4). However, areas of squamous differentiation within the high-grade tumours displayed strong immunoreactivity for both CD44s and CD44v6. The proliferative activity and p53 overexpression increased with the dedifferentiation of the tumour. The results of this study are discussed in relation to the significance of CD44 expression in TCC and to the explanation for controversial results reported in previous studies on the relationship between CD44 expression and the biological behaviour of urothelial cells.

  7. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications. PMID:25910782

  8. The role of CD133 in the identification and characterisation of tumour-initiating cells in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tirino, Virginia; Camerlingo, Rosa; Franco, Renato; Malanga, Donatella; La Rocca, Antonello; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Rocco, Gaetano; Pirozzi, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific sub-populations of cancer cells with stem cell characteristics within the bulk of tumours are implicated in the pathogenesis of heterogeneous malignant tumours. The cells that drive tumour growth have been denoted cancer-initiating cells or cancer stem cells (hereafter CSCs). CSCs have been isolated initially from leukaemias and subsequently from several solid tumours including brain, breast, prostate, colon and lung cancer. This study aimed at isolating and characterising the population of tumour-initiating cells in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Specimens of NSCLC obtained from 89 patients undergoing tumour resection at the Cancer National Institute of Naples were analysed. Three methods to isolate the tumour-initiating cells were used: (1) flow cytometry analysis for identification of positive cells for surface markers such as CD24, CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD133 and CD326; (2) Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion test for the identification of a side-population characteristic for the presence of stem cells; (3) non-adherent culture condition able to form spheres with stem cell-like characteristics. Definition of the tumourigenic potential of the cells through soft agar assay and injection into NOD/SCID mice were used to functionally define (in vitro and in vivo) putative CSCs isolated from NSCLC samples. Upon flow cytometry analysis of NSCLC samples, CD133-positive cells were found in 72% of 89 fresh specimens analysed and, on average, represented 6% of the total cells. Moreover, the number of CD133-positive cells increased markedly when the cells, isolated from NSCLC specimens, were grown as spheres in non-adherent culture conditions. Cells from NSCLC, grown as spheres, when assayed in soft agar, give rise to a 3.8-fold larger number of colonies in culture and are more tumourigenic in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice compared with the corresponding adherent cells. We have isolated and

  9. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowengrub, J. S.; Frieboes, H. B.; Jin, F.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Li, X.; Macklin, P.; Wise, S. M.; Cristini, V.

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  10. Nonlinear modelling of cancer: bridging the gap between cells and tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lowengrub, J S; Frieboes, H B; Jin, F; Chuang, Y-L; Li, X; Macklin, P; Wise, S M; Cristini, V

    2010-01-01

    Despite major scientific, medical and technological advances over the last few decades, a cure for cancer remains elusive. The disease initiation is complex, and including initiation and avascular growth, onset of hypoxia and acidosis due to accumulation of cells beyond normal physiological conditions, inducement of angiogenesis from the surrounding vasculature, tumour vascularization and further growth, and invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis. Although the focus historically has been to study these events through experimental and clinical observations, mathematical modelling and simulation that enable analysis at multiple time and spatial scales have also complemented these efforts. Here, we provide an overview of this multiscale modelling focusing on the growth phase of tumours and bypassing the initial stage of tumourigenesis. While we briefly review discrete modelling, our focus is on the continuum approach. We limit the scope further by considering models of tumour progression that do not distinguish tumour cells by their age. We also do not consider immune system interactions nor do we describe models of therapy. We do discuss hybrid-modelling frameworks, where the tumour tissue is modelled using both discrete (cell-scale) and continuum (tumour-scale) elements, thus connecting the micrometre to the centimetre tumour scale. We review recent examples that incorporate experimental data into model parameters. We show that recent mathematical modelling predicts that transport limitations of cell nutrients, oxygen and growth factors may result in cell death that leads to morphological instability, providing a mechanism for invasion via tumour fingering and fragmentation. These conditions induce selection pressure for cell survivability, and may lead to additional genetic mutations. Mathematical modelling further shows that parameters that control the tumour mass shape also control its ability to invade. Thus, tumour morphology may serve as a predictor of

  11. Spinal intradural primary germ cell tumour--review of literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ahitagni; Puri, Tarun; Goyal, Shikha; Gupta, Ruchika; Eesa, Muneer; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2009-03-01

    Primary spinal cord germ cell tumour is a rare tumour. We herein review the tumour characteristics, associated risk factors, treatment policy, and patterns of failure of primary intradural germ cell tumour. We conducted a PUBMED search using a combination of keywords such as "spinal germ cell tumor," "germinoma," "extradural," "intradural," "intramedullary," "extramedullary," and identified 19 cases of primary spinal germ cell tumour. Clinical features, pathologic characteristics, and treatment details of these patients including status at follow-up were noted from respective case reports. We also describe a case of a young Indian patient of intradural extramedullary germ cell tumour treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The median age at presentation was 24 years. The most common location of the tumour was thoracic (40%). Beta-HCG overproduction was noted in 40% of the patients. Most patients were treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 16.5 months. Recurrence was observed in 10% of the patients, all in beta-HCG over-producing tumours. The illustrative case was a 28-year male, presenting with pain in lower back and both lower limbs for 2 months. Magnetic resonance imaging spine showed an inhomogeneous hyperintense soft tissue mass at L(2)-L(4) spinal level. He was treated with complete surgical excision and four cycles of chemotherapy with BEP regimen following a histological diagnosis of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour. Palliative irradiation to the lumbar spine was given on progression at 3 months. The patient eventually succumbed to his condition, due to compressive transverse myelitis possibly due to cervical cord metastasis. Limited surgery followed by upfront radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy is the optimal management of this rare group of tumour. Omission of radiation therapy from the treatment armamentarium might engender local recurrence and

  12. PHOX2B reliably distinguishes neuroblastoma among small round blue cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yin P; Lee, John P; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Hornick, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma shows considerable histological overlap with other small round blue cell tumours. PHOX2B, a transcription factor that is essential for autonomic nervous system development, has been reported as an immunohistochemical marker for neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to validate the specificity and diagnostic utility of PHOX2B for peripheral neuroblastic tumours. We evaluated 240 cases (133 in whole-tissue sections; 107 in tissue microarrays), including 76 peripheral neuroblastic tumours (median age 2 years; including four adults) and 164 other tumours: 44 Wilms tumours; 20 Ewing sarcomas; 10 each of CIC-rearranged round cell sarcomas, poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, lymphoblastic lymphomas, alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, olfactory neuroblastomas, and melanomas; and five each of NUT midline carcinomas and desmoplastic small round cell tumours. Immunohistochemistry for PHOX2B was performed with a rabbit monoclonal antibody. PHOX2B positivity was defined as the presence of nuclear immunoreactivity in ≥5% of cells. PHOX2B was positive in 70 (92%) peripheral neuroblastic tumours, including 68 of 72 (94%) paediatric and two of four (50%) adult cases. Furthermore, PHOX2B was consistently negative in all non-peripheral neuroblastic tumours, with staining being absent in 160 cases and limited in four cases. PHOX2B is a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for peripheral neuroblastic tumours, including neuroblastoma. PHOX2B reliably distinguishes neuroblastoma from histological mimics such as Wilms tumour, Ewing sarcoma, and CIC-rearranged round cell sarcoma. PHOX2B negativity in two of four adult neuroblastoma cases raises the possibility that some adult neuroblastomas are of a different lineage than paediatric cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Monte Carlo based protocol for cell survival and tumour control probability in BNCT.

    PubMed

    Ye, S J

    1999-02-01

    A mathematical model to calculate the theoretical cell survival probability (nominally, the cell survival fraction) is developed to evaluate preclinical treatment conditions for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). A treatment condition is characterized by the neutron beam spectra, single or bilateral exposure, and the choice of boron carrier drug (boronophenylalanine (BPA) or boron sulfhydryl hydride (BSH)). The cell survival probability defined from Poisson statistics is expressed with the cell-killing yield, the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density, and the tolerable neutron fluence. The radiation transport calculation from the neutron source to tumours is carried out using Monte Carlo methods: (i) reactor-based BNCT facility modelling to yield the neutron beam library at an irradiation port; (ii) dosimetry to limit the neutron fluence below a tolerance dose (10.5 Gy-Eq); (iii) calculation of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction density in tumours. A shallow surface tumour could be effectively treated by single exposure producing an average cell survival probability of 10(-3)-10(-5) for probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs, while a deep tumour will require bilateral exposure to achieve comparable cell kills at depth. With very pure epithermal beams eliminating thermal, low epithermal and fast neutrons, the cell survival can be decreased by factors of 2-10 compared with the unmodified neutron spectrum. A dominant effect of cell-killing yield on tumour cell survival demonstrates the importance of choice of boron carrier drug. However, these calculations do not indicate an unambiguous preference for one drug, due to the large overlap of tumour cell survival in the probable ranges of the cell-killing yield for the two drugs. The cell survival value averaged over a bulky tumour volume is used to predict the overall BNCT therapeutic efficacy, using a simple model of tumour control probability (TCP).

  14. The novel tumour suppressor Madm regulates stem cell competition in the Drosophila testis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Jiangsha; Zeng, Xiankun; Hou, Steven X

    2016-01-21

    Stem cell competition has emerged as a mechanism for selecting fit stem cells/progenitors and controlling tumourigenesis. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we identify Mlf1-adaptor molecule (Madm), a novel tumour suppressor that regulates the competition between germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) for niche occupancy. Madm knockdown results in overexpression of the EGF receptor ligand vein (vn), which further activates EGF receptor signalling and integrin expression non-cell autonomously in CySCs to promote their overproliferation and ability to outcompete GSCs for niche occupancy. Conversely, expressing a constitutively activated form of the Drosophila JAK kinase (hop(Tum-l)) promotes Madm nuclear translocation, and suppresses vn and integrin expression in CySCs that allows GSCs to outcompete CySCs for niche occupancy and promotes GSC tumour formation. Tumour suppressor-mediated stem cell competition presented here could be a mechanism of tumour initiation in mammals.

  15. Long non-coding RNA NRON is downregulated in HCC and suppresses tumour cell proliferation and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhicheng; Xiong, Zhiyong; Li, Ruixi; Liang, Hao; Jia, Changchang; Deng, Meihai

    2018-05-14

    Dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs is a newly identified mechanism for tumour progression. Previous studies have suggested that the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) gene plays a very important role in cancer growth and metastasis. However, lncNRON is a newly identified repressor of NFAT, and its function is largely unknown, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the expression levels of lncNRON in 215 pairs of HCC tissue were evaluated by qRT-PCR, and its relationship to clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, and survival was analysed. Furthermore, stably overexpressing lncNRON cell lines were constructed and evaluated for cell phenotype. Finally, we detected epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) proteins to determine the underlying mechanism involved in lncNRON function. We observed that lncNRON was downregulated in HCC tumour tissues; low lncNRON expression was associated with poor tumour differentiation and the presence of vascular tumour thrombus, which tended to result in poor clinical outcomes, as demonstrated by the recurrence rate and survival curves. Functional analysis showed that lncNRON overexpression impaired colony formation and cell viability and inhibited cell migration and invasion. A study using tumour-bearing mice showed that lncNRON markedly limited tumour growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that the expression of the EMT-related epithelial marker, E-cadherin, increased, whereas the expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, snail, and vimentin was attenuated by lncNRON overexpression in HCC cells. Therefore, lower lncNRON expression indicates a poorer clinical outcome in HCC. LncNRON overexpression can suppress HCC growth and metastasis via inhibiting the EMT, and lncNRON may function as a new HCC prognostic marker. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. History of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the macro- and micro-environment of tumour-bearing hosts

    PubMed Central

    Talmadge, James E.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2015-01-01

    Tumour-induced granulocytic hyperplasia is associated with tumour vasculogenesis and escape from immunity via T-cell suppression. Initially, these myeloid cells were identified as granulocytes or monocytes; however, recent studies revealed that this hyperplasia was associated with populations of multi-potent progenitor cells identified as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The discovery and study of MDSCs have provided a wealth of information regarding tumour pathobiology, extended our understanding of neoplastic progression, and modified our approaches to immune adjuvant therapy. In this perspective, we discuss the history of MDSCs, their influence on tumour progression and metastasis, and the crosstalk between tumour cells, MDSCs, and the host macroenvironment. PMID:24060865

  17. Mixed Germ Cell Tumour in an Infertile Male Having Unilateral Cryptorchidism: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Singla, Anand; Kaur, Navneet; Sandhu, Gunjeet; Nagori, Rupesh

    2016-02-01

    Mixed germ cell tumours with multiple components occur more frequently than the pure varieties of germ cell tumours. Embryonal carcinoma and teratoma together form the most common components of the mixed germ cell tumour but the yolk sac tumour is usually seen as a minor component in patients presenting with mixed germ cell tumour. We report a rare case of 27-year-old Hepatitis C positive male presenting with pain in left lower abdomen with associated history of same sided undescended testis and infertility. Right sided testis lying in scrotal sac appeared normal on ultrasonography but patient was azoospermic. He had raised levels of serum markers, alpha feto protein and beta HCG. Examination showed a large mass in left lower abdomen involving the sigmoid colon with the absence of left testis in left scrotum which was confirmed on CT scan. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology examination revealed it as a malignant mixed germ cell tumour composed predominantly of a yolk sac tumour, with minor component as seminoma and embryonal carcinoma in an undescended testis. Following this, the level of serum markers came down. The patient is now undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and is doing well.

  18. Blue Cell Tumour at Unusual Site: Retropritoneal Ewings Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Javalgi, Anita P; Karigoudar, Mahesh H; Palur, Katyayani

    2016-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant tumour of osseous or non-osseous origin, tremed as extra-skeletal Ewings sarcoma if arising from soft tissue. It is rare occurrence tumor most commonly occurring in paravertebral area, chest wall, head & neck and retroperitoneum. Reporting an interesting case of retroperitoneal Ewing's sarcoma in 39 years old female. Patient had complains of abdominal discomfort & vague pain since 2 months, following weakness in lower limb and loss of weight. On detail history and examination she was further referred to detail pathological and radiological investigations. Haematological profile, renal function test and liver function test were in normal limits. USG abdomen was normal, MRI showed a mass in pelvis retroperitoneum measuring 10x10cms, bilateral ovaries and tubes were normal. Because of retroperitoneal nature of tumor and suspicion of uterine sarcoma, laparotomy was performed. The large retroperitoneal mass adherent to posterior of uterus was excised and send for histopathological diagnosis. On gross and microscopy examination the diagnosis of blue cell tumor with PAS positivity, possibility of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor was made which was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, positive for S100, Vementin and CD99 and negative for desmin and CK. Confirmed diagnosis help in accurate management and improves survival rate.

  19. Increasing the speed of tumour diagnosis during surgery with selective scanning Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Kenny; Rowlands, Christopher J.; Varma, Sandeep; Perkins, William; Leach, Iain H.; Koloydenko, Alexey A.; Pitiot, Alain; Williams, Hywel C.; Notingher, Ioan

    2014-09-01

    One of the main challenges in cancer surgery is ensuring that all tumour cells are removed during surgery, while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible. Histopathology, the gold-standard technique for cancer diagnosis, is often impractical for intra-operative use because of the time-consuming tissue preparation procedures (sectioning and staining). Raman micro-spectroscopy is a powerful technique that can discriminate between tumours and healthy tissues with high accuracy, based entirely on intrinsic chemical differences. However, raster-scanning Raman micro-spectroscopy is a slow imaging technique that typically requires data acquisition times as long as several days for typical tissue samples obtained during surgery (1 × 1 cm2) - in particular when high signal-to-noise ratio spectra are required to ensure accurate diagnosis. In this paper we present two techniques based on selective sampling Raman micro-spectroscopy that can overcome these limitations. In selective sampling, information regarding the spatial features of the tissue, either measured by an alternative optical technique or estimated in real-time from the Raman spectra, can be used to drastically reduce the number of Raman spectra required for diagnosis. These sampling strategies allowed diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma in skin tissue samples excised during Mohs micrographic surgery faster than frozen section histopathology, and two orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques based on raster-scanning Raman microscopy. Further development of these techniques may help during cancer surgery by providing a fast and objective way for surgeons to ensure the complete removal of tumour cells while sparing as much healthy tissue as possible.

  20. The expression of ADAM12 (meltrin alpha) in human giant cell tumours of bone.

    PubMed

    Tian, B L; Wen, J M; Zhang, M; Xie, D; Xu, R B; Luo, C J

    2002-12-01

    To examine the expression of ADAM12 (meltrin alpha), a member of the disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family, in human giant cell tumours of the bone, skeletal muscle tissue from human embryos, and human adult skeletal muscle tissue. ADAM12 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation. ADAM12 mRNA was detected in 14 of the 20 giant cell tumours of bone and in three of the six tumour cell cultures. The expression of ADAM12 in cells cultured from the tumour was linked to the presence of multinucleated giant cells. ADAM12 mRNA could not be detected in the five adult skeletal muscle tissue samples, although it was found in the two embryonic skeletal muscle tissue samples. ADAM12 mRNA was localised to the cytoplasm of multinucleated giant cells and some mononuclear stromal cells. These results indicate that multinucleated giant cells are formed by the cell fusion of mononuclear stromal cells in giant cell tumours of bone and that ADAM12 is involved in the cell fusion process.

  1. A model of the effects of cancer cell motility and cellular adhesion properties on tumour-immune dynamics.

    PubMed

    Frascoli, Federico; Flood, Emelie; Kim, Peter S

    2017-06-01

    We present a three-dimensional model simulating the dynamics of an anti-cancer T-cell response against a small, avascular, early-stage tumour. Interactions at the tumour site are accounted for using an agent-based model (ABM), while immune cell dynamics in the lymph node are modelled as a system of delay differential equations (DDEs). We combine these separate approaches into a two-compartment hybrid ABM-DDE system to capture the T-cell response against the tumour. In the ABM at the tumour site, movement of tumour cells is modelled using effective physical forces with a specific focus on cell-to-cell adhesion properties and varying levels of tumour cell motility, thus taking into account the ability of cancer cells to spread and form clusters. We consider the effectiveness of the immune response over a range of parameters pertaining to tumour cell motility, cell-to-cell adhesion strength and growth rate. We also investigate the dependence of outcomes on the distribution of tumour cells. Low tumour cell motility is generally a good indicator for successful tumour eradication before relapse, while high motility leads, almost invariably, to relapse and tumour escape. In general, the effect of cell-to-cell adhesion on prognosis is dependent on the level of tumour cell motility, with an often unpredictable cross influence between adhesion and motility, which can lead to counterintuitive effects. In terms of overall tumour shape and structure, the spatial distribution of cancer cells in clusters of various sizes has shown to be strongly related to the likelihood of extinction. © The authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of reduction of AFB1-induced liver tumours by antioxidants with increased activity of microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nyandieka, H S; Wakhis, J; Kilonzo, M M

    1990-10-01

    The influence of nutritional factors on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced liver tumours was investigated in rats. When a dose of 500 micrograms AFB1/kg body weight was given to rats in the absence of any anticarcinogen, 80 per cent of the rats developed liver tumours as compared to 0 to 40 per cent in those which received anticarcinogens. While beta-carotene totally inhibited the development of liver tumours ascorbic acid, selenium, and uric acid reduced the percentages of tumour-bearing rats to 13 per cent each. GSH and vitamin E also reduced these percentages to 20 and 40 per cent respectively. The reduction of tumour incidence by each anticarcinogen was associated with induction of increased microsomal enzyme activity. Inhibition of AFB1-induced liver cancer development thus seems to occur through microsomal enzyme induction and AFB1 activation.

  3. Modelling cell population growth with applications to cancer therapy in human tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Basse, Britta; Baguley, Bruce C; Marshall, Elaine S; Wake, Graeme C; Wall, David J N

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the work undertaken to model a population of cells and the effects of cancer therapy. We began with a theoretical one compartment size structured cell population model and investigated its asymptotic steady size distributions (SSDs) (On a cell growth model for plankton, MMB JIMA 21 (2004) 49). However these size distributions are not similar to the DNA (size) distributions obtained experimentally via the flow cytometric analysis of human tumour cell lines (data obtained from the Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, New Zealand). In our one compartment model, size was a generic term, but in order to obtain realistic steady size distributions we chose size to be DNA content and devised a multi-compartment mathematical model for the cell division cycle where each compartment corresponds to a distinct phase of the cell cycle (J. Math. Biol. 47 (2003) 295). We then incorporated another compartment describing the possible induction of apoptosis (cell death) from mitosis phase (Modelling cell death in human tumour cell lines exposed to anticancer drug paclitaxel, J. Math. Biol. 2004, in press). This enabled us to compare our model to flow cytometric data of a melanoma cell line where the anticancer drug, paclitaxel, had been added. The model gives a dynamic picture of the effects of paclitaxel on the cell cycle. We hope to use the model to describe the effects of other cancer therapies on a number of different cell lines. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [Characteristics of extracranial malignant germ cell tumours in two age groups of children (0-10 and 10-18 years). Multicentre experiences].

    PubMed

    Drozyńska, Elzbieta; Połczyńska, Katarzyna; Popadiuk, Stefan; Niedzwiecki, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Jakub; Balcerska, Anna; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Bilska, Katarzyna; Balwierz, Walentyna; Chełmecka, Lilianna; Chybicka, Alicja; Dudeńko, Izabella; Karolczyk, Grazyna; Kowalczyk, Jerzy; Krawczuk-Rybak, Maryna; Kurylak, Andrzej; Leszczyńska, Elzbieta; Matysiak, Michał; Młynarski, Wojciech; Pobudejska, Aneta; Sobol, Grazyna; Sońta-Jakimczyk, Danuta; Szajdak, Katarzyna; Tredowska-Skoczeń, Dorota; Szmyd, Krzysztof; Trelińska, Joanna; Urasiński, Tomasz; Wachowiak, Jacek; Wieczorek, Maria; Wiśniewska-Slusarz, Hanna; Woźniak, Sebastian; Woźniak, Wojciech; Wysocki, Mariusz

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess if any differences exist in children germ cell tumours depending on age, we compared some features of germ cell tumours in two age groups:younger than 10 and between 11 and 18 years. Data of 146 patients with germ cell tumours treated in 15 Polish paediatric oncology departments between 1995 and 2005 were evaluated. They were divided into two groups: 76 children 0-10 years old (group I) and 70 patients 11-18 years old (group II). Tumour morphology, sex of patients, primary tumour and metastases localization, disease stage, biochemical markers, treatment response, disease relapse and long survival were analyzed. Every patient was treated according to the TGM 95 protocol. In group 1, 67 tumours were assessed histologically. 64%t tumours had homogenous structure with yolk sac tumour in predominance and 36% were mixed. Yolk sac tumour (YST) or teratoma as components of mixed tumours were the most commonly found. In older group 64 tumours were examined, 41% were homogenous, and seminoma/dysgerminoma predominated. In 59% mixed tumours the most common components were YST embryonal carcinoma and teratoma. The most common primary site in group I was the sacrococcygeal region while in group II - the gonads. Disseminated disease was recognized mostly in older children. Among two evaluated serum markers, AFP was increased mostly in younger patients (76% vs 44%), and 3HCG in older group (40% vs 9%). Treatment response was comparable in both groups. Two relapses were observed in each group. Poor outcome was noted in 17/140 analyzed patients: 9 (12%) in group I and 8 (11%) in group II. In 12 of patients with poor outcome the cause of death was progression and in 5 of them - treatment complications. 1. Germ cell tumours in younger and older children differ in histology, primary localization and serum level of biochemical markers. 2. In older patients germ cell tumours are recognized more frequently in advanced clinical stages. 3. Treatment response was

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of pre-treatment biopsy for grading cutaneous mast cell tumours in dogs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, T; Kudnig, S T; Firestone, S M

    2018-06-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are common tumours of the canine skin, and are estimated to represent up to 20% of all skin tumours in dogs. Tumour grade has a major impact on the incidence of local recurrence and metastatic potential. In addition to helping the clinician with surgical planning, knowledge of the tumour grade also assists in proper prognostication and client education. For pre-treatment biopsies to be useful, there must exist a high level of correlation between the histopathological grade obtained from the pre-treatment biopsy and the actual histopathological grade from the excisional biopsy. The aim of this study was to determine concordance of tumour grade between various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch, needle core) and the "gold standard" excisional biopsy method. We found an overall concordance rate of 96% based on the Patnaik grading system, and an overall concordance rate of 92% based on the Kiupel grading system. The accuracy of the various biopsy techniques (wedge, punch and needle core) when compared with excisional biopsy was 92%, 100% and 100%, respectively, based on the Patnaik grading system, and 90%, 95% and 100%, respectively, based on the Kiupel grading system. Of the cases with discordant results, the pre-treatment biopsies tended to underestimate the grade of the tumour. Based on these results, we conclude that pre-treatment biopsies are sufficiently accurate for differentiating low-grade from high-grade MCTs, regardless of biopsy technique or tumour location. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Aging tumour cells to cure cancer: "pro-senescence" therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Calcinotto, Arianna; Alimonti, Andrea

    2017-01-19

    Robust scientific evidence demonstrates that senes-cence induction in cancer works as a potent weapon to eradicate tumorigenesis. Therapies that enhance senescence not only promote a stable cell growth arrest but also work as a strong stimulus for the acti-vation of the antitumour immune response. However, recent advances suggest that if senescent tumour cells are not cleared from the tumours, they may promote tumour progression and metastasis. In this article, we focus on concepts that are relevant to a pro-senescence therapeutic approach, including caveats, and we propose therapeutic strategies that involve the combined use of pro-senescence therapies with im-munotherapies to promote the clearance of senescent tumour cells. In our opinion, these approaches may avoid potential negative effects of pro-senescence therapies and may also enhance the efficacy of cur-rently available immunotherapies.

  7. Enhanced anti-tumour immunity requires the interplay between resident and circulating memory CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Enamorado, Michel; Iborra, Salvador; Priego, Elena; Cueto, Francisco J.; Quintana, Juan A.; Martínez-Cano, Sarai; Mejías-Pérez, Ernesto; Esteban, Mariano; Melero, Ignacio; Hidalgo, Andrés; Sancho, David

    2017-01-01

    The goal of successful anti-tumoural immunity is the development of long-term protective immunity to prevent relapse. Infiltration of tumours with CD8+ T cells with a resident memory (Trm) phenotype correlates with improved survival. However, the interplay of circulating CD8+ T cells and Trm cells remains poorly explored in tumour immunity. Using different vaccination strategies that fine-tune the generation of Trm cells or circulating memory T cells, here we show that, while both subsets are sufficient for anti-tumour immunity, the presence of Trm cells improves anti-tumour efficacy. Transferred central memory T cells (Tcm) generate Trm cells following viral infection or tumour challenge. Anti-PD-1 treatment promotes infiltration of transferred Tcm cells within tumours, improving anti-tumour immunity. Moreover, Batf3-dependent dendritic cells are essential for reactivation of circulating memory anti-tumour response. Our findings show the plasticity, collaboration and requirements for reactivation of memory CD8+ T cells subsets needed for optimal tumour vaccination and immunotherapy. PMID:28714465

  8. Giant cell tumour 2nd metatarsal-Result with en-bloc excision and autologous fibular grafting.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Saurabh; Chawla, Sumit; Agarwal, Sippy; Agarwal, Puneet

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) of the small bones is relatively uncommon tumour. It occurs most commonly in the distal portions of femur and radius and proximal end of tibia. GCT of small bones presents at advanced stages with major bony destruction. These tumours represent more aggressive course; associated with increased local recurrence rates (40%) and metastasis. Various treatment modalities like en-bloc resection, cryosurgery, intralesional curettage with burring/phenolization or bone cement are available. In our case en-bloc resection with reconstruction using nonvascular autogenous fibular strut graft was used in patient of 2nd metatarsal GCT and a favourable functional outcome was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypoxia and prostaglandin E receptor 4 signalling pathways synergise to promote endometrial adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Rob D; Wilson, Martin R; Boddy, Sheila C; McKinlay, Andrew T M; Sales, Kurt J; Jabbour, Henry N

    2011-05-12

    The prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) pathway is a potent driver of tumour development in humans by enhancing the biosynthesis and signalling of prostaglandin (PG) E(2). PTGS2 expression and PGE(2) biosynthesis is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, however the mechanism whereby PTGS and PGE(2) regulate endometrial tumour growth is unknown. Here we investigated (a) the expression profile of the PGE synthase enzymes (PTGES, PTGES-2, PTGES-3) and PGE receptors (PTGER1-4) in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium and (b) the role of PTGER4 in endometrial tumorigenesis in vivo. We found elevated expression of PTGES2 and PTGER4 and suppression of PTGER1 and PTGER3 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium. Using WT Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and Ishikawa cells stably transfected with the full length PTGER4 cDNA (PTGER4 cells) xenografted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice, we show that PTGER4 rapidly and significantly enhances tumour growth rate. Coincident with enhanced PTGER4-mediated tumour growth we found elevated expression of PTGS2 in PTGER4 xenografts compared with WT xenografts. Furthermore we found that the augmented growth rate of the PTGER4 xenografts was not due to enhanced angiogenesis, but regulated by an increased proliferation index and hypoxia. In vitro, we found that PGE(2) and hypoxia independently induce expression of PTGER4 indicating two independent pathways regulating prostanoid receptor expression. Finally we have shown that PGE(2) and hypoxia synergise to promote cellular proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

  10. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells in Urothelial Cancers and Clinical Correlations: Comparison of Two Methods

    PubMed Central

    Fina, Emanuela; Necchi, Andrea; Bottelli, Stefano; Reduzzi, Carolina; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Iacona, Chiara; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTC) are identified exploiting their protein/gene expression patterns or distinct size compared to blood cells. Data on CTC in bladder cancer (BC) are still scarce. We comparatively analyzed CTC enrichment by AdnaTest ProstateCancerSelect (AT) and ScreenCell®Cyto (SC) kits, combined with identification by EPCAM, MUC1, and ERBB2 expression and by cytological criteria, respectively, in 19 nonmetastatic (M0) and 47 metastatic (M+) BC patients, at baseline (T0) and during treatment (T1). At T0, CTC positivity rates by AT were higher in M+ compared to M0 cases (57.4% versus 25%, p = 0.041). EPCAM was detected in 75% of CTC-positive samples by AT, showing increasing expression levels from T0 to T1 (median (interquartile range, IQR): 0.18 (0.07–0.42) versus 0.84 (0.33–1.84), p = 0.005) in M+ cases. Overall, CTC positivity by SC was around 80% regardless of clinical setting and time point of analysis, except for a lower occurrence at T1 in M0 cases. At T0, circulating tumour microemboli were more frequently (25% versus 8%) detected and more numerous in M+ compared to M0 patients. The approach used for CTC detection impacts the outcome of CTC studies. Further investigations are required to clarify the clinical validity of AT and SC in specific BC clinical contexts. PMID:28321147

  11. Magnetic catechin-dextran conjugate as targeted therapeutic for pancreatic tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Vittorio, Orazio; Voliani, Valerio; Faraci, Paolo; Karmakar, Biswajit; Iemma, Francesca; Hampel, Silke; Kavallaris, Maria; Cirillo, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    Catechin-dextran conjugates have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their anticancer activity against a range of cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to concentrate therapeutically important drugs due to their magnetic-spatial control and provide opportunities for targeted drug delivery. Enhancement of the anticancer efficiency of catechin-dextran conjugate by functionalisation with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Modification of the coating shell of commercial magnetic nanoparticles (Endorem) composed of dextran with the catechin-dextran conjugate. Catechin-dextran conjugated with Endorem (Endo-Cat) increased the intracellular concentration of the drug and it induced apoptosis in 98% of pancreatic tumour cells placed under magnetic field. The conjugation of catechin-dextran with Endorem enhances the anticancer activity of this drug and provides a new strategy for targeted drug delivery on tumour cells driven by magnetic field. The ability to spatially control the delivery of the catechin-dextran by magnetic field makes it a promising agent for further application in cancer therapy.

  12. LACTB is a tumour suppressor that modulates lipid metabolism and cell state.

    PubMed

    Keckesova, Zuzana; Donaher, Joana Liu; De Cock, Jasmine; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Lingrell, Susanne; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Bierie, Brian; Tischler, Verena; Noske, Aurelia; Okondo, Marian C; Reinhardt, Ferenc; Thiru, Prathapan; Golub, Todd R; Vance, Jean E; Weinberg, Robert A

    2017-03-30

    Post-mitotic, differentiated cells exhibit a variety of characteristics that contrast with those of actively growing neoplastic cells, such as the expression of cell-cycle inhibitors and differentiation factors. We hypothesized that the gene expression profiles of these differentiated cells could reveal the identities of genes that may function as tumour suppressors. Here we show, using in vitro and in vivo studies in mice and humans, that the mitochondrial protein LACTB potently inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Its mechanism of action involves alteration of mitochondrial lipid metabolism and differentiation of breast cancer cells. This is achieved, at least in part, through reduction of the levels of mitochondrial phosphatidylserine decarboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine. These observations uncover a novel mitochondrial tumour suppressor and demonstrate a connection between mitochondrial lipid metabolism and the differentiation program of breast cancer cells, thereby revealing a previously undescribed mechanism of tumour suppression.

  13. Effects of glucocorticoid hormones on cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumours in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-01-01

    Adrenocortical hormones have previously been shown to influence cell proliferation in many tissues. In this report, their influence on cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomata is compared. Colonic tumour cell proliferation was found to be retarded following adrenalectomy and this retardation was reversible by administration of hydrocortisone, or by administration of synthetic steroids with predominantly glucocorticoid activity. Tumour cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats was not promoted by the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone. Neither adrenalectomy, nor adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly influenced colonic crypt cell proliferation.

  14. The 3p14.2 tumour suppressor ADAMTS9 is inactivated by promoter CpG methylation and inhibits tumour cell growth in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bianfei; Feng, Yixiao; Zhang, Hongbin; Yu, Fang; Li, Qianqian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Hongying; Ying, Jianming; Li, Lili; Yang, Dejuan; Peng, Weiyan; Tang, Jun; Li, Shuman; Ren, Guosheng; Tao, Qian; Xiang, Tingxiu

    2018-02-01

    Chromosome region 3p12-14 is an important tumour suppressor gene (TSG) locus for multiple cancers. ADAMTS9, a member of the metalloprotease large family, has been identified as a candidate 3p14.2 TSG inactivated by aberrant promoter CpG methylation in several carcinomas, but little known about its expression and function in breast cancer. In this report, ADAMTS9 expression and methylation was analysed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. ADAMTS9 RNA was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines (6/8). After treating the cells with demethylation agent Aza and TSA, ADAMTS9 expression was dramatically increased. Bisulphite genomic sequencing and methylation-specific PCR detected promoter methylation, which was associated with decreased ADAMTS9 expression. Hypermethylation was also detected in 130/219 (59.4%) of primary tumours but only in 4.5% (2/44) of paired surgical margin tissues. Ectopic expression of ADAMTS9 in tumor cells induced significant growth suppression, cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, enhanced apoptosis and reduced cell migration and invasion. Conditioned culture medium from ADAMTS9-transfected BT549 cells markedly disrupted tube formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in Matrigel. Furthermore, ADAMTS9 inhibited AKT signaling and its downstream targets (MDM2, p53, p21, p27, E-cadherin, VIM, SNAIL, VEGFA, NFκB-p65 and MMP2). In addition, we demonstrated, for the first time, that ADAMTS9 inhibits AKT signaling, through suppressing its upstream activators EGFR and TGFβ1/TβR(I/II) in breast cancer cells. Our results suggest that ADAMTS9 is a TSG epigenetically inactivated in breast cancer, which functions through blocking EGFR- and TGFβ1/TβR(I/II)-activated AKT signaling. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  15. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) expression associated with cell survival and death in cancer cell lines infected with canine distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A; Ferreira, H L; Vieira, F V; Gameiro, R; Andrade, A L; Eugênio, F R; Flores, E F; Cardoso, T C

    2017-06-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel strategy for treatment of cancer in humans and companion animals as well. Canine distemper virus (CDV), a paramyxovirus, has proven to be oncolytic through induction of apoptosis in canine-derived tumour cells, yet the mechanism behind this inhibitory action is poorly understood. In this study, three human mammary tumour cell lines and one canine-derived adenofibrosarcoma cell line were tested regarding to their susceptibility to CDV infection, cell proliferation, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8). CDV replication-induced cytopathic effect, decrease of cell proliferation rates, and >45% of infected cells were considered death and/or under late apoptosis/necrosis. TNFAIP8 and CDVM gene expression were positively correlated in all cell lines. In addition, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was associated with increase in virus titres (p < 0.005). Thus, these results strongly suggest that both human and canine mammary tumour cells are potential candidates for studies concerning CDV-induced cancer therapy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the inferior vena cava presenting as an adrenal mass

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Anupam; Acharya, Naveen; Sharma, Varun

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A 54-year-old woman had a mass located in the right suprarenal area. On imaging, this mass appeared to be infiltrating the inferior vena cava (IVC). Exploratory laparotomy was undertaken and excision of the tumour was done with the sleeve of the involved IVC. The mass turned out to be a perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) on histopathological examination. This report describes previously reported cases of PEComa in brief and highlights the problems associated with the management of this tumour. PMID:20233679

  17. The natural history of Leydig cell testicular tumours: an analysis of the National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Nason, G J; Redmond, E J; Considine, S W; Omer, S I; Power, D; Sweeney, P

    2018-05-01

    Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis is a rare histological subtype of stromal tumours, accounting for 1 to 3% of testicular neoplasms. The natural history of LCT is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and natural history of Leydig cell tumours (LCT) of the testes. A search of the National Cancer Registry of Ireland database was performed regarding Leydig cell testicular tumours. Recurrence free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were analysed. Between 1994 and 2013, 2755 new cases of testicular cancer were diagnosed in Ireland. Of these, 22 (0.79%) were Leydig cell tumours. Nineteen were invasive (stage T1) and three were in situ (stage Tis). One patient developed a local recurrence following an organ preserving procedure and underwent a completion orchidectomy 107 days after initial diagnosis. No further treatment was required. There have been no disease-specific deaths. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 95.5, 88.2 and 73.3%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 100% and the 5-year recurrence free survival (RFS) was 93.3%. From the National Cancer Registry, LCT has been shown to be a rare subtype of testicular tumour. Due to the relatively favourable natural history, it may be possible to tailor less aggressive surveillance regimens in these patients.

  18. Mixed germ cells tumour primarily located in the thyroid -- a case report.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka-Chmiel, Joanna; Chrószcz, Małgorzata; Słomian, Grzegorz; Kajdaniuk, Dariusz; Zajęcki, Wojciech; Borgiel-Marek, Halina; Marek, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Germ cells tumours most frequently occur in the gonads. Extragonadal localisation is rare and concerns mainly the mediastinum, retroperitoneum and pineal. We present the first description of a patient with a mixed germ cells tumour located primarily in the thyroid. A 35-year-old man in a good clinical condition was admitted to diagnose metastasis revealed in an X-ray of his lungs. Abnormal laboratory tests showed high concentrations of beta-HCG and LDH. Ultrasound examination revealed: hypoechogenic area 8 × 4 × 5 mm in the left testicle, and enlarged left thyroid lobe with echogenically heterogenous mass. In cytological examination of the thyroid, carcinomatous cells were found, which suggested metastasis. A diagnosis of cancerous spread of testicular cancer to the lungs and thyroid was made. The left testicle, with spermatic cord, was removed, yet in the histopathological examination no carcinomatous cells were found. Rescue chemotherapy, according to the BEP scheme (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) was started, but during its course the patient died. Histopathology disclosed primary mixed germ cells tumour in the thyroid, predominantly with carcinoma embryonale and focuses of choriocarcinoma. Extragonadal germ cells tumours rarely occur in the thyroid. In medical literature, some cases of teratomas and a single case of yolk sac tumour in the thyroid have been described. The presence of choriocarcinoma was responsible for the high serum concentration of beta-HCG. Surgery of germ cells tumours proves insufficient. The conventional chemotherapy is based on cisplatin. In conclusion, extragonadal germ cells tumours are rare, but should be considered while co-existing with elevated markers such as: AFP, beta-HCG and lack of abnormalities in the gonads.

  19. Effects of phytoestrogens on the trophoblast tumour cell lines BeWo and Jeg3.

    PubMed

    Plessow, D; Waldschläger, J; Richter, D U; Jeschke, U; Bruer, G; Briese, V; Friese, K

    2003-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a diverse group of nonsteroidal plant compounds that occur naturally in many plants. Because they possess a ring system similar to estrogens they are able to bind to estrogen receptors in humans. With this study we tested the effects of the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein in cell proliferation and the production of progesterone and hCG in trophoblast tumour cells of the cell lines BeWo and Jeg3. The phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast tumour cells. Untreated cells were used as controls. At designated times, aliquots were removed and tested for progesterone and hCG. In addition we tested the effects of phytoestrogens on cell proliferation. Different concentrations of genistein and daidzein were cultivated with trophoblast tumour cells. After designated times, 1 microCi thymidin-(methyl-3H) was added. Methyl-3H thymidin incorporation was tested and compared to incorporation results of untreated cells. With this study we could show that the production of the steroid hormone progesterone and the protein hormone hCG is influenced by the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein in trophoblast tumour cells of the cell lines BeWo and Jeg3. We found a correlation between the effects on the proliferation and the production of progesterone and hCG at high concentrations of genistein and daidzein in the cell lines tested. With low concentrations of genistein and daidzein we observed a stimulation of the production of hCG and a weak inhibition of proliferation in both cell lines BeWo and Jeg3. The results obtained with this study suggest that only high doses of phytoestrogens (> 1 mumol/ml) can reduce the proliferation of trophoblast tumour cells significantly. Low doses of phytoestrogens induced a higher hCG production in both cell lines tested. Although high hCG production did not lead to a higher proliferation rate of the tumour cells tested, hCG is able to induce neovascularisation in tumour

  20. A Human Tissue Culture Cell Line from a Transitional Cell Tumour of the Urinary Bladder: Growth, Chromosome Pattern and Ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Rigby, Carolyn C.; Franks, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    Cell cultures were made from 18 human bladder tumours. Three cell lines were maintained for seven transfer generations, but all had a “fibroblastic” morphology and a normal diploid karyotype. A fourth line has been maintained for over 80 transfer generations. This was derived from a well differentiated papillary tumour of bladder. Morphologically the light and electron microscopic structure of the cells resembled that of bladder tumours. The cells formed tumour nodules, with a similar structure, when transplanted into hamster cheek pouches. There is a stem line chromosome number of 48. Karyotypes of 60% of the stem line cells had one extra chromosome in Group C and one in Group D. ImagesFig. 11Figs. 12-15Fig. 16Fig. 17Figs. 1-4Fig. 18Figs. 5-8Figs. 9-10 PMID:5503601

  1. Morphological analysis of circulating tumour cells in patients undergoing surgery for non-small cell lung carcinoma using the isolation by size of epithelial tumour cell (ISET) method.

