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Sample records for increases vascular permeability

  1. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lockette, W.; Brennaman, B. )

    1990-12-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Since elevations in plasma ANF are found in clinical syndromes associated with edema, and since space motion sickness induced by microgravity is associated with an increase in central blood volume and facial edema, we determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of 125I-albumin and 14C-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of 125I-albumin, but not 14C-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness.

  2. Atrial natriuretic factor increases vascular permeability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockette, Warren; Brennaman, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An increase in central blood volume in microgravity may result in increased plasma levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). In this study, it was determined whether ANF increases capillary permeability to plasma protein. Conscious, bilaterally nephrectomized male rats were infused with either saline, ANF + saline, or hexamethonium + saline over 2 h following bolus injections of (I-125)-albumin and (C-14)-dextran of similar molecular size. Blood pressure was monitored, and serial determinations of hematocrits were made. Animals infused with 1.0 microg/kg per min ANF had significantly higher hematocrits than animals infused with saline vehicle. Infusion of ANF increased the extravasation of (I-125)-albumin, but not (C-14)-dextran from the intravascular compartment. ANF also induced a depressor response in rats, but the change in blood pressure did not account for changes in capillary permeability to albumin; similar depressor responses induced by hexamethonium were not accompanied by increased extravasation of albumin from the intravascular compartment. ANF may decrease plasma volume by increasing permeability to albumin, and this effect of ANF may account for some of the signs and symptoms of space motion sickness.

  3. Increased lung vascular permeability after pancreatitis and trypsin infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Tahamont, M. V.; Barie, P. S.; Blumenstock, F. A.; Hussain, M. H.; Malik, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the role of proteases in mediating lung vascular injury after acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Studies were made in sheep in which pulmonary lymph was collected for assessment of the changes in transvascular fluid and protein exchange. The induction of pancreatitis by injection of trypsin and sodium taurocholate into the pancreas resulted in increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance (lymph flow x lymph-to-plasma protein concentration ratio). The pulmonary vascular pressures did not change significantly after pancreatitis, indicating that the increases in pulmonary lymph flow and protein clearance were due to increased pulmonary endothelial permeability. The response to pancreatitis was also characterized by decreases in concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and granulocytes. Pulmonary leukostasis was a common morphologic feature in this group. In another group, an intravenous infusion of trypsin, which produced decreases in antiprotease activity comparable to those observed after pancreatitis, also resulted in increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance. These increases in lymph fluxes were comparable to those observed after pancreatitis and were also associated with decreases in concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and granulocytes. Pulmonary leukostasis was evident in this group upon histologic examination. In a third group, pretreatment with Trasylol prevented the increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance after pancreatitis, suggesting that the pancreatitis-induced pulmonary vascular injury is the result of the release of proteases. The results indicate a common pulmonary vascular response to acute pancreatitis and trypsin infusion. The release of proteases into the circulation after acute pancreatitis may be the initiating event mediating the pulmonary vascular injury. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figures 11 and 12 PMID:6181692

  4. Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular protein permeability in the dog

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, C.H.; Dauber, I.M.; Weil, J.V.

    1986-10-01

    Endotoxin increases pulmonary vascular permeability consistently in some species but fails to reliably cause injury in the dog. We wondered whether this phenomenon depended on the method of injury assessment, as others have relied on edema measurement; we quantified injury by monitoring the rate of extravascular protein accumulation. /sup 113m/In-labeled protein and /sup 99m/Tc-labeled erythrocytes were injected into anesthetized dogs and monitored by an externally placed lung probe. A protein leak index, the rate of extravascular protein accumulation, was derived from the rate of increase in lung protein counts corrected for changes in intravascular protein activity. After administration of Salmonella enteriditis endotoxin (4 micrograms/kg), the protein leak index was elevated 2.5-fold (41.1 +/- 4.6 X 10(-4) min-1) compared with control (16.0 +/- 2.8 X 10(-4) min-1). In contrast, wet-to-dry weight ratios failed to increase after endotoxin (4.6 +/- 0.8 vs. control values of 4.2 +/- 0.5 g/g dry bloodless lung). However, we observed that endotoxin increased lung dry weight (per unit body weight), which may have attenuated the change in wet-to-dry weight ratios. To determine whether low microvascular pressures following endotoxin attenuated edema formation, we increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures in five dogs by saline infusion, which caused an increase in wet-to-dry weight ratios following endotoxin but no change in the five controls. We conclude that low dose endotoxin causes pulmonary vascular protein leak in the dog while edema formation is minimal or absent.

  5. Endothelial Domes Encapsulate Adherent Neutrophils and Minimize Increases in Vascular Permeability in Paracellular and Transcellular Emigration

    PubMed Central

    Phillipson, Mia; Kaur, Jaswinder; Colarusso, Pina; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Kubes, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Local edema, a cardinal sign of inflammation associates closely with neutrophil emigration. Neutrophil emigration has been described to occur primarily through endothelial junctions (paracellular) and more rarely directly through endothelial cells (transcellular). Recently, we reported that unlike in wild-type (wt) mice, Mac-1-/- (CD11b) neutrophils predominantly emigrated transcellularly and was significantly delayed taking 20–30 min longer than the paracellular emigration (wt). In the present study we noted significant anatomical disruption of the endothelium and hypothesized that transcellular emigration would greatly increase vascular permeability. Surprisingly, despite profound disruption of the endothelial barrier as the neutrophils moved through the cells, the changes in vascular permeability during transcellular emigration (Mac-1-/-) were not increased more than in wt mice. Instead increased vascular permeability completely tracked the number of emigrated cells and as such, permeability changes were delayed in Mac-1-/- mice. However, by 60 min neutrophils from both sets of mice were emigrating in large numbers. Electron-microscopy and spinning disk multichannel fluorescence confocal microscopy revealed endothelial docking structures that progressed to dome-like structures completely covering wt and Mac-1-/- neutrophils. These domes completely enveloped the emigrating neutrophils in both wt and Mac-1-/- mice making the mode of emigration underneath these structures extraneous to barrier function. In conclusion, predominantly paracellular versus predominantly transcellular emigration does not affect vascular barrier integrity as endothelial dome-like structures retain barrier function. PMID:18297135

  6. Endothelial domes encapsulate adherent neutrophils and minimize increases in vascular permeability in paracellular and transcellular emigration.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, Mia; Kaur, Jaswinder; Colarusso, Pina; Ballantyne, Christie M; Kubes, Paul

    2008-02-20

    Local edema, a cardinal sign of inflammation associates closely with neutrophil emigration. Neutrophil emigration has been described to occur primarily through endothelial junctions (paracellular) and more rarely directly through endothelial cells (transcellular). Recently, we reported that unlike in wild-type (wt) mice, Mac-1-/- (CD11b) neutrophils predominantly emigrated transcellularly and was significantly delayed taking 20-30 min longer than the paracellular emigration (wt). In the present study we noted significant anatomical disruption of the endothelium and hypothesized that transcellular emigration would greatly increase vascular permeability. Surprisingly, despite profound disruption of the endothelial barrier as the neutrophils moved through the cells, the changes in vascular permeability during transcellular emigration (Mac-1-/-) were not increased more than in wt mice. Instead increased vascular permeability completely tracked the number of emigrated cells and as such, permeability changes were delayed in Mac-1-/- mice. However, by 60 min neutrophils from both sets of mice were emigrating in large numbers. Electron-microscopy and spinning disk multichannel fluorescence confocal microscopy revealed endothelial docking structures that progressed to dome-like structures completely covering wt and Mac-1-/- neutrophils. These domes completely enveloped the emigrating neutrophils in both wt and Mac-1-/- mice making the mode of emigration underneath these structures extraneous to barrier function. In conclusion, predominantly paracellular versus predominantly transcellular emigration does not affect vascular barrier integrity as endothelial dome-like structures retain barrier function.

  7. Vascular permeability, vascular hyperpermeability and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Janice A.; Benjamin, Laura; Zeng, Huiyan; Dvorak, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The vascular system has the critical function of supplying tissues with nutrients and clearing waste products. To accomplish these goals, the vasculature must be sufficiently permeable to allow the free, bidirectional passage of small molecules and gases and, to a lesser extent, of plasma proteins. Physiologists and many vascular biologists differ as to the definition of vascular permeability and the proper methodology for its measurement. We review these conflicting views, finding that both provide useful but complementary information. Vascular permeability by any measure is dramatically increased in acute and chronic inflammation, cancer, and wound healing. This hyperpermeability is mediated by acute or chronic exposure to vascular permeabilizing agents, particularly vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF, VEGF-A). We demonstrate that three distinctly different types of vascular permeability can be distinguished, based on the different types of microvessels involved, the composition of the extravasate, and the anatomic pathways by which molecules of different size cross-vascular endothelium. These are the basal vascular permeability (BVP) of normal tissues, the acute vascular hyperpermeability (AVH) that occurs in response to a single, brief exposure to VEGF-A or other vascular permeabilizing agents, and the chronic vascular hyperpermeability (CVH) that characterizes pathological angiogenesis. Finally, we list the numerous (at least 25) gene products that different authors have found to affect vascular permeability in variously engineered mice and classify them with respect to their participation, as far as possible, in BVP, AVH and CVH. Further work will be required to elucidate the signaling pathways by which each of these molecules, and others likely to be discovered, mediate the different types of vascular permeability. PMID:18293091

  8. Protective effect of Anzer honey against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in the rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Asli; Kolankaya, Dürdane

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of Anzer honey on ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability in rats. Evan's Blue (EB) dye, administered intracardiacly and extravasation of EB into the stomach, served as an indicator of vascular permeability following exposure to alcohol. Ethanol was given orally to the ethanol group for 90 days, and N-etylmaleimide (NEM) was given subcutaneously to the NEM group, and we observed increased extravasation of EB in the stomach in both groups. For this reason, we used NEM as a positive control for ethanol. Anzer honey, which contains 25.44 mg/g ascorbic acid, was given to the honey+ethanol group orally 30 min before beginning the 90-day ethanol administration. The mean amount of EB that leaked into the stomach of rats in the ethanol group and the NEM group was higher than that of the control group. Furthermore, if compared to the control, EB values in the stomachs were significantly reduced when receiving honey before administration of ethanol in rats. Histopathologically, the incidence and severity of gastric mucosal congestion were significantly reduced in the honey+ethanol group when compared to the ethanol group. These result indicate that Anzer honey is able to protect the stomach of the rat against ethanol-induced increased vascular permeability, which may be correlated with the ascorbic acid content.

  9. Lack of R-Ras Leads to Increased Vascular Permeability in Ischemic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Vähätupa, Maria; Prince, Stuart; Vataja, Suvi; Mertimo, Teija; Kataja, Marko; Kinnunen, Kati; Marjomäki, Varpu; Uusitalo, Hannu; Komatsu, Masanobu; Järvinen, Tero A.H.; Uusitalo–Järvinen, Hannele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The role of R-Ras in retinal angiogenesis and vascular permeability was evaluated in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model using R-Ras knockout (KO) mice and in human diabetic neovascular membranes. Methods Mice deficient for R-Ras and their wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to 75% oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and then returned to room air. At P17 retinal vascularization was examined from whole mounts, and retinal vascular permeability was studied using Miles assay. Real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expression of R-Ras in retina during development or in the OIR model. The degree of pericyte coverage and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin expression on WT and R-Ras KO retinal blood vessels was quantified using confocal microscopy. The correlation of R-Ras with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and human serum albumin on human proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Results In retina, R-Ras expression was mostly restricted to the vasculature. Retinal vessels in the R-Ras KO mice were significantly more permeable than WT controls in the OIR model. A significant reduction in the direct physical contact between pericytes and blood vessel endothelium as well as reduced VE-cadherin immunostaining was found in R-Ras–deficient mice. In human proliferative diabetic retinopathy neovascular membranes, R-Ras expression negatively correlated with increased vascular leakage and expression of VEGFR2, a marker of blood vessel immaturity. Conclusions Our results suggest that R-Ras has a role in controlling retinal vessel maturation and stabilization in ischemic retinopathy and provides a potential target for pharmacologic manipulation to treat diabetic retinopathy. PMID:27654416

  10. Increased pulmonary vascular permeability as a cause of re-expansion edema in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlin, D.J.; Nessly, M.L.; Cheney, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism(s) underlying re-expansion edema, we measured the concentration of labeled albumin (RISA) in the extravascular, extracellular water (EVECW) of the lung as a measure of pulmonary vascular permeability. Re-expansion edema was first induced by rapid re-expansion of rabbit lungs that had been collapsed for 1 wk by pneumothorax. The RISA in EVECW was expressed as a fraction of its plasma concentration: (RISA)L/(RISA)PL. The volume of EVECW (ml/gm dry lung) was measured using a /sup 24/Na indicator. Results in re-expansion edema were compared with normal control lungs and with oleic acid edema as a model of permeability edema. In re-expanded lungs, EVECW (3.41 +/- SD 1.24 ml/g) and (RISA)L/(RISA)PL 0.84 +/- SD 0.15) were significantly increased when compared with normal control lungs (2.25 +/- 0.41 ml/g and 0.51 +/- 0.20, respectively). Results in oleic acid edema (5.66 +/- 2.23 ml/g and 0.84 +/- 0.23) were similar to re-expansion edema. This suggested that re-expansion edema is due to increased pulmonary vascular permeability caused by mechanical stresses applied to the lung during re-expansion.

  11. Suilysin Stimulates the Release of Heparin Binding Protein from Neutrophils and Increases Vascular Permeability in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaolong; Xie, Wenlong; Wu, Kai; Li, Ping; Ren, Zhiqiang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Lv, Qingyu; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Most of the deaths that occurred during two large outbreaks of Streptococcus suis infections in 1998 and 2005 in China were caused by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which is characterized by increased vascular permeability. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is thought to mediate the vascular leakage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the release of HBP and the vascular leakage induced by S. suis. Significantly higher serum levels of HBP were detected in Chinese patients with STSS than in patients with meningitis or healthy controls. Suilysin (SLY) is an exotoxin secreted by the highly virulent strain 05ZYH33, and it stimulated the release of HBP from the polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mediated vascular leakage in mice. The release of HBP induced by SLY was caused by a calcium influx-dependent degranulation. Analyses using a pharmacological approach revealed that the release of HBP induced by SLY was related to Toll-like receptor 4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. It was also dependent on a G protein-coupled seven-membrane spanning receptor. The results of this study provide new insights into the vascular leakage in STSS associated with non-Group A streptococci, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for STSS associated with S. suis. PMID:27617009

  12. Resistance of essential fatty acid-deficient rats to endotoxin-induced increases in vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Li, E.J.; Cook, J.A.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Rokach, J.; Halushka, P.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Resistance to endotoxin in essential fatty acid-deficient (EFAD) rats is associated with reduced synthesis of certain arachidonic acid metabolites. It was hypothesized that EFAD rats would manifest decreased vascular permeability changes during endotoxemia as a consequence of reduced arachidonic acid metabolism. To test this hypothesis, changes in hematocrit (HCT) and mesenteric localization rate of technetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and red blood cells (99mTc-RBC) were assessed in EFAD and normal rats using gamma-camera imaging. Thirty minutes after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin, EFAD rats exhibited less hemoconcentration as determined by % HCT than normal rats. Endotoxin caused a less severe change in permeability index in the splanchnic region in EFAD rats than in normal rats (1.2 +/- 0.6 x 10(-3)min-1 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.7 x 10(-3)min-1 respectively, P less than 0.05). In contrast to 99mTc-HSA, mesenteric localization of 99mTc-RBC was not changed by endotoxin in control or EFAD rats. Supplementation with ethyl-arachidonic acid did not enhance susceptibility of EFAD rats to endotoxin-induced splanchnic permeability to 99mTc-HSA. Leukotrienes have been implicated as mediators of increased vascular permeability in endotoxin shock. Since LTC3 formation has been reported to be increased in EFA deficiency, we hypothesized that LTC3 may be less potent than LTC4. Thus the effect of LTC3 on mean arterial pressure and permeability was compared to LTC4 in normal rats. LTC3-induced increases in peak mean arterial pressure were less than LTC4 at 10 micrograms/kg (39 +/- 5 mm Hg vs. 58 +/- 4 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05) and at 20 micrograms/kg (56 +/- 4 mm Hg vs. 75 +/- 2 mm Hg respectively, P less than 0.05). LY171883 (30 mg/kg), an LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, attenuated the pressor effect of LTC4, LTD4, and LTC3.

  13. Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Lu, J; Ling, E A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factors that may be involved in altering the function of pineal gland in hypoxic conditions. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia and the pineal gland was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS) at 3 hr-14 days after hypoxic exposure by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS was observed in response to hypoxia. VEGF concentrations as determined by enzyme immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) production measured by colorimetric assay were significantly higher after hypoxic exposure when compared with the controls. Melatonin content of the pineal gland, as determined by ELISA, was significantly reduced after the hypoxic exposure. Dilated blood vessels expressing eNOS were observed in hypoxic rats. Cells immunoreactive for VEGF were identified as the astrocytes whereas those immunoreactive for iNOS were pinealocytes and macrophages. Our findings indicate that excess production of VEGF and NO in pineal gland in response to hypoxia may be involved in increased vascular permeability as evidenced by an enhanced leakage of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RhIC). The increased vascular permeability may allow free access of serum-derived substances in the pineal gland that may affect the secretory function of the pinealocytes. Administration of exogenous melatonin may be beneficial as it reduced VEGF concentration and NO production significantly in hypoxic rats, and leakage of RhIC was concomitantly reduced.

  14. Shed GP of Ebola Virus Triggers Immune Activation and Increased Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Pérez, Beatriz; Volchkova, Valentina A.; Dolnik, Olga; Lawrence, Philip; Volchkov, Viktor E.

    2014-01-01

    During Ebola virus (EBOV) infection a significant amount of surface glycoprotein GP is shed from infected cells in a soluble form due to cleavage by cellular metalloprotease TACE. Shed GP and non-structural secreted glycoprotein sGP, both expressed from the same GP gene, have been detected in the blood of human patients and experimentally infected animals. In this study we demonstrate that shed GP could play a particular role during EBOV infection. In effect it binds and activates non-infected dendritic cells and macrophages inducing the secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1β, IL6, IL8, IL12p40, and IL1-RA, IL10). Activation of these cells by shed GP correlates with the increase in surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. Contrary to shed GP, secreted sGP activates neither DC nor macrophages while it could bind DCs. In this study, we show that shed GP activity is likely mediated through cellular toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and is dependent on GP glycosylation. Treatment of cells with anti-TLR4 antibody completely abolishes shed GP-induced activation of cells. We also demonstrate that shed GP activity is negated upon addition of mannose-binding sera lectin MBL, a molecule known to interact with sugar arrays present on the surface of different microorganisms. Furthermore, we highlight the ability of shed GP to affect endothelial cell function both directly and indirectly, demonstrating the interplay between shed GP, systemic cytokine release and increased vascular permeability. In conclusion, shed GP released from virus-infected cells could activate non-infected DCs and macrophages causing the massive release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and effect vascular permeability. These activities could be at the heart of the excessive and dysregulated inflammatory host reactions to infection and thus contribute to high virus pathogenicity. PMID:25412102

  15. Increased vascular permeability, angiogenesis and wound healing induced by the serum of natural latex of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Ricardo José; Maurício, Vanessa Beatriz; Teixeira, Larissa de Bortolli; Lachat, João José; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2010-05-01

    Increases in vascular permeability and angiogenesis are crucial events to wound repair, tumoral growth and revascularization of tissues submitted to ischemia. An increased vascular permeability allows a variety of cytokines and growth factors to reach the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, the angiogenesis supply tissues with a wide variety of nutrients and is also important to metabolites clearance. It has been suggested that the natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis showed wound healing properties and angiogenic activity. Thus, the purpose of this work was to characterize its angiogenic activity and its effects on vascular permeability and wound healing. The serum fraction of the latex was separated from the rubber with reduction of the pH. The activity of the dialyzed serum fraction on the vascular permeability injected in subcutaneous tissue was assayed according Mile's method. The angiogenic activity was determined using a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay and its effects on the wound-healing process was determined by the rabbit ear dermal ulcer model. The serum fraction showed evident angiogenic effect and it was effective in enhancing vascular permeability. In dermal ulcers, this material significantly accelerated wound healing. Moreover, the serum fraction boiled and treated with proteases lost these activities. These results are in accordance with the enhancement of wound healing observed in clinical trials carried out with a biomembrane prepared with the same natural latex.

  16. Platelets can enhance vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Nathalie; Paré, Alexandre; Farndale, Richard W; Schumacher, H Ralph; Nigrovic, Peter A; Lacroix, Steve; Boilard, Eric

    2012-08-09

    Platelets survey blood vessels, searching for endothelial damage and preventing loss of vascular integrity. However, there are circumstances where vascular permeability increases, suggesting that platelets sometimes fail to fulfill their expected function. Human inflammatory arthritis is associated with tissue edema attributed to enhanced permeability of the synovial microvasculature. Murine studies have suggested that such vascular leak facilitates entry of autoantibodies and may thereby promote joint inflammation. Whereas platelets typically help to promote microvascular integrity, we examined the role of platelets in synovial vascular permeability in murine experimental arthritis. Using an in vivo model of autoimmune arthritis, we confirmed the presence of endothelial gaps in inflamed synovium. Surprisingly, permeability in the inflamed joints was abrogated if the platelets were absent. This effect was mediated by platelet serotonin accumulated via the serotonin transporter and could be antagonized using serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. As opposed to the conventional role of platelets to microvascular leakage, this demonstration that platelets are capable of amplifying and maintaining permeability adds to the rapidly growing list of unexpected functions for platelets.

  17. Arsenite induces endothelial cell permeability increase through a reactive oxygen species-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lingzhi; Shi, Honglian

    2010-11-15

    As a potent environmental oxidative stressor, arsenic exposure has been reported to exacerbate cardiovascular diseases and increase vascular endothelial cell monolayer permeability. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is not well understood. In this paper, we test our hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression may play an important role in an arsenic-caused increase of endothelial cell monolayer permeability. The mouse brain vascular endothelial cell bEnd3 monolayer was exposed to arsenite for 1, 3, and 6 days. The monolayer permeability, VEGF protein release, and ROS generation were determined. In addition, VE-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), two membrane structure proteins, were immunostained to elucidate the effects of arsenite on the cell-cell junction. The roles of ROS and VEGF in arsenite-induced permeability was determined by inhibiting ROS with antioxidants and immuno-depleting VEGF with a VEGF antibody. We observed that arsenite increased bEnd3 monolayer permeability, elevated the production of cellular ROS, and increased VEGF release. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also found in cells treated with arsenite. Furthermore, both antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine and tempol) and the VEGF antibody treatments significantly lowered the arsenite-induced permeability of the bEnd3 monolayer as well as VEGF expression. VE-cadherin and ZO-1 disruptions were also diminished by N-acetyl cysteine and the VEGF antibody. Our data suggest that the increase in VEGF expression caused by ROS may play an important role in the arsenite-induced increase in endothelial cell permeability.

  18. Viperid Envenomation Wound Exudate Contributes to Increased Vascular Permeability via a DAMPs/TLR-4 Mediated Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rucavado, Alexandra; Nicolau, Carolina A.; Escalante, Teresa; Kim, Junho; Herrera, Cristina; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    Viperid snakebite envenomation is characterized by inflammatory events including increase in vascular permeability. A copious exudate is generated in tissue injected with venom, whose proteomics analysis has provided insights into the mechanisms of venom-induced tissue damage. Hereby it is reported that wound exudate itself has the ability to induce increase in vascular permeability in the skin of mice. Proteomics analysis of exudate revealed the presence of cytokines and chemokines, together with abundant damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) resulting from both proteolysis of extracellular matrix and cellular lysis. Moreover, significant differences in the amounts of cytokines/chemokines and DAMPs were detected between exudates collected 1 h and 24 h after envenomation, thus highlighting a complex temporal dynamic in the composition of exudate. Pretreatment of mice with Eritoran, an antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), significantly reduced the exudate-induced increase in vascular permeability, thus suggesting that DAMPs might be acting through this receptor. It is hypothesized that an “Envenomation-induced DAMPs cycle of tissue damage” may be operating in viperid snakebite envenomation through which venom-induced tissue damage generates a variety of DAMPs which may further expand tissue alterations. PMID:27886127

  19. Vascular remodeling alters adhesion protein and cytoskeleton reactions to inflammatory stimuli resulting in enhanced permeability increases in rat venules.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; He, Pingnian

    2012-10-01

    Vascular remodeling has been implicated in many inflammation-involved diseases. This study aims to investigate the microvascular remodeling-associated alterations in cell-cell adhesion and cytoskeleton reactions to inflammatory stimuli and their impact on microvessel permeability. Experiments were conducted in individually perfused rat mesenteric venules. Microvessel permeability was determined by measuring hydraulic conductivity (Lp), and endothelial intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca(2+)](i), was measured in fura-2-perfused vessels. Alterations in VE-cadherin and F-actin arrangement were examined by confocal imaging. Vascular wall cellular composition and structural changes were evaluated by electron microscopy. Vessels exposed to platelet activating factor (PAF) on day 1 were reevaluated 3 days later in rats that had undergone survival surgery. Initial PAF exposure and surgical disturbance increased microvascular wall thickness along with perivascular cell proliferation and altered F-actin arrangement. Although basal permeability was not changed, upon reexposure to PAF, peak endothelial [Ca(2+)](i) was augmented and the peak Lp was 9.3 ± 1.7 times higher than that of day 1. In contrast to patterns of PAF-induced stress fiber formation and VE-cadherin redistribution observed in day 1 vessels, the day 4 vessels at the potentiated Lp peak exhibited wide separations of VE-cadherin between endothelial cells and striking stress fibers throughout the vascular walls. Confocal images and ultrastructural micrographs also revealed that the largely separated VE-cadherin and endothelial gaps were completely covered by F-actin bundles in extended pericyte processes at the PAF-induced Lp peak. These results indicate that inflammation-induced vascular remodeling increased endothelial susceptibility to inflammatory stimuli with augmented Ca(2+) response resulting in upregulated contractility and potentiated permeability increase. Weakened adhesions between the endothelial

  20. Increased vascular permeability in rat nasal mucosa induced by substance P and stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive trigeminal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lundblad, L; Saria, A; Lundberg, J M; Anggård, A

    1983-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the maxillary branches of the trigeminal nerve induced an increase in vascular permeability to macromolecules and an interstitial edema in the nasal mucosa of the rat, as indicated by extravasation of Evans blue. In animals that had been treated neonatally with capsaicin, the effect of trigeminal nerve stimulation was abolished. Local application of capsaicin or substance P (SP) also induced a significant Evans blue extravasation in the nasal mucosa. In capsaicin-pretreated animals the effect of SP was still present, while the permeability increase induced by capsaicin was abolished. In conclusion, chemogenic irritation of the nasal mucosa by capsaicin induces edema probably via a local axon reflex inducing release of SP. Capsaicin-sensitive SP-containing afferents in the nasal mucosa may also be involved in the pathogenesis of nasal congestion seen in various types of rhinitis.

  1. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik B W; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-10-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy.

  2. Vascular permeability in cerebral cavernous malformations

    PubMed Central

    Mikati, Abdul G; Khanna, Omaditya; Zhang, Lingjiao; Girard, Romuald; Shenkar, Robert; Guo, Xiaodong; Shah, Akash; Larsson, Henrik BW; Tan, Huan; Li, Luying; Wishnoff, Matthew S; Shi, Changbin; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the familial form of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are haploinsufficient for the CCM1, CCM2, or CCM3 gene. Loss of corresponding CCM proteins increases RhoA kinase-mediated endothelial permeability in vitro, and in mouse brains in vivo. A prospective case-controlled observational study investigated whether the brains of human subjects with familial CCM show vascular hyperpermeability by dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, in comparison with CCM cases without familial disease, and whether lesional or brain vascular permeability correlates with CCM disease activity. Permeability in white matter far (WMF) from lesions was significantly greater in familial than in sporadic cases, but was similar in CCM lesions. Permeability in WMF increased with age in sporadic patients, but not in familial cases. Patients with more aggressive familial CCM disease had greater WMF permeability compared to those with milder disease phenotype, but similar lesion permeability. Subjects receiving statin medications for routine cardiovascular indications had a trend of lower WMF, but not lesion, permeability. This is the first demonstration of brain vascular hyperpermeability in humans with an autosomal dominant disease, as predicted mechanistically. Brain permeability, more than lesion permeability, may serve as a biomarker of CCM disease activity, and help calibrate potential drug therapy. PMID:25966944

  3. THE GRADIENT OF VASCULAR PERMEABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Frederick; Rous, Peyton

    1931-01-01

    A mounting gradient of permeability exists along the capillaries of frog muscle. In chicken muscle on the other hand none has been demonstrated; but the close-knit vascularization is arranged in duplicate in such manner that the blood runs in opposite directions through the capillaries of nearly adjacent fibres. In a flight muscle of the pigeon there exists in addition to this artifice what appears to be a special collecting system of venous capillaries. In the mammalian diaphragm indications of such a system are also to be found, and a gradient of capillary permeability like that in the other skeletal muscles is probably present. These vascular conditions are briefly considered in terms of function. PMID:19869836

  4. Alteration of Leukocyte Count Correlates With Increased Pulmonary Vascular Permeability and Decreased PaO2:FiO2 Ratio Early After Major Burns.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Joakim; Steinvall, Ingrid; Herwald, Heiko; Lindbom, Lennart; Sjöberg, Folke

    2015-01-01

    Leukocytes are activated systemically and their numbers increase soon after a burn followed by a rapid decline to low normal or subnormal levels, possibly by increased extravasation. Experimental data support that an important target for such extravasation is the lungs and that leukocytes when they adhere to endothelial cells cause an increase in vascular permeability. The authors investigated a possible relation between early increased pulmonary vascular permeability or a decreased PaO2:FiO2 ratio and the dynamic change in concentration of blood leukocytes after a burn. This is a prospective, exploratory, single-center study. The authors measured the dynamic changes of leukocytes in blood starting early after the burn, pulmonary vascular permeability index by thermodilution, and PaO2:FiO2-ratios in 20 patients during the first 21 days after a major burn (>20% TBSA%). Median TBSA was 40% interquartile range (IQR, 25-52) and full thickness burn 28% (IQR, 2-39). There was a correlation between the early (<24 hours) alteration in white blood cell count and both early increased pulmonary vascular permeability (r = .63, P = .004) and the decreased oxygenation index defined as PaO2:FiO2 < 27 kPa (P = .004). The authors have documented a correlation between dynamic change of blood leukocytes and pulmonary failure early after burns.

  5. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults.

  6. The neurotransmitter dopamine modulates vascular permeability in the endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Resham; Sinha, Sutapa; Yang, Su-Ping; Patra, Chittaranjan; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2008-01-01

    Background Vascular permeability factor/Vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF), a multifunctional cytokine, is a potent inducer of vascular permeability, an important early step in angiogenesis. It is known that the neurotransmitter dopamine can inhibit VPF/VEGF mediated angiogenesis, in particular microvascular permeability, but the effectors of this action remain unclear. Results Here, we define the signaling pathway modulated by dopamine that inhibits VPF/VEGF induced vascular permeability in endothelial cells. Signals from VPF/VEGF lead to changes in the phosphorylation of tight junction protein zonula occludens (ZO-1) and adherens junction proteins like VE-cadherin and associated catenins, thus weakening endothelial cell-cell adhesion and increasing vascular permeability. We found VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) to be part of a multi-protein complex involving ZO-1, VE-cadherin and β-catenin. VPF/VEGF induced phosphorylations of VE-cadherin, β-catenin and ZO-1 were inhibited by dopamine treatment. Association of occludin with ZO-1 and ZO-1 with VE-cadherin were significantly inhibited by dopamine in VEGF treated cells. Furthermore, we identified Src as an important target for dopamine-mediated inhibition of VPF/VEGF induced permeability. Conclusion Taken together, our results provide molecular insights of dopamine function in the vascular endothelium and suggest a central role of Src in regulating key molecules that control vascular permeability. PMID:18662404

  7. Effect of FGF-binding Protein 3 on Vascular Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yifan; Swift, Matthew R.; Tassi, Elena; Stylianou, Dora C.; Gibby, Krissa A.; Riegel, Anna T.; Wellstein, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-binding protein 1 (FGF-BP1 is BP1) is involved in the regulation of embryonic development, tumor growth, and angiogenesis by mobilizing endogenous FGFs from their extracellular matrix storage. Here we describe a new member of the FGF-BP family, human BP3. We show that the hBP3 protein is secreted from cells, binds to FGF2 in vitro and in intact cells, and inhibits FGF2 binding to heparin. To determine the function of hBP3 in vivo, hBP3 was transiently expressed in chicken embryos and resulted in >50% lethality within 24 h because of vascular leakage. The onset of vascular permeability was monitored by recording the extravasation kinetics of FITC-labeled 40-kDa dextran microperfused into the vitelline vein of 3-day-old embryos. Vascular permeability increased as early as 8 h after expression of hBP3. The increased vascular permeability caused by hBP3 was prevented by treatment of embryos with PD173074, a selective FGFR kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, a C-terminal 66-amino acid fragment (C66) of hBP3, which contains the predicted FGF binding domain, still inhibited binding of FGF2 to heparin similar to full-length hBP3. However, expression of the C66 fragment did not increase vascular permeability on its own, but required the administration of exogenous FGF2 protein. We conclude that the FGF binding domain and the heparin binding domain are necessary for the hBP3 interaction with endogenous FGF and the activation of FGFR signaling in vivo. PMID:18669637

  8. Semaphorin3A elevates vascular permeability and contributes to cerebral ischemia-induced brain damage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng Tao; Nilchi, Ladan; Li, Xuesheng; Gangaraju, Sandhya; Jiang, Susan X; Aylsworth, Amy; Monette, Robert; Slinn, Jacqueline

    2015-01-20

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) increased significantly in mouse brain following cerebral ischemia. However, the role of Sema3A in stroke brain remains unknown. Our aim was to determine wether Sema3A functions as a vascular permeability factor and contributes to ischemic brain damage. Recombinant Sema3A injected intradermally to mouse skin, or stereotactically into the cerebral cortex, caused dose- and time-dependent increases in vascular permeability, with a degree comparable to that caused by injection of a known vascular permeability factor vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGF). Application of Sema3A to cultured endothelial cells caused disorganization of F-actin stress fibre bundles and increased endothelial monolayer permeability, confirming Sema3A as a permeability factor. Sema3A-mediated F-actin changes in endothelial cells were through binding to the neuropilin2/VEGFR1 receptor complex, which in turn directly activates Mical2, a F-actin modulator. Down-regulation of Mical2, using specific siRNA, alleviated Sema3A-induced F-actin disorganization, cellular morphology changes and endothelial permeability. Importantly, ablation of Sema3A expression, cerebrovascular permeability and brain damage were significantly reduced in response to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia/haemorrhagic transformation. Together, these studies demonstrated that Sema3A is a key mediator of cerebrovascular permeability and contributes to brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia.

  9. A disorder of sympathomimetic amines leading to increased vascular permeability may be the etiologic factor in various treatment refractory health problems in women.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; Katsoff, D; Kaplan, H; Liss, J; Boimel, P

    2008-01-01

    There is an evidence that increased capillary permeability in the standing position is related to a deficit in the sympathetic nervous system. The leakage of this fluid leads to various clinical conditions which frequently puzzle the consulting physician because despite the frequency of this condition intelligent physicians and patients are unaware of the cause of their condition. One of the most common manifestations is the inability to lose weight despite proper dieting. A randomized study comparing the efficacy of a diuretic, a converting enzyme inhibitor, spironolactone and a sympathomimetic amine on weight loss in diet refractory women found that only the latter in the form of dextroamphetamine sulfate demonstrated significant weight reduction over a six month time span. In fact, the dextroamphetamine sulfate proved effective when given in the next 6 months to the three groups failing to respond for the first 6 months. The diagnosis of a deficit in sympathomimetic amines is established by demonstrating an abnormal clearance of a water load in the erect position and exclusion of other conditions that are associated with an abnormal free water clearance, e.g., hypothyroidism, renal or liver disease or congestive heart failure. The original definition of an abnormal water load test was excretion of <55% of a 1500 ml water load in 6h but we found that <75% defines a greater population who suffer from this problem. There are several conditions that have proven refractory to conventional theory that respond quickly and effectively to sympathomimetic amines. There have been many anecdotal reports of relieving interactable pain syndromes quickly and efficiently with sympathomimetic amine theory, despite failure with a multitude of other therapies. These include interstitial cystitis and pelvic pain that was attributed to endometriosis, gastrointestinal pain including esophagitis and gastroparesis, headaches, joint pain, fibromyalgia, and carpal tunnel syndrome. It is

  10. Role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability to protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, S.K.; Burhop, K.E.; Kaplan, J.E.; Malik, A.B. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors examined the role of platelets in maintenance of pulmonary vascular integrity by inducing thrombocytopenia in sheep using antiplatelet serum (APS). A causal relationship between thrombocytopenia and increase in pulmonary vascular permeability was established by platelet repletion using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Sheep were chronically instrumented and lung lymph fistulas prepared to monitor pulmonary lymph flow (Q{sub lym}). A balloon catheter was positioned in the left atrium to assess pulmonary vascular permeability to protein after raising the left atrial pressure (P{sub la}). Thrombocytopenia was maintained for 3 days by daily intramuscular APS injections. In studies using cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial monolayers, transendothelia permeability of {sup 125}I-labeled albumin was reduced 50 and 95%, respectively, when 2.5 {times} 10{sup 7} or 5 {times} 10{sup 7} platelets were added onto endothelial monolayers. However, addition of 5 {times} 10{sup 6} platelets or 5 {times} 10{sup 7} red blood cells did not reduce endothelial monolayer albumin permeability. Results indicate that platelets are required for the maintenance of pulmonary vascular permeability. Reduction in permeability appears to involve an interaction of platelets with the endothelium.