    PubMed

    Hofman, V; Long, E; Ilie, M; Bonnetaud, C; Vignaud, J M; Fléjou, J F; Lantuejoul, S; Piaton, E; Mourad, N; Butori, C; Selva, E; Marquette, C H; Poudenx, M; Sibon, S; Kelhef, S; Vénissac, N; Jais, J P; Mouroux, J; Molina, T J; Vielh, P; Hofman, P

    2012-02-01

    Recurrence rates after surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) range from 25 to 50% and 5-year survival is only 60-70%. Because no biomarkers are predictive of recurrence or the onset of metastasis, pathological TNM (pTNM) staging is currently the best prognostic factor. Consequently, the preoperative detection of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) might be useful in tailoring therapy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphologically any circulating non-haematological cells (CNHCs) in patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC using the isolation by size of epithelial tumour cell (ISET) method. Of 299 blood samples tested, 250 were from patients with resectable NSCLC and 59 from healthy controls. The presence of CNHCs was assessed blindly and independently by 10 cytopathologists on May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained filters and the cells classified into three groups: (i) malignant cells, (ii) uncertain malignant cells, and (iii) benign cells. We assessed interobserver agreement using Kappa (κ) analysis as the measure of agreement. A total of 123 out of 250 (49%) patients showed CNHCs corresponding to malignant, uncertain malignant and benign cells, in 102/250 (41%), 15/250 (6%) and 6/250 (2%) cases, respectively. No CNHCs were detected in the blood of healthy subjects. Interobserver diagnostic variability was absent for CNHCs, low for malignant cells and limited for uncertain malignant and benign cells. Identification of CTCs in resectable NSCLC patients, using ISET technology and according to cytopathological criteria of malignancy, appears to be a new and promising field of cytopathology with potential relevance to lung oncology. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Significance of perivascular tumour cells defined by CD109 expression in progression of glioma.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, Yukihiro; Mii, Shinji; Enomoto, Atsushi; Momota, Hiroyuki; Han, Yi-Peng; Kato, Takuya; Ushida, Kaori; Kato, Akira; Asai, Naoya; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Aoki, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Ohka, Fumiharu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Todo, Tomoki; Ogawa, Seishi; Natsume, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2017-12-01

    In the progression of glioma, tumour cells often exploit the perivascular microenvironment to promote their survival and resistance to conventional therapies. Some of these cells are considered to be brain tumour stem cells (BTSCs); however, the molecular nature of perivascular tumour cells has not been specifically clarified because of the complexity of glioma. Here, we identified CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and regulator of multiple signalling pathways, as a critical regulator of the progression of lower-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II/III) by clinicopathological and whole-genome sequencing analysis of tissues from human glioma. The importance of CD109-positive perivascular tumour cells was confirmed not only in human lower-grade glioma tissues but also in a mouse model that recapitulated human glioma. Intriguingly, BTSCs isolated from mouse glioma expressed high levels of CD109. CD109-positive BTSCs exerted a proliferative effect on differentiated glioma cells treated with temozolomide. These data reveal the significance of tumour cells that populate perivascular regions during glioma progression, and indicate that CD109 is a potential therapeutic target for the disease. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Histaminergic regulation of natural killer cell-mediated clearance of tumour cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Asea, A; Hermodsson, S; Hellstrand, K

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of Swiss albino mice with histamine enhanced the clearance of natural killer (NK)-cell sensitive YAC-1 lymphoma and B16/F10 melanoma cells from lung tissue in vivo, but did not affect the elimination of NK-cell-insensitive P815 mastocytoma cells. The effect of histamine was apparently mediated by H2-type histamine receptors (H2R) since it was blocked by ranitidine, and H2R antagonist. Histamine did not affect clearance of tumour cells in animals depleted of NK cells in vivo by treatment with antibodies to asialo-GM1 or NK1.1. The effect of histamine was time-dependent: pretreatment with histamine for 3 h significantly augmented the clearance of YAC-1 cells, whereas, pretreatment with histamine for 5 min was ineffective. Histamine potentiated the anti-tumour properties of NK-cell activators such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) or interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in vivo. None of these lymphokines significantly affected the clearance of YAC-1 cells unless animals were concomitantly treated with histamine. Treatment with ranitidine alone reduced the in vivo clearance of YAC-1 cells from lungs but did not affect the clearance of NK-cell-insensitive P815 cells. Effects of ranitidine on NK-cell function in vivo were not shared by a chemical control to ranitidine, AH20239AA, thus indicating that the inhibition of NK-cells results from H2R antagonism rather than non-specific toxicity. It is concluded that histaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of NK cell function in vivo.

  4. Canine transmissible venereal tumour: a morphological and immunohistochemical study of 11 tumours in growth phase and during regression after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, C M; Griffey, S M; Naydan, D K; Flores, E; Cepeda, R; Cattaneo, G; Madewell, B R

    2000-05-01

    Eleven dogs with canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) were given vincristine sulphate chemotherapy to induce tumour regression. Biopsy specimens were collected from tumours during the growth phase, before chemotherapy, and again from the same dogs during the regression induced by chemotherapy. Laboratory assessment included cytology, histology, the number of tumour cells in relation to the number of intratumoral leucocytes, proliferative and apoptotic fractions of tumour cells, intratumoral vessel density, and fibrosis. The results revealed that during regression, tumour cell proliferation ceased, apoptosis increased, leucocytes increased (with increased proportion of T lymphocytes), tumour parenchyma collapsed around intratumoral vessels, and fibrosis increased. These results, which were similar to findings in dogs with spontaneous regression of CTVT, suggest that tumour immunity plays a role in tumour regression after modest chemotherapy. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Advances in understanding tumour evolution through single-cell sequencing.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jack; Jahn, Katharina; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2017-04-01

    The mutational heterogeneity observed within tumours poses additional challenges to the development of effective cancer treatments. A thorough understanding of a tumour's subclonal composition and its mutational history is essential to open up the design of treatments tailored to individual patients. Comparative studies on a large number of tumours permit the identification of mutational patterns which may refine forecasts of cancer progression, response to treatment and metastatic potential. The composition of tumours is shaped by evolutionary processes. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing offer the possibility to analyse the evolutionary history and accompanying heterogeneity of tumours at an unprecedented resolution, by sequencing single cells. New computational challenges arise when moving from bulk to single-cell sequencing data, leading to the development of novel modelling frameworks. In this review, we present the state of the art methods for understanding the phylogeny encoded in bulk or single-cell sequencing data, and highlight future directions for developing more comprehensive and informative pictures of tumour evolution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Evolutionary principles - heterogeneity in cancer?, edited by Dr. Robert A. Gatenby. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling the balance between quiescence and cell death in normal and tumour cell populations.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Ubezio, Paolo; Basse, Britta

    2006-08-01

    When considering either human adult tissues (in vivo) or cell cultures (in vitro), cell number is regulated by the relationship between quiescent cells, proliferating cells, cell death and other controls of cell cycle duration. By formulating a mathematical description we see that even small alterations of this relationship may cause a non-growing population to start growing with doubling times characteristic of human tumours. Our model consists of two age structured partial differential equations for the proliferating and quiescent cell compartments. Model parameters are death rates from and transition rates between these compartments. The partial differential equations can be solved for the steady-age distributions, giving the distribution of the cells through the cell cycle, dependent on specific model parameter values. Appropriate formulas can then be derived for various population characteristic quantities such as labelling index, proliferation fraction, doubling time and potential doubling time of the cell population. Such characteristic quantities can be estimated experimentally, although with decreasing precision from in vitro, to in vivo experimental systems and to the clinic. The model can be used to investigate the effects of a single alteration of either quiescence or cell death control on the growth of the whole population and the non-trivial dependence of the doubling time and other observable quantities on particular underlying cell cycle scenarios of death and quiescence. The model indicates that tumour evolution in vivo is a sequence of steady-states, each characterised by particular death and quiescence rate functions. We suggest that a key passage of carcinogenesis is a loss of the communication between quiescence, death and cell cycle machineries, causing a defect in their precise, cell cycle dependent relationship.

  7. Live Cell Imaging of Viscosity in 3D Tumour Cell Models.

    PubMed

    Shirmanova, Marina V; Shimolina, Lubov' E; Lukina, Maria M; Zagaynova, Elena V; Kuimova, Marina K

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal levels of viscosity in tissues and cells are known to be associated with disease and malfunction. While methods to measure bulk macroscopic viscosity of bio-tissues are well developed, imaging viscosity at the microscopic scale remains a challenge, especially in vivo. Molecular rotors are small synthetic viscosity-sensitive fluorophores in which fluorescence parameters are strongly correlated to the microviscosity of their immediate environment. Hence, molecular rotors represent a promising instrument for mapping of viscosity in living cells and tissues at the microscopic level. Quantitative measurements of viscosity can be achieved by recording time-resolved fluorescence decays of molecular rotor using fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), which is also suitable for dynamic viscosity mapping, both in cellulo and in vivo. Among tools of experimental oncology, 3D tumour cultures, or spheroids, are considered a more adequate in vitro model compared to a cellular monolayer, and represent a less labour-intensive and more unified approach compared to animal tumour models. This chapter describes a methodology for microviscosity imaging in tumour spheroids using BODIPY-based molecular rotors and two photon-excited FLIM.

  8. Sensitive capture of circulating tumour cells by functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hyeun Joong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Zhang, Zhuo; Azizi, Ebrahim; Pham, Trinh M.; Paoletti, Costanza; Lin, Jules; Ramnath, Nithya; Wicha, Max S.; Hayes, Daniel F.; Simeone, Diane M.; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2013-10-01

    The spread of cancer throughout the body is driven by circulating tumour cells (CTCs). These cells detach from the primary tumour and move from the bloodstream to a new site of subsequent tumour growth. They also carry information about the primary tumour and have the potential to be valuable biomarkers for disease diagnosis and progression, and for the molecular characterization of certain biological properties of the tumour. However, the limited sensitivity and specificity of current methods for measuring and studying these cells in patient blood samples prevents the realization of their full clinical potential. The use of microfluidic devices is a promising method for isolating CTCs. However, the devices are reliant on three-dimensional structures, which limits further characterization and expansion of cells on the chip. Here we demonstrate an effective approach to isolating CTCs from blood samples of pancreatic, breast and lung cancer patients, by using functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets on a patterned gold surface. CTCs were captured with high sensitivity at a low concentration of target cells (73 +/- 32.4% at 3-5 cells per ml blood).

  9. Immunological Characterization of Whole Tumour Lysate-Loaded Dendritic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ottobrini, Luisa; Biasin, Mara; Borelli, Manuela; Lucignani, Giovanni; Trabattoni, Daria; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dendritic cells play a key role as initiators of T-cell responses, and even if tumour antigen-loaded dendritic cells can induce anti-tumour responses, their efficacy has been questioned, suggesting a need to enhance immunization strategies. Matherials & Methods We focused on the characterization of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells pulsed with whole tumour lysate (TAA-DC), as a source of known and unknown antigens, in a mouse model of breast cancer (MMTV-Ras). Dendritic cells were evaluated for antigen uptake and for the expression of MHC class I/II and costimulatory molecules and markers associated with maturation. Results Results showed that antigen-loaded dendritic cells are characterized by a phenotypically semi-mature/mature profile and by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and T-cell priming. Activated dendritic cells stimulated T-cell proliferation and induced the production of high concentrations of IL-12p70 and IFN-γ but only low levels of IL-10, indicating their ability to elicit a TH1-immune response. Furthermore, administration of Antigen loaded-Dendritic Cells in MMTV-Ras mice evoked a strong anti-tumour response in vivo as demonstrated by a general activation of immunocompetent cells and the release of TH1 cytokines. Conclusion Data herein could be useful in the design of antitumoral DC-based therapies, showing a specific activation of immune system against breast cancer. PMID:26795765

  10. Ca2+ signalling in endothelial progenitor cells: a novel means to improve cell-based therapy and impair tumour vascularisation.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Francesco; Lodola, Francesco; Dragoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Elisa; Bottino, Cinzia; Guerra, Germano; Laforenza, Umberto; Rosti, Vittorio; Tanzi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have recently been employed in cell-based therapy (CBT) to promote regeneration of ischemic organs, such as heart and limbs. Furthermore, EPCs may sustain tumour vascularisation and provide an additional target for anticancer therapies. CBT is limited by the paucity of cells harvested from peripheral blood and suffers from several pitfalls, including the low rate of engrafted EPCs, whereas classic antiangiogenic treatments manifest a number of side effects and may induce resistance into the patients. CBT will benefit of a better understanding of the signal transduction pathway(s) which drive(s) EPC proliferation, trafficking, and incorporation into injured tissues. At the same time, this information might outline alternative molecular targets to impair tumor neovascularisation and improve the therapeutic outcome of antiangiogenic strategies. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is the key signal in the regulation of cellular replication, migration, and differentiation. In particular, Ca(2+) signalling may regulate cellcycle progression, due to the Ca(2+)-sensitivity of a number of cycline-dependent kinases, and gene expression, owing to the Ca(2+)-dependence of several transcription factors. Recent work has outlined the role of the so-called store-operated Ca(2+) entry in driving EPC proliferation and migration. Unravelling the mechanisms guiding EPC engraftment into neovessels might supply the biological bases required to improve CBT and anticancer treatments. For example, genetic manipulation of the Ca(2+) signalling machinery could provide a novel approach to increase the extent of limb regeneration or preventing tumour vascularisation by EPCs.

  11. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  12. Can cell kinetic parameters predict the response of tumours to radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    McNally, N J

    1989-11-01

    Three potential predictive assays of the repopulation component in tumour response to therapy are considered. (1) The DNA index can easily be measured. It is of prognostic value for cancers of certain sites, aneuploidy being a bad prognostic indicator. It is not strictly an indicator of cell proliferation. (2) The in vitro labelling index is of predictive value in early stage operable breast cancer and in head and neck cancer. In the former a high pretreatment labelling index can identify patients who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. (3) The tumour potential doubling time (Tpot) can be measured rapidly following in vivo labelling with bromodeoxyuridine or iododeoxyuridine. We have measured Tpot in over 100 solid tumours with a success rate of about 75 per cent. Nearly 50 per cent of the tumours have a pre-treatment potential doubling time of 5 days or less. These would be suitable candidates for accelerated fractionation.

  13. Cell-free circulating tumour DNA as a liquid biopsy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Caldas, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in massively parallel sequencing and digital genomic techniques support the clinical validity of cell-free circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) as a 'liquid biopsy' in human cancer. In breast cancer, ctDNA detected in plasma can be used to non-invasively scan tumour genomes and quantify tumour burden. The applications for ctDNA in plasma include identifying actionable genomic alterations, monitoring treatment responses, unravelling therapeutic resistance, and potentially detecting disease progression before clinical and radiological confirmation. ctDNA may be used to characterise tumour heterogeneity and metastasis-specific mutations providing information to adapt the therapeutic management of patients. In this article, we review the current status of ctDNA as a 'liquid biopsy' in breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Distant metastasis of intraosseous dentinogenic ghost cell tumour to the donor site of a bone graft

    PubMed Central

    Park, H-R; Min, J-H; Huh, K-H; Yi, W-J; Heo, M-S; Lee, S-S; Cho, Y-A

    2013-01-01

    A dentinogenic ghost cell tumour (DGCT) is an extremely rare odontogenic tumour which is considered as a solid, neoplastic variant of calcifying odontogenic cyst. Intraosseous DGCTs are more aggressive than extraosseous DGCTs and have a high propensity for local recurrence. This report describes a case of a diagnosis of recurrent DGCT at the primary site and a distant donor site. A 25-year-old female patient visited a dental hospital for a complaint of facial swelling for the previous month. Incisional biopsy was performed and the specimen was diagnosed as DGCT. Partial mandibulectomy for tumour resection and iliac bone graft was performed. 2 years later, the tumour recurred on the mandible and iliac bone. The recurrent lesion on the donor site was diagnosed as metastasized DGCT. This report highlights the possibility of distant metastasis occurring at a graft donor site. PMID:23420853

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and colorectal cancer: a troublesome twosome for the anti-tumour immune response?

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Grace; Heijltjes, Madelon; Houston, Aileen M.; Rani, Sweta; Ritter, Thomas; Egan, Laurence J.; Ryan, Aideen E.

    2016-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment (TME) is an important factor in determining the growth and metastasis of colorectal cancer, and can aid tumours by both establishing an immunosuppressive milieu, allowing the tumour avoid immune clearance, and by hampering the efficacy of various therapeutic regimens. The tumour microenvironment is composed of many cell types including tumour, stromal, endothelial and immune cell populations. It is widely accepted that cells present in the TME acquire distinct functional phenotypes that promote tumorigenesis. One such cell type is the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC). Evidence suggests that MSCs exert effects in the colorectal tumour microenvironment including the promotion of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. MSCs immunomodulatory capacity may represent another largely unexplored central feature of MSCs tumour promoting capacity. There is considerable evidence to suggest that MSCs and their secreted factors can influence the innate and adaptive immune responses. MSC-immune cell interactions can skew the proliferation and functional activity of T-cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and macrophages, which could favour tumour growth and enable tumours to evade immune cell clearance. A better understanding of the interactions between the malignant cancer cell and stromal components of the TME is key to the development of more specific and efficacious therapies for colorectal cancer. Here, we review and explore MSC- mediated mechanisms of suppressing anti-tumour immune responses in the colon tumour microenvironment. Elucidation of the precise mechanism of immunomodulation exerted by tumour-educated MSCs is critical to inhibiting immunosuppression and immune evasion established by the TME, thus providing an opportunity for targeted and efficacious immunotherapy for colorectal cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:27542276

  16. Immunosuppressive mediators of oral squamous cell carcinoma in tumour samples and saliva.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Arantes, Diego Antonio Costa; Bernardes, Vanessa Fátima; Jaeger, Filipe; Silva, Janine Mayra; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the salivary concentrations of IL-10, TGF-β1 and soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to those in healthy individuals (control group), and to correlate the expression of these mediators in saliva with that in the tumour microenvironment. Neoplastic tissue and saliva samples from patients with OSCC (n=22) were analysed by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. We detected high expression of IL-10 and HLA-G in the tumour microenvironment when compared to healthy oral mucosa samples. Determination of IL-10 salivary concentration enabled us to distinguish patients with OSCC from healthy individuals (P=0.038), which showed correlation with tissue expression of this cytokine. HLA-G salivary release was similar in both groups (P=0.17) and no correlation with tumour expression was observed. TGF-β1 expression was low or absent in tumours, and salivary concentration was similar between groups. Our results suggest that of the three markers analysed, IL-10 is a potential salivary biomarker. Furthermore, the elevated expression of HLA-G and IL-10 in tumour sites could favour the escape of tumour cells from immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow cytometric techniques for detection of candidate cancer stem cell subpopulations in canine tumour models.

    PubMed

    Blacking, T M; Waterfall, M; Samuel, K; Argyle, D J

    2012-12-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that tumour growth is maintained by a distinct subpopulation of 'CSC'. This study applied flow cytometric methods, reported to detect CSC in both primary and cultured cancer cells of other species, to identify candidate canine subpopulations. Cell lines representing diverse canine malignancies, and cells derived from spontaneous canine tumours, were evaluated for expression of stem cell-associated surface markers (CD34, CD44, CD117 and CD133) and functional properties [Hoecsht 33342 efflux, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity]. No discrete marker-defined subsets were identified within established cell lines; cells derived directly from spontaneous tumours demonstrated more heterogeneity, although this diminished upon in vitro culture. Functional assays produced variable results, suggesting context-dependency. Flow cytometric methods may be adopted to identify putative canine CSC. Whilst cell lines are valuable in assay development, primary cells may provide a more rewarding model for studying tumour heterogeneity in the context of CSC. However, it will be essential to fully characterize any candidate subpopulations to ensure that they meet CSC criteria. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Increased survival of children with solid tumours: how did we get there and how to keep the success going?

    PubMed

    Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-10-03

    Survival after childhood cancer has dramatically increased in the last 3 to 4 decades. Among extracranial tumours, Wilms tumours and other less common kidney tumours have the best results, but treatment of neuroblastoma, often disseminated at diagnosis, is still extremely challenging. How did survival of solid tumours in childhood increase from around 30% in the 1970s to 70-90% today? This is the result of a multidisciplinary effort and access to improved diagnostic techniques and treatment modalities. This article focuses on the role of imaging in this positive evolution and particularly, how imaging will contribute to keep the survival curves improving. Radiologists and other imaging experts retain a key position before diagnosis and during and after treatment. Investigations before diagnosis are key to further investigations and referral with no delay. The first investigations will most often involve radiologists through radiography or ultrasonography, according to tumour site. The description of these first observations and particularly the conclusion and its wording are crucial to the subsequent events leading to diagnosis. In imaging at diagnosis, the aim is to obtain a precise description of the primary tumour and its local spread as soon as possible. The choice of technique depends on local conditions but may include ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, scintigraphies (bone, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), octreotide), or fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), combined with low dose CT or MRI scanning. CT scan and chest radiography are recommended for investigating the presence of lung metastases. There is no infiltrate too small to be a metastasis. Overall there is no specific imaging criterion. The pathologists hold this diagnostic key. Tumour response is evaluated during and after preoperative chemotherapy using techniques and measurements comparable with those used at diagnosis

  19. The immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil impairs the adhesion capacity of gastrointestinal tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Leckel, K; Beecken, W-D; Jonas, D; Oppermann, E; Coman, M C; Beck, K-F; Cinatl, J; Hailer, N P; Auth, M K H; Bechstein, W O; Shipkova, M; Blaheta, R A

    2003-11-01

    Immunosuppression correlates with the development and recurrence of cancer. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been shown to reduce adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte recruitment into the donor organ. We have hypothesized that MMF might also prevent receptor-dependent tumour dissemination. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of MMF on tumour cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and compared them with the effects on T cell-endothelial cell interactions. Influence of MMF on cellular adhesion to HUVEC was analysed using isolated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, or WiDr colon adenocarcinoma cells as the model tumour. HUVEC receptors ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin were detected by flow cytometry, Western blot or Northern blot analysis. Binding activity of T cells or WiDr cells in the presence of MMF were measured using immobilized receptor globulin chimeras. MMF potently blocked both T cell and WiDr cell binding to endothelium by 80%. Surface expression of the endothelial cell receptors was reduced by MMF in a dose-dependent manner. E-selectin mRNA was concurrently reduced with a maximum effect at 1 microm. Interestingly, MMF acted differently on T cells and WiDr cells. Maximum efficacy of MMF was reached at 10 and 1 microm, respectively. Furthermore, MMF specifically suppressed T cell attachment to ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and P-selectin. In contrast, MMF prevented WiDr cell attachment to E-selectin. In conclusion, our data reveal distinct effects of MMF on both T cell adhesion and tumour cell adhesion to endothelial cells. This suggests that MMF not only interferes with the invasion of alloactivated T cells, but might also be of value in managing post-transplantation malignancy.

  20. A rare case of combined placental site trophoblastic tumour with mature cystic teratoma and mixed germ cell tumour in the testis.

    PubMed

    Leow, Wei Qiang; Loh, Hwai Liang Alwin; Lee, Lui Shiong; Goh, Chin Hong Ronald

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old male presented with persistent right testicular pain. Following ultrasound detection of testicular nodules and biopsy for intraoperative consultation which yielded germ cell tumour, he underwent radical orchidectomy. A predominantly whitish cyst and a lobulated, variegated nodule were identified. Histology showed a mature cystic teratoma with a focus of infiltrative epithelioid cells containing eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei, invading ectatic vessel wall associated with fibrinoid change. These cells were positive for cytokeratin, human placental lactogen and inhibin, while negative for Melan-A, p63 and alpha-fetoprotein, consistent with placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). The variegated nodule was a mixed germ cell tumour composed of embryonal carcinoma and immature teratoma. Aside from choriocarcinoma, primary trophoblastic tumors such as PSTT, which are derived from intermediate trophoblasts, are extremely rare in the testis. Aside from a case of pure testicular PSTT, 2 other cases have been described in association with germ cell tumour, of which one is a mature teratoma with PSTT that demonstrated gain of chromosome 12p. The other presented with PSTT in retroperitoneal recurrence of a testicular mixed germ cell tumour. We discussed the features of this tumour in the testis and important differentials in its diagnosis.

  1. Multidrug resistance characterization in multicellular tumour spheroids from two human lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Rodríguez, Raúl; Fuentes, Jorge Morales

    2015-01-01

    Most of the knowledge about the mechanisms of multidrug resistance in lung cancer has been achieved through the use of cell lines isolated from tumours cultivated either in suspensions of isolated cells or in monolayers and following exposition to different cytostatic agents. However, tumour cell lines growing as multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) frequently develop multicellular resistance in a drug-independent form. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypic and functional differences between two human NSCLC cell lines (INER-37 and INER-51) grown as traditional monolayer cultures versus as MTS. After 72 hours treatment with anticancer drugs, chemosensitivity in monolayers and tumour spheroids cultures was assessed using MTT assay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the mRNAs of multidrug resistance-related genes. The expression of P-gp was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and cell cycle profiles were analyzed using FACS. The results indicate that when grown as MTS each lung cancer cell line had different morphologies as well as and abrogation of cell proliferation with decrease of the G2/M phase. Also, MTS acquired multicellular resistance to several chemotherapeutic agents in only a few days of culture which were accomplished by significant changes in the expression of MDR-related genes. Overall, the MTS culture changed the cellular response to drugs nevertheless each of the cell lines studied seems to implement different mechanisms to acquire multicellular resistance.

  2. The immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil impairs the adhesion capacity of gastrointestinal tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    LECKEL, K; BEECKEN, W-D; JONAS, D; OPPERMANN, E; COMAN, M C; BECK, K-F; CINATL, J; HAILER, N P; AUTH, M K H; BECHSTEIN, W O; SHIPKOVA, M; BLAHETA, R A

    2003-01-01

    Immunosuppression correlates with the development and recurrence of cancer. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been shown to reduce adhesion molecule expression and leucocyte recruitment into the donor organ. We have hypothesized that MMF might also prevent receptor-dependent tumour dissemination. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of MMF on tumour cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and compared them with the effects on T cell–endothelial cell interactions. Influence of MMF on cellular adhesion to HUVEC was analysed using isolated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, or WiDr colon adenocarcinoma cells as the model tumour. HUVEC receptors ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and P-selectin were detected by flow cytometry, Western blot or Northern blot analysis. Binding activity of T cells or WiDr cells in the presence of MMF were measured using immobilized receptor globulin chimeras. MMF potently blocked both T cell and WiDr cell binding to endothelium by 80%. Surface expression of the endothelial cell receptors was reduced by MMF in a dose-dependent manner. E-selectin mRNA was concurrently reduced with a maximum effect at 1 µm. Interestingly, MMF acted differently on T cells and WiDr cells. Maximum efficacy of MMF was reached at 10 and 1 µm, respectively. Furthermore, MMF specifically suppressed T cell attachment to ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and P-selectin. In contrast, MMF prevented WiDr cell attachment to E-selectin. In conclusion, our data reveal distinct effects of MMF on both T cell adhesion and tumour cell adhesion to endothelial cells. This suggests that MMF not only interferes with the invasion of alloactivated T cells, but might also be of value in managing post-transplantation malignancy. PMID:14616783

  3. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  4. In vitro evaluation of human hybrid cell lines generated by fusion of B-lymphoblastoid cells and ex vivo tumour cells as candidate vaccines for haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Yehia S; Dunnion, Debbie; Teobald, Iryna; Walewska, Renata; Browning, Michael J

    2012-10-12

    Fusions of dendritic cells (DCs) and tumour cells have been shown to induce protective immunity to tumour challenge in animal models, and to represent a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. The broader clinical application of this approach, however, is potentially constrained by the lack of replicative capacity and limited standardisation of fusion cell preparations. We show here that fusion of ex vivo tumour cells isolated from patients with a range of haematological malignancies with the human B-lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL), HMy2, followed by chemical selection of the hybridomas, generated stable, self-replicating human hybrid cell lines that grew continuously in tissue culture, and survived freeze/thawing cycles. The hybrid cell lines expressed HLA class I and class II molecules, and the major T-cell costimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. All but two of 14 hybrid cell lines generated expressed tumour-associated antigens that were not expressed by HMy2 cells, and were therefore derived from the parent tumour cells. The hybrid cell lines stimulated allogeneic T-cell proliferative responses and interferon-gamma release in vitro to a considerably greater degree than their respective parent tumour cells. The enhanced T-cell stimulation was inhibited by CTLA4-Ig fusion protein, and by blocking antibodies to MHC class I and class II molecules. Finally, all of five LCL/tumour hybrid cell lines tested induced tumour antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell responses in vitro in PBL from healthy, HLA-A2+ individuals, as detected by HLA-A2-peptide pentamer staining and cellular cytotoxicity. These data show that stable hybrid cell lines, with enhanced immunostimulatory properties and potential for therapeutic vaccination, can be generated by in vitro fusion and chemical selection of B-LCL and ex vivo haematological tumour cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PD-1+ CD8+ T cells are exhausted in tumours and functional in draining lymph nodes of colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, X; Zhang, H; Xing, Q; Cui, J; Li, J; Li, Y; Tan, Y; Wang, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: The blockade of PD-1–PD-L1 pathway is emerging as an effective therapeutic strategy for several advanced cancers. But the immune regulatory role of PD-1–PD-L1 pathway is not clear in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study aims to evaluate the role of PD-1–PD-L1 pathway in CD8+ T-cell functions in tumour-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) and tumours of CRC patients. Methods: PD-1 expression on CD8+ T cells was examined by flow cytometry, and PD-L1 expression in TDLNs and tumour tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. Production of IFN-γ, IL-2 and expression of granzyme B, perforin in CD8+ T cells were detected by intracellular staining. Results: PD-1 expression is markedly upregulated on CD8+ T cells in TDLNs and tumours compared with that in peripheral blood. PD-1-expressing CD8+ T cells are competent for production of cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) and perforin in the tumour-free lymph nodes (TFLNs), but exhibit exhausted phenotypes in tumours. In addition, PD-L1 is highly expressed in tumours rather than TFLNs, which is closely correlated with the impairment of IFN-γ production of tumour-infiltrating PD-1+ CD8+ T cells. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a suppressive effect of PD-1 on CD8+ T-cell function in tumours, but not in TFLNs. PMID:25093496

  6. That which does not kill me makes me stronger; combining ERK1/2 pathway inhibitors and BH3 mimetics to kill tumour cells and prevent acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Matthew J; Cook, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in RAS or BRAF can drive the inappropriate activation of the ERK1/2. In many cases, tumour cells adapt to become addicted to this deregulated ERK1/2 signalling for their proliferation, providing a therapeutic window for tumour-selective growth inhibition. As a result, inhibition of ERK1/2 signalling by BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors is an attractive therapeutic strategy. Indeed, the first BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, has now been approved for clinical use, while clinical evaluation of MEK1/2 inhibitors is at an advanced stage. Despite this progress, it is apparent that tumour cells adapt quickly to these new targeted agents so that tumours with acquired resistance can emerge within 6–9 months of primary treatment. One of the major reasons for this is that tumour cells typically respond to BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors by undergoing a G1 cell cycle arrest rather than dying. Indeed, although inhibition of ERK1/2 invariably increases the expression of pro-apoptotic BCL2 family proteins, tumour cells undergo minimal apoptosis. This cytostatic response may simply provide the cell with the opportunity to adapt and acquire resistance. Here we discuss recent studies that demonstrate that combination of BRAF or MEK1/2 inhibitors with inhibitors of pro-survival BCL2 proteins is synthetic lethal for ERK1/2-addicted tumour cells. This combination effectively transforms the cytostatic response of BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors into a striking apoptotic cell death response. This not only augments the primary efficacy of BRAF and MEK1/2 inhibitors but delays the onset of acquired resistance to these agents, validating their combination in the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23647573

  7. Prognostic Value of the Tumour-Infiltrating Dendritic Cells in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui H; Jenkins, John T; Bernardo, David; Moorghen, Morgan; Knight, Stella C; Al-Hassi, Hafid O

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) either boost the immune system (enhancing immunity) or dampen it (leading to tolerance). This dual effect explains their vital role in cancer development and progression. DCs have been tested as a predictor of outcomes for cancer progression. Eight studies evaluated tumour-infiltrating DCs (TIDCs) as a predictor for colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. The detection of TIDCs has not kept pace with the increased knowledge about the identification of DC subsets and their maturation status. For that reason, it is difficult to draw a conclusion about the performance of DCs as a predictor of outcome for CRC. In this review, we comprehensively examine the evidence for the in situ immune response due to DC infiltration, in predicting outcome in primary CRC and how such information may be incorporated into routine clinical assessment.

  8. Hypoxia-induced ANGPTL4 sustains tumour growth and anoikis resistance through different mechanisms in scirrhous gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koichi; Kitajima, Yoshihiko; Miyake, Shuusuke; Nakamura, Jun; Wakiyama, Kota; Sato, Hirofumi; Okuyama, Keiichiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Tomokazu; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-09-11

    Patients with scirrhous gastric cancer (SGC) frequently develop peritoneal dissemination, which leads to poor prognosis. The secreted protein angiopoietin-like-4 (ANGPTL4), which is induced by hypoxia, exerts diverse effects on cancer progression. Here, we aimed to determine the biological function of ANGPTL4 in SGC cells under hypoxia. ANGPTL4 levels were higher in SGC cells under hypoxia than in other types of gastric cancer cells. Hypoxia-induced ANGPTL4 mRNA expression was regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Under hypoxic conditions, monolayer cultures of ANGPTL4 knockdown (KD) 58As9 SGC (58As9-KD) cells were arrested in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle through downregulation of c-Myc and upregulation of p27, in contrast to control 58As9-SC cells. Moreover, the ability of 58As9-KD xenografts to form tumours in nude mice was strongly suppressed. When 58As9-KD cells were cultured in suspension, hypoxia strongly increased their susceptibility to anoikis through suppression of the FAK/Src/PI3K-Akt/ERK pro-survival pathway, followed by activation of the apoptotic factors caspases-3, -8 and -9. The development of peritoneal dissemination by 58As9-KD cells was completely inhibited compared with that by 58As9-SC cells. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 is uniquely induced by hypoxia in cultured SGC cells and is essential for tumour growth and resistance to anoikis through different mechanisms.

  9. The mechanical microenvironment in cancer: How physics affects tumours.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerke, Anika; Bussink, Johan; Rowan, Alan E; Span, Paul N

    2015-12-01

    The tumour microenvironment contributes greatly to the response of tumour cells. It consists of chemical gradients, for example of oxygen and nutrients. However, a physical environment is also present. Apart from chemical input, cells also receive physical signals. Tumours display unique mechanical properties: they are a lot stiffer than normal tissue. This may be either a cause or a consequence of cancer, but literature suggests it has a major impact on tumour cells as will be described in this review. The mechanical microenvironment may cause malignant transformation, possibly through activation of oncogenic pathways and inhibition of tumour suppressor genes. In addition, the mechanical microenvironment may promote tumour progression by influencing processes such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, enhancing cell survival through autophagy, but also affects sensitivity of tumour cells to therapeutics. Furthermore, multiple intracellular signalling pathways prove sensitive to the mechanical properties of the microenvironment. It appears the increased stiffness is unlikely to be caused by increased stiffness of the tumour cells themselves. However, there are indications that tumours display a higher cell density, making them more rigid. In addition, increased matrix deposition in the tumour, as well as increased interstitial fluid pressure may account for the increased stiffness of tumours. Overall, tumour mechanics are significantly different from normal tissue. Therefore, this feature should be further explored for use in cancer prevention, detection and treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The novel tumour suppressor Madm regulates stem cell competition in the Drosophila testis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Jiangsha; Zeng, Xiankun; Hou, Steven X.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell competition has emerged as a mechanism for selecting fit stem cells/progenitors and controlling tumourigenesis. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. Here we identify Mlf1-adaptor molecule (Madm), a novel tumour suppressor that regulates the competition between germline stem cells (GSCs) and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs) for niche occupancy. Madm knockdown results in overexpression of the EGF receptor ligand vein (vn), which further activates EGF receptor signalling and integrin expression non-cell autonomously in CySCs to promote their overproliferation and ability to outcompete GSCs for niche occupancy. Conversely, expressing a constitutively activated form of the Drosophila JAK kinase (hopTum−l) promotes Madm nuclear translocation, and suppresses vn and integrin expression in CySCs that allows GSCs to outcompete CySCs for niche occupancy and promotes GSC tumour formation. Tumour suppressor-mediated stem cell competition presented here could be a mechanism of tumour initiation in mammals. PMID:26792023

  11. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  12. Intratubular transplantation as a strategy for establishing animal models of testicular germ cell tumours

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunmin; Kido, Tatsuo; Luo, Jinping; Fukuda, Michiko; Dobrinski, Ina; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2008-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are prevalent cancers among young men. Currently, there is no reliable animal model for TGCTs. To establish such animal models, we have explored the possibility of intratubular testicular transplantation as means to deliver tumour cells into the seminiferous tubules of host animals. Our results demonstrated that transplanted cells could effectively populate the testis of a recipient mouse and develop into TGCTs. In addition, the donor cells could be transfected with a specific transgene before transplantation, thereby providing an approach to evaluate the specific effects of gene functions in the oncogenic processes. Hence, depending on selection of specific donor cells or mixtures of donor cells, transplantation models of TGCTs could be significant for studies on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapies of such a prevalent and important cancer in men. PMID:18808526

  13. Imaging and radiation effects of gold nanoparticles in tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Harold N.; Muir, Mark F.; Taggart, Laura E.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.; Hirst, David G.; Botchway, Stanley W.; Currell, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle radiosensitization represents a novel technique in enhancement of ionising radiation dose and its effect on biological systems. Variation between theoretical predictions and experimental measurement is significant enough that the mechanism leading to an increase in cell killing and DNA damage is still not clear. We present the first experimental results that take into account both the measured biodistribution of gold nanoparticles at the cellular level and the range of the product electrons responsible for energy deposition. Combining synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays, intracellular gold particle imaging and DNA damage assays, has enabled a DNA damage model to be generated that includes the production of intermediate electrons. We can therefore show for the first time good agreement between the prediction of biological outcomes from both the Local Effect Model and a DNA damage model with experimentally observed cell killing and DNA damage induction via the combination of X-rays and GNPs. However, the requirement of two distinct models as indicated by this mechanistic study, one for short-term DNA damage and another for cell survival, indicates that, at least for nanoparticle enhancement, it is not safe to equate the lethal lesions invoked in the local effect model with DNA damage events. PMID:26787230

  14. CD133+ cell content correlates with tumour growth in melanomas from skin with chronic sun-induced damage.

    PubMed

    González-Herrero, I; Romero-Camarero, I; Cañueto, J; Cardeñoso-Álvarez, E; Fernández-López, E; Pérez-Losada, J; Sánchez-García, I; Román-Curto, C

    2013-10-01

    Melanoma is responsible for almost 80% of the deaths attributed to skin cancer. Stem cells, defined by CD133 expression, have been implicated in melanoma tumour growth, but their specific role is still uncertain. We hypothesized that the phenotypic heterogeneity of human cutaneous melanomas is related to their content of CD133+ cells. We compared the percentages of CD133+ cells in 29 tumours from four classic types of melanoma: lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM). Also, we compared the percentages of CD133+ cells in melanomas with different degrees of exposure to ultraviolet radiation: 16 melanomas from skin with chronic sun-induced damage and 13 melanomas from skin without such damage. We found a statistically significant increase of CD133+ cells in three different contexts: in melanomas arising on skin with signs of chronic sun-induced damage vs. nonexposed skin, in melanomas in situ vs. invasive melanomas, and in LMM vs. ALM. The proportions of CD133+ cells did not differ among samples of normal skin with different degrees of sun exposure. A distinct subpopulation of CD133+CXCR4+ cancer stem cells (CSCs) was identified and shown to be related to the invasive phenotype of the tumours. Here, we provide evidence showing, for the first time, that an increase in the CD133+ cell content is associated both with melanomas arising on skin with signs of chronic sun-induced damage and in melanomas in situ with better prognosis. Moreover, our study further confirms the existence of a subpopulation of CD133+CXCR4+ CSCs in cutaneous melanomas with invasive phenotype and poor prognosis. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Neural cell adhesion molecule-deficient beta-cell tumorigenesis results in diminished extracellular matrix molecule expression and tumour cell-matrix adhesion.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, Joakim; Xian, Xiaojie; He, Liqun; Ståhlberg, Anders; Nelander, Sven; Samuelsson, Tore; Kubista, Mikael; Semb, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    To understand by which mechanism neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) limits beta tumour cell disaggregation and dissemination, we searched for potential downstream genes of N-CAM during beta tumour cell progression by gene expression profiling. Here, we show that N-CAM-deficient beta-cell tumorigenesis is associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in cell-matrix adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics, biological processes known to affect the invasive and metastatic behaviour of tumour cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules emerged as the primary target, i.e. N-CAM deficiency resulted in down-regulated mRNA expression of a broad range of ECM molecules. Consistent with this result, deficient deposition of major ECM stromal components, such as fibronectin, laminin 1 and collagen IV, was observed. Moreover, N-CAM-deficient tumour cells displayed defective matrix adhesion. These results offer a potential mechanism for tumour cell disaggregation during N-CAM-deficient beta tumour cell progression. Prospective consequences of these findings for the role of N-CAM in beta tumour cell dissemination are discussed.

  16. p300 expression repression by hypermethylation associated with tumour invasion and metastasis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changsong; Li, Ke; Wei, Lixin; Li, Zhengyou; Yu, Ping; Teng, Lijuan; Wu, Kusheng; Zhu, Jin

    2007-01-01

    Background Aberrant promoter methylation is an important mechanism for gene silencing. Aims To evaluate the promoter methylation status of p300 gene in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods The methylation status of p300 promoter was analysed by methylation‐specific PCR (MSP) in 50 OSCC tissues and the matching non‐cancerous tissues. Oesophageal cancer cell lines (ECa‐109 and TE‐10) were treated with the demethylation agent 5‐aza‐2′‐deoxycytidine (5‐Aza‐CdR), and p300 mRNA expression was detected by RT‐PCR. Results p300 methylation was found in 42% (21/50) of the OSCC tissues, but in only 20% (10/50) of the corresponding non‐cancerous tissues (p = 0.017). In OSCC samples, 65% of those with deep tumour invasion (adventitia) and 63% samples with metastasis revealed p300 promoter methylation (p<0.05). p300 mRNA expression was observed in 19.0% (4/21) of methylated tumours and 58.6% (17/29) of unmethylated tumours (p = 0.005). In addition, p300 mRNA expression was observed in 40% (4/10) of methylated non‐neoplastic tissues and 87.5% (35/40) of unmethylated non‐tumours (p = 0.001). The demethylation caused by 5‐Aza‐CdR increased the p300 mRNA expression levels in oesophageal cancer cell lines. Conclusions p300 transcription silenced by promoter hypermethylation could play a role in the pathogenesis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:17965222

  17. Hypoxia and Prostaglandin E Receptor 4 Signalling Pathways Synergise to Promote Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Tumour Growth

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Rob D.; Wilson, Martin R.; Boddy, Sheila C.; McKinlay, Andrew T. M.; Sales, Kurt J.; Jabbour, Henry N.

    2011-01-01

    The prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS) pathway is a potent driver of tumour development in humans by enhancing the biosynthesis and signalling of prostaglandin (PG) E2. PTGS2 expression and PGE2 biosynthesis is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, however the mechanism whereby PTGS and PGE2 regulate endometrial tumour growth is unknown. Here we investigated (a) the expression profile of the PGE synthase enzymes (PTGES, PTGES-2, PTGES-3) and PGE receptors (PTGER1–4) in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium and (b) the role of PTGER4 in endometrial tumorigenesis in vivo. We found elevated expression of PTGES2 and PTGER4 and suppression of PTGER1 and PTGER3 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium. Using WT Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and Ishikawa cells stably transfected with the full length PTGER4 cDNA (PTGER4 cells) xenografted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice, we show that PTGER4 rapidly and significantly enhances tumour growth rate. Coincident with enhanced PTGER4-mediated tumour growth we found elevated expression of PTGS2 in PTGER4 xenografts compared with WT xenografts. Furthermore we found that the augmented growth rate of the PTGER4 xenografts was not due to enhanced angiogenesis, but regulated by an increased proliferation index and hypoxia. In vitro, we found that PGE2 and hypoxia independently induce expression of PTGER4 indicating two independent pathways regulating prostanoid receptor expression. Finally we have shown that PGE2 and hypoxia synergise to promote cellular proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:21589857

  18. Cross-Talk between Cancer Cells and the Tumour Microenvironment: The Role of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gillian Y.; Pidgeon, Graham P.

    2017-01-01

    5-lipoxygenase is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of a range of bioactive lipids signalling molecules known collectively as eicosanoids. 5-lipoxygenase metabolites such as 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and a number of leukotrienes are mostly derived from arachidonic acid and have been shown to be lipid mediators of inflammation in different pathological states including cancer. Upregulated 5-lipoxygenase expression and metabolite production is found in a number of cancer types and has been shown to be associated with increased tumorigenesis. 5-lipoxygenase activity is present in a number of diverse cell types of the immune system and connective tissue. In this review, we discuss potential routes through which cancer cells may utilise the 5-lipoxygenase pathway to interact with the tumour microenvironment during the development and progression of a tumour. Furthermore, immune-derived 5-lipoxygenase signalling can drive both pro- and anti-tumour effects depending on the immune cell subtype and an overview of evidence for these opposing effects is presented. PMID:28125014

  19. Cross-Talk between Cancer Cells and the Tumour Microenvironment: The Role of the 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Moore, Gillian Y; Pidgeon, Graham P

    2017-01-24

    5-lipoxygenase is an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of a range of bioactive lipids signalling molecules known collectively as eicosanoids. 5-lipoxygenase metabolites such as 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and a number of leukotrienes are mostly derived from arachidonic acid and have been shown to be lipid mediators of inflammation in different pathological states including cancer. Upregulated 5-lipoxygenase expression and metabolite production is found in a number of cancer types and has been shown to be associated with increased tumorigenesis. 5-lipoxygenase activity is present in a number of diverse cell types of the immune system and connective tissue. In this review, we discuss potential routes through which cancer cells may utilise the 5-lipoxygenase pathway to interact with the tumour microenvironment during the development and progression of a tumour. Furthermore, immune-derived 5-lipoxygenase signalling can drive both pro- and anti-tumour effects depending on the immune cell subtype and an overview of evidence for these opposing effects is presented.