  11. Rhubarb Antagonizes Matrix Metalloproteinase-9-induced Vascular Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yun-Liang; Zhang, Sheng; Tian, Zhao-Tao; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intact endothelial structure and function are critical for maintaining microcirculatory homeostasis. Dysfunction of the latter is an underlying cause of various organ pathologies. In a previous study, we showed that rhubarb, a traditional Chinese medicine, protected intestinal mucosal microvascular endothelial cells in rats with metastasizing septicemia. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of rhubarb on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)-induced vascular endothelial (VE) permeability. Methods: Rhubarb monomers were extracted and purified by a series of chromatography approaches. The identity of these monomers was analyzed by hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), carbon-13 NMR, and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We established a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer on a Transwell insert. We measured the HUVEC permeability, proliferation, and the secretion of VE-cadherin into culture medium using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran assay, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, in response to treatment with MMP9 and/or rhubarb monomers. Results: A total of 21 rhubarb monomers were extracted and identified. MMP9 significantly increased the permeability of the HUVEC monolayer, which was significantly reduced by five individual rhubarb monomer (emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, 1-O-caffeoyl-2-(4-hydroxyl-O-cinnamoyl)-β-D-glucose, daucosterol linoleate, and rhein) or a combination of all five monomers (1 μmol/L for each monomer). Mechanistically, the five-monomer mixture at 1 μmol/L promoted HUVEC proliferation. In addition, MMP9 stimulated the secretion of VE-cadherin into the culture medium, which was significantly inhibited by the five-monomer mixture. Conclusions: The rhubarb mixture of emodin, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methyl-anthraquinone-2

  12. Vascular permeability and iron deposition biomarkers in longitudinal follow-up of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Girard, Romuald; Fam, Maged D; Zeineddine, Hussein A; Tan, Huan; Mikati, Abdul Ghani; Shi, Changbin; Jesselson, Michael; Shenkar, Robert; Wu, Meijing; Cao, Ying; Hobson, Nicholas; Larsson, Henrik B W; Christoforidis, Gregory A; Awad, Issam A

    2016-08-05

    OBJECTIVE Vascular permeability and iron leakage are central features of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) pathogenesis. The authors aimed to correlate prospective clinical behavior of CCM lesions with longitudinal changes in biomarkers of dynamic contrast-enhanced quantitative permeability (DCEQP) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) assessed by MRI. METHODS Forty-six patients with CCMs underwent 2 or more permeability and/or susceptibility studies in conjunction with baseline and follow-up imaging and clinical surveillance during a mean 12.05 months of follow-up (range 2.4-31.27 months). Based on clinical and imaging features, cases/lesions were classified as stable, unstable, or recovering. Associated and predictive changes in quantitative permeability and susceptibility were investigated. RESULTS Lesional mean permeability and QSM values were not significantly different in stable versus unstable lesions at baseline. Mean lesional permeability in unstable CCMs with lesional bleeding or growth increased significantly (+85.9% change; p = 0.005), while mean permeability in stable and recovering lesions did not significantly change. Mean lesional QSM values significantly increased in unstable lesions (+44.1% change; p = 0.01), decreased slightly with statistical significance in stable lesions (-3.2% change; p = 0.003), and did not significantly change in recovering lesions. Familial cases developing new lesions during the follow-up period showed a higher background brain permeability at baseline (p = 0.001), as well as higher regional permeability (p = 0.003) in the area that would later develop a new lesion as compared with the homologous contralateral brain region. CONCLUSIONS In vivo assessment of vascular permeability and iron deposition on MRI can serve as objective and quantifiable biomarkers of disease activity in CCMs. This may be applied in natural history studies and may help calibrate clinical trials. The 2 techniques are likely applicable in

  13. New Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart and Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Cohn, William E.; Parnis, Steven M.; Sodha, Neel R.; Clements, Richard T.; Sellke, Nicholas; Frazier, O. Howard; Sellke, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Background We tested the short-term effects of completely non-pulsatile versus pulsatile circulation after ventricular excision and replacement with total implantable pumps in an animal model on peripheral vascular permeability. Methods Ten calves underwent cardiac replacement with two HeartMate III continuous-flow rotary pumps. In five calves, the pump speed was rapidly modulated to impart a low-frequency pulse pressure in the physiologic range (10–25 mmHg) at a rate of 40 pulses per minute (PP). The remaining 5 calves were supported with a pulseless systemic circulation and no modulation of pump speed (NP). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before cardiac replacement (baseline) and on postoperative days (POD) 1, 7 and 14. Skeletal muscle tissue water content was measured and morphological alterations of skeletal muscle were assessed. VE-cadherin, phospho-VE-cadherin and CD31 were analyzed by immuno-histochemistry. Results There were no significant changes in tissue water content and skeletal muscle morphology within group or between groups at baseline, POD 1, 7 and 14, respectively. There were no significant alterations in the expression/distribution of VE-cadherin, phospho-VE cadherin and CD31 in skeletal muscle vasculature at baseline, POD 1, 7 and 14 within each group or between the two groups, respectively. Although continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) with or without a pulse pressure caused slight increase in tissue water content and histological damage scores at POD 7 and 14, it failed to reach statistical significance. Conclusions There was no significant adherens-junction protein degradation and phosphorylation in calf skeletal muscle microvasculature after CFTAH implantation, suggesting that short term of CFTAH with or without pulse pressure did not cause peripheral endothelial injury and did not increase the peripheral microvascular permeability. PMID:26188957

  14. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  15. IMMUNOLOGICAL INDUCTION OF INCREASED VASCULAR PERMEABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Henson, P. M.; Cochrane, C. G.

    1969-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been described whereby rabbit platelets in vitro may be induced to release their contained histamine by the reaction of antigen and antibody. Both processes require the participation of the complement system. In the first, the adherence of platelets to particulate antigens such as zymosan or erythrocytes which have fixed complement through the third component was followed by histamine release. Plasma lacking C6 activity was fully active in this system. In the second mechanism, the reaction of soluble antigen with antibody in the presence of plasma also caused release of histamine from platelets and platelet clumping was observed. The release process, which appeared to follow the adherence of platelets to the immune complex, required the action of C6 and perhaps the later-acting components. No evidence could be obtained that a soluble factor was produced which caused the release. Instead, an inhibitor of the release process was detected after incubation of antigen, antibody, and plasma. Antibody preparations capable of giving complement-dependent PCA reactions in rabbits were also shown to induce the release of histamine from platelets in vitro. PMID:4178112

  16. New sensitive fluorometric method for measurement of vascular permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Tsurufuji, S.

    1984-06-01

    A sensitive fluorometric method has been developed for the measurement of vascular permeability in carrageenin air-pouch inflammation in rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin (F-BSA) was used as a tracer. This fluorometric method is as simple and reliable as the method using radioiodine-labeled human serum albumin and has the advantages of low cost, no health hazard, and the fact that F-BSA can be stored over a long period. This fluorometric method is probably applicable to other inflammation models such as pleurisy and peritonitis in which inflammatory exudate can be collected.

  17. Non-invasive optical modulation of local vascular permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Chulhee

    2011-03-01

    For a systemically administered drug to act, it first needs to cross the vascular wall. This step represents a bottleneck for drug development, especially in the brain or retina, where tight junctions between endothelial cells form physiological barriers. Here, we demonstrate that femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation focused on the blood vessel wall induces transient permeabilization of plasma. Nonlinear absorption of the pulsed laser enabled the noninvasive modulation of vascular permeability with high spatial selectivity in three dimensions. By combining this method with systemic injection, we could locally deliver molecular probes in various tissues, such as brain cortex, meninges, ear, striated muscle, and bone. We suggest this method as a novel delivery tool for molecular probes or drugs.

  18. Strategies for improving chemotherapeutic delivery to solid tumors mediated by vascular permeability modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Chaudhuri, Tista

    An essential mode of distribution of blood-borne chemotherapeutic agents within a solid tumor is via the micro-circulation. Poor tumor perfusion, because of a lack of functional vasculature or a lack of microvessels, as well as low tumor vascular permeability, can prevent adequate deposition of even low molecular-weight agents into the tumor. The modulation of tumor vascular function and density can provides numerous strategies for improving intratumor deposition of chemotherapeutic agents. Here we investigated strategies to improve drug delivery to two tumor types that share in common poor drug delivery, but differ in the underlying cause. First, in an angiogenesis-driven brain tumor model of Glioblastoma, the vascular permeability barrier, along with poorly-functional vasculature, hinders drug delivery. A strategy of nanoparticle-based tumor 'priming' to attack the vascular permeability barrier, employing sterically stabilized liposomal doxorubicin (SSL-DXR), was investigated. Functional and histological evaluation of tumor vasculature revealed that after an initial period of depressed vascular permeability and vascular pruning 3--4 days after SSL-DXR administration, vascular permeability and perfusion were restored and then elevated after 5--7 days. As a result of tumor priming, deposition of subsequently-administered nanoparticles was enhanced, and the efficacy of temozolomide (TMZ), if administered during the window of elevated permeability, was increased. The sequenced regimen resulted in a persistent reduction of the tumor proliferative index and a 40% suppression of tumor volume, compared to animals that received both agents simultaneously. Second, in a hypovascular, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model, disruption of tumor-stromal communication via sonic hedgehog (sHH) signaling pathway inhibition mediated an indirect vascular proliferation and a more than 2-fold increase in intratumor nanoparticle deposition. Enhanced delivery of SSL-DXR in tumors pre

  19. Expression of urocortin in rat lung and its effect on pulmonary vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqing; Xu, Yinyan; Zhou, Hong; Tao, Jin; Li, Shengnan

    2006-04-01

    Urocortin (UCN), a newly identified, 40-amino-acid, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) structurally related peptide, has been demonstrated to be expressed in the central nervous system and many peripheral tissues of rats and man. This study aimed to investigate the expression profile of UCN in rat lung and the effect of UCN on lung vascular permeability. The expression of UCN mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). UCN peptide was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. We found that both UCN mRNA and peptide were obviously expressed in rat lung. Immunohistochemistry results showed that UCN peptide is mainly expressed in bronchial epithelium mucosa and alveolar epithelium. We also found that rats receiving inhalation aerosol of UCN had a significant elevation of lung vascular permeability compared with rats receiving vehicle and ovalbumin (OVA) by the Evans blue (EB) technique. UCN aerosol inhalation resulted in obvious pulmonary congestion and edema observed under light microscope by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. The nonselective peptide CRH receptor antagonist astressin markedly reduced lung vascular permeability triggered by UCN. Enhanced pulmonary vascular permeability induced by UCN was markedly inhibited by pretreatment with the mast-cell stabilizer cromolyn and histamine-1 (H1) receptor antagonist azelastine respectively, but not by the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast. In summary, in the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that UCN is expressed in rat lung and contributes to an increase in lung vascular permeability through activation of CRH receptors. Mast cells and histamine may be involved in this effect of UCN. Peripherally produced UCN in lung may act as an autocrine and paracrine proinflammatory factor.

  20. Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Vascular Permeability of Circumventricular Organs in the Adult Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y. K.; Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Bañuelos-Pineda, J.; Serrano-Luna, G.; Feria-Velasco, A.

    2008-08-01

    The present work deals with the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on blood vessels permeability to non liposoluble substances of the circumventricular organs (CVO) of adult rats. Male Wistar adult rats were exposed to ELF-EMF and vascular permeability to colloidal carbon was investigated with the use of histological techniques. Results were compared to corresponding data from sham-exposed and control groups of animals. Exposure to ELF-EMF increased the CVO vascular permeability to colloidal carbon intravascularly injected, particularly in the subfornical organ, the median eminence, the pineal gland and the area postrema.

  1. Expression of the vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor gene in central nervous system neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, R A; Merrill, M J; Reinhold, W C; Monacci, W T; Saxena, A; Clark, W C; Robertson, J T; Ali, I U; Oldfield, E H

    1993-01-01

    Expression of the vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGPF) gene was investigated in human central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and normal brain. Adsorption of capillary permeability activity from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell conditioned medium and GBM cyst fluids by anti-VEGPF antibodies demonstrated that VEGPF is secreted by GBM cells and is present in sufficient quantities in vivo to induce vascular permeability. Cloning and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified GBM and normal brain cDNA demonstrated three forms of the VEGPF coding region (567, 495, and 363 nucleotides), corresponding to mature polypeptides of 189, 165, and 121 amino acids, respectively. VEGPF mRNA levels in CNS tumors vs. normal brain were investigated by the RNase protection assay. Significant elevation of VEGPF gene expression was observed in 81% (22/27) of the highly vascular and edema-associated CNS neoplasms (6/8 GBM, 8/8 capillary hemangioblastomas, 6/7 meningiomas, and 2/4 cerebral metastases). In contrast, only 13% (2/15) of those CNS tumors that are not commonly associated with significant neovascularity or cerebral edema (2/10 pituitary adenomas and 0/5 nonastrocytic gliomas) had significantly increased levels of VEGPF mRNA. The relative abundance of the forms of VEGPF mRNA was consistent in tumor and normal brain: VEGPF495 > VEGPF363 > VEGPF567. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of VEGPF mRNA in tumor cells and its increased abundance in capillary hemangioblastomas. Our results suggest a significant role for VEGPF in the development of CNS tumor neovascularity and peritumoral edema. Images PMID:8380810

  2. Fracturing high-permeability reservoirs increases productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dusterhoft, R.G. ); Chapman, B.J. )

    1994-06-20

    Hydraulic fracturing of high-permeability reservoirs has increased long-term hydrocarbon production and reduced sand production in many areas of the world. A key element is the reduction of near well bore drawdown during production. Drawdown, the difference between reservoir and production pressures, is the driving force for flow into the well bore. As drawdown increases because of higher production rates or depletion, formation instability may cause fines and sand to migrate into the well bore region. A greater well bore radius reduces both radial velocity and drawdown. Fracturing beyond the well bore region effectively bypasses the damaged zone, increasing the effective radius of the well bore and enabling higher flow rates with lower drawdown pressures. In essence, the reservoir energy is used more efficiently because the conductive proppant bed bypasses the near well bore restrictions. The paper discusses candidate well selection; proppant selection; sand control; minifrac procedures; spurt losses; fracture design; equipment; case histories in West Africa and offshore Louisiana.

  3. Effects of polycations on pulmonary vascular permeability in conscious sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Toyofuku, T; Koyama, S; Kobayashi, T; Kusama, S; Ueda, G

    1989-01-01

    The role of charged sites on the permeability characteristics of the pulmonary microvascular barrier were investigated using chronically instrumented unanesthetized sheep. In one series of experiments we studied the effects of the cationic amphiphile, dodecyl trimethylamine (DTA; 297 mol wt), and the anionic amphiphile, SDS (288 mol wt), on lung lymph flow rates (Ql), lung lymph to plasma protein ratios (L/P), pulmonary hemodynamics, and systemic hemodynamics. DTA significantly increased both Ql and L/P, whereas SDS had a more modest and transient effect on these variables. In a second series of experiments the polycations polybrene and poly-l-lysine were found to have very similar effects as those of DTA. In another series of experiments we tested the pretreatment inhibition potential of chlorpheniramine (an H1 receptor antagonist), dibutyryl-cyclic AMP (db-cAMP), and the calcium channel antagonists verapamil and nifedipine on polybrene-induced lung injury. We found that only verapamil and db-cAMP significantly attenuated the permeability effects of polybrene. We conclude that both cationic amphiphiles and polycations cause hemodynamic and permeability alterations in the pulmonary circulation of unanesthetized sheep. In addition, the permeability alterations induced by polybrene can be modulated by intracellular calcium and/or cAMP levels. PMID:2542380

  4. Hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor VEGF, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Natalie A; Mackow, Erich R

    2008-06-01

    Hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. However, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) responses. Here we show that pathogenic Hantaan, Andes, and New York-1 hantaviruses dramatically enhance the permeability of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, while the nonpathogenic hantaviruses Prospect Hill and Tula have no effect on endothelial cell permeability. Pathogenic hantaviruses directed endothelial cell permeability 2 to 3 days postinfection, coincident with pathogenic hantavirus inhibition of alphav beta3 integrin functions, and hantavirus-directed permeability was inhibited by antibodies to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). These studies demonstrate that pathogenic hantaviruses, similar to alphav beta3 integrin-deficient cells, specifically enhance VEGF-directed permeabilizing responses. Using the hantavirus permeability assay we further demonstrate that the endothelial-cell-specific growth factor angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and the platelet-derived lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibit hantavirus directed endothelial cell permeability at physiologic concentrations. These results demonstrate the utility of a hantavirus permeability assay and rationalize the testing of Ang-1, S1P, and antibodies to VEGFR2 as potential hantavirus therapeutics. The central importance of beta3 integrins and VEGF responses in vascular leak and hemorrhagic disease further suggest that altering beta3 or VEGF responses may be a common feature of additional viral hemorrhagic diseases. As a result, our findings provide a potential mechanism

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Vascular Permeability Factor Is Temporally and Spatially Correlated with Ocular Angiogenesis in a Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joan W.; Adamis, Anthony P.; Shima, David T.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Moulton, Rachel S.; O'Reilly, Michael S.; Folkman, Judah; Dvorak, Harold F.; Brown, Lawrence F.; Berse, Brygida; Yeo, Tet-Kin; Yeo, Kiang-Teck

    1994-01-01

    Ischemia often precedes neovascularization. Inocular neovascularization, such as occurs in diabetic retinopathy, a diffusible angiogenic factor has been postulated to be produced by ischemicretina and to lead to neovascularization of theretina, optic nerve, or iris. However, no angiogenic factor has been conclusively identified that satisfies this hypothesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor, hereafter referred to as VEGF, is a likely candidate for an ocular angiogenic factor because it is a secreted mitogen, specific for endothelial cells, and is upregulated by hypoxia. We investigated the association of VEGF with the development of experimental iris neovascularization in the cynomolgus monkey. Following theproduction of retinal ischemia by laser occlusion of all branch retinal veins, VEGF was increased in the aqueous fluid, and the aqueous VEGF levels changed synchronously and proportionally with the severity of iris neovascularization. Northern analysis and in situ hybridization revealed that VEGF messenger RNA is upregulated in the ischemic retina. These observations support the hypothesis that ocular neovascularization is regulated by a diffusible factor and identify VEGF as a likely candidate for a retina-derived vascular permeability and angiogenesis factor in vivo. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7521577

  6. Truncated netrin-1 contributes to pathological vascular permeability in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miloudi, Khalil; Binet, François; Wilson, Ariel; Cerani, Agustin; Oubaha, Malika; Menard, Catherine; Henriques, Sullivan; Mawambo, Gaelle; Dejda, Agnieszka; Nguyen, Phuong Trang; Rezende, Flavio A.; Bourgault, Steve; Kennedy, Timothy E.; Sapieha, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major complication of diabetes and a leading cause of blindness in the working-age population. Impaired blood-retinal barrier function leads to macular edema that is closely associated with the deterioration of central vision. We previously demonstrated that the neuronal guidance cue netrin-1 activates a program of reparative angiogenesis in microglia within the ischemic retina. Here, we provide evidence in both vitreous humor of diabetic patients and in retina of a murine model of diabetes that netrin-1 is metabolized into a bioactive fragment corresponding to domains VI and V of the full-length molecule. In contrast to the protective effects of full-length netrin-1 on retinal microvasculature, the VI-V fragment promoted vascular permeability through the uncoordinated 5B (UNC5B) receptor. The collagenase matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9), which is increased in patients with diabetic macular edema, was capable of cleaving netrin-1 into the VI-V fragment. Thus, MMP-9 may release netrin-1 fragments from the extracellular matrix and facilitate diffusion. Nonspecific inhibition of collagenases or selective inhibition of MMP-9 decreased pathological vascular permeability in a murine model of diabetic retinal edema. This study reveals that netrin-1 degradation products are capable of modulating vascular permeability, suggesting that these fragments are of potential therapeutic interest for the treatment of DR. PMID:27400127

  7. Angiogenesis is regulated by angiopoietins during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is indirectly related to vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Carolyn J; Starkey, Ryan J; Easton, Alexander S

    2011-12-01

    The regulation of angiogenesis was studied over the course of the animal model of multiple sclerosis, acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice using immunohistochemistry. During EAE, angiogenesis peaked 21 days after disease induction, with significant increases in gray matter and adjacent to the leptomeninges. Angiogenesis correlated with clinical and pathologic scores. Spinal cord expression of angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) by neurons and glia was reduced at Day 14, but expression by inflammatory cells restored earlier levels at Day 21. Angiopoietin 2 expression increased markedly at Day 21 and was mostly associated with inflammatory cells. Levels of the angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 were reduced at Day 14, but recovered by day D21. Double labeling demonstrated Ang-1 expression on infiltrating CD3-positive T cells; Ang-2 was expressed by monocytes/macrophages. During EAE, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor peaked at Day 14 and began to decrease by Day 21. Double labeling showed expression of Tie-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 but not Ang-2 in blood vessels at Day 21. Vascular permeability increased early in EAE, but was reduced by Day 21. Although individual values did not correlate with angiogenesis, the volume of permeable tissue showed a weak positive correlation with angiogenesis. These temporal changes in angiogenic factors suggest an integral role during EAE-related angiogenesis.

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus-infected monocytes and macrophages, induces vascular permeability and effusion in cats with FIP.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Ohyama, Taku; Kokumoto, Aiko; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease called FIP in Felidae. The effusion in body cavity is commonly associated with FIP. However, the exact mechanism of accumulation of effusion remains unclear. We investigated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to examine the relationship between VEGF levels and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Furthermore, we examined VEGF production in FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, and we used feline vascular endothelial cells to examine vascular permeability induced by the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages. In cats with FIP, the production of effusion was related with increasing plasma VEGF levels. In FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, the production of VEGF was associated with proliferation of virus. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages induced hyperpermeability of feline vascular endothelial cells. It was suggested that vascular permeability factors, including VEGF, produced by FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages might increase the vascular permeability and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP.

  9. A Facile Method to Probe the Vascular Permeability of Nanoparticles in Nanomedicine Applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yan Teck; Adriani, Giulia; Beyer, Sebastian; Nhan, Phan-Thien; Kamm, Roger D; Kah, James Chen Yong

    2017-03-31

    The effectiveness of nanoparticles (NP) in nanomedicine depends on their ability to extravasate from vasculature towards the target tissue. This is determined by their permeability across the endothelial barrier. Unfortunately, a quantitative study of the diffusion permeability coefficients (Pd) of NPs is difficult with in vivo models. Here, we utilize a relevant model of vascular-tissue interface with tunable endothelial permeability in vitro based on microfluidics. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) grown in microfluidic devices were treated with Angiopoietin 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to vary the Pd of the HUVECs monolayer towards fluorescent polystyrene NPs (pNPs) of different sizes, which was determined from image analysis of their fluorescence intensity when diffusing across the monolayer. Using 70 kDa dextran as a probe, untreated HUVECs yielded a Pd that approximated tumor vasculature while HUVECs treated with 25 μg/mL cAMP had Pd that approximated healthy vasculature in vivo. As the size of pNPs increased, its Pd decreased in tumor vasculature, but remained largely unchanged in healthy vasculature, demonstrating a trend similar to tumor selectivity for smaller NPs. This microfluidic model of vascular-tissue interface can be used in any laboratory to perform quantitative assessment of the tumor selectivity of nanomedicine-based systems.

  10. Placenta Growth Factor-1 Exerts Time-Dependent Stabilization of Adherens Junctions Following VEGF-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jun; Wu, Lin; Qi, Xiaoping; Shaw, Lynn; Li Calzi, Sergio; Caballero, Sergio; Jiang, Wen G.; Vinores, Stanley A.; Antonetti, David; Ahmed, Asif; Grant, Maria B.; Boulton, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Increased vascular permeability is an early event characteristic of tissue ischemia and angiogenesis. Although VEGF family members are potent promoters of endothelial permeability the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) is hotly debated. Here we investigated PlGF isoforms 1 and 2 and present in vitro and in vivo evidence that PlGF-1, but not PlGF-2, can inhibit VEGF-induced permeability but only during a critical window post-VEGF exposure. PlGF-1 promotes VE-cadherin expression via the trans-activating Sp1 and Sp3 interaction with the VE-cadherin promoter and subsequently stabilizes transendothelial junctions, but only after activation of endothelial cells by VEGF. PlGF-1 regulates vascular permeability associated with the rapid localization of VE-cadherin to the plasma membrane and dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues that precedes changes observed in claudin 5 tyrosine phosphorylation and membrane localization. The critical window during which PlGF-1 exerts its effect on VEGF-induced permeability highlights the importance of the translational significance of this work in that PLGF-1 likely serves as an endogenous anti-permeability factor whose effectiveness is limited to a precise time point following vascular injury. Clinical approaches that would pattern nature's approach would thus limit treatments to precise intervals following injury and bring attention to use of agents only during therapeutic windows. PMID:21464949

  11. Phosphoramidon blocks big-endothelin-1 but not endothelin-1 enhancement of vascular permeability in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, S.; Plante, G. E.; Sirois, M. G.; Sirois, P.; D'Orléans-Juste, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Changes in vascular permeability following intravenous injections of human big-endothelin-1 (big-ET-1) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were measured by extravasation of Evans blue dye (EB, 20 mg kg-1) in selected tissues. 2. A low dose of big-ET-1 (40 pmol kg-1) failed to alter vascular permeability but a dose of 400 pmol kg-1 increased EB extravasation in the trachea, upper and lower bronchi, and lung parenchyma by 55 to 69% (P < 0.05). Vascular permeability was also enhanced in the liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and diaphragm by 20, 14, 41, 25, and 67%, respectively (P < 0.05). 3. Upon injection of ET-1 (400 pmol kg-1), EB extravasation increased in the upper and lower bronchi, lung parenchyma, liver, pancreas, kidney, heart, and diaphragm. 4. Administration of ET-1 and big-ET-1 was not associated with significant systemic responses. 5. Pretreatment with phosphoramidon (PA) blocked the response to big-ET-1 in all tissues examined but this inhibitor failed to alter the response to ET-1. 6. We conclude from these results that the dose-dependent increase in vascular permeability induced by big-ET-1 in various tissues follows its conversion to ET-1 by the endothelin converting enzyme, a PA-sensitive process. PMID:1467845

  12. Progesterone Receptor in the Vascular Endothelium Triggers Physiological Uterine Permeability Pre-implantation

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Lauren M.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Org, Tönis; Enciso, Josephine M.; Hashimoto-Partyka, Minako K.; Warren, Carmen M.; Domigan, Courtney K.; McDonald, Austin; He, Huanhuan; Sanchez, Lauren A.; Allen, Nancy C.; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Chao, Lily C.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Tontonoz, Peter; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vascular permeability is frequently associated with inflammation and triggered by a cohort of secreted permeability factors such as VEGF. Here we show that the physiological vascular permeability that precedes implantation is directly controlled by progesterone receptor (PR) and is independent of VEGF. Both global and endothelial-specific deletion of PR block physiological vascular permeability in the uterus whereas misexpression of PR in the endothelium of other organs results in ectopic vascular leakage. Integration of an endothelial genome-wide transcriptional profile with ChIP-sequencing revealed that PR induces a NR4A1 (Nur77/TR3)-dependent transcriptional program that broadly regulates vascular permeability in response to progesterone. Silencing of NR4A1 blocks PR-mediated permeability responses indicating a direct link between PR and NR4A1. This program triggers concurrent suppression of several junctional proteins and leads to an effective, timely and venous-specific regulation of vascular barrier function that is critical to embryo implantation. PMID:24485460

  13. Peptide to Peptoid Substitutions Increase Cell Permeability in Cyclic Hexapeptides.

    PubMed

    Schwochert, Joshua; Turner, Rushia; Thang, Melissa; Berkeley, Ray F; Ponkey, Alexandra R; Rodriguez, Kelsie M; Leung, Siegfried S F; Khunte, Bhagyashree; Goetz, Gilles; Limberakis, Chris; Kalgutkar, Amit S; Eng, Heather; Shapiro, Michael J; Mathiowetz, Alan M; Price, David A; Liras, Spiros; Jacobson, Matthew P; Lokey, R Scott

    2015-06-19

    The effect of peptide-to-peptoid substitutions on the passive membrane permeability of an N-methylated cyclic hexapeptide is examined. In general, substitutions maintained permeability but increased conformational heterogeneity. Diversification with nonproteinogenic side chains increased permeability up to 3-fold. Additionally, the conformational impact of peptoid substitutions within a β-turn are explored. Based on these results, the strategic incorporation of peptoid residues into cyclic peptides can maintain or improve cell permeability, while increasing access to diverse side-chain functionality.

  14. Strain-induced permeability increase in volcanic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Jamie I.; Heap, Michael J.; Baud, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    The extrusion of dense, viscous magma typically occurs along pronounced conduit-parallel faults. To better understand the evolution of fault permeability with increasing strain, we measured the permeability of low-porosity volcanic rock samples (basalt and andesite) that were deformed in the brittle regime to various levels of inelastic strain. We observed a progressive increase in sample permeability with increasing inelastic strain (i.e., with continued sliding on the fault plane). At the maximum imposed inelastic strain (0.11), sample permeability had increased by 3 orders of magnitude or more for all sample sets. Microstructural observations show that narrow shear fractures evolve into more complex fracture systems characterized by thick zones of friction-induced cataclasis (gouge) with increasing inelastic strain. These data suggest that the permeability of conduit-parallel faults hosted in the rock at the conduit-wall rock interface will increase during lava extrusion, thus facilitating outgassing and hindering the transition to explosive behavior.

  15. Vascular Permeability Drives Susceptibility to Influenza Infection in a Murine Model of Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Oguin, Thomas H.; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Iverson, Amy; Broadnax, Alexandria; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Pestina, Tamara; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Rosch, Jason W.

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major global health concern. Patients with SCD experience disproportionately greater morbidity and mortality in response to influenza infection than do others. Viral infection is one contributing factor for the development of Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SCD patients. We determined whether the heightened sensitivity to influenza infection could be reproduced in the two different SCD murine models to ascertain the underlying mechanisms of increased disease severity. In agreement with clinical observations, we found that both genetic and bone marrow-transplanted SCD mice had greater mortality in response to influenza infection than did wild-type animals. Despite similar initial viral titers and inflammatory responses between wild-type and SCD animals during infection, SCD mice continued to deteriorate and failed to resolve the infection, resulting in increased mortality. Histopathology of the lung tissues revealed extensive pulmonary edema and vascular damage following infection, a finding confirmed by heightened vascular permeability following virus challenge. These findings implicate the development of exacerbated pulmonary permeability following influenza challenge as the primary factor underlying heightened mortality. These studies highlight the need to focus on prevention and control strategies against influenza infection in the SCD population. PMID:28256526

  16. Effect of leukotriene receptor antagonists on vascular permeability during endotoxic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.A.; Li, E.J.; Spicer, K.M.; Wise, W.C.; Halushka, P.V. )

    1990-11-01

    Evidence has accumulated that sulfidopeptide leukotrienes are significant pathogenic mediators of certain hematologic and hemodynamic sequelae of endotoxic shock. In the present study, the effects of a selective LTD4/E4 receptor antagonist, LY171883 (LY), or a selective LTD4 receptor antagonist, SKF-104353 (SKF), were assessed on splanchnic and pulmonary localization of 99mTechnetium-labeled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) in acute endotoxic shock in the rat. Dynamic gamma camera imaging of heart (H), midabdominal (GI), and lung regions of interest generated time activity curves for baseline and at 5-35 min after Salmonella enteritidis endotoxin (10 mg/kg, i.v.). Slopes of GI/H and lung/H activity (permeability index, GI/H or lung/H X 10(-3)/min) provided indices of intestinal and lung localization. Rats received LY (30 mg/kg, i.v.), LY vehicle (LY Veh), SKF (10 mg/kg), or SKF vehicle (SK Veh) 10 min prior to endotoxin or endotoxin vehicle. In rats receiving the LY Veh and endotoxin (n = 8) or SKF Veh and endotoxin (n = 12), the splanchnic permeability indices to 99mTc-HSA were increased 11.2-fold and 5.1-fold, respectively (P less than 0.05) compared to vehicle control groups not given endotoxin (n = 5). Pulmonary permeability index for 99mTc-HSA was increased (P less than 0.05) to a lesser extent (3.2-fold) by endotoxin compared to vehicle controls. Pretreatment with SKF reduced the mesenteric permeability index to control levels (P less than 0.05) during the 5-35 min time interval post-endotoxin. LY reduced the mesenteric permeability index by 70%. Pulmonary relative permeability to 99mTc-HSA was not affected by LY pretreatment. Both splanchnic and lung relative permeability to the isotope was transient; at 135-225 min post-endotoxin, splanchnic localization of 99mTc-HSA (n = 4) was not significantly different from vehicle controls in these vascular beds.

  17. Cell-permeable iron inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling and tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kir, Devika; Saluja, Manju; Modi, Shrey; Venkatachalam, Annapoorna; Schnettler, Erica; Roy, Sabita; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. Hypoxia in tumors drives this angiogenic response by stabilizing Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) and target genes like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). HIF stability is regulated by Prolylhydroxylases (PHD)-mediated modification. Iron is an important cofactor in regulating the enzymatic activity of PHDs. Reducing intracellular iron, for instance, mimics hypoxia and induces a pro-angiogenic response. It is hypothesized that increasing the intracellular iron levels will have an opposite, anti-angiogenic effect. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing iron homeostasis in endothelial cells using a unique form of iron, Ferric Ammonium Citrate (FAC). FAC is a cell-permeable form of iron, which can passively enter into cells bypassing the transferrin receptor mediated uptake of transferrin-bound iron. Our studies show that FAC does not decrease the levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in endothelial cells but inhibits the autocrine stimulation of VEGF-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) system by blocking receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. FAC inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation and sprouting. Finally, systemic administration of FAC inhibits VEGF and tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our studies show that cell-permeable iron attenuates VEGFR-2 mediated signaling and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27589831

  18. Reinforcing endothelial junctions prevents microvessel permeability increase and tumor cell adhesion in microvessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bingmei M.; Yang, Jinlin; Cai, Bin; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Min

    2015-10-01

    Tumor cell adhesion to the microvessel wall is a critical step during tumor metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secretion of tumor cells, can increase microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion in the microvessel. To test the hypothesis that inhibiting permeability increase can reduce tumor cell adhesion, we used in vivo fluorescence microscopy to measure both microvessel permeability and adhesion rates of human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery under the treatment of VEGF and a cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, which can decrease microvessel permeability. By immunostaining adherens junction proteins between endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall, we further investigated the structural mechanism by which cAMP abolishes VEGF-induced increase in microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that 1) Pretreatment of microvessels with cAMP can abolish VEGF-enhanced microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion; 2) Tumor cells prefer to adhere to the endothelial cell junctions instead of cell bodies; 3) VEGF increases microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion by compromising endothelial junctions while cAMP abolishes these effects of VEGF by reinforcing the junctions. These results suggest that strengthening the microvessel wall integrity can be a potential approach to inhibiting hematogenous tumor metastasis.

  19. Reinforcing endothelial junctions prevents microvessel permeability increase and tumor cell adhesion in microvessels in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bingmei M.; Yang, Jinlin; Cai, Bin; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Min

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell adhesion to the microvessel wall is a critical step during tumor metastasis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a secretion of tumor cells, can increase microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion in the microvessel. To test the hypothesis that inhibiting permeability increase can reduce tumor cell adhesion, we used in vivo fluorescence microscopy to measure both microvessel permeability and adhesion rates of human mammary carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells in post-capillary venules of rat mesentery under the treatment of VEGF and a cAMP analog, 8-bromo-cAMP, which can decrease microvessel permeability. By immunostaining adherens junction proteins between endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall, we further investigated the structural mechanism by which cAMP abolishes VEGF-induced increase in microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion. Our results demonstrate that 1) Pretreatment of microvessels with cAMP can abolish VEGF-enhanced microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion; 2) Tumor cells prefer to adhere to the endothelial cell junctions instead of cell bodies; 3) VEGF increases microvessel permeability and tumor cell adhesion by compromising endothelial junctions while cAMP abolishes these effects of VEGF by reinforcing the junctions. These results suggest that strengthening the microvessel wall integrity can be a potential approach to inhibiting hematogenous tumor metastasis. PMID:26507779

  20. VE-cadherin Y685F knock-in mouse is sensitive to vascular permeability in recurrent angiogenic organs.

    PubMed

    Sidibé, Adama; Polena, Helena; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Razanajatovo, Jeremy; Mannic, Tiphaine; Chaumontel, Nicolas; Bama, Soumalamaya; Maréchal, Irène; Huber, Philippe; Gulino-Debrac, Danielle; Bouillet, Laurence; Vilgrain, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Covalent modifications such as tyrosine phosphorylation are associated with the breakdown of endothelial cell junctions and increased vascular permeability. We previously showed that vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin was tyrosine phosphorylated in vivo in the mouse reproductive tract and that Y685 was a target site for Src in response to vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. In the present study, we aimed to understand the implication of VE-cadherin phosphorylation at site Y685 in cyclic angiogenic organs. To achieve this aim, we generated a knock-in mouse carrying a tyrosine-to-phenylalanine point mutation of VE-cadherin Y685 (VE-Y685F). Although homozygous VE-Y685F mice were viable and fertile, the nulliparous knock-in female mice exhibited enlarged uteri with edema. This phenotype was observed in 30% of females between 4 to 14 mo old. Histological examination of longitudinal sections of the VE-Y685F uterus showed an extensive disorganization of myometrium and endometrium with highly edematous uterine glands, numerous areas with sparse cells, and increased accumulation of collagen fibers around blood vessels, indicating a fibrotic state. Analysis of cross section of ovaries showed the appearance of spontaneous cysts, which suggested increased vascular hyperpermeability. Electron microscopy analysis of capillaries in the ovary showed a slight but significant increase in the gap size between two adjacent endothelial cell membranes in the junctions of VE-Y685F mice (wild-type, 11.5 ± 0.3, n = 78; and VE-Y685F, 12.48 ± 0.3, n = 65; P = 0.045), as well as collagen fiber accumulation around capillaries. Miles assay revealed that either basal or vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated permeability in the skin was increased in VE-Y685F mice. Since edema and fibrotic appearance have been identified as hallmarks of initial increased vascular permeability, we conclude that the site Y685 in VE-cadherin is involved in the physiological regulation of capillary

  1. Involvement of Protein Kinase C-δ in Vascular Permeability in Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong J; Jung, Jong P; Park, Soon E; Lee, Minhyun; Kwon, Byungsuk; Cho, Hong R

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary edema is a major cause of mortality due to acute lung injury (ALI). The involvement of protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ) in ALI has been a controversial topic. Here we investigated PKC-δ function in ALI using PKC-δ knockout (KO) mice and PKC inhibitors. Our results indicated that although the ability to produce proinflammatory mediators in response to LPS injury in PKC-δ KO mice was similar to that of control mice, they showed enhanced recruitment of neutrophils to the lung and more severe pulmonary edema. PKC-δ inhibition promoted barrier dysfunction in an endothelial cell layer in vitro, and administration of a PKC-δ-specific inhibitor significantly increased steady state vascular permeability. A neutrophil transmigration assay indicated that the PKC-δ inhibition increased neutrophil transmigration through an endothelial monolayer. This suggests that PKC-δ inhibition induces structural changes in endothelial cells, allowing extravasation of proteins and neutrophils.

  2. Iloprost attenuates the increased permeability in skeletal muscle after ischemia and reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Blebea, J.; Cambria, R.A.; DeFouw, D.; Feinberg, R.N.; Hobson, R.W. 2d.; Duran, W.N. )

    1990-12-01

    Increased vascular permeability is an early and sensitive indicator of ischemic muscle injury, occurring before significant histologic or radionuclide changes are evident. We investigated the effect of iloprost, a stable prostacyclin analog, on microvascular permeability in a rat striated muscle model. In six control and six experimental animals the cremaster muscle was dissected, placed in a closed-flow acrylic chamber, and suffused with a bicarbonate buffer solution. Dextran labeled with fluorescein was injected intravenously as a macromolecular tracer, and microvascular permeability was determined on the basis of clearance of the fluorescent tracer. Two hours of ischemia were followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. In the experimental group iloprost (0.5 microgram/kg/min) was given in a continuous intravenous infusion. Microvascular permeability increased significantly during reperfusion in both control and experimental animals (p less than 0.0001). Treatment with iloprost, however, significantly attenuated this response compared to the control group, 4.8 +/- 0.3 versus 7.3 +/- 0.5 microliters/gm/min, respectively (p less than 0.0001). Iloprost decreases the rise in vascular permeability after ischemia and reperfusion. Experimental clinical use of iloprost under controlled conditions in the treatment of patients with acute skeletal muscle ischemia appears justified.

  3. Histamine Induces Vascular Hyperpermeability by Increasing Blood Flow and Endothelial Barrier Disruption In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Ashina, Kohei; Tsubosaka, Yoshiki; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Omori, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Koji; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Histamine is a mediator of allergic inflammation released mainly from mast cells. Although histamine strongly increases vascular permeability, its precise mechanism under in vivo situation remains unknown. We here attempted to reveal how histamine induces vascular hyperpermeability focusing on the key regulators of vascular permeability, blood flow and endothelial barrier. Degranulation of mast cells by antigen-stimulation or histamine treatment induced vascular hyperpermeability and tissue swelling in mouse ears. These were abolished by histamine H1 receptor antagonism. Intravital imaging showed that histamine dilated vasculature, increased blood flow, while it induced hyperpermeability in venula. Whole-mount staining showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier formation of venula indicated by changes in vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) localization at endothelial cell junction. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) by L-NAME or vasoconstriction by phenylephrine strongly inhibited the histamine-induced blood flow increase and hyperpermeability without changing the VE-cadherin localization. In vitro, measurements of trans-endothelial electrical resistance of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) showed that histamine disrupted endothelial barrier. Inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) or Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), NOS attenuated the histamine-induced barrier disruption. These observations suggested that histamine increases vascular permeability mainly by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vascular dilation and subsequent blood flow increase and maybe partially by PKC/ROCK/NO-dependent endothelial barrier disruption.

  4. Combustion smoke exposure induces up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, aquaporin 4, nitric oxide synthases and vascular permeability in the retina of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, Y Y; Lu, J; Poon, D J F; Kaur, C; Cao, Q; Teo, A L; Ling, E A

    2009-05-19

    Retinal cells respond to various experimental stimuli including hypoxia, yet it remains to be investigated whether they react to smoke inhalation. We show here that retinal cells in rats, notably the ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes and blood vessels responded vigorously to a smoke challenge. The major changes included up-regulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). VEGF expression was localized in the ganglion cells, Müller cells, astrocytes and associated blood vessels. AQP4 was markedly enhanced in both astrocytes and Müller cells. Increase in vascular permeability after smoke exposure was evidenced by extravasation of serum derived rhodamine isothiocyanate which was internalized by Müller cells and ganglion cells. The tracer leakage was attenuated by aminoguanidine and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment which suppressed retinal tissue NOS and nitric oxide (NO) levels concomitantly. It is suggested that VEGF, AQP4 and NO are involved in increased vascular permeability following acute smoke exposure in which hypoxia was ultimately implicated as shown by blood gases analysis. NOS inhibitors effectively reduced the vascular leakage and hence may ameliorate possible retinal edema in smoke inhalation.

  5. Cardiovascular collapse and vascular permeability changes in an ovine model of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jonkam, Collette C; Lange, Matthias; Traber, Daniel L; Maybauer, Dirk M; Maybauer, Marc O; Bansal, Kamna; Hamahata, Atsumori; Zhu, Yong; Esechie, Aimalohi; Traber, Lillian D; Sousse, Linda; Rehberg, Sebastian; Herndon, David N; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2009-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections with severe outcomes such as sepsis and septic shock are progressively increasing in both the community and in hospital settings. We hypothesized that overexpression of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play a pivotal role in cardiovascular collapse associated with vascular hyperpermeability in MRSA sepsis. Twelve sheep were surgically prepared and randomized into a control (noninjured; n = 6) and a sepsis (injured; n = 6) group. Animals in the sepsis group were subjected to cotton smoke inhalation and instillation of 2.5 x 10(11) colony-forming units of live MRSA into both lungs. Cardiovascular variables in the control group remained stable, whereas the MRSA sepsis group developed a hypotensive and hyperdynamic circulatory shock state beginning at 6 h associated with significantly increased vascular permeability evidenced by increased prefemoral lymph flow starting at 12 h and permeability index from 12 to 18 h, higher fluid accumulation from 12 to 24 h, and significantly decreased plasma protein concentration and oncotic pressure beginning at 6 h compared with control animals. Myocardial 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) protein, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose), and VEGF mRNA expressions measured after the 24-h experiment were significantly increased in the injured animals as well. These results evidence that excessive production of reactive radicals and VEGF may play a major role in cardiovascular collapse and vascular hyperpermeability in MRSA sepsis.

  6. Functional and molecular mapping of uncoupling between vascular permeability and loss of vascular maturation in ovarian carcinoma xenografts: the role of stroma cells in tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gilad, Assaf A; Israely, Tomer; Dafni, Hagit; Meir, Gila; Cohen, Batya; Neeman, Michal

    2005-11-01

    Maintaining homogeneous perfusion in tissues undergoing remodeling and vascular expansion requires tight orchestration of the signals leading to endothelial sprouting and subsequent recruitment of perivascular contractile cells and vascular maturation. This regulation, however, is frequently disrupted in tumors. We previously demonstrated the role of tumor-associated myofibroblasts in vascularization and exit from dormancy of human ovarian carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. The aim of this work was to determine the contribution of stroma- and tumor cell-derived angiogenic growth factors to the heterogeneity of vascular permeability and maturation in MLS human ovarian carcinoma tumors. We show by RT-PCR and by in situ hybridization that VEGF was expressed by the tumor cells, while angiopoietin-1 and -2 were expressed only by the infiltrating host stroma cells. Vascular maturation was detected in vivo by vasoreactivity to hypercapnia, measured by BOLD contrast MRI and validated by immunostaining of histologic sections to alpha-smooth muscle actin. Vascular permeability was measured in vivo by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using albumin-based contrast material and validated in histologic sections by fluorescent staining of the biotinylated contrast material. MRI as well as histologic correlation maps between vascular maturation and vascular permeability revealed a wide range of vascular phenotypes, in which the distribution of vascular maturation and vasoreactivity did not overlap spatially with reduced permeability. The large heterogeneity in the degree of vascular maturation and permeability is consistent with the differential expression pattern of VEGF and angiopoietins during tumor angiogenesis.

  7. Vascular permeability changes in the central nervous system of rats with hyperacute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced with the aid of a substance from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, R K; Munoz, J J; Portis, J L

    1978-01-01

    Development of hyperacute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats after intraperitoneal administration of a mixture of guinea pig spinal cord emulsion and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis was accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability in the central nervous system. The increased permeability was most striking in the spinal cord and seemed to be associated with the ascending development of paralysis. Rats that had completely recovered from paralysis did not have any increased permeability in the central nervous system. Rats which developed paralysis after inoculation with either guinea pig spinal cord emulsion alone or with complete Freund adjuvant had only a small degree, if any, of increased permeability in the vascular system of the central nervous system. Images PMID:211087

  8. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Niyanta N; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J; Wolak, Daniel J; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G

    2016-08-25

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13-17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain.

  9. Relative vascular permeability and vascularity across different regions of the rat nasal mucosa: implications for nasal physiology and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Niyanta N.; Gautam, Mohan; Lochhead, Jeffrey J.; Wolak, Daniel J.; Ithapu, Vamsi; Singh, Vikas; Thorne, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal administration provides a non-invasive drug delivery route that has been proposed to target macromolecules either to the brain via direct extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways or to the periphery via absorption into the systemic circulation. Delivering drugs to nasal regions that have lower vascular density and/or permeability may allow more drug to access the extracellular cranial nerve-associated pathways and therefore favor delivery to the brain. However, relative vascular permeabilities of the different nasal mucosal sites have not yet been reported. Here, we determined that the relative capillary permeability to hydrophilic macromolecule tracers is significantly greater in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Mean capillary density in the nasal mucosa was also approximately 5-fold higher in nasal respiratory regions than in olfactory regions. Applying capillary pore theory and normalization to our permeability data yielded mean pore diameter estimates ranging from 13–17 nm for the nasal respiratory vasculature compared to <10 nm for the vasculature in olfactory regions. The results suggest lymphatic drainage for CNS immune responses may be favored in olfactory regions due to relatively lower clearance to the bloodstream. Lower blood clearance may also provide a reason to target the olfactory area for drug delivery to the brain. PMID:27558973

  10. Vascular bursts enhance permeability of tumour blood vessels and improve nanoparticle delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yu; Nichols, Joseph W.; Toh, Kazuko; Nomoto, Takahiro; Cabral, Horacio; Miura, Yutaka; Christie, R. James; Yamada, Naoki; Ogura, Tadayoshi; Kano, Mitsunobu R.; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Bae, You Han; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced permeability in tumours is thought to result from malformed vascular walls with leaky cell-to-cell junctions. This assertion is backed by studies using electron microscopy and polymer casts that show incomplete pericyte coverage of tumour vessels and the presence of intercellular gaps. However, this gives the impression that tumour permeability is static amid a chaotic tumour environment. Using intravital confocal laser scanning microscopy we show that the permeability of tumour blood vessels includes a dynamic phenomenon characterized by vascular bursts followed by brief vigorous outward flow of fluid (named ‘eruptions’) into the tumour interstitial space. We propose that ‘dynamic vents’ form transient openings and closings at these leaky blood vessels. These stochastic eruptions may explain the enhanced extravasation of nanoparticles from the tumour blood vessels, and offer insights into the underlying distribution patterns of an administered drug.

  11. Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 Is an Essential Promoter of Vascular Permeability, Angiogenesis, and Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Patrick; Dussault, Sylvie; Fusco, Alfredo; Rivard, Alain; Royal, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRJ/DEP-1 has been implicated in negative growth regulation in endothelial cells, where its expression varies at transitions between proliferation and contact inhibition. However, in the same cells, DEP-1 has also been implicated in VEGF-dependent Src activation, permeability, and capillary formation, suggesting a positive role in regulating these functions. To resolve this dichotomy in vivo, we investigated postnatal angiogenesis and vascular permeability in a DEP-1-deficient mouse. In this study, we report that DEP-1 is required for Src activation and phosphorylation of its endothelial cell-specific substrate, VE-cadherin, after systemic injection of VEGF. Accordingly, VEGF-induced vascular leakage was abrogated in the DEP-1-deficient mice. Furthermore, capillary formation was impaired in murine aortic tissue rings or Matrigel plugs infused with VEGF. In the absence of DEP-1, angiogenesis triggered by ischemia or during tumor formation was defective, which in the latter case was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Macrophage infiltration was also impaired, reflecting reduced vascular permeability in the tumors or a possible cell autonomous effect of DEP-1. Consequently, the formation of spontaneous and experimental lung metastases was strongly decreased in DEP-1-deficient mice. In clinical specimens of cancer, less vascularized tumors exhibited lower microvascular expression of DEP-1. Altogether, our results established DEP-1 as an essential driver of VEGF-dependent permeability, angiogenesis, and metastasis, suggesting a novel therapeutic route to cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5080-91. ©2016 AACR.

  12. Increased pulmonary and intestinal permeability in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Adenis, A; Colombel, J F; Lecouffe, P; Wallaert, B; Hecquet, B; Marchandise, X; Cortot, A

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increased epithelial permeability may affect sites other than the intestine in patients with Crohn's disease by simultaneously evaluating their pulmonary and intestinal permeability. Pulmonary and intestinal permeability were measured by clearance of inhaled technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentacetate (99mTc-DTPA) and by urinary recovery of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetracetate respectively in 22 patients with Crohn's disease. The half time clearance of 99mTc-DTPA from lung to blood (t1/2LB) was decreased--that is pulmonary permeability increased--in the whole group of patients with Crohn's disease as compared with 13 controls (median 45.5 minutes (8-160) v 85 minutes (34-130) (p less than 0.003)). When analysed separately only patients with active Crohn's disease (n = 15) had a decreased t1/2 lung to blood v controls (42 minutes (8-160) v 85 minutes (34-130) (p less than 0.0025)). Among patients with active Crohn's disease, six were studied again when their disease was quiescent and their t1/2 lung to blood did not differ significantly. The intestinal permeability was increased in the whole group of Crohn's disease patients as compared with 15 controls (5.25% (1.2-24) v 1.7% (0.65-5.75) (p less than 0.0002)). When analysed separately both patients with active and inactive Crohn's disease had increased intestinal permeability v controls (8.1% (1.6-24) and 3.5% (1.2.9.2) v 1.7% (0.65-5.75)) (p less than 0.0001, p = 0.05 respectively). Six patients with active Crohn's disease were studied again when their disease was quiescent and their intestinal permeability decreased significantly p less than 0.04). Pulmonary permeability was increased in patients with Crohn's disease but was not greatly influenced by Crohn's disease activity as opposed to intestinal permeability. The mechanism of this increase is unknown, but may be related in some patients to the presence of an alveolitis. PMID:1612487

  13. Physiological levels of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide shed the endothelial glycocalyx and enhance vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Matthias; Saller, Thomas; Chappell, Daniel; Rehm, Markus; Welsch, Ulrich; Becker, Bernhard F

    2013-05-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a peptide hormone released from the cardiac atria during hypervolemia. Though named for its well-known renal effect, ANP has been demonstrated to acutely increase vascular permeability in vivo. Experimentally, this phenomenon was associated with a marked shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx, at least for supraphysiological intravascular concentrations. This study investigates the impact and mechanism of action of physiological doses of ANP and related peptides on the vascular barrier. In isolated guinea pig hearts, prepared and perfused in a modified Langendorff mode with and without the intravascular presence of the colloid hydroxyethyl starch (HES), we measured functional changes in vascular permeability and glycocalyx shedding related to intracoronary infusion of physiological concentrations of A-, B- and C-type natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP and CNP). Significant coronary venous washout of glycocalyx constituents (syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate) was observed. As tested for ANP, this effect was positively related to the intracoronary concentration. Intravascular shedding of the glycocalyx was morphologically confirmed by electron microscopy. Also, functional vascular barrier competence decreased, as indicated by significant increases in transudate formation and HES extravasation. Ortho-phenanthroline, a non-specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, was able to reduce ANP-induced glycocalyx shedding. These findings suggest participation of natriuretic peptides in pathophysiological processes like heart failure, inflammation or sepsis. Inhibition of metalloproteases might serve as a basis for future therapeutical options.

  14. Plasma from patients with HELLP syndrome increases blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Kedra; Tremble, Sarah M; Owens, Michelle Y; Morris, Rachael; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2015-03-01

    Circulating inflammatory factors and endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to contribute to the pathophysiology of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome. To date, the occurrence of neurological complications in these women has been reported, but few studies have examined whether impairment in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability or cerebrovascular reactivity is present in women having HELLP syndrome. We hypothesized that plasma from women with HELLP syndrome causes increased BBB permeability and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Posterior cerebral arteries from female nonpregnant rats were perfused with 20% serum from women with normal pregnancies (n = 5) or women with HELLP syndrome (n = 5), and BBB permeability and vascular reactivity were compared. Plasma from women with HELLP syndrome increased BBB permeability while not changing myogenic tone and reactivity to pressure. Addition of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester caused constriction of arteries that was not different with the different plasmas nor was dilation to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside different between the 2 groups. However, dilation to the small- and intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel activator NS309 was decreased in vessels exposed to HELLP plasma. Thus, increased BBB permeability in response to HELLP plasma was associated with selective endothelial dysfunction.

  15. Kinetin Increases Water Permeability of Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, William; Hester, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Kinetin is shown to increase substantially the water permeability of liposomes composed of several types of phosphatidylcholines including the natural phospholipids egg lecithin and asolectin and the synthetic phospholipids dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Kinetin effects were measured from 16.3 micromolar to 2.4 millimolar at temperatures from 10°C to 50°C and at pH 2.0, 7.0, and 11.0. Temperature studies indicate that kinetin produces a larger increase in water permeability with membranes in the more fluid liquid crystalline state. Kinetin is also shown to enhance [14C]glucose permeability and perhaps promotes membrane aggregation. From these experiments, we conclude that kinetin may produce its initial effect by altering the lipid bilayer portion of membranes. PMID:16662860

  16. Lack of adrenomedullin in mouse endothelial cells results in defective angiogenesis, enhanced vascular permeability, less metastasis, and more brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Pozo-Rodrigálvarez, Andrea; Martínez-Murillo, Ricardo; Martínez, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and in the pathophysiology of certain cardiovascular diseases. AM plays critical roles in blood vessels, including regulation of vascular stability and permeability. To elucidate the autocrine/paracrine function of AM in endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, a conditional knockout of AM in EC (AMEC-KO) was used. The amount of vascularization of the matrigel implants was lower in AMEC-KO mice indicating a defective angiogenesis. Moreover, ablation of AM in EC revealed increased vascular permeability in comparison with wild type (WT) littermates. In addition, AMEC-KO lungs exhibited significantly less tumor growth than littermate WT mice using a syngeneic model of metastasis. Furthermore, following middle cerebral artery permanent occlusion, there was a significant infarct size decrease in animals lacking endothelial AM when compared to their WT counterparts. AM is an important regulator of EC function, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis, and brain response to ischemia. Studies of AM should bring novel approaches to the treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:27640364

  17. The effect of ASK1 on vascular permeability and edema formation in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Song, Juhyun; Cheon, So Yeong; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2015-01-21

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1) is the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) and participates in the various central nervous system (CNS) signaling pathways. In cerebral ischemia, vascular permeability in the brain is an important issue because regulation failure of it results in edema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. To determine the role of ASK1 on vascular permeability and edema formation following cerebral ischemia, we first investigated ASK1-related gene expression using microarray analyses of ischemic brain tissue. We then measured protein levels of ASK1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain endothelial cells after hypoxia injury. We also examined protein expression of ASK1 and VEGF, edema formation, and morphological alteration through cresyl violet staining in ischemic brain tissue using ASK1-small interference RNA (ASK1-siRNA). Finally, immunohistochemistry was performed to examine VEGF and aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) expression in ischemic brain injury. Based on our findings, we propose that ASK1 is a regulating factor of vascular permeability and edema formation in cerebral ischemia.

  18. Splaying hyperthin polyelectrolyte multilayers to increase their gas permeability.

    PubMed

    Yi, Song; Lin, Cen; Regen, Steven L

    2015-01-28

    The concept of splayed, hyperthin polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) is introduced in which a bulky, hydrophilic and charged pendant group is used to increase the gas permeability of a PEM without reducing its permeation selectivity. Proof of principle studies are reported using nm-thick PEMs made from poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) () and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) () bearing bulky cobaltocenium ions.

  19. The soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor NS-2028 reduces vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis and permeability.

    PubMed

    Morbidelli, Lucia; Pyriochou, Anastasia; Filippi, Sandra; Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Roussos, Charis; Zhou, Zongmin; Loutrari, Heleni; Waltenberger, Johannes; Stössel, Anne; Giannis, Athanassios; Ziche, Marina; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated permeability and angiogenesis. However, effector molecules that operate downstream of NO in this pathway remain poorly characterized. Herein, we determined the effect of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibition on VEGF responses in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of endothelial cells (EC) with VEGF stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and cGMP accumulation; pretreatment with the sGC inhibitor 4H-8-bromo-1,2,4-oxadiazolo(3,4-d)benz(b)(1,4)oxazin-1-one (NS-2028) blunted cGMP levels without affecting VEGF-receptor phosphorylation. Incubation of cells with NS-2028 blocked the mitogenic effects of VEGF. In addition, cells in which sGC was inhibited exhibited no migration and sprouting in response to VEGF. To study the mechanisms through which NS-2028 inhibits EC migration, we determined the effects of alterations in cGMP levels on p38 MAPK. Initially, we observed that inhibition of sGC attenuated VEGF-stimulated activation of p38. In contrast, the addition of 8-Br-cGMP to EC stimulated p38 phosphorylation. The addition of cGMP elevating agents (BAY 41-2272, DETA NO and YC-1) enhanced EC migration. To test whether sGC also mediated the angiogenic effects of VEGF in vivo, we used the rabbit cornea assay. Animals receiving NS-2028 orally displayed a reduced angiogenic response to VEGF. As increased vascular permeability occurs prior to new blood vessel formation, we determined the effect of NS-2028 in vascular leakage. Using a modified Miles assay, we observed that NS-2028 attenuated VEGF-induced permeability. Overall, we provide evidence that sGC mediates the angiogenic and permeability-promoting activities of VEGF, indicating the significance of sGC as a downstream effector of VEGF-triggered responses.

  20. Radiation effects on the fibrinolytic system and their relation to hemorrhagic diathesis and increased endothelial permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Ballelos, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of wholebody X-irradiation on the fibrinolytic system, the causes of radiation-induced changes in plasmin (fibrinolytic) activity, and the contribution of increased plasmin activity to increased capillary (endothelial) permeability and hemorrhagic diathesis. The parameters evaluated using adult, male, Rochester ex-Wistar rats were: (1) plasmin, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator levels in plasma within one month after 425, 655, or 885 rad and at 3.5, 7 and 12 months after 425 rad, by a modified caseinolytic method; (2) tissue plasminogen activator activity (TPAA) in heart, kidneys, lungs, liver, pancreas and spleen, by a fibrin plate method (885 rad); (3) vascular permeability, by a radioisotopic method (885 rad); and (4) gross hemorrhagic response, scored for severity. The dose-dependent changes described in plasmin, plasminogen and plasminogen activator were multi-phasic. Epsilon-amino-caproic acid (0.3 gm/kg body weight) prevented the immediate and early radiation effects on these fibrinolytic components, and partially inhibited the later effects (within one month) whether administered only as a single injection before irradiation or maintained by daily water intake thereafter. The kidneys, spleen and pancreas were markedly susceptible to radiation-induced changes in TPAA. The lungs and liver showed significant changes in capillary permeability, which correlated positively with changes in vascular volume and blood plasmin and plasminogen activator levels. Increased plasmin (fibrinolytic) activity, superimposed on a hemostatic apparatus already impaired because of thrombocytopenia, contributed to hemorrhagic diathesis in acute radiation sickness.

  1. Endothelial STAT3 Activation Increases Vascular Leakage Through Downregulating Tight Junction Proteins: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Sung Wook; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Bae, Jong-Sup; Lee, Eun Hui; Paek, Sun Ha; Kim, Seung U; Ye, Sangkyu; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Cho, Chung-Hyun

    2017-05-01

    Vascular inflammation is characteristic feature of diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retina, a variety of the pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated and involved in endothelial dysfunction. STAT3 transcription factor has been implicated in mediating cytokine signaling during vascular inflammation. However, whether and how STAT3 is involved in the direct regulation of the endothelial permeability is currently undefined. Our studies revealed that IL-6-induced STAT3 activation increases retinal endothelial permeability and vascular leakage in retinas of mice through the reduced expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In a co-culture model with microglia and endothelial cells under a high glucose condition, the microglia-derived IL-6 induced STAT3 activation in the retinal endothelial cells, leading to increasing endothelial permeability. In addition, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation was independent of ROS generation in the retinal endothelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that STAT3 activation downregulates the ZO-1 and occludin levels and increases the endothelial permeability through the induction of VEGF production in retinal endothelial cells. These results suggest the potential importance of IL-6/STAT3 signaling in regulating endothelial permeability and provide a therapeutic target to prevent the pathology of diabetic retinopathy. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1123-1134, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Vascular permeability, neutrophil migration and edematogenic effects induced by the latex of Cryptostegia grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Tatiana M; Alencar, Nylane M N; Figueiredo, Jozi G; Figueiredo, Ingrid S T; Teixeira, Cinthia M; Bitencourt, Flávio S; Secco, Daniela D; Araújo, Eliane S; Ana Maria Leão, C A; Ramos, Márcio V

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory responses have been described as occurring after exposure to some latex materials. In this study pro-inflammatory activity in the latex of Cryptostegia grandiflora was investigated. The soluble proteins of the latex (CgLP) were isolated from the whole latex and evaluated by in vivo assays. CgLP induced strong inflammatory activity mediated by neutrophil migration, enlarging vascular permeability and increasing myeloperoxidase activity locally in rats. CgLP-induced inflammation was observed in peritonitis, paw edema and air push models. In addition, CgLP caused hyperemia in a healing model. The peritonitis effect was lost when CgLP was previously boiled suggesting the involvement of pro-inflammatory proteins. Thioglycollate increased the neutrophil migration induced by CgLP, but not by fMLP. Mast cell depletion provoked by 40/80 compound did not modify the course of inflammation triggered by CgLP, being similar to fMLP, which suggested that neutrophil migration was induced by direct mechanism mediated by macrophages. Neutrophil migration stimulated by CgLP was strongly inhibited by Dexamethasone and to a lesser extent by Thalidomide, indicating the involvement of cytokines in mediating neutrophil infiltration. Celecoxib and Indomethacin were inhibitory suggesting the involvement of prostaglandins. Cimetidine was effective only in the initial phase of edema. PCA 4248 was ineffective. It is concluded that the latex of C. grandiflora is a potent inflammatory fluid, and also that laticifer proteins may be implicated in this process.

  3. Agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Vaara, M

    1992-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria provides the cell with an effective permeability barrier against external noxious agents, including antibiotics, but is itself a target for antibacterial agents such as polycations and chelators. Both groups of agents weaken the molecular interactions of the lipopolysaccharide constituent of the outer membrane. Various polycations are able, at least under certain conditions, to bind to the anionic sites of lipopolysaccharide. Many of these disorganize and cross the outer membrane and render it permeable to drugs which permeate the intact membrane very poorly. These polycations include polymyxins and their derivatives, protamine, polymers of basic amino acids, compound 48/80, insect cecropins, reptilian magainins, various cationic leukocyte peptides (defensins, bactenecins, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and others), aminoglycosides, and many more. However, the cationic character is not the sole determinant required for the permeabilizing activity, and therefore some of the agents are much more effective permeabilizers than others. They are useful tools in studies in which the poor permeability of the outer membrane poses problems. Some of them undoubtedly have a role as natural antibiotic substances, and they or their derivatives might have some potential as pharmaceutical agents in antibacterial therapy as well. Also, chelators (such as EDTA, nitrilotriacetic acid, and sodium hexametaphosphate), which disintegrate the outer membrane by removing Mg2+ and Ca2+, are effective and valuable permeabilizers. PMID:1406489

  4. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Increase Retinal Pigment Epithelial Layer Permeability.

    PubMed

    Korthagen, Nicoline M; Bastiaans, Jeroen; van Meurs, Jan C; van Bilsen, Kiki; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A

    2015-07-01

    Antimalarials chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are widely used as antiinflammatory drugs, but side effects include retinopathy and vision loss. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of CQ and HCQ on the barrier integrity of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell monolayers in vitro. Permeability of ARPE-19 cell monolayers was determined using Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran. The influence of CQ and HCQ on cell death and the expression tight junction molecules was examined. CQ and HCQ significantly increased ARPE-19 monolayer permeability after 3 and 18 h, respectively, and enhanced mRNA levels for claudin-1 and occludin. Cytotoxicity was only observed after 18 h exposure. Thus, CQ and HCQ rapidly enhance RPE barrier permeability in vitro, independent of cytotoxicity or loss of zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, and occludin expression. Our findings suggest that CQ/HCQ-induced permeability of the RPE layer may contribute to blood-retinal barrier breakdown in case of CQ/HCQ-induced retinopathy.

  5. Vascular leakage induced by exposure to arsenic via increased production of NO, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chi

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that in situ exposure to arsenic induced increased vascular leakage. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) are known to affect vascular permeability. Therefore, the goal of our present studies is to investigate the functional impact of the generation of NO or OH(-) on arsenic-induced vascular leakage. Vascular permeability changes were evaluated by means of Evans blue (EB) assay. Rats were anesthetized and intravenously injected with EB. Permeability changes were induced in back skin by intradermal injections of sodium arsenite mixed with NOS inhibitor: N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or aminoguanidine (AG) and OH(-) scavenger: 1,3 Dimethyl-2 thiourea (DMTU). Experiments were also performed to determine whether DMTU mixed with L-NAME would further inhibit arsenic-induced vascular leakage as compared with attenuation effects by either DMTU or L-NAME. One hour after administration, EB accumulated in the skin was extracted and quantified. Both L-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) and DMTU (0.05, 0.2 and 1.2 micromol/site) inhibited the increase in vascular leakage induced by arsenite. However, only high dose (1 micromol/site) of AG significantly attenuated arsenite-induced vascular leakage. In contrast, neither D-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) nor AG (0.04 and 0.2 micromol/site) attenuated increased vascular leakage by arsenic. DMTU mixed with L-NAME caused no further inhibition of arsenic-induced vascular leakage by either DMTU or L-NAME. The techniques of India ink and immunostaining were used to demonstrate both vascular labeling and nitrotyrosine staining in tissue treated with arsenic. L-NAME apparently reduced the density of leaky vessels and the levels of peroxynitrite staining induced by arsenite. These results suggest that NO, OH(-) and peroxynitrite play a role in increased vascular permeability

  6. Disintegrin Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 Regulates Endothelial Permeability and T Cell Transmigration by Proteolysis of Vascular Endothelial Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Beate; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Maretzky, Thorsten; Ludwig, Andreas; Blobel, Carl P.; Saftig, Paul; Reiss, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is the major adhesion molecule of endothelial adherens junctions. It plays an essential role in controlling endothelial permeability, vascular integrity, leukocyte transmigration, and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of soluble VE-cadherin are associated with diseases like coronary atherosclerosis. Previous data showed that the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin is released by an unknown metalloprotease activity during apoptosis. In this study, we used gain of function analyses, inhibitor studies and RNA interference experiments to analyze the proteolytic release of VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that VE-cadherin is specifically cleaved by the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM10 in its ectodomain releasing a soluble fragment and generating a carboxyterminal membrane bound stub, which is a substrate for a subsequent γ-secretase cleavage. This ADAM10-mediated proteolysis could be induced by Ca2+-influx and staurosporine treatment, indicating that ADAM10-mediated VE-cadherin cleavage contributes to the dissolution of adherens junctions during endothelial cell activation and apoptosis, respectively. In contrast, protein kinase C activation or inhibition did not modulate VE-cadherin processing. Increased ADAM10 expression was functionally associated with an increase in endothelial permeability. Remarkably, our data indicate that ADAM10 activity also contributes to the thrombin-induced decrease of endothelial cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, knockdown of ADAM10 in HUVECs as well as in T cells by small interfering RNA impaired T cell transmigration. Taken together our data identify ADAM10 as a novel regulator of vascular permeability and demonstrate a hitherto unknown function of ADAM10 in the regulation of VE-cadherin-dependent endothelial cell functions and leukocyte transendothelial migration. PMID:18420943

  7. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  8. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    PubMed Central

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; de Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature. PMID:27703233

  9. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability.

    PubMed

    Palomba, R; Parodi, A; Evangelopoulos, M; Acciardo, S; Corbo, C; de Rosa, E; Yazdi, I K; Scaria, S; Molinaro, R; Furman, N E Toledano; You, J; Ferrari, M; Salvatore, F; Tasciotti, E

    2016-10-05

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  10. Cadmium induces vascular permeability via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Fengyun; Guo, Fang; Li, Liqun; Guo, Ling; Hou, Yinglong; Hao, Enkui; Yan, Suhua; Allen, Thaddeus D.; Liu, Ju

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Low-dose cadmium (Cd) induces vascular hyper-permeability. • p38 MAPK mediates Cd-induced disruption of endothelial cell barrier function. • SB203850 inhibits Cd-induced membrane dissociation of VE-cadherin and β-catenin. • SB203850 reduces Cd-induced expression and secretion of TNF-α. - Abstract: The vasculature of various organs is a targeted by the environmental toxin, cadmium (Cd). However, mechanisms leading to pathological conditions are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At 4 μM, CdCl{sub 2} induced a hyper-permeability defect in HUVECs, but not the inhibition of cell growth up to 24 h. This effect of CdCl{sub 2} was dependent on the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203850 suppressed the CdCl{sub 2}-induced alteration in trans-endothelial electrical resistance in HUVEC monolayers, a model measurement of vascular endothelial barrier integrity. SB203850 also inhibited the Cd-induced membrane dissociation of vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin and β-catenin, the important components of the adherens junctional complex. In addition, SB203850 reduces the Cd-induced expression and secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Taken together, our findings suggest that Cd induces vascular hyper-permeability and disruption of endothelial barrier integrity through stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling.

  11. Improving vascular maturation using noncoding RNAs increases antitumor effect of chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Wang, Hongyu; Jiang, Dahai; Wu, Sherry Y.; Somasunderam, Anoma; Volk, David E.; Lokesh, Ganesh L. R.; Li, Xin; Pradeep, Sunila; Yang, Xianbin; Haemmerle, Monika; Nagaraja, Archana S; Bayraktar, Emine; Bayraktar, Recep; Li, Li; Tanaka, Takemi; Hu, Wei; Gharpure, Kshipra M; McGuire, Michael H.; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Zhang, Xinna; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Bulayeva, Nataliya; Dorniak, Piotr L.; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Gorenstein, David G.; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Current antiangiogenesis therapy relies on inhibiting newly developed immature tumor blood vessels and starving tumor cells. This strategy has shown transient and modest efficacy. Here, we report a better approach to target cancer-associated endothelial cells (ECs), reverse permeability and leakiness of tumor blood vessels, and improve delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor. First, we identified deregulated microRNAs (miRs) from patient-derived cancer-associated ECs. Silencing these miRs led to decreased vascular permeability and increased maturation of blood vessels. Next, we screened a thioaptamer (TA) library to identify TAs selective for tumor-associated ECs. An annexin A2–targeted TA was identified and used for delivery of miR106b-5p and miR30c-5p inhibitors, resulting in vascular maturation and antitumor effects without inducing hypoxia. These findings could have implications for improving vascular-targeted therapy. PMID:27777972

  12. Protective effects of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide-induced monocytic adhesion and vascular endothelial permeability through regulation of vascular endothelial cadherin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Y; Wang, W N; Han, H Z; Xie, K L; Wang, G L; Yu, Y H

    2015-06-11

    We observed the effect of hydrogen-rich medium on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), hyaline leukocyte conglutination, and permeability of the endothelium. Endotheliocytes were inoculated on 6-well plates and randomly divided into 4 groups: control, H2, LPS, LPS+H2, H2, and LPS+H2 in saturated hydrogen-rich medium. We applied Wright's stain-ing to observe conglutination of hyaline leukocytes and HUVECs, flow cytometry to determine the content of vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure the E-selectin concentration in the cell liquor, the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) to test the permeability of endothelial cells, and Western blot and immunofluorescence to test the expression and distribution of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. Compared with control cells, there was an increase in endothelium-hyaline leukocyte conglutination, a reduction in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin, and the TEER value increased obviously. Compared with LPS, there was an obvious reduction in the conglutination of LPS+H2 cells, a reduction in VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin levels, and a reduction in the TEER-resistance value, while the expression of VE-cadherin increased. Fluorescence results showed that, compared with control cells, the VE-cadherin in LPS cells was in-complete at the cell joints. Compared with LPS cells, the VE-cadherin in LPS+H2 cells was even and complete at the cell joints. Liquid rich in hydrogen could reduce LPS-induced production of adhesion molecules and endothelium-hyaline leukocyte conglutination, and influence the expression and distribution of VE-cadherin to regulate the permeability of the endothelium.

  13. Enhanced vascular permeability in rat skin induced by sensory nerve stimulation: evaluation of the time course and appropriate stimulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, N M E; Dostrovsky, J O; Charlton, M P

    2008-05-15

    Activation of nociceptors causes them to secrete neuropeptides. The binding of these peptides to receptors on blood vessels causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability that allows loss of proteins and fluid (plasma extravasation, PE); this contributes to inflammation. This study defines the relationship between electrical activation of nociceptors and PE and evaluates the time course of this response in the skin of rats. We measured the time course and extent of PE by digital imaging of changes in skin reflectance caused by leakage of Evans Blue (EB) dye infused in the circulatory system before stimulation. Stimulation of the exclusively sensory saphenous nerve caused the skin to become dark blue within 2 min due to accumulation of EB. While PE is usually measured after 5-15 min of electrical stimulation, we found that stimulation for only 1 min at 4 Hz produced maximum PE. This response was dependent on the number of electrical stimuli at least for 4 Hz and 8 Hz stimulation rates. Since accumulation of EB in the skin is only slowly reversible, to determine the duration of enhanced vascular permeability we administered EB at various times after electrical stimulation of the saphenous nerve. PE was only observed when EB was infused within 5 min of electrical stimulation but could still be observed 50 min after capsaicin (1%, 25 microl) injection into the hind paw. These findings indicate that enhanced vascular permeability evoked by electrical stimulation persists only briefly after release of neuropeptides from nociceptors in the skin. Therefore, treatment of inflammation by blockade of neuropeptide release and receptors may be more effective than treatments aimed at epithelial gaps. We propose, in models of stimulation-induced inflammation, the use of a short stimulus train.

  14. Estimating retinal vascular permeability using the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity model with fluorescein videoangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Osswald, Christian R.; Dosmar, Emily; Guthrie, Micah J.; Hones, Logan; Sinha, Lagnojita; Xu, Xiaochun; Mieler, William F.; St. Lawrence, Keith; Kang-Mieler, Jennifer J.