  20. The rise of testicular germ cell tumours: the search for causes, risk factors and novel therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a decline in the reproductive vitality of men within the Western world. The declining sperm quantity and quality has been associated with increased overt disorders of sexual development including hypospadias, undescended testes and type II testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs). The increase in TGCTs cannot be accounted for by genetic changes in the population. Therefore exposure to environmental toxicants appears to be a major contributor to the aetiology of TGCTs and men with a genetic predisposition are particularly vulnerable. In particular, Type II TGCTs have been identified to arise from a precursor lesion Carcinoma in situ (CIS), identified as a dysfunctional gonocyte; however, the exact triggers for CIS development are currently unknown. Therefore the transition from gonocytes into spermatogonia is key to those studying TGCTs. Recently we have identified seven miRNA molecules (including members of the miR-290 family and miR-136, 463* and 743a) to be significantly changed over this transition period. These miRNA molecules are predicted to have targets within the CXCR4, PTEN, DHH, RAC and PDGF pathways, all of which have important roles in germ cell migration, proliferation and homing to the spermatogonial stem cell niche. Given the plethora of potential targets affected by each miRNA molecule, subtle changes in miRNA expression could have significant consequences e.g. tumourigenesis. The role of non-traditional oncogenes and tumour suppressors such as miRNA in TGCT is highlighted by the fact that the majority of these tumours express wild type p53, a pivotal tumour suppressor usually inactivated in cancer. While treatment of TGCTs is highly successful, the impact of these treatments on fertility means that identification of exact triggers, earlier diagnosis and alternate treatments are essential. This review examines the genetic factors and possible triggers of type II TGCT to highlight target areas for

  1. Tumour cells down-regulate CCN2 gene expression in co-cultured fibroblasts in a Smad7- and ERK-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Beverley A; Schäfer, Georgia; Leaner, Virna D; Parker, M Iqbal

    2013-10-03

    Recent studies have revealed that interactions between tumour cells and the surrounding stroma play an important role in facilitating tumour growth and invasion. Stromal fibroblasts produce most of the extracellular matrix components found in the stroma. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms involved in tumour cell-mediated regulation of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules in co-cultured fibroblasts. To this end, microarray analysis was performed on CCD-1068SK human fibroblast cells after direct co-culture with MDA-MB-231 human breast tumour cells. We found that the expression of both connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) and type I collagen was negatively regulated in CCD-1068SK fibroblast cells under direct co-culture conditions. Further analysis revealed that Smad7, a known negative regulator of the Smad signalling pathway involved in CCN2 promoter regulation, was increased in directly co-cultured fibroblasts. Inhibition of Smad7 expression in CCD-1068SK fibroblasts resulted in increased CCN2 expression, while Smad7 overexpression had the opposite effect. Silencing CCN2 gene expression in fibroblasts led, in turn, to a decrease in type I collagen mRNA and protein levels. ERK signalling was also shown to be impaired in CCD-1068SK fibroblasts after direct co-culture with MDA-MB-231 tumour cells, with Smad7 overexpression in fibroblasts leading to a similar decrease in ERK activity. These effects were not, however, seen in fibroblasts that were indirectly co-cultured with tumour cells. We therefore conclude that breast cancer cells require close contact with fibroblasts in order to upregulate Smad7 which, in turn, leads to decreased ERK signalling resulting in diminished expression of the stromal proteins CCN2 and type I collagen.

  2. Suspension survival mediated by PP2A-STAT3-Col XVII determines tumour initiation and metastasis in cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Chi; Lin, Shih-Pei; Hsu, Han-Shui; Yang, Shung-Haur; Lin, Chiu-Hua; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Targeting tumour-initiating cells (TICs) would lead to new therapies to cure cancer. We previously demonstrated that TICs have the capacity to survive under suspension conditions, while other cells undergo anoikis. Here we show that TICs exhibit increased phosphorylation levels of S727STAT3 because of PP2A inactivation. Collagen 17 gene expression is upregulated in a STAT3-dependent manner, which also stabilizes laminin 5 and engages cells to form hemidesmosome-like junctions in response. Blocking the PP2A-S727STAT3-collagen 17 pathway inhibits the suspension survival of TICs and their ability to form tumours in mice, while activation of the same pathway increases the suspension survival and tumour-initiation capacities of bulk cancer cells. The S727STAT3 phosphorylation levels correlate with collagen 17 expression in colon tumour samples, and correlate inversely with survival. Finally, this signalling axis enhances the ability of TIC to form tumours in mouse models of malignant lung cancer pleural effusion and spontaneous colon cancer metastasis. PMID:27306323

  3. Suspension survival mediated by PP2A-STAT3-Col XVII determines tumour initiation and metastasis in cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Chi; Lin, Shih-Pei; Hsu, Han-Shui; Yang, Shung-Haur; Lin, Chiu-Hua; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Hung, Mien-Chie; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-06-16

    Targeting tumour-initiating cells (TICs) would lead to new therapies to cure cancer. We previously demonstrated that TICs have the capacity to survive under suspension conditions, while other cells undergo anoikis. Here we show that TICs exhibit increased phosphorylation levels of S727STAT3 because of PP2A inactivation. Collagen 17 gene expression is upregulated in a STAT3-dependent manner, which also stabilizes laminin 5 and engages cells to form hemidesmosome-like junctions in response. Blocking the PP2A-S727STAT3-collagen 17 pathway inhibits the suspension survival of TICs and their ability to form tumours in mice, while activation of the same pathway increases the suspension survival and tumour-initiation capacities of bulk cancer cells. The S727STAT3 phosphorylation levels correlate with collagen 17 expression in colon tumour samples, and correlate inversely with survival. Finally, this signalling axis enhances the ability of TIC to form tumours in mouse models of malignant lung cancer pleural effusion and spontaneous colon cancer metastasis.

  4. Expression of RNA interference triggers from an oncolytic herpes simplex virus results in specific silencing in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to tumours remains a major obstacle for the development of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutics. Following the promising pre-clinical and clinical results with the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) OncoVEXGM-CSF, we aimed to express RNAi triggers from oncolytic HSV, which although has the potential to improve treatment by silencing tumour-related genes, was not considered possible due to the highly oncolytic properties of HSV. Methods To evaluate RNAi-mediated silencing from an oncolytic HSV backbone, we developed novel replicating HSV vectors expressing short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or artificial microRNA (miRNA) against the reporter genes green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and β-galactosidase (lacZ). These vectors were tested in non-tumour cell lines in vitro and tumour cells that are moderately susceptible to HSV infection both in vitro and in mice xenografts in vivo. Silencing was assessed at the protein level by fluorescent microscopy, x-gal staining, enzyme activity assay, and western blotting. Results Our results demonstrate that it is possible to express shRNA and artificial miRNA from an oncolytic HSV backbone, which had not been previously investigated. Furthermore, oncolytic HSV-mediated delivery of RNAi triggers resulted in effective and specific silencing of targeted genes in tumour cells in vitro and tumours in vivo, with the viruses expressing artificial miRNA being comprehensibly more effective. Conclusions This preliminary data provide the first demonstration of oncolytic HSV-mediated expression of shRNA or artificial miRNA and silencing of targeted genes in tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. The vectors developed in this study are being adapted to silence tumour-related genes in an ongoing study that aims to improve the effectiveness of oncolytic HSV treatment in tumours that are moderately susceptible to HSV infection and thus, potentially improve response rates seen in human clinical

  5. Differential cytotoxic properties of Helleborus niger L. on tumour and immunocompetent cells.

    PubMed

    Schink, Michael; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Bertrams, Julia; Duckstein, Sarina M; Müller, Margit B; Huber, Roman; Stintzing, Florian C; Gründemann, Carsten

    2015-01-15

    In Romanian folk medicine, Helleborus niger L. is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or viral infections and in complementary therapy, especially in anthroposophic medicine (AM), where the plant is administered as an adjuvant to treat malignant diseases. In the present study, we investigated the differential cytotoxic effects of H. niger on human tumour and healthy cells of the human immune system in vitro. Protoanemonin and saponins, as significant constituents of H. niger extracts, were quantified in five individual batches using validated HPLC methods. Further, the impact of H. niger on proliferation capacity (MTT assay) as well as on apoptosis and necrosis induction in a panel of tumour cell lines and human lymphocytes (combined annexin V and propidium iodide staining) was monitored. In addition, NK cell function (degranulation-CD107a assay and IFN-gamma secretion) was also investigated since these immunocompetent cells are important for the control of malignancies within the human body. Extracts of H. niger induced proliferation inhibition not only of lymphoblastic leukaemia cells (MOLT4; IC50: 171 µg/mL) but also of myosarcoma (SK-UT-1b; IC50: 304 µg/mL) and melanoma cells (HT-144; IC50: 569 µg/mL) due to the induction of apoptosis. Purified T cells or NK cells were significantly affected through the presence of high H. niger concentrations while bulk lymphocytes were not affected. NK cells' anti-tumour functions expressed by degranulation capacity as well as IFN-y production were unaffected by the presence of the H. niger extract. Since protoanemonin and saponins have been reported in the literature to exert cytotoxic effects, their content was also determined. H. niger extracts exhibit differential cytotoxicity towards tumour cell lines and healthy human T- and NK-cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined cytotoxic activity of an infectious, but non-replicative herpes simplex virus type 1 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells against tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Sabrina; Boscheinen, Jan B; Vogel, Karin; Knipe, David M; DeLuca, Neal; Gross, Stefanie; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Schuster, Philipp; Schmidt, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumour of the skin with increasing incidence, frequent metastasis and poor prognosis. At the same time, it is an immunogenic type of cancer with spontaneous regressions. Most recently, the tumoricidal effect of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and their capacity to overcome the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment are being investigated. In this respect, we studied the effect of the infectious, but replication-deficient, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) d106S vaccine strain, which lacks essential immediate early genes, in pDC co-cultures with 11 melanoma cell lines. We observed a strong cytotoxic activity, inducing apoptotic and necrotic cell death in most melanoma cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of HSV-1 d106S plus pDC was comparable to the levels of cytotoxicity induced by natural killer cells, but required only a fraction of cells with effector : target ratios of 1 : 20 (P < 0·05). The suppressive activity of cell-free supernatants derived from virus-stimulated pDC was significantly neutralized using antibodies against the interferon-α receptor (P < 0·05). In addition to type I interferons, TRAIL and granzyme B contributed to the inhibitory effect of HSV-1 d106S plus pDC to a minor extent. UV-irradiated viral stocks were significantly less active than infectious particles, both in the absence and presence of pDC (P < 0·05), indicating that residual activity of HSV-1 d106S is a major component and sensitizes the tumour cells to interferon-producing pDC. Three leukaemic cell lines were also susceptible to this treatment, suggesting a general anti-tumour effect. In conclusion, the potential of HSV-1 d106S for therapeutic vaccination should be further evaluated in patients suffering from different malignancies. PMID:26194553

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma arising in a calyceal cyst mimicking a cystic renal tumour.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Song, Joo Yeon; Lee, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Solitary renal cysts are relatively common. The occurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in a renal cyst is rare. We present the case of a 59-year-old man with a medical history of viral hepatitis B. During a workup for his hepatitis, a computed tomography scan revealed a large cystic tumour in the upper region of the left kidney. A radical left nephrectomy was performed. Microscopic examination of the cystic tumour revealed a grade 2 TCC. The cyst was lined by transitional epithelium. This is a case of a TCC growing within a renal calyceal cyst.

  8. Interdependent IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T-cell controls tumour eradication by combined α-CTLA-4+α-PD-1 therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Fu, Tihui; Guan, Baoxiang; Chen, Jianfeng; Blando, Jorge M.; Allison, James P.; Xiong, Liangwen; Subudhi, Sumit K.; Gao, Jianjun; Sharma, Padmanee

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy with α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-1 has shown significant clinical responses in different types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, combining detailed analysis of human tumour samples with preclinical tumour models, we report that concomitant blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 improves anti-tumour immune responses and synergistically eradicates tumour. Mechanistically, combination therapy relies on the interdependence between IL-7 and IFN-γ signalling in T cells, as lack of either pathway abrogates the immune-boosting and therapeutic effects of combination therapy. Combination treatment increases IL-7Rα expression on tumour-infiltrating T cells in an IFN-γ/IFN-γR signalling-dependent manner, which may serve as a potential biomarker for clinical trials with immune checkpoint blockade. Our data suggest that combining immune checkpoint blockade with IL-7 signalling could be an effective modality to improve immunotherapeutic efficacy. Taken together, we conclude that combination therapy potently reverses immunosuppression and eradicates tumours via an intricate interplay between IFN-γ/IFN-γR and IL-7/IL-7R pathways. PMID:27498556

  9. Surgical outcomes in patients with primary mediastinal non-seminomatous germ cell tumours and elevated post-chemotherapy serum tumour markers.

    PubMed

    De Latour, Bertrand; Fadel, Elie; Mercier, Olaf; Mussot, Sacha; Fabre, Dominique; Fizazi, Karim; Dartevelle, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses has become the standard treatment of patients with primary mediastinal non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCTs). Persistent serum tumour marker (STM) elevation after chemotherapy usually indicates a poor prognosis. We retrospectively assessed surgical outcomes in patients with high STM levels after chemotherapy for primary mediastinal NSGCT. Between 1983 and 2010, residual tumour excision was performed in 21 patients, 20 men and one woman with a median age of 30 years (range: 19-49 years), with primary mediastinal NSGCTs and high STM levels after platinum-based chemotherapy, followed by second-line chemotherapy in 11 patients. Alpha-fetoprotein was elevated in all 21 patients and β-human chorionic gonadotropin in three patients. Permanent histology demonstrated viable germ cell tumour (n=13), teratoma (n=3) or necrosis (n=5). After surgery, the STM levels returned to normal in 11 patients. Eight patients are alive with a median follow-up of 98 months. The 5-year survival rate was 36% and was not significantly affected by the use of preoperative second-line chemotherapy. At univariate analysis, only postoperative STM elevation and residual viable tumour, indicating incomplete resection, were significantly associated with lower survival (P=0.018 and P=0.04, respectively). In patients with primary mediastinal NSGCTs and elevated post-chemotherapy STMs, surgery is warranted when complete resection is deemed feasible. In specialized oncology centres, this aggressive approach can provide a cure in some patients.

  10. An in vitro model demonstrates the potential of neoplastic human germ cells to influence the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Schuppe, H-C; Bergmann, M; Hedger, M P; Loveland, B E; Loveland, K L

    2017-07-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) typically contain high numbers of infiltrating immune cells, yet the functional nature and consequences of interactions between GCNIS (germ cell neoplasia in situ) or seminoma cells and immune cells remain unknown. A co-culture model using the seminoma-derived TCam-2 cell line and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, n = 7 healthy donors) was established to investigate how tumour and immune cells each contribute to the cytokine microenvironment associated with TGCT. Three different co-culture approaches were employed: direct contact during culture to simulate in situ cellular interactions occurring within seminomas (n = 9); indirect contact using well inserts to mimic GCNIS, in which a basement membrane separates the neoplastic germ cells and immune cells (n = 3); and PBMC stimulation prior to direct contact during culture to overcome the potential lack of immune cell activation (n = 3). Transcript levels for key cytokines in PBMC and TCam-2 cell fractions were determined using RT-qPCR. TCam-2 cell fractions showed an immediate increase (within 24 h) in several cytokine mRNAs after direct contact with PBMC, whereas immune cell fractions did not. The high levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) mRNA and protein associated with TCam-2 cells implicate this cytokine as important to seminoma physiology. Use of PBMCs from different donors revealed a robust, repeatable pattern of changes in TCam-2 and PBMC cytokine mRNAs, independent of potential inter-donor variation in immune cell responsiveness. This in vitro model recapitulated previous data from clinical TGCT biopsies, revealing similar cytokine expression profiles and indicating its suitability for exploring the in vivo circumstances of TGCT. Despite the limitations of using a cell line to mimic in vivo events, these results indicate how neoplastic germ cells can directly shape the surrounding tumour microenvironment, including by influencing local immune responses. IL6

  11. A novel role for autologous tumour cell vaccination in the immunotherapy of the poorly immunogenic B16-BL6 melanoma.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J D; Wagner, P D; Shu, S; Chang, A E

    1992-06-01

    The growth of immunogenic tumours stimulates the generation of tumour-sensitized, but not functional, pre-effector T cells in the draining lymph nodes. These pre-effector cells can mature into effector cells upon in-vitro stimulation with anti-CD3 and IL-2. In the current study, using a defined, poorly immunogenic tumour, B16-BL6 melanoma, the pre-effector cell response was not evident during progressive tumour growth but was elicited by vaccination with irradiated tumour cells admixed with Corynebacterium parvum. After anti-CD3/IL-2 activation, these cells were capable of mediating the regression of established pulmonary metastases. The efficacy of the vaccine depended on the doses of both tumour cells and the adjuvant. While higher numbers of tumour cells were more effective, an optimal dose (12.5 micrograms) of C. parvum was required. The dose of irradiation was not a critical factor. After vaccination, kinetic studies revealed that the pre-effector cell response was evident 4 days later and declined after 14 days. These observations illustrate the potential role of active immunization in the cellular therapy of cancer.

  12. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath and synovial membrane: A review of 26 cases.

    PubMed

    Kant, Kumar Shashi; Manav, Ajoy Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh; Abhinav; Sinha, Vishvendra Kumar; Sharma, Akshat

    2017-11-01

    Aim of our study is to highlight the incidence and benign nature of Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath and need for complete removal, thus minimizing the chances of recurrence. A total of 26 cases of Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath operated in the department of Orthopaedics, Patna Medical College & Hospital, Patna from 2003 to 2010 were included in this study. The surgery was performed after clinical evaluation of the lesion and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC). The tumour underwent en bloc marginal excision. The patients were followed up for minimum two year. Our study population consisted of 18 females and 8 males. The mean age at the time of surgery was 38.3 years (range, 18-62 years). Twenty three cases were found in the 3rd and 4th decade. Twenty two cases involved upper extremity and only 4 cases in lower extremity. MRI was done in 2 cases where diagnosis was in doubt. Bony indentation on X-ray film was found in 7 cases and thorough curettage of cortical shell was done. All the cases were treated by marginal excision. Three cases developed post-operative stiffness but regained full range of movement with physiotherapy. Sensory impairment was seen in 3 cases. Recurrence occurred in 2 case and they were treated by repeat marginal excision. Meticulous en-masse marginal excision of the giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in blood less field using magnification is the treatment of choice.

  13. The role of immunohistochemistry in the analysis of the spectrum of small round cell tumours at a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    D'cruze, Lawrence; Dutta, Ruma; Rao, Shalinee; R, Anuradha; Varadarajan, Suresh; Kuruvilla, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    The term, "Small Round - Cell Tumours" (SRCT) describes a group of highly aggressive malignant neoplasms which are composed predominantly of small and monotonous undifferentiated cells with high nucleocytoplasmic ratios. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) plays a crucial role in catagorizing the small round - cell tumours. This study was done to analyse the spectrum of small round cell tumours over a period of five years at a tertiary care centre and to study the relevance of immunohistochemistry in making precise diagnoses of the small round cell tumours. Formalin - fixed, paraffin - embedded sections of tumours which were diagnosed as small round cell tumours on small biopsies and resected specimens were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology of Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research institute, in the period from January 2005 to December 2009. This study was confined to the bone and the soft tissues. Decalcification was performed on the bony tissues before the routine processing was done. The patients belonging to all age groups were included in this study. The small round cell tumours of the bone marrow, the spleen and the lymph node was excluded from our study. Immunohistochemical stains were performed to differentiate and categorise the small round blue cell tumours. The immunomarkers which were utilised in this study included CD45/LCA (the lymphocyte common antigen), CD20, CD3, CD99 (cluster of differentiation 99 also known as MIC2), desmin, EMA (epithelial membrane antigen), CK(cytokeratin), synaptophysin, chromogranin and GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein). Forty three cases of small round cell tumours were analysed, which included 19 cases of NHL (non Hodgkin's lymphoma), 6 cases of Ewing/PNETs (primitive neuroectodermal tumours), 3 cases of atypical carcinoid, 3 cases of olfactory neuroblastoma, 2 cases each of rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms tumour, neuroblastoma and synovial sarcoma and 1 case each of small cell osteosarcoma, small (oat) cell

  14. Influence of femtosecond laser radiation on cells of the transplantable tumour Krebs-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkin, Yu P.; Popova, N. A.; Nikolin, V. P.; Kaledin, V. I.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Pestryakov, Efim V.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of femtosecond radiation of a titaniumsapphire laser on cells of the transplantable ascitic tumour Krebs-2 was studied. After in vitro irradiation by the pulsed fundamentalharmonic radiation with the wavelength 800 nm, pulse duration 30 fs, repetition rate 1 kHz, mean power 100 and 300 mW and exposure time 3 min, as well as by the second-harmonic radiation (40 nm, 50 fs, 120 mW), all cells were diffusely stained by the vital stain trypan blue, which may be an evidence of their death or abnormalities of membrane permeability. However, implantation of such cells to experimental animals led to formation of tumours at the transplantation site with the kinetics slightly different from the control one. In the group of mice to which the cells were inoculated after irradiation with second harmonic pulses of titanium-sapphire laser the inhibition of tumour growth was observed due to partial death of cells under the action of UV spectral components. To explain the mechanism of the observed phenomenon the possibility of pore formation (photoporation) in the cell membrane, described earlier in the papers on foreign DNA transfection into cells, is considered.

  15. Intralymphatic mRNA vaccine induces CD8 T-cell responses that inhibit the growth of mucosally located tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bialkowski, Lukasz; van Weijnen, Alexia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Renmans, Dries; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Heirman, Carlo; Stangé, Geert; Breckpot, Karine; Aerts, Joeri L.; Thielemans, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The lack of appropriate mouse models is likely one of the reasons of a limited translational success rate of therapeutic vaccines against cervical cancer, as rapidly growing ectopic tumours are commonly used for preclinical studies. In this work, we demonstrate that the tumour microenvironment of TC-1 tumours differs significantly depending on the anatomical location of tumour lesions (i.e. subcutaneously, in the lungs and in the genital tract). Our data demonstrate that E7-TriMix mRNA vaccine-induced CD8+ T lymphocytes migrate into the tumour nest and control tumour growth, although they do not express mucosa-associated markers such as CD103 or CD49a. We additionally show that despite the presence of the antigen-specific T cells in the tumour lesions, the therapeutic outcomes in the genital tract model remain limited. Here, we report that such a hostile tumour microenvironment can be reversed by cisplatin treatment, leading to a complete regression of clinically relevant tumours when combined with mRNA immunization. We thereby demonstrate the necessity of utilizing clinically relevant models for preclinical evaluation of anticancer therapies and the importance of a simultaneous combination of anticancer immune response induction with targeting of tumour environment. PMID:26931556

  16. Oncogenic functions of tumour suppressor p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1): association with cell senescence and tumour-promoting activities of stromal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Roninson, Igor B

    2002-05-08

    p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1) is best known as a broad-specificity inhibitor of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, but p21 also interacts with many other regulators of transcription or signal transduction. p21 induction, which is mediated by p53 and by p53-independent mechanisms, is essential for the onset of cell cycle arrest in damage response and cell senescence. The effects of p21 knockout in mice and its expression patterns in human cancer are consistent with a role for p21 as both a tumour suppressor and an oncogene. Several functions of p21 are likely to promote carcinogenesis and tumour progression. These include endoreduplication and abnormal mitosis that develop in tumour cells after release from p21-induced growth arrest, the ability of p21 to inhibit apoptosis through several different mechanisms, and its ability to stimulate transcription of secreted factors with mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activities. The latter effects of p21 show close resemblance to paracrine activities of senescent cells and to tumour-promoting functions of stromal fibroblasts. Therapeutic strategies targeting the oncogenic consequences of p21 expression may provide a new approach to chemoprevention and treatment of cancer.

  17. Dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin increases mortality in 4T1 metastatic breast cancer-bearing mice by inducing vascular mimicry in primary tumour

    PubMed Central

    Smeda, Marta; Kieronska, Anna; Proniewski, Bartosz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Selmi, Anna; Wandzel, Krystyna; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Wojcik, Tomasz; Przyborowski, Kamil; Derszniak, Katarzyna; Stojak, Marta; Kaczor, Dawid; Buczek, Elzbieta; Watala, Cezary; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Platelet inhibition has been considered an effective strategy for combating cancer metastasis and compromising disease malignancy although recent clinical data provided evidence that long-term platelet inhibition might increase incidence of cancer deaths in initially cancer-free patients. In the present study we demonstrated that dual anti-platelet therapy based on aspirin and clopidogrel (ASA+Cl), a routine regiment in cardiovascular patients, when given to cancer-bearing mice injected orthotopically with 4T1 breast cancer cells, promoted progression of the disease and reduced mice survival in association with induction of vascular mimicry (VM) in primary tumour. In contrast, treatment with ASA+Cl or platelet depletion did reduce pulmonary metastasis in mice, if 4T1 cells were injected intravenously. In conclusion, distinct platelet-dependent mechanisms inhibited by ASA+Cl treatment promoted cancer malignancy and VM in the presence of primary tumour and afforded protection against pulmonary metastasis in the absence of primary tumour. In view of our data, long-term inhibition of platelet function by dual anti-platelet therapy (ASA+Cl) might pose a hazard when applied to a patient with undiagnosed and untreated malignant cancer prone to undergo VM. PMID:29707148

  18. Adoptive cell therapy with CD4+ T helper 1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells enhances complete rejection of an established tumour, leading to generation of endogenous memory responses to non-targeted tumour epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunyu; Donaldson, Braeden; Young, Vivienne; Ward, Vernon; Jackson, Christopher; Baird, Margaret; Young, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The results of adoptive T-cell therapies (ACTs) are very encouraging and show clinical evidence that ACT can provide a cure for patients with metastatic disease. However, various response rates and long-term cancer remission have been observed in different ACT trials. The types of T cells, prior treatment with chemotherapy and co-administration of other immune-target therapies have been found to influence the efficacy of ACT. In this study, we investigate the ability of ACT using CD4+ T helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to reject the growth of established B16-ovalbumin (OVA) melanoma. CD8+ CTLs were found to be the main effector T cells that mediated tumour regression. However, low tumour-free survival rates were observed in ACT with CD8+ CTLs only. Co-transferring CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ CTLs has been observed to induce a synergistic antitumour response, resulting in complete regression in 80% of the tumour-bearing mice. We also examined a prior Dacarbazine (DTIC) and after virus-like particle (VLP)-OVA vaccine treatment to enhance ACT, but no therapeutic benefit was observed during primary B16-OVA tumour growth. Nevertheless, the ACT-mediated antitumour response was able to generate memory responses to both B16-OVA and B16-gp33 tumours. VLP-OVA vaccination following ACT enhances the memory responses to tumours that express a heterogenic population of both B16-OVA and B16-gp33 cells; however, it abolished the memory response to tumours consisting of only gp33-expressing cells. These findings provide important information for designing therapeutic treatments for patients with metastatic disease and cancer relapse to achieve durable cancer remission. PMID:29114389

  19. Adoptive cell therapy with CD4+ T helper 1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells enhances complete rejection of an established tumour, leading to generation of endogenous memory responses to non-targeted tumour epitopes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunyu; Donaldson, Braeden; Young, Vivienne; Ward, Vernon; Jackson, Christopher; Baird, Margaret; Young, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The results of adoptive T-cell therapies (ACTs) are very encouraging and show clinical evidence that ACT can provide a cure for patients with metastatic disease. However, various response rates and long-term cancer remission have been observed in different ACT trials. The types of T cells, prior treatment with chemotherapy and co-administration of other immune-target therapies have been found to influence the efficacy of ACT. In this study, we investigate the ability of ACT using CD4 + T helper 1 (Th1) cells and CD8 + cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to reject the growth of established B16-ovalbumin (OVA) melanoma. CD8 + CTLs were found to be the main effector T cells that mediated tumour regression. However, low tumour-free survival rates were observed in ACT with CD8 + CTLs only. Co-transferring CD4 + Th1 cells and CD8 + CTLs has been observed to induce a synergistic antitumour response, resulting in complete regression in 80% of the tumour-bearing mice. We also examined a prior Dacarbazine (DTIC) and after virus-like particle (VLP)-OVA vaccine treatment to enhance ACT, but no therapeutic benefit was observed during primary B16-OVA tumour growth. Nevertheless, the ACT-mediated antitumour response was able to generate memory responses to both B16-OVA and B16-gp33 tumours. VLP-OVA vaccination following ACT enhances the memory responses to tumours that express a heterogenic population of both B16-OVA and B16-gp33 cells; however, it abolished the memory response to tumours consisting of only gp33-expressing cells. These findings provide important information for designing therapeutic treatments for patients with metastatic disease and cancer relapse to achieve durable cancer remission.

  20. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer: an overview of circulating and disseminated tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Tachtsidis, A; McInnes, L M; Jacobsen, N; Thompson, E W; Saunders, C M

    2016-08-01

    Within the field of cancer research, focus on the study of minimal residual disease (MRD) in the context of carcinoma has grown exponentially over the past several years. MRD encompasses circulating tumour cells (CTCs)-cancer cells on the move via the circulatory or lymphatic system, disseminated tumour cells (DTCs)-cancer cells which have escaped into a distant site (most studies have focused on bone marrow), and resistant cancer cells surviving therapy-be they local or distant, all of which may ultimately give rise to local relapse or overt metastasis. Initial studies simply recorded the presence and number of CTCs and DTCs; however recent advances are allowing assessment of the relationship between their persistence, patient prognosis and the biological properties of MRD, leading to a better understanding of the metastatic process. Technological developments for the isolation and analysis of circulating and disseminated tumour cells continue to emerge, creating new opportunities to monitor disease progression and perhaps alter disease outcome. This review outlines our knowledge to date on both measurement and categorisation of MRD in the form of CTCs and DTCs with respect to how this relates to cancer outcomes, and the hurdles and future of research into both CTCs and DTCs.

  1. On-chip integrated labelling, transport and detection of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Woods, Jane; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Haswell, Stephen J; Greenman, John

    2011-11-01

    Microflow cytometry represents a promising tool for the investigation of diagnostic and prognostic cellular cancer markers, particularly if integrated within a device that allows primary cells to be freshly isolated from the solid tumour biopsies that more accurately reflect patient-specific in vivo tissue microenvironments at the time of staining. However, current tissue processing techniques involve several sequential stages with concomitant cell losses, and as such are inappropriate for use with small biopsies. Accordingly, we present a simple method for combined antibody-labelling and dissociation of heterogeneous cells from a tumour mass, which reduces the number of processing steps. Perfusion of ex vivo tissue at 4°C with antibodies and enzymes slows cellular activity while allowing sufficient time for the diffusion of minimally active enzymes. In situ antibody-labelled cells are then dissociated at 37°C from the tumour mass, whereupon hydrogel-filled channels allow the release of relatively low cell numbers (<1000) into a biomimetic microenvironment. This novel approach to sample processing is then further integrated with hydrogel-based electrokinetic transport of the freshly liberated fluorescent cells for downstream detection. It is anticipated that this integrated microfluidic methodology will have wide-ranging biomedical and clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. CDX2 immunostaining in primary and metastatic germ cell tumours of the testis.

    PubMed

    Oz Atalay, Fatma; Aytac Vuruskan, Berna; Vuruskan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Objective To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) protein in germ cell tumours (GCTs) of the testis. Methods This study reassessed archival tissue samples collected from patients diagnosed with primary and metastatic testicular GCTs for CDX2 immunoreactivity using standard immunohistochemical techniques. Positive nuclear immunostaining was evaluated with regard to both the staining intensity and the extent of the staining. Results Tissue sections from primary and metastatic testicular GCTs ( n = 104), germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNis) ( n = 5) and benign testicles ( n = 15) were analysed. The GCNis and benign testicular tissues showed no immunoreactivity for CDX2. Strong and diffuse staining of CDX2 was demonstrated only in the mature colonic epithelium of teratomas in both primary and metastatic GCTs. CDX2 positivity in other tumours (one pure yolk sac tumour, one yolk sac component of a mixed GCT and one pure seminoma) was infrequent, and was only weak and focal. Conclusions CDX2 immunostaining should be interpreted based on both the staining intensity and the extent of staining so as not to cause misdiagnosis. Teratomas with colonic-type epithelium should be considered in the differential diagnosis if a metastatic tumour with an unknown primary shows prominent CDX2 immunostaining.

  3. On the histogenesis of mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour of the gonads.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lawrence M; Cheng, Liang

    2017-03-01

    The origin of testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour (MGC-SCST) is uncertain, and the nature of this neoplasm is controversial. It has not been established whether the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCST are neoplastic or whether they are merely entrapped within an unclassified sex cord stromal tumour or related testicular neoplasm. In this investigation, we present additional evidence regarding the nature of the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCST. We obtained 25 cases of MGC-SCST, 13 of which involved the testis and 12 occurred in the ovary for histological examination. Although the majority of the cases studied were archival, materials were available for immunocytochemical examination in 10 instances. We found that 10 of 13 testicular MGC-SCSTs studied had a sex cord component resembling unclassified sex cord stromal tumour. In two MGC-SCSTs that had prominent entrapped tubules, an intratubular component was identified. A total of 12 ovarian MGC-SCSTs were examined, and these neoplasms were more diverse in their histological appearance than the testicular examples. The germ cells often resembled those of dysgerminoma. Formation of imperfect follicular-like structures was a frequent feature in ovarian cases. In this investigation, we provide further evidence that the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCSTs are neoplastic; however, in the great majority of tumours, these cells are low-grade. Some testicular MGC-SCSTs arise from an intratubular component. We believe that the majority of ovarian and some testicular MGC-SCSTs arise more directly from simultaneous transformation of germ cells and sex cord derivatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Linedale, Richard; Schmidt, Campbell; King, Brigid T; Ganko, Annabelle G; Simpson, Fiona; Panizza, Benedict J; Leggatt, Graham R

    2017-01-01

    Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

  5. Paratesticular desmoplastic small round cell tumour: an unusual tumour with an unusual fusion; cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis combining RT-PCR and COBRA-FISH.

    PubMed

    Cliteur, Vincent Pm; Szuhai, Károly; Baelde, Hans J; van Dam, Jurriaan; Gelderblom, Hans; Hogendoorn, Pancras Cw

    2012-01-25

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare malignant tumour with a male to female ratio of 4:1. It manifests mostly at serosal sites. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old male patient, who presented with a fast growing paratesticular mass. On biopsy nests and cords of small round cells, without a clear morphological lineage of differentiation were seen. Occasionally desmoplatic small round cell tumour shows different lines of differentiation. An unequivocal histological diagnosis might be difficult in such cases. Here we demonstrate by a combination of methods the characteristic immunohistochemical profile and - albeit unusual - molecular background and discuss the eventual link with Ewing sarcoma.Immunohistochemical studies showed a membranous staining of Keratine AE1/3 and a dot-like staining of Desmine, confirming its diagnosis. Using COBRA-FISH following a metaphase approach we demonstrated a balanced translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12) and in RT-PCR formation of the EWSR1-WT1 fusion product, a specific translocation of desmoplastic round cell tumour. The fusion involves exon 9 of EWSR1 to exon 8 of WT1, an unusual fusion product, though earlier described in a case of a desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the hand. The EWSR1-WT1 chimera seems to function as an oncogenic transcription factor. Here the zinc finger domain of the WT1 acts with affinity with certain promoter domains influencing the expression of various downstream proteins such as: PDGFA, PAX2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, IL2 receptor beta, BAIAP3, MLF1, TALLA-1, LRRC15 and ENT. We discuss their potential oncogenic roles and potential therapeutic consequences.

  6. Paratesticular desmoplastic small round cell tumour: an unusual tumour with an unusual fusion; cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis combining RT-PCR and COBRA-FISH

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumour is a rare malignant tumour with a male to female ratio of 4:1. It manifests mostly at serosal sites. Here we present a case of a 28-year-old male patient, who presented with a fast growing paratesticular mass. On biopsy nests and cords of small round cells, without a clear morphological lineage of differentiation were seen. Occasionally desmoplatic small round cell tumour shows different lines of differentiation. An unequivocal histological diagnosis might be difficult in such cases. Here we demonstrate by a combination of methods the characteristic immunohistochemical profile and - albeit unusual - molecular background and discuss the eventual link with Ewing sarcoma. Immunohistochemical studies showed a membranous staining of Keratine AE1/3 and a dot-like staining of Desmine, confirming its diagnosis. Using COBRA-FISH following a metaphase approach we demonstrated a balanced translocation, t(11;22)(p13;q12) and in RT-PCR formation of the EWSR1-WT1 fusion product, a specific translocation of desmoplastic round cell tumour. The fusion involves exon 9 of EWSR1 to exon 8 of WT1, an unusual fusion product, though earlier described in a case of a desmoplastic small round cell tumour of the hand. The EWSR1-WT1 chimera seems to function as an oncogenic transcription factor. Here the zinc finger domain of the WT1 acts with affinity with certain promoter domains influencing the expression of various downstream proteins such as: PDGFA, PAX2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, IL2 receptor beta, BAIAP3, MLF1, TALLA-1, LRRC15 and ENT. We discuss their potential oncogenic roles and potential therapeutic consequences. PMID:22587803

  7. Evaluation of pretreatment serum interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha as a potential biomarker for recurrence in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Skrinjar, Ivana; Brailo, Vlaho; Vidovic-Juras, Danica; Vucicevic-Boras, Vanja; Milenovic, Aleksandar

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes 3 percent of all cancers with predominant occurrence in middle aged and elderly males. Tumour recurrence worsens disease prognosis and decreases quality of life in patients with OSCC. Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) have been suggested to play a certain role in variety of tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of pretreatment serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels on tumour recurrence in patients with OSCC in order to identify potential biomarkers for the early detection of disease recurrence. The patients with newly diagnosed OSCC were treated and followed from the first visit from November 2006 until January 2008. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were measured. The records of the patients were re-examined in July 2012 and data were recorded about cancer characteristics and tumour recurrence. Disease free survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves, log rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Serum IL-6 was shown as an independent risk factor for tumour recurrence. Pretreatment serum IL-6 concentration may be a useful biomarker for identification of OSCC patients with increased risk of the disease recurrence.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk in chemotherapy-treated testicular germ cell tumour survivors.

    PubMed

    Willemse, P M; Burggraaf, J; Hamdy, N A T; Weijl, N I; Vossen, C Y; van Wulften, L; van Steijn-van Tol, A Q M J; Rosendaal, F R; Osanto, S

    2013-07-09

    Testicular cancer patients have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which might be related to the increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in this group of patients. We assessed the prevalence of MetS and calculated the 10-year CVD risk in a cohort of 255 testicular germ cell tumour survivors (median age, 38.7 years; interquartile range, 31-48) at a mean of 7.8 years after anti-cancer treatment, and compared these with data obtained from 360 healthy men. Survivors had an age-adjusted increased risk for MetS of 1.9 compared with that of healthy controls. The risk for MetS was highest in survivors treated with combination chemotherapy (CT) 2.3 (Adult Treatment Panel of the National Cholesterol Education Program classification) and 2.2 (International Diabetes Federation classification). The risk of MetS was especially increased in survivors with testosterone levels in the lowest quartile (OR, 2.5). Ten-year cardiovascular risk as assessed by the Framingham Risk Score (3.0%) and Systemic Coronary Risk Evaluation (1.7%) algorithms was low, independent of treatment, and was comparable to controls. Testicular germ cell tumour survivors have an increased prevalence of MetS, with hypogonadism and CT treatment being clear risk factors for the development of the syndrome. The increased prevalence of MetS was not associated with an increased 10-year cardiovascular risk.

  9. NPM1 Silencing Reduces Tumour Growth and MAPK Signalling in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Loubeau, Gaëlle; Boudra, Rafik; Maquaire, Sabrina; Lours-Calet, Corinne; Beaudoin, Claude; Verrelle, Pierre; Morel, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The chaperone nucleophosmin (NPM1) is over-expressed in the epithelial compartment of prostate tumours compared to adjacent healthy epithelium and may represent one of the key actors that support the neoplastic phenotype of prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Yet, the mechanisms that underlie NPM1 mediated phenotype remain elusive in the prostate. To better understand NPM1 functions in prostate cancer cells, we sought to characterize its impact on prostate cancer cells behaviour and decipher the mechanisms by which it may act. Here we show that NPM1 favors prostate tumour cell migration, invasion and colony forming. Furthermore, knockdown of NPM1 leads to a decrease in the growth of LNCaP-derived tumours grafted in Nude mice in vivo. Such oncogenic-like properties are found in conjunction with a positive regulation of NPM1 on the ERK1/2 (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2) kinase phosphorylation in response to EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) stimulus, which is critical for prostate cancer progression following the setting of an autonomous production of the growth factor. NPM1 could then be a target to switch off specifically ERK1/2 pathway activation in order to decrease or inhibit cancer cell growth and migration. PMID:24796332

  10. Effect of MPS1 Inhibition on Genotoxic Stress Responses in Murine Tumour Cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Yamamori, Tohru; Yasui, Hironobu; Inanami, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    The monopolar spindle 1 (MPS1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint signaling. To determine the possible relationship between MPS1 inhibition and genotoxic stress responses, herein we examined whether MPS1 inhibition influences cellular susceptibility towards two genotoxic treatments, etoposide and ionizing radiation (IR). Two murine tumour cell lines, SCCVII and EMT6, were used. The effect of genotoxic treatments with or without two novel MPS1 inhibitors, NMS-P715 and AZ3146, on cellular survival, cell-cycle distribution, centrosome status and mitotic catastrophe (MC) was evaluated. MPS1 inhibition sensitized murine tumour cells to etoposide but not to IR. In addition, MPS1 inhibition altered cell-cycle progression and exacerbated centrosome abnormalities, resulting in enhanced MC induced by etoposide but not by IR. MPS1 inhibition promotes the etoposide-induced aberrant mitosis and, consequently, the induction of tumour cell death. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Polyploid tumour cells elicit paradiploid progeny through depolyploidizing divisions and regulated autophagic degradation.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Salmina, Kristine; Huna, Anda; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; Cragg, Mark S; Ianzini, Fiorenza; Anisimov, Alim P

    2011-07-01

    'Neosis' describes the process whereby p53 function-deficient tumour cells undergo self-renewal after genotoxic damage apparently via senescing ETCs (endopolyploid tumour cells). We previously reported that autophagic digestion and extrusion of DNA occurs in ETC and subsequently revealed that self-renewal transcription factors are also activated under these conditions. Here, we further studied this phenomenon in a range of cell lines after genotoxic damage induced by gamma irradiation, ETO (etoposide) or PXT (paclitaxel) treatment. These experiments revealed that chromatin degradation by autophagy was compatible with continuing mitotic activity in ETC. While the actively polyploidizing primary ETC produced early after genotoxic insult activated self-renewal factors throughout the polygenome, the secondary ETC restored after failed multipolar mitosis underwent subnuclei differentiation. As such, only a subset of subnuclei continued to express OCT4 and NANOG, while those lacking these factors stopped DNA replication and underwent degradation and elimination through autophagy. The surviving subnuclei sequestered nascent cytoplasm to form subcells, while being retained within the confines of the old ETC. Finally, the preformed paradiploid subcells became released from their linking chromosome bridges through autophagy and subsequently began cell divisions. These data show that 'neotic' ETC resulting from genotoxically damaged p53 function-deficient tumour cells develop through a heteronuclear system differentiating the polyploid genome into rejuvenated 'viable' subcells (which provide mitotically propagating paradiploid descendents) and subnuclei, which become degraded and eliminated by autophagy. The whole process reduces aneuploidy in descendants of ETC.

  12. Mutant p53 proteins alter cancer cell secretome and tumour microenvironment: Involvement in cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Cordani, Marco; Pacchiana, Raffaella; Butera, Giovanna; D'Orazi, Gabriella; Scarpa, Aldo; Donadelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    An ever-increasing number of studies highlight the role of mutant p53 proteins in the alteration of cancer cell secretome and in the modification of tumour microenvironment, sustaining an invasive phenotype of cancer cell. The knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between mutant p53 proteins and the microenvironment is becoming fundamental for the identification of both efficient anticancer therapeutic strategies and novel serum biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the novel findings concerning the regulation of secreted molecules by cancer cells bearing mutant TP53 gene. In particular, we highlight data from available literature, suggesting that mutant p53 proteins are able to (i) alter the secretion of enzymes involved in the modulation of extracellular matrix components; (ii) alter the secretion of inflammatory cytokines; (iii) increase the extracellular acidification; and (iv) regulate the crosstalk between cancer and stromal cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mouse interferons: production by Ehrlich ascites tumour cells infected with Newcastle disease virus and its enhancement by theophylline.

    PubMed

    Slattery, E; Taira, H; Broeze, R; Lengyel, P

    1980-07-01

    Conditions are described for the production of 0.3 to 0.7 NIH mouse reference standard units of interferon per cell from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells cultured as monolayers and induced by infection with Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Inclusion of theophylline (6 mM) in the medium increased the interferon yield three to four times. Cells infected with NDV started to lyse at about 15 p.i., but infected, theophylline-treated cells lysed only 24 p.i. Several other methylxanthines (e.g. theobromine, caffeine and isobutylmethylxanthine) when tested a concentrations similar to that of theophylline, did not boost interferon production. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (10(-10) to 10(-2)M) did not substitute for theophylline in increasing interferon production, and, if used together with theophylline, did not cause further enhancement.