    2015-06-01

    Clinical symptoms of diabetic retinopathy are not detectable until damage to the retina reaches an irreversible stage, at least by today's treatment standards. As a result, there is a push to develop new, "sub-clinical" methods of predicting the onset of diabetic retinopathy before the onset of irreversible damage. With diabetic retinopathy being associated with the accumulation of long-term mild damage to the retinal vasculature, retinal blood vessel permeability has been proposed as a key parameter for detecting preclinical stages of retinopathy. In this study, a kinetic modeling approach used to quantify vascular permeability in dynamic contrast-enhanced medical imaging was evaluated in noise simulations and then applied to retinal videoangiography data in a diabetic rat for the first time to determine the potential for this approach to be employed clinically as an early indicator of diabetic retinopathy. Experimental levels of noise were found to introduce errors of less than 15% in estimates of blood flow and extraction fraction (a marker of vascular permeability), and fitting of rat retinal fluorescein angiography data provided stable maps of both parameters.

  15. Thrombin-induced increase in albumin permeability across the endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.G.; Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Bizios, R.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Fenton, J.W. 2d.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effect of thrombin on albumin permeability across the endothelial monolayer in vitro. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown on micropore membranes. Morphologic analysis confirmed the presence of a confluent monolayer with interendothelial junctions. Albumin permeability was measured by the clearance of 125I-albumin across the endothelial monolayer. The control 125I-albumin clearance was 0.273 +/- 0.02 microliter/min. The native enzyme, alpha-thrombin (10(-6) to 10(-10) M), added to the luminal side of the endothelium produced concentration-dependent increases in albumin clearance (maximum clearance of 0.586 +/- 0.08 microliter/min at 10(-6) M). Gamma (gamma) thrombin (10(-6) M and 10(-8) M), which lacks the fibrinogen recognition site, also produced a concentration-dependent increase in albumin clearance similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin. Moreover, the two proteolytically inactive forms of the native enzyme, i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin, increased the 125I-albumin clearance (0.610 +/- 0.09 microliter/min and 0.609 +/- 0.02 microliter/min for i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin at 10(-6) M, respectively). Since the modified forms of thrombin lack the fibrinogen recognition and active serine protease sites, the results indicate that neither site is required for increased albumin permeability. The increase in albumin clearance with alpha-thrombin was not secondary to endothelial cell lysis because lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the medium following thrombin was not significantly different from baseline values. There was also no morphological evidence of cell lysis. Moreover, the increase in 125I-albumin clearance induced by alpha-thrombin was reversible by washing thrombin from the endothelium.

  16. Intravital lectin perfusion analysis of vascular permeability in human micro- and macro- blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Debbage, P L; Sölder, E; Seidl, S; Hutzler, P; Hugl, B; Ofner, D; Kreczy, A

    2001-10-01

    We previously applied intravital lectin perfusion in mouse models to elucidate mechanisms underlying vascular permeability. The present work transfers this technique to human models, analysing vascular permeability in macro- and microvessels. Human vascular endothelial surface carbohydrate biochemistry differs significantly from its murine counterpart, lacking alpha-galactosyl epitopes and expressing the L-fucose moiety in the glycocalyx; the poly-N-lactosamine glycan backbone is common to all mammals. We examined extensively lectin binding specificities in sections and in vivo, and then applied the poly-N-lactosamine-specific lectin LEA and the L-fucose-specific lectin UEA-I in human intravital perfusions. Transendothelial transport differed in macrovessels and microvessels. In microvessels of adult human fat tissue, rectal wall and rectal carcinomas, slow transendothelial transport by vesicles was followed by significant retention at the subendothelial basement membrane; paracellular passage was not observed. Passage time exceeded 1 h. Thus we found barrier mechanisms resembling those we described previously in murine tissues. In both adult and fetal macrovessels, the vena saphena magna and the umbilical vein, respectively, rapid passage across the endothelial lining was observed, the tracer localising completely in the subendothelial tissues within 15 min; vesicular transport was more rapid than in microvessels, and retention at the subendothelial basement membrane briefer.

  17. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Deficiency Potentiates PAR-1-induced Increase in Endothelial Permeability in Mouse Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Profirovic, Jasmina; Han, Jingyan; Andreeva, Alexandra V.; Neamu, Radu F.; Pavlovic, Sasha; Vogel, Stephen M.; Walter, Ulrich; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana A.

    2010-01-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is implicated in the protection of the endothelial barrier in vitro and in vivo. VASP function in thrombin signaling in the endothelial cells (ECs) is not known. For the first time we studied the effects of VASP deficiency on EC permeability and pulmonary vascular permeability in response to thrombin receptor stimulation. We provided the evidence that VASP deficiency potentiates the increase in endothelial permeability induced by activation of thrombin receptor in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and isolated mouse lungs. Using transendothelial resistance measurement, we showed that siRNA-mediated VASP downregulation in HUVECs leads to a potentiation of thrombin- and protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) agonist-induced increase in endothelial permeability. Compared to control cells, VASP-deficient HUVECs had delayed endothelial junctional reassembly and abrogated VE-cadherin cytoskeletal anchoring in the recovery phase after thrombin stimulation, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence studies and cell fractionation analysis, respectively. Measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient in isolated mouse lungs demonstrated that VASP−/− mice have increased microvascular permeability in response to infusion with PAR-1 agonist compared to wild type mice. Lack of VASP led to decreased Rac1 activation both in VASP-deficient HUVECs after thrombin stimulation and VASP−/− mouse lungs after PAR-1 agonist infusion, indicating that VASP effects on thrombin signaling may correlated with changes in Rac1 activity. This study demonstrates that VASP may play critical and complex role in the regulation of thrombin-dependent disruption of the endothelial barrier function. PMID:20945373

  18. The Robo4 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable for vascular permeability and neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Zhang, Jiasheng; Genet, Gael; Tong, Raymond; Dubrac, Alexandre; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vascular permeability and neovascularization are implicated in many diseases including retinopathies and diabetic wound healing. Robo4 is an endothelial-specific transmembrane receptor that stabilizes the vasculature, as shown in Robo4−/− mice that develop hyperpermeability, but how Robo4 signals remained unclear. Here we show that Robo4 deletion enhances permeability and revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and accelerates cutaneous wound healing. To determine Robo4 signalling pathways, we generated transgenic mice expressing a truncated Robo4 lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Robo4ΔCD). Robo4ΔCD expression is sufficient to prevent permeability, and inhibits OIR revascularization and wound healing in Robo4−/− mice. Mechanistically, Robo4 does not affect Slit2 signalling, but Robo4 and Robo4ΔCD counteract Vegfr2-Y949 (Y951 in human VEGFR2) phosphorylation by signalling through the endothelial UNC5B receptor. We conclude that Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and vessel permeability independently of its cytoplasmic domain, while activating VEGFR2-Y951 via ROBO4 inhibition might accelerate tissue revascularization in retinopathy of prematurity and in diabetic patients. PMID:27882935

  19. Heterogeneous vascular permeability and alternative diffusion barrier in sensory circumventricular organs of adult mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shoko; Furube, Eriko; Mannari, Tetsuya; Okuda, Hiroaki; Tatsumi, Kouko; Wanaka, Akio; Miyata, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Fenestrated capillaries of the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs), including the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the subfornical organ and the area postrema, lack completeness of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to sense a variety of blood-derived molecules and to convey the information into other brain regions. We examine the vascular permeability of blood-derived molecules and the expression of tight-junction proteins in sensory CVOs. The present tracer assays revealed that blood-derived dextran 10 k (Dex10k) having a molecular weight (MW) of 10,000 remained in the perivascular space between the inner and outer basement membranes, but fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC; MW: 389) and Dex3k (MW: 3000) diffused into the parenchyma. The vascular permeability of FITC was higher at central subdivisions than at distal subdivisions. Neither FITC nor Dex3k diffused beyond the dense network of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes/tanycytes. The expression of tight-junction proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) was undetectable at the central subdivisions of the sensory CVOs but some was expressed at the distal subdivisions. Electron microscopic observation showed that capillaries were surrounded with numerous layers of astrocyte processes and dendrites. The expression of occludin and ZO-1 was also observed as puncta on GFAP-positive astrocytes/tanycytes of the sensory CVOs. Our study thus demonstrates the heterogeneity of vascular permeability and expression of tight-junction proteins and indicates that the outer basement membrane and dense astrocyte/tanycyte connection are possible alternative mechanisms for a diffusion barrier of blood-derived molecules, instead of the BBB.

  20. Hypoxia Increases Epithelial Permeability in Human Nasal Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The nasal mucosa is the first site to encounter pathogens, and it forms continuous barriers to various stimuli. This barrier function is very important in the innate defense mechanism. Additionally, inflammation of the nasal sinus is known to be a hypoxic condition. Here, we studied the effect of hypoxia on barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial (NHNE) cells. Materials and Methods The expression levels of various junction complex proteins were assessed in hypoxia-stimulated NHNE cells and human nasal mucosal tissues. We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blotting, and immunofluorescence assays to examine differences in the mRNA and protein expression of ZO-1, a tight junction protein, and E-cadherin in NHNE cells. Moreover, we evaluated the trans-epithelial resistance (TER) of NHNE cells under hypoxic conditions to check for changes in permeability. The expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin was measured in human nasal mucosa samples by western blotting. Results Hypoxia time-dependently decreased the expression of ZO-1 and E-cadherin at the gene and protein levels. In addition, hypoxia decreased the TER of NHNE cells, which indicates increased permeability. Human nasal mucosa samples, which are supposed to be hypoxic, showed significantly decreased levels of ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression compared with control. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that hypoxia altered the expression of junction complex molecules and increased epithelial permeability in human nasal epithelia. This suggests that hypoxia causes barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, it may be associated with innate immune dysfunction after encountering pathogens. PMID:25837192

  1. Hydrogen-Rich Medium Attenuated Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Monocyte-Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Vascular Endothelial Permeability via Rho-Associated Coiled-Coil Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Xie, Keliang; Wang, Weina; Chen, Hongguang; Han, Huanzhi; Liu, Daquan; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-07-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. In recent years, molecular hydrogen, as an effective free radical scavenger, has been shown a selective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, and it is beneficial in the treatment of sepsis. Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK) participates in junction between normal cells, and regulates vascular endothelial permeability. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide to stimulate vascular endothelial cells and explored the effects of hydrogen-rich medium on the regulation of adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and vascular endothelial permeability. We found that hydrogen-rich medium could inhibit adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and decrease levels of adhesion molecules, whereas the levels of transepithelial/endothelial electrical resistance values and the expression of vascular endothelial cadherin were increased after hydrogen-rich medium treatment. Moreover, hydrogen-rich medium could lessen the expression of ROCK, as a similar effect of its inhibitor Y-27632. In addition, hydrogen-rich medium could also inhibit adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils to endothelial cells. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich medium could regulate adhesion of monocytes/polymorphonuclear neutrophils to endothelial cells and vascular endothelial permeability, and this effect might be related to the decreased expression of ROCK protein.

  2. An extended vascular model for less biased estimation of permeability parameters in DCE-T1 images.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Davarani, Siamak P; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Ewing, James R; Noll, Douglas C; Mikkelsen, Tom; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Quan

    2017-02-17

    One of the key elements in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) image analysis is the arterial input function (AIF). Traditionally, in DCE studies a global AIF sampled from a major artery or vein is used to estimate the vascular permeability parameters; however, not addressing dispersion and delay of the AIF at the tissue level can lead to biased estimates of these parameters. To find less biased estimates of vascular permeability parameters, a vascular model of the cerebral vascular system is proposed that considers effects of dispersion of the AIF in the vessel branches, as well as extravasation of the contrast agent (CA) to the extravascular-extracellular space. Profiles of the CA concentration were simulated for different branching levels of the vascular structure, combined with the effects of vascular leakage. To estimate the permeability parameters, the extended model was applied to these simulated signals and also to DCE-T1 (dynamic contrast enhanced T1 ) images of patients with glioblastoma multiforme tumors. The simulation study showed that, compared with the case of solving the pharmacokinetic equation with a global AIF, using the local AIF that is corrected by the vascular model can give less biased estimates of the permeability parameters (K(trans) , vp and Kb ). Applying the extended model to signals sampled from different areas of the DCE-T1 image showed that it is able to explain the CA concentration profile in both the normal areas and the tumor area, where effects of vascular leakage exist. Differences in the values of the permeability parameters estimated in these images using the local and global AIFs followed the same trend as the simulation study. These results demonstrate that the vascular model can be a useful tool for obtaining more accurate estimation of parameters in DCE studies.

  3. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Increases Vascular Leakage in Retina through VE-cadherin Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choon-Soo; Kim, Yun Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jai; Park, Jonghanne; Jeong, Heewon; Lee, Sang-Eun; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The inhibitors of CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase-4; DPP4) have been widely prescribed to control glucose level in diabetic patients. DPP4-inhibitors, however, accumulate stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), a well-known inducer of vascular leakage and angiogenesis both of which are fundamental pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DPP4-inhibitors on vascular permeability and diabetic retinopathy. DPP4-inhibitor (diprotin A or sitagliptin) increased the phosphorylation of Src and vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) in human endothelial cells and disrupted endothelial cell-to-cell junctions, which were attenuated by CXCR4 (receptor of SDF-1α)-blocker or Src-inhibitor. Disruption of endothelial cell-to-cell junctions in the immuno-fluorescence images correlated with the actual leakage of the endothelial monolayer in the transwell endothelial permeability assay. In the Miles assay, vascular leakage was observed in the ears into which SDF-1α was injected, and this effect was aggravated by DPP4-inhibitor. In the model of retinopathy of prematurity, DPP4-inhibitor increased not only retinal vascularity but also leakage. Additionally, in the murine diabetic retinopathy model, DPP4-inhibitor increased the phosphorylation of Src and VE-cadherin and aggravated vascular leakage in the retinas. Collectively, DPP4-inhibitor induced vascular leakage by augmenting the SDF-1α/CXCR4/Src/VE-cadherin signaling pathway. These data highlight safety issues associated with the use of DPP4-inhibitors. PMID:27381080

  4. VEGF165-induced vascular permeability requires NRP1 for ABL-mediated SRC family kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulou, Anastasia; Senatore, Valentina; Brash, James T.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Raimondi, Claudio; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform VEGF165 stimulates vascular growth and hyperpermeability. Whereas blood vessel growth is essential to sustain organ health, chronic hyperpermeability causes damaging tissue edema. By combining in vivo and tissue culture models, we show here that VEGF165-induced vascular leakage requires both VEGFR2 and NRP1, including the VEGF164-binding site of NRP1 and the NRP1 cytoplasmic domain (NCD), but not the known NCD interactor GIPC1. In the VEGF165-bound receptor complex, the NCD promotes ABL kinase activation, which in turn is required to activate VEGFR2-recruited SRC family kinases (SFKs). These results elucidate the receptor complex and signaling hierarchy of downstream kinases that transduce the permeability response to VEGF165. In a mouse model with choroidal neovascularisation akin to age-related macular degeneration, NCD loss attenuated vessel leakage without affecting neovascularisation. These findings raise the possibility that targeting NRP1 or its NCD interactors may be a useful therapeutic strategy in neovascular disease to reduce VEGF165-induced edema without compromising vessel growth. PMID:28289053

  5. Cholesterol in pleural exudates depends mainly on increased capillary permeability.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Luis; San-José, Esther; Estévez, Juan Carlos; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Alvarez-Dobaño, José Manuel; Golpe, Antonio; Valle, José Manuel; Penela, Pedro; Vizcaíno, Luis; Pose, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Pleural fluid (PF) cholesterol is a useful parameter to differentiate between pleural transudates and exudates, although the pathophysiologic mechanisms for its increase in exudates are not fully understood. We aim to elucidate the cause of this increase by analyzing the levels of cholesterol-high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), apolipoprotein A (ApoA), and apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-in PF and blood as well as the number of leucocytes and red cells in the PF. We studied 259 patients with pleural effusion (57 transudates and 202 exudates). The correlations of the pleural and serum (S) levels of these parameters were analyzed, with the pleural cholesterol fractions as the dependent variables and their levels in blood and the pleural/serum protein ratio (P/S prot ratio) as the independent variables. The pleural fluid cholesterol levels (PFCHOL) correlated with their blood levels and the capillary permeability (r=0.885). No significant differences were found between the percentage of LDL, with regard to total cholesterol in the serum [SCHOL], and the same percentage in the exudates, between the PF/S LDL ratio (0.46) and the PF/S CHOL ratio (0.48), or between the PF/S ApoB ratio and the PF/S LDL ratio. The percentage of PF cholesterol bound to HDL and LDL was significantly higher (91.9%) than in the blood (90%). No significant correlations were found between any of the lipids studied and the number of erythrocytes and leucocytes. In conclusion, the PFCHOL may be predicted from the SCHOL, and the capillary permeability may be reflected by the PF/S prot ratio.

  6. Diesel exhaust particles modulate vascular endothelial cell permeability: Implication of ZO-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongsong; Ning, Zhi; Cui, Jeffrey; Yu, Fei; Sioutas, Constantinos; Hsiai, Tzung

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants increases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Recent toxicity studies revealed that ultra fine particles (UFP, dp<100–200 nm), the major portion of particulate matter (PM) by numbers in the atmosphere, induced atherosclerosis. In this study, we posited that variations in chemical composition in diesel exhausted particles (DEP) regulated endothelial cell permeability to a different extent. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were exposed to well-characterized DEP (dp<100 nm) emitted from a diesel engine in either idling mode (DEP1) or in urban dynamometer driving schedule (UDDS) (DEP2). Horse Radish Peroxidase-Streptavidin activity assay showed that DEP2 increased endothelial permeability to a greater extent than DEP1 (Control=0.077± 0.005, DEP1=0.175±0.003, DEP2=0.265±0.006, n=3, p<0.01). DEP2 also down-regulated tight junction protein, Zonular Occludin-1 (ZO-1), to a greater extent compared to DEP1. LDH and caspase-3 activities revealed that DEP-mediated increase in permeability was not due to direct cytotoxicity, and DEP-mediated ZO-1 down-regulation was not due to a decrease in ZO-1 mRNA. Hence, our findings suggest that DEP1 versus DEP2 differentially influenced the extent of endothelial permeability at the post-translational level. This increase in endothelium permeability is implicated in inflammatory cell transmigration into subendothelial layers with relevance to the initiation of atherosclerosis. PMID:20576493

  7. Effect of partial liquid ventilation on pulmonary vascular permeability and edema after experimental acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, N R; Kozlowski, J K; Gust, R; Shapiro, S D; Schuster, D P

    2000-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with two different dosages of the perfluorocarbon LiquiVent (perflubron) on pulmonary vascular permeability and edema formation after oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury in dogs. We used imaging with positron emission tomography to measure fractional pulmonary blood flow, lung water concentration (LWC), and the pulmonary transcapillary escape rate (PTCER) of (68)Ga-labeled transferrin at 5 and 21 h after lung injury in five dogs undergoing conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), five dogs undergoing low-dose PLV (perflubron at 10 ml/kg), and four dogs undergoing high dose PLV (perflubron at 30 ml/kg). A positive end-expiratory pressure of 7.5 cm H(2)O was used in all dogs. After OA (0.08 ml/kg)- induced lung injury, there were no significant differences or trends for PTCER or LWC at any time when the PLV groups were compared with the CMV group. However, lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity was significantly lower in the combined PLV group than in the CMV group (p = 0.016). We conclude that after OA-induced lung injury, the addition of PLV to CMV does not directly attenuate pulmonary vascular leak or lung water accumulation. Rather, the benefits of such treatment may be due to modifications of the inflammatory response.

  8. Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Proteins Shape Host-Microbe Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangmin; Krasity, Benjamin C.; Peyer, Suzanne M.; Koehler, Sabrina; Ruby, Edward G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We characterized bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins (BPIs) of the squid Euprymna scolopes, EsBPI2 and EsBPI4. They have molecular characteristics typical of other animal BPIs, are closely related to one another, and nest phylogenetically among invertebrate BPIs. Purified EsBPIs had antimicrobial activity against the squid’s symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes light organ crypt epithelia. Activity of both proteins was abrogated by heat treatment and coincubation with specific antibodies. Pretreatment under acidic conditions similar to those during symbiosis initiation rendered V. fischeri more resistant to the antimicrobial activity of the proteins. Immunocytochemistry localized EsBPIs to the symbiotic organ and other epithelial surfaces interacting with ambient seawater. The proteins differed in intracellular distribution. Further, whereas EsBPI4 was restricted to epithelia, EsBPI2 also occurred in blood and in a transient juvenile organ that mediates hatching. The data provide evidence that these BPIs play different defensive roles early in the life of E. scolopes, modulating interactions with the symbiont. PMID:28377525

  9. PEDF improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction via inhibiting vascular permeability and cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Zheng; Feng, Shou-Jie; Xu, Lei; Shi, He-Xian; Chen, Li-Li; Yuan, Guang-Da; Yan, Wei; Zhuang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Qian; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Dong, Hong-Yan

    2015-03-11

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a pleiotropic gene with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. However, recent reports about the effects of PEDF on cardiomyocytes are controversial, and it is not known whether and how PEDF acts to inhibit hypoxic or ischemic endothelial injury in the heart. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were surgically established. PEDF-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-lentivirus (PEDF-RNAi-LV) or PEDF-LV was delivered into the myocardium along the infarct border to knockdown or overexpress PEDF, respectively. Vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial infarct size and animal cardiac function were analyzed. We also evaluated PEDF's effect on the suppression of the endothelial permeability and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia in vitro. The results indicated that PEDF significantly suppressed the vascular permeability and inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial permeability through PPARγ-dependent tight junction (TJ) production. PEDF protected cardiomyocytes against ischemia or hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro via preventing the activation of caspase-3. We also found that PEDF significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and enhanced cardiac function in rats with AMI. These data suggest that PEDF could protect cardiac function from ischemic injury, at least by means of reducing vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarct size.

  10. Agmatine induces gastric protection against ischemic injury by reducing vascular permeability in rats

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Abeer A Al; Eter, Eman El

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of administration of agmatine (AGM) on gastric protection against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. METHODS: Three groups of rats (6/group); sham, gastric I/R injury, and gastric I/R + AGM (100 mg/kg, i.p. given 15 min prior to gastric ischemia) were recruited. Gastric injury was conducted by ligating celiac artery for 30 min and reperfusion for another 30 min. Gastric tissues were histologically studied and immunostained with angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and Ang-2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured in gastric tissue homogenate. To assess whether AKt/phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) mediated the effect of AGM, an additional group was pretreated with Wortmannin (WM) (inhibitor of Akt/PI3K, 15 μg/kg, i.p.), prior to ischemic injury and AGM treatment, and examined histologically and immunostained. Another set of experiments was run to study vascular permeability of the stomach using Evan’s blue dye. RESULTS: AGM markedly reduced Evan’s blue dye extravasation (3.58 ± 0.975 μg/stomach vs 1.175 ± 0.374 μg/stomach, P < 0.05), VEGF (36.87 ± 2.71 pg/100 mg protein vs 48.4 ± 6.53 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.05) and MCP-1 tissue level (29.5 ± 7 pg/100 mg protein vs 41.17 ± 10.4 pg/100 mg protein, P < 0.01). It preserved gastric histology and reduced congestion. Ang-1 and Ang-2 immunostaining were reduced in stomach sections of AGM-treated animals. The administration of WM abolished the protective effects of AGM and extensive hemorrhage and ulcerations were seen. CONCLUSION: AGM protects the stomach against I/R injury by reducing vascular permeability and inflammation. This protection is possibly mediated by Akt/PI3K. PMID:22611311

  11. KRIT1 protein depletion modifies endothelial cell behavior via increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Peter V; Kuebel, Julia M; Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-11-21

    Disruption of endothelial cell-cell contact is a key event in many cardiovascular diseases and a characteristic of pathologically activated vascular endothelium. The CCM (cerebral cavernous malformation) family of proteins (KRIT1 (Krev-interaction trapped 1), PDCD10, and CCM2) are critical regulators of endothelial cell-cell contact and vascular homeostasis. Here we show novel regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in KRIT1-depleted endothelial cells. Loss of KRIT1 and PDCD10, but not CCM2, increases nuclear β-catenin signaling and up-regulates VEGF-A protein expression. In KRIT1-depleted cells, increased VEGF-A levels led to increased VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and subsequent alteration of cytoskeletal organization, migration, and barrier function and to in vivo endothelial permeability in KRIT1-deficient animals. VEGFR2 activation also increases β-catenin phosphorylation but is only partially responsible for KRIT1 depletion-dependent disruption of cell-cell contacts. Thus, VEGF signaling contributes to modifying endothelial function in KRIT1-deficient cells and microvessel permeability in Krit1(+/-) mice; however, VEGF signaling is likely not the only contributor to disrupted endothelial cell-cell contacts in the absence of KRIT1.

  12. Epidermal Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Production Is Required for Permeability Barrier Homeostasis, Dermal Angiogenesis, and the Development of Epidermal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Arbiser, Jack; Brown, Barbara E.; Rossiter, Heidemarie; Man, Mao-Qiang; Cerimele, Francesca; Crumrine, Debra; Gunathilake, Roshan; Choi, Eung Ho; Uchida, Yoshikazu; Tschachler, Erwin; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    Primary abnormalities in permeability barrier function appear to underlie atopic dermatitis and epidermal trauma; a concomitant barrier dysfunction could also drive other inflammatory dermatoses, including psoriasis. Central to this outside-inside view of disease pathogenesis is the epidermal generation of cytokines/growth factors, which in turn signal downstream epidermal repair mechanisms. Yet, this cascade, if sustained, signals downstream epidermal hyperplasia and inflammation. We found here that acute barrier disruption rapidly stimulates mRNA and protein expression of epidermal vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) in normal hairless mice, a specific response to permeability barrier requirements because up-regulation is blocked by application of a vapor-impermeable membrane. Moreover, epidermal vegf−/− mice display abnormal permeability barrier homeostasis, attributable to decreased VEGF signaling of epidermal lamellar body production; a paucity of dermal capillaries with reduced vascular permeability; and neither angiogenesis nor epidermal hyperplasia in response to repeated tape stripping (a model of psoriasiform hyperplasia). These results support a central role for epidermal VEGF in the maintenance of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and a link between epidermal VEGF production and both dermal angiogenesis and the development of epidermal hyperplasia. Because psoriasis is commonly induced by external trauma [isomorphic (Koebner) phenomenon] and is associated with a prominent permeability barrier abnormality, excess VEGF production, prominent angiogenesis, and epidermal hyperplasia, these results could provide a potential outside-inside mechanistic basis for the development of psoriasis. PMID:18688025

  13. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability is associated with dementia and diabetes but not amyloid pathology or APOE genotype.

    PubMed

    Janelidze, Shorena; Hertze, Joakim; Nägga, Katarina; Nilsson, Karin; Nilsson, Christer; Wennström, Malin; van Westen, Danielle; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Hansson, Oskar

    2017-03-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction might be an important component of many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated its role in dementia using large clinical cohorts. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma albumin ratio (Qalb), an indicator of BBB (and blood-CSF barrier) permeability, was measured in a total of 1015 individuals. The ratio was increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson's disease dementia, subcortical vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia compared with controls. However, this measure was not changed during preclinical or prodromal Alzheimer's disease and was not associated with amyloid positron emission tomography or APOE genotype. The Qalb was increased in diabetes mellitus and correlated positively with CSF biomarkers of angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction (vascular endothelial growth factor, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1). In healthy elderly, high body mass index and waist-hip ratio predicted increased Qalb 20 years later. In summary, BBB permeability is increased in major dementia disorders but does not relate to amyloid pathology or APOE genotype. Instead, BBB impairment may be associated with diabetes and brain microvascular damage.

  14. Electrohydraulic shock wave generation as a means to increase intrinsic permeability of mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Maurel, O.; Reess, T.; Matallah, M.; De Ferron, A.; Chen, W.; La Borderie, C.; Pijaudier-Cabot, G.; Jacques, A.; Rey-Bethbeder, F.

    2010-12-15

    This article discusses the influence of compressive shock waves on the permeability of cementitious materials. Shock waves are generated in water by Pulsed Arc Electrohydraulic Discharges (PAED). The practical aim is to increase the intrinsic permeability of the specimens. The maximum pressure amplitude of the shock wave is 250 MPa. It generates damage in the specimens and the evolution of damage is correlated with the intrinsic permeability of the mortar. A threshold of pressure is observed. From this threshold, the increase of permeability is linear in a semi-log plot. The influence of repeated shocks on permeability is also discussed. Qualitative X Ray Tomography illustrates the evolution of the microstructure of the material leading to the increase of permeability. Comparative results from mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) show that the micro-structural damage process starts at the sub-micrometric level and that the characteristic size of pores of growing volume increases.

  15. Vagus nerve stimulation blocks vascular permeability following burn in both local and distal sites.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pomales, Yan T; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Coimbra, Raul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can block the burn-induced systemic inflammatory response (SIRS). In this study we examined the potential for VNS to modulate vascular permeability (VP) in local sites (i.e. skin) and in secondary sites (i.e. lung) following burn. In a 30% total body surface area burn model, VP was measured using intravascular fluorescent dextran for quantification of the VP response in skin and lung. A peak in VP of the skin was observed 24h post-burn injury, that was blocked by VNS. Moreover, in the lung, VNS led to a reduction in burn-induced VP compared to sham-treated animals subjected to burn alone. The protective effects of VNS in this model were independent of the spleen, suggesting that the spleen was not a direct mediator of VNS. These studies identify a role for VNS in the regulation of VP in burns, with the translational potential of attenuating lung complications following burn.

  16. Enhanced vascular permeability facilitates entry of plasma HDL and promotes macrophage-reverse cholesterol transport from skin in mice.

    PubMed

    Kareinen, Ilona; Cedó, Lídia; Silvennoinen, Reija; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Jauhiainen, Matti; Julve, Josep; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco; Escola-Gil, Joan Carles; Kovanen, Petri T; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2015-02-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway from macrophage foam cells initiates when HDL particles cross the endothelium, enter the interstitial fluid, and induce cholesterol efflux from these cells. We injected [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages into the dorsal skin of mice and measured the transfer of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol to feces [macrophage-RCT (m-RCT)]. Injection of histamine to the macrophage injection site increased locally vascular permeability, enhanced influx of intravenously administered HDL, and stimulated m-RCT from the histamine-treated site. The stimulatory effect of histamine on m-RCT was abolished by prior administration of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, indicating that the histamine effect was H1R-dependent. Subcutaneous administration of two other vasoactive mediators, serotonin or bradykinin, and activation of skin mast cells to secrete histamine and other vasoactive compounds also stimulated m-RCT. None of the studied vasoactive mediators affected serum HDL levels or the cholesterol-releasing ability of J774 macrophages in culture, indicating that acceleration of m-RCT was solely due to increased availability of cholesterol acceptors in skin. We conclude that disruption of the endothelial barrier by vasoactive compounds enhances the passage of HDL into interstitial fluid and increases the rate of RCT from peripheral macrophage foam cells, which reveals a novel tissue cholesterol-regulating function of these compounds.

  17. Aminoguanidine effects on nerve blood flow, vascular permeability, electrophysiology, and oxygen free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Mikihiro; Schmelzer, J.D.; Poduslo, J.F.; Curran, G.L.; Nickander, K.K.; Low, P.A. )

    1991-07-15

    Since advanced glycosylation end products have been suggested to mediate hyperglycemia-induced microvascular atherogenesis and because aminoguanidine (AG) prevents their generation, the authors examined whether AG could prevent or ameliorate the physiologic and biochemical indices of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetic neuropathy. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: group I received STZ plus AG, group II received STZ plus AG, group III received STZ alone, and group IV was a control. They monitored conduction and action potential amplitudes serially in sciatic-tibial and caudal nerves, nerve blood flow, oxygen free radical activity (conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides), and the product of the permeability coefficient and surface area to {sup 125}I-labeled albumin. STZ-induced diabetes (group III) caused a 57% reduction in nerve blood flow and in abnormal nerve conduction and amplitudes and a 60% increase in conjugated dienes. Nerve blood flow was normalized by 8 weeks with AG (groups I and II) and conduction was significantly improved, in a dose-dependent manner, by 16 and 24 weeks in sciatic-tibial and caudal nerves, respectively. The permeability coefficient was not impaired, suggesting a normal blood-nerve barrier function for albumin, and the oxygen free-radical indices were not ameliorated by AG. They suggest that AG reverses nerve ischemia and more gradually improves their electrophysiology by an action on nerve microvessels. AG may have potential in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  18. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chang, Jing-Fen; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Gordon, Marion K.; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione. PMID:26148005

  19. Modulation of VEGF-Induced Retinal Vascular Permeability by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Sandra; McCollum, Gary W.; Bretz, Colin A.; Yang, Rong; Capozzi, Megan E.; Penn, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced retinal vascular permeability contributes to diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious vision-threatening condition. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) antagonist/reverse agonist, GSK0660, inhibits VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) proliferation, tubulogenesis, and oxygen-induced retinal vasculopathy in newborn rats. These VEGF-induced HRMEC behaviors and VEGF-induced disruption of endothelial cell junctional complexes may well share molecular signaling events. Thus, we sought to examine the role of PPARβ/δ in VEGF-induced retinal hyperpermeability. Methods. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were performed on HRMEC monolayers to assess permeability. Claudin-1/Claudin-5 localization in HRMEC monolayers was determined by immunocytochemistry. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk 1/2) phosphorylation, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and R2 were assayed by Western blot analysis. Expression of VEGFR1 and R2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Last, retinal vascular permeability was assayed in vivo by Evans blue extravasation. Results. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers treated with VEGF for 24 hours showed decreased TEER values that were completely reversed by the highest concentration of GSK0660 (10 μM) and PPARβ/δ-directed siRNA (20 μM). In HRMEC treated with VEGF, GSK0660 stabilized tight-junctions as evidenced by Claudin-1 staining, reduced phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and reduced VEGFR1/2 expression. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ siRNA had a similar effect on VEGFR expression and Claudin-1, supporting the specificity of GSK0660 in our experiments. Last, GSK0660 significantly inhibited VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability and reduced retinal VEGFR1and R2 levels in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. These data suggest a protective effect for PPARβ/δ antagonism against

  20. Up-Regulation of Pressure-activated Ca2+-permeable Cation Channel in Intact Vascular Endothelium of Hypertensive Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, J.; Kohler, R.; Haase, W.; Distler, A.

    1996-10-01

    In endothelial cells, stretch-activated cation channels have been proposed to act as mechanosensors for changes in hemodynamic forces. We have identified a novel mechanosensitive pressure-activated channel in intact endothelium from rat aorta and mesenteric artery. The 18-pS cation channel responded with a multifold increase in channel activity when positive pressure was applied to the luminal cell surface with the patch pipette and inactivated at negative pipette pressure. Channel permeability ratio for K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions was 1:0.98:0.23. Ca2+ influx through the channel was sufficient to activate a neighboring Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. Hemodynamic forces are chronically disturbed in arterial hypertension. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. In two comparative studies, density of the pressure-activated channel was found to be significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular hypertensive rats compared with their respective normotensive controls. Channel activity presumably leads to mechanosensitive Ca2+ influx and induces cell hyperpolarization by K+ channel activity. Both Ca2+ influx and hyperpolarization are known to induce a vasodilatory endothelial response by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Up-regulation of channel density in hypertension could, therefore, represent a counterregulatory mechanism of vascular endothelium.

  1. Protective Effects of Fresh Frozen Plasma on Vascular Endothelial Permeability, Coagulation, and Resuscitation After Hemorrhagic Shock Are Time Dependent and Diminish Between Days 0 and 5 After Thaw

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Shibani; Matijevic, Nena; Doursout, Marie-Françoise; Ko, Tien; Cao, Yanna; Deng, Xiyun; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Conyers, Jodie; Holcomb, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical studies have shown that resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is associated with improved outcome after severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). We hypothesized that in addition to its effects on hemostasis, FFP has protective and stabilizing effects on the endothelium that translate into diminished endothelial cell (EC) permeability and improved resuscitation in vivo after HS. We further hypothesized that the beneficial effects of FFP would diminish over 5 days of routine storage at 4°C. Methods EC permeability was induced by hypoxia and assessed by the passage of 70-kDa Dextran between monolayers. Thrombin generation time and coagulation factor levels or activity were assessed in FFP. An in vivo rat model of HS and resuscitation was used to determine the effects of FFP on hemodynamic stability. Results Thawed FFP inhibits EC permeability in vitro by 10.2-fold. Protective effects diminish (to 2.5-fold) by day 5. Thrombin generation time is increased in plasma that has been stored between days 0 and 5. In vivo data show that day 0 FFP is superior to day 5 FFP in maintaining mean arterial pressure in rats undergoing HS with resuscitation. Conclusion Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that FFP has beneficial effects on endothelial permeability, vascular stability, and resuscitation in rats after HS. The benefits are independent of hemostasis and diminish between days 0 and 5 of storage. PMID:20622621

  2. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-03-05

    The initial equilibration of /sup 125/I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 ..mu..g/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using /sup 131/I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment.

  3. Increased Vascular Resistance with Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    vascular resistance. Swine resuscitated with otofHb exhibited the rapid onset of marked systemic hypertension . The blood pressure rose within seconds...virtual absence of red blood cells (3), hemoglobin solutions have produced hypertension irn animals or have not supported an increase in cardiac output...with blood volume expansion. Half of all the humans administered hemoglobin in published trials demonstrated hypertension (4), and a recent human

  4. Increased regional vascular albumin permeation in the rat during anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, W.; Chang, K.; Williamson, J.R.; Jakschik, B.A.

    1989-03-15

    The changes in vascular albumin permeation induced by systemic anaphylaxis were studied simultaneously in 21 different tissues of the same animal. Before Ag challenge sensitized rats were injected i.v. with 125I-albumin (test tracer), 51Cr-RBC (vascular space marker) and 57Co-EDTA (extravascular space marker). The index of vascular permeation used was the tissue to blood isotope ratio (tbir), which was obtained by dividing the ratio of 125I/51Cr counts in each tissue by the ratio of the same isotopes in the arterial blood sample. After Ag challenge, the increase in the tbir varied considerably among the different tissues. The most pronounced increase was noted in the lymph node (ninefold) followed by the aorta and mesentery (six- to sevenfold) and the various parts of the gastrointestinal tract (four- to sixfold). In the skin less than skeletal muscle less than lung less than liver and eye two- to fourfold increases occurred. Relatively minor increases in albumin permeation (less than twofold) were observed in the brain less than kidney less than heart and less than spleen. The testis was the only organ in which no significant change occurred. For some of the tissues there was also an increase in the tbir for 57Co/51Cr (an index of the extracellular fluid space) suggesting edema formation. The highest increase was noted in the aorta (fourfold). Minor increases occurred in the atrium of the heart, stomach, duodenum, and lymph nodes. There was also a 36% increase in hematocrit. Therefore, systemic anaphylaxis caused extensive extravasation of albumin and hemoconcentration.

  5. Leaky gut and mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 does not increase gut permeability in broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect...

  6. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  7. Melatonin inhibits alcohol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sommansson, Anna; Saudi, Wan Salman Wan; Nylander, Olof; Sjöblom, Markus

    2013-07-01

    Increased intestinal permeability is often associated with epithelial inflammation, leaky gut, or other pathological conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. We recently found that melatonin decreases basal duodenal mucosal permeability, suggesting a mucosal protective mode of action of this agent. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of melatonin on ethanol-, wine-, and HCl-induced changes of duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability and motility. Rats were anesthetized with thiobarbiturate and a ~30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum was perfused in situ. Effects on duodenal mucosal paracellular permeability, assessed by measuring the blood-to-lumen clearance of ⁵¹Cr-EDTA, motility, and morphology, were investigated. Perfusing the duodenal segment with ethanol (10 or 15% alcohol by volume), red wine, or HCl (25-100 mM) induced concentration-dependent increases in paracellular permeability. Luminal ethanol and wine increased, whereas HCl transiently decreased duodenal motility. Administration of melatonin significantly reduced ethanol- and wine-induced increases in permeability by a mechanism abolished by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium (iv) or mecamylamine (luminally). Signs of mucosal injury (edema and beginning of desquamation of the epithelium) in response to ethanol exposure were seen only in a few villi, an effect that was histologically not changed by melatonin. Melatonin did not affect HCl-induced increases in mucosal permeability or decreases in motility. Our results show that melatonin reduces ethanol- and wine-induced increases in duodenal paracellular permeability partly via an enteric inhibitory nicotinic-receptor dependent neural pathway. In addition, melatonin inhibits ethanol-induced increases in duodenal motor activity. These results suggest that melatonin may serve important gastrointestinal barrier functions.

  8. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  9. Effect of Shear Stress on Permeability of Vascular Endothelial Monolayer Cocultured with Smooth Muscle Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Naoya; Ohashi, Toshiro; Sato, Masaaki

    Effect of fluid shear stress on permeability of endothelial monolayer was investigated using an endothelial cell (EC)-smooth muscle cell (SMC) cocultured model (CM). Permeability of ECs to bovine serum albumin was measured after exposure to shear stress of 1.5Pa for 48 hours. Morphology and VE-cadherin expression of ECs in CM was almost same as of ECs cultured alone (monocultured model, MM). Under static condition, EC permeability was 5.1±3.0 × 10-6cm/sec (mean±SD) in MM and 6.5±3.4 × 10-6cm/sec in CM. After exposure to shear stress, EC permeability in CM (2.2±1.9 × 10-6cm/sec, p < 0.05) significantly decreased compared with the static model. However, EC permeability in MM (3.9±3.2 × 10-6cm/sec) did not significantly change compared with static cultured condition. These results suggested that cellular interactions between ECs and SMCs have important influences on EC permeability.

  10. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on brain vascular permeability in rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Arican, Nadir; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-15

    This study investigates the effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity during traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Evans blue (EB) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as determinants of BBB permeability. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in the right (injury side) cerebral cortex of animals. The gene expression levels for occludin, glucose transporter (Glut)-1, aquaporin4 (AQP4) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were performed, and Glut-1 and NF-κB activities were analyzed. BHB treatment decreased GSH and MDA levels in intact animals and in those exposed to TBI (P<0.05). Glut-1 protein levels decreased in sham, BHB and TBI plus BHB groups (P<0.05). NF-κB protein levels increased in animals treated with BHB and/or exposed to TBI (P<0.05). The expression levels of occludin and AQP4 did not significantly change among experimental groups. Glut-1 expression levels increased in BHB treated and untreated animals exposed to TBI (P<0.05). While NF-κB expression levels increased in animals in TBI (P<0.01), a decrease was noticed in these animals upon BHB treatment (P<0.01). In animals exposed to TBI, EB extravasation was observed in the ipsilateral cortex regardless of BHB treatment. Ultrastructurally, BHB attenuated but did not prevent the presence of HRP in brain capillary endothelial cells of animals with TBI; moreover, the drug also led to the observation of the tracer when used in intact rats (P<0.01). Altogether, these results showed that BHB not only failed to provide overall protective effects on BBB in TBI but also led to BBB disruption in healthy animals.

  11. Bactericidal Permeability Increasing Protein Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in the Turkish Population

    PubMed Central

    Can, Güray; Akın, Hakan; Özdemir, Filiz T.; Can, Hatice; Yılmaz, Bülent; Eren, Fatih; Atuğ, Özlen; Ünsal, Belkıs; Hamzaoğlu, Hülya O.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease, a chronic inflammatory disease with unknown etiology, affects the small and large bowel at different levels. It is increasingly considered that innate immune system may have a central position in the pathogenesis of the disease. As a part of the innate immune system, bactericidal permeability increasing protein has an important role in the recognition and neutralization of gram-negative bacteria. The aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism (bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu) in inflammatory bowel disease in a large group of Turkish patients. Patients and Methods: The present study included 528 inflammatory bowel disease patients, 224 with Crohn's disease and 304 with ulcerative colitis, and 339 healthy controls. Results: Bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu polymorphism was found to be associated with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (P = 0.0001). The frequency of the Glu/Glu genotype was significantly lower in patients using steroids and in those with steroid dependence (P = 0.012, OR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.94; P = 0.0286, OR, 0.75; 95% CI: 0.66-0.86, respectively). There was no other association between bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism and phenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions: Bactericidal permeability increasing protein Lys216Glu polymorphism is associated with both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. This is the first study reporting the association of bactericidal permeability increasing protein gene polymorphism with steroid use and dependence in Crohn's disease. PMID:26228368

  12. Altered vascular permeability and early onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in PECAM-1–deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Graesser, Donnasue; Solowiej, Anna; Bruckner, Monika; Osterweil, Emily; Juedes, Amy; Davis, Sandra; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Engelhardt, Britta; Madri, Joseph A.

    2002-01-01

    Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31), a 130-kDa glycoprotein member of the Ig superfamily of transmembrane proteins, is expressed on endothelial cells, platelets, and subsets of leukocytes. It functions as a cell adhesion molecule as well as a scaffolding molecule capable of modulating cellular signaling pathways. In this study, using PECAM-1–deficient (KO) mice, as well as cells derived from these mice, we demonstrate that the absence of PECAM-1 expression is associated with an early onset of clinical symptoms during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. During EAE, mononuclear cell extravasation and infiltration of the CNS occur at earlier time points in PECAM-KO mice than in wild-type mice. In vitro, T lymphocyte transendothelial migration across PECAM-KO endothelial cells is enhanced, regardless of expression of PECAM-1 on transmigrating T cells. Additionally, cultured PECAM-KO endothelial cells exhibit prolonged permeability changes in response to histamine treatment compared with PECAM-1–reconstituted endothelial cells. Lastly, we demonstrate an exaggerated and prolonged CNS vascular permeability during the development of EAE and a delay in restoration of dermal vascular integrity following histamine challenge in PECAM-KO mice. PMID:11827998

  13. Host defenses to Rickettsia rickettsii infection contribute to increased microvascular permeability in human cerebral endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woods, Michael E; Olano, Juan P

    2008-03-01

    Rickettsiae are arthropod-borne intracellular bacterial pathogens that primarily infect the microvascular endothelium leading to systemic spread of the organisms and the major pathophysiological effect, increased microvascular permeability, and edema in vital organs such as the lung and brain. Much work has been done on mechanisms of immunity to rickettsiae, as well as the responses of endothelial cells to rickettsial invasion. However, to date, no one has described the mechanisms of increased microvascular permeability during acute rickettsiosis. We sought to establish an in vitro model of human endothelial-target rickettsial infection using the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rickettsia rickettsii, and human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Endothelial cells infected with R. rickettsii exhibited a dose-dependent decrease in trans-endothelial electrical resistance, which translates into increased monolayer permeability. Additionally, we showed that the addition of pro-inflammatory stimuli essential to rickettsial immunity dramatically enhanced this effect. This increase in permeability correlates with dissociation of adherens junctions between endothelial cells and is not dependent on the presence of nitric oxide. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that increased microvascular permeability associated with rickettsial infection is partly attributable to intracellular rickettsiae and partly attributable to the immune defenses that have evolved to protect the host from rickettsial spread.

  14. Src inhibitor reduces permeability without disturbing vascularization and prevents bone destruction in steroid-associated osteonecrotic lesions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    He, Yi-Xin; Liu, Jin; Guo, Baosheng; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Pan, Xiaohua; Li, Defang; Tang, Tao; Chen, Yang; Peng, Songlin; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Liang, Zicai; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2015-03-09

    To examine the therapeutic effect of Src inhibitor on the VEGF mediating vascular hyperpermeability and bone destruction within steroid-associated osteonecrotic lesions in rabbits. Rabbits with high risk for progress to destructive repair in steroid-associated osteonecrosis were selected according to our published protocol. The selected rabbits were systemically administrated with either Anti-VEGF antibody (Anti-VEGF Group) or Src inhibitor (Src-Inhibition Group) or VEGF (VEGF-Supplement Group) or a combination of VEGF and Src inhibitor (Supplement &Inhibition Group) or control vehicle (Control Group) for 4 weeks. At 0, 2 and 4 weeks after administration, in vivo dynamic MRI, micro-CT based-angiography, histomorphometry and immunoblotting were employed to evaluate the vascular and skeletal events in different groups. The incidence of the destructive repair in the Anti-VEGF Group, Src-Inhibition Group and Supplement &Inhibition Group was all significantly lower than that in the Control Group. The angiogenesis was promoted in VEGF-Supplement Group, Src-Inhibition Group and Supplement &Inhibition Group, while the hyperpermeability was inhibited in Anti-VEGF Group, Src-Inhibition Group and Supplement &Inhibition Group. The trabecular structure was improved in Src-Inhibition Group and Supplement &Inhibition Group. Src inhibitor could reduce permeability without disturbing vascularization and prevent destructive repair in steroid-associated osteonecrosis.

  15. The ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde increases paracellular drug permeability in vitro and oral bioavailability in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Scott J; Swaan, Peter W; Eddington, Natalie D

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to the production of the highly reactive ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, which may affect intestinal tight junctions and increase paracellular permeability. We examined the effects of elevated acetaldehyde within the gastrointestinal tract on the permeability and bioavailability of hydrophilic markers and drug molecules of variable molecular weight and geometry. In vitro permeability was measured unidirectionally in Caco-2 and MDCKII cell models in the presence of acetaldehyde, ethanol, or disulfiram, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, which causes acetaldehyde formation when coadministered with ethanol in vivo. Acetaldehyde significantly lowered transepithelial resistance in cell monolayers and increased permeability of the low-molecular-weight markers, mannitol and sucrose; however, permeability of high-molecular-weight markers, polyethylene glycol and inulin, was not affected. In vivo permeability was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 6 days with ethanol, disulfiram, or saline alone or in combination. Bioavailability of naproxen was not affected by any treatment, whereas that of paclitaxel was increased upon acetaldehyde exposure. Although disulfiram has been shown to inhibit multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro, our data demonstrate that the known P-gp substrate paclitaxel is not affected by coadministration of disulfiram. In conclusion, we demonstrate that acetaldehyde significantly modulates tight junctions and paracellular permeability in vitro as well as the oral bioavailability of low-molecular-weight hydrophilic probes and therapeutic molecules in vivo even when these molecules are substrates for efflux transporters. These studies emphasize the significance of ethanol metabolism and drug interactions outside of the liver.

  16. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Friedman, Morton H

    2013-09-15

    Local shear stress sensed by arterial endothelial cells is occasionally altered by changes in global hemodynamic parameters, e.g., heart rate and blood flow rate, as a result of normal physiological events, such as exercise. In a recently study (41), we demonstrated that during the adaptive response to increased shear magnitude, porcine endothelial cells exhibited an unique phenotype featuring a transient increase in permeability and the upregulation of a set of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. In the present study, we characterize the adaptive response of these cells to an increase in shear frequency, another important hemodynamic parameter with implications in atherogenesis. Endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal-level sinusoidal shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) at 1 Hz, and the frequency was then elevated to 2 Hz. Endothelial permeability increased slowly after the frequency step-up, but the increase was relatively small. Using microarrays, we identified 37 genes that are sensitive to the frequency step-up. The acute increase in shear frequency upregulates a set of cell-cycle regulation and angiogenesis-related genes. The overall adaptive response to the increased frequency is distinctly different from that to a magnitude step-up. However, consistent with the previous study, our data support the notion that endothelial function during an adaptive response is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. Our studies may also provide insights into the beneficial effects of exercise on vascular health: transient increases in frequency may facilitate endothelial repair, whereas similar increases in shear magnitude may keep excessive inflammation and oxidative stress at bay.

  17. Maintenance of superior mesenteric arterial perfusion prevents increased intestinal mucosal permeability in endotoxic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, M.P.; Kaups, K.L.; Wang, H.L.; Rothschild, H.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide increases intestinal mucosal permeability to hydrophilic compounds such as chromium 51-labeled edetate (51Cr-EDTA). The authors sought to determine whether this phenomenon is partly mediated by lipopolysaccharide-induced mesenteric hypoperfusion. They assessed permeability in an isolated segment of ileum by measuring plasma-to-lumen clearances (C) for two probes, 51Cr-EDTA and urea, and expressing the results as a ratio (CEDTA/CUREA). In control pigs (n = 6) resuscitated with Ringer's lactate (RL), mucosal permeability was unchanged during the 210-minute period of observation. In pigs (n = 7) infused with lipopolysaccharide (50 micrograms/kg) and similarly resuscitated with RL, mesenteric perfusion (Qsma) decreased significantly and permeability increased progressively and significantly. When endotoxic pigs (n = 6) were resuscitated with a regimen (RL plus hetastarch plus dobutamine) that preserved normal Qsma, lipopolysaccharide-induced mucosal hyperpermeability was prevented. Resuscitation of endotoxic pigs (n = 6) with RL plus hetastarch provided intermediate protection against both mesenteric hypoperfusion and increased permeability. These data suggest that diminished Qsma contributes to impaired ileal mucosal barrier function in experimental endotoxicosis.

  18. Cerebral cavernous malformations as a disease of vascular permeability: from bench to bedside with caution.

    PubMed

    Yadla, Sanjay; Jabbour, Pascal M; Shenkar, Robert; Shi, Changbin; Campbell, Peter G; Awad, Issam A

    2010-09-01

    Tremendous insight into the molecular and genetic pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) has been gained over the past 2 decades. This includes the identification of 3 distinct genes involved in familial CCMs. Still, a number of unanswered questions regarding the process from gene mutation to vascular malformation remain. It is becoming more evident that the disruption of interendothelial junctions and ensuing vascular hyperpermeability play a principal role. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current understanding of CCM genes, associated proteins, and functional pathways. Promising molecular and genetic therapies targeted at identified molecular aberrations are discussed as well.

  19. Enhancement of intestinal permeability utilizing solid lipid nanoparticles increases γ-tocotrienol oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Abuasal, Bilal S; Lucas, Courtney; Peyton, Breanne; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Nazzal, Sami; Sylvester, Paul W; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2012-05-01

    γ-Tocotrienol (γ-T3), a member of the vitamin E family, has been reported to possess an anticancer activity. γ-T3 is a lipophilic compound with low oral bioavailability. Previous studies showed that γ-T3 has low intestinal permeability. Thus, we have hypothesized that enhancing γ-T3 intestinal permeability will increase its oral bioavailability. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) were tested as a model formulation to enhance γ-T3 permeability and bioavailability. γ-T3 intestinal permeability was compared using in situ rat intestinal perfusion, followed by in vivo relative oral bioavailability studies. In addition, in vitro cellular uptake of γ-T3 from SLN was compared to mixed micelles (MM) in a time and concentration-dependent studies. To elucidate the uptake mechanism(s) of γ-T3 from SLN and MM the contribution of NPC1L1 carrier-mediated uptake, endocytosis and passive permeability were investigated. In situ studies demonstrated SLN has tenfold higher permeability than MM. Subsequent in vivo studies showed γ-T3 relative oral bioavailability from SLN is threefold higher. Consistent with in situ results, in vitro concentration dependent studies revealed γ-T3 uptake from SLN was twofold higher than MM. In vitro mechanistic characterization showed that while endocytosis contributes to γ-T3 uptake from both formulations, the reduced contribution of NPC1L1 to the transport of γ-T3, and passive diffusion enhancement of γ-T3 are primary explanations for its enhanced uptake from SLN. In conclusion, SLN successfully enhanced γ-T3 oral bioavailability subsequent to enhanced passive permeability.

  20. Proinflammatory Cytokines Increase Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Maloney, James P; Gao, Li

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial permeability mediator that is highly expressed in lung epithelium. In nonlung cells proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase VEGF expression, but their effects on lung epithelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that increases in alveolar epithelial cell VEGF RNA and protein expression occur after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. We tested this using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) stimulated with 5 proinflammatory cytokines. VEGF RNA expression was increased 1.4-2.7-fold in response to IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, or TGF-β over 6 hours, with TGF-β having the largest response. TNF-α increased VEGF RNA as early as 1 hour. A mix of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 had effects similar to IL-1. TNF-α increased protein expression as early as 4 hours and had a sustained effect at 16 hours, whereas IL-1 did not increase protein expression. Only VEGF165 was present in cultured A549 cells, yet other isoforms were seen in human lung tissue. Increased expression of VEGF in alveolar epithelial cells occurs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Increased VEGF expression likely contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and to the angiogenic phenotype of lung cancer, a disease typically preceded by chronic inflammation.

  1. Acyl-homoserine lactones suppresses IEC-6 cell proliferation and increase permeability of isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    Joe, Ga-Hyun; Andoh, Midori; Nomura, Mikako; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Lee, Jae-Sung; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Tsuji, Youhei; Maseda, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated to determine whether a variety of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) influences epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal permeability. 3-Oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) and 3-oxo-C14-HSL significantly suppressed IEC-6 cell proliferation. A significant increase in mucosal permeability was observed in isolated rat colon tissue exposed to C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL, and 3-oxo-C14-HSL. These data indicate that AHLs suppress epithelial proliferation and disrupt barrier function in intestinal mucosa.

  2. Increased vascular density and vitreo-retinal membranes accompany vascularization of the pigment epithelium in the dystrophic rat retina.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, R B; Roque, R S; Solomon, S W

    1989-09-01

    Observations of vascularization of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and formation of vitreo-retinal membranes (VRMs) in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with inherited retinal dystrophy suggest that vascular proliferation occurs in this model. To test this hypothesis, we studied the progression of vascular changes in RCS and age-matched control rats using quantitative light microscope morphometry and electron microscopy. At 2 weeks, prior to photoreceptor degeneration, the dystrophic retina is comparable with the control. By 2 months, extensive degeneration of photoreceptor cells results in significant thinning of the dystrophic retina as compared with the control. Signs of vascular degeneration are evident at the electron microscope level--"ghost" vessels consisting of acellular basal lamina surrounded by amorphous electron-dense material; degenerating endothelial cells and pericytes; and abnormal deposits of extracellular matrix (ECM) material around blood vessels. Vascular degeneration is accompanied by glial changes in the form of necrotic perivascular glial processes and abnormal ECM deposits among the altered Muller cell processes. At 2-4 months in the dystrophic retina, numbers of vessel profiles in dystrophic retinas are decreased as compared with controls. However, vascular degeneration is overshadowed by the formation of numerous capillary tufts within the RPE layer, which together with retinal thinning results in increased vessel density. Between 4-12 months, the retinal thickness diminishes further, vascularization of the RPE increases, vitreo-retinal membranes are formed, and vascular density increases. In summary, following an initial period of vascular degeneration, vascularization of the RPE is accompanied by an increase in retinal vessel density and by the formation of vitreo-retinal membranes.

  3. Negatively Charged Silver Nanoparticles Cause Retinal Vascular Permeability by Activating Plasma Contact System and Disrupting Adherens Junction

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yan-Min; Zhao, Xing-Chen; Clermont, Allen C.; Zhou, Qun-Fang; Liu, Qian; Feener, Edward P.; Yan, Bing; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used as antibacterial component in numerous healthcare, biomedical, and consumer products. Therefore, their adverse effects to biological systems have become a major concern. AgNPs have been shown to be absorbed into circulation and redistributed into various organs. It is thus of great importance to understand how these nanoparticles affect vascular permeability and uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. A negatively charged mecaptoundeonic acid capped silver nanoparticle (MUA@AgNP) was investigated in this work. Ex-vivo experiments in mouse plasma revealed that MUA@AgNPs caused plasma prekallikrein cleavage, while positively charged or neutral AgNPs, as well as Ag ions had no effect. In-vitro tests revealed that MUA@AgNPs activated the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) by triggering Hageman factor autoactivation. By using specific inhibitors aprotinin and HOE 140, we demonstrated that KKS activation caused the release of bradykinin, which activated B2 receptors and induced the shedding of adherens junction protein, VE-cadherin. These biological perturbations eventually resulted in endothelial paracellular permeability in mouse retina after intravitreal injection of MUA@AgNPs. The findings from this work provided key insights for toxicity modulation and biomedical applications of AgNPs. PMID:26399585

  4. Negatively charged silver nanoparticles cause retinal vascular permeability by activating plasma contact system and disrupting adherens junction.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan-Min; Zhao, Xing-Chen; Clermont, Allen C; Zhou, Qun-Fang; Liu, Qian; Feener, Edward P; Yan, Bing; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used as antibacterial component in numerous healthcare, biomedical and consumer products. Therefore, their adverse effects to biological systems have become a major concern. AgNPs have been shown to be absorbed into circulation and redistributed into various organs. It is thus of great importance to understand how these nanoparticles affect vascular permeability and uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. A negatively charged mecaptoundeonic acid-capped silver nanoparticle (MUA@AgNP) was investigated in this work. Ex vivo experiments in mouse plasma revealed that MUA@AgNPs caused plasma prekallikrein cleavage, while positively charged or neutral AgNPs, as well as Ag ions had no effect. In vitro tests revealed that MUA@AgNPs activated the plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) by triggering Hageman factor autoactivation. By using specific inhibitors aprotinin and HOE 140, we demonstrated that KKS activation caused the release of bradykinin, which activated B2 receptors and induced the shedding of adherens junction protein, VE-cadherin. These biological perturbations eventually resulted in endothelial paracellular permeability in mouse retina after intravitreal injection of MUA@AgNPs. The findings from this work provided key insights for toxicity modulation and biomedical applications of AgNPs.

  5. Cold exposure increases intestinal paracellular permeability to nutrients in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Price, Edwin R; Ruff, Lisa J; Guerra, Alberto; Karasov, William H

    2013-11-01

    In situations of increased energy demand and food intake, animals can often acclimate within several days. The intestine generally responds to elevated digestive demand by increasing in size. However, there is likely a limit to how quickly the intestine can grow to meet the new demand. We investigated the immediate and longer-term changes to intestinal properties of the mouse when suddenly exposed to 4°C. We hypothesized that paracellular permeability to nutrients would increase as part of an immediate response to elevated absorptive demand. We measured absorption of l-arabinose, intestinal size and gene expression of several tight junction proteins (claudin-2, claudin-4, claudin-15 and ZO-1) at three time points: pre-exposure, and after 1 day and 2 weeks of cold exposure. Cold exposure increased food intake by 62% after 2 weeks but intake was not significantly increased after 1 day. Intestinal wet mass was elevated after 1 day and throughout the experiment. Absorption of arabinose rose by 20% after 1 day in the cold and was 33% higher after 2 weeks. Expression of claudin-2 increased after 1 day of cold exposure, but there were no changes in expression of any claudin genes when normalized to ZO-1 expression. Our results indicate that intestinal mass can respond rapidly to increased energy demand and that increased paracellular permeability is also part of that response. Increased paracellular permeability may be a consequence of enterocyte hyperplasia, resulting in more tight junctions across which molecules can absorb.

  6. Palomid 529, a Novel Small-Molecule Drug, Is a TORC1/TORC2 Inhibitor That Reduces Tumor Growth, Tumor Angiogenesis, and Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qi; Hopkins, Benjamin; Perruzzi, Carole; Udayakumar, Durga; Sherris, David; Benjamin, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    It has become clear that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is central for promoting both tumor and tumor stroma and is therefore a major target for anticancer drug development. First- and second-generation rapalogs (prototypical mTOR inhibitors) have shown promise but, due to the complex nature of mTOR signaling, can result in counterproductive feedback signaling to potentiate upstream Akt signaling. We present a novel PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor, Palomid 529 (P529), which inhibits the TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and shows both inhibition of Akt signaling and mTOR signaling similarly in tumor and vasculature. We show that P529 inhibits tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. It retains the beneficial aspects of tumor vascular normalization that rapamycin boasts. However, P529 has the additional benefit of blocking pAktS473 signaling consistent with blocking TORC2 in all cells and thus bypassing feedback loops that lead to increased Akt signaling in some tumor cells. [Cancer Res 2008;68(22):9551–7] PMID:19010932

  7. Palomid 529, a novel small-molecule drug, is a TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor that reduces tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and vascular permeability.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qi; Hopkins, Benjamin; Perruzzi, Carole; Udayakumar, Durga; Sherris, David; Benjamin, Laura E

    2008-11-15

    It has become clear that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is central for promoting both tumor and tumor stroma and is therefore a major target for anticancer drug development. First- and second-generation rapalogs (prototypical mTOR inhibitors) have shown promise but, due to the complex nature of mTOR signaling, can result in counterproductive feedback signaling to potentiate upstream Akt signaling. We present a novel PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor, Palomid 529 (P529), which inhibits the TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and shows both inhibition of Akt signaling and mTOR signaling similarly in tumor and vasculature. We show that P529 inhibits tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. It retains the beneficial aspects of tumor vascular normalization that rapamycin boasts. However, P529 has the additional benefit of blocking pAktS473 signaling consistent with blocking TORC2 in all cells and thus bypassing feedback loops that lead to increased Akt signaling in some tumor cells.

  8. Basolateral potassium (IKCa) channel inhibition prevents increased colonic permeability induced by chemical hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, A; Linley, J E; Rajput, I; Hunter, M; Lodge, J P A; Sandle, G I

    2011-01-01

    Major liver resection is associated with impaired intestinal perfusion and intestinal ischemia, resulting in decreased mucosal integrity, increased bacterial translocation, and an increased risk of postoperative sepsis. However, the mechanism by which ischemia impairs intestinal mucosal integrity is unclear. We therefore evaluated the role of Ca(2+)-sensitive, intermediate-conductance (IK(Ca)) basolateral potassium channels in enhanced intestinal permeability secondary to chemical hypoxia. The effects of chemical hypoxia induced by 100 μM dinitrophenol (DNP) and 5 mM deoxyglucose (DG) on basolateral IK(Ca) channel activity and whole cell conductance in intact human colonic crypts, and paracellular permeability (G(S)) in isolated colonic sheets, were determined by patch-clamp recording and transepithelial electrical measurements, respectively. DNP and DG rapidly stimulated IK(Ca) channels in cell-attached basolateral membrane patches and elicited a twofold increase (P = 0.004) in whole cell conductance in amphotericin B-permeabilized membrane patches, changes that were inhibited by the specific IK(Ca) channel blockers TRAM-34 (100 nM) and clotrimazole (CLT; 10 μM). In colonic sheets apically permeabilized with nystatin, DNP elicited a twofold increase (P = 0.005) in G(S), which was largely inhibited by the serosal addition of 50 μM CLT. We conclude that, in intestinal epithelia, chemical hypoxia increases G(S) through a mechanism involving basolateral IK(Ca) channel activation. Basolateral IK(Ca) channel inhibition may prevent or limit increased intestinal permeability during liver surgery.

  9. Rotavirus Infection Increases Intestinal Motility but Not Permeability at the Onset of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Istrate, Claudia; Hagbom, Marie; Vikström, Elena; Magnusson, Karl-Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The disease mechanisms associated with onset and secondary effects of rotavirus (RV) diarrhea remain to be determined and may not be identical. In this study, we investigated whether onset of RV diarrhea is associated with increased intestinal permeability and/or motility. To study the transit time, fluorescent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was given to RV-infected adult and infant mice. Intestinal motility was also studied with an opioid receptor agonist (loperamide) and a muscarinic receptor antagonist (atropine). To investigate whether RV increases permeability at the onset of diarrhea, fluorescent 4- and 10-kDa dextran doses were given to infected and noninfected mice, and fluorescence intensity was measured subsequently in serum. RV increased transit time in infant mice. Increased motility was detected at 24 h postinfection (h p.i.) and persisted up to 72 h p.i in pups. Both loperamide and atropine decreased intestinal motility and attenuated diarrhea. Analysis of passage of fluorescent dextran from the intestine into serum indicated unaffected intestinal permeability at the onset of diarrhea (24 to 48 h p.i.). We show that RV-induced diarrhea is associated with increased intestinal motility via an activation of the myenteric nerve plexus, which in turn stimulates muscarinic receptors on intestinal smooth muscles. IMPORTANCE We show that RV-infected mice have increased intestinal motility at the onset of diarrhea, and that this is not associated with increased intestinal permeability. These new observations will contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in RV diarrhea. PMID:24371070

  10. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    de Punder, Karin; Pruimboom, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of work absence, disability, and mortality worldwide. Most of these diseases are associated with low-grade inflammation. Here, we hypothesize that stresses (defined as homeostatic disturbances) can induce low-grade inflammation by increasing the availability of water, sodium, and energy-rich substances to meet the increased metabolic demand induced by the stressor. One way of triggering low-grade inflammation is by increasing intestinal barrier permeability through activation of various components of the stress system. Although beneficial to meet the demands necessary during stress, increased intestinal barrier permeability also raises the possibility of the translocation of bacteria and their toxins across the intestinal lumen into the blood circulation. In combination with modern life-style factors, the increase in bacteria/bacterial toxin translocation arising from a more permeable intestinal wall causes a low-grade inflammatory state. We support this hypothesis with numerous studies finding associations with NCDs and markers of endotoxemia, suggesting that this process plays a pivotal and perhaps even a causal role in the development of low-grade inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:26029209

  11. Particulate matter air pollution causes oxidant-mediated increase in gut permeability in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution may be an important environmental factor leading to exacerbations of inflammatory illnesses in the GI tract. PM can gain access to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract via swallowing of air or secretions from the upper airways or mucociliary clearance of inhaled particles. Methods We measured PM-induced cell death and mitochondrial ROS generation in Caco-2 cells stably expressing oxidant sensitive GFP localized to mitochondria in the absence or presence of an antioxidant. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a very high dose of urban PM from Washington, DC (200 μg/mouse) or saline via gastric gavage and small bowel and colonic tissue were harvested for histologic evaluation, and RNA isolation up to 48 hours. Permeability to 4kD dextran was measured at 48 hours. Results PM induced mitochondrial ROS generation and cell death in Caco-2 cells. PM also caused oxidant-dependent NF-κB activation, disruption of tight junctions and increased permeability of Caco-2 monolayers. Mice exposed to PM had increased intestinal permeability compared with PBS treated mice. In the small bowel, colocalization of the tight junction protein, ZO-1 was lower in the PM treated animals. In the small bowel and colon, PM exposed mice had higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and reduced levels of ZO-1 mRNA. Increased apoptosis was observed in the colon of PM exposed mice. Conclusions Exposure to high doses of urban PM causes oxidant dependent GI epithelial cell death, disruption of tight junction proteins, inflammation and increased permeability in the gut in vitro and in vivo. These PM-induced changes may contribute to exacerbations of inflammatory disorders of the gut. PMID:21658250

  12. Gyroxin increases blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue dye in mice.

    PubMed

    Alves da Silva, J A; Oliveira, K C; Camillo, M A P

    2011-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme component of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom. This toxin displays several activities, including the induction of blood coagulation (fibrinogenolytic activity), vasodilation and neurotoxicity, resulting in an effect called barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not well known. Because gyroxin is a member of a potentially therapeutic family of enzymes, including thrombin, ancrod, batroxobin, trypsin and kallicrein, the identification of the mechanism of gyroxin's action is extremely important. In this study, gyroxin was isolated from crude venom by affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. Analysis of the isolated gyroxin via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a single protein band with a molecular weight of approximately 28 kDa, confirming the identity of the molecule. Furthermore, intravenous administration of purified gyroxin (0.25 μg/g of body weight) to mice resulted in symptoms compatible with barrel rotation syndrome, confirming the neurotoxic activity of the toxin. Mice treated with gyroxin showed an increase in the concentration of albumin-Evans blue in brain extracts, indicating an increase in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. This gyroxin-induced increase in BBB permeability was time-dependent, reaching a peak within 15 min after exposure, similar to the time span in which the neurotoxic syndrome (barrel rotation) occurs. This work provides the first evidence of gyroxin's capacity to temporarily alter the permeability of the BBB.

  13. Angiotensin II increases glomerular permeability by β-arrestin mediated nephrin endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Königshausen, Eva; Zierhut, Ulf M.; Ruetze, Martin; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Stegbauer, Johannes; Woznowski, Magdalena; Quack, Ivo; Rump, Lars C.; Sellin, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular permeability and subsequent albuminuria are early clinical markers for glomerular injury in hypertensive nephropathy. Albuminuria predicts mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. AT1 receptor blockers protect from albuminuria, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A blood pressure independent, molecular mechanism for angiotensin II (Ang II) dependent albuminuria has long been postulated. Albuminuria results from a defective glomerular filter. Nephrin is a major structural component of the glomerular slit diaphragm and its endocytosis is mediated by β-arrestin2. Ang II stimulation increases nephrin-β-arrestin2 binding, nephrin endocytosis and glomerular permeability in mice. This Ang II effect is mediated by AT1-receptors. AT1-receptor mutants identified G-protein signaling to be essential for this Ang II effect. Gαq knockdown and phospholipase C inhibition block Ang II mediated enhanced nephrin endocytosis. Nephrin Y1217 is the critical residue controlling nephrin binding to β-arrestin under Ang II stimulation. Nephrin Y1217 also mediates cytoskeletal anchoring to actin via nck2. Ang II stimulation decreases nephrin nck2 binding. We conclude that Ang II weakens the structural integrity of the slit diaphragm by increased nephrin endocytosis and decreased nephrin binding to nck2, which leads to increased glomerular permeability. This novel molecular mechanism of Ang II supports the use of AT1-receptor blockers to prevent albuminuria even in normotensives. PMID:28004760

  14. Pulmonary instillation of MWCNT increases lung permeability, decreases gp130 expression in the lungs, and initiates cardiovascular IL-6 transsignaling

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Leslie C.; Holland, Nathan A.; Snyder, Ryan J.; Luo, Bin; Becak, Daniel P.; Odom, Jillian T.; Harrison, Benjamin S.; Brown, Jared M.; Gowdy, Kymberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary instillation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has the potential to promote cardiovascular derangements, but the mechanisms responsible are currently unclear. We hypothesized that exposure to MWCNT would result in increased epithelial barrier permeability by 24 h postexposure and initiate a signaling process involving IL-6/gp130 transsignaling in peripheral vascular tissue. To test this hypothesis we assessed the impact of 1 and 10 μg/cm2 MWCNT on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and expression of barrier proteins and cell activation in vitro using normal human bronchial epithelial primary cells. Parallel studies using male Sprague-Dawley rats instilled with 100 μg MWCNT measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts, BAL fluid total protein, and lung water-to-tissue weight ratios 24 h postexposure and quantified serum concentrations of IL-6, soluble IL-6r, and soluble gp130. Aortic sections were examined immunohistochemically for gp130 expression, and gp130 mRNA/protein expression was evaluated in rat lung, heart, and aortic tissue homogenates. Our in vitro findings indicate that 10 μg/cm2 MWCNT decreased the development of TEER and zonula occludens-1 expression relative to the vehicle. In rats MWCNT instillation increased BAL protein, lung water, and induced pulmonary eosinophilia. Serum concentrations of soluble gp130 decreased, aortic endothelial expression of gp130 increased, and expression of gp130 in the lung was downregulated in the MWCNT-exposed group. We propose that pulmonary exposure to MWCNT can manifest as a reduced epithelial barrier and activator of vascular gp130-associated transsignaling that may promote susceptibility to cardiovascular derangements. PMID:26589480

  15. Pulmonary instillation of MWCNT increases lung permeability, decreases gp130 expression in the lungs, and initiates cardiovascular IL-6 transsignaling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Leslie C; Holland, Nathan A; Snyder, Ryan J; Luo, Bin; Becak, Daniel P; Odom, Jillian T; Harrison, Benjamin S; Brown, Jared M; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Wingard, Christopher J

    2016-01-15

    Pulmonary instillation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has the potential to promote cardiovascular derangements, but the mechanisms responsible are currently unclear. We hypothesized that exposure to MWCNT would result in increased epithelial barrier permeability by 24 h postexposure and initiate a signaling process involving IL-6/gp130 transsignaling in peripheral vascular tissue. To test this hypothesis we assessed the impact of 1 and 10 μg/cm(2) MWCNT on transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and expression of barrier proteins and cell activation in vitro using normal human bronchial epithelial primary cells. Parallel studies using male Sprague-Dawley rats instilled with 100 μg MWCNT measured bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) differential cell counts, BAL fluid total protein, and lung water-to-tissue weight ratios 24 h postexposure and quantified serum concentrations of IL-6, soluble IL-6r, and soluble gp130. Aortic sections were examined immunohistochemically for gp130 expression, and gp130 mRNA/protein expression was evaluated in rat lung, heart, and aortic tissue homogenates. Our in vitro findings indicate that 10 μg/cm(2) MWCNT decreased the development of TEER and zonula occludens-1 expression relative to the vehicle. In rats MWCNT instillation increased BAL protein, lung water, and induced pulmonary eosinophilia. Serum concentrations of soluble gp130 decreased, aortic endothelial expression of gp130 increased, and expression of gp130 in the lung was downregulated in the MWCNT-exposed group. We propose that pulmonary exposure to MWCNT can manifest as a reduced epithelial barrier and activator of vascular gp130-associated transsignaling that may promote susceptibility to cardiovascular derangements.