  14. Mitomycin C in combination with radiotherapy as a potent inhibitor of tumour cell repopulation in a human squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Budach, W; Paulsen, F; Welz, S; Classen, J; Scheithauer, H; Marini, P; Belka, C; Bamberg, M

    2002-01-01

    The potential of Mitomycin C in combination with fractionated irradiation to inhibit tumour cell repopulation of a fast growing squamous cell carcinoma after fractionated radiotherapy was investigated in vivo. A rapidly growing human squamous cell carcinoma (FaDudd) was used for the study. For experiments, NMRI (nu/nu) mice with subcutaneously growing tumours were randomly allocated to no treatment, Mitomycin C, fractionated irradiation (ambient: 11x4.5 Gy in 15 days), or fractionated irradiation combined with Mitomycin C. Graded top up doses (clamped blood flow: 0–57 Gy) were given at day 16, 23, 30 or 37. End point of the study was the time to local tumour progression. Data were examined by multiple regression analysis (Cox). Mitomycin C alone resulted in a median time to local tumour progression of 23 (95% confidence limits: 17–43) days, fractionated irradiation in 31 (25–35) days and combined Mitomycin C plus fractionated irradiation in 65 (58–73) days (P=0.02). Mitomycin C decreased the relative risk of local recurrence by 94% (P<<0.001) equivalent to 31.7 Gy top up dose. Repopulation accounted for 1.33 (0.95–1.72) Gy per day top up dose after fractionated irradiation alone and for 0.68 (0.13–1.22) Gy per day after fractionated irradiation+Mitomycin C (P=0.018). Mitomycin C significantly reduces the risk of local recurrence and inhibits tumour cell repopulation in combination with fractionated irradiation in vivo in the tested tumour model. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 470–476. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600081 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11875717

  15. Lgr6 labels a rare population of mammary gland progenitor cells that are able to originate luminal mammary tumours

    PubMed Central

    Messal, Hendrik A.; Andersson, Agneta B.; Ruiz, E. Josue; Gerling, Marco; Douagi, Iyadh; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Musch, Alexandra; Mitter, Richard; Bhaw, Leena; Stone, Richard; Bornhorst, Dorothee; Sesay, Abdul K.; Jonkers, Jos; Stamp, Gordon; Malanchi, Ilaria; Toftgård, Rune; Behrens, Axel

    2018-01-01

    The mammary gland is composed of a complex cellular hierarchy with unusual postnatal plasticity. The identities of stem/progenitor cell populations, as well as tumour-initiating cells that give rise to breast cancer, are incompletely understood. Here we show that Lgr6 marks rare populations of cells in both basal and luminal mammary gland compartments in mice. Lineage tracing analysis showed that Lgr6+ cells are unipotent progenitors, which expand clonally during puberty but diminish in adulthood. In pregnancy or upon stimulation with ovarian hormones, adult Lgr6+ cells regained proliferative potency and their progeny formed alveoli over repeated pregnancies. Oncogenic mutations in Lgr6+ cells resulted in expansion of luminal cells, culminating in mammary gland tumours. Conversely, depletion of Lgr6+ cells in the MMTV-PyMT model of mammary tumourigenesis significantly impaired tumour growth. Thus, Lgr6 marks mammary gland progenitor cells that can initiate tumours, and cells of luminal breast tumours required for efficient tumour maintenance. PMID:27798604

  16. Increasing Rates of Brain Tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., “possibly”, carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007–2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008–2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk. PMID:25854296

  17. Increasing rates of brain tumours in the Swedish national inpatient register and the causes of death register.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael

    2015-04-03

    Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz-300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., "possibly", carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR) and Causes of Death Register (CDR) to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998-2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC) +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007-2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008-2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  18. Mesothelioma and anti-Ma paraneoplastic syndrome; heterogeneity in immunogenic tumours increases.

    PubMed

    Archer, Hilary Anne; Panopoulou, Aikaterini; Bhatt, Nidhi; Edey, Anthony James; Giffin, Nicola Jane

    2014-02-01

    We present a patient with opsoclonus and diffuse cerebellar signs who had an anti-Ma2 antibody-associated paraneoplastic syndrome secondary to a sarcomatoid mesothelioma. This case highlights the importance of early tumour detection, instigation of therapeutic measures, and the heterogeneity of underlying malignancies in neurological paraneoplastic syndromes.

  19. Clinical, Cytological, Histological and Immunohistochemical Features of Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumours in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Vilalta, L; Meléndez-Lazo, A; Doria, G; Ramis, A; Solano-Gallego, L; Pastor, J; Martorell, J

    2016-11-01

    Cutaneous mast cell tumours (cMCTs) are one of the most common cutaneous tumours in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). However, limited information is available regarding cytological and histological features of these tumours and studies evaluating KIT expression are lacking in this species. The aims of this prospective study were to describe the most common clinical, cytological and histological features of cMCTs in ferrets and to compare the usefulness of different staining techniques in the diagnosis of these tumours in ferrets as well as evaluating KIT expression in neoplastic mast cells (MCs) by immunohistochemistry. Macroscopically, the tumours were small, round to plaque-like and frequently associated with surface crusting. The most common locations were the extremities and the trunk. MC granules were stained in all cases using toluidine blue (TB) and Wright-Giemsa stains in cytological specimens, but none stained with modified Wright's stain. Haematoxylin and eosin and TB on histological sections failed to stain MC granules in all the cases. Cytological and histological examination revealed low to moderate anisocytosis and anisokaryosis. An infiltrative rather than a delineated or encapsulated growth pattern was noted histologically in all cases. Eosinophilic infiltration was not uncommon and 'collagenolysis' was detected on cytological and histological examination. KIT expression was detected in all cases evaluated. In approximately one third of the cases the MCs exhibited KIT labelling pattern I and in the remaining ferrets, KIT pattern III. No correlation was found between KIT expression pattern and biological behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long Non-Coding RNAs: Key Regulators of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Tumour Drug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heery, Richard; Finn, Stephen P.; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the adoption by epithelial cells of a mesenchymal-like phenotype, is a process co-opted by carcinoma cells in order to initiate invasion and metastasis. In addition, it is becoming clear that is instrumental to both the development of drug resistance by tumour cells and in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. EMT is thus a pivotal process during tumour progression and poses a major barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) often utilize epigenetic programs to regulate both gene expression and chromatin structure. One type of ncRNA, called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has become increasingly recognized as being both highly dysregulated in cancer and to play a variety of different roles in tumourigenesis. Indeed, over the last few years, lncRNAs have rapidly emerged as key regulators of EMT in cancer. In this review, we discuss the lncRNAs that have been associated with the EMT process in cancer and the variety of molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways through which they regulate EMT, and finally discuss how these EMT-regulating lncRNAs impact on both anti-cancer drug resistance and the cancer stem cell phenotype. PMID:28430163

  1. Vasculogenic Mimicry of HT1080 Tumour Cells In Vivo: Critical Role of HIF-1α-Neuropilin-1 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Roli M.; Bajaj, Manmohan S.; Kale, Vaijayanti P.

    2012-01-01

    HT1080 - a human fibrosarcoma-derived cell line – forms aggressive angiogenic tumours in immuno-compromised mice. In spite of its extensive use as a model of tumour angiogenesis, the molecular event(s) initiating the angiogenic program in these cells are not known. Since hypoxia stimulates tumour angiogenesis, we examined the hypoxia-induced events evoked in these cells. In contrast to cells grown under normoxic conditions, hypoxia-primed (1% O2) HT1080 cells formed robust tubules on growth factor-reduced matrigel and formed significantly larger tumours in xenograft models in a chetomin-sensitive manner, indicating the role of HIF-1α-mediated transcription in these processes. Immuno-histochemical analyses of tumours formed by GFP-expressing HT1080 cells clearly showed that the tumour cells themselves expressed various angiogenic markers including Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) and formed functional vessels containing red blood cells, thereby unambiguously demonstrating the vasculogenic mimicry of HT1080 cells in vivo. Experiments performed with the HT1080 cells stably transfected with plasmid constructs expressing shNRP-1 or full-length NRP-1 clearly established that the HIF1α-mediated up-regulation of NRP-1 played a deterministic role in the process. Hypoxia-exposure resulted in an up-regulation of c-Myc and OCT3/4 and a down-regulation of KLF4 mRNAs, suggesting their involvement in the tumour formation and angiogenesis. However, silencing of NRP-1 alone, though not affecting proliferation in culture, was sufficient to abrogate the tumour formation completely; clearly establishing that the hypoxia-mediated HIF-1α-dependent up-regulation of NRP-1 is a critical molecular event involved in the vasculogenic mimicry and tumor formation by HT1080 cells in vivo. PMID:23185562

  2. Deoxyschizandrin, Isolated from Schisandra Berries, Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Ovarian Cancer Cells and Inhibits the Protumoural Activation of Tumour-Associated Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kijun; Ahn, Ji-Hye; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Dae Sik; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2018-01-15

    Deoxyschizandrin, a major lignan of Schisandra berries, has been demonstrated to have various biological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. However, the anti-cancer effects of deoxyschizandrin are poorly characterized. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of deoxyschizandrin on human ovarian cancer cell lines and tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Deoxyschizandrin induced G₀/G₁ phase cell cycle arrest and inhibited cyclin E expression in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of cyclin E significantly reversed the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition. Interestingly, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased activation of Akt were observed in A2780 cells treated with deoxyschizandrin, and the antioxidant compromised the deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition and Akt inactivation. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin-induced cell growth inhibition was markedly suppressed by Akt overexpression. In addition, deoxyschizandrin was found to inhibit the expression of the M2 phenotype markers CD163 and CD209 in TAMs, macrophages stimulated by the ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, expression and production of the tumour-promoting factors MMP-9, RANTES, and VEGF, which are highly enhanced in TAMs, was significantly suppressed by deoxyschizandrin treatment. Taken together, these data suggest that deoxyschizandrin exerts anti-cancer effects by inducing G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer cells and reducing the protumoural phenotype of TAMs.

  3. Kit receptor tyrosine kinase dysregulations in feline splenic mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Sabattini, S; Barzon, G; Giantin, M; Lopparelli, R M; Dacasto, M; Prata, D; Bettini, G

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated Kit receptor dysregulations (cytoplasmic immunohistochemical expression and/or c-KIT mutations) in cats affected with splenic mast cell tumours. Twenty-two cats were included. Median survival time was 780 days (range: 1-1219). An exclusive splenic involvement was significantly (P = 0.042) associated with longer survival (807 versus 120 days). Eighteen tumours (85.7%) showed Kit cytoplasmic expression (Kit pattern 2, 3). Mutation analysis was successful in 20 cases. Fourteen missense mutations were detected in 13 out of 20 tumours (65%). Eleven (78.6%) were located in exon 8, and three (21.6%) in exon 9. No mutations were detected in exons 11 and 17. Seven mutations corresponded to the same internal tandem duplication in exon 8 (c.1245_1256dup). Although the association between Kit cytoplasmic expression and mutations was significant, immunohistochemistry cannot be considered a surrogate marker for mutation analysis. No correlation was observed between c-Kit mutations and tumour differentiation, mitotic activity or survival. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Treatment algorithm in 2014 for advanced non-small cell lung cancer: therapy selection by tumour histology and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Manegold, Christian

    2014-09-01

    The availability of antineoplastic monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and newer cytotoxics such as pemetrexed, the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib as well as the anti-angiogenic bevacizumab and the ALK-inhibitor crizotinib has recently changes the treatment algorithm of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Decision making in 2014 is characterized by customizing therapy, by selecting a specific therapeutic regimen based on the histotype and the genotype of the tumour. This refers to first-line induction therapy and maintenance therapy as well, but also to subsequent lines of therapy since anti-neoplastic drugs and regimens used upfront clinically influence the selection of agents/regimes considered for second-/third-line treatment. Consequently, therapy customization through tumour histology and molecular markers has significantly influenced the work of pathologists around the globe and the process of obtaining an extended therapeutically relevant tumour diagnosis. Not only histological sub-typing became standard but molecular information is also considered of increasing importance for treatment selection. Routine molecular testing in certified laboratories must be established, and the diagnostic process should ideally be performed under the guidance of evidence based recommendation. The process of investigating and implementing medical targeting in lung cancer therefore, requires advanced diagnostic techniques and expertise and because of its large dimension is costly and influenced by the limitation of financial and clinical resources. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  5. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of AKT Protein Activation in Canine Mast Cell Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, S.; Fadlalla, K.; Graham, T.; Tameru, B.; Fermin, C. D.; Samuel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of canine mast cell tumour (MCT) remains unknown. Moreover, therapeutic options are limited and resistance to targeted drugs and recurrences are common, necessitating the identification of additional cellular targets for therapy. In this study we investigated the expression of phosphorylated AKT protein in 25 archival canine MCT samples by immunohistochemistry and examined the correlation between the immunohistochemical scores and histopathological tumour grades. AKT protein was detected in all of the samples and 24 of the 25 samples expressed the phosphorylated form of the protein, albeit with variable intensity. However, when the immunohistochemical scores of weak, intermediate and strong labelling were compared with the histopathological grades of I to III, there was no strong correlation. This study suggests that canine MCT cells have activated AKT and indicates the need for further research on the role of the AKT protein and the possibility of targeting the AKT signalling pathway in MCTs. PMID:22289273

  6. Acute cor pulmonale due to pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Story, Maria; Kwon, Sook Kyung; Robinson, Robert; Fortis, Spyridon

    2017-06-28

    We report the case of a previously healthy man who presented with subacute dyspnoea after a long drive. He developed hypoxic respiratory failure, thought secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism and was treated with tissue plasminogen activator but died in the hospital despite aggressive medical measures. Autopsy revealed pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) from papillary renal cell carcinoma. PTTM is a rare clinicopathological syndrome that clinically results in symptoms of dyspnoea and right heart failure. Pathologically, a localised paraneoplastic process evolves from tumour microemboli in the pulmonary arterioles, resulting in fibrocellular proliferation and narrowing of the vessels, causing subacute right heart failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PTTM due to papillary renal cell carcinoma. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Isolating dividing neural and brain tumour cells for gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Endaya, Berwini; Cavanagh, Brenton; Alowaidi, Faisal; Walker, Tom; de Pennington, Nicholas; Ng, Jin-Ming A; Lam, Paula Y P; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Neuzil, Jiri; Meedeniya, Adrian C B

    2016-01-15

    The characterisation of dividing brain cells is fundamental for studies ranging from developmental and stem cell biology, to brain cancers. Whilst there is extensive anatomical data on these dividing cells, limited gene transcription data is available due to technical constraints. We focally isolated dividing cells whilst conserving RNA, from culture, primary neural tissue and xenografted glioma tumours, using a thymidine analogue that enables gene transcription analysis. 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine labels the replicating DNA of dividing cells. Once labelled, cultured cells and tissues were dissociated, fluorescently tagged with a revised click chemistry technique and the dividing cells isolated using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting. RNA was extracted and analysed using real time PCR. Proliferation and maturation related gene expression in neurogenic tissues was demonstrated in acutely and 3 day old labelled cells, respectively. An elevated expression of marker and pathway genes was demonstrated in the dividing cells of xenografted brain tumours, with the non-dividing cells showing relatively low levels of expression. BrdU "immune-labelling", the most frequently used protocol for detecting cell proliferation, causes complete denaturation of RNA, precluding gene transcription analysis. This EdU labelling technique, maintained cell integrity during dissociation, minimized copper exposure during labelling and used a cell isolation protocol that avoided cell lysis, thus conserving RNA. The technique conserves RNA, enabling the definition of cell proliferation-related changes in gene transcription of neural and pathological brain cells in cells harvested immediately after division, or following a period of maturation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Role of chromosome 3p12-p21 tumour suppressor genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: analysis of VHL dependent and VHL independent pathways of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Martinez, A; Fullwood, P; Kondo, K; Kishida, T; Yao, M; Maher, E R; Latif, F

    2000-06-01

    Chromosome 3p deletions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for 3p markers are features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma but are rare in non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The VHL tumour suppressor gene, which maps to 3p25, is a major gatekeeper gene for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and is inactivated in most sporadic cases of this disease. However, it has been suggested that inactivation of other 3p tumour suppressor genes might be crucial for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis, with inactivation (VHL negative) and without inactivation (VHL positive) of the VHL tumour suppressor gene. This study set out to investigate the role of non-VHL tumour suppressor genes in VHL negative and VHL positive clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Eighty two clear cell renal cell carcinomas of known VHL inactivation status were analysed for LOH at polymorphic loci within the candidate crucial regions for chromosome 3p tumour suppressor genes (3p25, LCTSGR1 at 3p21.3, LCTSGR2 at 3p12 and at 3p14.2). Chromosome 3p12-p21 LOH was frequent both in VHL negative and VHL positive clear cell renal cell carcinoma. However, although the frequency of 3p25 LOH in VHL negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma was similar to that at 3p12-p21, VHL positive tumours demonstrated significantly less LOH at 3p25 than at 3p12-p21. Although there was evidence of LOH for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumour suppressor genes at 3p21, 3p14.2, and 3p12, both in VHL negative and VHL positive tumours, the major clear cell renal cell carcinoma LOH region mapped to 3p21.3, close to the lung cancer tumour suppressor gene region 1 (LCTSGR1). There was no association between tumour VHL status and tumour grade and stage. These findings further indicate that VHL inactivation is not sufficient to initiate clear cell renal cell carcinoma and that loss of a gatekeeper 3p21 tumour suppressor gene is a crucial event for renal cell carcinoma development in both VHL negative and VHL positive clear cell renal

  9. Seminal plasma enhances cervical adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jason R; Sales, Kurt J; Jabbour, Henry N; Katz, Arieh A

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP) induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2), cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway.

  10. Seminal Plasma Enhances Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Proliferation and Tumour Growth In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jason R.; Sales, Kurt J.; Jabbour, Henry N.; Katz, Arieh A.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in women in sub-Saharan Africa. Extensive evidence has shown that cervical cancer and its precursor lesions are caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although the vast majority of HPV infections are naturally resolved, failure to eradicate infected cells has been shown to promote viral persistence and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, following neoplastic transformation, exposure of cervical epithelial cells to inflammatory mediators either directly or via the systemic circulation may enhance progression of the disease. It is well recognised that seminal plasma contains an abundance of inflammatory mediators, which are identified as regulators of tumour growth. Here we investigated the role of seminal plasma in regulating neoplastic cervical epithelial cell growth and tumorigenesis. Using HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cells, we found that seminal plasma (SP) induced the expression of the inflammatory enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS1 and PTGS2), cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, and -11 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A(VEGF-A). To investigate the role of SP on tumour cell growth in vivo, we xenografted HeLa cells subcutaneously into the dorsal flank of nude mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of SP rapidly and significantly enhanced the tumour growth rate and size of HeLa cell xenografts in nude mice. As observed in vitro, we found that SP induced expression of inflammatory PTGS enzymes, cytokines and VEGF-A in vivo. Furthermore we found that SP enhances blood vessel size in HeLa cell xenografts. Finally we show that SP-induced cytokine production, VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation are mediated via the induction of the inflammatory PTGS pathway. PMID:22442729

  11. Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, P; Fagerström, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Elo, H; Lumme, P; Jänne, J

    1984-01-01

    Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), the parent compound of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized and tested for its ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines. It was found to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), yet the lack of the methyl group at the glyoxal portion increased the apparent Ki value for the enzyme by about 30-fold in comparison with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) activity as effectively as did methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The cellular accumulation curves of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 cells were practically superimposable with those of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and the uptake of both compounds was distinctly stimulated by a prior treatment with 2-difluoromethylornithine. The drug decreased the concentration of spermidine in a dose-dependent manner and, in contrast with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), without a concomitant accumulation of putrescine. The fact that putrescine concentrations were decreased in cells exposed to glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was, at least in part, attributable to an inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) activity in cells treated with the compound. Under these experimental conditions equivalent concentrations of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) [1,1'-[(methylethanediylidine)dinitrilo]diguanidine] elicited large increases in the enzyme activity. When combined with difluoromethylornithine, glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) potentiated the growth-inhibitory effect of that drug. Taking into consideration the proven anti-leukaemic activity of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), its effectiveness to inhibit spermidine biosynthesis (without raising the concentration of putrescine) as well as its suitability for combined use with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase, this drug is apparently worthy of further testing in tumour-bearing animals, especially in

  12. Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) as an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Seppänen, P; Fagerström, R; Alhonen-Hongisto, L; Elo, H; Lumme, P; Jänne, J

    1984-07-15

    Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), the parent compound of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), was synthesized and tested for its ability to inhibit the biosynthesis of polyamines. It was found to be a powerful competitive inhibitor of adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), yet the lack of the methyl group at the glyoxal portion increased the apparent Ki value for the enzyme by about 30-fold in comparison with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). Glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) inhibited diamine oxidase (EC 1.4.3.6) activity as effectively as did methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). The cellular accumulation curves of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in L1210 cells were practically superimposable with those of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and the uptake of both compounds was distinctly stimulated by a prior treatment with 2-difluoromethylornithine. The drug decreased the concentration of spermidine in a dose-dependent manner and, in contrast with methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), without a concomitant accumulation of putrescine. The fact that putrescine concentrations were decreased in cells exposed to glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) was, at least in part, attributable to an inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.17) activity in cells treated with the compound. Under these experimental conditions equivalent concentrations of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) [1,1'-[(methylethanediylidine)dinitrilo]diguanidine] elicited large increases in the enzyme activity. When combined with difluoromethylornithine, glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) potentiated the growth-inhibitory effect of that drug. Taking into consideration the proven anti-leukaemic activity of glyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), its effectiveness to inhibit spermidine biosynthesis (without raising the concentration of putrescine) as well as its suitability for combined use with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase, this drug is apparently worthy of further testing in tumour-bearing animals, especially in

  13. Identification of a novel cell binding site of periostin involved in tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Orecchia, Paola; Conte, Romana; Balza, Enrica; Castellani, Patrizia; Borsi, Laura; Zardi, Luciano; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Carnemolla, Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Periostin (PN), a member of the fasciclin family of proteins, is a TGF-β-induced extracellular matrix protein involved in cell survival, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. It is considered a potent angiogenic factor and a marker of tumour progression in many types of human cancer. Many different kinds of cells bind to PN by means of the integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, but the periostin epitope recognised by these integrins is not formally demonstrated. The aim of our study was to identify which domain of PN could be involved in cell adhesion and its potential role in tumour growth. We generated the monoclonal antibody OC-20 (mAb OC-20) by hybridoma technology. Different PN recombinant fragments were used to characterise the periostin epitope recognised by the mAb OC-20 and to localise a new cell binding site of the protein. A murine model of human melanoma was used in the preclinical in vivo experiments. We formally demonstrate that the periostin epitope recognised by OC-20 is a new binding site for the integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5, localised in the second FAS1 domain (FAS1-2) of the protein. Moreover the in vivo use of this antibody significantly inhibits tumour growth and angiogenesis. Our results show that the FAS1-2 domain of PN plays a role in tumour progression. Moreover this novel antibody may likewise prove to be very useful in clarifying the role of PN in angiogenesis and may contribute to the design of novel anti-angiogenesis drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E; Vile Jensen, Kristina; Liu, Dekang; Pena-Diaz, Javier; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Jørgensen, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but patients with tumours containing differentiated teratoma components are less responsive to this treatment. The cisplatin sensitivity in TGCT has previously been linked to the embryonic phenotype in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. The expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2, were investigated during testis development and in the pathogenesis of TGCT, including germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). The TGCT-derived cell line NTera2 was differentiated using retinoic acid (10 μM, 6 days) after which MMR protein expression and activity, as well as cisplatin sensitivity, were investigated in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Finally, the expression of MSH2 was knocked down by siRNA in NTera2 cells after which the effect on cisplatin sensitivity was examined. MMR proteins were expressed in proliferating cells in the testes, while in malignant germ cells MMR protein expression was found to coincide with the expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4, with no or low expression in the more differentiated yolk sac tumours, choriocarcinomas and teratomas. In differentiated NTera2 cells we found a significantly (p < 0.05) lower expression of the MMR and pluripotency factors, as well as a reduced MMR activity and cisplatin sensitivity, compared to undifferentiated NTera2 cells. Also, we found that partial knockdown of MSH2 expression in undifferentiated NTera2 cells resulted in a significantly (p < 0.001) reduced cisplatin sensitivity. This study reports, for the first time, expression of the MMR system in fetal gonocytes, from which GCNIS cells are derived. Our findings in primary TGCT specimens and TGCT-derived cells suggest that a reduced

  15. Human papilloma virus status and chromosomal imbalances in primary cervical carcinomas and tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, A; Schewe, C; Petersen, S; Salcedo, M; Gariglio, P; Schlüns, K; Dietel, M; Petersen, I

    2000-03-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is the crucial step in the initiation of cervical carcinomas. In addition, HPV18 has been implicated in tumour progression and adverse clinical outcome. We determined the HPV types in 12 primary cervical carcinomas and 12 cell lines and compared the findings with the comparative genetic hybridisation (CGH) pattern of chromosomal alterations. The most frequent alteration was the deletion at 3p14 followed by the loss of 2q34-q36 along with 3q gain. High risk HPV types were detected in all samples except one primary tumour. In contrast to the normal distribution, HPV18 was present in 75% of cases including all cell lines. The cell lines carried a higher number of genetic alterations and a different CGH pattern for several chromosomes than the primary tumours, despite microdissection. Purely HPV18 positive cases indicated a high incidence of imbalances at specific loci with peaks of the histogram coinciding with known HPV integration sites. The study suggests that HPV infection is associated with a recurrent pattern of chromosomal changes in cervical carcinomas and that the development and progression of these alterations is triggered by integration into the host genome.

  16. Transcriptome and proteome analysis of tyrosine kinase inhibitor treated canine mast cell tumour cells identifies potentially kit signaling-dependent genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine mast cell tumour proliferation depends to a large extent on the activity of KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor. Inhibitors of the KIT tyrosine kinase have recently been introduced and successfully applied as a therapeutic agent for this tumour type. However, little is known on the downstream target genes of this signaling pathway and molecular changes after inhibition. Results Transcriptome analysis of the canine mast cell tumour cell line C2 treated for up to 72 hours with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor masitinib identified significant changes in the expression levels of approximately 3500 genes or 16% of the canine genome. Approximately 40% of these genes had increased mRNA expression levels including genes associated with the pro-proliferative pathways of B- and T-cell receptors, chemokine receptors, steroid hormone receptors and EPO-, RAS and MAP kinase signaling. Proteome analysis of C2 cells treated for 72 hours identified 24 proteins with changed expression levels, most of which being involved in gene transcription, e.g. EIA3, EIA4, TARDBP, protein folding, e.g. HSP90, UCHL3, PDIA3 and protection from oxidative stress, GSTT3, SELENBP1. Conclusions Transcriptome and proteome analysis of neoplastic canine mast cells treated with masitinib confirmed the strong important and complex role of KIT in these cells. Approximately 16% of the total canine genome and thus the majority of the active genes were significantly transcriptionally regulated. Most of these changes were associated with reduced proliferation and metabolism of treated cells. Interestingly, several pro-proliferative pathways were up-regulated, which may represent attempts of masitinib treated cells to activate alternative pro-proliferative pathways. These pathways may contain hypothetical targets for a combination therapy with masitinib to further improve its therapeutic effect. PMID:22747577

  17. An increase in serum tumour necrosis factor-α during anti-tumour necrosis factor-α therapy for Crohn's disease - A paradox or a predictive index?

    PubMed

    Eder, Piotr; Korybalska, Katarzyna; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Stawczyk-Eder, Kamila; Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Łuczak, Joanna; Czepulis, Natasza; Linke, Krzysztof; Witowski, Janusz

    2016-10-01

    Soluble tumour necrosis factor-α (sTNF-α) has been reported to increase in the course of anti-TNF-α therapy for rheumatoid and skin diseases. To assess changes in sTNF-α and clinical efficacy of anti-TNF-α agents in Crohn's disease (CD). Sixty-four patients on infliximab or adalimumab were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were assessed by using CD Activity Index after the induction therapy and at week 52. sTNF-α was measured before and after the induction therapy with high-sensitivity immunoassay. In the majority of patients, sTNF-α increased significantly. Those with the greatest increase were more likely to experience long-term response, were more often treated with infliximab, had less frequently isolated small bowel CD, and tended to have sTNF-α levels at baseline that correlated with C-reactive protein. Neutralization of sTNF-α does not seem to be critical for the efficacy of anti-TNF-α therapy in CD. Paradoxically - an increase in sTNF-α may reflect an ongoing process that is beneficial for the clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumour Cells from Frozen Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, David; Graf, Ryon P.; Harvey, Melissa; Madan, Ravi A.; Heery, Christopher; Marte, Jennifer; Beasley, Sharon; Tsang, Kwong Y.; Krupa, Rachel; Louw, Jessica; Wahl, Justin; Bales, Natalee; Landers, Mark; Marrinucci, Dena; Schlom, Jeffrey; Gulley, James L.; Dittamore, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of patient tumour samples is a cornerstone of clinical research. CTC biomarker characterization offers a non-invasive method to analyse patient samples. However, current CTC technologies require prospective blood collection, thereby reducing the ability to utilize archived clinical cohorts with long-term outcome data. We sought to investigate CTC recovery from frozen, archived patient PBMC pellets. Matched samples from both mCRPC patients and mock samples, which were prepared by spiking healthy donor blood with cultured prostate cancer cell line cells, were processed “fresh” via Epic CTC Platform or from “frozen” PBMC pellets. Samples were analysed for CTC enumeration and biomarker characterization via immunofluorescent (IF) biomarkers, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and CTC morphology. In the frozen patient PMBC samples, the median CTC recovery was 18%, compared to the freshly processed blood. However, abundance and localization of cytokeratin (CK) and androgen receptor (AR) protein, as measured by IF, were largely concordant between the fresh and frozen CTCs. Furthermore, a FISH analysis of PTEN loss showed high concordance in fresh vs. frozen. The observed data indicate that CTC biomarker characterization from frozen archival samples is feasible and representative of prospectively collected samples. PMID:28936240

  19. [Application of PLA Method for Detection of p53/p63/p73 Complexes in Situ in Tumour Cells and Tumour Tissue].

    PubMed

    Hrabal, V; Nekulová, M; Nenutil, R; Holčaková, J; Coates, P J; Vojtěšek, B

    2017-01-01

    PLA (proximity ligation assay) can be used for detection of protein-protein interactions in situ directly in cells and tissues. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity it is useful for detection, localization and quantification of protein complexes with single molecule resolution. One of the mechanisms of mutated p53 gain of function is formation of proten-protein complexes with other members of p53 family - p63 and p73. These interactions influences chemosensitivity and invasivity of cancer cells and this is why these complexes are potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. The aim of this work is to detect p53/p63/p73 interactions in situ in tumour cells and tumour tissue using PLA method. Unique in-house antibodies for specific detection of p63 and p73 isoforms were developed and characterized. Potein complexes were detected using PLA in established cell lines SVK14, HCC1806 and FaDu and in paraffin sections of colorectal carcinoma tissue. Cell lines were also processed to paraffin blocks. p53/T-antigen and ΔNp63/T-antigen protein complexes were detected in SVK14 cells using PLA. Interactions of ΔNp63 and TAp73 isoforms were found in HCC1806 cell line with endogenous expression of these proteins. In FaDu cell line mut-p53/TAp73 complex was localized but not mut-p53/ΔNp63 complex. p53 tetramer was detected directly in colorectal cancer tissue. During development of PLA method for detection of protein complexes between p53 family members we detected interactions of p53 and p63 with T-antigen and mut-p53 and ΔNp63 with TAp73 tumour suppressor in tumour cell lines and p53 tetramers in paraffin sections of colorectal cancer tissue. PLA will be further used for detection of p53/p63, p53/p73 and p63/p73 interactions in tumour tissues and it could be also used for screening of compounds that can block formation of p53/p63/p73 protein complexes.Key words: p53 protein family - protein interaction mapping - immunofluorescence This work was supported by MEYS - NPS I

  20. Endothelial cell differentiation into capillary-like structures in response to tumour cell conditioned medium: a modified chemotaxis chamber assay.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Riese, H H; Aracil, M; Pérez-Aranda, A

    1995-04-01

    We have developed a modified chemotaxis chamber assay in which bovine aortic endothelial (BAE) cells degrade Matrigel basement membrane and migrate and form capillary-like structures on type I collagen. This capillary formation occurs in the presence of conditioned media from highly metastatic tumour cell lines, such as B16F10 murine melanoma or MDA-MD-231 human breast adenocarcinoma, but not in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from the less invasive B16F0 cell line. Replacement of tumour cell CM by 10 ng ml-1 basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) also results in capillary-like structure formation by BAE cells. An anti-bFGF antibody blocks this effect, showing that bFGF is one of the factors responsible for the angiogenic response induced by B16F10 CM in our assay. Addition of an anti-laminin antibody reduces significantly the formation of capillary-like structures, probably by blocking the attachment of BAE cells to laminin present in Matrigel. The anti-angiogenic compound suramin inhibits in a dose-dependent manner (complete inhibition with 100 microM suramin) the migration and differentiation of BAE cells on type I collagen in response to B16F10 CM. This assay represents a new model system to study tumour-induced angiogenesis in vitro.

  1. Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Detection of Circulating Tumour DNA After Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Alex F.; Kim, Haesook T.; Kong, Katherine A.; Faham, Malek; Sun, Heather; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Carlton, Victoria E.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cutler, Corey S.; Ho, Vincent T.; Koreth, John; Kotwaliwale, Chitra; Nikiforow, Sarah; Ritz, Jerome; Rodig, Scott J.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Antin, Joseph H.; Armand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Summary Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising monitoring tool for lymphoid malignancies. We evaluated whether the presence of ctDNA was associated with outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in lymphoma patients. We studied 88 patients drawn from a phase 3 clinical trial of reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT in lymphoma. Conventional restaging and collection of peripheral blood samples occurred at pre-specified time points before and after HSCT and were assayed for ctDNA by sequencing of the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. Tumour clonotypes were identified in 87% of patients with adequate tumour samples. Sixteen of 19 (84%) patients with disease progression after HSCT had detectable ctDNA prior to progression at a median of 3.7 months prior to relapse/progression. Patients with detectable ctDNA 3 months after HSCT had inferior progression-free survival (PFS) (2-year PFS 58% versus 84% in ctDNA-negative patients, p=0.033). In multivariate models, detectable ctDNA was associated with increased risk of progression/death (Hazard ratio 3.9, p=0.003) and increased risk of relapse/progression (Hazard ratio 10.8, p=0.0006). Detectable ctDNA is associated with an increased risk of relapse/progression, but further validation studies are necessary to confirm these findings and determine the clinical utility of NGS-based minimal residual disease monitoring in lymphoma patients after HSCT. PMID:27711974

  2. Next-generation sequencing-based detection of circulating tumour DNA After allogeneic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Alex F; Kim, Haesook T; Kong, Katherine A; Faham, Malek; Sun, Heather; Sohani, Aliyah R; Alyea, Edwin P; Carlton, Victoria E; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cutler, Corey S; Ho, Vincent T; Koreth, John; Kotwaliwale, Chitra; Nikiforow, Sarah; Ritz, Jerome; Rodig, Scott J; Soiffer, Robert J; Antin, Joseph H; Armand, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising monitoring tool for lymphoid malignancies. We evaluated whether the presence of ctDNA was associated with outcome after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in lymphoma patients. We studied 88 patients drawn from a phase 3 clinical trial of reduced-intensity conditioning HSCT in lymphoma. Conventional restaging and collection of peripheral blood samples occurred at pre-specified time points before and after HSCT and were assayed for ctDNA by sequencing of the immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor genes. Tumour clonotypes were identified in 87% of patients with adequate tumour samples. Sixteen of 19 (84%) patients with disease progression after HSCT had detectable ctDNA prior to progression at a median of 3·7 months prior to relapse/progression. Patients with detectable ctDNA 3 months after HSCT had inferior progression-free survival (PFS) (2-year PFS 58% vs. 84% in ctDNA-negative patients, P = 0·033). In multivariate models, detectable ctDNA was associated with increased risk of progression/death (Hazard ratio 3·9, P = 0·003) and increased risk of relapse/progression (Hazard ratio 10·8, P = 0·0006). Detectable ctDNA is associated with an increased risk of relapse/progression, but further validation studies are necessary to confirm these findings and determine the clinical utility of NGS-based minimal residual disease monitoring in lymphoma patients after HSCT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. IGF1R signalling in testicular germ cell tumour cells impacts on cell survival and acquired cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Selfe, Joanna; Goddard, Neil C; McIntyre, Alan; Taylor, Kathryn R; Renshaw, Jane; Popov, Sergey D; Thway, Khin; Summersgill, Brenda; Huddart, Robert A; Gilbert, Duncan C; Shipley, Janet M

    2018-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most frequent malignancy and cause of death from solid tumours in the 20- to 40-year age group. Although most cases show sensitivity to cis-platinum-based chemotherapy, this is associated with long-term toxicities and chemo-resistance. Roles for receptor tyrosine kinases other than KIT are largely unknown in TGCT. We therefore conducted a phosphoproteomic screen and identified the insulin growth factor receptor-1 (IGF1R) as both highly expressed and activated in TGCT cell lines representing the nonseminomatous subtype. IGF1R was also frequently expressed in tumour samples from patients with nonseminomas. Functional analysis of cell line models showed that long-term shRNA-mediated IGF1R silencing leads to apoptosis and complete ablation of nonseminoma cells with active IGF1R signalling. Cell lines with high levels of IGF1R activity also showed reduced AKT signalling in response to decreased IGF1R expression as well as sensitivity to the small-molecule IGF1R inhibitor NVP-AEW541. These results were in contrast to those in the seminoma cell line TCAM2 that lacked IGF1R signalling via AKT and was one of the two cell lines least sensitive to the IGF1R inhibitor. The dependence on IGF1R activity in the majority of nonseminomas parallels the known role of IGF signalling in the proliferation, migration, and survival of primordial germ cells, the putative cell of origin for TGCT. Upregulation of IGF1R expression and signalling was also found to contribute to acquired cisplatin resistance in an in vitro nonseminoma model, providing a rationale for targeting IGF1R in cisplatin-resistant disease. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Methods: The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8+ memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. Results: The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH+ patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8+ Tm were detected. Conclusion: Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:23989944

  5. Tumour cell lysate-loaded dendritic cell vaccine induces biochemical and memory immune response in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes, D; Salazar, L; Espinoza, E; Pereda, C; Castellón, E; Valdevenito, R; Huidobro, C; Inés Becker, M; Lladser, A; López, M N; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2013-09-17

    Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8(+) memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients. The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH(+) patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8(+) Tm were detected. Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial.

  6. Characterization of the homologous and heterologous desensitization of rat Leydig-tumour-cell adenylate cyclase.

    PubMed

    Dix, C J; Habberfield, A D; Cooke, B A

    1984-06-15

    The homologous and heterologous desensitization of rat Leydig-tumour-cell adenylate cyclase induced by lutropin (LH) was characterized with the aid of forskolin and cholera toxin. Forskolin stimulated cyclic AMP production in a dose-dependent manner, with linear kinetics up to 2h. Forskolin also potentiated the action of LH on cyclic AMP production, but was only additive with cholera toxin. Preincubation of rat Leydig tumour cells with LH (1.0 micrograms/ml) for 1 h produced a desensitization of the subsequent LH (1.0 micrograms/ml)-stimulated cyclic AMP production, whereas the responses to cholera toxin (5.0 micrograms/ml), forskolin (100 microM), LH plus forskolin or cholera toxin plus forskolin were unaltered. In contrast, preincubation with LH for 20h produced a desensitization to all the stimuli tested. When rat Leydig tumour cells were preincubated for 1h with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the only subsequent response that was significantly altered was that to LH plus forskolin after preincubation with forskolin. However, preincubation for 20h with forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP induced a desensitization to all stimuli subsequently tested. LH produced a rapid (0-1h) homologous desensitization, which was followed by a slower (2-8h)-onset heterologous desensitization. Forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP were only able to induce heterologous desensitization. The rate of desensitization induced by either forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was similar to the rate of heterologous desensitization induced by LH. These results demonstrate that in purified rat Leydig tumour cells LH produces an initial homologous desensitization of adenylate cyclase that involves a cyclic AMP-independent lesion at or proximal to the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G-protein). This is followed by heterologous desensitization, which can also be induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, thus indicating that LH-induced heterologous desensitization of rat Leydig-tumour-cell

  7. Decoy receptors block TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level: the role of stromal cells in controlling tumour TRAIL sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, L; van der Sloot, A M; Reis, C R; Deegan, S; Ryan, A E; Dhami, S P S; Murillo, L S; Cool, R H; Correa de Sampaio, P; Thompson, K; Murphy, G; Quax, W J; Serrano, L; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

    2016-03-10

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand cytokine known for its cytotoxic activity against malignantly transformed cells. TRAIL induces cell death through binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5. The inhibitory decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) co-expressed with death receptor 4 (DR4)/DR5 on the same cell can block the transmission of the apoptotic signal. Here, we show that DcRs also regulate TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level and thus represent a mechanism by which the microenvironment can diminish tumour TRAIL sensitivity. Mathematical modelling and layered or spheroid stroma-extracellular matrix-tumour cultures were used to model the tumour microenvironment. By engineering TRAIL to escape binding by DcRs, we found that DcRs do not only act in a cell-autonomous or cis-regulatory manner, but also exert trans-cellular regulation originating from stromal cells and affect tumour cells, highlighting the potent inhibitory effect of DcRs in the tumour tissue and the necessity of selective targeting of the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors to maximise efficacy.

  8. Renal cell tumour characteristics in patients with the Birt-Hogg-Dubé cancer susceptibility syndrome: a retrospective, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Benusiglio, Patrick R; Giraud, Sophie; Deveaux, Sophie; Méjean, Arnaud; Correas, Jean-Michel; Joly, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Ferlicot, Sophie; Verkarre, Virginie; Abadie, Caroline; Chauveau, Dominique; Leroux, Dominique; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Cordier, Jean-François; Richard, Stéphane

    2014-10-29

    The Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a rare cancer susceptibility syndrome characterised by renal tumours, lung cysts and pneumothoraces, and fibrofolliculomas. It is caused by dominantly inherited mutations in FLCN. Our objective was to report renal tumour characteristics in a large series of patients with the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. We studied French Birt-Hogg-Dubé patients with a history of renal tumour. We included 33 patients with 21 distinct germline FLCN mutations. Median age at diagnosis of first renal tumour was 46, and age varied from 20 to 83. Twenty cases had one renal tumour, the remainder had two or more tumours. Most cases (23/33, 70%) had oncocytoma or renal cell carcinoma of the chromophobe or hybrid chromophobe-oncocytoma type, three had clear cell carcinoma (9%), and the other seven had carcinoma of papillary, undifferentiated or undetermined histology. Four cases had metastatic disease, although none died of it. Age at renal tumour diagnosis was highly variable, highlighting the need for regular surveillance from young adulthood to old age. Most cases had tumour types classically associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé, i.e. oncocytoma or renal cell carcinoma of the chromophobe or hybrid type. Nevertheless, 9% had clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Geneticists, urologists and oncologists should therefore be alert to the possibility of Birt-Hogg-Dubé in patients with renal cell carcinoma of clear cell histology, especially if there are associated manifestations. Finally, the behaviour of metastatic carcinoma seemed more indolent than in sporadic renal cancers.

  9. Primary perivascular epitheloid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jafari, A; Fischer, H P; von Websky, M; Hong, G S; Kalff, J C; Manekeller, S

    2013-09-01

    Perivascular epitheloid cell tumour [PEComa] is a rare neoplasm entity, characterized by perivascular epitheloid cells with a coexpression of smooth muscle and melanocytic markers. PEComas are found in a variety of localizations, though lesions within the liver are still scarcely found. Although the majority of these tumours are recognized as benign, there are some reports about advanced and aggressive tumours even with fatal outcome. By means of this case report and literary review including other 21 published cases, potential treatment modalities concerning clinical diagnostics, therapy and the follow-up care should be discussed. The following report presents the case of a 53-year old woman with a known liver lesion, since four years under regularly sonographic controls. Finally, after a haemorrhage episode, the lesion was resected and the diagnosis found. For the literary review a systematic search for case reports published between January 1, 1999 and May 1, 2012 was performed on Pubmed. The only way, till now, of confirming the diagnosis is through immunohistochemical examinations. The already published Malignancy criteria by Folpe et al. must be taken carefully in question, as there are cases of malignant behaviour, that do not exactly coincide with these. Primary PEComa of the liver must be treated as potential malignant and therefore a close follow-up is demanded. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Materials and microfluidics: enabling the efficient isolation and analysis of circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua M; Witek, Małgorzata A; Kamande, Joyce W; Soper, Steven A

    2017-07-17

    We present a critical review of microfluidic technologies and material effects on the analyses of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) selected from the peripheral blood of cancer patients. CTCs are a minimally invasive source of clinical information that can be used to prognose patient outcome, monitor minimal residual disease, assess tumour resistance to therapeutic agents, and potentially screen individuals for the early diagnosis of cancer. The performance of CTC isolation technologies depends on microfluidic architectures, the underlying principles of isolation, and the choice of materials. We present a critical review of the fundamental principles used in these technologies and discuss their performance. We also give context to how CTC isolation technologies enable downstream analysis of selected CTCs in terms of detecting genetic mutations and gene expression that could be used to gain information that may affect patient outcome.