  16. Decreased melatonin secretion is associated with increased intestinal permeability and marker of endotoxemia in alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Forsyth, Christopher; Fogg, Louis; Burgess, Helen J.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol use is known to cause gut leakiness and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 30% of heavy drinkers develop increased intestinal permeability and ALD. The hypothesis of this study was that disruption of circadian rhythms is a potential risk factor in actively drinking alcoholics for gut leakiness and endotoxemia. We studied 20 subjects with alcohol use disorder (AD) and 17 healthy controls (HC, 6 day workers, 11 night workers). Subjects wore a wrist actiwatch for 7 days and underwent a 24-h dim light phase assessment and urine collection for intestinal permeability. The AD group had significantly less total sleep time and increased fragmentation of sleep (P < 0.05). AD also had significantly lower plasma melatonin levels compared with the HC [mean area under the curve (AUC) 322.78 ± 228.21 vs. 568.75 ± 304.26 pg/ml, P = 0.03]. In the AD group, AUC of melatonin was inversely correlated with small bowel and colonic intestinal permeability (lactulose-to-mannitol ratio, r = −0.39, P = 0.03; urinary sucralose, r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Cosinor analysis of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (marker of endotoxemia) and lipopolysaccharide every 4 h for 24 h in HC and AD subjects had a midline estimating statistic of rhythm of 5,026.15 ± 409.56 vs. 6,818.02 ± 628.78 ng/ml (P < 0.01) and 0.09 ± 0.03 vs. 0.15 ± 0.19 EU/ml (P < 0.05), respectively. We found plasma melatonin was significantly lower in the AD group, and lower melatonin levels correlated with increased intestinal permeability and a marker of endotoxemia. Our study suggests the suppression of melatonin in AD may promote gut leakiness and endotoxemia. PMID:25907689

  17. Cell Treatment for Stroke in Type Two Diabetic Rats Improves Vascular Permeability Measured by MRI.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guangliang; Chen, Jieli; Chopp, Michael; Li, Lian; Yan, Tao; Li, Qingjiang; Cui, Chengcheng; Davarani, Siamak P N; Jiang, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of stroke with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) significantly enhances brain remodeling and improves neurological function in non-diabetic stroke rats. Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and induces neurovascular changes which may impact stroke therapy. Thus, it is necessary to test our hypothesis that the treatment of stroke with BMSC has therapeutic efficacy in the most common form of diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM was induced in adult male Wistar rats by administration of a high fat diet in combination with a single intraperitoneal injection (35mg/kg) of streptozotocin. These rats were then subjected to 2h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). T2DM rats received BMSC (5x106, n = 8) or an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 8) via tail-vein injection at 3 days after MCAo. MRI was performed one day and then weekly for 5 weeks post MCAo for all rats. Compared with vehicle treated control T2DM rats, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats significantly (p<0.05) decreased blood-brain barrier disruption starting at 1 week post stroke measured using contrast enhanced T1-weighted imaging with gadopentetate, and reduced cerebral hemorrhagic spots starting at 3 weeks post stroke measured using susceptibility weighted imaging, although BMSC treatment did not reduce the ischemic lesion volumes as demarcated by T2 maps. These MRI measurements were consistent with histological data. Thus, BMSC treatment of stroke in T2DM rats initiated at 3 days after stroke significantly reduced ischemic vascular damage, although BMSC treatment did not change infarction volume in T2DM rats, measured by MRI.

  18. Botulinum Toxin Complex Increases Paracellular Permeability in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    MIYASHITA, Shin-ichiro; SAGANE, Yoshimasa; INUI, Ken; HAYASHI, Shintaro; MIYATA, Keita; SUZUKI, Tomonori; OHYAMA, Tohru; WATANABE, Toshihiro; NIWA, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK. PMID:23884081

  19. The nutriceutical bovine colostrum truncates the increase in gut permeability caused by heavy exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Tania; Davison, Glen; Oakes, Jemma R; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Patterson, Michael; Moyer, Mary Pat; Playford, Raymond J

    2011-03-01

    Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, "heat stroke" partially due to increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins. We examined bovine colostrum, a natural source of growth factors, as a potential moderator of such effects. Twelve volunteers completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol (14 days colostrum/placebo) prior to standardized exercise. Gut permeability utilized 5 h urinary lactulose-to-rhamnose ratios. In vitro studies (T84, HT29, NCM460 human colon cell lines) examined colostrum effects on temperature-induced apoptosis (active caspase-3 and 9, Baxα, Bcl-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and epithelial electrical resistance. In both study arms, exercise increased blood lactate, heart rate, core temperature (mean 1.4°C rise) by similar amounts. Gut hormone profiles were similar in both arms although GLP-1 levels rose following exercise in the placebo but not the colostrum arm (P = 0.026). Intestinal permeability in the placebo arm increased 2.5-fold following exercise (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline, to 0.92 ± 0.014, P < 0.01), whereas colostrum truncated rise by 80% (0.38 ± 0.012 baseline to 0.49 ± 0.017) following exercise. In vitro apoptosis increased by 47-65% in response to increasing temperature by 2°C. This effect was truncated by 60% if colostrum was present (all P < 0.01). Similar results were obtained examining epithelial resistance (colostrum truncated temperature-induced fall in resistance by 64%, P < 0.01). Colostrum increased HSP70 expression at both 37 and 39°C (P < 0.001) and was truncated by addition of an EGF receptor-neutralizing antibody. Temperature-induced increase in Baxα and reduction in Bcl-2 was partially reversed by presence of colostrum. Colostrum may have value in enhancing athletic performance and preventing heat stroke.

  20. Calcium regulates estrogen increase in permeability of cultured CaSki epithelium by eNOS-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gorodeski, G I

    2000-11-01

    Estrogen increases baseline transepithelial permeability across CaSki cultures and augments the increase in permeability in response to hypertonic gradients. In estrogen-treated cells, lowering cytosolic calcium abrogated the hypertonicity-induced augmented increase in permeability and decreased baseline permeability to a greater degree than in estrogen-deprived cells. Steady-state levels of cytosolic calcium in estrogen-deprived cells were higher than in estrogen-treated cells. Increases in extracellular calcium increased cytosolic calcium more in estrogen-deprived cells than in estrogen-treated cells. However, in estrogen-treated cells, increasing cytosolic calcium was associated with greater increases in permeability in response to hypertonic gradients than in estrogen-deprived cells. Lowering cytosolic calcium blocked the estrogen-induced increase in nitric oxide (NO) release and in the in vitro conversion of L-[(3)H]arginine to L-[(3)H]citrulline. Treatment with estrogen upregulated mRNA of the NO synthase isoform endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). These results indicate that cytosolic calcium mediates the responses to estrogen and suggest that the estrogen increase in permeability and the augmented increase in permeability in response to hypertonicity involve an increase in NO synthesis by upregulation of the calcium-dependent eNOS.

  1. Catalase and superoxide dismutase conjugated with platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibody distinctly alleviate abnormal endothelial permeability caused by exogenous reactive oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2011-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H(2)O(2) in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O(2)() in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of

  2. Oxidative stress and modification of renal vascular permeability are associated with acute kidney injury during P. berghei ANKA infection.

    PubMed

    Elias, Rosa Maria; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Barreto, Claudiene Rodrigues; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Hayashida, Caroline Y; Castoldi, Angela; Gonçalves, Giselle Martins; Braga, Tarcio Teodoro; Barboza, Renato; Rios, Francisco José; Keller, Alexandre Castro; Cenedeze, Marcos Antonio; Hyane, Meire Ioshie; D'Império-Lima, Maria Regina; Figueiredo-Neto, Antônio Martins; Reis, Marlene Antônia; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Malaria associated-acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with 45% of mortality in adult patients hospitalized with severe form of the disease. However, the causes that lead to a framework of malaria-associated AKI are still poorly characterized. Some clinical studies speculate that oxidative stress products, a characteristic of Plasmodium infection, as well as proinflammatory response induced by the parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the development of malaria-associated AKI during infection by P. berghei ANKA, with special attention to the role played by the inflammatory response and the involvement of oxidative stress. For that, we took advantage of an experimental model of severe malaria that showed significant changes in the renal pathophysiology to investigate the role of malaria infection in the renal microvascular permeability and tissue injury. Therefore, BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA. To assess renal function, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and ratio of proteinuria and creatininuria were evaluated. The products of oxidative stress, as well as cytokine profile were quantified in plasma and renal tissue. The change of renal microvascular permeability, tissue hypoxia and cellular apoptosis were also evaluated. Parasite infection resulted in renal dysfunction. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of adhesion molecule, proinflammatory cytokines and products of oxidative stress, associated with a decrease mRNA expression of HO-1 in kidney tissue of infected mice. The measurement of lipoprotein oxidizability also showed a significant increase in plasma of infected animals. Together, our findings support the idea that products of oxidative stress, as well as the immune response against the parasite are crucial to changes in kidney architecture and microvascular endothelial permeability of BALB/c mice infected with P. berghei ANKA.

  3. Exposure of the cat limb to @5C for 5 hours increases capillary permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.X.; Porter, L.P.; Wolf, M.B. )

    1991-03-11

    The authors previous study showed that 1 hr exposure to {approximately}5C temperatures did not decrease the solvent drag reflection coefficient ({sigma}{sub f}) for total plasma proteins in the isolated, constant-flow perfused cat hind limb. The present study determined if 5 hrs of cold exposure could increase permeability (decrease {sigma}{sub f}). {sigma}{sub f} was measured with their IMB method after lowering limb temperature to 3-6C by cooling the perfusing blood and the ambient air. To prevent edema at this low temperature, venous pressure had to be lowered to just above venous collapse and flow to {lt}2 ml/min/100g. 1 hr exposure to {approximately}5C did not reduce {sigma}{sub f} from the 37C control, but 5 hrs of exposure at {approximately}5C significantly reduced {sigma}{sub f} from 0.87 to 0.69. Hence, 5 hrs of perfusion at these low temperatures can cause a non-freezing cold injury with an increase in capillary permeability and edema formation. Also, the edema is enhanced by an increase in capillary hydrostatic pressure secondary to a venous resistance increase.

  4. A novel dual-flow bioreactor simulates increased fluorescein permeability in epithelial tissue barriers.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Serena; Sbrana, Tommaso; La Marca, Margherita; Di Patria, Valentina; Martinucci, Valentina; Tirella, Annalisa; Domenici, Claudio; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2014-09-01

    Permeability studies across epithelial barriers are of primary importance in drug delivery as well as in toxicology. However, traditional in vitro models do not adequately mimic the dynamic environment of physiological barriers. Here, we describe a novel two-chamber modular bioreactor for dynamic in vitro studies of epithelial cells. The fluid dynamic environment of the bioreactor was characterized using computational fluid dynamic models and measurements of pressure gradients for different combinations of flow rates in the apical and basal chambers. Cell culture experiments were then performed with fully differentiated Caco-2 cells as a model of the intestinal epithelium, comparing the effect of media flow applied in the bioreactor with traditional static transwells. The flow increases barrier integrity and tight junction expression of Caco-2 cells with respect to the static controls. Fluorescein permeability increased threefold in the dynamic system, indicating that the stimulus induced by flow increases transport across the barrier, closely mimicking the in vivo situation. The results are of interest for studying the influence of mechanical stimuli on cells, and underline the importance of developing more physiologically relevant in vitro tissue models. The bioreactor can be used to study drug delivery, chemical, or nanomaterial toxicity and to engineer barrier tissues.

  5. Increased endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion on nanostructured titanium and CoCrMo

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Saba; Berhe, Mikal; Haberstroh, Karen M; Webster, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    In the body, vascular cells continuously interact with tissues that possess nanostructured surface features due to the presence of proteins (such as collagen and elastin) embedded in the vascular wall. Despite this fact, vascular stents intended to restore blood flow do not have nanoscale surface features but rather are smooth at the nanoscale. As the first step towards creating the next generation of vascular stent materials, the objective of this in vitro study was to investigate vascular cell (specifically, endothelial, and vascular smooth muscle cell) adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional commercially pure (cp) Ti and CoCrMo. Nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo compacts were created by separately utilizing either constituent cp Ti or CoCrMo nanoparticles as opposed to conventional micronsized particles. Results of this study showed for the first time increased endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion on nanostructured compared with conventional cp Ti and CoCrMo after 4 hours’ adhesion. Moreover, compared with their respective conventional counterparts, the ratio of endothelial to vascular smooth muscle cells increased on nanostructured cp Ti and CoCrMo. In addition, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells had a better spread morphology on the nanostructured metals compared with conventional metals. Overall, vascular cell adhesion was better on CoCrMo than on cp Ti. Results of surface characterization studies demonstrated similar chemistry but significantly greater root-mean-square (rms) surface roughness as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) for nanostructured compared with respective conventional metals. For these reasons, results from the present in vitro study provided evidence that vascular stents composed of nanometer compared with micron-sized metal particles (specifically, either cp Ti or CoCrMo) may invoke cellular responses promising for improved vascular stent applications. PMID:17722261

  6. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) desensitization increases sea urchin spermatozoa fertilization rate.

    PubMed

    Torrezan-Nitao, Elis; Boni, Raianna; Marques-Santos, Luis Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) is a protein complex whose opening promotes an abrupt increase in mitochondrial inner membrane permeability. Calcium signaling pathways are described in gametes and are involved in the fertilization process. Although mitochondria may act as Ca(2+) store and have a fast calcium-releasing mechanism through MPTP, its contribution to fertilization remains unclear. The work aimed to investigate the MPTP phenomenon in sea urchin spermatozoa and its role on the fertilization. Several pharmacological tools were used to evaluate the MPTP's physiology. Our results demonstrated that MPTP occurs in male gametes in a Ca(2+) - and voltage-dependent manner and it is sensitive to cyclosporine A. Additionally, our data show that MPTP opening does not alter ROS generation in sperm cells. Inhibition of MPTP in spermatozoa strongly improved the fertilization rate, which may involve mechanisms that increase the spermatozoa lifespan. The present work is the first report of the presence of a voltage- and Ca(2+) -dependent MPTP in gametes of invertebrates and indicates MPTP opening as another evolutionary feature shared by sea urchins and mammals. Studies about MPTP in sea urchin male gametes may contribute to the elucidation of several mechanisms involved in sperm infertility.

  7. Cigarette smoke extract inhibits expression of peroxiredoxin V and increases airway epithelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Serikov, Vladimir B; Leutenegger, Christian; Krutilina, Raisa; Kropotov, Andrei; Pleskach, Nadezhda; Suh, Jung H; Tomilin, Nikolay V

    2006-01-01

    Inhaled cigarette smoke induces oxidative stress in the epithelium of airways. Peroxiredoxin V (PRXV) is a potent antioxidant protein, highly expressed in cells of the airway epithelium. The goal of our study was to determine whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) influenced expression of this protein in airway epithelia in vivo and in vitro. In Sprague-Dawley rats, we determined effects of CSE on airway epithelial permeability, mRNA levels and expression of PRXV protein. Exposure of isolated tracheal segment in vitro to 20% CSE for 4 h resulted in development of increased permeability to albumin, significantly reduced mRNA levels for PRXV, and reduced amounts of PRXV protein in the epithelium. In cultures of the airway epithelial cell lines (Calu-3, JME), primary airway cell culture (cow), and alveolar epithelial cells A549, CSE also significantly decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and expression of PRXV protein, and induced glutathione and protein oxidation. To demonstrate functional importance of PRXV, we exposed clones of HeLa cells with siRNA-downregulated PRXV to hydrogen peroxide, which resulted in increased rate of cell death and protein oxidation. CSE directly downregulates expression of functionally important antioxidant enzyme PRXV in the epithelial cells of airways, which represents one pathophysiological mechanism of cigarette smoke toxicity.

  8. The phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12 regulates endothelial cell migration and adhesion, but not permeability, and controls vascular development and embryonic viability.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleiton Martins; Davidson, Dominique; Rhee, Inmoo; Gratton, Jean-Philippe; Davis, Elaine C; Veillette, André

    2012-12-14

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST (PTPN12) is ubiquitously expressed. It is essential for normal embryonic development and embryonic viability in mice. Herein we addressed the involvement of PTP-PEST in endothelial cell functions using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches. By generating primary endothelial cells from an inducible PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we found that PTP-PEST is not needed for endothelial cell differentiation and proliferation or for the control of endothelial cell permeability. Nevertheless, it is required for integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. PTP-PEST-deficient endothelial cells displayed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2, which were previously also implicated in integrin functions. By eliminating PTP-PEST in endothelial cells in vivo, we obtained evidence that expression of PTP-PEST in endothelial cells is required for normal vascular development and embryonic viability. Therefore, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of integrin-mediated functions in endothelial cells seemingly through its capacity to control Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2. This function explains at least in part the essential role of PTP-PEST in embryonic development and viability.

  9. BET Bromodomain Suppression Inhibits VEGF-induced Angiogenesis and Vascular Permeability by Blocking VEGFR2-mediated Activation of PAK1 and eNOS

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingcheng; Qiu, Qian; Xiao, Youjun; Zeng, Shan; Zhan, Mingying; Shi, Maohua; Zou, Yaoyao; Ye, Yujin; Liang, Liuqin; Yang, Xiuyan; Xu, Hanshi

    2016-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a critical modulator of angiogenesis. Increasing evidence indicate the important role of bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) of chromatin adaptors in regulating tumor growth and inflammatory response. However, whether BET proteins have a role in angiogenesis and endothelial permeability is unclear. In this study, we observed that treatment with JQ1, a specific BET inhibitor, suppressed in vitro tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in vivo angiogenesis in a Matrigel plug and oxygen-induced retinopathy neovascularization. JQ1 attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER in HUVECs and prevented Evans blue dye leakage in the VEGF-induced Miles assay in athymic Balb/c nude mice. BET inhibition with JQ1 or shRNA for Brd2 or Brd4 suppressed VEGF-induced migration, proliferation, and stress fiber formation of HUVECs. Furthermore, BET inhibition suppressed phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and PAK1, as well as eNOS activation in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. Inhibition with VEGFR2 and PAK1 also reduced migration and proliferation, and attenuated the VEGF-induced decrease in TEER. Thus, our observations suggest the important role of BET bromodomain in regulating VEGF-induced angiogenesis. Strategies that target the BET bromodomain may provide a new therapeutic approach for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:27044328

  10. Boron Induces Hyperpolarization of Sunflower Root Cell Membranes and Increases Membrane Permeability to K+1

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Mary K.; Novacky, Anton; Blevins, Dale G.

    1990-01-01

    Although many studies have alluded to a role for boron (B) in membrane function, there is little evidence for a direct effect of B on the plasmalemma of higher plant cells. These studies were conducted to demonstrate, by electrophysiological techniques, a direct effect of B on the membrane potential (Em) of sunflower (Helianthus annuus [L.], cv Mammoth Grey Stripe) root tip cells and to determine if the response to B occurs rapidly enough to account for the previously observed effects of B on ion uptake. By inserting a glass microelectrode into an individual cell in the root tip, the Em of the cell was determined in basal salt medium (BSM), pH 6.0. The perfusion solution surrounding the root tissue was then changed to BSM + 50 micromolar H3BO3, pH 6.0. The exposure to B induced a significant plasmalemma hyperpolarization in sunflower root cells within 20 minutes. After just 3 minutes of exposure to B, the change in Em was already significantly different from the negligible change in Em observed over time in root cells never exposed to B. Membrane hyperpolarization could be caused by a stimulation of the proton pump or by a change in the conductance of one or more permeable ions. Since B has been shown to affect K+ uptake by plants, the electrophysiological techniques described above were used to determine if B has an effect on membrane permeability to K+, and could thereby lead to an increased diffusion potential. When sunflower root tips were pretreated in 50 micromolar B for 2 hours, cell membranes exhibited a significantly greater depolarization with each 10-fold increase in external [K+] than minus-B cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the depolarization due to increased external [K+] was also significantly greater when tissue was exposed to B at the same time as the 10-fold increase in [K+], indicating that the effect of B on K+ permeability was immediate. Analysis of sunflower root tips demonstrated that treatment in 50 micromolar B caused a

  11. Lipophilic cationic drugs increase the permeability of lysosomal membranes in a cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Kornhuber, Johannes; Henkel, Andreas W; Groemer, Teja W; Städtler, Sven; Welzel, Oliver; Tripal, Philipp; Rotter, Andrea; Bleich, Stefan; Trapp, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Lysosomes accumulate many drugs several fold higher compared to their extracellular concentration. This mechanism is believed to be responsible for many pharmacological effects. So far, uptake and release kinetics are largely unknown and interactions between concomitantly administered drugs often provoke mutual interference. In this study, we addressed these questions in a cell culture model. The molecular mechanism for lysosomal uptake kinetics was analyzed by live cell fluorescence microscopy in SY5Y cells using four drugs (amantadine, amitriptyline, cinnarizine, flavoxate) with different physicochemical properties. Drugs with higher lipophilicity accumulated more extensively within lysosomes, whereas a higher pK(a) value was associated with a more rapid uptake. The drug-induced displacement of LysoTracker was neither caused by elevation of intra-lysosomal pH, nor by increased lysosomal volume. We extended our previously developed numerical single cell model by introducing a dynamic feedback mechanism. The empirical data were in good agreement with the results obtained from the numerical model. The experimental data and results from the numerical model lead to the conclusion that intra-lysosomal accumulation of lipophilic xenobiotics enhances lysosomal membrane permeability. Manipulation of lysosomal membrane permeability might be useful to overcome, for example, multi-drug resistance by altering subcellular drug distribution.

  12. Selective increase of the permeability of polarized epithelial cell monolayers by Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Papini, E; Satin, B; Norais, N; de Bernard, M; Telford, J L; Rappuoli, R; Montecucco, C

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the vacuolating toxin (VacA) released by pathogenic strains of Helicobacter pylori on several polarized epithelial monolayers were investigated. Trans-epithelial electric resistance (TER) of monolayers formed by canine kidney MDCK I, human gut T84, and murine mammary gland epH4, was lowered by acid-activated VacA. Independent of the cell type and of the starting TER value, VacA reduced it to a minimal value of 1,000-1,300 Omega x cm2. TER decrease was paralleled by a three- to fourfold increase of [14C]-mannitol (molecular weight 182.2) and a twofold increase of [14C]-sucrose (molecular weight 342.3) transmonolayer flux. On the contrary, transmembrane flux of the proinflammatory model tripeptide [14C]-N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (molecular weight 437.6), of [3H]-inuline (molecular weight 5,000) and of HRP (molecular weight 47,000) did not change. These data indicate that VacA increases paracellular epithelial permeability to molecules with molecular weight < 350-440. Accordingly, the epithelial permeability of Fe3+ and Ni2+ ions, essential for H. pylori survival in vivo, was also increased by VacA. High-resolution immunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE analysis failed to reveal alterations of junctional proteins ZO-1, occludin, cingulin, and E-cadherin. It is proposed that induction by VacA of a selective permeabilization of the epithelial paracellular route to low molecular weight molecules and ions may serve to supply nutrients, which favor H. pylori growth in vivo. PMID:9710450

  13. Loss of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 increases deoxycholic acid absorption in mice by increasing intestinal permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2011-12-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known hepatotoxicant, a tissue tumor promoter, and has been implicated in colorectal cancer. Male mice are more susceptible to DCA toxicity than female mice. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1), which is known to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro, is predominantly expressed in livers of male mice. In addition, the concentrations of DCA and its taurine conjugate (TDCA) are increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null mice. To investigate whether Oatp1a1 contributes to the gender difference in DCA toxicity in mice, wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were fed a 0.3% DCA diet for 7 days. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice had 30-fold higher concentrations of DCA in both serum and livers than WT mice. Feeding DCA caused more hepatotoxcity in Oatp1a1-null mice than WT mice. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice expressed higher BA efflux-transporters (bile salt-export pump, organic solute transporter (Ost)α/β, and multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]2) and lower BA-synthetic enzymes (cytochrome P450 [Cyp]7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1) in livers than WT mice. Intravenous administration of DCA and TDCA showed that lack of Oatp1a1 does not decrease the plasma elimination of DCA or TDCA. After feeding DCA, the concentrations of DCA in ileum and colon tissues are higher in Oatp1a1-null than in WT mice. In addition, Oatp1a1-null mice have enhanced intestinal permeability. Taken together, the current data suggest that Oatp1a1 does not mediate the hepatic uptake of DCA or TDCA, but lack of Oatp1a1 increases intestinal permeability and thus enhances the absorption of DCA in mice.

  14. Loss of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Increases Deoxycholic Acid Absorption in Mice by Increasing Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a known hepatotoxicant, a tissue tumor promoter, and has been implicated in colorectal cancer. Male mice are more susceptible to DCA toxicity than female mice. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1), which is known to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro, is predominantly expressed in livers of male mice. In addition, the concentrations of DCA and its taurine conjugate (TDCA) are increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null mice. To investigate whether Oatp1a1 contributes to the gender difference in DCA toxicity in mice, wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were fed a 0.3% DCA diet for 7 days. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice had 30-fold higher concentrations of DCA in both serum and livers than WT mice. Feeding DCA caused more hepatotoxcity in Oatp1a1-null mice than WT mice. After feeding DCA, Oatp1a1-null mice expressed higher BA efflux-transporters (bile salt-export pump, organic solute transporter (Ost)α/β, and multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]2) and lower BA-synthetic enzymes (cytochrome P450 [Cyp]7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1) in livers than WT mice. Intravenous administration of DCA and TDCA showed that lack of Oatp1a1 does not decrease the plasma elimination of DCA or TDCA. After feeding DCA, the concentrations of DCA in ileum and colon tissues are higher in Oatp1a1-null than in WT mice. In addition, Oatp1a1-null mice have enhanced intestinal permeability. Taken together, the current data suggest that Oatp1a1 does not mediate the hepatic uptake of DCA or TDCA, but lack of Oatp1a1 increases intestinal permeability and thus enhances the absorption of DCA in mice. PMID:21914718

  15. Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein: a multifaceted protein with functions beyond LPS neutralization.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Arjun; Marathe, Sandhya A; Joglekar, Madhura; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2013-01-01

    Bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI), a 55-60 kDa protein, first reported in 1975, has gone a long way as a protein with multifunctional roles. Its classical role in neutralizing endotoxin (LPS) raised high hopes among septic shock patients. Today, BPI is not just a LPS-neutralizing protein, but a protein with diverse functions. These functions can be as varied as inhibition of endothelial cell growth and inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, or as an anti-angiogenic, chemoattractant or opsonization agent. Though the literature available is extremely limited, it is fascinating to look into how BPI is gaining major importance as a signalling molecule. In this review, we briefly summarize the recent research focused on the multiple roles of BPI and its use as a therapeutic.

  16. Lignans from the stems and leaves of Brandisia hancei and their effects on VEGF-induced vascular permeability and migration of HRECs and DLAV formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ik-Soo; Kim, Young Sook; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Yu, Song Yi; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Sun, Hang; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-01-01

    In our continuing search for novel antiangiogenic agents, a new lignan glycoside, (7R,8R)-1-(4-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-{2-methoxy-4-[1-(E)-propene-3-ol]-phenoxyl}-propane-1,3-diol (1), along with three known lignans (2-4), were isolated from the 80% EtOH extract of Brandisia hancei stems and leaves. These isolates (1-4) were subjected to an in vitro bioassay to evaluate their effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced vascular permeability and migration of human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs). Of the compounds tested, compound 1 resulted in the greatest reduction in VEGF-induced vascular permeability by about 31.5% at 10 μM compared to the VEGF-treated control. In the migration assay, compounds 1 and 2 significantly decreased VEGF-induced HREC migration. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos treated with compounds 1 and 2 showed mild reductions of dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel (DLAV) formation.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  18. VIP and its homologous increase vascular conductance in certain endocrine and exocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, L.J.; Connors, J.M.; Hedge, G.A. )

    1988-04-01

    The effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and related structural homologues on tissue vascular conductances were investigated in anesthetized male rats. VIP, peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor (GHRF), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), or saline was infused intravenously over 4 min. Tissue blood flows were measured during this time by use of {sup 141}Ce-labeled microspheres. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH), triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) levels were determined before and at 20 min and 2 h after treatment. Marked increases in thyroid, pancreatic, and salivary gland vascular Cs occurred during peptide infusion with the order of potency correlating with the degree of structural homology to VIP. PHI and secretin produced maximal increases in vascular Cs, which were the same as those obtained with VIP. Circulating TSH, T{sub 3}, and T{sub 4} levels were not different from values in saline-infused rats after peptide treatments that caused striking increases in thyroid vascular C. These observations indicate that the vascular beds of certain endocrine and exocrine glands are responsive to the vasodilatory action of VIP and related homologues with the order of potency corresponding to the degree of structural homology to VIP. These results are also consistent with the proposal that structural homologues of VIP act at the same vascular receptor as VIP. Alternative, the involvement of different vascular receptors, acting through the same mechanism at a level beyond the receptor site, cannot be excluded.

  19. Hypothyroidism increases osmotic water permeability (Pf) in the developing renal brush border membrane.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Jaap; Haddad, Maha N; Vernon, Kimberly; Baum, Michel; Quigley, Raymond

    2003-06-01

    The osmotic water permeability (Pf) of the rabbit proximal tubule brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) increases during maturation and is mediated by an increase in aquaporin-1 (AQP1) protein expression. Serum thyroid hormone levels increase after birth and have been shown to play a role in the maturation of other renal transport functions. We examined the hypothesis that thyroid hormone plays a role in the maturational increase in osmotic water permeability. Hypothyroidism was induced by addition of 0.1% propylthiouracil (PTU) to the drinking water of pregnant rabbits (starting 9 d before delivery) and was continued until the rabbits were studied as adults (9-11 wk). Some animals received thyroid hormone replacement by daily injection with triiodothyronine (T3; 10 microg/100 g body weight) for three days before study. Pf was found to be higher in BBMV from hypothyroid (82.7 +/- 5.5 microm/s) than from euthyroid (60.6 +/- 4.0 microm/s) and T3-replacement rabbits (69.0 +/- 5.0 microm/s) (p < 0.05). The activation energy (Ea; in kcal/deg.mol) of Pf was not different among the three experimental groups (euthyroid 5.6 +/- 0.9, hypothyroid 4.9 +/- 0.8, T3-replacement 5.0 +/- 1.0; p = NS), nor was the percentage mercury inhibition of Pf (euthyroid 66.5 +/- 5.3, hypothyroid 74.2 +/- 3.2 and T3-replacement 73.1 +/- 4.3; p = NS). AQP1 expression, measured by immunoblotting, was highest in BBMV from hypothyroid rabbits (p < 0.05). Membrane fluidity, measured as steady-state generalized polarization (GP) of Laurdan, which is inversely related to membrane fluidity, was significantly different between the three groups (GP: euthyroid 0.307 +/- 0.004, hypothyroid 0.271 +/- 0.004 and T3-replacement 0.287 +/- 0.003; for all p < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the maturational increase in thyroid hormone levels is not responsible for the maturational increase in water transport. Surprisingly, congenital hypothyroidism in rabbits is associated with an increased Pf when rabbits

  20. Increased gastrointestinal permeability and gut inflammation in children with functional abdominal pain and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and fecal calprotectin concentration in children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome (FAP/IBS) versus control subjects and ascertain potential relationships with pain symptoms and stooling, GI permeability a...

  1. Increased Gut Permeability and Bacterial Translocation after Chronic Chlorpyrifos Exposure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Joly Condette, Claire; Khorsi-Cauet, Hafida; Morlière, Patrice; Zabijak, Luciane; Reygner, Julie; Bach, Véronique; Gay-Quéheillard, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium's barrier function is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and preventing the passage of food antigens and luminal bacteria. This function is essentially subserved by tight junctions (TJs), multiprotein complexes located in the most apical part of the lateral membrane. Some gastrointestinal disease states are associated with elevated intestinal permeability to macromolecules. In a study on rats, we determined the influence of chronic, daily ingestion of chlorpyrifos (CPF, a pesticide that crosses the placental barrier) during pre- and postnatal periods on intestinal permeability and TJ characteristics in the pups. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran was used as a marker of paracellular transport and mucosal barrier dysfunction. Pups were gavaged with FITC-dextran solution and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 400 min and analyzed spectrofluorimetrically. At sacrifice, different intestinal segments were resected and prepared for analysis of the transcripts (qPCR) and localization (using immunofluorescence) of ZO-1, occludin and claudins (scaffolding proteins that have a role in the constitution of TJs). In rats that had been exposed to CPF in utero and after birth, we observed a progressive increase in FITC-dextran passage across the epithelial barrier from 210 to 325 min at day 21 after birth (weaning) but not at day 60 (adulthood). At both ages, there were significant changes in intestinal TJ gene expression, with downregulation of ZO-1 and occludin and upregulation of claudins 1 and 4. In some intestinal segments, there were changes in the cellular localization of ZO-1 and claudin 4 immunostaining. Lastly, bacterial translocation to the spleen was also observed. The presence of CPF residues in food may disturb epithelial homeostasis in rats. Changes in TJ protein expression and localization may be involved in gut barrier dysfunction in this model. Uncontrolled passage of macromolecules and bacteria across the intestinal epithelium

  2. Lactobacillus fermentum AGR1487 cell surface structures and supernatant increase paracellular permeability through different pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Ranjita; Anderson, Rachel C; Altermann, Eric; McNabb, Warren C; Ganesh, Siva; Armstrong, Kelly M; Moughan, Paul J; Roy, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus fermentum is commonly found in food products, and some strains are known to have beneficial effects on human health. However, our previous research indicated that L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases in vitro intestinal barrier integrity. The hypothesis was that cell surface structures of AGR1487 are responsible for the observed in vitro effect. AGR1487 was compared to another human oral L. fermentum strain, AGR1485, which does not cause the same effect. The examination of phenotypic traits associated with the composition of cell surface structures showed that compared to AGR1485, AGR1487 had a smaller genome, utilized different sugars, and had greater tolerance to acid and bile. The effect of the two strains on intestinal barrier integrity was determined using two independent measures of paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay specifically measures ion permeability, whereas the mannitol flux assay measures the passage of uncharged molecules. Both live and UV-inactivated AGR1487 decreased TEER across Caco-2 cells implicating the cell surfaces structures in the effect. However, only live AGR1487, and not UV-inactivated AGR1487, increased the rate of passage of mannitol, implying that a secreted component(s) is responsible for this effect. These differences in barrier integrity results are likely due to the TEER and mannitol flux assays measuring different characteristics of the epithelial barrier, and therefore imply that there are multiple mechanisms involved in the effect of AGR1487 on barrier integrity. PMID:25943073

  3. Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Persaud, S J; Al-Majed, H; Raman, A; Jones, P M

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether extracts of Gymnema sylvestre may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we examined the effects of an alcoholic extract of G. sylvestre (GS4) on insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans and several pancreatic beta-cell lines. GS4 stimulated insulin release from HIT-T15, MIN6 and RINm5F beta-cells and from islets in the absence of any other stimulus, and GS4-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited in the presence of 1 mM EGTA. Blockade of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels with 10 microM isradipine did not significantly affect GS4-induced secretion, and insulin release in response to GS4 was independent of incubation temperature. Examination of islet and beta-cell integrity after exposure to GS4, by trypan blue exclusion, indicated that concentrations of GS4 that stimulated insulin secretion also caused increased uptake of dye. Two gymnemic acid-enriched fractions of GS4, obtained by size exclusion and silica gel chromatography, also caused increases in insulin secretion concomitant with increased trypan blue uptake. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of G. sylvestre on insulin release, but indicate that GS4 acts by increasing cell permeability, rather than by stimulating exocytosis by regulated pathways. Thus the suitability of GS4 as a potential novel treatment for NIDDM can not be assessed by direct measurements of beta-cell function in vitro.

  4. Halobacterial nano vesicles displaying murine bactericidal permeability-increasing protein rescue mice from lethal endotoxic shock

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Arjun; DasSarma, Priya; Bhattacharjee, Oindrilla; Kim, Jong Myoung; DasSarma, Shiladitya; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) had been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and endotoxin neutralizing activity by interacting with LPS of Gram-negative bacteria. The current study examines the feasibility of using murine BPI (mBPI) expressed on halophilic Archaeal gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) for the treatment of endotoxemia in high-risk patients, using a murine model of D-galactosamine-induced endotoxic shock. Halobacterium sp. NRC-1was used to express the N-terminal 199 amino acid residues of mBPI fused to the GVNP GvpC protein, and bound to the surface of the haloarchaeal GVNPs. Our results indicate that delivery of mBPIN-GVNPs increase the survival rate of mice challenged with lethal concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine. Additionally, the mBPIN-GVNP-treated mice displayed reduced symptoms of inflammation, including inflammatory anemia, recruitment of neutrophils, liver apoptosis as well as increased pro-inflammatory serum cytokine levels. PMID:27646594

  5. Common variants of chemokine receptor gene CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL10 and CXCL11 associated with vascular permeability of dengue infection in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hoh, B P; Umi-Shakina, H; Zuraihan, Z; Zaiharina, M Z; Rafidah-Hanim, S; Mahiran, M; Khairudin, N Y Nik; Benedict, L H Sim; Masliza, Z; Christopher, K C Lee; Sazaly, A B

    2015-06-01

    Dengue causes significantly more human disease than any other arboviruses. It causes a spectrum of illness, ranging from mild self-limited fever, to severe and fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever, as evidenced by vascular leakage and multifactorial hemostatic abnormalities. There is no specific treatment available till date. Evidence shows that chemokines CXCL10, CXCL11 and their receptor CXCR3 are involved in severity of dengue, but their genetic association with the susceptibility of vascular leakage during dengue infection has not been reported. We genotyped 14 common variants of these candidate genes in 176 patients infected with dengue. rs4859584 and rs8878 (CXCL10) were significantly associated with vascular permeability of dengue infection (P<0.05); while variants of CXCL11 showed moderate significance of association (P=0.0527). Haplotype blocks were constructed for genes CXCL10 and CXCL11 (5 and 7 common variants respectively). Haplotype association tests performed revealed that, "CCCCA" of gene CXCL10 and "AGTTTAC" of CXCL11 were found to be significantly associated with vascular leakage (P=0.0154 and 0.0366 respectively). In summary, our association study further strengthens the evidence of the involvement of CXCL10 and CXCL11 in the pathogenesis of dengue infection.