  11. A direct comparison of CellSearch and ISET for circulating tumour-cell detection in patients with metastatic carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Farace, F; Massard, C; Vimond, N; Drusch, F; Jacques, N; Billiot, F; Laplanche, A; Chauchereau, A; Lacroix, L; Planchard, D; Le Moulec, S; André, F; Fizazi, K; Soria, J C; Vielh, P

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) can provide information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. However, there is no universal method to detect CTC currently available. Here, we compared the performance of two CTC detection systems based on the expression of the EpCAM antigen (CellSearch assay) or on cell size (ISET assay). Methods: Circulating tumour cells were enumerated in 60 patients with metastatic carcinomas of breast, prostate and lung origins using CellSearch according to the manufacturer's protocol and ISET by studying cytomorphology and immunolabelling with anti-cytokeratin or lineage-specific antibodies. Results: Concordant results were obtained in 55% (11 out of 20) of the patients with breast cancer, in 60% (12 out of 20) of the patients with prostate cancer and in only 20% (4 out of 20) of lung cancer patients. Conclusion: Our results highlight important discrepancies between the numbers of CTC enumerated by both techniques. These differences depend mostly on the tumour type. These results suggest that technologies limiting CTC capture to EpCAM-positive cells, may present important limitations, especially in patients with metastatic lung carcinoma. PMID:21829190

  12. Effects of a cloned cell line with NK activity on bone marrow transplants, tumour development and metastasis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John F.; Dennert, Gunther

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells cloned in vitro have been transferred into NK-deficient hosts. These cells have been shown to have a role in the rejection of allogeneic bone marrow grafts, resistance to both radiation-induced thymic leukaemia and challenge with melanoma tumour cells. It appears that NK cells have an important role in immune surveillance.

  13. Calcium-binding protein from mouse Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is homologous to human calcyclin.

    PubMed Central

    Kuźnicki, J; Filipek, A; Hunziker, P E; Huber, S; Heizmann, C W

    1989-01-01

    A Ca2+-binding protein was purified from mouse Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. The protein forms monomers and disulphide-linked dimers, which can be separated by reverse-phase h.p.l.c. A partial amino acid sequence analysis demonstrated that the protein has an EF-hand structure. A striking homology was found to rat and human calcyclin (a member of the S-100 protein family), which is possibly involved in cell-cycle regulation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2597136

  14. Cell surface expression of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) correlates with stages of differentiation in B cell tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R A; Scott, C S; Norfolk, D R; Stark, A N; Child, J A

    1987-01-01

    Cell surface beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) densities of malignant B cells were determined by enzyme immunoassay in 97 cases of immunologically defined lymphoproliferative disease. Absolute beta 2m densities were found to depend on disease category with the lowest levels found on cells from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (mean = 5.6 ng/10(6) cells, n = 27); atypical chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (mean = 5.9 ng/10(6) cells, n = 8); and prolymphocytoid chronic lymphocytic leukaemia variant (mean = 6.0 ng/10(6) cells, n = 16). beta 2m densities for B non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 14) and B prolymphocytic leukaemia (n = 17) cases were 8.1 and 10.0 ng/10(6) cells, respectively, and the highest densities were found on cells from "late-B cell" tumours (mean = 14.3 ng/10(6) cells). Plasma cells from cases of Ig secreting tumours expressed unexpectedly low beta 2m densities (mean = 9.3 ng/10(6) cells; n = 6). PMID:3108331

  15. Sepsis-induced expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells promotes tumour growth through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Auffray, Cédric; Alby-Laurent, Fanny; Rousseau, Christophe; Merdji, Hamid; Bonilla, Nelly; Toubiana, Julie; Belaïdouni, Nadia; Mira, Jean-Paul; Lucas, Bruno; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Pène, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Severe sepsis remains a frequent and dreaded complication in cancer patients. Beyond the often fatal short-term outcome, the long-term sequelae of severe sepsis may also impact directly on the prognosis of the underlying malignancy in survivors. The immune system is involved in all stages of tumour development, in the detection of transforming and dying cells and in the prevention of tumour growth and dissemination. In fact, the profound and sustained immune defects induced by sepsis may constitute a privileged environment likely to favour tumour growth. We investigated the impact of sepsis on malignant tumour growth in a double-hit animal model of polymicrobial peritonitis, followed by subcutaneous inoculation of MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells. As compared to their sham-operated counterparts, post-septic mice exhibited accelerated tumour growth. This was associated with intratumoural accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) that could be characterized as granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs). Depletion of granulocytic cells in post-septic mice inhibited the sepsis-enhanced tumour growth. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (Tlr4) and Myd88 deficiencies prevented sepsis-induced expansion of G-MDSCs and tumour growth. Our results demonstrate that the myelosuppressive environment induced by severe bacterial infections promotes malignant tumour growth, and highlight a critical role of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) G-MDSCs under the control of TLR-dependent signalling. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reptin drives tumour progression and resistance to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Mikesch, Jan-Henrik; Schwammbach, Daniela; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Lars H; Schliemann, Christoph; Angenendt, Linus; Wiewrodt, Rainer; Marra, Alessandro; Thoennissen, Nils H; Wardelmann, Eva; Köhler, Gabriele; Lenz, Georg; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Arteaga, Maria-Francisca

    2018-05-31

    While targeted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) therapies improved outcome of defined disease subtypes, prognosis of most of the patients remains poor. We found the AAA+ ATPase Reptin to be highly expressed in the vast majority of 278 NSCLC tumour samples. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the role of Reptin in NSCLC.Survival analyses of 1,145 NSCLC patients revealed that high RNA expression levels of Reptin are associated with adverse outcome. Knock down of Reptin in human NSCLC cells impaired growth ex vivo and eliminated engraftment in a xenograft model. We uncovered direct interaction of Reptin with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), as the critical mechanism driving NSCLC tumour progression. Pharmacological disruption of Reptin/HDAC1 complex resulted in substantial decrease of NSCLC cell proliferation and induced significant sensitization to cisplatin.In conclusion, our results identify Reptin as a novel independent prognostic factor and as a key regulator mediating proliferation and clonal growth of human NSCLC cells ex vivo and in vivo We unveil a Reptin/HDAC1 protein complex whose pharmacological disruption sensitizes NSCLC cells to cisplatin, suggesting this approach for application in clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  17. Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

  18. Apoptotic intrinsic pathway proteins predict survival in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Barra, C N; Macedo, B M; Cadrobbi, K G; Pulz, L H; Huete, G C; Kleeb, S R; Xavier, J G; Catão-Dias, J L; Nishiya, A T; Fukumasu, H; Strefezzi, R F

    2018-03-01

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are the most frequent canine round cell neoplasms and show variable biological behaviours with high metastatic and recurrence rates. The disease is treated surgically and wide margins are recommended. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in this disease cause DNA damage in neoplastic cells, which is aimed to induce apoptotic cell death. Resisting cell death is a hallmark of cancer, which contributes to the development and progression of tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the proteins involved in the apoptotic intrinsic pathway and to evaluate their potential use as prognostic markers for canine cutaneous MCTs. Immunohistochemistry for BAX, BCL2, APAF1, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3 was performed in 50 canine cases of MCTs. High BAX expression was associated with higher mortality rate and shorter survival. BCL2 and APAF1 expressions offered additional prognostic information to the histopathological grading systems. The present results indicate that variations in the expression of apoptotic proteins are related to malignancy of cutaneous MCTs in dogs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Stem cell senescence drives age-attenuated induction of pituitary tumours in mouse models of paediatric craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Mario Gonzalez-Meljem, Jose; Haston, Scott; Carreno, Gabriela; Apps, John R; Pozzi, Sara; Stache, Christina; Kaushal, Grace; Virasami, Alex; Panousopoulos, Leonidas; Neda Mousavy-Gharavy, Seyedeh; Guerrero, Ana; Rashid, Mamunur; Jani, Nital; Goding, Colin R; Jacques, Thomas S; Adams, David J; Gil, Jesus; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2017-11-28

    Senescent cells may promote tumour progression through the activation of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), whether these cells are capable of initiating tumourigenesis in vivo is not known. Expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Sox2+ young adult pituitary stem cells leads to formation of clusters of stem cells and induction of tumours resembling human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP), derived from Sox2- cells in a paracrine manner. Here, we uncover the mechanisms underlying this paracrine tumourigenesis. We show that expression of oncogenic β-catenin in Hesx1+ embryonic precursors also results in stem cell clusters and paracrine tumours. We reveal that human and mouse clusters are analogous and share a common signature of senescence and SASP. Finally, we show that mice with reduced senescence and SASP responses exhibit decreased tumour-inducing potential. Together, we provide evidence that senescence and a stem cell-associated SASP drive cell transformation and tumour initiation in vivo in an age-dependent fashion.

  20. Cell-production rates estimated by the use of vincristine sulphate and flow cytometry. I. An in vitro study using murine tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Barfod, I H; Barfod, N M

    1980-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of cell-production rates is described which combines flow cytometry (FCM) and the stathmokinetic method. By means of FCM it is possible to estimate the distribution of cells with G1, S and (G2 + M) DNA content in a population. As this method gives the relative (G2 + M) DNA content of cells within the cell cycle, it may be possible to evaluate cell-production rates by this technique. In the present study it was found that administration of a metaphase-arresting (stathmokinetic) agent, vincristine sulphate (VS), to asynchronous cell populations of three different murine tumour cell lines in vitro increased the peak representing cells with (G2 + M) DNA content as the number of mitotic (M) cells increased during the period of treatment. The accumulation of mitotic cells was determined by cell counts on smears under the microscope and compared with increase in the (G2 + M) DNA peak measured by FCM as a function of time after the administration of VS. Good agreement was obtained between the cell-production rates as estimated by FCM and by mitotic counts in all three cell lines investigated.

  1. Pyruvate kinase type M2 promotes tumour cell exosome release via phosphorylating synaptosome-associated protein 23

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yao; Wang, Dong; Jin, Fangfang; Bian, Zhen; Li, Limin; Liang, Hongwei; Li, Mingzhen; Shi, Lei; Pan, Chaoyun; Zhu, Dihan; Chen, Xi; Hu, Gang; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Tumour cells secrete exosomes that are involved in the remodelling of the tumour–stromal environment and promoting malignancy. The mechanisms governing tumour exosome release, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we show that tumour cell exosomes secretion is controlled by pyruvate kinase type M2 (PKM2), which is upregulated and phosphorylated in tumours. During exosome secretion, phosphorylated PKM2 serves as a protein kinase to phosphorylate synaptosome-associated protein 23 (SNAP-23), which in turn enables the formation of the SNARE complex to allow exosomes release. Direct phosphorylation assay and mass spectrometry confirm that PKM2 phosphorylates SNAP-23 at Ser95. Ectopic expression of non-phosphorylated SNAP-23 mutant (Ser95→Ala95) significantly reduces PKM2-mediated exosomes release whereas expression of selective phosphomimetic SNAP-23 mutants (Ser95→Glu95 but not Ser20→Glu20) rescues the impaired exosomes release induced by PKM2 knockdown. Our findings reveal a non-metabolic function of PKM2, an enzyme associated with tumour cell reliance on aerobic glycolysis, in promoting tumour cell exosome release. PMID:28067230

  2. LATS2 tumour specific mutations and down-regulation of the gene in non-small cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Strazisar, Mojca; Mlakar, Vid; Glavac, Damjan

    2009-06-01

    LATS2 is a new member of the LATS tumour suppressor family. The human LATS2 gene is located at chromosome 13q11-12, a hot spot (67%) for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We screened 129 non-small cell lung cancer samples and 13 lung cancer cell lines, initially for mutations in the LATS2 gene and subsequently for mutations in P53 and K-RAS genes. Either polymorphisms or mutations were identified in over 50 percent of analysed tumours. A novel missense mutation, S1073R, and a large deletion of 8 amino acids in the PAPA-repeat region were detected in 9 and 2 NSCLC tumours, respectively. Those mutations were not identified in the 13 lung cancer cell lines. Mutations were tumour specific and were absent from adjacent normal tissue and healthy controls. Down-regulation of the LATS2 gene was observed in most NSCLC tumours but was not related to any mutation or polymorphism. Tumours with a LATS2 mutation often also harbour a P53 but not K-RAS gene mutation and were mostly in an advanced stage of development, with regional lymph node involvement.

  3. Clinical profile, treatment and survival outcomes of peadiatric germ cell tumours: A Pakistani perspective.

    PubMed

    Islam Nasir, Irfan Ul; Ashraf, Muhammad Ijaz; Ahmed, Nouman; Shah, Muhammad Fahd; Pirzada, Muhammad Taqi; Syed, Amir Ali; Qazi, Abid Quddus

    2016-10-01

    Germ Cell Tumours (GCTs) are rare tumours. Generally 80% are benign and 20% malignant with a bimodal age distribution. The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised all paediatric patients below 18 years of age who received treatment for histology-proven GCT from 2006 to 2014. Of the 207 patients, 98(42.3%) were males and 109(52.7%) were females. The most common GCT was yolk sac tumour in 90(43.5%) children followed by mixed GCT in 40(19.3%) and dysgerminoma in 34(16.4%). Gonads were most commonly involved in 165(79.7%) patients with metastasis in 24(11.6%) at presentation and recurrence in 26(12.5%) patients. Overall, 133(64.3%) patients are well and followed up at regular intervals and 55(26.5%) have been lost to follow-up with an expected overall 5-year median survival of 45%. Despite the distinct clinical profile of paediatric GCT, survival can be improved by early diagnosis, regimented treatment according to set guidelines, protocols and by improving follow-up.

  4. Cell cycle kinetics, apoptosis rates and gene expressions of MDR-1, TP53, BCL-2 and BAX in transmissible venereal tumour cells and their association with therapy response.

    PubMed

    Flórez, M M; Fêo, H B; da Silva, G N; Yamatogi, R S; Aguiar, A J; Araújo, J P; Rocha, N S

    2017-09-01

    Transmissible venereal tumour (TVT) generally presents different degrees of aggressiveness, which makes them unresponsive to conventional treatment protocols. This implies a progressive alteration of their biological profile. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity, cell survival, apoptosis and cell cycle alterations in TVT cell cultures subjected to treatment with vincristine. Similarly, it assessed possible implications of MDR-1, TP53, BCL-2, and BAX gene expressions in eight TVT primary cultures for both resistance to chemotherapy and biological behaviour. When comparing TVT cells receiving vincristine to those untreated, a statistical difference related to increased cytotoxicity and decreased survival rates, and alterations in G1 and S cell cycle phases were found but without detectable differences in apoptosis. Increased MDR-1 gene expression was observed after treatment. The groups did not differ statistically in relation to the TP53, BAX and BCL-2 genes. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that such augmented expression is related to tumour malignancy and chemotherapy resistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The relationship between components of tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and clinicopathological factors and survival in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Z MA; Going, J J; Edwards, J; Elsberger, B; Doughty, J C; McMillan, D C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The importance of the components of host local inflammatory response in determining outcome in primary operable ductal invasive breast cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between components of the tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate and standard clinicopathological factors including hormone status (oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2), Ki-67 and survival in patients with primary operable invasive ductal breast cancer. Methods: Tumour inflammatory cell infiltrate, hormone status (ER, PR and HER-2), Ki-67 and standard clinicopathological factors were determined using routine pathological and immuno-histochemical techniques in 468 patients. Results: The large majority (94%) of ductal tumours had evidence of inflammatory cell infiltrate. The general inflammatory cell infiltrate was positively associated with high grade (P<0.001), the absence of ER (P<0.001), the absence of PR (P<0.01), the presence of vascular invasion (P<0.05) and high lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cell infiltrate, other inflammatory cell infiltrate and macrophage infiltrate (all P<0.001). The median follow-up of the survivors was 165 months. During this period, 93 patients died of their cancer. On univariate analysis, stratified for ER status, tumour size (P<0.01), lymph node involvement (P<0.001), tumour plasma cell infiltrate (P<0.001), other inflammatory cell infiltrate (P<0.05) and treatment (P<0.05) were associated with poorer cancer-specific survival whereas lymphocyte infiltrate (P<0.001) was associated with improved cancer-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, stratified for ER status, lymph node involvement (P<0.05) was independently associated with poorer cancer-specific survival whereas increased tumour lymphocyte infiltrate (P<0.001) was independently associated with improved cancer-specific survival. Conclusion: The results of this study show that, using routine

  6. Head and neck cancer relapse after chemoradiotherapy correlates with CD163+ macrophages in primary tumour and CD11b+ myeloid cells in recurrences.

    PubMed

    Balermpas, P; Rödel, F; Liberz, R; Oppermann, J; Wagenblast, J; Ghanaati, S; Harter, P N; Mittelbronn, M; Weiss, C; Rödel, C; Fokas, E

    2014-10-14

    We investigated the prognostic role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). The expression of CD68+, CD163+ and CD11b+ cells was assessed using immunohistochemistry in n=106 pre-treatment tumour biopsy samples and was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, including T-stage, N-stage, grading, tumour localisation, age and sex as well as local failure-free survival (LFFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), progression-free (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Finally, TAMs expression and vessel density (CD31) were examined in n=12 available early local recurrence samples and compared with their matched primary tumours . The diagnostic images and radiotherapy plans of these 12 patients were also analysed. All local recurrences occurred in the high radiation dose region (⩾70 Gy). With a median follow-up of 40 months, OS at 2 years was 60.5%. High CD163 expression in primary tumours was associated with decreased OS (P=0.010), PFS (P=0.033), LFFS (P=0.036) and DMFS (P=0.038) in multivariate analysis. CD163 demonstrated a strong prognostic value only in human papillomavirus (p16(INK4))-negative patients. Early local recurrence specimens demonstrated a significantly increased infiltration of CD11b+ myeloid cells (P=0.0097) but decreased CD31-positive vessel density (P=0.0004) compared with their matched primary samples. Altogether, baseline CD163 expression predicts for an unfavourable clinical outcome in HNSCC after definitive CRT. Early local recurrences showed increased infiltration by CD11b+ cells. These data provide important insight on the role of TAMs in mediating response to CRT in patients with HNSCC.

  7. A novel individual-cell-based mathematical model based on multicellular tumour spheroids for evaluating doxorubicin-related delivery in avascular regions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; Yan, Fangrong; Chen, Hongzhu; Wang, Wenjie; Liu, Wenyue; Hao, Kun; Wang, Guangji; Zhou, Fang; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-09-01

    Effective drug delivery in the avascular regions of tumours, which is crucial for the promising antitumour activity of doxorubicin-related therapy, is governed by two inseparable processes: intercellular diffusion and intracellular retention. To accurately evaluate doxorubicin-related delivery in the avascular regions, these two processes should be assessed together. Here we describe a new approach to such an assessment. An individual-cell-based mathematical model based on multicellular tumour spheroids was developed that describes the different intercellular diffusion and intracellular retention kinetics of doxorubicin in each cell layer. The different effects of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor (LY335979) and a hypoxia inhibitor (YC-1) were quantitatively evaluated and compared, in vitro (tumour spheroids) and in vivo (HepG2 tumours in mice). This approach was further tested by evaluating in these models, an experimental doxorubicin derivative, INNO 206, which is in Phase II clinical trials. Inhomogeneous, hypoxia-induced, P-glycoprotein expression compromised active transport of doxorubicin in the central area, that is, far from the vasculature. LY335979 inhibited efflux due to P-glycoprotein but limited levels of doxorubicin outside the inner cells, whereas YC-1 co-administration specifically increased doxorubicin accumulation in the inner cells without affecting the extracellular levels. INNO 206 exhibited a more effective distribution profile than doxorubicin. The individual-cell-based mathematical model accurately evaluated and predicted doxorubicin-related delivery and regulation in the avascular regions of tumours. The described framework provides a mechanistic basis for the proper development of doxorubicin-related drug co-administration profiles and nanoparticle development and could avoid unnecessary clinical trials. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Acute radiotherapy toxicity in 57 dogs with gross and microscopic mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, L; Tanis, J B; Harper, A; Amores-Fuster, I; Killick, D R; Finotello, R

    2018-05-15

    Mast cell tumours (MCTs) are commonly treated with radiation therapy, most often in a microscopic disease setting. Poorer outcomes are expected in patients with gross disease, and irradiation of gross disease may be associated with greater toxicity. The aim of this study was to compare acute radiation adverse events (AE) in dogs with gross and microscopic MCTs receiving radiotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs were included, 28 with gross disease and 29 with microscopic. In order to assess mucosal and skin toxicity, patients were assigned to 2 groups: head (29 patients, 14 patients with gross and 15 microscopic) and other sites (28 patients, 14 each). All were treated with external beam radiotherapy, and toxicity assessed at the end of treatment and 10 to 14 days later (first recheck). All patients developed some acute radiation toxicity by the end of the course. However, there was no difference in the severity of toxicity between gross and microscopic disease in either site group at either time point. The only variable associated with an increased frequency of grade 2 or 3 toxicity at the first recheck was the use of prednisolone prior to radiotherapy (P = .05). No other factors were identified which were associated with increased toxicity. For the head group, the site of highest grade toxicity was mucosa or, if included in the field, nasal planum, which was often more severely affected than the mucosa. No significant late toxicity was identified. Two dogs developed acute haematemesis during the radiotherapy course, but both completed the course without further events. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Challenges and unanswered questions for the next decade of circulating tumour cell research in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Sumitra; Chemi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Since blood borne circulating tumour cells (CTCs) initially shed from the primary tumour can seed and initiate metastasis at distant sites a better understanding of the biology of CTCs and their dissemination could provide valuable information that could guide therapeutic intervention and real time monitoring of disease progression. Although CTC enumeration has provided a reliable prognostic readout for a number of cancers, including lung cancer, the precise clinical utility of CTCs remains to be established. The rarity of CTCs together with the vanishingly small amounts of nucleic acids present in a single cell as well as cell to cell heterogeneity has stimulated the development of a wide range of powerful cellular and molecular methodologies applied to CTCs. These technical developments are now enabling researchers to focus on understanding the biology of CTCs and their clinical utility as a predictive and pharmacodynamics markers. This review summarises recent advances in the field of CTC research with focus on technical and biological challenges as well the progress made towards clinical utility of characterisation of CTCs with emphasis on studies in lung cancer. PMID:28904889

  10. Advances of lab-on-a-chip in isolation, detection and post-processing of circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Ng, Shu Rui; Xu, Yang; Dong, Hua; Wang, Ying Jun; Li, Chang Ming

    2013-08-21

    Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are shed by primary tumours and are found in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic cancers. Recent studies have shown that the number of CTCs corresponds with disease severity and prognosis. Therefore, detection and further functional analysis of CTCs are important for biomedical science, early diagnosis of cancer metastasis and tracking treatment efficacy in cancer patients, especially in point-of-care applications. Over the last few years, there has been an increasing shift towards not only capturing and detecting these rare cells, but also ensuring their viability for post-processing, such as cell culture and genetic analysis. High throughput lab-on-a-chip (LOC) has been fuelled up to process and analyse heterogeneous real patient samples while gaining profound insights for cancer biology. In this review, we highlight how miniaturisation strategies together with nanotechnologies have been used to advance LOC for capturing, separating, enriching and detecting different CTCs efficiently, while meeting the challenges of cell viability, high throughput multiplex or single-cell detection and post-processing. We begin this survey with an introduction to CTC biology, followed by description of the use of various materials, microstructures and nanostructures for design of LOC to achieve miniaturisation, as well as how various CTC capture or separation strategies can enhance cell capture and enrichment efficiencies, purity and viability. The significant progress of various nanotechnologies-based detection techniques to achieve high sensitivities and low detection limits for viable CTCs and/or to enable CTC post-processing are presented and the fundamental insights are also discussed. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of the technologies are enumerated.

  11. Glycosyltransferases as marker genes for the quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based detection of circulating tumour cells from blood samples of patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Kölbl, Alexandra C; Hiller, Roman A; Ilmer, Mathias; Liesche, Friederike; Heublein, Sabine; Schröder, Lennard; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo; Andergassen, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Altered glycosylation is a predominant feature of tumour cells; it serves for cell adhesion and detachment, respectively, and facilitates the immune escape of these cells. Therefore changes in the expression of glycosyltransferase genes could help to identify circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the blood samples of cancer patients using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. Blood samples of healthy donors were inoculated with certain numbers of established breast cancer cell line cells, thus creating a model system. These samples were analysed by quantitative PCR for the expression of six different glycosyltransferase genes. The three genes with the best results in the model system were consecutively applied to samples from adjuvant breast cancer patients and of healthy donors. FUT3 and GALNT6 showed the highest increase in relative expression, while GALNT6 and ST3GAL3 were the first to reach statistically significant different ∆CT-values comparing the sample with and without addition of tumour cells. These three genes were applied to patient samples, but did not show any significant results that may suggest the presence of CTCs in the blood. Although the relative expression of some of the glycosyltransferase genes exhibited reasonable results in the model system, their application to breast cancer patient samples will have to be further improved, e.g. by co-analysis of patient blood samples by gold-standard methods.

  12. The value of molecular expression of KIT and KIT ligand analysed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry as a prognostic indicator for canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Costa Casagrande, T A; de Oliveira Barros, L M; Fukumasu, H; Cogliati, B; Chaible, L M; Dagli, M L Z; Matera, J M

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the correlation between KIT gene expression determined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rate of tumour recurrence and tumour-related deaths in dogs affected with mast cell tumour (MCT). Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare tumour recurrence and tumour-related death between patients. The log-rank test was used to check for significant differences between curves. KIT-I, KIT-II and KIT-III staining patterns were observed in 9 (11.11%), 50 (61.73%) and 22 (27.16%) tumours, respectively. Tumour recurrence rates and tumour-related deaths were not associated with KIT staining patterns (P = 0278, P > 0.05), KIT (P = 0.289, P > 0.05) or KIT ligand (P = 0.106, P > 0.05) gene expression. Despite the lack of association between KIT staining pattern and patient survival time, the results suggest a correlation between aberrant KIT localization and increased proliferative activity of MCTs. RT-PCR seems to be a sensible method for quantitative detection of KIT gene expression in canine MCT, although expressions levels are not correlated with prognosis. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Does tumour location influence postoperative long-term survival in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Zhang, Kun; Niu, Zhong-Xi; Wang, Wen-Ping; Gao, Qiang; Chen, Long-Qi

    2015-08-01

    The seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system introduced tumour location for the first time as an determinant of stage grouping in pathological T2N0M0 and T3N0M0 (pT2-3N0M0) oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the new modification remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between tumour location and postoperative long-term survival in patients with OSCC in China. The clinicopathological data and over 10 years of follow-up results from a large cohort of 988 patients with OSCC undergoing radical-intent oesophagectomy from 1984 to 1995 without preoperative and postoperative chemoradiotherapy were reviewed, in which 632 patients were staged as pT2-3N0M0. Tumour location was redefined according to the seventh edition of the AJCC staging system. Survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method; univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to further determine the impact of tumour location on long-term survival. Univariate analysis showed that OSCC tumour location was closely associated with long-term survival for the entire cohort of 988 patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.82; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.67-0.99; P = 0.049), and for pT2-3N0M0 patients (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.48-0.84; P = 0.001). The median survival times for patients with pT2-3N0M0 OSCC in the upper, middle and lower third of the oesophagus were 38.1, 46.6 and 66.0 months, respectively, with corresponding 5-year survival rates of 40.0, 51.8 and 66.2%, respectively. Overall survival rates among three categories of patients according to tumour location in the pT2-3N0M0 patients were statistically different (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that tumour location was a significant independent predictor of long-term survival for pT2-3N0M0 patients (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.42-0.67; P = 0.0001), but not for the entire cohort of 988 patients (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.79-1.23; P

  14. Human papilloma virus status of penile squamous cell carcinoma is associated with differences in tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lohneis, Philipp; Boral, Sengül; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Lehmann, Annika; Schewe, Christiane; Dietel, Manfred; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Jöhrens, Korinna

    2015-03-01

    Meta-analyses show that approximately half of all squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the penis are associated with a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. As data about the tumour microenvironment of HPV-positive and HPV-negative penile carcinomas is scarce and conflicting, we examined tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte populations in such cases. The HPV status of 28 penile SCCs was determined by polymerase chain reaction, while the number and distribution of different lymphocyte populations were analysed by immunohistochemistry on whole sections of paraffin-embedded tumour specimens. The average number of tumour-infiltrating T cells in HPV-associated SCC was higher than in HPV-negative SCC, and their phenotype showed strong polarization towards a T helper 1 and cytotoxic immune response. In addition, we identified more tumour-infiltrating regulatory T cells in HPV-positive carcinomas, which might represent a mechanism of immune evasion. The present study provides further evidence that the tumour microenvironment of HPV-positive carcinomas differs from that of HPV-negative carcinomas.

  15. Optimizing radiotherapy protocols using computer automata to model tumour cell death as a function of oxygen diffusion processes.

    PubMed

    Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Potiron, Vincent; Delpon, Grégory; Supiot, Stéphane; Chiavassa, Sophie; Paris, François; Costes, Sylvain V

    2017-05-23

    The concept of hypofractionation is gaining momentum in radiation oncology centres, enabled by recent advances in radiotherapy apparatus. The gain of efficacy of this innovative treatment must be defined. We present a computer model based on translational murine data for in silico testing and optimization of various radiotherapy protocols with respect to tumour resistance and the microenvironment heterogeneity. This model combines automata approaches with image processing algorithms to simulate the cellular response of tumours exposed to ionizing radiation, modelling the alteration of oxygen permeabilization in blood vessels against repeated doses, and introducing mitotic catastrophe (as opposed to arbitrary delayed cell-death) as a means of modelling radiation-induced cell death. Published data describing cell death in vitro as well as tumour oxygenation in vivo are used to inform parameters. Our model is validated by comparing simulations to in vivo data obtained from the radiation treatment of mice transplanted with human prostate tumours. We then predict the efficacy of untested hypofractionation protocols, hypothesizing that tumour control can be optimized by adjusting daily radiation dosage as a function of the degree of hypoxia in the tumour environment. Further biological refinement of this tool will permit the rapid development of more sophisticated strategies for radiotherapy.

  16. Anorexia-cachexia syndrome in hepatoma tumour-bearing rats requires the area postrema but not vagal afferents and is paralleled by increased MIC-1/GDF15.

    PubMed

    Borner, Tito; Arnold, Myrtha; Ruud, Johan; Breit, Samuel N; Langhans, Wolfgang; Lutz, Thomas A; Blomqvist, Anders; Riediger, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The cancer-anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) negatively affects survival and therapy success in cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators and tumour-derived factors are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of CACS. However, the central and peripheral mechanisms contributing to CACS are insufficiently understood. The area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarii are two important brainstem centres for the control of eating during acute sickness conditions. Recently, the tumour-derived macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) emerged as a possible mediator of cancer anorexia because lesions of these brainstem areas attenuated the anorectic effect of exogenous MIC-1 in mice. Using a rat hepatoma tumour model, we examined the roles of the AP and of vagal afferents in the mediation of CACS. Specifically, we investigated whether a lesion of the AP (APX) or subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA) attenuate anorexia, body weight, muscle, and fat loss. Moreover, we analysed MIC-1 levels in this tumour model and their correlation with tumour size and the severity of the anorectic response. In tumour-bearing sham-operated animals mean daily food intake significantly decreased. The anorectic response was paralleled by a significant loss of body weight and muscle mass. APX rats were protected against anorexia, body weight loss, and muscle atrophy after tumour induction. In contrast, subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation did not attenuate cancer-induced anorexia or body weight loss. Tumour-bearing rats had substantially increased MIC-1 levels, which positively correlated with tumour size and cancer progression and negatively correlated with food intake. These findings demonstrate the importance of the AP in the mediation of cancer-dependent anorexia and body weight loss and support a pathological role of MIC-1 as a tumour-derived factor mediating CACS, possibly via an AP-dependent action. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle

  17. APELA promotes tumour growth and cell migration in ovarian cancer in a p53-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yuyin; Tsai, Shu-Huei; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Wang, Evan Y; Anglesio, Michael S; Cochrane, Dawn R; Fuller, Megan; Gibb, Ewan A; Wei, Wei; Huntsman, David G; Karsan, Aly; Hoodless, Pamela A

    2017-12-01

    APELA is a small, secreted peptide that can function as a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor, Apelin Receptor (APLNR, APJ). APELA plays an essential role in endoderm differentiation and cardiac development during embryogenesis. We investigated whether APELA exerts any functions in cancer progression. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing datasets, microarray from an OCCC mouse model, and RNA isolated from fresh frozen and FFPE patient tissue were used to assess APELA expression. APELA knockout ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) cell lines were generated using CRISPR/Cas9. APELA was expressed in various ovarian cancer histotypes and was especially elevated in OCCC. Disruption of APELA expression in OCCC cell lines suppressed cell growth and migration, and altered cell-cycle progression. Moreover, addition of human recombinant APELA peptide to the OCCC cell line OVISE promoted cell growth and migration. Interestingly, OVISE cells do not express APLNR, suggesting that APELA can function through an APLNR-independent pathway. Furthermore, APELA affected cell growth and cell cycle progression in a p53-dependent manner. In addition, APELA knockdown induced p53 expression in cancer cell lines. Our findings uncover a potential oncogenic role for APELA in promoting ovarian tumour progression and provide a possible therapeutic strategy in ovarian cancer by targeting APELA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The World Health Organization 2016 classification of testicular germ cell tumours: a review and update from the International Society of Urological Pathology Testis Consultation Panel.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Delahunt, Brett; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Algaba, Ferran; Egevad, Lars; Ulbright, Thomas M; Tickoo, Satish K; Srigley, John R; Epstein, Jonathan I; Berney, Daniel M

    2017-02-01

    Since the last World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme for tumours of the urinary tract and male genital organs, there have been a number of advances in the understanding, classification, immunohistochemistry and genetics of testicular germ cell tumours. The updated 2016 draft classification was discussed at an International Society of Urological Pathology Consultation on Testicular and Penile Cancer. This review addresses the main updates to germ cell tumour classification. Major changes include a pathogenetically derived classification using germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS) as a new name for the precursor lesion, and the distinction of prepubertal tumours (non-GCNIS-derived) from postpubertal-type tumours (GCNIS-derived), acknowledging the existence of rare benign prepubertal-type teratomas in the postpubertal testis. Spermatocytic tumour is adopted as a replacement for spermatocytic seminoma, to avoid potential confusion with the unrelated usual seminoma. The spectrum of trophoblastic tumours arising in the setting of testicular germ cell tumour continues to expand, to include epithelioid and placental site trophoblastic tumours analogous to those of the gynaecological tract. Currently, reporting of anaplasia (seminoma or spermatocytic tumour) or immaturity (teratoma) is not required, as these do not have demonstrable prognostic importance. In contrast, overgrowth of a teratomatous component (somatic-type malignancy) and sarcomatous change in spermatocytic tumour indicate more aggressive behaviour, and should be reported. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Lethality of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human tumour cell lines with different radiosensitivities.

    PubMed

    Coco-Martin, J M; Ottenheim, C P; Bartelink, H; Begg, A C

    1996-03-01

    In order to find an explanation for the eventual disappearance of all chromosome aberrations in two radiosensitive human tumour cell lines, the type and stability of different aberration types was investigated in more detail. To classify the aberrations into unstable and stable types, three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, including a whole-chromosome probe, a pancentromere probe, and a stain for total DNA. This technique enables the appropriate classification of the aberrations principally by the presence (stable) or not (unstable) of a single centromere per chromosome. Unstable-type aberrations were found to disappear within 7 days (several divisions) in the two radiosensitive and the two radioresistant tumour lines investigated. Stable-type aberrations were found to remain at an approximately constant level over the duration of the experiment (14 days; 8-10 divisions) in the two radioresistant lines. In contrast, the majority of these stable-type aberrations had disappeared by 14 days in the two radiosensitive lines. The previous findings of disappearance of total aberrations in radiosensitive cells was therefore not due to a reduced induction of stable-type aberrations, but the complete disappearance of cells with this aberration type. These results could not be explained by differences in apoptosis or G1 blocks. Two possible explanations for these unexpected findings involve non-random induction of unstable-type aberrations, or lethality of stable-type aberrations. The results suggest caution in the use of stable-type aberration numbers as a predictor for radiosensitivity.

  20. Benefit of a combined treatment of cryotherapy and chemotherapy on tumour growth and late cryo-induced angiogenesis in a non-small-cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Forest, Valérie; Peoc'h, Michel; Campos, Lydia; Guyotat, Denis; Vergnon, Jean-Michel

    2006-10-01

    In the treatment of lung cancers, a local cryotherapy can be proposed as a palliative option for bronchial clearance. But this therapy can also be used as an adjuvant treatment, for instance in association with chemotherapy. We have already demonstrated differential biological effects of these therapies and the benefit to combine them. The aim of this study was to determine if this benefit observed at a molecular level was correlated with tumour growth. As vascular changes occur after cryotherapy, intratumoral angiogenesis was also studied. Cells from the A549 cell line were inoculated into SCID mice. Tumours were treated by cryotherapy (nitrous oxide cryoprobe), chemotherapy (injection of Vinorelbine) or both. Tumour growth was studied in each group and the T/C ratios were compared. Tumours treated by cryochemotherapy presented a significantly reduced volume and the lower T/C ratio, confirming the benefit of a combined treatment. Angiogenesis was assessed at variable time points after cryotherapy by immunohistochemical staining of VEGF and western blot analysis. A late cryo-induced angiogenesis was observed 8-15 days after treatment (expression of VEGF increased from 13% in untreated tumours to 77 and 70%, respectively). To determine if this hypervascularization could enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy, the drug was injected 15 days after cryotherapy and the induction of cell death was investigated (morphological study, immunohistochemical staining of cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL). Necrosis was increased but not apoptosis, suggesting that though a crucial parameter, intratumoral microvessel density is not the only factor to consider to reach an optimal efficiency of a combined treatment.

  1. Hydroethidine: a fluorescent redox probe for locating hypoxic cells in spheroids and murine tumours.

    PubMed

    Olive, P L

    1989-09-01

    The fluorescent redox probe hydroethidine was accumulated and metabolised about five times faster in aerobic than in hypoxic mammalian cells. Patterns of fluorescence in Chinese hamster V79 spheroids also indicated that internal hypoxic cells were less able to metabolise the drug; toxicity was observed in cells only when cell fluorescence exceeded about 500 times background. In medium equilibrated with air or nitrogen, cell accumulation of the stain was rapid, and began to plateau after 30 min; loss of ethidium was initially rapid, with a slower component after 30 min, and transfer of the metabolite ethidium between stained and unstained cells was observed after 2 h co-incubation. Sorting cells from irradiated spheroids on the basis of ethidium fluorescence provided good separation of aerobic radiosensitive and hypoxic radioresistant cells, although separation using the perfusion probe, Hoechst 33342, was superior. Similar experiments with the murine SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma suggested that hydroethidine might be a useful indirect stain for locating hypoxic cells in experimental tumours when used in combination with a perfusion probe such as Hoechst 33342.

  2. HDAC1-induced epigenetic silencing of ASPP2 promotes cell motility, tumour growth and drug resistance in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Huayi; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Cheng; Cheng, Yiwei; Yu, Miao; Zhao, Kunming; Ge, Wenjie; Cai, Anyong; Zhang, Yao; Han, Fengtong; Hu, Ying

    2018-06-08

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is highly resistant to chemotherapies. The lack of efficacious treatment for metastatic RCC has led to a poor 5-year survival rate. Here, we found that Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53-2(ASPP2) was frequently decreased in primary RCC tissues in comparison with non-tumoural kidney controls. Decreased ASPP2 was correlated with high grades and poor outcomes of RCC. Further studies revealed that ASPP2 downregulation promoted EMT and increased resistance to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced apoptosis. To this end, the regulatory mechanisms of ASPP2 were further explored. Our data revealed that ASPP2 was inhibited by histone deacetylatlase 1 (HDAC1), which acted by preventing the binding between transcription factor (E2F1) and the ASPP2 promoter. Of particular importance, HDAC1 inhibitor vorinostat restored ASPP2 transcription and produced a synergistic effect with 5-FU in elevating ASPP2, promoting apoptosis and inhibiting EMT in both in vitro and in vivo RCC models. In summary, our data not only highlight an important role of ASPP2 in RCC progression and drug resistance, but also reveal new regulatory mechanisms of ASPP2, which provides important insights into novel treatment strategies by targeting ASPP2 dysregulation in RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of circulating tumour cells may add value in endometrial cancer management.

    PubMed

    Ni, T; Sun, X; Shan, B; Wang, J; Liu, Y; Gu, S-L; Wang, Y-D

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC). This study included 40 patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of high-risk EC between April 2015 and May 2016. Patients were further divided into high-risk (grade 3, non-endometrioid, myometrial invasion ≥1/2 and stage III-IV) and high-intermediate-risk (grade 2-3, endometrioid, myometrial invasion <1/2 and stage I-II) groups according to postoperative pathological results. CTCs were detected using the CellSearch system, and CTC results were correlated with standard clinicopathological characteristics and serum tumour marker CA125/HE4 status using Chi-squared test, continuity correction or Fisher's exact test. The pharmacodynamic effect was detected after the first cycle of adjuvant therapy. Patients were followed up for 13 months to assess outcomes. Fifteen percent of patients had one or more CTCs. The presence of CTCs was found to be significantly associated with cervical involvement (83.33% vs 11.76%, p=0.00). No significant difference in CTC-positive rates was detected between the high-risk and high-intermediate-risk groups, and no significant correlation was found between CTCs and serum CA125/HE4, either by positive rates or exact serum levels of the conventional tumour markers. No more CTCs were detected after the first cycle of standard chemotherapy in this study, and no distant metastases or recurrence were found in the CTC-positive patients during the follow-up period. The presence of CTCs was correlated with cervical involvement. Early-stage EC patients with CTCs may benefit from additional adjuvant therapies. Assessment of CTCs may be useful in the management of high-risk EC patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. RECIST response and variation of circulating tumour cells in phase 1 trials: A prospective multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Massard, Christophe; Borget, Isabelle; Farace, Françoise; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Bidard, François-Clement; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Dieras, Veronique; Hofman, Paul; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Ferte, Charles; Lacroix, Ludovic; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2017-09-01

    Circulating tumour cell (CTC) counting could be a new biomarker for better evaluation of tumour response to molecules tested in phase I trials. Consenting patients with advanced metastatic cancer referred to various phase I units were enrolled prospectively in this study. CTCs from 7.5 ml of whole blood drawn at baseline and after starting experimental therapy were counted using the CellSearch system, and tumour response was assessed using RECIST 1.1 criteria at baseline and 2 months after treatment initiation. Between March 2010 and May 2013, a total of 326 patients were enrolled, among whom 214 were evaluable (49% male, median age = 56; main cancer types: lung [28], colon [53], ovarian [18], breast [28]). At baseline, we detected ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 113/214 patients (53%), and at day 30, we observed ≥1 CTC/7.5 ml in 103/214 patients (48%). Two months after treatment initiation, 11 (5%) of the 214 patients were classified as having a partial response, with no CTCs in 9 of them or a decrease in the CTC count after therapy. In contrast, among the 104 patients (49%) classified as having progressive disease, 38 patients had a higher CTC count. The remaining 99 patients (49%), 33 of whom (33%) had a lower CTC count, were classified as having stable disease. The sensitivity and specificity of CTC variation for predicting progressive disease were 41% (32-51%) and 80% (73-88%) respectively. An early CTC change following therapy does not correlate with RECIST response in patients with advanced cancer enrolled in phase I trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Replicating viral vector platform exploits alarmin signals for potent CD8+ T cell-mediated tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kallert, Sandra M.; Darbre, Stephanie; Bonilla, Weldy V.; Kreutzfeldt, Mario; Page, Nicolas; Müller, Philipp; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Lu, Min; Favre, Stéphanie; Kreppel, Florian; Löhning, Max; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Zippelius, Alfred; Merkler, Doron; Pinschewer, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Viral infections lead to alarmin release and elicit potent cytotoxic effector T lymphocyte (CTLeff) responses. Conversely, the induction of protective tumour-specific CTLeff and their recruitment into the tumour remain challenging tasks. Here we show that lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can be engineered to serve as a replication competent, stably-attenuated immunotherapy vector (artLCMV). artLCMV delivers tumour-associated antigens to dendritic cells for efficient CTL priming. Unlike replication-deficient vectors, artLCMV targets also lymphoid tissue stroma cells expressing the alarmin interleukin-33. By triggering interleukin-33 signals, artLCMV elicits CTLeff responses of higher magnitude and functionality than those induced by replication-deficient vectors. Superior anti-tumour efficacy of artLCMV immunotherapy depends on interleukin-33 signalling, and a massive CTLeff influx triggers an inflammatory conversion of the tumour microenvironment. Our observations suggest that replicating viral delivery systems can release alarmins for improved anti-tumour efficacy. These mechanistic insights may outweigh safety concerns around replicating viral vectors in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28548102

  6. Enhancement of antineoplastic effect and attenuation of sister chromatid exchanges by prostaglandin E2 in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells treated with cyclophosphamide in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mourelatos, D; Kritsi, Z; Mioglou, E; Dozi-Vassiliades, J

    1993-09-01

    Reduced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequency in response to cyclophosphamide (CP) was observed when Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells were exposed in vivo to 2 micrograms/g body weight of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 1 h before i.p. injection of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) adsorbed to activated charcoal, EAT-bearing mice treated i.p. with CP appeared to have increased SCE rates and cell division delays. PGE2 had no effect on survival and in inhibiting tumour growth. CP had only a slight non-significant effect on survival and in inhibiting tumour growth. In mice treated with the combined CP (5 micrograms/g bd wt) plus PGE2 (2 micrograms/g bd wt) a significant enhancement (P < 0.01) of survival time was accompanied by inhibition of tumour growth (P < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated controls. These data imply that SCEs might result from errors in a repair process which might involve a PGE2 sensitive step.