  6. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  7. Endothelial cell shrinkage increases permeability through a Ca2+-dependent pathway in single frog mesenteric microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Kajimura, M; Curry, F E

    1999-01-01

    We tested whether calcium (Ca2+)-dependent mechanisms were essential for our previous observation that a change in the endothelial cell (EC)-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment caused an increase in microvessel hydraulic permeability (Lp) after exposure to hypertonic solutions in single perfused mesenteric microvessels in pithed frogs (Rana pipiens). In microvessels where integrin-dependent EC-ECM attachments were disrupted by pretreatment with the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP; 0·3 mmol l−1), we measured microvessel Lp after exposure to hypertonic solutions under experimental conditions that reduced Ca2+ influx into endothelial cells. High K+ solutions (59·7 and 100 mmol l−1 K+) were used to depolarize the endothelial membrane and therefore to reduce the electrochemical driving force for Ca2+ influx through conductive Ca2+ channels. These solutions abolished the increase in Lp caused by hypertonic solutions in the microvessels pretreated with GRGDTP. We previously suggested that the removal of albumin from the perfusate may reduce EC-ECM attachment because hypertonic solutions increased the Lp of microvessels above that due to removal of albumin alone. This additional increase in Lp was attenuated by the 59·7 mmol l−1 K+ solution and was completely abolished by the 100 mmol l−1 K+ solution. Bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+-K+-2Cl− co-transporter and one of the mechanisms of regulatory volume increase after exposure to hypertonic solutions in endothelial cells, did not change the response of microvessels to high K+ solutions. Our findings indicate that Ca2+ entry into endothelial cells via passive conductance channels is necessary to increase microvessel Lp after exposure to hypertonic solutions in microvessels where EC-ECM attachments are disrupted. PMID:10373704

  8. Increased potassium conductance of brain mitochondria induces resistance to permeability transition by enhancing matrix volume.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Magnus J; Morota, Saori; Teilum, Maria; Mattiasson, Gustav; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Elmér, Eskil

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of K(+) conductance of the inner mitochondrial membrane has been proposed to mediate preconditioning in ischemia-reperfusion injury. The mechanism is not entirely understood, but it has been linked to a decreased activation of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT). In the present study K(+) channel activity was mimicked by picomolar concentrations of valinomycin. Isolated brain mitochondria were exposed to continuous infusions of calcium. Monitoring of extramitochondrial Ca(2+) and mitochondrial respiration provided a quantitative assay for mPT sensitivity by determining calcium retention capacity (CRC). Valinomycin and cyclophilin D inhibition separately and additively increased CRC. Comparable degrees of respiratory uncoupling induced by increased K(+) or H(+) conductance had opposite effects on mPT sensitivity. Protonophores dose-dependently decreased CRC, demonstrating that so-called mild uncoupling was not beneficial per se. The putative mitoK(ATP) channel opener diazoxide did not mimic the effect of valinomycin. An alkaline matrix pH was required for mitochondria to retain calcium, but increased K(+) conductance did not result in augmented DeltapH. The beneficial effect of valinomycin on CRC was not mediated by H(2)O(2)-induced protein kinase Cepsilon activation. Rather, increased K(+) conductance reduced H(2)O(2) generation during calcium infusion. Lowering the osmolarity of the buffer induced an increase in mitochondrial volume and improved CRC similar to valinomycin without inducing uncoupling or otherwise affecting respiration. We propose that increased potassium conductance in brain mitochondria may cause a direct physiological effect on matrix volume inducing resistance to pathological calcium challenges.

  9. Hydrogel increases localized transport regions and skin permeability during low frequency ultrasound treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Tatiana Aparecida; Ramos, Danielle Nishida; Lopez, Renata F. V.

    2017-01-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (LFU) enhances skin permeability via the formation of heterogeneous localized transport regions (LTRs). In this work, hydrogels with different zeta potentials were used as the coupling medium for LFU to investigate their contribution to LTR patterns and to the skin penetration of two model drugs, calcein and doxorubicin (DOX). When hydrogels were used, LTRs covering at least a 3-fold greater skin area were observed compared to those resulting from traditional LFU treatment and sodium lauryl sulfate. More LTRs resulted in an enhancement of calcein skin permeation. The zeta potential of the hydrogels affected the skin penetration of the positively charged DOX; the cationic coupling medium decreased the DOX recovered from the viable epidermis by 2.8-fold, whereas the anionic coupling medium increased the DOX accumulation in the stratum corneum by 4.4-fold. Therefore, LFU/hydrogel treatment increases LTRs areas and can target ionized drugs to specific skin layers depending on the zeta potential of the coupling medium. PMID:28287146

  10. Pleiotrophin triggers inflammation and increased peritoneal permeability leading to peritoneal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hideki; Kasahara, Masato; Mori, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Kuwabara, Takashige; Imamaki, Hirotaka; Kawanishi, Tomoko; Koga, Kenichi; Ishii, Akira; Kato, Yukiko; Mori, Keita P; Toda, Naohiro; Ohno, Shoko; Muramatsu, Hisako; Muramatsu, Takashi; Sugawara, Akira; Mukoyama, Masashi; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis with submesothelial fibrotic tissue. Although angiogenesis and inflammatory mediators are involved in peritoneal fibrosis, precise molecular mechanisms are undefined. To study this, we used microarray analysis and compared gene expression profiles of the peritoneum in control and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG)-induced peritoneal fibrosis mice. One of the 43 highly upregulated genes was pleiotrophin, a midkine family member, the expression of which was also upregulated by the solution used to treat mice by peritoneal dialysis. This growth factor was found in fibroblasts and mesothelial cells within the underlying submesothelial compact zones of mice, and in human peritoneal biopsy samples and peritoneal dialysate effluent. Recombinant pleiotrophin stimulated mitogenesis and migration of mouse mesothelial cells in culture. We found that in wild-type mice, CG treatment increased peritoneal permeability (measured by equilibration), increased mRNA expression of TGF-β1, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin, TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and resulted in infiltration of CD3-positive T cells, and caused a high number of Ki-67-positive proliferating cells. All of these parameters were decreased in peritoneal tissues of CG-treated pleiotrophin-knockout mice. Thus, an upregulation of pleiotrophin appears to play a role in fibrosis and inflammation during peritoneal injury.

  11. Protection against endotoxic shock by bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H; Yang, R; Marsters, S; Ashkenazi, A; Bunting, S; Marra, M N; Scott, R W; Baker, J B

    1995-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil primary granule protein that inhibits effects of LPS in vitro. The current study examined the effects of BPI on hemodynamics, mortality, and circulating endotoxin and cytokines in conscious rats with endotoxic shock. Catheters were implanted into the right femoral artery and vein. 1 d later, human recombinant BPI (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was intravenously injected immediately, 30 min, or 2 h after intravenous injection of LPS (7.5 mg/kg). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were monitored and blood was collected before and after injection. BPI given immediately or 30 min after LPS prevented the LPS-induced reduction in MAP at 4-8 h and markedly reduced mortality. BPI given 2 h after LPS injection had no protective effect. BPI treated immediately after LPS reduced the circulating levels of endotoxin and IL-6 but increased the circulating levels of TNF. We propose that BPI exerts its protective effect through a TNF-independent mechanism, by inhibiting endotoxin-stimulated production of IL-6. PMID:7706502

  12. Aldosterone increases the apical Na sup + permeability of toad bladder by two different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, C.; Garty, H. )

    1988-10-01

    The aldosterone-induced augmentation of Na{sup +} transport in toad bladder was analyzed by comparing the hormonal actions on the transepithelial short-circuit current and on the amiloride-sensitive {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake in isolated membrane vesicles. Incubating bladders with 0.5 {mu}M aldosterone for 3 hr evoked more than a 2-fold increase of the short-circuit current but had no effect on the amiloride-sensitive Na{sup +} transport in apical vesicles derived from the treated tissue. A longer incubation produced an additional augmentation of the short-circuit current, which was accompanied by about a 3-fold increase of the channel activity in isolated membranes. The stimulatory effect of aldosterone sustained in vesicles was inhibited by the antagonist spironolactone and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. It is suggested that aldosterone elevates the apical Na{sup +} permeability of target epithelia by two different mechanisms: a relatively fast effect which is insensitive to triiodothyronine or butyrate and is not sustained by the isolated membrane, and a slower or later response blocked by these reagents, which is preserved by the isolated membrane. The data also indicate that these processes are mediated by different nuclear receptors.

  13. Hydrogel increases localized transport regions and skin permeability during low frequency ultrasound treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tatiana Aparecida; Ramos, Danielle Nishida; Lopez, Renata F. V.

    2017-03-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (LFU) enhances skin permeability via the formation of heterogeneous localized transport regions (LTRs). In this work, hydrogels with different zeta potentials were used as the coupling medium for LFU to investigate their contribution to LTR patterns and to the skin penetration of two model drugs, calcein and doxorubicin (DOX). When hydrogels were used, LTRs covering at least a 3-fold greater skin area were observed compared to those resulting from traditional LFU treatment and sodium lauryl sulfate. More LTRs resulted in an enhancement of calcein skin permeation. The zeta potential of the hydrogels affected the skin penetration of the positively charged DOX; the cationic coupling medium decreased the DOX recovered from the viable epidermis by 2.8-fold, whereas the anionic coupling medium increased the DOX accumulation in the stratum corneum by 4.4-fold. Therefore, LFU/hydrogel treatment increases LTRs areas and can target ionized drugs to specific skin layers depending on the zeta potential of the coupling medium.

  14. Water Permeability Adjusts Resorption in Lung Epithelia to Increased Apical Surface Liquid Volumes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hanna; Michel, Christiane; Braubach, Peter; Fauler, Michael; Neubauer, Daniel; Thompson, Kristin E; Frick, Manfred; Mizaikoff, Boris; Dietl, Paul; Wittekindt, Oliver H

    2016-11-04

    The apical surface liquid layer (ASL) covers the airways and forms a first line of defense against pathogens. Maintenance of ASL volume by airway epithelia is essential for maintaining lung function. The proteolytic activation of epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) is believed to be the dominating mechanism to cope with increases in ASL volumes. Alternative mechanisms, in particular increases in epithelial water permeability (Posm), have so far been regarded as rather less important. However, most studies mainly addressed immediate effects upon apical volume expansion (AVE) and increases in ASL. This study addresses the response of lung epithelia to long term AVE. NCI-H441 cells and primary human tracheal epithelial cells (hTEpC), both cultivated at air liquid interface conditions, were used as models for the lung epithelium. AVE was established by adding isotonic solution onto the apical surface of differentiated lung epithelia and time course of ASL volume restoration was assessed by the D2O dilution method. Concomitant ion transport was investigated in Ussing chambers. We identified a low resorptive state (lowRS) immediately after AVE, which coincided with proteolytic ion transport activation within 10 to 15 min after AVE. The main clearance of excess ASL occurred during a delayed (hours after AVE) high resorptive state (highRS), which did not correlate with ion transport activation. Instead, highRS onset coincided with an increase in Posm, which depended on aquapoprin upregulation. In summary, our data demonstrates that, besides to ion transport activation, modulation of Posm is a major mechanism to compensate long-term AVE in lung epithelia.

  15. Reversibility of increased intestinal permeability to 51Cr-EDTA in patients with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.T.; Jones, D.B.; Goodacre, R.L.; Collins, S.M.; Coates, G.; Hunt, R.H.; Bienenstock, J.

    1987-11-01

    Intestinal permeability in adults with inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases was investigated by measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of orally administered /sup 51/Cr-EDTA. Eighty controls along with 100 patients with Crohn's disease, 46 patients with ulcerative colitis, 20 patients with gluten-sensitive enteropathy, and 18 patients with other diseases were studied. In controls, the median 24-h excretion was 1.34%/24 h of the oral dose. Patients with Crohn's disease (median 2.96%/24 h), ulcerative colitis (median 2.12%/24 h), and untreated gluten-sensitive enteropathy (median 3.56%/24 h) had significantly elevated urinary excretion of the probe compared to controls (p less than 0.0001). Increased 24-h urinary excretion of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA had a high association with intestinal inflammation (p less than 0.0001). Test specificity and sensitivity were 96% and 57%, respectively. A positive test has a 96% probability of correctly diagnosing the presence of intestinal inflammation, whereas a negative test has a 50% probability of predicting the absence of disease.

  16. Design of vancomycin RS-100 nanoparticles in order to increase the intestinal permeability

    PubMed Central

    Loveymi, Badir Delf; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to preparation of vancomycin (VCM) biodegradable nanoparticles to improve the intestinal permeability, using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion method. Methods: The vancomycin-loaded nanoparticles were created using double-emulsion solvent evaporation method. Using Eudragit RS100 as a coating material. The prepared nanoparticles were identifyed for their micromeritic and crystallographic properties, drug loading, particle size, drug release, Zeta potential, effective permeability (Peff) and oral fractional absorption. Intestinal permeability of VCM nanoparticles was figured out, in different concentrations using SPIP technique in rats. Results: Particle sizes were between 362 and 499 nm for different compositions of VCM-RS-100 nanoparticles. Entrapment efficiency expansed between 63%-94.76%. The highest entrapment efficiency 94.76% was obtained when the ratio of drug to polymer was 1:3. The in vitro release studies were accomplished in pH 7.4. The results showed that physicochemical properties were impressed by drug to polymer ratio. The FT-IR, XRPD and DSC results ruled out any chemical interaction betweenthe drug and RS-100. Effective intestinal permeability values of VCM nanoparticles in concentrations of 200, 300 and 400 μg/ml were higher than that of solutions at the same concentrations. Oral fractional absorption was achieved between 0.419-0.767. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that RS-100 nanoparticles could provide a delivery system for VCM, with enhanced intestinal permeability. PMID:24312770

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: methods, mechanisms, and pathophysiology. The confluence of increased permeability, inflammation, and pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Michael; Lasch, Karen; Zhou, Wen

    2012-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal ailments among those seeking health care for gastrointestinal disorders. Despite its prevalence, IBS pathophysiology is still not completely understood. Continued elucidation of IBS etiological mechanisms will lead to a greater appreciation of possible therapeutic targets. In the past decade, there has been increasing focus on the possible connection between increased intestinal mucosal permeability, inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity. Increased permeability in subsets of IBS patients has been observed and the possible mechanisms underlying this defect are just beginning to be understood. The objectives of this review are to summarize the role of the healthy intestinal epithelium as a barrier between the lumen and the rest of the body with a focus on tight junctions; to examine the lines of evidence that suggest that different triggers lead to increased intestinal mucosal permeability and disruption of tight junctions in IBS patients; and to explore how this increased permeability may elicit immune responses that affect afferent nerves, resulting in the pain associated with IBS.

  18. Early neural and vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats are largely sequelae of increased sorbitol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ido, Yasuo; Nyengaard, Jens R; Chang, Kathy; Tilton, Ronald G; Kilo, Charles; Mylari, Banavara L; Oates, Peter J; Williamson, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    These experiments were undertaken to assess the importance of cytoplasmic (c) sorbitol oxidation versus mitochondrial (m) pyruvate oxidation in mediating neural and vascular dysfunction attributable to hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. Increased oxidation of sorbitol is coupled to enzymatic reduction of free oxidized NAD(+)c to reduced NADHc, manifested by an increased ratio of NADH to NAD(+)c. Likewise, increased oxidation of pyruvate is coupled to reduction of NAD(+)m to NADHm, which increases the NADH/NAD(+)m ratio. Specific inhibitors of sorbitol production or sorbitol oxidation normalized: increased diabetic nerve NADH/NAD(+)c, impaired nerve-conduction velocity, and vascular dysfunction in sciatic nerve, retina, and aorta; however, they had little or no impact on increased NADH/NAD(+)m. These observations provide, for the first time, strong in vivo evidence for the primacy of sorbitol oxidation versus. pyruvate oxidation in mediating the metabolic imbalances, impaired nerve conduction, and vascular dysfunction evoked by diabetes. These findings are consistent with (a) the fact that oxidation of sorbitol produces "prooxidant" NADHc uncoupled from subsequent production of "antioxidant" pyruvate required for reoxidation of NADHc to NAD(+)c by lactate dehydrogenase, and (b) the hypothesis that neural and vascular dysfunction in early diabetes are caused primarily by increased NADHc, which fuels superoxide production by NADH-driven oxidases.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase 9-induced increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction permeability contributes to the severity of experimental DSS colitis

    PubMed Central

    Nighot, Prashant; Al-Sadi, Rana; Guo, Shuhong; Watterson, D. Martin; Ma, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated a pathogenic role for matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) in inflammatory bowel disease. Although loss of epithelial barrier function has been shown to be a key pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of MMP-9 in intestinal barrier function and intestinal inflammation. Wild-type (WT) and MMP-9−/− mice were subjected to experimental dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis by administration of 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. The mouse colonic permeability was measured in vivo by recycling perfusion of the entire colon using fluorescently labeled dextran. The DSS-induced increase in the colonic permeability was accompanied by an increase in intestinal epithelial cell MMP-9 expression in WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in intestinal permeability and the severity of DSS colitis was found to be attenuated in MMP-9−/− mice. The colonic protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and phospho-MLC was found to be significantly increased after DSS administration in WT mice but not in MMP-9−/− mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic permeability and colonic inflammation was attenuated in MLCK−/− mice and MLCK inhibitor ML-7-treated WT mice. The DSS-induced increase in colonic surface epithelial cell MLCK mRNA was abolished in MMP-9−/− mice. Lastly, increased MMP-9 protein expression was detected within the colonic surface epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis cases. These data suggest a role of MMP-9 in modulation of colonic epithelial permeability and inflammation via MLCK. PMID:26514773

  20. Ameliorative effect of melatonin against increased intestinal permeability in diabetic rats: possible involvement of MLCK-dependent MLC phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Zou, Duobing; Tang, Songtao; Fan, Tingting; Su, Huan; Hu, Ruolei; Zhou, Qing; Gui, Shuyu; Zuo, Li; Wang, Yuan

    2016-05-01

    The increased intestinal permeability and functional impairment play an important role in type 2 diabetes (T2D), and melatonin may possess enteroprotection properties. Therefore, we used streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model to investigate the regulation of intestinal permeability by melatonin. Rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control, diabetes mellitus (DM), and DM rats treated with melatonin. Melatonin was administered (10 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 24 weeks. The DM rats significantly increased the serum fasting blood glucose and lipid levels, which were alleviated by melatonin treatment. Importantly, the intestinal epithelial permeability was significantly increased in DM rats but was ameliorated following treatment with melatonin. These findings also indicated the expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and phosphorylation of MLC targeting subunit (MYPT) induced myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation level was markedly elevated in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic status. They were partly associated with down-regulated membrane type 1 and 2 (MT1 and MT2) expression, and up-regulated Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) expression and increased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. However, the changes in target protein expression were reversed by melatonin. In conclusion, our results show melatonin beneficial effects on impaired intestinal epithelial permeability in T2D by suppressing ERK/MLCK- and ROCK/MCLP-dependent MLC phosphorylation.

  1. Association analysis of bovine bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gene polymorphisms with somatic cell score in Holstein cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is expressed primarily in bovine neutrophils and epithelial cells and functions as a binding protein of bacterial lipopolysaccharide produced by Gram-negative bacteria. The protein is important in host defense against bacterial infections and may pl...

  2. Antineutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, R S; Zhao, M H; Hamilton, M I; Brownlee, A; Chapman, P; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J; Lockwood, C M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), a constituent of primary neutrophil granules, is a potent natural antibiotic and an antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA) antigen in cases of vasculitis in which the target antigen is neither myeloperoxidase (MPO) nor proteinase-3 (PR3). AIM: To investigate BPI as a possible target antigen for ANCAs in inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: ANCAs were detected by routine immunofluorescence (IIF) and solid phase enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed for antibodies to the purified neutrophil granule proteins; MPO, PR3, cathepsin-G, lactoferrin, and BPI in serum samples from 88 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (36 with Crohn's disease, 52 with ulcerative colitis). Thirty patients with bacterial enteritis acted as controls. RESULTS: Significantly more patients with ulcerative colitis were ANCA positive by IIF (60%) than patients with Crohn's disease (28%) or infectious enteritis (23%) (p < 0.001). IgG anti-BPI antibodies were present in 29% of patients with ulcerative colitis, 14% of patients with Crohn's disease, and 23% of patients with infectious enteritis, occurring in 44% of those patients with inflammatory bowel disease who were ANCA positive by IIF. Antibodies to other ANCA antigens were rare. The presence of ANCAs was not related to either disease activity or extent; presence of anti-BPI antibodies was significantly related to both a lower serum albumin concentration (p = 0.001) and a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.02) in patients with ulcerative colitis, and to colonic involvement in patients with Crohn's disease (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: BPI is a significant minority target antigen for ANCAs in inflammatory bowel disease that seems related to colonic Crohn's disease and disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Anti-BPI antibodies occur in infectious enteritis. PMID:9155585

  3. Human lipopolysaccharide-binding protein potentiates bactericidal activity of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, A H; Williams, R E; Nowakowski, G

    1995-01-01

    Human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) from neutrophils and a recombinant amino-terminal fragment, rBPI23, bind to and are cytotoxic for gram-negative bacteria both in vitro and ex vivo in plasma or whole blood. To function in vivo as an extracellular bactericidal agent, rBPI23 must act in the presence of the lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), which also binds to but has no reported cytotoxicity for gram-negative bacteria. LBP, which is present at 5 to 10 micrograms/ml in healthy humans and at much higher levels in septic patients, mediates proinflammatory host responses to gram-negative infection. On the basis of these previous observations, we have examined the effect of recombinant LBP (rLBP) on the bactericidal activity of rBPI23 against Escherichia coli J5 in vitro. Physiological concentrations of rLBP (5 to 20 micrograms/ml) had little or no bactericidal activity but reduced by up to approximately 10,000-fold the concentration of BPI required for bactericidal or related activities in assays which measure (i) cell viability as CFUs on solid media or growth in broth culture and (ii) protein synthesis following treatment with BPI. LBP also potentiated BPI-mediated permeabilization of the E. coli outer membrane to actinomycin D by about 100-fold but had no permeabilizing activity of its own. Under optimal conditions for potentiation, fewer than 100 BPI molecules were required to kill a single E. coli J5 bacterium. PMID:7822017

  4. HMGB1 increases permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer via RAGE and Src family tyrosine kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenchang; Liu, Yiyun; Li, Lei; Zhang, Ruyuan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Jun; Mao, Enqiang; Tang, Yaoqing

    2012-02-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was recently established as a proinflammatory mediator of sepsis, and its potential role in the pathogenesis of sepsis remains elusive. In the present study, we determined whether HMGB1 increases the permeability of the endothelial cell monolayer in sepsis. Permeability was measured from fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 40-kDa flux across the endothelial cell monolayer at control and after HMGB1 administration. We found that HMGB1 increased human umbilical vein endothelial cell permeability to FITC-dextran 40 kDa in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. HMGB1 induced the mRNA transcription and protein expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Blockade of cell surface receptors RAGE with specific neutralizing antibodies and RAGE siRNA or blockade of Src family tyrosine kinase with inhibitor PP2 significantly reduced HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cell monolayer. Our data demonstrate that (1) HMGB1 increases permeability of endothelial cell monolayer in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and (2) HMGB1-induced hyperpermeability is mediated through RAGE and Src family tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. These findings may have implications for therapeutic interventions in patients with sepsis.

  5. Increased endothelial cell adhesion on plasma modified nanostructured polymeric and metallic surfaces for vascular stent applications.

    PubMed

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Reising, Alexander B; Miller, Tiffany; Storey, Dan; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-06-15

    Techniques to regenerate the vasculature have risen considerably over the last few decades due to the increased clinical diagnosis of artery narrowing and blood vessel blockage. Although initially re-establishing blood flow, current small diameter vascular regenerative materials often eventually cause thrombosis and restenosis due to a lack of initial endothelial cell coverage on such materials. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate commonly used vascular materials (specifically, polyethylene terephthalate, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, nylon, commercially pure titanium, and a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V)) modified using an ionic plasma deposition (IPD) process and a nitrogen ion implantation plasma deposition (NIIPD) process. Such surface modifications have been previously shown to create nanostructured surface features which mimic the natural nanostructured surface features of blood vessels. The modified and unmodified surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface energy measurements. Furthermore, in vitro endothelial cell adhesion tests (a key first step for vascular material endothelialization) demonstrated increased endothelial cell adhesion on many modified (with IPD and NIIPD + IPD) compared to unmodified samples. In general, endothelial cell adhesion increased with nanoroughness and surface energy but demonstrated a decreased endothelial cell adhesion trend after an optimal coating surface energy value was reached. Thus, results from this study provided materials and a versatile surface modification process that can potentially increase endothelialization faster than current unmodified (conventional) polymer and metallic vascular materials.

  6. Association Between Increased Vascular Density and Loss of Protective RAS in Early-stage NPDR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vu, Amanda C.; Bryant, Douglas; Yaqian, Duan; Knecht, Brenda E.; Grant, Maria B.; Chalam, K. V.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Our hypothesis predicts that retinal blood vessels increase in density during early-stage progression to moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DR and in the function of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs), a critical bone marrow-derived population that is instrumental in vascular repair.

  7. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    permeability and integrity of the brain endothelium using in vitro and in vivo models. 3) Determine the protective effects of PARP inhibitors and/or selenium ...in preventing BBB-induced damage by oxidative stress, and in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Further, since selenium has anti...inhibitor and ROS inhibitor of BMEC-TJs HBMEC cocultures were preincubated with PARP inhibitor (30mM) or with ROS inhibitor (10mM selenium ) for 6

  8. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  9. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  10. MicroRNA 29 Targets Nuclear Factor-κB–Repressing Factor and Claudin 1 to Increase Intestinal Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Costinean, Stefan; Croce, Carlo M.; Brasier, Alan R.; Merwat, Shehzad; Larson, Scott A.; Basra, Sarpreet; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Some patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) have intestinal hyperpermeability, which contributes to their diarrhea and abdominal pain. MicroRNA 29 (MIR29) regulates intestinal permeability in patients with IBS-D. We investigated and searched for targets of MIR29 and investigated the effects of disrupting Mir29 in mice. METHODS We investigated expression MIR29A and B in intestinal biopsies collected during endoscopy from patients with IBS (n = 183) and without IBS (controls) (n = 36). Levels were correlated with disease phenotype. We also generated and studied Mir29−/− mice, in which expression of Mir29a and b, but not c, is lost. Colitis was induced by administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid; intestinal tissues were collected and permeability was assessed. Microarray analysis was performed using tissues from Mir29−/− mice. Changes in levels of target genes were measured in human colonic epithelial cells and small intestinal epithelial cells after knockdown of MIR29 with anti-MIRs. RESULTS Intestinal tissues from patients with IBS-D (but not IBS with constipation or controls) had increased levels of MIR29A and B, but reduced levels of Claudin-1 (CLDN1) and nuclear factor-κB–repressing factor (NKRF). Induction of colitis and water avoidance stress increased levels of Mir29a and Mir29b and intestinal permeability in wild-type mice; these increased intestinal permeability in colons of far fewer Mir29−/− mice. In microarray and knockdown experiments, MIR29A and B were found to reduce levels of NKRF and CLDN1 messenger RNA, and alter levels of other messenger RNAs that regulate intestinal permeability. CONCLUSIONS Based on experiments in knockout mice and analyses of intestinal tissue samples from patients with IBS-D, MIR29 targets and reduces expression of CLDN1 and NKRF to increase intestinal permeability. Strategies to block MIR29 might be developed to restore intestinal permeability in patients with

  11. Rapid increases in permeability and porosity of bentonite-sand mixtures due to alteration by water vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Couture, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Packed columns of canister packing material containing 25% bentonite and 75% quartz or basalt sand, were exposed to water vapor at temperatures up t 260/sup 0/C. The permeabilities of the columns were subsequently measured after complete saturation with liquid water in a pressurized system. Exposure to water vapor caused irreversible increases in permeability by factors of up to 10/sup 5/. After saturation with liquid water, the permeability was nearly independent of temperature. The increases in permeability were due to a large decrease in the ability of the bentonite to swell in water. Calculations suggest that swelling of bentonite altered at 250/sup 0/C was not sufficient to fill the pore spaces. If the pore spaces are filled, the mixture will form an effective barrier against flow, diffusion, and transport of colloids. The results suggest that if bentonite-based canister packing material is exposed even briefly to water vapor at high temperatures in a high-level nuclear waste repository, its performance will be seriously impaired. The problem is less severe if the proportion of bentonite is high and the material is highly compacted. Previous results show significant degradation of bentonite by water vapor at temperatures as low as 150/sup 0/C. This suggests that in some repositories, backfill in tunnels and drifts may also be affected. 9 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Placental ischemia in pregnant rats impairs cerebral blood flow autoregulation and increases blood–brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Warrington, Junie P.; Fan, Fan; Murphy, Sydney R.; Roman, Richard J.; Drummond, Heather A.; Granger, Joey P.; Ryan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cerebrovascular events contribute to ~40% of preeclampsia/eclampsia‐related deaths, and neurological symptoms are common among preeclamptic patients. We previously reported that placental ischemia, induced by reducing utero‐placental perfusion pressure, leads to impaired myogenic reactivity and cerebral edema in the pregnant rat. Whether the impaired myogenic reactivity is associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and the edema is due to altered blood–brain barrier (BBB) permeability remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that placental ischemia leads to impaired CBF autoregulation and a disruption of the BBB. CBF autoregulation, measured in vivo by laser Doppler flowmetry, was significantly impaired in placental ischemic rats. Brain water content was increased in the anterior cerebrum of placental ischemic rats and BBB permeability, assayed using the Evans blue extravasation method, was increased in the anterior cerebrum. The expression of the tight junction proteins: claudin‐1 was increased in the posterior cerebrum, while zonula occludens‐1, and occludin, were not significantly altered in either the anterior or posterior cerebrum. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that placental ischemia mediates anterior cerebral edema through impaired CBF autoregulation and associated increased transmission of pressure to small vessels that increases BBB permeability leading to cerebral edema. PMID:25168877

  13. Role of Krev Interaction Trapped-1 in Prostacyclin-Induced Protection against Lung Vascular Permeability Induced by Excessive Mechanical Forces and Thrombin Receptor Activating Peptide 6

    PubMed Central

    Meliton, Angelo; Meng, Fanyong; Tian, Yufeng; Shah, Alok A.; Birukova, Anna A.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of vascular endothelial cell (EC) barrier regulation during acute lung injury (ALI) or other pathologies associated with increased vascular leakiness are an active area of research. Adaptor protein krev interaction trapped-1 (KRIT1) participates in angiogenesis, lumen formation, and stabilization of EC adherens junctions (AJs) in mature vasculature. We tested a role of KRIT1 in the regulation of Rho-GTPase signaling induced by mechanical stimulation and barrier dysfunction relevant to ventilator-induced lung injury and investigated KRIT1 involvement in EC barrier protection by prostacyclin (PC). PC stimulated Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1)–dependent association of KRIT1 with vascular endothelial cadherin at AJs, with KRIT1-dependent cortical cytoskeletal remodeling leading to EC barrier enhancement. KRIT1 knockdown exacerbated Rho-GTPase activation and EC barrier disruption induced by pathologic 18% cyclic stretch and thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP) 6 and attenuated the protective effects of PC. In the two-hit model of ALI caused by high tidal volume (HTV) mechanical ventilation and TRAP6 injection, KRIT1 functional deficiency in KRIT1+/− mice increased basal lung vascular leak and augmented vascular leak and lung injury caused by exposure to HTV and TRAP6. Down-regulation of KRIT1 also diminished the protective effects of PC against TRAP6/HTV-induced lung injury. These results demonstrate a KRIT1-dependent mechanism of vascular EC barrier control in basal conditions and in the two-hit model of ALI caused by excessive mechanical forces and TRAP6 via negative regulation of Rho activity and enhancement of cell junctions. We also conclude that the stimulation of the Rap1-KRIT1 signaling module is a major mechanism of vascular endothelial barrier protection by PC in the injured lung. PMID:25923142

  14. Jujuboside B Reduces Vascular Tension by Increasing Ca2+ Influx and Activating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yixiu; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jiannan; Bian, Yu; Sheng, Miaomiao; Liu, Bin; Fu, Zidong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside B has been reported to have protective effect on many cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Jujuboside B on vascular tension and endothelial function are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Jujuboside B on reducing vascular tension, protecting endothelial function and the potential mechanisms. The tension of isolated rat thoracic aorta ring was measured by Wire myograph system. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were determined by Griess reagent method and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. The protein levels of eNOS and p-eNOS at Serine-1177 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HAECs was measured by laser confocal imaging microscopy. Results showed that Jujuboside B reduced the tension of rat thoracic aorta rings with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME, KN93, EGTA, SKF96365, iberiotoxin and glibenclamide significantly attenuated Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact tissues. In contrast, indometacin and 4-DAMP had no such effects. Jujuboside B also promoted NO generation and increased eNOS activity, which were attenuated by L-NAME, EGTA and SKF96365. Moreover, Jujuboside B increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration dose-dependently, which was inhibited by EGTA and SKF96365. Besides, Jujuboside B induced a rapid Ca2+ influx instantaneously after depleting intracellular Ca2+ store, which was significantly inhibited by SKF96365. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that Jujuboside B reduced vascular tension endothelium-dependently. The underlying mechanisms involved that Jujuboside B increased extracellular Ca2+ influx through endothelial transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, phosphorylated eNOS and promoted NO generation in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation involved

  15. Jujuboside B Reduces Vascular Tension by Increasing Ca2+ Influx and Activating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yixiu; Zhang, Xin; Li, Jiannan; Bian, Yu; Sheng, Miaomiao; Liu, Bin; Fu, Zidong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Baofeng

    2016-01-01

    Jujuboside B has been reported to have protective effect on many cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of Jujuboside B on vascular tension and endothelial function are unknown. The present study investigated the effects of Jujuboside B on reducing vascular tension, protecting endothelial function and the potential mechanisms. The tension of isolated rat thoracic aorta ring was measured by Wire myograph system. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were determined by Griess reagent method and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. The protein levels of eNOS and p-eNOS at Serine-1177 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration in HAECs was measured by laser confocal imaging microscopy. Results showed that Jujuboside B reduced the tension of rat thoracic aorta rings with intact endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. L-NAME, KN93, EGTA, SKF96365, iberiotoxin and glibenclamide significantly attenuated Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation in endothelium-intact tissues. In contrast, indometacin and 4-DAMP had no such effects. Jujuboside B also promoted NO generation and increased eNOS activity, which were attenuated by L-NAME, EGTA and SKF96365. Moreover, Jujuboside B increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration dose-dependently, which was inhibited by EGTA and SKF96365. Besides, Jujuboside B induced a rapid Ca2+ influx instantaneously after depleting intracellular Ca2+ store, which was significantly inhibited by SKF96365. In conclusion, this study preliminarily confirmed that Jujuboside B reduced vascular tension endothelium-dependently. The underlying mechanisms involved that Jujuboside B increased extracellular Ca2+ influx through endothelial transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels, phosphorylated eNOS and promoted NO generation in vascular endothelial cells. In addition, Jujuboside B-induced vasodilation involved

  16. Smooth muscle-selective CPI-17 expression increases vascular smooth muscle contraction and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Xie, Zhongwen; Liu, Shu; Calderon, Lindsay E.; Guo, Zhenheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent data revealed that protein kinase C-potentiated myosin phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17), a myosin phosphatase inhibitory protein preferentially expressed in smooth muscle, is upregulated/activated in several diseases but whether this CPI-17 increase plays a causal role in pathologically enhanced vascular smooth muscle contractility and blood pressure remains unclear. To address this possibility, we generated a smooth muscle-specific CPI-17 transgenic mouse model (CPI-17-Tg) and demonstrated that the CPI-17 transgene was selectively expressed in smooth muscle-enriched tissues, including mesenteric arteries. The isometric contractions in the isolated second-order branch of mesenteric artery helical strips from CPI-17-Tg mice were significantly enhanced compared with controls in response to phenylephrine, U-46619, serotonin, ANG II, high potassium, and calcium. The perfusion pressure increases in isolated perfused mesenteric vascular beds in response to norepinephrine were also enhanced in CPI-17-Tg mice. The hypercontractility was associated with increased phosphorylation of CPI-17 and 20-kDa myosin light chain under basal and stimulated conditions. Surprisingly, the protein levels of rho kinase 2 and protein kinase Cα/δ were significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mouse mesenteric arteries. Radiotelemetry measurements demonstrated that blood pressure was significantly increased in CPI-17-Tg mice. However, no vascular remodeling was detected by morphometric analysis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that increased CPI-17 expression in smooth muscle promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility and increases blood pressure, implicating a pathological significant role of CPI-17 upregulation. PMID:23604714

  17. Utilizing Ultrasound to Transiently Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Modulate of the Tight Junction Proteins, and Alter Cytoskeletal Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Mi Jung; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Yeoun Hee; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Hak Jong

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) as well as the cytoskeletal component F-actin play key roles in maintaining homeostasis of the BBB. Increases in BBB permeability may be beneficial for the delivery of pharmacological substances into the brain. Therefore, here, we assessed the use of ultrasound to induce transient enhancement of BBB permeability. We used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 40 to detect changes in the membrane permeability of bEnd.3 cells during ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound increased FITC-dextran 40 uptake into bEnd.3 cells for 2-6 h after treatment; however, normal levels returned after 24 h. An insignificant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage also occurred 3 and 6 h after ultrasound treatment, whereas at 24 h, LDH leakage was indistinguishable between the control and treatment groups. Expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and F-actin at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels was assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Ultrasound induced a transient decrease in claudin-5 mRNA and protein expression within 2 h of treatment; however, no significant changes in ZO-1 and F-actin expression were observed. Claudin-5, ZO-1, and F-actin immunofluorescence demonstrated that the cellular structures incorporating these proteins were transiently impaired by ultrasound. In conclusion, our ultrasound technique can temporarily increase BBB permeability without cytotoxicity to exposed cells, and the method can be exploited in the delivery of drugs to the brain with minimal damage.

  18. Cooling treatment transiently increases the permeability of brain capillary endothelial cells through translocation of claudin-5.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Akinori; Adachi, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takao; He, Yeting; Tokuda, Nobuko; Nawata, Takashi; Shirao, Satoshi; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Ikeda, Eiji; Owada, Yuji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-08-01

    The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is formed by different cell types, of which brain microvascular endothelial cells are major structural constituents. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of cooling on the permeability of the BBB with reference to tight junction formation of brain microendothelial cells. The sensorimotor cortex above the dura mater in adult male Wistar rats was focally cooled to a temperature of 5 °C for 1 h, then immunostaining for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was performed to evaluate the permeability of the BBB. Permeability produced by cooling was also evaluated in cultured murine brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) based on measurement of trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER). Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting of proteins associated with tight junctions in bEnd3 were performed to determine protein distribution before and after cooling. After focal cooling of the rat brain cortex, diffuse immunostaining for IgG was observed primarily around the small vasculature and in the extracellular spaces of parenchyma of the cortex. In cultured bEnd3, TEER significantly decreased during cooling (15 °C) and recovered to normal levels after rewarming to 37 °C. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that claudin-5, a critical regulatory protein for tight junctions, was translocated from the membrane to the cytoplasm after cooling in cultured bEnd3 cells. These results suggest that focal brain cooling may open the BBB transiently through an effect on tight junctions of brain microendothelial cells, and that therapeutically this approach may allow control of BBB function and drug delivery through the BBB.