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha impairs neuronal differentiation but not proliferation of hippocampal neural precursor cells: Role of Hes1.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Aoife; Ryan, Sinead; Maloney, Eimer; Sullivan, Aideen M; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere cultures, nor did it affect cell fate towards either an astrocytic or neuronal lineage when cells were then allowed to differentiate. However, when cells were differentiated in the presence of TNFalpha, significantly reduced percentages of newly born and post-mitotic neurons, significantly increased percentages of astrocytes and increased expression of TNFalpha receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, as well as expression of the anti-neurogenic Hes1 gene, were observed. These data indicate that exposure of hippocampal NPCs to TNFalpha when they are undergoing differentiation but not proliferation has a detrimental effect on their neuronal lineage fate, which may be mediated through increased expression of Hes1. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The in vivo activation of persistent nanophosphors for optical imaging of vascularization, tumours and grafted cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldiney, Thomas; Bessière, Aurélie; Seguin, Johanne; Teston, Eliott; Sharma, Suchinder K.; Viana, Bruno; Bos, Adrie J. J.; Dorenbos, Pieter; Bessodes, Michel; Gourier, Didier; Scherman, Daniel; Richard, Cyrille

    2014-04-01

    Optical imaging for biological applications requires more sensitive tools. Near-infrared persistent luminescence nanoparticles enable highly sensitive in vivo optical detection and complete avoidance of tissue autofluorescence. However, the actual generation of persistent luminescence nanoparticles necessitates ex vivo activation before systemic administration, which prevents long-term imaging in living animals. Here, we introduce a new generation of optical nanoprobes, based on chromium-doped zinc gallate, whose persistent luminescence can be activated in vivo through living tissues using highly penetrating low-energy red photons. Surface functionalization of this photonic probe can be adjusted to favour multiple biomedical applications such as tumour targeting. Notably, we show that cells can endocytose these nanoparticles in vitro and that, after intravenous injection, we can track labelled cells in vivo and follow their biodistribution by a simple whole animal optical detection, opening new perspectives for cell therapy research and for a variety of diagnosis applications.

  9. Germ cell tumour growth patterns originating from clear cell carcinomas of the ovary and endometrium: a comparative immunohistochemical study favouring their origin from somatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Francisco F; Prat, Jaime; Schuldt, Maolly; Cruz-Viruel, Nelly; Kaur, Baljeet; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Vidal, August; McCluggage, W Glenn; Oosterhuis, J Wolter

    2018-03-01

    To report a series of 11 ovarian and one endometrial neoplasm in elderly patients with mixed clear cell tumour and germ cell tumour (GCT) components, to compare their immunohistochemical profiles and demonstrate a putative stem cell population. The clear cell tumours included 11 clear cell carcinomas (CCC) and one borderline clear cell tumour, while the GCT always included glandular yolk sac tumour (YST). In four cases, there were also foci of teratoma with immature neuroepithelial and endodermal tissues and undifferentiated areas showing true embryoids. To distinguish between the clear cell and YST components, the following antibodies were used: HNF1-β, napsin-A, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), PAX8, EMA, AFP, SALL4, villin, glypican-3 (GPC-3), GATA3, HepPar-1, OCT4, CDX2, CD30 and SOX2. HNF1-β, CK7, EMA and GPC-3 were often expressed in both components. Other markers had higher specificity for each cellular lineage; napsin-A and PAX8 were expressed only in CCC, while SALL4, villin, AFP and HepPar-1 were positive in the glandular YST component but negative in the clear cell component. OCT4 expression occurred in six of 10 cases and consistently in teratoma (four of four). There is considerable immunophenotypical overlap between the two components in these mixed neoplasms, and a panel of markers should be used to facilitate the distinction. We propose that OCT4-expressing somatic cancer cells differentiate into GCT and represent spontaneously induced pluripotent stem cells, possibly conditioned by age-related epigenetic factors. These neoplasms have features of prepubertal type GCT showing lack of 12p gain, preponderance of YST and coexistence with immature neuroectoderm. However, there may also be undifferentiated stem cell areas with embryoid bodies, of the type seen in postpubertal testicular GCT, but lacking a complete embryonal carcinoma immunophenotype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Contrasting Views on the Role of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells in Tumour Growth: A Systematic Review of Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Oloyo, Ahmed Kolade; Ambele, Melvin Anyasi; Pepper, Michael Sean

    2017-11-15

    The effect of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) on tumour growth remains controversial. Experimental evidence supports both an inhibitory and a stimulatory effect. We have assessed factors responsible for the contrasting effects of MSCs on tumour growth by doing a meta-analysis of existing literature between 2000 and May 2017. We assessed 183 original research articles comprising 338 experiments. We considered (a) in vivo and in vitro experiments, (b) whether in vivo studies were syngeneic or xenogeneic, and (c) if animals were immune competent or deficient. Furthermore, the sources and types of cancer cells and MSCs were considered together with modes of cancer induction and MSC administration. 56% of all 338 experiments reported that MSCs promote tumour growth. 78% and 79% of all experiments sourced human MSCs and cancer cells, respectively. MSCs were used in their naïve and engineered form in 86% and 14% of experiments, respectively, the latter to produce factors that could alter either their activity or that of the tumour. 53% of all experiments were conducted in vitro with 60% exposing cancer cells to MSCs via coculture. Of all in vivo experiments, 79% were xenogeneic and 63% were conducted in immune-competent animals. Tumour growth was inhibited in 80% of experiments that used umbilical cord-derived MSCs, whereas tumour growth was promoted in 64% and 57% of experiments that used bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs, respectively. This contrasting effect of MSCs on tumour growth observed under different experimental conditions may reflect differences in experimental design. This analysis calls for careful consideration of experimental design given the large number of MSC clinical trials currently underway.

  11. Novel population of small tumour-initiating stem cells in the ovaries of women with borderline ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Virant-Klun, Irma; Stimpfel, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Small stem cells with diameters of up to 5 μm previously isolated from adult human ovaries indicated pluripotency and germinal lineage, especially primordial germ cells, and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells in vitro. Here, we show that a comparable population of small stem cells can be found in the ovarian tissue of women with borderline ovarian cancer, which, in contrast to small stem cells in “healthy” ovaries, formed spontaneous tumour-like structures and expressed some markers related to pluripotency and germinal lineage. The gene expression profile of these small putative cancer stem cells differed from similar cells sorted from “healthy” ovaries by 132 upregulated and 97 downregulated genes, including some important forkhead box and homeobox genes related to transcription regulation, developmental processes, embryogenesis, and ovarian cancer. These putative cancer stem cells are suggested to be a novel population of ovarian tumour-initiating cells in humans. PMID:27703207

  12. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: an unusual cause of hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Bello, Carlos Tavares; Cipriano, Patricia; Henriques, Vanessa; Duarte, João Sequeira; Marques, Conceição Canas

    2018-01-01

    Granular cell tumours (GCT) are rare, slow-growing, benign neoplasms that are usually located in the head and neck. They are more frequent in the female gender and typically have an asymptomatic clinical course, being diagnosed only at autopsy. Symptomatic GCT of the neurohypophysis are exceedingly rare, being less than 70 cases described so far. The authors report on a case of a 28-year-old male that presented to the Endocrinology clinic with clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. He also reported minor headaches without any major visual symptoms. Further laboratory tests confirmed hypopituitarism (hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism) and central nervous system imaging revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. The patient underwent transcranial pituitary adenoma resection and the pathology report described a GCT of the neurohypophysis with low mitotic index. The reported case is noteworthy for the rarity of the clinicopathological entity. Symptomatic GCTs are rare CNS tumours whose cell of origin is not well defined that usually give rise to visual symptoms, headache and endocrine dysfunction.Imaging is quite unspecific and diagnosis is difficult to establish preoperatively.Surgical excision is challenging due to lesion's high vascularity and propensity to adhere to adjacent structures.The reported case is noteworthy for the rarity of the clinicopathological entity.

  13. Detection of circulating tumour cells in peripheral blood of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jacques; Massard, Christophe; Gong, Inna Y; Farace, Françoise; Margery, Jacques; Billiot, Fanny; Hollebecque, Antoine; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Planchard, David

    2015-01-01

    The independent prognostic value of Circulating Tumour Cells (CTC) level has been demonstrated in several solid tumours. There is currently few data on Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) and CTC. We investigated whether the presence of CTC was correlated with prognosis factors and treatment efficacy. MPM patients (pts) were enrolled in a prospective monocentric study. CTC detection was made using the "CellSearch" assay. The correlation between the presence of CTC and worse prognosis factors was assessed using the X(2) test. Comparison of Overall Survival (OS) and Progression Free Survival (PFS) according to CTC detection was performed using the log-rank test. Twenty-seven MPM pts with a median follow-up of 4.2 months were included. CTC were detected in 44% of pts with a median level of 1.5. No significant correlation was observed between the presence of CTC and worse prognosis factors. Moreover, CTC detection was not a significant predictor of OS or PFS (p=0.155 and p=0.32 respectively). CTC were detected in a small cohort of MPM patients. We couldn't demonstrate a significant prognostic value or a difference in OS/PFS between CTC levels. Further analyses, validation studies and detection techniques are needed to establish their real clinical value in MPM.

  14. Biology of childhood germ cell tumours, focussing on the significance of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Nicholson, J C; Coleman, N

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and protein-coding transcriptomic data have suggested that germ cell tumours (GCTs) of childhood are biologically distinct from those of adulthood. Global messenger RNA profiles segregate malignant GCTs primarily by histology, but then also by age, with numerous transcripts showing age-related differential expression. Such differences are likely to account for the heterogeneous clinico-pathological behaviour of paediatric and adult malignant GCTs. In contrast, as global microRNA signatures of human tumours reflect their developmental lineage, we hypothesized that microRNA profiles would identify common biological abnormalities in all malignant GCTs owing to their presumed shared origin from primordial germ cells. MicroRNAs are short, non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression via translational repression and/or mRNA degradation. We showed that all malignant GCTs over-express the miR-371-373 and miR-302/367 clusters, regardless of patient age, histological subtype or anatomical tumour site. Furthermore, bioinformatic approaches and subsequent Gene Ontology analysis revealed that these two over-expressed microRNAs clusters co-ordinately down-regulated genes involved in biologically significant pathways in malignant GCTs. The translational potential of this finding has been demonstrated with the detection of elevated serum levels of miR-371-373 and miR-302/367 microRNAs at the time of malignant GCT diagnosis, with levels falling after treatment. The tumour-suppressor let-7 microRNA family has also been shown to be universally down-regulated in malignant GCTs, because of abundant expression of the regulatory gene LIN28. Low let-7 levels resulted in up-regulation of oncogenes including MYCN, AURKB and LIN28 itself, the latter through a direct feedback mechanism. Targeting LIN28, or restoring let-7 levels, both led to effective inhibition of this pathway. In summary, paediatric malignant GCTs show biological differences from their adult counterparts at

  15. Quantification of intra-tumour cell proliferation heterogeneity using imaging descriptors of 18F fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willaime, J. M. Y.; Turkheimer, F. E.; Kenny, L. M.; Aboagye, E. O.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-tumour heterogeneity is a characteristic shared by all cancers. We explored the use of texture variables derived from images of [18F]fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography (FLT-PET), thus notionally assessing the heterogeneity of proliferation in individual tumours. Our aims were to study the range of textural feature values across tissue types, verify the repeatability of these image descriptors and further, to explore associations with clinical response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. The repeatability of 28 textural descriptors was assessed in patients who had two FLT-PET scans prior to therapy using relative differences and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We tested associations between features at baseline and clinical response measured in 11 patients after three cycles of chemotherapy, and explored changes in FLT-PET at one week after the start of therapy. A subset of eight features was characterized by low variations at baseline (<±30%) and high repeatability (0.7 ≤ ICC ≤ 1). The intensity distribution profile suggested fewer highly proliferating cells in lesions of non-responders compared to responders at baseline. A true increase in CV and homogeneity was measured in four out of six responders one week after the start of therapy. A number of textural features derived from FLT-PET are altered following chemotherapy in breast cancer, and should be evaluated in larger clinical trials for clinical relevance.

  16. Expression of microRNAs of C19MC in Different Histological Types of Testicular Germ Cell Tumour.

    PubMed

    Flor, Inga; Spiekermann, Meike; Löning, Thomas; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Belge, Gazanfer; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most common tumours in men aged from 20 to 40 years, with a steadily increasing incidence. This study aimed to characterize the expression of the miRNA cluster C19MC in TGCT and to evaluate the suitability of a C19MC miRNA as a serum biomarker. By quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we measured the expression of miR-517a-3p, miR-519a-3p, and miR-519c 3p in tissue samples of 25 TGCTs and the level of miR-517a-3p in serum samples obtained pre- and postoperatively from the same patients. We detected a significantly higher expression of C19MC miRNAs in non-seminomas than in seminomas and in clinical stages 2 and 3 than in stage 1 in both tissue and serum samples. miRNAs of C19MC are overexpressed in more aggressive types of TGCT, suggesting they contribute to malignancy. Furthermore, they might serve as serum biomarkers for these types of TGCT. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Global Gene Expression Analysis of Canine Osteosarcoma Stem Cells Reveals a Novel Role for COX-2 in Tumour Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Lisa Y.; Gatenby, Emma L.; Kamida, Ayako; Whitelaw, Bruce A.; Hupp, Ted R.; Argyle, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour of both children and dogs. It is an aggressive tumour in both species with a rapid clinical course leading ultimately to metastasis. In dogs and children distant metastasis occurs in >80% of individuals treated by surgery alone. Both canine and human osteosarcoma has been shown to contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may drive tumour growth, recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that naturally occurring canine osteosarcoma could act as a preclinical model for the human disease. Here we report the successful isolation of CSCs from primary canine osteosarcoma, as well as established cell lines. We show that these cells can form tumourspheres, and demonstrate relative resistance to chemotherapy. We demonstrate similar results for the human osteosarcma cell lines, U2OS and SAOS2. Utilizing the Affymetrix canine microarray, we are able to definitively show that there are significant differences in global gene expression profiles of isolated osteosarcoma stem cells and the daughter adherent cells. We identified 13,221 significant differences (p = 0.05), and significantly, COX-2 was expressed 141-fold more in CSC spheres than daughter adherent cells. To study the role of COX-2 expression in CSCs we utilized the COX-2 inhibitors meloxicam and mavacoxib. We found that COX-2 inhibition had no effect on CSC growth, or resistance to chemotherapy. However inhibition of COX-2 in daughter cells prevented sphere formation, indicating a potential significant role for COX-2 in tumour initiation. PMID:24416158

  18. The role of meiotic cohesin REC8 in chromosome segregation in gamma irradiation-induced endopolyploid tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Cragg, Mark S; Salmina, Kristine; Hausmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry

    2009-09-10

    Escape from mitotic catastrophe and generation of endopolyploid tumour cells (ETCs) represents a potential survival strategy of tumour cells in response to genotoxic treatments. ETCs that resume the mitotic cell cycle have reduced ploidy and are often resistant to these treatments. In search for a mechanism for genome reduction, we previously observed that ETCs express meiotic proteins among which REC8 (a meiotic cohesin component) is of particular interest, since it favours reductional cell division in meiosis. In the present investigation, we induced endopolyploidy in p53-dysfunctional human tumour cell lines (Namalwa, WI-L2-NS, HeLa) by gamma irradiation, and analysed the sub-cellular localisation of REC8 in the resulting ETCs. We observed by RT-PCR and Western blot that REC8 is constitutively expressed in these tumour cells, along with SGOL1 and SGOL2, and that REC8 becomes modified after irradiation. REC8 localised to paired sister centromeres in ETCs, the former co-segregating to opposite poles. Furthermore, REC8 localised to the centrosome of interphase ETCs and to the astral poles in anaphase cells where it colocalised with the microtubule-associated protein NuMA. Altogether, our observations indicate that radiation-induced ETCs express features of meiotic cell divisions and that these may facilitate chromosome segregation and genome reduction.

  19. Global gene expression analysis of canine osteosarcoma stem cells reveals a novel role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Lisa Y; Gatenby, Emma L; Kamida, Ayako; Whitelaw, Bruce A; Hupp, Ted R; Argyle, David J

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour of both children and dogs. It is an aggressive tumour in both species with a rapid clinical course leading ultimately to metastasis. In dogs and children distant metastasis occurs in >80% of individuals treated by surgery alone. Both canine and human osteosarcoma has been shown to contain a sub-population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may drive tumour growth, recurrence and metastasis, suggesting that naturally occurring canine osteosarcoma could act as a preclinical model for the human disease. Here we report the successful isolation of CSCs from primary canine osteosarcoma, as well as established cell lines. We show that these cells can form tumourspheres, and demonstrate relative resistance to chemotherapy. We demonstrate similar results for the human osteosarcma cell lines, U2OS and SAOS2. Utilizing the Affymetrix canine microarray, we are able to definitively show that there are significant differences in global gene expression profiles of isolated osteosarcoma stem cells and the daughter adherent cells. We identified 13,221 significant differences (p = 0.05), and significantly, COX-2 was expressed 141-fold more in CSC spheres than daughter adherent cells. To study the role of COX-2 expression in CSCs we utilized the COX-2 inhibitors meloxicam and mavacoxib. We found that COX-2 inhibition had no effect on CSC growth, or resistance to chemotherapy. However inhibition of COX-2 in daughter cells prevented sphere formation, indicating a potential significant role for COX-2 in tumour initiation.

  20. 2'-OMe-phosphorodithioate-modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sherry Y; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H; Nagaraja, Archana S; Miyake, Takahito M; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J; Previs, Rebecca A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J; Kovvali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A J; Overwijk, Willem W; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K

    2014-03-12

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2'-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM domain containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumours following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumour effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types.

  1. Cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and ovarian Sertoli–Leydig cell tumour: a more than coincidental association of two rare neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    McClean, Gareth E; Kurian, Susy; Walter, Noel; Kekre, A; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2007-01-01

    A case in which an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the cervix and an ovarian Sertoli–Leydig cell tumour of intermediate differentiation occurred in a 13‐year‐old girl is described. Although initially considered as a chance association, a review of the literature showed the co‐occurrence of these two uncommon neoplasms in three previous cases. The reason for this association, which is thought to be more than coincidental, is not known, although an underlying genetic abnormality is a possibility. The ovarian tumour in this case was characterised by the presence of foci of cells with extremely pleomorphic nuclei, which initially raised the possibility of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma. These were interpreted as foci of bizarre nuclei within the Sertoli–Leydig cell tumour. PMID:17347287

  2. Dendrogenin A arises from cholesterol and histamine metabolism and shows cell differentiation and anti-tumour properties.

    PubMed

    de Medina, Philippe; Paillasse, Michael R; Segala, Gregory; Voisin, Maud; Mhamdi, Loubna; Dalenc, Florence; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Filleron, Thomas; Pont, Frederic; Saati, Talal Al; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We previously synthesized dendrogenin A and hypothesized that it could be a natural metabolite occurring in mammals. Here we explore this hypothesis and report the discovery of dendrogenin A in mammalian tissues and normal cells as an enzymatic product of the conjugation of 5,6α-epoxy-cholesterol and histamine. Dendrogenin A was not detected in cancer cell lines and was fivefold lower in human breast tumours compared with normal tissues, suggesting a deregulation of dendrogenin A metabolism during carcinogenesis. We established that dendrogenin A is a selective inhibitor of cholesterol epoxide hydrolase and it triggered tumour re-differentiation and growth control in mice and improved animal survival. The properties of dendrogenin A and its decreased level in tumours suggest a physiological function in maintaining cell integrity and differentiation. The discovery of dendrogenin A reveals a new metabolic pathway at the crossroads of cholesterol and histamine metabolism and the existence of steroidal alkaloids in mammals.

  3. Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells).

    PubMed

    Puthia, Manoj; Storm, Petter; Nadeem, Aftab; Hsiung, Sabrina; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Most colon cancers start with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and remain a major therapeutic challenge. Examining whether HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) may be used for colon cancer treatment is logical, based on the properties of the complex and its biological context. To investigate if HAMLET can be used for colon cancer treatment and prevention. Apc(Min)(/+) mice, which carry mutations relevant to hereditary and sporadic human colorectal tumours, were used as a model for human disease. HAMLET was given perorally in therapeutic and prophylactic regimens. Tumour burden and animal survival of HAMLET-treated and sham-fed mice were compared. Tissue analysis focused on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, proliferation markers and gene expression, using microarrays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Confocal microscopy, reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ion flux assays and holographic imaging were used to determine effects on colon cancer cells. Peroral HAMLET administration reduced tumour progression and mortality in Apc(Min)(/+) mice. HAMLET accumulated specifically in tumour tissue, reduced β-catenin and related tumour markers. Gene expression analysis detected inhibition of Wnt signalling and a shift to a more differentiated phenotype. In colon cancer cells with APC mutations, HAMLET altered β-catenin integrity and localisation through an ion channel-dependent pathway, defining a new mechanism for controlling β-catenin signalling. Remarkably, supplying HAMLET to the drinking water from the time of weaning also significantly prevented tumour development. These data identify HAMLET as a new, peroral agent for colon cancer prevention and treatment, especially needed in people carrying APC mutations, where colon cancer remains a leading cause of death.

  4. Prevention and treatment of colon cancer by peroral administration of HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells)

    PubMed Central

    Puthia, Manoj; Storm, Petter; Nadeem, Aftab; Hsiung, Sabrina; Svanborg, Catharina

    2014-01-01

    Background Most colon cancers start with dysregulated Wnt/β-catenin signalling and remain a major therapeutic challenge. Examining whether HAMLET (human α-lactalbumin made lethal to tumour cells) may be used for colon cancer treatment is logical, based on the properties of the complex and its biological context. Objective To investigate if HAMLET can be used for colon cancer treatment and prevention. ApcMin/+ mice, which carry mutations relevant to hereditary and sporadic human colorectal tumours, were used as a model for human disease. Method HAMLET was given perorally in therapeutic and prophylactic regimens. Tumour burden and animal survival of HAMLET-treated and sham-fed mice were compared. Tissue analysis focused on Wnt/β-catenin signalling, proliferation markers and gene expression, using microarrays, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Confocal microscopy, reporter assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, ion flux assays and holographic imaging were used to determine effects on colon cancer cells. Results Peroral HAMLET administration reduced tumour progression and mortality in ApcMin/+ mice. HAMLET accumulated specifically in tumour tissue, reduced β-catenin and related tumour markers. Gene expression analysis detected inhibition of Wnt signalling and a shift to a more differentiated phenotype. In colon cancer cells with APC mutations, HAMLET altered β-catenin integrity and localisation through an ion channel-dependent pathway, defining a new mechanism for controlling β-catenin signalling. Remarkably, supplying HAMLET to the drinking water from the time of weaning also significantly prevented tumour development. Conclusions These data identify HAMLET as a new, peroral agent for colon cancer prevention and treatment, especially needed in people carrying APC mutations, where colon cancer remains a leading cause of death. PMID:23348960

  5. Bilateral sertoli and interstitial cell tumours in abdominal testes of a goat with polled intersex syndrome (PIS).

    PubMed

    Canisso, I F; Coffee, L L; Ortved, K; Fubini, S L; Monteagudo, L V; Schlafer, D H; Gilbert, R O

    2014-12-01

    An 8-year-old, mixed breed, polled goat was presented for evaluation of male-like behaviour. Clinical findings included clitoromegaly, a heavily muscled neck, pronounced beard, and erect dorsal guard hairs, which are phenotypic characteristics commonly observed in intersex animals. Transrectal ultrasonography revealed the presence of two abdominal masses caudolateral to the uterine horns. Serum concentration of estradiol was elevated. Genetic evaluation was compatible with polled intersex syndrome defined by an XX karyotype without a Y chromosome or SRY gene. Based on gross and histologic evaluation, the abdominal masses were determined to be intra-abdominal testes, each of which was effaced by Sertoli cell and interstitial (Leydig) cell tumours. The Sertoli cell tumours (SCTs) represented two unique histologic patterns. Regardless of pattern, neoplastic Sertoli cells were consistently lipid laden and positive for vimentin. Interstitial cell tumours (ICTs) were negative for vimentin. Clinical and histopathologic findings suggest that prolonged exposure to steroids secreted by neoplastic Sertoli cells contributed to virilization. In addition, results from immunohistochemistry indicated that vimentin may be a valuable immunodiagnostic tool for differentiation between interstitial and Sertoli cell tumours in goats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Variable methylation of the imprinted gene, SNRPN, supports a relationship between intracranial germ cell tumours and neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Han; Appleby, Vanessa; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Palmer, Roger D; Nicholson, James C; Sottile, Virginie; Gao, Erning; Coleman, Nicholas; Scotting, Paul J

    2011-02-01

    Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a diverse group of neoplasms all of which are generally believed to arise from germ cell progenitors (PGCs). Even those that form in the nervous system are likewise believed to be PGC-derived, despite being found a great distance from the normal location of germ cells. The primary evidence in favour of this model for the origins of intracranial GCTs is that they share molecular features with other GCTs. Those features include shared gene expression and a lack of methylation of imprinted genes, including SNRPN. Contrary to this model, we have proposed that endogenous neural stem cells of the brain are a more likely origin for these tumours. We show here that the lack of methylation of SNRPN that has previously been taken to indicate an origin for GCTs from PGCs is also seen in neural stem cells of mice and humans. We believe that, in the light of these and other recent observations, endogenous neural precursors of the brain are a more plausible origin for intracranial GCTs than are misplaced PGCs.

  7. Ultrasmall nanoparticles induce ferroptosis in nutrient-deprived cancer cells and suppress tumour growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Zhang, Li; Ma, Kai; Riegman, Michelle; Chen, Feng; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Turker, Melik Ziya; Gao, Minghui; Jiang, Xuejun; Monette, Sebastien; Pauliah, Mohan; Gonen, Mithat; Zanzonico, Pat; Quinn, Thomas; Wiesner, Ulrich; Bradbury, Michelle S.; Overholtzer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The design of cancer-targeting particles with precisely tuned physicochemical properties may enhance the delivery of therapeutics and access to pharmacological targets. However, a molecular-level understanding of the interactions driving the fate of nanomedicine in biological systems remains elusive. Here, we show that ultrasmall (<10 nm in diameter) poly(ethylene glycol)-coated silica nanoparticles, functionalized with melanoma-targeting peptides, can induce a form of programmed cell death known as ferroptosis in starved cancer cells and cancer-bearing mice. Tumour xenografts in mice intravenously injected with nanoparticles using a high-dose multiple injection scheme exhibit reduced growth or regression, in a manner that is reversed by the pharmacological inhibitor of ferroptosis, liproxstatin-1. These data demonstrate that ferroptosis can be targeted by ultrasmall silica nanoparticles and may have therapeutic potential.

  8. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-06

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  9. Anti-tumour activity of two novel compounds in cisplatin-resistant testicular germ cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Nitzsche, B; Gloesenkamp, C; Schrader, M; Hoffmann, B; Zengerling, F; Balabanov, S; Honecker, F; Höpfner, M

    2012-11-20

    Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in testicular germ cell cancer, emphasising the need for new therapeutic approaches. In this respect, the therapeutic concept of anti-angiogenesis is of particular interest. In a previous study, we presented two novel anti-angiogenic compounds, HP-2 and HP-14, blocking the tyrosine kinase activity of angiogenic growth factor receptors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and related signalling pathways in testicular cancer. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of these new compounds in platinum-resistant testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), in vitro and in vivo. Drug-induced changes in cell proliferation of the cisplatin-sensitive TGCT cell line 2102EP and its cisplatin-resistant counterpart 2102EP-R, both expressing the VEGFR-2, were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Both compounds inhibited the growth of cisplatin-resistant TGCT cells in a dose-dependent manner. In combination experiments with cisplatin, HP-14 revealed additive growth-inhibitory effects in TGCT cells, irrespective of the level of cisplatin resistance. Anti-angiogenic effects of HP compounds were confirmed by tube formation assays with freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Using TGCT cells inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilised chicken eggs (chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay), the anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative potency of the novel compounds was also demonstrated in vivo. Gene expression profiling revealed changes in the expression pattern of genes related to DNA damage detection and repair, as well as in chaperone function after treatment with both cisplatin and HP-14, alone or in combination. This suggests that HP-14 can revert the lost effectiveness of cisplatin in the resistant cells by altering the expression of critical genes. The novel compound HP-14 effectively inhibits the growth of cisplatin-resistant TGCT cells and

  10. Newly-derived neuroblastoma cell lines propagated in serum-free media recapitulate the genotype and phenotype of primary neuroblastoma tumours.

    PubMed

    Bate-Eya, Laurel T; Ebus, Marli E; Koster, Jan; den Hartog, Ilona J M; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; Schild, Linda; van der Ploeg, Ida; Dolman, M Emmy M; Caron, Huib N; Versteeg, Rogier; Molenaar, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Recently protocols have been devised for the culturing of cell lines from fresh tumours under serum-free conditions in defined neural stem cell medium. These cells, frequently called tumour initiating cells (TICs) closely retained characteristics of the tumours of origin. We report the isolation of eight newly-derived neuroblastoma TICs from six primary neuroblastoma tumours and two bone marrow metastases. The primary tumours from which these TICs were generated have previously been fully typed by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) analysis showed that TIC lines retained essential characteristics of the primary tumours and exhibited typical neuroblastoma chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, gain of chromosome 17q and deletion of 1p36. Protein analysis showed expression for neuroblastoma markers MYCN, NCAM, CHGA, DBH and TH while haematopoietic markers CD19 and CD11b were absent. We analysed the growth characteristics and confirmed tumour-forming potential using sphere-forming assays, subcutaneous and orthotopic injection of these cells into immune-compromised mice. Affymetrix mRNA expression profiling of TIC line xenografts showed an expression pattern more closely mimicking primary tumours compared to xenografts from classical cell lines. This establishes that these neuroblastoma TICs cultured under serum-free conditions are relevant and useful neuroblastoma tumour models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Circulating tumour DNA and CT monitoring in patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a correlative biomarker study.

    PubMed

    Roschewski, Mark; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Moorhead, Martin; Pepin, Francois; Kong, Katherine; Shovlin, Margaret; Jaffe, Elaine S; Staudt, Louis M; Lai, Catherine; Steinberg, Seth M; Chen, Clara C; Zheng, Jianbiao; Willis, Thomas D; Faham, Malek; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2015-05-01

    Diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma is curable, but when treatment fails, outcome is poor. Although imaging can help to identify patients at risk of treatment failure, they are often imprecise, and radiation exposure is a potential health risk. We aimed to assess whether circulating tumour DNA encoding the clonal immunoglobulin gene sequence could be detected in the serum of patients with diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma and used to predict clinical disease recurrence after frontline treatment. We used next-generation DNA sequencing to retrospectively analyse cell-free circulating tumour DNA in patients assigned to one of three treatment protocols between May 8, 1993, and June 6, 2013. Eligible patients had diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma, no evidence of indolent lymphoma, and were previously untreated. We obtained serial serum samples and concurrent CT scans at specified times during most treatment cycles and up to 5 years of follow-up. VDJ gene segments of the rearranged immunoglobulin receptor genes were amplified and sequenced from pretreatment specimens and serum circulating tumour DNA encoding the VDJ rearrangements was quantitated. Tumour clonotypes were identified in pretreatment specimens from 126 patients who were followed up for a median of 11 years (IQR 6·8-14·2). Interim monitoring of circulating tumour DNA at the end of two treatment cycles in 108 patients showed a 5-year time to progression of 41·7% (95% CI 22·2-60·1) in patients with detectable circulating tumour DNA and 80·2% (69·6-87·3) in those without detectable circulating tumour DNA (p<0·0001). Detectable interim circulating tumour DNA had a positive predictive value of 62·5% (95% CI 40·6-81·2) and a negative predictive value of 79·8% (69·6-87·8). Surveillance monitoring of circulating tumour DNA was done in 107 patients who achieved complete remission. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that the hazard ratio for clinical disease progression was 228 (95% CI 51-1022) for patients who

  12. Effect of a streptococcal preparation (OK432) on natural killer activity of tumour-associated lymphoid cells in human ovarian carcinoma and on lysis of fresh ovarian tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Colotta, F.; Rambaldi, A.; Colombo, N.; Tabacchi, L.; Introna, M.; Mantovani, A.

    1983-01-01

    The streptococcal preparation OK432 was studied for its effects on natural killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors and from ovarian cancer patients, and of tumour-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from peritoneal effusions. OK432 augmented NK activity against the susceptible K562 line and induced killing of the relatively resistant Raji line. Freshly isolated ovarian carcinoma cells were relatively resistant to killing by unstimulated PBL and TAL. OK432 induced significant, though low, levels of cytotoxicity against 51Cr-labelled ovarian carcinoma cells. Augmentation of killing of fresh tumour cells by OK432 was best observed in a 20 h assay and both autologous and allogeneic targets were lysed. PBL were separated on discontinuous Percoll gradients. Unstimulated and OK432-boosted activity were enriched in the lower density fractions where large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and activity against K562 were found. Thus, OK432 augments NK activity of PBL and TAL in human ovarian carcinomas and induces low, but significant, levels of killing of fresh tumour cells. Effector cells involved in killing of fresh ovarian tumours copurify with LGL on discontinuous gradients of Percoll. PMID:6626452

  13. Characterisation of an engineered trastuzumab IgE antibody and effector cell mechanisms targeting HER2/neu-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), a humanized IgG1 antibody raised against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), is the main antibody in clinical use against breast cancer. Pre-clinical evidence and clinical studies indicate that trastuzumab employs several anti-tumour mechanisms that most likely contribute to enhanced survival of patients with HER2/neu-positive breast carcinomas. New strategies are aimed at improving antibody-based therapeutics like trastuzumab, e.g. by enhancing antibody-mediated effector function mechanisms. Based on our previous findings that a chimaeric ovarian tumour antigen-specific IgE antibody showed greater efficacy in tumour cell killing, compared to the corresponding IgG1 antibody, we have produced an IgE homologue of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab IgE was engineered with the same light- and heavy-chain variable-regions as trastuzumab, but with an epsilon in place of the gamma-1 heavy-chain constant region. We describe the physical characterisation and ligand binding properties of the trastuzumab IgE and elucidate its potential anti-tumour activities in functional assays. Both trastuzumab and trastuzumab IgE can activate monocytic cells to kill tumour cells, but they operate by different mechanisms: trastuzumab functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), whereas trastuzumab IgE functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab IgE, incubated with mast cells and HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells, triggers mast cell degranulation, recruiting against cancer cells a potent immune response, characteristic of allergic reactions. Finally, in viability assays both antibodies mediate comparable levels of tumour cell growth arrest. These functional characteristics of trastuzumab IgE, some distinct from those of trastuzumab, indicate its potential to complement or improve upon the existing clinical benefits of trastuzumab. PMID:18941743

  14. Reducing intratumour acute hypoxia through bevacizumab treatment, referring to the response of quiescent tumour cells and metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    Masunaga, S; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kondo, N; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to evaluate the influence of bevacizumab on intratumour oxygenation status and lung metastasis following radiotherapy, with specific reference to the response of quiescent (Q) cell populations within irradiated tumours. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH) with or without the administration of bevacizumab under aerobic conditions or totally hypoxic conditions, achieved by clamping the proximal end of the tumours. Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In the other tumour-bearing mice, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated 17 days after irradiation. Results 3 days after bevacizumab administration, acute hypoxia-rich total cell population in the tumour showed a remarkably enhanced radiosensitivity to γ-rays, and the hypoxic fraction (HF) was reduced, even after MTH treatment. However, the hypoxic fraction was not reduced after nicotinamide treatment. With or without γ-ray irradiation, bevacizumab administration showed some potential to reduce the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide treatment. Conclusion Bevacizumab has the potential to reduce perfusion-limited acute hypoxia and some potential to cause a decrease in the number of lung metastases as well as nicotinamide. PMID:21586505

  15. Cell-like pressure sensors reveal increase of mechanical stress towards the core of multicellular spheroids under compression.

    PubMed

    Dolega, M E; Delarue, M; Ingremeau, F; Prost, J; Delon, A; Cappello, G

    2017-01-27

    The surrounding microenvironment limits tumour expansion, imposing a compressive stress on the tumour, but little is known how pressure propagates inside the tumour. Here we present non-destructive cell-like microsensors to locally quantify mechanical stress distribution in three-dimensional tissue. Our sensors are polyacrylamide microbeads of well-defined elasticity, size and surface coating to enable internalization within the cellular environment. By isotropically compressing multicellular spheroids (MCS), which are spherical aggregates of cells mimicking a tumour, we show that the pressure is transmitted in a non-trivial manner inside the MCS, with a pressure rise towards the core. This observed pressure profile is explained by the anisotropic arrangement of cells and our results suggest that such anisotropy alone is sufficient to explain the pressure rise inside MCS composed of a single cell type. Furthermore, such pressure distribution suggests a direct link between increased mechanical stress and previously observed lack of proliferation within the spheroids core.

  16. Prospective technical validation and assessment of intra-tumour heterogeneity of a low density array hypoxia gene profile in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Betts, Guy N J; Eustace, Amanda; Patiar, Shalini; Valentine, Helen R; Irlam, Joely; Ramachandran, Anassuya; Merve, Ashirwad; Homer, Jarrod J; Möller-Levet, Carla; Buffa, Francesca M; Hall, Gillian; Miller, Crispin J; Harris, Adrian L; West, Catharine M L

    2013-01-01

    Tumour hypoxia is associated with a poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), however there is no accepted method for assessing hypoxia clinically. We aimed to conduct a technical validation of a hypoxia gene expression signature using the TaqMan Low Density Array (TLDA) platform to investigate if this approach reliably identified hypoxic tumours. Tumour samples (n=201) from 80 HNSCC patients were collected prospectively from two centres. Fifty-three patients received pimonidazole prior to surgery. TaqMan Low Density Array-Hypoxia Scores (TLDA-HS) were obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using a 25-gene signature and customised TLDA cards. Assay performance was assessed as coefficient of variation (CoV). The assay was sensitive with linear reaction efficiencies across a 4 log(10) range of inputted cDNA (0.001-10 ng/μl). Intra- (CoV=6.9%) and inter- (CoV=2.0%) assay reproducibility were excellent. Intra-tumour heterogeneity was lower for TLDA-HS (23.2%) than for pimonidazole (67.2%) or single gene measurements of CA9 (62.2%), VEGFA (45.0%) or HIG2 (39.4%). TLDA-HS in HNSCC cell lines increased with decreasing pO(2). TLDA-HS correlated with Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarray HS (p<0.01) and positive pimonidazole scores (p=0.005). Gene expression measurements of hypoxia using a 25-gene signature and TLDA cards are sensitive, reproducible and associated with lower intra-tumour heterogeneity than assaying individual genes or pimonidazole binding. The approach is suitable for further assessment of prognostic and predictive capability in clinical trial material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Light-oxygen effect in cells and its potential applications in tumour therapy (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Zakharov, S D; Ivanov, Andrei V

    1999-12-31

    The light-oxygen effect (POE) represents damage (and at low optical doses, activation) of cells by photogeneration of molecular singlet oxygen from O{sub 2} dissolved in cells, in accordance with the reaction: {sup 3}O{sub 2}+h{nu}{yields}{sup 1}O{sub 2}{yields} biological effect. The phases of evolution of the LOE are similar to the phases, observed in cell experiments, of the photodynamic effect (PDE) the mechanism of which is the basis of the familiar method of photodynamic cancer therapy. The reported proofs of the occurrence of the LOE are in the form of detailed spectra of the biological action of optical radiation on cells recordedmore » in four spectral intervals with the aid of tunable lasers. Allowances are made for the relationships governing a new type of cell excitation, associated with reversible structural transitions in the biomembrane. A demonstration is reported of the same efficiency of cw and pulsed irradiation. An analysis is made of the reasons why the optical doses initiating the PDE and the LOE are comparable. The results are given of the first experimental applications of the LOE in tumour therapy. Identification of the primary photoacceptor (O{sub 2}) in cell biostimulation and photodestruction provides a scientific basis for the development of low-intensity laser light-oxygen cancer therapy methods. (lasers in medicine)« less

  18. Oxidative stress specifically downregulates survivin to promote breast tumour formation.

    PubMed

    Pervin, S; Tran, L; Urman, R; Braga, M; Parveen, M; Li, S A; Chaudhuri, G; Singh, R

    2013-03-05

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease has been broadly classified into oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) or oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumour types. Each of these tumours is dependent on specific signalling pathways for their progression. While high levels of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein, increases aggressive behaviour in ER- breast tumours, oxidative stress (OS) promotes the progression of ER+ breast tumours. Mechanisms and molecular targets by which OS promotes tumourigenesis remain poorly understood. DETA-NONOate, a nitric oxide (NO)-donor induces OS in breast cancer cell lines by early re-localisation and downregulation of cellular survivin. Using in vivo models of HMLE(HRAS) xenografts and E2-induced breast tumours in ACI rats, we demonstrate that high OS downregulates survivin during initiation of tumourigenesis. Overexpression of survivin in HMLE(HRAS) cells led to a significant delay in tumour initiation and tumour volume in nude mice. This inverse relationship between survivin and OS was also observed in ER+ human breast tumours. We also demonstrate an upregulation of NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX1) and its activating protein p67, which are novel markers of OS in E2-induced tumours in ACI rats and as well as in ER+ human breast tumours. Our data, therefore, suggest that downregulation of survivin could be an important early event by which OS initiates breast tumour formation.

  19. P-glycoprotein expression in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells after in vitro and in vivo selection with daunorubicin.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, D.; Eriksen, J.; Maare, C.; Jakobsen, A. H.; Skovsgaard, T.

    1998-01-01

    Fluctuation analysis experiments were performed to assess whether selection or induction determines expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance in the murine Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) after exposure to daunorubicin. Thirteen expanded populations of EHR2 cells were exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M or 10(-8) M for 2 weeks. Surviving clones were scored and propagated. Only clones exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M could be expanded for investigation. Drug resistance was assessed by the tetrazolium dye (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Western blot was used for determination of P-glycoprotein. Compared with EHR2, the variant cells were 2.5- to 5.2-fold resistant to daunorubicin (mean 3.6-fold). P-glycoprotein was significantly increased in 11 of 25 clones (44%). Analysis of variance supported the hypothesis that spontaneous mutations conferred drug resistance in EHR2 cells exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M. At this level (5 log cell killing) of drug exposure, the mutation rate was estimated at 4.1 x 10(-6) per cell generation. In contrast, induction seemed to determine resistance in EHR2 cells in vitro exposed to daunorubicin 10(-8) M. The revertant EHR2/0.8/R was treated in vivo with daunorubicin for 24 h. After treatment, P-glycoprotein increased in EHR2/0.8/R (sevenfold) and the cell line developed resistance to daunorubicin (12-fold), suggesting that in EHR2/0.8/R the mdr1 gene was activated by induction. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that P-glycoprotein expression and daunorubicin resistance are primarily acquired by selection of spontaneously arising mutants. However, under certain conditions the mdr1 gene may be activated by induction. PMID:9820176

  20. Personalised chemotherapy based on tumour marker decline in poor prognosis germ-cell tumours (GETUG 13): a phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Fizazi, Karim; Pagliaro, Lance; Laplanche, Agnes; Fléchon, Aude; Mardiak, Josef; Geoffrois, Lionnel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Chevreau, Christine; Delva, Remy; Rolland, Frederic; Theodore, Christine; Roubaud, Guilhem; Gravis, Gwenaëlle; Eymard, Jean-Christophe; Malhaire, Jean-Pierre; Linassier, Claude; Habibian, Muriel; Martin, Anne-Laure; Journeau, Florence; Reckova, Maria; Logothetis, Christopher; Culine, Stephane

    2014-12-01

    Poor prognosis germ-cell tumours are only cured in about half of patients. We aimed to assess whether treatment intensification based on an early tumour marker decline will improve progression-free survival for patients with germ-cell tumours. In this phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial, patients were enrolled from France (20 centres), USA (one centre), and Slovakia (one centre). Patients were eligible if they were older than 16 years, had evidence of testicular, retroperitoneal, or mediastinal non-seminomatous germ cell tumours based on histological findings or clinical evidence and highly elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin or alfa-fetoprotein concentrations that matched International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group poor prognosis criteria. After one cycle of BEP (intravenous cisplatin [20 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days], etoposide [100 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days], and intramuscular or intravenous bleomycin [30 mg per day on days 1, 8, and 15]), patients' human chorionic gonadotropin and alfa-fetoprotein concentrations were measured at day 18-21. Patients with a favourable decline in human chorionic gonadotropin and alfa-fetoprotein continued BEP (Fav-BEP group) for 3 additonal cycles, whereas patients with an unfavourable decline were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either BEP (Unfav-BEP group) or a dose-dense regimen (Unfav-dose-dense group), consisting of intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2) over 3 h on day 1) before BEP plus intravenous oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2) over 3 h on day 10; two cycles), followed by intravenous cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) over 2 h on day 1), intravenous ifosfamide (2 g/m(2) over 3 h on days 10, 12, and 14), plus mesna (500 mg/m(2) at 0, 3, 7 and 11 h), and bleomycin (25 units per day, by continuous infusion for 5 days on days 10-14; two cycles), with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (lenograstim) support. Centrally blocked computer-generated randomisation stratified by centre was used. The primary endpoint was progression

  1. Ex vivo expanded natural killer cells from breast cancer patients and healthy donors are highly cytotoxic against breast cancer cell lines and patient-derived tumours.

    PubMed

    Shenouda, Mira M; Gillgrass, Amy; Nham, Tina; Hogg, Richard; Lee, Amanda J; Chew, Marianne V; Shafaei, Mahsa; Aarts, Craig; Lee, Dean A; Hassell, John; Bane, Anita; Dhesy-Thind, Sukhbinder; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a critical role in cancer immunosurveillance. Recent developments in NK cell ex-vivo expansion makes it possible to generate millions of activated NK cells from a small volume of peripheral blood. We tested the functionality of ex vivo expanded NK cells in vitro against breast cancer cell lines and in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. The study aim was to assess functionality and phenotype of expanded NK cells from breast cancer patients against breast cancer cell lines and autologous primary tumours. We used a well-established NK cell co-culture system to expand NK cells ex vivo from healthy donors and breast cancer patients and examined their surface marker expression. Moreover, we tested the ability of expanded NK cells to lyse the triple negative breast cancer and HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453, respectively. We also tested their ability to prevent tumour growth in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. Finally, we tested the cytotoxicity of expanded NK cells against autologous and allogeneic primary breast cancer tumours in vitro. After 3 weeks of culture we observed over 1000-fold expansion of NK cells isolated from either breast cancer patients or healthy donors. We also showed that the phenotype of expanded NK cells is comparable between those from healthy donors and cancer patients. Moreover, our results confirm the ability of ex vivo expanded NK cells to lyse tumour cell lines in vitro. While the cell lines examined had differential sensitivity to NK cell killing we found this was correlated with level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression. In our in vivo model, NK cells prevented tumour establishment and growth in immunocompromised mice. Finally, we showed that NK cells expanded from the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients show high cytotoxicity against allogeneic and autologous patient-derived tumour cells in vitro. NK cells from breast cancer patients can be

  2. Radiosensitization of tumour cell lines by the polyphenol Gossypol results from depressed double-strand break repair and not from enhanced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kasten-Pisula, Ulla; Windhorst, Sabine; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Mayr, Georg; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2007-06-01

    New drugs are needed to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy in order to improve the therapeutic outcome of tumour patients. In this respect, the polyphenol Gossypol might be of interest, because of its effect on apoptosis and DNA repair, which is either mediated directly or indirectly via the inositol phosphate metabolism. It was investigated, whether these effects result in enhanced radiosensitivity of tumour cells. Tumour cell lines investigated: A549, FaDu, H1299, MCF7 and Du145. Cell cycle distribution was determined by FACS analysis, apoptosis was measured by DAPI staining and caspase3/7 activity. Double-strand breaks (DSB) were investigated via gammaH2AX-foci and cell survival by colony formation assay. The level of inositol phosphates was determined by HPLC, protein expression by Western blot. In A549 cells, Gossypol at concentrations 1microM strongly affects proliferation with only a modest arrest in the G1-phase, but with no increase in the fraction of apoptotic cells or the number of additional DSB. Additional DSB were only seen in FaDu cells, where Gossypol (2microM) was extremely toxic with a plating efficiency <0.002. When combined with irradiation, incubation with Gossypol (1-2microM) was found to result in an enhanced radiosensitivity with, however, a substantial variation. While there was a strong radiosensitization for FaDu and Du145 cells, there was an intermediate response for A549 cells, but almost no effect for H1299 and MCF7 cells. This sensitization was not caused from an elevated rate of apoptosis, but primarily resulted from reduced DSB repair capacity. The reduction in DSB repair could be ascribed neither to changes in the level of repair proteins relevant for non-homologous end-joining (Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs) nor to changes in the level of higher phosphorylated inositols, whereby the latter were even found to be enhanced by Gossypol. For some tumour cell lines treatment with low concentrations of Gossypol can be used to inhibit DSB

  3. A novel approach to juxta-articular aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours: resection arthrodesis using bone transport over an intramedullary nail

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sharath K.

    2006-01-01

    Aggressive juxta-articular giant cell tumours of the lower limbs occurring in young patients are a challenge to the average orthopaedic surgeon. Although it is the treatment of choice for these tumours, wide resection creates a problem for the reconstruction of large bone gaps. We describe our results after resection arthrodesis of such tumours using the technique of bone transport over a long intramedullary nail in 27 patients. This is the first and largest study of its kind in the management of giant cell tumours in the literature. All our patients fared well with this mode of treatment, and none had recurrence or major complications. PMID:16724184

  4. A novel approach to juxta-articular aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours: resection arthrodesis using bone transport over an intramedullary nail.

    PubMed

    Vidyadhara, S; Rao, Sharath K

    2007-04-01

    Aggressive juxta-articular giant cell tumours of the lower limbs occurring in young patients are a challenge to the average orthopaedic surgeon. Although it is the treatment of choice for these tumours, wide resection creates a problem for the reconstruction of large bone gaps. We describe our results after resection arthrodesis of such tumours using the technique of bone transport over a long intramedullary nail in 27 patients. This is the first and largest study of its kind in the management of giant cell tumours in the literature. All our patients fared well with this mode of treatment, and none had recurrence or major complications.

  5. Chemical composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cecilia; Quesada, Silvia; Brenes, Oscar; Aguilar, Gilda; Cicció, José F

    2008-01-01

    The leaf essential oil hydrodistilled from Schinus molle grown in Costa Rica was characterised in terms of its chemical composition, antioxidant activity, ability to induce cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death involved in the process. As a result, 42 constituents, accounting for 97.2% of the total oil, were identified. The major constituents of the oil were beta-pinene and alpha-pinene. The antioxidant activity showed an IC(50) of 36.3 microg mL(-1). The essential oil was cytotoxic in several cell lines, showing that it is more effective on breast carcinoma and leukemic cell lines. The LD(50) for cytotoxicity at 48 h in K562 corresponded to 78.7 microg mL(-1), which was very similar to the LD(50) obtained when apoptosis was measured. The essential oil did not induce significant necrosis up to 200 microg mL(-1), which together with the former results indicate that apoptosis is the main mechanism of toxicity induced by S. molle essential oil in this cell line. In conclusion, the essential oil tested was weak antioxidant and induced cytotoxicity in different cell types by a mechanism related to apoptosis. It would be interesting to elucidate the role that different components of the oil play in the effect observed here, since some of them could have potential anti-tumoural effects, either alone or in combination.

  6. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath: A 10-year study from a tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Bharani, V; Gupta, N; Gupta, K; Dey, P; Srinivasan, R; Rajwanshi, A

    2018-06-01

    Cytology of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath (GCTTS) is often sufficient to diagnose this lesion and has been previously described in small series. The present study was undertaken to evaluate detailed cytomorphological features and differential diagnostic entities and pitfalls in the diagnosis. All the cases of GCTTS reported on FNAC were retrieved from July 2007 to June 2017. The cases were reviewed for various cytomorphological features, which were correlated with follow-up histopathology wherever available. A total of 72 cases of GCTTS were retrieved, follow-up histopathology was available in 20 cases. The common sites of involvement were fingers and palm followed by wrists, elbow, knee, ankle and shoulder. The characteristic cytomorphology consisted of mononuclear cells, multinucleated giant cells and pigment laden macrophages in variable numbers. There were four discordant cases that were confirmed on histopathology as sarcoidosis, melanoma, fibrous histiocytoma and eumycetoma. GCTTS can be confused cytologically with giant cell rich lesions of bone and soft tissue and pigment containing lesions including melanoma. Ladybird cell is a characteristic feature seen in this lesion. Proper clinicoradiological correlation is essential before offering a diagnosis of GCTTS on cytology. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [The anti-tumour effect of Wuxing soup and its mechanism in inducing apoptosis of tumour cells mediated by calcium].

    PubMed

    Mo, Fei; Hu, Jing-Ying; Gan, Yu; Zhao, Yang-Xing; Zhao, Xin-Tai

    2008-09-01

    To confirm the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of Wuxing soup. Inhibition of cellular growth under Wuxing soup treatment was observed by MTT; Apoptosis was detected by gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopy and FACS; The concentration of calcium was measured by fluorescence probe. After SGC-7901 cell being treated by Wuxing soup, it showed that: 1) Wuxing soup could specifically inhibit cancer cells proliferation in a time and dose dependent manner; 2) Typical apoptotic morphological changes and DNA ladder of SGC-7901 cells were observed; 3) calcium inhibitor Bapta AM could reduce the apoptotic rate and protect SGC-7901 cells in a dose dependent manner. Wuxing soup has an effective inhibition on cancer cells, and can induce SGC-7901 cells to apoptosis by calcium.

  8. Clinical challenges in the molecular characterization of circulating tumour cells in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lianidou, E S; Mavroudis, D; Georgoulias, V

    2013-06-25

    Blood testing for circulating tumour cells (CTC) has emerged as one of the hottest fields in cancer research. CTC detection and enumeration can serve as a 'liquid biopsy' and an early marker of response to systemic therapy, whereas their molecular characterisation has a strong potential to be translated to individualised targeted treatments and spare breast cancer (BC) patients unnecessary and ineffective therapies. Different analytical systems for CTC detection and isolation have been developed and new areas of research are directed towards developing novel assays for CTC molecular characterisation. Molecular characterisation of single CTC holds considerable promise for predictive biomarker assessment and to explore CTC heterogeneity. The application of extremely powerful next-generation sequencing technologies in the area of CTC molecular characterisation in combination with reliable single CTC isolation opens new frontiers for the management of patients in the near future. This review is mainly focused on the clinical potential of the molecular characterisation of CTC in BC.

  9. Clinical challenges in the molecular characterization of circulating tumour cells in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lianidou, E S; Mavroudis, D; Georgoulias, V

    2013-01-01

    Blood testing for circulating tumour cells (CTC) has emerged as one of the hottest fields in cancer research. CTC detection and enumeration can serve as a ‘liquid biopsy' and an early marker of response to systemic therapy, whereas their molecular characterisation has a strong potential to be translated to individualised targeted treatments and spare breast cancer (BC) patients unnecessary and ineffective therapies. Different analytical systems for CTC detection and isolation have been developed and new areas of research are directed towards developing novel assays for CTC molecular characterisation. Molecular characterisation of single CTC holds considerable promise for predictive biomarker assessment and to explore CTC heterogeneity. The application of extremely powerful next-generation sequencing technologies in the area of CTC molecular characterisation in combination with reliable single CTC isolation opens new frontiers for the management of patients in the near future. This review is mainly focused on the clinical potential of the molecular characterisation of CTC in BC. PMID:23756869

  10. Microimaging FT-IR of oral cavity tumours. Part III: Cells, inoculated tissues and human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Ferraris, P.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Possati, L.; Rocchetti, R.; Rubini, C.; Sabbatini, S.; Tosi, G.; Mariggiò, M. A.; Lo Muzio, L.

    2007-05-01

    The biochemistry of healthy and tumour cell cultures, inoculated tissues and oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR Microscopy with the aim to relate spectral patterns with microbiological and histopathological findings. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and the other two techniques. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wave number or band ratio images, allowed an evaluation of the pathological changes. The spectroscopic patterns of inoculated tissues resulted quite similar to human tissues; differences of both types of sections with cellular lines could be explained by the influence of the environment.

  11. [Bellini tumours].

    PubMed

    Teghom, Corine; Gachet, Julie; Scotté, Florian; Elaidi, Reza; Oudard, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    In Europe, renal tumours are 7th in frequency of men cancers. They are rare tumours in 10 to 15% of cases. Collecting ducts carcinomas or Bellini tumours, described for the first time in 1949, are a distinct clinical and pathological entity. They represented 1% of epithelial cancers. Nephrectomy is the treatment of localised cancer. Because of lack of recommendations, usually in clinical practice, treatment is similar to urothelial carcinomas treatments (gemcitabine plus platinium). A 72% of response rate of urothelial carcinoma to association of bevacizumab with platinium and gemcitabine 1st line chemotherapy in metastatic setting was reported. More, cases of responses of metastatic Bellini cancers to antiangiogenic treatments associated to chemotherapy were reported these last years. Bellini cancers have a poor prognostic. Unless the fact that this cancer is aggressive, after nephrectomy, cancer specific survival seems not to be different to those of patients with clear cells renal carcinoma and could be related to latest stage of disease in patients. The evaluation of efficacy of association of bevacizumab to chemotherapy is still going on in this association.

  12. The evidence for and against different modes of tumour cell extravasation in the lung: diapedesis, capillary destruction, necroptosis, and endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Paku, Sándor; Laszlo, Viktoria; Dezso, Katalin; Nagy, Peter; Hoda, Mir Alireza; Klepetko, Walter; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Timar, Jozsef; Reynolds, Andrew R; Dome, Balazs

    2017-03-01

    The development of lung metastasis is a significant negative prognostic factor for cancer patients. The extravasation phase of lung metastasis involves interactions of tumour cells with the pulmonary endothelium. These interactions may have broad biological and medical significance, with potential clinical implications ranging from the discovery of lung metastasis biomarkers to the identification of targets for intervention in preventing lung metastases. Because of the potential significance, the mechanisms of tumour cell extravasation require cautious, systematic studies. Here, we discuss the literature pertaining to the proposed mechanisms of extravasation and critically compare a recently proposed mechanism (tumour cell-induced endothelial necroptosis) with the already described extravasation mechanisms in the lung. We also provide novel data that may help to explain the underlying physiological basis for endothelialization as a mechanism of tumour cell extravasation in the lung. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Retroperitoneal teratoma with somatic malignant transformation: a papillary renal cell carcinoma in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zeh, Nina; Wild, Peter J; Bode, Peter K; Kristiansen, Glen; Moch, Holger; Sulser, Tullio; Hermanns, Thomas

    2013-02-12

    Malignant transformation describes the phenomenon in which a somatic component of a germ cell teratoma undergoes malignant differentiation. A variety of different types of sarcoma and carcinoma, all non-germ cell, have been described as a result of malignant transformation. A 33-year-old man presented with a left testicular mass and elevated tumour markers. Staging investigations revealed retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with obstruction of the left ureter and distant metastases. Histopathology from the left radical orchiectomy showed a mixed germ cell tumour (Stage III, poor prognosis). The ureter was stented and four cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin chemotherapy administered. After initial remission, the patient recurred four years later with a large retroperitoneal mass involving the renal vessels and the left ureter. Left retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with en-bloc resection of the left kidney was performed.Histopathology revealed a germ cell tumour metastasis consisting mainly of mature teratoma. Additionally, within the teratoma a papillary renal cell carcinoma was found. The diagnosis was supported by immunohistochemistry showing positivity for AMACR, CD10 and focal expression of RCC and CK7. There was no radiological or histo-pathological evidence of a primary renal cell cancer. To the best of our knowledge, malignant transformation into a papillary renal cell carcinoma has not been reported in a testicular germ cell tumour metastasis following platinum-based chemotherapy. This histological diagnosis might have implications for potential future therapies. In the case of disease recurrence, renal cell cancer as origin of the recurrent tumour has to be excluded because renal cell carcinoma metastases would not respond well to the classical germ cell tumour chemotherapy regimens.

  14. Tumour-cell apoptosis after cisplatin treatment is not telomere dependent.

    PubMed

    Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Saretzki, Gabriele; Leake, Alan; Tilby, Michael J; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Cisplatin is a major chemotherapeutic agent, especially for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Telomeres with their sequence (TTAGGG)n are probable targets for cisplatin intrastrand cross-linking, but the role of telomeres in mediating cisplatin cytotoxicity is not clear. After exposure to cisplatin as single dose or continuous treatment, we found no loss of telomeres in either SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells (telomere length, approximately 4 kbp), HeLa 229 cells (telomere length, 20 kbp) or in the acute lymphoblastic T cell line 1301 (telomere length, approximately 80 kbp). There was no induction of telomeric single strand breaks, telomeric overhangs were not degraded and telomerase activity was down-regulated only after massive onset of apoptosis. In contrast, cisplatin induced a delayed formation of DNA strand breaks and induced DNA damage foci containing gamma-H2A.X at nontelomeric sites. Interstitial DNA damage appears to be more important than telomere loss or telomeric damage as inducer of the signal pathway towards apoptosis and/or growth arrest in cisplatin-treated tumour cells.

  15. Nanoparticle-blood interactions: the implications on solid tumour targeting.

    PubMed

    Lazarovits, James; Chen, Yih Yang; Sykes, Edward A; Chan, Warren C W

    2015-02-18

    Nanoparticles are suitable platforms for cancer targeting and diagnostic applications. Typically, less than 10% of all systemically administered nanoparticles accumulate in the tumour. Here we explore the interactions of blood components with nanoparticles and describe how these interactions influence solid tumour targeting. In the blood, serum proteins adsorb onto nanoparticles to form a protein corona in a manner dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. These serum proteins can block nanoparticle tumour targeting ligands from binding to tumour cell receptors. Additionally, serum proteins can also encourage nanoparticle uptake by macrophages, which decreases nanoparticle availability in the blood and limits tumour accumulation. The formation of this protein corona will also increase the nanoparticle hydrodynamic size or induce aggregation, which makes nanoparticles too large to enter into the tumour through pores of the leaky vessels, and prevents their deep penetration into tumours for cell targeting. Recent studies have focused on developing new chemical strategies to reduce or eliminate serum protein adsorption, and rescue the targeting potential of nanoparticles to tumour cells. An in-depth and complete understanding of nanoparticle-blood interactions is key to designing nanoparticles with optimal physicochemical properties with high tumour accumulation. The purpose of this review article is to describe how the protein corona alters the targeting of nanoparticles to solid tumours and explains current solutions to solve this problem.

  16. Circulating tumour cells from patients with colorectal cancer have cancer stem cell hallmarks in ex vivo culture.

    PubMed

    Grillet, Fanny; Bayet, Elsa; Villeronce, Olivia; Zappia, Luke; Lagerqvist, Ebba Louise; Lunke, Sebastian; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Pham, Kym; Molck, Christina; Rolland, Nathalie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Prudhomme, Michel; Philippe, Claire; Bravo, Sophie; Boyer, Jean Christophe; Canterel-Thouennon, Lucile; Taylor, Graham Roy; Hsu, Arthur; Pascussi, Jean Marc; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie

    2017-10-01

    Although counting of circulating tumour cells (CTC) has attracted a broad interest as potential markers of tumour progression and treatment response, the lack of functional characterisation of these cells had become a bottleneck in taking these observations to the clinic. Our objective was to culture these cells in order to understand them and exploit their therapeutic potential to the full. Here, hypothesising that some CTC potentially have cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, we generated several CTC lines from the blood of patients with advanced metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) based on their self-renewal abilities. Multiple standard tests were then employed to characterise these cells. Our CTC lines self-renew, express CSC markers and have multilineage differentiation ability, both in vitro and in vivo . Patient-derived CTC lines are tumorigenic in subcutaneous xenografts and are also able to colonise the liver after intrasplenic injection. RNA sequencing analyses strikingly demonstrate that drug metabolising pathways represent the most upregulated feature among CTC lines in comparison with primary CRC cells grown under similar conditions. This result is corroborated by the high resistance of the CTC lines to conventional cytotoxic compounds. Taken together, our results directly demonstrate the existence of patient-derived colorectal CTCs that bear all the functional attributes of CSCs. The CTC culture model described here is simple and takes <1 month from blood collection to drug testing, therefore, routine clinical application could facilitate access to personalised medicine. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01577511. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Application of the pMHC Array to Characterise Tumour Antigen Specific T Cell Populations in Leukaemia Patients at Disease Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Suzanne E; Bonney, Stephanie A; Lee, Cindy; Publicover, Amy; Khan, Ghazala; Smits, Evelien L; Sigurdardottir, Dagmar; Arno, Matthew; Li, Demin; Mills, Ken I; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H; van Tendeloo, Viggo; Mufti, Ghulam J; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Elliott, Tim J; Orchard, Kim H; Guinn, Barbara-ann

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy treatments for cancer are becoming increasingly successful, however to further improve our understanding of the T-cell recognition involved in effective responses and to encourage moves towards the development of personalised treatments for leukaemia immunotherapy, precise antigenic targets in individual patients have been identified. Cellular arrays using peptide-MHC (pMHC) tetramers allow the simultaneous detection of different antigen specific T-cell populations naturally circulating in patients and normal donors. We have developed the pMHC array to detect CD8+ T-cell populations in leukaemia patients that recognise epitopes within viral antigens (cytomegalovirus (CMV) and influenza (Flu)) and leukaemia antigens (including Per Arnt Sim domain 1 (PASD1), MelanA, Wilms' Tumour (WT1) and tyrosinase). We show that the pMHC array is at least as sensitive as flow cytometry and has the potential to rapidly identify more than 40 specific T-cell populations in a small sample of T-cells (0.8-1.4 x 10(6)). Fourteen of the twenty-six acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients analysed had T cells that recognised tumour antigen epitopes, and eight of these recognised PASD1 epitopes. Other tumour epitopes recognised were MelanA (n = 3), tyrosinase (n = 3) and WT1(126-134) (n = 1). One of the seven acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) patients analysed had T cells that recognised the MUC1(950-958) epitope. In the future the pMHC array may be used provide point of care T-cell analyses, predict patient response to conventional therapy and direct personalised immunotherapy for patients.

  18. Mathematical modelling of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, Imran; Humbert-Vidan, Laia; Chen, Tao; South, Christopher P.; Ezhil, Veni; Kirkby, Norman F.; Jena, Rajesh; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports a modelling study of tumour volume dynamics in response to stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). The main objective was to develop a model that is adequate to describe tumour volume change measured during SABR, and at the same time is not excessively complex as lacking support from clinical data. To this end, various modelling options were explored, and a rigorous statistical method, the Akaike information criterion, was used to help determine a trade-off between model accuracy and complexity. The models were calibrated to the data from 11 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR. The results showed that it is feasible to model the tumour volume dynamics during SABR, opening up the potential for using such models in a clinical environment in the future.

  19. DNA from KI, WU and Merkel Cell Polyomaviruses Is Not Detected in Childhood Central Nervous System Tumours or Neuroblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Géraldine; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Pastrana, Diana V.; Pavot, Vincent; Lindau, Cecilia; Kogner, Per; Orrego, Abiel; Buck, Christopher B.; Allander, Tobias; Holm, Stefan; Gustavsson, Bengt; Dalianis, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Background BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKV and JCV) are potentially oncogenic and have in the past inconclusively been associated with tumours of the central nervous system (CNS), while BKV has been hinted, but not confirmed to be associated with neuroblastomas. Recently three new polyomaviruses (KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV) were identified in humans. So far KIPyV and WUPyV have not been associated to human diseases, while MCPyV was discovered in Merkel Cell carcinomas and may have neuroepithelial cell tropism. However, all three viruses can be potentially oncogenic and this compelled us to investigate for their presence in childhood CNS and neuroblastomas. Methodology The presence of KI, WU and MCPyV DNA was analysed, by a joint WU and KI specific PCR (covering part of VP1) and by a MCPyV specific regular and real time quantitative PCR (covering part of Large T) in 25 CNS tumour biopsies and 31 neuroblastoma biopsies from the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. None of the three new human polyomaviruses were found to be associated with any of the tumours, despite the presence of PCR amplifiable DNA assayed by a S14 housekeeping gene PCR. Conclusion In this pilot study, the presence of MCPyV, KI and WU was not observed in childhood CNS tumours and neuroblastomas. Nonetheless, we suggest that additional data are warranted in tumours of the central and peripheral nervous systems and we do not exclude that other still not yet detected polyomaviruses could be present in these tumours. PMID:20011509

  20. CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) is predictor of tumour angiogenic activity and prognostic biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Spaks, Artjoms; Svirina, Darja; Spaka, Irina; Jaunalksne, Inta; Breiva, Donats; Tracums, Ilmars; Krievins, Dainis

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the association of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4) plasma levels with tumour angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to assess association of CXCL4 with clinical outcomes. Fifty patients with early stage NSCLC who underwent pulmonary resection. CXCL4 levels were analysed by ELISA. Angiogenesis was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and microvessel density (MVD) count. There was positive correlation between MVD and CXCL4 levels. Patients with higher CXCL4 levels had worse overall and disease-free survival. Plasma levels of CXCL4 are associated with tumour vascularity. Increased CXCL4 levels in NSCLC patients undergoing treatment may indicate active cancer-induced angiogenesis associated with relapse and worse outcome.

  1. Microenvironmental autophagy promotes tumour growth.

    PubMed

    Katheder, Nadja S; Khezri, Rojyar; O'Farrell, Fergal; Schultz, Sebastian W; Jain, Ashish; Rahman, Mohammed M; Schink, Kay O; Theodossiou, Theodossis A; Johansen, Terje; Juhász, Gábor; Bilder, David; Brech, Andreas; Stenmark, Harald; Rusten, Tor Erik

    2017-01-19

    As malignant tumours develop, they interact intimately with their microenvironment and can activate autophagy, a catabolic process which provides nutrients during starvation. How tumours regulate autophagy in vivo and whether autophagy affects tumour growth is controversial. Here we demonstrate, using a well characterized Drosophila melanogaster malignant tumour model, that non-cell-autonomous autophagy is induced both in the tumour microenvironment and systemically in distant tissues. Tumour growth can be pharmacologically restrained using autophagy inhibitors, and early-stage tumour growth and invasion are genetically dependent on autophagy within the local tumour microenvironment. Induction of autophagy is mediated by Drosophila tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6-like signalling from metabolically stressed tumour cells, whereas tumour growth depends on active amino acid transport. We show that dormant growth-impaired tumours from autophagy-deficient animals reactivate tumorous growth when transplanted into autophagy-proficient hosts. We conclude that transformed cells engage surrounding normal cells as active and essential microenvironmental contributors to early tumour growth through nutrient-generating autophagy.

  2. Suppression of tumour growth by orally administered osteopontin is accompanied by alterations in tumour blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rittling, S R; Wejse, P L; Yagiz, K; Warot, G A; Hui, T

    2014-03-04

    The integrin-binding protein osteopontin is strongly associated with tumour development, yet is an abundant dietary component as a constituent of human and bovine milk. Therefore, we tested the effect of orally administered osteopontin (o-OPN) on the development of subcutaneous tumours in mice. Bovine milk osteopontin was administered in drinking water to tumour-bearing immune-competent mice. Tumour growth, proliferation, necrosis, apoptosis and blood vessel size and number were measured. Expression of the α₉ integrin was determined. o-OPN suppressed tumour growth, increased the extent of necrosis, and induced formation of abnormally large blood vessels. Anti-OPN reactivity detected in the plasma of OPN-null mice fed OPN suggested that tumour-blocking peptides were absorbed during digestion, but the o-OPN effect was likely distinct from that of an RGD peptide. Expression of the α₉ integrin was detected on both tumour cells and blood vessels. Potential active peptides from the α₉ binding site of OPN were identified by mass spectrometry following in vitro digestion, and injection of these peptides suppressed tumour growth. These results suggest that peptides derived from o-OPN are absorbed and interfere with tumour growth and normal vessel development. o-OPN-derived peptides that target the α₉ integrin are likely involved.

  3. Increased regulatory T cells in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Idris, Siti-Zuleha; Hassan, Norfarazieda; Lee, Le-Jie; Md Noor, Sabariah; Osman, Raudhawati; Abdul-Jalil, Marsitah; Nordin, Abdul-Jalil; Abdullah, Maha

    2016-05-01

    Regulation in adaptive immune response balances a fine line that prevents instigation of self-damage or fall into unresponsiveness permitting abnormal cell growth. Mechanisms that keep this balance in check include regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs consist of a small but heterogeneous population, which may be identified by the phenotype, CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127-. The role of Tregs in pathogenesis of cancers is thus far supported by evidence of increased Tregs in various cancers and may contribute to poorer prognosis. Tregs may also be important in acute leukaemias. A review of the literature on Tregs in acute leukaemias was conducted and Tregs were determined in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALLs). Studies on Tregs in B-cell ALL are few and controversial. We observed a significantly increased percentage of Tregs (mean±SD, 9.72 ± 3.79% vs. 7.05 ± 1.74%; P = 0.047) in the bone marrow/peripheral blood of ALL (n = 17) compared to peripheral blood of normal controls (n = 35). A positive trend between Tregs and age (R = 0.474, P = 0.055, n = 17) implicates this factor of poor prognosis in B-cell ALL. Tregs in cancer are particularly significant in immunotherapy. The manipulation of the immune system to treat cancer has for a long time ignored regulatory mechanisms inducible or in place. In lymphoma studies, tumour-specific mechanisms that are unlike conventional methods in the induction of Tregs have been hypothesized. In addition, tumour-infiltrating Tregs may present different profiles from peripheral blood pictures. Tregs will continue to be dissected to reveal its mysteries and their impact on clinical significance.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for mast cell tumours in dogs in England.

    PubMed

    Shoop, Stephanie Jw; Marlow, Stephanie; Church, David B; English, Kate; McGreevy, Paul D; Stell, Anneliese J; Thomson, Peter C; O'Neill, Dan G; Brodbelt, David C

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell tumour (MCT) appears to be a frequent tumour type in dogs, though there is little published in relation to its frequency in dogs in the UK. The current study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for MCTs in dogs attending English primary-care veterinary practices. Electronic patient records from practices participating in the VetCompass animal surveillance project between July 2007 and June 2013 were searched for MCT diagnosis. Various search terms and standard diagnostic terms (VeNom codes) identified records containing MCT diagnoses, which were evaluated against clinical criteria for inclusion to the study. MCT prevalence for the entire dataset and specific breed types were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterised MCT cases and multivariable logistic regression methods evaluated risk factors for association with MCT (P < 0.05). Within a population of 168,636 dogs, 453 had MCT, yielding a prevalence of 0.27% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24% - 0.29%). The highest breed type specific prevalences were for the Boxer at 1.95% (95% CI 1.40% - 2.51%), Golden Retriever at 1.39% (0.98% - 1.81%) and Weimaraner at 0.85% (95% CI 0.17% to 1.53%). Age, insurance status, neuter status, weight and breed type were associated with MCT diagnosis. Of dogs of specific breed type, the Boxer, Pug and Staffordshire Bull Terrier showed greater odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. Conversely, the German Shepherd Dog, Border Collie, West Highland White Terrier, Springer Spaniel and Cocker Spaniel had reduced odds of MCT diagnosis compared with crossbred dogs. No association was found between MCT diagnosis and sex. This study highlights a clinically significant prevalence of MCT and identifies specific breed types with predisposition to MCT, potentially aiding veterinarian awareness and facilitating diagnosis.

  5. Lysyl oxidase-like-2 promotes tumour angiogenesis and is a potential therapeutic target in angiogenic tumours.

    PubMed

    Zaffryar-Eilot, Shelly; Marshall, Derek; Voloshin, Tali; Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Spangler, Rhyannon; Kessler, Ofra; Ghermazien, Haben; Brekhman, Vera; Suss-Toby, Edith; Adam, Dan; Shaked, Yuval; Smith, Victoria; Neufeld, Gera

    2013-10-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the cross-linking of collagen, plays an essential role in developmental angiogenesis. We found that administration of the LOXL2-neutralizing antibody AB0023 inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assays and suppressed recruitment of angiogenesis promoting bone marrow cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated inhibition of LOXL2 expression or inhibition of LOXL2 using AB0023 reduced the migration and network-forming ability of endothelial cells, suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis results from a direct effect on endothelial cells. To examine the effects of AB0023 on tumour angiogenesis, AB0023 was administered to mice bearing tumours derived from SKOV-3 ovarian carcinoma or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. AB0023 treatment significantly reduced the microvascular density in these tumours but did not inhibit tumour growth. However, treatment of mice bearing SKOV-3-derived tumours with AB0023 also promoted increased coverage of tumour vessels with pericytes and reduced tumour hypoxia, providing evidence that anti-LOXL2 therapy results in the normalization of tumour blood vessels. In agreement with these data, treatment of mice bearing LLC-derived tumours with AB0023 improved the perfusion of the tumour-associated vessels as determined by ultrasonography. Improved perfusion and normalization of tumour vessels after treatment with anti-angiogenic agents were previously found to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into tumours and to result in an enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficiency. Indeed, treatment with AB0023 significantly enhanced the anti-tumourigenic effects of taxol. Our results suggest that inhibition of LOXL2 may prove beneficial for the treatment of angiogenic tumours.

  6. Unbiased and automated identification of a circulating tumour cell definition that associates with overall survival.

    PubMed

    Ligthart, Sjoerd T; Coumans, Frank A W; Attard, Gerhardt; Cassidy, Amy Mulick; de Bono, Johann S; Terstappen, Leon W M M

    2011-01-01

    Circulating tumour cells (CTC) in patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. Classification of CTC however remains subjective, as they are morphologically heterogeneous. We acquired digital images, using the CellSearch™ system, from blood of 185 castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients and 68 healthy subjects to define CTC by computer algorithms. Patient survival data was used as the training parameter for the computer to define CTC. The computer-generated CTC definition was validated on a separate CRPC dataset comprising 100 patients. The optimal definition of the computer defined CTC (aCTC) was stricter as compared to the manual CellSearch CTC (mCTC) definition and as a consequence aCTC were less frequent. The computer-generated CTC definition resulted in hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.8 for baseline and 3.9 for follow-up samples, which is comparable to the mCTC definition (baseline HR 2.9, follow-up HR 4.5). Validation resulted in HRs at baseline/follow-up of 3.9/5.4 for computer and 4.8/5.8 for manual definitions. In conclusion, we have defined and validated CTC by clinical outcome using a perfectly reproducing automated algorithm.

  7. Natural Killer Cells in Obesity: Impaired Function and Increased Susceptibility to the Effects of Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Donal; Cawood, Tom J.; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Lynch, Lydia

    2010-01-01

    Background Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independantly associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. Methodology and Principal Findings Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m2) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/− 13% vs 42% +/−12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). Conclusions/Significance Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers. PMID:20107494

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum L9 but not Lactobacillus acidophilus LA reduces tumour necrosis factor induced bacterial translocation in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Chen, J; Wang, S; Zhao, X; Lu, G; Tang, X

    2017-05-30

    Translocation of bacteria across the intestinal barrier is important in the pathogenesis of systemic sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Inflammatory cytokines increase paracellular permeability that allows increased luminal bacteria to translocate across mucosal epithelium and further deteriorate the gut barrier. In order to reduce this risk, the prophylactic use of probiotics has been recently addressed. In this paper, we investigate the protective role toward tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α induced non-pathogenic Escherichia coli translocation across Caco-2 monolayers of Lactobacillus strains. According to our experimental data, Lactobacillus plantarum L9 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA have good capacities to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Addition of L. plantarum L9 and L. acidophilus LA to the enterocyte monolayer surface result in significant inhibition of E. coli adhesion and cell internalisation. However, L. plantarum L9 and L. acidophilus LA did not inhibit the growth of the non-pathogenic E. coli B5 after 24 h incubation. Exposure to TNF-α for 6 h caused a dramatic increase in E. coli B5 translocation across Caco-2 cells, which was uncoupled from increases in paracellular permeability. Pretreatment with L. plantarum L9 prevent TNF-α induced transcellular bacterial translocation and IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. L. plantarum L9 also did not affect the integrity of the monolayers, as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase release, horseradish peroxidase permeability, and transepithelial electrical resistance. L. plantarum L9 showed the potential to protect enterocytes from an acute inflammatory response and therefore could be good potential prophylactic agents in counteracting bacterial translocation.

  9. Optimisation of immunofluorescence methods to determine MCT1 and MCT4 expression in circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Kershaw, Stephen; Cummings, Jeffrey; Morris, Karen; Tugwood, Jonathan; Dive, Caroline

    2015-05-10

    The monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) represents a novel target in rational anticancer drug design while AZD3965 was developed as an inhibitor of this transporter and is undergoing Phase I clinical trials ( http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01791595 ). We describe the optimisation of an immunofluorescence (IF) method for determination of MCT1 and MCT4 in circulating tumour cells (CTC) as potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers of AZD3965 in cancer patients. Antibody selectivity was investigated by western blotting (WB) in K562 and MDAMB231 cell lines acting as positive controls for MCT1 and MCT4 respectively and by flow cytometry also employing the control cell lines. Ability to detect MCT1 and MCT4 in CTC as a 4(th) channel marker utilising the Veridex™ CellSearch system was conducted in both human volunteer blood spiked with control cells and in samples collected from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Experimental conditions were established which yielded a 10-fold dynamic range (DR) for detection of MCT1 over MCT4 (antibody concentration 6.25 μg/mL; integration time 0.4 seconds) and a 5-fold DR of MCT4 over MCT 1 (8 μg/100 μL and 0.8 seconds). The IF method was sufficiently sensitive to detect both MCT1 and MCT4 in CTCs harvested from cancer patients. The first IF method has been developed and optimised for detection of MCT 1 and MCT4 in cancer patient CTC.

  10. MET signalling in primary colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of aberrant Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Boon, E M J; Kovarikova, M; Derksen, P W B; van der Neut, R

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that in hereditary and most sporadic colon tumours, components of the Wnt pathway are mutated. The Wnt target MET has been implicated in the development of colon cancer. Here, we show that overexpression of wild-type or a constitutively activated form of MET in colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of Wnt signalling. Fetal human colon epithelial cells without aberrant Wnt signalling were transfected with wild-type or mutated MET constructs. Expression of these constructs leads to increased phosphorylation of MET and its downstream targets PKB and MAPK. Upon stimulation with HGF, the expression of E-cadherin is downregulated in wild-type MET-transfected cells, whereas cells expressing mutated MET show low E-cadherin levels independent of stimulation with ligand. This implies a higher migratory propensity of these cells. Furthermore, fetal human colon epithelial cells expressing the mutated form of MET have colony-forming capacity in soft agar, while cells expressing wild-type MET show an intermediate phenotype. Subcutaneous injection of mutated MET-transfected cells in nude mice leads to the formation of tumours within 12 days in all mice injected. At this time point, mock-transfected cells do not form tumours, while wild-type MET-transfected cells form subcutaneous tumours in one out of five mice. We thus show that MET signalling can lead to increased transformation of colon epithelial cells independent of Wnt signalling and in this way could play an essential role in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:15785735

  11. Inhibition of purine phosphoribosyltransferases of Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells by 6-mercaptopurine

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, M. R.; Murray, A. W.

    1965-01-01

    1. The formation of adenosine 5′-phosphate, guanosine 5′-phosphate and inosine 5′-phosphate from [8-14C]adenine, [8-14C]guanine and [8-14C]hypoxanthine respectively in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate and an extract from Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells was assayed by a method involving liquid-scintillation counting of the radioactive nucleotides on diethylaminoethylcellulose paper. The results obtained with guanine were confirmed by a spectrophotometric assay which was also used to assay the conversion of 6-mercaptopurine and 5-phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate into 6-thioinosine 5′-phosphate in the presence of 6-mercaptopurine phosphoribosyltransferase from these cells. 2. At pH 7·8 and 25° the Michaelis constants for adenine, guanine and hypoxanthine were 0·9 μm, 2·9 μm and 11·0 μm in the assay with radioactive purines; the Michaelis constant for guanine in the spectrophotometric assay was 2·6 μm. At pH 7·9 the Michaelis constant for 6-mercaptopurine was 10·9 μm. 3. 25 μm-6-Mercaptopurine did not inhibit adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. 6-Mercaptopurine is a competitive inhibitor of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Ki 4·7 μm) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (Ki 8·3 μm). Hypoxanthine is a competitive inhibitor of guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Ki 3·4 μm). 4. Differences in kinetic parameters and in the distribution of phosphoribosyltransferase activities after electrophoresis in starch gel indicate that different enzymes are involved in the conversion of adenine, guanine and hypoxanthine into their nucleotides. 5. From the low values of Ki for 6-mercaptopurine, and from published evidence that ascites-tumour cells require supplies of purines from the host tissues, it is likely that inhibition of hypoxanthine and guanine phosphoribosyltransferases by free 6-mercaptopurine is involved in the biological activity of this drug. PMID:14342250

  12. Lack of MHC class I antigens and tumour aggressiveness of the squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed Central

    Esteban, F.; Concha, A.; Delgado, M.; Pérez-Ayala, M.; Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F.

    1990-01-01

    A series of 60 primary laryngeal and hypopharyngeal tumours, 24 lymph node metastases and normal tissue were evaluated in frozen sections for the expression of MHC class I antigens, using monoclonal antibodies and the APAAP technique. We found 13 tumours presenting total HLA-ABC loss, five with selective loss of HLA-A antigens and one with absence of HLA-B antigens. These losses were statistically associated with clinical and pathological parameters, such as T stage, degree of differentiation, scores according to the Jakobsson and Glanz grading systems and degree of leukocytic infiltration. Our results lead us to the following conclusions: (a) HLA class I losses were found in a group of tumours showing greater aggressiveness and worse prognosis; (b) these alterations in expression were not associated with an increased metastatic potential. Thus, the absence of HLA molecules in laryngeal tumours is related to greater local aggressiveness, and the loss of class I antigens seems to constitute an adaptive tumour mechanism to avoid the different anatomical and immunological barriers within the larynx. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2257212

  13. Tumour volume response, initial cell kill and cellular repopulation in B16 melanoma treated with cyclophosphamide and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, T. C.; Peacock, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between tumour volume response and cell kill in B16 melanoma following treatment in vivo with cyclophosphamide (CY) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU) was investigated. Tumour volume response, expressed as growth delay, was estimated from measurements of tumour dimensions. Depression of in vitro colony-forming ability of cells from treated tumours was used as the measure of tumour cell kill. The relationship between these parameters was clearly different for the two agents studied. CY produced more growth delay (7.5 days) per decade of tumour cell kill than CCNU (2 to 3.5 days). The possibility that this was due to a technical artefact was rejected in favour of an alternative explanation that different rates of cellular repopulation in tumours treated with CY and CCNU might be responsible. Cellular repopulation was measured directly, by performing cell-survival assays at various times after treatment with doses of CY and CCNU which produced about 3 decades of cell kill. The rate of repopulation by clonogenic cells was much slower after treatment with CY than with CCNU, and this appears to account for the longer duration of the growth delay obtained with CY. PMID:921888

  14. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus: Molecular Insights into the Most Recently Discovered Human Tumour Virus

    PubMed Central

    Stakaitytė, Gabrielė; Wood, Jennifer J.; Knight, Laura M.; Abdul-Sada, Hussein; Adzahar, Noor Suhana; Nwogu, Nnenna; Macdonald, Andrew; Whitehouse, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A fifth of worldwide cancer cases have an infectious origin, with viral infection being the foremost. One such cancer is Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rare but aggressive skin malignancy. In 2008, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was discovered as the causative agent of MCC. It is found clonally integrated into the majority of MCC tumours, which require MCPyV oncoproteins to survive. Since its discovery, research has begun to reveal the molecular virology of MCPyV, as well as how it induces tumourigenesis. It is thought to be a common skin commensal, found at low levels in healthy individuals. Upon loss of immunosurveillance, MCPyV reactivates, and a heavy viral load is associated with MCC pathogenesis. Although MCPyV is in many ways similar to classical oncogenic polyomaviruses, such as SV40, subtle differences are beginning to emerge. These unique features highlight the singular position MCPyV has as the only human oncogenic polyomavirus, and open up new avenues for therapies against MCC. PMID:24978434

  15. B-cell-specific depletion of tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibits atherosclerosis development and plaque vulnerability to rupture by reducing cell death and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Tay, Christopher; Liu, Yu-Han; Hosseini, Hamid; Kanellakis, Peter; Cao, Anh; Peter, Karlheinz; Tipping, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Toh, Ban-Hock; Kyaw, Tin

    2016-09-01

    B2 lymphocytes promote atherosclerosis development but their mechanisms of action are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) produced by B2 cells in atherogenesis. We found that 50% of TNF-α-producing spleen lymphocytes were B2 cells and ∼20% of spleen and aortic B cells produced TNF-α in hyperlipidemic ApoE(-/-) mice. We generated mixed bone marrow (80% μMT/20% TNF-α(-/-)) chimeric LDLR(-/-) mice where only B cells did not express TNF-α. Atherosclerosis was reduced in chimeric LDLR(-/-) mice with TNF-α-deficient B cells. TNF-α expression in atherosclerotic lesions and in macrophages were also reduced accompanied by fewer apoptotic cells, reduced necrotic cores, and reduced lesion Fas, interleukin-1β and MCP-1 in mice with TNF-α-deficient B cells compared to mice with TNF-α-sufficient B cells. To confirm that the reduced atherosclerosis is attributable to B2 cells, we transferred wild-type and TNF-α-deficient B2 cells into ApoE(-/-) mice deficient in B cells or in lymphocytes. After 8 weeks of high fat diet, we found that atherosclerosis was increased by wild-type but not TNF-α-deficient B2 cells. Lesions of mice with wild-type B2 cells but not TNF-α-deficient B2 cells also had increased apoptotic cells and necrotic cores. Transferred B2 cells were found in lesions of recipient mice, suggesting that TNF-α-producing B2 cells promote atherosclerosis within lesions. We conclude that TNF-α produced by B2 cells is a key mechanism by which B2 cells promote atherogenesis through augmenting macrophage TNF-α production to induce cell death and inflammation that promote plaque vulnerability. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Application of boronated anti-CEA immunoliposome to tumour cell growth inhibition in in vitro boron neutron capture therapy model.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagië, H.; Tomita, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujii, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Hasumi, K.; Nariuchi, H.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    An immunoliposome containing a 10B-compound has been examined as a selective drug delivery system in boron neutron-capture therapy. Liposomes, conjugated with monoclonal antibodies specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were shown to bind selectively to cells bearing CEA on their surface. The immunoliposomes attached to tumour cells suppressed growth in vitro upon thermal neutron irradiation and suppression was dependent upon the concentration of the 10B-compound in the liposomes and on the density of antibody conjugated to the liposomes. The results suggest that immunoliposomes containing the 10B-compound could act as a selective and efficient carrier of 10B atoms to target tumour cells in boron neutron-capture therapy. Images Figure 1 PMID:2021537

  17. The bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 triggers growth arrest and apoptosis in testicular germ cell tumours in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jostes, Sina; Nettersheim, Daniel; Fellermeyer, Martin; Schneider, Simon; Hafezi, François; Honecker, Friedemann; Schumacher, Valerie; Geyer, Matthias; Kristiansen, Glen; Schorle, Hubert

    2017-07-01

    Type II testicular germ cell cancers (TGCT) are the most frequently diagnosed tumours in young men (20-40 years) and are classified as seminoma or non-seminoma. TGCTs are commonly treated by orchiectomy and chemo- or radiotherapy. However, a subset of metastatic non-seminomas (embryonal carcinomas) displays only incomplete remission or relapse and requires novel treatment options. Recent studies have shown effective application of the small-molecule inhibitor JQ1 in tumour therapy, which interferes with the function of 'bromodomain and extraterminal (BET)' proteins. JQ1-treated TGCT cell lines display up-regulation of genes indicative for DNA damage and cellular stress response and induce cell cycle arrest. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell lines, which presented as JQ1 sensitive, display down-regulation of pluripotency factors and induction of mesodermal differentiation. In contrast, seminoma-like TCam-2 cells tolerated higher JQ1 concentrations and were resistant to differentiation. ECs xenografted in vivo showed a reduction in tumour size, proliferation rate and angiogenesis in response to JQ1. Finally, the combination of JQ1 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin allowed for lower doses and less frequent application, compared with monotherapy. Thus, we propose that JQ1 in combination with romidepsin may serve as a novel therapeutic option for (mixed) TGCTs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. PPARγ agonists regulate the expression of stemness and differentiation genes in brain tumour stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pestereva, E; Kanakasabai, S; Bright, J J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain tumour stem cells (BTSCs) are a small population of cancer cells that exhibit self-renewal, multi-drug resistance, and recurrence properties. We have shown earlier that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists inhibit the expansion of BTSCs in T98G and U87MG glioma. In this study, we analysed the influence of PPARγ agonists on the expression of stemness and differentiation genes in BTSCs. Methods: The BTSCs were isolated from T98G and DB29 glioma cells, and cultured in neurobasal medium with epidermal growth factor+basic fibroblast growth factor. Proliferation was measured by WST-1 (4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2 H-5-tetrazolio]-1,3-benzene disulphonate) and 3H thymidine uptake assays, and gene expression was analysed by quantitative reverse--transcription PCR and Taqman array. The expression of CD133, SRY box 2, and nanog homeobox (Nanog) was also evaluated by western blotting, immunostaining, and flow cytometry. Results: We found that PPARγ agonists, ciglitazone and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-ProstaglandinJ2, inhibited cell viability and proliferation of T98G- and DB29-BTSCs. The PPARγ agonists reduced the expansion of CD133+ BTSCs and altered the expression of stemness and differentiation genes. They also inhibited Sox2 while enhancing Nanog expression in BTSCs. Conclusion: These findings highlight that PPARγ agonists inhibit BTSC proliferation in association with altered expression of Sox2, Nanog, and other stemness genes. Therefore, targeting stemness genes in BTSCs could be a novel strategy in the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:22531638

  19. Metabolically active tumour volume segmentation from dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET studies in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoyng, Lieke L; Frings, Virginie; Hoekstra, Otto S; Kenny, Laura M; Aboagye, Eric O; Boellaard, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) can be used to assess tumour proliferation. A kinetic-filtering (KF) classification algorithm has been suggested for segmentation of tumours in dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET data. The aim of the present study was to evaluate KF segmentation and its test-retest performance in [(18)F]FLT PET in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Nine NSCLC patients underwent two 60-min dynamic [(18)F]FLT PET scans within 7 days prior to treatment. Dynamic scans were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) as well as with ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM). Twenty-eight lesions were identified by an experienced physician. Segmentation was performed using KF applied to the dynamic data set and a source-to-background corrected 50% threshold (A50%) was applied to the sum image of the last three frames (45- to 60-min p.i.). Furthermore, several adaptations of KF were tested. Both for KF and A50% test-retest (TRT) variability of metabolically active tumour volume and standard uptake value (SUV) were evaluated. KF performed better on OSEM- than on FBP-reconstructed PET images. The original KF implementation segmented 15 out of 28 lesions, whereas A50% segmented each lesion. Adapted KF versions, however, were able to segment 26 out of 28 lesions. In the best performing adapted versions, metabolically active tumour volume and SUV TRT variability was similar to those of A50%. KF misclassified certain tumour areas as vertebrae or liver tissue, which was shown to be related to heterogeneous [(18)F]FLT uptake areas within the tumour. For [(18)F]FLT PET studies in NSCLC patients, KF and A50% show comparable tumour volume segmentation performance. The KF method needs, however, a site-specific optimisation. The A50% is therefore a good alternative for tumour segmentation in NSCLC [(18)F]FLT PET studies in multicentre studies. Yet, it was observed that KF has the potential to subsegment

  20. Effects of tumour necrosis factor α upon the metabolism of the endocannabinoid anandamide in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jessica; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Alhouayek, Mireille; Fowler, Christopher J

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) is involved in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, a disease where disturbances in the endocannabinoid system are seen. In the present study we have investigated whether treatment of DU145 human prostate cancer cells affects anandamide (AEA) catabolic pathways. Additionally, we have investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can regulate the uptake of AEA into cells. Levels of AEA synthetic and catabolic enzymes were determined by qPCR. AEA uptake and hydrolysis in DU145 and RAW264.7 macrophage cells were assayed using AEA labeled in the arachidonic and ethanolamine portions of the molecule, respectively. Levels of AEA, related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), prostaglandins (PG) and PG-ethanolamines (PG-EA) in DU145 cells and medium were quantitated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) analysis. TNFα treatment of DU145 cells increased mRNA levels of PTSG2 (gene of COX-2) and decreased the mRNA of the AEA synthetic enzyme N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine selective phospholipase D. mRNA levels of the AEA hydrolytic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase were not changed. AEA uptake in both DU145 and RAW264.7 cells was inhibited by FAAH inhibition, but not by COX-2 inhibition, even in RAW264.7 cells where the expression of this enzyme had greatly been induced by lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ treatment. AEA and related NAEs were detected in DU145 cells, but PGs and PGE2-EA were only detected when the cells had been preincubated with 100 nM AEA. The data demonstrate that in DU145 cells, TNFα treatment changes the relative expression of the enzymes involved in the hydrolytic and oxygenation catabolic pathways for AEA. In RAW264.7 cells, COX-2, in contrast to FAAH, does not regulate the cellular accumulation of AEA. Further studies are necessary to determine the extent to which inflammatory mediators are involved in the abnormal

  1. Gastric marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and signet ring cell carcinoma, synchronous collision tumour of the stomach: a case report.

    PubMed

    George, Smiley Annie; Junaid, T A

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare case of synchronous marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) signet ring cell carcinoma occurring as a collision tumour in the stomach. A 53-year-old man was diagnosed initially with signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach. The microscopy of the subsequent total gastrectomy revealed a collision tumour of MALT lymphoma and signet ring cell carcinoma associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. This case highlighted the importance of a careful evaluation of the accompanying lymphoid population in the biopsy samples of gastric adenocarcinoma and underlined the need for multiple endoscopic biopsies to detect these rare synchronous tumours. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Gastric Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue and Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma, Synchronous Collision Tumour of the Stomach: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    George, Smiley Annie; Junaid, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report a rare case of synchronous marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) signet ring cell carcinoma occurring as a collision tumour in the stomach. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 53-year-old man was diagnosed initially with signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach. The microscopy of the subsequent total gastrectomy revealed a collision tumour of MALT lymphoma and signet ring cell carcinoma associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Conclusion This case highlighted the importance of a careful evaluation of the accompanying lymphoid population in the biopsy samples of gastric adenocarcinoma and underlined the need for multiple endoscopic biopsies to detect these rare synchronous tumours. PMID:24247357

  3. Calcium-ion transport by intact Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells. Role of respiratory substrates, Pi and temperature.

    PubMed

    Charlton, R R; Wenner, C E

    1978-03-15

    1. The interaction of intact Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells with Ca2+ at 37 degrees C consists of Ca2+ uptake followed by efflux from the cells. Under optimum conditions, two or three cycles of uptake and efflux are observed in the first 15 min after Ca2+ addition. 2. The respiratory substrates malate, succinate and ascorbate plus p-phenylenediamine support Ca2+ uptake. Ca2+ uptake at 37 degrees C is sensitive to the respiratory inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A when appropriate substrates are present. Ca2+ uptake and retention are inhibited by the uncoupler S-13. 3. Increasing extracellular Pi (12 to 30 mM) stimulates uncoupler-sensitive Ca2+ uptake, which reaches a maximum extent of 15 nmol/mg of protein when supported by succinate respiration. Ca2+ efflux is partially inhibited at 30 mM-Pi. 4. Optimum Ca2+ uptake occurs in the presence of succinate and Pi, suggesting that availability of substrate and Pi are rate-limiting. K. Ca2+ uptake occurs at 4 degrees C and is sensitive to uncouplers and oligomycin. Ca2+ efflux at this temperature is minimal. These data are consistent with a model in which passive diffusion of Ca2+ through the plasma membrane is followed by active uptake by the mitochondria. Ca2+ uptake is supported by substrates entering respiration at all three energy-coupling sites. Ca2+ efflux appears to be an active process with a high temperature coefficient.

  4. Detection of ABCB5 tumour antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients and implications for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Borchers, S; Maβlo, C; Müller, C A; Tahedl, A; Volkind, J; Nowak, Y; Umansky, V; Esterlechner, J; Frank, M H; Ganss, C; Kluth, M A; Utikal, J

    2018-01-01

    ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 5 (ABCB5) has been identified as a tumour-initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) isolated from blood samples of melanoma patients (n = 40) were stimulated with ABCB5 peptides, followed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) for interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. To evaluate immunogenicity of ABCB5 peptides in naive healthy donors, CD8 T cells were co-cultured with ABCB5 antigen-loaded autologous dendritic cells (DC). ABCB5 reactivity in expanded T cells was assessed similarly by ICS. ABCB5-reactive CD8 + T cells were detected ex vivo in 19 of 29 patients, melanoma antigen recognised by T cells (MART-1)-reactive CD8 + T cells in six of 21 patients. In this small, heterogeneous cohort, reactivity against ABCB5 was significantly higher than against MART-1. It occurred significantly more often and independently of clinical characteristics. Reactivity against ABCB5 could be induced in 14 of 16 healthy donors in vitro by repeated stimulation with peptide-loaded autologous DC. As ABCB5-reactive CD8 T cells can be found in the peripheral blood of melanoma patients and an ABCB5-specific response can be induced in vitro in naive donors, ABCB5 could be a new target for immunotherapies in melanoma. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  5. Mitochondria-dependent and -independent mechanisms in tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis are both regulated by interferon-gamma in human breast tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen; López-Rivas, Abelardo

    2002-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/APO-2L) induces apoptosis in a variety of tumour cells upon binding to death receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. Here we describe the sensitization by interferon (IFN)-gamma to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the breast tumour cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. IFN-gamma promoted TRAIL-mediated activation of caspase-8, Bcl-2 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) degradation, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to mitochondria, cytochrome c release to the cytosol and activation of caspase-9 in these cell lines. No changes in the expression of TRAIL receptors were observed upon IFN-gamma treatment. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in MCF-7 cells completely inhibited IFN-gamma-induced sensitization to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Interestingly, TRAIL-induced apoptosis was also clearly enhanced by IFN-gamma in caspase-3-overexpressing MCF-7 cells, in the absence of Bax translocation to mitochondria and cytochrome c release to the cytosol. In summary, our results suggest that IFN-gamma facilitates TRAIL-induced activation of mitochondria-regulated as well as mitochondria-independent apoptotic pathways in breast tumour cells. PMID:11936954

  6. Characterisation of a cell swelling-activated K+-selective conductance of Ehrlich mouse ascites tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Hougaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Else K; Jørgensen, Finn; Stutzin, Andrés; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2000-01-01

    The K+ and Cl− currents activated by hypotonic cell swelling were studied in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells using the whole-cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique. Currents were measured in the absence of added intracellular Ca2+ and with strong buffering of Ca2+. K+ current activated by cell swelling was measured as outward current at the Cl− equilibrium potential (ECl) under quasi-physiological gradients. It could be abolished by replacing extracellular Na+ with K+, thereby cancelling the driving force. Replacement with other cations suggested a selectivity sequence of K+ > Rb+ > NH4≈ Na+≈ Li+; Cs+ appeared to be inhibitory. The current-voltage relationship of the volume-sensitive K+ current was well fitted with the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz current equation between -130 and +20 mV with a permeability coefficient of around 10−6 cm s−1 with both physiological and high-K+ extracellular solutions. The class III antiarrhythmic drug clofilium blocked the volume-sensitive K+ current in a voltage-independent manner with an IC50 of 32 μM. Clofilium was also found to be a strong inhibitor of the regulatory volume decrease response of Ehrlich cells. Cell swelling-activated K+ currents of Ehrlich cells are voltage and calcium insensitive and are resistant to a range of K+ channel inhibitors. These characteristics are similar to those of the so-called background K+ channels. Noise analysis of whole-cell current was consistent with a unitary conductance of 5.5 pS for the single channels underlying the K+ current evoked by cell swelling, measured at 0 mV under a quasi-physiological K+ gradient. PMID:10790156

  7. TLR7 expression is decreased during tumour progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice and its activation inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Ju-Hee; Park, Shin-Young; Kim, Jin-Bum; Cho, Sung-Dae; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Jae-Hak; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Although various Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been associated with immune response and tumorigenesis in the prostate cells, little is known about the role of TLR7. Accordingly, we examined the expression of TLR7 during tumour progression of TRMAP (transgenic mouse model for prostate cancer) mice and its role on cell growth. Toll-like receptor7 expression was examined by RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Cell growth was examined by MTT assay. Colony formation was investigated by crystal violet staining. Strong expression of TLR7 was detected in the normal prostate epithelia of Wild-type (WT) mice, but not in TLR7-deficient mice. In contrast, TLR7 expression was weak in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells, as compared with murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Moreover, TLR7 mRNA was markedly expressed in RWPE-1 cells (non-cancerous prostate epithelial cells), but not in PC3 and DU145 (prostate cancer cells). Immunohistochemically, TLR7 expression gradually decreased in TRAMP mice depending on the pathologic grade of the prostate cells. TLR7 agonists increased both the gene and protein expression of TLR7 and promoted production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and IFN-β gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines. Moreover, loxoribine inhibited the growth and colony formation of TRAMP-C2 cells dependent of TLR7. These findings suggest that TLR7 may participate in tumour suppression in the prostate cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Development of a transplantable glioma tumour model from genetically engineered mice: MRI/MRS/MRSI characterisation.

    PubMed

    Ciezka, Magdalena; Acosta, Milena; Herranz, Cristina; Canals, Josep M; Pumarola, Martí; Candiota, Ana Paula; Arús, Carles

    2016-08-01

    The initial aim of this study was to generate a transplantable glial tumour model of low-intermediate grade by disaggregation of a spontaneous tumour mass from genetically engineered models (GEM). This should result in an increased tumour incidence in comparison to GEM animals. An anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (OA) tumour of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III was obtained from a female GEM mouse with the S100β-v-erbB/inK4a-Arf (+/-) genotype maintained in the C57BL/6 background. The tumour tissue was disaggregated; tumour cells from it were grown in aggregates and stereotactically injected into C57BL/6 mice. Tumour development was followed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), while changes in the metabolomics pattern of the masses were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging (MRS/MRSI). Final tumour grade was evaluated by histopathological analysis. The total number of tumours generated from GEM cells from disaggregated tumour (CDT) was 67 with up to 100 % penetrance, as compared to 16 % in the local GEM model, with an average survival time of 66 ± 55 days, up to 4.3-fold significantly higher than the standard GL261 glioblastoma (GBM) tumour model. Tumours produced by transplantation of cells freshly obtained from disaggregated GEM tumour were diagnosed as WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma (ODG) and OA, while tumours produced from a previously frozen sample were diagnosed as WHO grade IV GBM. We successfully grew CDT and generated tumours from a grade III GEM glial tumour. Freezing and cell culture protocols produced progression to grade IV GBM, which makes the developed transplantable model qualify as potential secondary GBM model in mice.

  9. Molecular profiling of tumour budding implicates TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a therapeutic target in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D H; Dabelsteen, E; Specht, L; Fiehn, A M K; Therkildsen, M H; Jønson, L; Vikesaa, J; Nielsen, F C; von Buchwald, C

    2015-08-01

    Although tumour budding is an adverse prognostic factor for many cancer types, the molecular mechanisms governing this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of tumour budding may provide new therapeutic and diagnostic options. We employ digital image analysis to demonstrate that the number of tumour buds in cytokeratin-stained sections correlates with patients having lymph node metastases at diagnosis. The tumour bud count was also a predictor of overall survival, independent of TNM stage. Tumour buds and paired central tumour areas were subsequently collected from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens, using laser capture microdissection, and examined with RNA sequencing and miRNA-qPCR arrays. Compared with cells from the central parts of the tumours, budding cells exhibited a particular gene expression signature, comprising factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated TGFβ signalling. Transcription factors ZEB1 and PRRX1 were up-regulated concomitantly with the decreased expression of mesenchymal-epithelial (MET) transcription factors (eg OVOL1) in addition to Krüppel-like factors and Grainyhead-like factors. Moreover, miR-200 family members were down-regulated in budding tumour cells. We used immunohistochemistry to validate five markers of the EMT/MET process in 199 OSCC tumours, as well as in situ hybridization in 20 OSCC samples. Given the strong relationship between tumour budding and the development of lymph node metastases and an adverse prognosis, therapeutics based on inhibiting the activation of TGFβ signalling may prove useful in the treatment of OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Aberrant DNA methylation at genes associated with a stem cell-like phenotype in cholangiocarcinoma tumours

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Siddiq, Afshan; Walley, Andrew J; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Brown, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities of cholangiocarcinoma have been widely studied; however, epigenomic changes related to cholangiocarcinogenesis have been less well characterised. We have profiled the DNA methylomes of 28 primary cholangiocarcinoma and six matched adjacent normal tissues using Infinium’s HumanMethylation27 BeadChips with the aim of identifying gene sets aberrantly epigenetically regulated in this tumour type. Using a linear model for microarray data we identified 1610 differentially methylated autosomal CpG sites with 809 CpG sites (representing 603 genes) being hypermethylated and 801 CpG sites (representing 712 genes) being hypomethylated in cholangiocarcinoma versus adjacent normal tissues (false discovery rate ≤ 0.05). Gene ontology and gene set enrichment analyses identified gene sets significantly associated with hypermethylation at linked CpG sites in cholangiocarcinoma including homeobox genes and target genes of PRC2, EED, SUZ12 and histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27. We confirmed frequent hypermethylation at the homeobox genes HOXA9 and HOXD9 by bisulfite pyrosequencing in a larger cohort of cholangiocarcinoma (n = 102). Our findings indicate a key role for hypermethylation of multiple CpG sites at genes associated with a stem cell-like phenotype as a common molecular aberration in cholangiocarcinoma. These data have implications for cholangiocarcinogenesis, as well as possible novel treatment options using histone methyltransferase inhibitors. PMID:24089088

  11. Quantifying the heritability of testicular germ cell tumour using both population-based and genomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, Kevin; Thomsen, Hauke; Mitchell, Jonathan S; Sundquist, Jan; Houlston, Richard S; Hemminki, Kari; Turnbull, Clare

    2015-09-09

    A sizable fraction of testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) risk is expected to be explained by heritable factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common SNPs associated with TGCT. It is however, unclear how much common variation there is left to be accounted for by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs and what contribution common genetic variation makes to the heritable risk of TGCT. We approached this question using two complimentary analytical techniques. We undertook a population-based analysis of the Swedish family-cancer database, through which we estimated that the heritability of TGCT at 48.9% (CI:47.2%-52.3%). We also applied Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis to 922 cases and 4,842 controls to estimate the heritability of TGCT. The heritability explained by known common risk SNPs identified by GWAS was 9.1%, whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was 37.4% (CI:27.6%-47.2%). These complementary findings indicate that the known TGCT SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and many additional common SNPs remain to be identified. The data also suggests that a fraction of the heritability of TGCT is likely to be explained by other classes of genetic variation, such as rare disease-causing alleles.

  12. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  13. Exposure to metal-working fluids in the automobile industry and the risk of male germ cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Thomas; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Mester, Birte; Langner, Ingo; Schmeisser, Nils; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    In a previous analysis of a case-control study of testicular cancer nested in a cohort of automobile workers, we observed an increased risk for testicular cancer among workers who had ever been involved in occupational metal-cutting tasks. We investigated whether this risk increase was due to exposure to metal-working fluids (MWF). Occupational exposure to MWF was assessed in detail using a job-specific questionnaire for metal-cutting work. We calculated ORs and associated 95% CIs individually matched for age (±2 years) and adjusted for a history of cryptorchidism by conditional logistic regression. The prevalence of exposure to MWF was 39.8% among cases and 40.1% among controls. For total germ cell tumours and seminomas we did not observe risk increases for metal-cutting tasks or occupational exposure to MWF (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.32 and OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.58 to 1.35, respectively). However, dermal exposure to oil-based MWF was associated with an increased risk for non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Dermal exposure to oil-based MWF for more than 5000 h showed particularly high risk estimates (OR 4.72; 95% CI 1.48 to 15.09). Long-term dermal exposure to oil-based MWF was a risk factor for the development of non-seminomatous testicular germ cell cancer. Possible measures to reduce exposure include the introduction of engineering control measures such as venting or enclosing of machines, and enforcing the use of personal protective equipment during metal cutting.

  14. Impact of Nrf2 on tumour growth and drug sensitivity in oncogenic K-ras-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiajia; Glorieux, Christophe; Liao, Jianwei; Chen, Ping; Lu, Wenhua; Liang, Zhenhao; Wen, Shijun; Hu, Yumin; Huang, Peng

    2018-06-01

    K-ras is one of the most common oncogenes in human cancers, and its aberrant activation may lead to malignant transformation associated with oxidative stress and activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 that regulates multiple detoxification enzymes. The purpose of this research was to use gene editing technology to evaluate the role of Nrf2 in affecting tumour growth and drug sensitivity of K-ras G12V -transformed cells. We showed that induction of K-ras G12V caused a significant activation of Nrf2 associated with increased expression of its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Interestingly, knock-out of Nrf2 by CRISPR/Cas9 in K-ras G12V -expressing cells only impacted the expression of NQO1 but not HO-1. We also found that Nrf2 knock-out caused high reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress, suppression of cell proliferation, increased apoptosis in vitro, and a decrease of tumour growth in vivo. Furthermore, abrogation of Nrf2 significantly increased the sensitivity of K-ras G12V cells to multiple anticancer agents including phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin. These results show that genetic abrogation of Nrf2 impairs the malignant phenotype of K-Ras G12V -transformed cells in vitro and in vivo, and demonstrates the critical role of Nrf2 in promoting cell survival and drug resistance in cells harbouring oncogenic K-ras. As such, inhibition of Nrf2 would be an attractive strategy to increase the therapeutic effect and overcome drug resistance in cancer with oncogenic K-ras activation.

  15. Co-acting gene networks predict TRAIL responsiveness of tumour cells with high accuracy.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Paul; Ortutay, Csaba; Gernon, Grainne; O'Connell, Enda; Seoighe, Cathal; Boyce, Susan; Serrano, Luis; Szegezdi, Eva

    2014-12-19

    Identification of differentially expressed genes from transcriptomic studies is one of the most common mechanisms to identify tumor biomarkers. This approach however is not well suited to identify interaction between genes whose protein products potentially influence each other, which limits its power to identify molecular wiring of tumour cells dictating response to a drug. Due to the fact that signal transduction pathways are not linear and highly interlinked, the biological response they drive may be better described by the relative amount of their components and their functional relationships than by their individual, absolute expression. Gene expression microarray data for 109 tumor cell lines with known sensitivity to the death ligand cytokine tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was used to identify genes with potential functional relationships determining responsiveness to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The machine learning technique Random Forest in the statistical environment "R" with backward elimination was used to identify the key predictors of TRAIL sensitivity and differentially expressed genes were identified using the software GeneSpring. Gene co-regulation and statistical interaction was assessed with q-order partial correlation analysis and non-rejection rate. Biological (functional) interactions amongst the co-acting genes were studied with Ingenuity network analysis. Prediction accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver operator curve using an independent dataset. We show that the gene panel identified could predict TRAIL-sensitivity with a very high degree of sensitivity and specificity (AUC=0·84). The genes in the panel are co-regulated and at least 40% of them functionally interact in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell death and cell survival, cellular differentiation and morphogenesis. Importantly, only 12% of the TRAIL-predictor genes were differentially expressed highlighting the

  16. Imatinib Mesylate Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects on Osteosarcoma Cells and Inhibits the Tumour Growth in Immunocompetent Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Benjamin; Charrier, Céline; Brion, Régis; Blanchard, Frederic; Redini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour characterized by osteoid production and/or osteolytic lesions of bone. A lack of response to chemotherapeutic treatments shows the importance of exploring new therapeutic methods. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, Novartis Pharma), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was originally developed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Several studies revealed that imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclast differentiation through the M-CSFR pathway and activates osteoblast differentiation through PDGFR pathway, two key cells involved in the vicious cycle controlling the tumour development. The present study investigated the in vitro effects of imatinib mesylate on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and migration ability of five osteosarcoma cell lines (human: MG-63, HOS; rat: OSRGA; mice: MOS-J, POS-1). Imatinib mesylate was also assessed as a curative and preventive treatment in two syngenic osteosarcoma models: MOS-J (mixed osteoblastic/osteolytic osteosarcoma) and POS-1 (undifferentiated osteosarcoma). Imatinib mesylate exhibited a dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in all cell lines studied. The drug induced a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in most cell lines, except for POS-1 and HOS cells that were blocked in the S phase. In addition, imatinib mesylate induced cell death and strongly inhibited osteosarcoma cell migration. In the MOS-J osteosarcoma model, oral administration of imatinib mesylate significantly inhibited the tumour development in both preventive and curative approaches. A phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array kit revealed that PDGFRα, among 7 other receptors (PDFGFRβ, Axl, RYK, EGFR, EphA2 and 10, IGF1R), appears as one of the main molecular targets for imatinib mesylate. In the light of the present study and the literature, it would be particularly interesting to revisit therapeutic evaluation of imatinib mesylate in osteosarcoma according to the tyrosine-kinase receptor status of patients

  17. Evaluation of the effects of swainsonine, captopril, tangeretin and nobiletin on the biological behaviour of brain tumour cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rooprai, H K; Kandanearatchi, A; Maidment, S L; Christidou, M; Trillo-Pazos, G; Dexter, D T; Rucklidge, G J; Widmer, W; Pilkington, G J

    2001-02-01

    Although intrinsic tumours of the brain seldom metastasize to distant sites, their diffuse, infiltrative-invasive growth within the brain generally precludes successful surgical and adjuvant therapy. Hence, attention has now focused on novel therapeutic approaches to combat brain tumours that include the use of anti-invasive and anti-proliferative agents. The effect of four anti-invasive agents, swainsonine (a locoweed alkaloid), captopril (an anti-hypertensive drug), tangeretin and nobiletin (both citrus flavonoids), were investigated on various parameters of brain tumour invasion such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion, migration, invasion and adhesion. A standard cytotoxicity assay was used to optimize working concentrations of the drugs on seven human brain tumour-derived cell lines of various histological type and grade of malignancy. A qualitative assessment by gelatin zymography revealed that the effect of these agents varied between the seven cell lines such that the low grade pilocytic astrocytoma was unaffected by three of the agents. In contrast, downregulation of the two gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was seen in the grade 3 astrocytoma irrespective of which agent was used. Generally, swainsonine was the least effective whereas the citrus flavonoids, particularly nobiletin, showed the greatest downregulation of secretion of the MMPs. Furthermore, captopril and nobiletin were most efficient at inhibiting invasion, migration and adhesion in four representative cell lines (an ependymoma, a grade II oligoastrocytoma, an anaplastic astrocytoma and a glioblastoma multiforme). Yet again, the effects of the four agents varied between the four cell lines. Nobiletin was, nevertheless, the most effective agent used in these assays. In conclusion, the differential effects seen on the various parameters studied by these putative anti-invasive agents may be the result of interference with MMPs and other mechanisms underlying the invasive phenotype. From these

  18. Masking of central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism by germ cell tumour in suprasellar--pineal region.

    PubMed

    Isa, S H Md; Wong, M; Khalid, B A K

    2006-12-01

    A patient with beta hCG-secreting germ cell carcinoma of the pineal and suprasellar regions presented with hydrocephalus, Parinaud's syndrome, hypopituitarism and polyuria. Central diabetes insipidus was strongly suspected although the water deprivation test was not diagnostic. The polyuria however, responded to ADH analogue when the hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism were treated. Pubertal development was evident and serum testosterone was normal despite the low FSH/LH, suggesting hCG stimulation of Leydig cells. This case illustrates that a beta hCG-germ cell tumour of the suprasellar region causing hypopituitarism can mask the presence of central diabetes insipidus and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

  19. Bilateral multifocal Warthin tumours.

    PubMed

    Deveer, Mehmet; Sahan, Murat; Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Celik, Ozgür Ilhan

    2013-05-22

    Warthin tumour, also known as papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum, is the second most frequent benign tumour of the parotid gland after pleomorphic adenoma. A 57-year-old man was referred to our hospital with bilateral buccal masses without pain. He presented with a 1-year history of the condition and stated that growth of the mass has accelerated during the last 6 months. Ultrasonography examination showed two heterogeneous solid masses. Axial contrast-enhanced CT image revealed bilateral heterogeneous solid masses. The masses showed enhancement after contrast administration (95 HU). Fine needle aspiration cytology was recommended for further analysis and typical benign features of Warthin tumour was obtained. Right parotid gland including the masses was resected completely. 5 weeks later superficial parotidectomy was performed to the left parotid gland. Histological examination revealed cystic tumour in the parenchyma of parotid gland, composed of prominent lymphoid stroma and large epithelial cells with oncocytic features covering it consistent with Warthin tumour.

  20. Transport and Golgi organisation protein 1 is a novel tumour progressive factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Kirita, Tadaaki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Nobuhiro; Kurihara, Miyako; Matsushima, Sayako; Bhawal, Ujjal K; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2014-08-01

    Transport and Golgi organisation protein 1 (TANGO), also known as MIA3, belongs to the melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) gene family. Although MIA acts as an oncogene, MIA2 and TANGO have a tumour-suppressive function in several malignancies; accordingly, the role and function of the MIA gene family in tumours remain controversial. Here the roles of TANGO were investigated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We analysed expression and function of TANGO in human OSCC cell lines. TANGO expression was also examined in 171 cases of primary OSCC by immunohistochemistry and statistically assessed the correlation between TANGO positivity and the clinicopathological parameters including vessel density. By TANGO knockdown in OSCC cells, the growth and invasion were repressed and apoptosis was induced. Activities of platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (PDGFB) and Neuropilin2 were inhibited by TANGO knockdown. TANGO immunoreactivity was detected in 35.1% (60/171) cases of OSCC. TANGO expression was strongly associated with tumour progression, nodal metastasis, clinical stage and number of blood or lymph vessels in OSCC. Patients showing TANGO-expression fared significantly worse disease-free survival than cases without TANGO expression. These findings suggest that TANGO might promote angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by upregulation of PDGFB and Neuropilin2 in OSCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclopentenyl cytosine increases gemcitabine radiosensitisation in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    van Bree, C; Rodermond, H M; Leen, R; Medema, J P; van Kuilenburg, A B P

    2008-01-01

    The deoxycytidine analogue 2′,2′-difluoro-2′-deoxycytidine (dFdC, gemcitabine) is a potent radiosensitiser, but has limited efficacy in combination with radiotherapy in patients with pancreatic cancer due to acute toxicity. We investigated whether cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC), targetting the ‘de novo' biosynthesis of cytidine triphosphate (CTP), could increase dFdC cytotoxicity alone or in combination with irradiation in a panel of human pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1, Miapaca-2, BxPC-3). To investigate the role of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), the rate-limiting enzyme in the activation of dFdC, human lung cancer cells without (dFdC-resistant SWg) and with an intact dCK gene (dFdC-sensitive SWp) were included. We found that CPEC (100–1000 nmol l−1) specifically reduced CTP levels in a dose-dependent manner that lasted up to 72 h in all cell lines. Preincubation with CPEC resulted in a dose-dependent increase in dFdC incorporated into the DNA only in dFdC-sensitive cells. Consequently, CPEC increased the effectiveness of dFdC (300 nmol l−1 for 4 h) only in dFdC-sensitive cells, which was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. We also found that CPEC enhanced the radiosensitivity of cells treated with dFdC (30–300 nmol l−1 for 4 h). These results indicate that CPEC enhances the cytotoxicity of dFdC alone and in combination with irradiation in several human tumour cell lines with an intact dCK gene. PMID:18349845

  2. Deregulation of PAX2 expression in renal cell tumours: mechanisms and potential use in differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Patrício, Patrícia; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Almeida, Mafalda; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Vieira, Joana; Dias, Paula Cristina; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Teixeira, Manuel R; Henrique, Rui; Jeronimo, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Expression of PAX2 (Paired-box 2) is suppressed through promoter methylation at the later stages of embryonic development, but eventually reactivated during carcinogenesis. Pax-2 is commonly expressed in the most prevalent renal cell tumour (RCT) subtypes—clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC) and oncocytoma—but not in chromophobe RCC (chrRCC), which frequently displays chromosome 10 loss (to which PAX2 is mapped). Herein, we assessed the epigenetic and/or genetic alterations affecting PAX2 expression in RCTs and evaluated its potential as biomarker. We tested 120 RCTs (30 of each main subtype) and four normal kidney tissues. Pax-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and PAX2 mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. PAX2 promoter methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. Chromosome 10 and PAX2 copy number alterations were determined by FISH. Pax-2 immunoexpression was significantly lower in chrRCC compared to other RCT subtypes. Using a 10% immunoexpression cut-off, Pax-2 immunoreactivity discriminated chrRCC from oncocytoma with 67% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PAX2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in chrRCC, compared to ccRCC, pRCC and oncocytoma, and transcript levels correlated with immunoexpression. Whereas no promoter methylation was found in RCTs or normal kidney, 69% of chrRCC displayed chromosome 10 monosomy, correlating with Pax-2 immunoexpression. We concluded that Pax-2 expression might be used as an ancillary tool to discriminate chrRCC from oncocytomas with overlapping morphological features. The biological rationale lies on the causal relation between Pax-2 expression and chromosome 10 monosomy, but not PAX2 promoter methylation, in chrRCC. PMID:23890189

  3. Deregulation of PAX2 expression in renal cell tumours: mechanisms and potential use in differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Patrício, Patrícia; Ramalho-Carvalho, João; Costa-Pinheiro, Pedro; Almeida, Mafalda; Barros-Silva, João Diogo; Vieira, Joana; Dias, Paula Cristina; Lobo, Francisco; Oliveira, Jorge; Teixeira, Manuel R; Henrique, Rui; Jeronimo, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Expression of PAX2 (Paired-box 2) is suppressed through promoter methylation at the later stages of embryonic development, but eventually reactivated during carcinogenesis. Pax-2 is commonly expressed in the most prevalent renal cell tumour (RCT) subtypes-clear cell RCC (ccRCC), papillary RCC (pRCC) and oncocytoma--but not in chromophobe RCC (chrRCC), which frequently displays chromosome 10 loss (to which PAX2 is mapped). Herein, we assessed the epigenetic and/or genetic alterations affecting PAX2 expression in RCTs and evaluated its potential as biomarker. We tested 120 RCTs (30 of each main subtype) and four normal kidney tissues. Pax-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and PAX2 mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. PAX2 promoter methylation status was assessed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. Chromosome 10 and PAX2 copy number alterations were determined by FISH. Pax-2 immunoexpression was significantly lower in chrRCC compared to other RCT subtypes. Using a 10% immunoexpression cut-off, Pax-2 immunoreactivity discriminated chrRCC from oncocytoma with 67% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PAX2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in chrRCC, compared to ccRCC, pRCC and oncocytoma, and transcript levels correlated with immunoexpression. Whereas no promoter methylation was found in RCTs or normal kidney, 69% of chrRCC displayed chromosome 10 monosomy, correlating with Pax-2 immunoexpression. We concluded that Pax-2 expression might be used as an ancillary tool to discriminate chrRCC from oncocytomas with overlapping morphological features. The biological rationale lies on the causal relation between Pax-2 expression and chromosome 10 monosomy, but not PAX2 promoter methylation, in chrRCC. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Induction of apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells via p53 activation by a novel small-molecule MDM2 inhibitor - LQFM030.

    PubMed

    da Mota, Mariana F; Cortez, Alane P; Benfica, Polyana L; Rodrigues, Bruna Dos S; Castro, Thalyta F; Macedo, Larissa M; Castro, Carlos H; Lião, Luciano M; de Carvalho, Flávio S; Romeiro, Luiz A S; Menegatti, Ricardo; Verli, Hugo; Villavicencio, Bianca; Valadares, Marize C

    2016-09-01

    The activation of the p53 pathway through the inhibition of MDM2 has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy against tumours. A series of cis-imidazoline analogues, termed nutlins, were reported to displace the recombinant p53 protein from its complex with MDM2 by binding to MDM2 in the p53 pocket, and exhibited an antitumour activity both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumour properties of LQFM030 (2), a nutlin analogue created by employing the strategy of molecular simplification. LQFM030 (2) cytotoxicity was evaluated in Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells, p53 wild type, by the trypan blue exclusion test, and the mechanisms involved in EAT cell death were investigated by light and fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Our results demonstrate that LQFM030 has dose-dependent antiproliferative activity and cytotoxic activity on EAT cells, induces the accumulation of p53 protein and promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. p53 gene transcription was unaffected by LQFM030 (2); however, MDM2 mRNA increased and MDM2 protein decreased. These results suggest that the small-molecule p53 activator LQFM030 (2) has the potential for further development as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Saponins extracted from by-product of Asparagus officinalis L. suppress tumour cell migration and invasion through targeting Rho GTPase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Liu, Yali; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng

    2013-04-01

    The inedible bottom part (~30-40%) of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears is usually discarded as waste. However, since this by-product has been reported to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals, it might be utilisable as a supplement in foods or natural drugs for its therapeutic effects. In this study it was identifed that saponins from old stems of asparagus (SSA) exerted potential inhibitory activity on tumour growth and metastasis. SSA suppressed cell viability of breast, colon and pancreatic cancers in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 809.42 to 1829.96 µg mL(-1). However, SSA was more functional in blocking cell migration and invasion as compared with its cytotoxic effect, with an effective inhibitory concentration of 400 µg mL(-1). A mechanistic study showed that SSA markedly increased the activities of Cdc42 and Rac1 and decreased the activity of RhoA in cancer cells. SSA inhibits tumour cell motility through modulating the Rho GTPase signalling pathway, suggesting a promising use of SSA as a supplement in healthcare foods and natural drugs for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Dissecting the molecular pathways of (testicular) germ cell tumour pathogenesis; from initiation to treatment-resistance.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, L H J; Gillis, A J M; Stoop, H; Biermann, K; Oosterhuis, J W

    2011-08-01

    Human type II germ cell tumours (GCTs) originate from an embryonic germ cell, either as a primordial germ cell or gonocyte. This start determines the biological as well as clinical characteristics of this type of cancer, amongst others their totipotency as well as their overall (exceptional) sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The histology of the precursor lesion, either carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, depends on the level of testicularization (i.e. testis formation) of the gonad. The impact of either intrinsic (genetic) - and environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis is demonstrated by disorders of sex development as well as testicular dysgenesis syndrome as risk factors, including cryptorchidism, hypospadias and disturbed fertility as parameters. This knowledge allows identification of individuals at risk for development of this type of cancer, being a population of interest for screening. Factors known to regulate pluripotency during embryogenesis are proven to be of diagnostic value for type II GCTs, including OCT3/4, even applicable for non-invasive screening. In addition, presence of stem cell factor, also known as KITLG, allows distinction between delayed matured germ cells and the earliest stages of malignant transformation. This is of special interest because of the identified association between development of type II GCTs of the testis and a limited number of single nucleotide polymorphisms, including some likely related to KITL. Transition from the precursor lesion to an invasive cancer is associated with gain of the short arm of chromosome 12, in which multiple genes might be involved, including KRAS2 and possibly NANOG (pseudogenes). While most precursor lesions will progress to an invasive cancer, only a limited number of cancers will develop treatment resistance. Putative explanatory mechanisms are identified, including presence of microsatellite instability, BRAF mutations, apoptosis suppression and p21 sub-cellular localization. It

  7. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) directly influences platinum drug chemosensitivity in ovarian tumour cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sawers, L; Ferguson, M J; Ihrig, B R; Young, H C; Chakravarty, P; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2014-09-09

    Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity. Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT-PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays. Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers. Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

  8. Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) directly influences platinum drug chemosensitivity in ovarian tumour cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Sawers, L; Ferguson, M J; Ihrig, B R; Young, H C; Chakravarty, P; Wolf, C R; Smith, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity. Methods: Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT–PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays. Results: Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers. Conclusions: Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. PMID:25010864

  9. Introducing a novel highly prognostic grading scheme based on tumour budding and cell nest size for squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Jesinghaus, Moritz; Strehl, Johanna; Boxberg, Melanie; Brühl, Frido; Wenzel, Adrian; Konukiewitz, Björn; Schlitter, Anna M; Steiger, Katja; Warth, Arne; Schnelzer, Andreas; Kiechle, Marion; Beckmann, Matthias W; Noske, Aur