  19. High-glucose and advanced glycosylation end products increased podocyte permeability via PI3-K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae-Sun

    2010-04-01

    Regardless of the underlying disease, the proteinuric condition demonstrates ultrastructural changes in podocytes with retraction and effacement of the highly specialized interdigitating foot processes. To investigate how high-glucose (HG) and advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) induce podocyte phenotypical changes, including quantitative and distributional changes of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein and search for the signaling mechanisms, we cultured rat glomerular epithelial cells (GEpC) and mouse podocytes under: (1) normal glucose (5 mM, control); (2) HG (30 mM); (3) AGE-added; or (4) HG plus AGE-added conditions. HG plus AGE increased the permeability of monolayered GEpCs and induced ultrastructural separation between confluent GEpCs. ZO-1 moved to inner actin filament complexes in both AGE- and/or HG by confocal imaging. HG plus AGE-added condition also decreased ZO-1 protein amount and mRNA expression compared to normal glucose or osmotic control conditions. We could also confirm the induction of RAGE (receptor for AGE) and PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway by AGE and HG. In addition, LY294002, a PI3-K inhibitor, could prevent the quantitative and distributional changes of ZO-1 and RAGE and the increased permeability induced by HG and AGE. These findings suggest that diabetic conditions induce the podocyte ZO-1 changes via RAGE and PI3-K/Akt signaling, leading to increased permeability.

  20. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stiffness as a Mechanism for Increased Aortic Stiffness with Aging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Hongyu; Zhu, Yi; Sun, Zhe; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P.; Gansner, Meredith; Depre, Christophe; Resuello, Ranillo R.G.; Natividad, Filipinas F.; Hunter, William C.; Genin, Guy M.; Elson, Elliot L.; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Meininger, Gerald A.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Increased aortic stiffness, an important feature of many vascular diseases, e.g., aging, hypertension, atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms, is assumed due to changes in extracellular matrix (ECM). Objective We tested the hypothesis that the mechanisms also involve intrinsic stiffening of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods and Results Stiffness was measured in vitro both by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in a reconstituted tissue model, using VSMCs from aorta of young versus old male monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, n=7/group), where aortic stiffness increases by 200 % in vivo. The apparent elastic modulus was increased (P<0.05) in old VSMCs (41.7±0.5 kPa) versus young (12.8±0.3 kPa), but not after disassembly of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D. Stiffness of the VSMCs in the reconstituted tissue model was also higher (P<0.05) in old (23.3±3.0 kPa) than in young (13.7±2.4 kPa). Conclusions These data support the novel concept, not appreciated previously, that increased vascular stiffness with aging is due not only to changes in ECM, but also to intrinsic changes in VSMCs. PMID:20634486

  1. Increase in whole-body peripheral vascular resistance during three hours of air or oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.; Dierlam, J. J.; Stanford, J., Jr.; Riddle, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Male and female subjects prebreathed air or 100% oxygen through a mask for 3.0 hours while comfortably reclined. Blood pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output were collected before and after the prebreathe. Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated from these parameters and increased by 29% during oxygen prebreathing and 15% during air prebreathing. The oxygen contributed substantially to the increase in PVR. Diastolic blood pressure increased by 18% during the oxygen prebreathe while stystolic blood pressure showed no change under either procedure. The increase in PVR during air prebreathing was attributed to procedural stress common to air and oxygen prebreathing.

  2. Simultaneous optical and mr imaging of tissue within implanted window chamber: System development and application in measuring vascular permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan Salek, Mir Farrokh

    Simultaneous optical imaging and MRI of a dorsal skin-fold window chamber mouse model is investigated as a novel methodology to study the tumor microenvironment. Simultaneous imaging with two modalities allows for cross-validation of results, integration of the capabilities of the two modalities in one study and mitigation of invasive factors, such as surgery and anesthesia, in an in-vivo experiment. To make this investigation possible, three optical imaging systems were developed that operated inside the MRI scanner. One of the developed systems was applied to estimate vascular kinetic parameters of tumors in a dorsal skin-fold window chamber mouse model with simultaneous optical and MRI imaging. The target of imaging was a molecular agent that was dual labeled with both optical and MRI contrast agents. The labeling of the molecular agent, characteristics of the developed optical systems, the methodologies of measuring vascular kinetic parameters using optical imaging and MRI data, and the obtained results are described and illustrated.

  3. Increased TRPC3 expression in vascular endothelium of patients with malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Berg, Erika; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin

    2009-03-01

    An increased expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) cation channels has been proposed as one of the factors contributing to the pathogenesis of hypertension. To test that hypothesis we compared the expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 as an endogenous control in human vascular endothelium of preglomerular arterioles in kidney biopsies from six patients with malignant hypertension and from four patients with diarrhea-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Patients with malignant hypertension showed significantly higher systolic blood pressure and more prominent expression of TRPC3 in vascular endothelium of preglomerular arterioles compared to patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The expression of TRPC6 was not different between the two groups. The study supports the hypothesis that the increased expression of TRPC3 is associated with malignant hypertension in humans.

  4. Glycerol and urea can be used to increase skin permeability in reduced hydration conditions.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Sebastian; Engblom, Johan; Thuresson, Krister; Sparr, Emma

    2013-12-18

    The natural moisturizing factor (NMF) is a group of hygroscopic molecules that is naturally present in skin and protects from severe drying. Glycerol and urea are two examples of NMF components that are also used in skin care applications. In the present study, we investigate the influence of glycerol and urea on the permeability of a model drug (metronidazole, Mz) across excised pig skin membranes at different hydrating conditions. The degree of skin hydration is regulated by the gradient in water activity across the membrane, which in turn depends on the water activity of the formulation in contact with the skin membrane. Here, we determine the water activity of all formulations employed using an isothermal calorimetric method. Thus, the gradient in water activity is controlled by a novel experimental set-up with well-defined boundary conditions on both sides of the skin membrane. The results demonstrate that glycerol and urea can retain high steady state flux of Mz across skin membranes at dehydrating conditions, which otherwise would decrease the permeability due to dehydration. X-ray diffraction measurements are performed to give insight into the effects of glycerol and urea on SC molecular organization. The novel steady state flux results can be related to the observation that water, glycerol, and urea all affect the structural features of the SC molecular components in a similar manner.

  5. Working the night shift causes increased vascular stress and delayed recovery in young women.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shih-Hsiang; Lin, Lian-Yu; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Chang, Yu-Yin; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wang, Jung-Der

    2010-08-01

    Shiftwork has been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP) and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV), factors that may increase the long-term risk of cardiovascular-related mortality and morbidity. This study explored the effect of shiftwork on dynamic changes in autonomic control of HRV (cardiac stress), systolic BP and diastolic BP, i.e., SBP and DBP (vascular stress), and recovery in the same subjects working different shifts. By studying the same subjects, the authors could reduce the effect of possible contribution of between-subject variation from genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The authors recruited 16 young female nurses working rotating shifts--day (08:00-16:00 h), evening (16:00-00:00 h), and night (00:00-08:00 h)--and 6 others working the regular day shift. Each nurse received simultaneous and repeated 48-h ambulatory electrocardiography and BP monitoring during their work day and the following off-duty day. Using a linear mixed-effect model to adjust for day shift, the results of the repeated-measurements and self-comparisons found significant shift differences in vascular stress. While working the night shift, the nurses showed significant increases in vascular stress, with increased SBP of 9.7 mm Hg. The changes of SBP and DBP seemed to peak during waking time at the same time on the day off as they did on the working day. Whereas HRV profiles usually returned to baseline level after each shift, the SBP and DBP of night-shift workers did not completely return to baseline levels the following off-duty day (p < .001). The authors concluded that although the nurses may recover from cardiac stress the first day off following a night shift, they do not completely recover from increases in vascular stress on that day.

  6. Increased Permeability of the Aquaporin SoPIP2;1 by Mercury and Mutations in Loop A

    PubMed Central

    Kirscht, Andreas; Survery, Sabeen; Kjellbom, Per; Johanson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) also referred to as Major intrinsic proteins, regulate permeability of biological membranes for water and other uncharged small polar molecules. Plants encode more AQPs than other organisms and just one of the four AQP subfamilies in Arabidopsis thaliana, the water specific plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), has 13 isoforms, the same number as the total AQPs encoded by the entire human genome. The PIPs are more conserved than other plant AQPs and here we demonstrate that a cysteine residue, in loop A of SoPIP2;1 from Spinacia oleracea, is forming disulfide bridges. This is in agreement with studies on maize PIPs, but in contrast we also show an increased permeability of mutants with a substitution at this position. In accordance with earlier findings, we confirm that mercury increases water permeability of both wild type and mutant proteins. We report on the slow kinetics and reversibility of the activation, and on quenching of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence as a potential reporter of conformational changes associated with activation. Hence, previous studies in plants based on the assumption of mercury as a general AQP blocker have to be reevaluated, whereas mercury and fluorescence studies of isolated PIPs provide new means to follow structural changes dynamically. PMID:27625657

  7. Novel CCR3 Antagonists Are Effective Mono- and Combination Inhibitors of Choroidal Neovascular Growth and Vascular Permeability.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Nori; Ju, Meihua; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Robbie, Scott J; Bainbridge, James W; Gale, David C; Pierre, Esaie; Krauss, Achim H P; Adamson, Peter; Shima, David T; Ng, Yin-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a defining feature of wet age-related macular degeneration. We examined the functional role of CCR3 in the development of CNV in mice and primates. CCR3 was associated with spontaneous CNV lesions in the newly described JR5558 mice, whereas CCR3 ligands localized to CNV-associated macrophages and the retinal pigment epithelium/choroid complex. Intravitreal injection of neutralizing antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CCR3, CC chemokine ligand 11/eotaxin-1, and CC chemokine ligand 24/eotaxin-2 all reduced CNV area and lesion number in these mice. Systemic administration of the CCR3 antagonists GW766994X and GW782415X reduced spontaneous CNV in JR5558 mice and laser-induced CNV in mouse and primate models in a dose-dependent fashion. Combination treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody and GW766994X yielded additive reductions in CNV area and hyperpermeability in mice. Interestingly, topical GW766994X and intravitreal anti-CCR3 antibody yielded strong systemic effects, reducing CNV in the untreated, contralateral eye. Contrarily, ocular administration of GW782415X in primates failed to substantially elevate plasma drug levels or to reduce the development of grade IV CNV lesions. These findings suggest that CCR3 signaling may be an attractive therapeutic target for CNV, utilizing a pathway that is at least partly distinct from that of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The findings also demonstrate that systemic exposure to CCR3 antagonists may be crucial for CNV-targeted activity.

  8. Novel CCR3 Antagonists Are Effective Mono- and Combination Inhibitors of Choroidal Neovascular Growth and Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Nori; Ju, Meihua; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Robbie, Scott J.; Bainbridge, James W.; Gale, David C.; Pierre, Esaie; Krauss, Achim H.P.; Adamson, Peter; Shima, David T.; Ng, Yin-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a defining feature of wet age-related macular degeneration. We examined the functional role of CCR3 in the development of CNV in mice and primates. CCR3 was associated with spontaneous CNV lesions in the newly described JR5558 mice, whereas CCR3 ligands localized to CNV-associated macrophages and the retinal pigment epithelium/choroid complex. Intravitreal injection of neutralizing antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, CCR3, CC chemokine ligand 11/eotaxin-1, and CC chemokine ligand 24/eotaxin-2 all reduced CNV area and lesion number in these mice. Systemic administration of the CCR3 antagonists GW766994X and GW782415X reduced spontaneous CNV in JR5558 mice and laser-induced CNV in mouse and primate models in a dose-dependent fashion. Combination treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody and GW766994X yielded additive reductions in CNV area and hyperpermeability in mice. Interestingly, topical GW766994X and intravitreal anti-CCR3 antibody yielded strong systemic effects, reducing CNV in the untreated, contralateral eye. Contrarily, ocular administration of GW782415X in primates failed to substantially elevate plasma drug levels or to reduce the development of grade IV CNV lesions. These findings suggest that CCR3 signaling may be an attractive therapeutic target for CNV, utilizing a pathway that is at least partly distinct from that of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. The findings also demonstrate that systemic exposure to CCR3 antagonists may be crucial for CNV-targeted activity. PMID:26188133

  9. Slug Is Increased in Vascular Remodeling and Induces a Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Peinado, Victor I.; Pisano, María V.; Párrizas, Marcelina; Blanco, Isabel; Evers, Maurits; Engelmann, Julia C.; García-Lucio, Jessica; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Meister, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have confirmed Slug as a key player in regulating phenotypic changes in several cell models, however, its role in smooth muscle cells (SMC) has never been assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of Slug during the phenotypic switch of SMC in vitro and throughout the development of vascular remodeling. Methods and Results Slug expression was decreased during both cell-to-cell contact and TGFβ1 induced SMC differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), a known inductor of a proliferative/dedifferentiated SMC phenotype, induces the expression of Slug in SMC. Slug knockdown blocked TNFα-induced SMC phenotypic change and significantly reduced both SMC proliferation and migration, while its overexpression blocked the TGFβ1-induced SMC differentiation and induced proliferation and migration. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis showed that in SMC, Slug knockdown induced changes mainly in genes related to proliferation and migration, indicating that Slug controls these processes in SMC. Notably, Slug expression was significantly up-regulated in lungs of mice using a model of pulmonary hypertension-related vascular remodeling. Highly remodeled human pulmonary arteries also showed an increase of Slug expression compared to less remodeled arteries. Conclusions Slug emerges as a key transcription factor driving SMC towards a proliferative phenotype. The increased Slug expression observed in vivo in highly remodeled arteries of mice and human suggests a role of Slug in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular diseases. PMID:27441378

  10. Pathophysiological Consequences of a Break in S1P1-Dependent Homeostasis of Vascular Permeability Revealed by S1P1 Competitive Antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Bigaud, Marc; Dincer, Zuhal; Bollbuck, Birgit; Dawson, Janet; Beckmann, Nicolau; Beerli, Christian; Fishli-Cavelti, Gina; Nahler, Michaela; Angst, Daniela; Janser, Philipp; Otto, Heike; Rosner, Elisabeth; Hersperger, Rene; Bruns, Christian; Quancard, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Rational Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. Results NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing. However, it induced dose-dependent acute vascular pulmonary leakage and pleural effusion that fully resolved within 3–4 days, as evidenced by MRI monitoring. At the supra-maximal oral dose of 300 mg/kg QD, NIBR-0213 impaired lung function (with increased breathing rate and reduced tidal volume) within the first 24 hrs. Two weeks of NIBR-0213 oral dosing at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg QD induced moderate pulmonary changes, characterized by alveolar wall thickening, macrophage accumulation, fibrosis, micro-hemorrhage, edema and necrosis. In addition to this picture of chronic inflammation, perivascular edema and myofiber degeneration observed in the heart were also indicative of vascular leakage and its consequences. Conclusions Overall, these observations suggest that, in the rat, the lung is the main target organ for the S1P1 competitive antagonism-induced acute vascular leakage, which appears first as transient and asymptomatic but could lead, upon chronic dosing, to lung remodeling with functional impairments. Hence, this not only raises the question of organ specificity in the homeostasis of vascular barriers, but also provides insight into the pre-clinical evaluation of a potential safety window for S1P1 competitive antagonists as drug candidates. PMID:28005953

  11. Chronic air-flow limitation does not increase respiratory epithelial permeability assessed by aerosolized solute, but smoking does

    SciTech Connect

    Huchon, G.J.; Russell, J.A.; Barritault, L.G.; Lipavsky, A.; Murray, J.F.

    1984-09-01

    To determine the separate influences of smoking and severe air-flow limitation on aerosol deposition and respiratory epithelial permeability, we studied 26 normal nonsmokers, 12 smokers without airway obstruction, 12 nonsmokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 11 smokers with COPD. We aerosolized 99mTc-labeled diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid to particles approximately 1 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter. Levels of radioactivity were plotted semilogarithmically against time to calculate clearance as percent per minute. The distribution of radioactivity was homogeneous in control subjects and in smokers, but patchy in both groups with COPD. No difference was found between clearances of the control group (1.18 +/- 0.31% min-1), and nonsmoker COPD group (1.37 +/- 0.82% min-1), whereas values in smokers without COPD (4.00 +/- 1.70% min-1) and smokers with COPD (3.62 +/- 2.88% min-1) were significantly greater than in both nonsmoking groups. We conclude that (1) small particles appear to deposit peripherally, even with severe COPD; (2) respiratory epithelial permeability is normal in nonsmokers with COPD; (3) smoking increases permeability by a mechanism unrelated to air-flow limitation.

  12. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2005-04-29

    A combination of a regenerating biochemical mixture and an organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, with a 2% KCl carrier solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area adjacent to producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris, which was immediately produced into the flow lines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. In task 3 the permeability restrictions in a cylindrical area of 10 to 20 feet from the wellbore within the reservoir were treated with the biochemical solution. Fluid was forced into the producing horizon using the hydraulic head of the well filled with 2 % KCl solution, allowed to acclimate, and then withdrawn by pumping. The chloride content of the produce water was measured and production of oil and water monitored. The most significant effect in improving permeability and removing scale and high molecular weight hydrocarbons was accomplished in the wellbore perforations and near wellbore treatments of tasks 1 and 2. The effect the deeper insertion of solution in task 3 had minimal impact on production.

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated decrease in glutathione increases the sensitivity of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells to H2O2.

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y; Partridge, C A; Del Vecchio, P J; Malik, A B

    1992-01-01

    We examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) stimulation of endothelial cells on the increase in endothelial permeability induced by H2O2. Bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (BPMVEC) were grown to confluence on a microporous filter and the 125I-albumin clearance rate across the monolayer was determined. Pretreatment with TNF alpha (100 U/ml) for 6 h had no direct effect on transendothelial 125I-albumin permeability. However, TNF alpha pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of BPMVEC to H2O2; that is, H2O2 (10 microM) alone had no direct effect, whereas H2O2 increased 125I-albumin permeability more than threefold when added to monolayers pretreated for 6 h with TNF alpha. Determination of lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that increased permeability was not due to cytolysis. We measured the intracellular contents of GSH and catalase to determine their possible role in mediating the increased susceptibility to H2O2. TNF alpha treatment (100 U/ml for 6 h) decreased total GSH content and concomitantly increased the oxidized GSH content, but did not alter the cellular catalase activity. The role of GSH was examined by pretreating endothelial cells with 2 mM GSH for 3 h, which produced an 80% increase in intracellular GSH content. GSH repletion inhibited the increased sensitivity of the TNF alpha-treated endothelial cells to H2O2. We tested the effects of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition since XO activation may be a source of oxidants responsible for the decrease in cellular GSH content. Pretreatment with 0.5 mM oxypurinol attenuated the synergistic effect of TNF alpha and H2O2 on endothelial permeability. The results indicate that decreased oxidant buffering capacity secondary to TNF alpha-induced reduction in intracellular GSH content mediates the increased susceptibility of endothelial cells to H2O2. This mechanism may contribute to oxidant-dependent vascular endothelial injury in septicemia associated with TNF alpha release

  14. Fixation of vascular grafts with increased glutaraldehyde concentration enhances mechanical properties without increasing calcification.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Diana M; Gaitán, Diana M; León, Andrés F; Mugnier, Jacqueline; Briceño, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to study the effect of glutaraldehyde (GLU) concentration, heat, and photooxidation on mechanical properties and calcification of bovine pericardium grafts in an in vivo model. Fresh pericardia were treated as follows: 0.625% GLU for 7 days (standard); 0.625%, 1%, and 3% GLU at 4 degrees C for 20 days and 50 degrees C for additional 20 days; irradiation in cross-linking medium with metilene blue at 0 degrees C for 8 hours. Tissues were subjected to tensile mechanical tests (n = 76). Fixed patches were subcutaneously implanted in mice for 50 days (n = 16 per treatment). Calcification was assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (n = 55) and von Kossa staining (n = 28). Analysis of variance and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The 3% GLU and 3% GLU + heat treatments showed an enhancement of the mechanical properties above standard treatment. No significant difference was found in calcification between treatments. The 3% GLU treatment enhances the mechanical properties of the tissue above standard treatment without increasing calcification and without applying heat; therefore it is recommended for high-strength applications. Supplementary treatments to decrease calcification could be combined with this methodology to obtain a high-strength-low-calcification biomaterial for manufacturing of long-term cardiovascular grafts.

  15. Advanced glycation end products increase retinal vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, M; Kuroki, M; Amano, S; Tolentino, M; Keough, K; Kim, I; Bucala, R; Adamis, A P

    1998-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are linked with the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the pathogenic mechanisms are poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels are increased in ischemic and nonischemic diabetic retina, and VEGF is required for the development of retinal and iris neovascularization. Moreover, VEGF alone can induce much of the concomitant pathology of diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we found that AGEs increased VEGF mRNA levels in the ganglion, inner nuclear, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layers of the rat retina. In vitro, AGEs increased VEGF mRNA and secreted protein in human RPE and bovine vascular smooth muscle cells. The AGE-induced increases in VEGF expression were dose- and time-dependent, inhibited by antioxidants, and additive with hypoxia. Use of an anti-VEGF antibody blocked the capillary endothelial cell proliferation induced by the conditioned media of AGE-treated cells. AGEs may participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy through their ability to increase retinal VEGF gene expression. PMID:9502762

  16. Increasing Production from Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs by Optimizing Zone Isolation for Successful Stimulation Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Sabins

    2005-03-31

    Maximizing production from wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs, such as the Barnett Shale, is determined by cementing, stimulation, and production techniques employed. Studies show that cementing can be effective in terms of improving fracture effectiveness by 'focusing' the frac in the desired zone and improving penetration. Additionally, a method is presented for determining the required properties of the set cement at various places in the well, with the surprising result that uphole cement properties in wells destined for multiple-zone fracturing is more critical than those applied to downhole zones. Stimulation studies show that measuring pressure profiles and response during Pre-Frac Injection Test procedures prior to the frac job are critical in determining if a frac is indicated at all, as well as the type and size of the frac job. This result is contrary to current industry practice, in which frac jobs are designed well before the execution, and carried out as designed on location. Finally, studies show that most wells in the Barnett Shale are production limited by liquid invasion into the wellbore, and determinants are presented for when rod or downhole pumps are indicated.

  17. Polyhydroxybutyrate targets mammalian mitochondria and increases permeability of plasmalemmal and mitochondrial membranes.

    PubMed

    Elustondo, Pia A; Angelova, Plamena R; Kawalec, Michał; Michalak, Michał; Kurcok, Piotr; Abramov, Andrey Y; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2013-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB) that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB). We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle.

  18. Dual-effect laser handpiece for modification of tissue permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    A new approach for improving the availability of topically applied drugs by reducing the permeability of dermis has been evaluated. The premise of this work is that photothermal vascular injury will reduce vascular uptake of drug in the dermis. The dermal distribution of two topically applied drugs, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C, is calculated, considering molecular diffusion and vascular uptake according to a distributed model, in the presence and absence of vascular injury. Intradermal drug exposures obtained are compared to exposures known to be effective in killing tumor cells. Combining the reduction in dermal permeability with fractional photothermal epidermal ablation to increase epidermal permeability may allow higher drug concentrations to be achieved in the skin. A newly developed laser handpiece for implementing the technique is described.

  19. Advantageous Solubility-Permeability Interplay When Using Amorphous Solid Dispersion (ASD) Formulation for the BCS Class IV P-gp Substrate Rifaximin: Simultaneous Increase of Both the Solubility and the Permeability.

    PubMed

    Beig, Avital; Fine-Shamir, Noa; Lindley, David; Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik

    2017-02-15

    Rifaximin is a BCS class IV (low-solubility, low-permeability) drug and also a P-gp substrate. The aims of this work were to assess the efficiency of different rifaximin amorphous solid dispersion (ASDs) formulations in achieving and maintaining supersaturation and to investigate the consequent solubility-permeability interplay. Spray-dried rifaximin ASDs were prepared with different hydrophilic polymers and their ability to achieve and maintain supersaturation was assessed. Then, rifaximin's apparent intestinal permeability was investigated as a function of increasing supersaturation both in vitro using the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) and in vivo using the single-pass rat intestinal perfusion (SPIP) model. The efficiency of the different ASDs to achieve and maintain supersaturation of rifaximin was found to be highly polymer dependent, and the copovidone/HPC-SL formulation was found to be superior to the other two, allowing supersaturation of 200× that of the crystalline solubility for 20 h. In vitro, rifaximin flux was increased and the apparent permeability was constant as a function of increasing supersaturation level. In vivo, on the other hand, absorption rate coefficient (k a) was first constant as a function of increasing supersaturation, but at 250×, the crystalline solubility k a was doubled, similar to the k a in the presence of the strong P-gp inhibitor GF120918. In conclusion, a new and favorable nature of solubility-permeability interplay was revealed in this work: delivering high supersaturation level of the BCS class IV drug rifaximin via ASD, thereby saturating the drugs' P-gp-mediated efflux transport, led to the favorable unique win-win situation, where both the solubility and the permeability increased simultaneously.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  1. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection

    PubMed Central

    Calla, Nirk E Quispe; Miguel, Rodolfo D Vicetti; Boyaka, Prosper N; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Kaur, Balveen; Trout, Wayne; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). While observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection, we herein found DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection. PMID:27007679

  2. Different vascular responses in glabrous and nonglabrous skin with increasing core temperature during exercise.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Sone, Ryoko

    2006-07-01

    To elucidate the characteristics of vasomotor control in glabrous and nonglabrous skin during dynamic exercise, we compared the vascular responses in both areas to increasing core temperature during the cycle exercise for 30 min at different intensities in the range 20-60% of peak oxygen consumption (VO(2peak)) in a total of 13 male and four female subjects in two experimental protocols. Skin blood flow was monitored using laser Doppler flowmetry. In protocol 1, the slope of the relationship between esophageal temperature (T (es)) and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the early phase of the exercise decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing exercise intensity at glabrous sites (palm) but not nonglabrous sites (dorsal hand). In protocol 2, to examine whether a difference in vascular responses in the two areas is due to the adrenergic vasoconstrictor system, the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves in forearm and palmar skin was blocked locally by iontophoresis of bretylium tosylate (BT). The administration of BT diminished completely the change of CVC in the palm during the exercise but did not alter the response in the forearm compared with the untreated site. In the two areas, neither the T (es) threshold for vasodilation nor the change in CVC above the threshold in the middle and late phase of the exercise was influenced by the intensity of the exercise. These results suggest that, in the early phase of the exercise, light-to-moderate exercise reduces in an intensity-dependent manner the thermal sensitivity for vasodilation in glabrous skin but not nonglabrous skin via an adrenergic vasoconstrictor pathway.

  3. Hyperinsulinaemia increases vascular resistance and endothelin-1 expression in the equine digit

    PubMed Central

    GAUFF, F.; PATAN-ZUGAJ, B.; LICKA, T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Insulin leads to overexpression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the endothelium of insulin-resistant rodents. If this is also the case in equine laminar tissue, this could explain the predisposition of insulin-resistant horses to laminitis. Objectives To investigate the effect of hyperinsulinaemia on metabolism and vascular resistance of the isolated equine digit in a model of extracorporeal perfusion. Study design Randomised, controlled study with interventional group, with blinded evaluation of histology results. Method After exsanguination, equine digits (n = 11) and autologous blood were collected at an abattoir. One digit served as a hyperinsulinaemic pilot limb, 5 digits were assigned to the hyperinsulinaemic perfusion (IP) group and 5 to the control perfusion (CP) group. Digits were perfused for 10 h at a defined perfusion rate of 12 ml/min/kg. After the first hour of perfusion (equilibration period), insulin was added to the reservoir of the IP digits. Perfusion pressure, glucose consumption, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase were monitored. Vascular resistance was calculated as perfusion pressure (in millimetres of mercury) in relation to the flow rate (in millilitres per minute). After perfusion, histology samples of the dorsal hoof wall (haematoxylin & eosin or periodic acid-Schiff) were evaluated. Immunohistology with a polyclonal rabbit-derived anti-endothelin antibody was used for detection of ET-1. Results In the IP group, the mean insulin concentration in the plasma of the perfusate was 142 ± 81 μiu/ml, while insulin concentration was <3 μiu/ml in the CP group. Mean vascular resistance was significantly higher (P<0.01) in the IP group (2.04 ± 1.13 mmHg/ml/min) than in the CP group (1.31 ± 0.55 mmHg/ml/min). Histology of the IP group samples showed significantly more vessels with an open lumen, increased width of the secondary epidermal lamellae and formation of oedema. In the lamellar vessels (veins and arteries

  4. Alanyl-glutamine dipeptide-supplemented parenteral nutrition improves intestinal metabolism and prevents increased permeability in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S M; Chen, K; Usui, N; Iiboshi, Y; Okuyama, H; Masunari, A; Cui, L; Nezu, R; Takagi, Y; Okada, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors determined the effects of alanyl-glutamine-supplemented total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on mucosal metabolism, integrity, and permeability of the small intestine in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive TPN supplemented with a conventional amino acids mixture (STD group) or the same solution supplemented with alanyl-glutamine; both solutions were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. On the seventh day of TPN, D-xylose and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran were administered orally. One hour later, superior mesenteric vein (SMV) D-xylose and plasma FITC-dextran concentration were measured. Intestinal blood flow and calculated intestinal substrates flux were measured with ultrasonic transit time flowmetery. RESULTS: Plasma FITC-dextran increased significantly in the STD group. Intestinal blood flow and SMV D-xylose concentration did not differ between the groups. Mucosa weight, villus height, mucosal wall thickness, mucosal protein, and DNA and RNA content in jejunal mucosa were significantly increased in the alanyl-glutamine group. Jejunal mucosal glutaminase activity and net intestinal uptake of glutamine (glutamine flux) were significantly higher in the alanyl-glutamine group as compared with the STD group. CONCLUSION: Addition of alanyl-glutamine dipeptide to the TPN solution improves intestinal glutamine metabolism and prevents mucosal atrophy and deterioration of permeability. PMID:8604914

  5. Circulating Zonulin, a Marker of Intestinal Permeability, Is Increased in Association with Obesity-Associated Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Sabater, Mònica; Ortega, Francisco; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Zonulin is the only physiological mediator known to regulate intestinal permeability reversibly by modulating intercellular tight junctions. To investigate the relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in humans, we aimed to study circulating zonulin according to obesity and insulin resistance. Circulating zonulin (ELISA) was measured in 123 caucasian men in association with inflammatory and metabolic parameters (including minimal model-measured insulin sensitivity). Circulating zonulin increased with body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin, fasting triglycerides, uric acid and IL-6, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and insulin sensitivity. In multiple regression analysis, insulin sensitivity (p = 0.002) contributed independently to circulating zonulin variance, after controlling for the effects of BMI, fasting triglycerides and age. When circulating IL-6 was added to this model, only BMI (p = 0.01) contributed independently to circulating zonulin variance. In conclusion, the relationship between insulin sensitivity and circulating zonulin might be mediated through the obesity-related circulating IL-6 increase. PMID:22629362

  6. Cardiotoxic drugs Herceptin and doxorubicin inhibit cardiac microvascular endothelial cell barrier formation resulting in increased drug permeability

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Emma L.; Sidaway, James E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiotoxicity induced by anti-cancer therapeutics is a severe, and potentially fatal, adverse reaction of the heart in response to certain drugs. Current in vitro approaches to assess cardiotoxicity have focused on analysing cardiomyocytes. More recently it has become apparent that non-cardiomyocyte cells of the heart can potentially contribute to cardiotoxicity. Herceptin and doxorubicin are known to induce cardiotoxicity in the clinic. The effect of these drugs on the endothelial tight junction barrier was tested by analysing tight junction formation and zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) levels, revealing that Herceptin and doxorubicin are able to induce barrier perturbment and decrease barrier function in human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) leading to increased permeability. Herceptin treatment had no effect on the tight junction barrier function in human dermal and human brain microvascular endothelial cells. HCMECs showed detectable levels of HER2 compared with the other endothelial cells suggesting that Herceptin binding to HER2 in these cells may interfere with tight junction formation. Our data suggests that doxorubicin and Herceptin can affect tight junction formation in the cardiac microvasculature leading to increased drug permeability and adverse effects on the cardiac myocytes. PMID:27543060

  7. Changes in blood flow, oxygen tension, action potentials, and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the lumbar dorsal root ganglia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Mwaka, Erisa S; Meir, Adam; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Takeno, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Kubota, Masafumi; Shimada, Seiichiro; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2009-07-01

    It is generally believed that radiculopathy associated with the degenerative conditions of the spine may result from both mechanical compression and circulatory disturbance. However, the basic pathophysiology of circulatory disturbance induced by ischemia and congestion is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of ischemia and congestion on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) using an in vivo model. The sixth and seventh lumbar laminae were removed and the seventh lumbar DRG was exposed using adult dogs. The aorta was clamped as an ischemic model in the DRG, and the inferior vena cava was clamped as a congestion model at the sixth costal level for 30 min using forceps transpleurally. Measurements of blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and action potentials in the DRG were recorded over a period of 1 h after clamp release. Finally, we examined the status of intraganglionic blood permeability under a fluorescence microscope following injection of Evans blue albumin into the cephalic vein to determine the type of circulatory disturbance occurring in the DRG. Immediately after inferior vena cava clamping, the central venous pressure increased approximately four times and marked extravasation of protein tracers was induced in the lumbar DRG. Blood flow, partial oxygen pressures, and action potentials within the DRG were more severely affected by the aorta clamping; however, this ischemic model did not reveal any permeability changes in the DRG. The permeability change in the DRG was more easily increased via venous congestion than by arterial ischemia. The intraganglionic venous flow was stopped with compression at much lower pressures than that needed to impact arterial flow. From a clinical perspective, intraganglionic edema formation, rather than arterial ischemia, may be an earlier phenomenon inducing DRG dysfunction.

  8. Increased peripheral vascular disease risk progressively constrains perfusion adaptability in the skeletal muscle microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Butcher, Joshua T.; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.; Tabone, Lawrence E.; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C.; Shrader, Carl D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Brooks, Steven D.; Brock, Robert W.; Lombard, Julian H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning “healthy” to “high PVD risk” and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt diet (HSD) and SDR on high-fructose diet (HFD); moderate risk: reduced renal mass-hypertensive rats (RRM) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); high risk: obese Zucker rats (OZR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). Vascular reactivity and biochemical analyses demonstrated that even mild elevations in PVD risk severely attenuated nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and caused progressive shifts in arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing thromboxane A2 levels. With the introduction of hypertension, arteriolar myogenic activation and adrenergic constriction were increased. However, while functional hyperemia and fatigue resistance of in situ skeletal muscle were not impacted with mild or moderate PVD risk, blood oxygen handling suggested an increasingly heterogeneous perfusion within resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Analysis of in situ networks demonstrated an increasingly stable and heterogeneous distribution of perfusion at arteriolar bifurcations with elevated PVD risk, a phenomenon that was manifested first in the distal microcirculation and evolved proximally with increasing risk. The increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity and loss of flexibility throughout the microvascular network, the result of the combined effects on NO bioavailability, arachidonic acid metabolism, myogenic activation, and adrenergic constriction, may represent the most accurate predictor of the skeletal muscle microvasculopathy and poor health outcomes associated with chronic elevations in PVD risk. PMID:26702145

  9. Increased peripheral vascular disease risk progressively constrains perfusion adaptability in the skeletal muscle microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Frisbee, Jefferson C; Butcher, Joshua T; Frisbee, Stephanie J; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D; Tabone, Lawrence E; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C; Shrader, Carl D; Goodwill, Adam G; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Brooks, Steven D; Brock, Robert W; Lombard, Julian H

    2016-02-15

    To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning "healthy" to "high PVD risk" and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt diet (HSD) and SDR on high-fructose diet (HFD); moderate risk: reduced renal mass-hypertensive rats (RRM) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); high risk: obese Zucker rats (OZR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). Vascular reactivity and biochemical analyses demonstrated that even mild elevations in PVD risk severely attenuated nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and caused progressive shifts in arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing thromboxane A2 levels. With the introduction of hypertension, arteriolar myogenic activation and adrenergic constriction were increased. However, while functional hyperemia and fatigue resistance of in situ skeletal muscle were not impacted with mild or moderate PVD risk, blood oxygen handling suggested an increasingly heterogeneous perfusion within resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Analysis of in situ networks demonstrated an increasingly stable and heterogeneous distribution of perfusion at arteriolar bifurcations with elevated PVD risk, a phenomenon that was manifested first in the distal microcirculation and evolved proximally with increasing risk. The increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity and loss of flexibility throughout the microvascular network, the result of the combined effects on NO bioavailability, arachidonic acid metabolism, myogenic activation, and adrenergic constriction, may represent the most accurate predictor of the skeletal muscle microvasculopathy and poor health outcomes associated with chronic elevations in PVD risk.

  10. Iron ion irradiation increases promotes adhesion of monocytic cells to arterial vascular endothelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucik, Dennis; Khaled, Saman; Gupta, Kiran; Wu, Xing; Yu, Tao; Chang, Polly; Kabarowski, Janusz

    Radiation causes inflammation, and chronic, low-level vascular inflammation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Consistent with this, exposure to radiation from a variety of sources is associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke. Part of the inflammatory response to radiation is a change in the adhesiveness of the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, triggering inappropriate accumulation of leukocytes, leading to later, damaging effects of inflammation. Although some studies have been done on the effects of gamma irradiation on vascular endothelium, the response of endothelium to heavy ion radiation likely to be encountered in prolonged space flight has not been determined. We investigated how irradiation of aortic endothelial cells with iron ions affects adhesiveness of cultured aortic endothelial cells for monocytic cells and the consequences of this for development of atherosclerosis. Aortic endothelial cells were irradiated with 600 MeV iron ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and adhesion-related changes were measured. Cells remained viable for at least 72 hours, and were even able to repair acute damage to cell junctions. We found that iron ion irradiation altered expression levels of specific endothelial cell adhesion molecules. Further, these changes had functional consequences. Using a flow chamber adhesion assay to measure adhesion of monocytic cells to endothelial cells under physiological shear stress, we found that adhesivity of vascular endothelium was enhanced in as little as 24 hours after irradiation. Further, the radiation dose dependence was not monotonic, suggesting that it was not simply the result of endothelial cell damage. We also irradiated aortic arches and carotid arteries of Apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice. Histologic analysis of these mice will be conducted to determine whether effects of radiation on endothelial adhesiveness result in consequences for development of atherosclerosis. (Supported by NSBRI

  11. Soluble Endoglin Level Increase Occurs Prior to Development of Subclinical Structural Vascular Alterations in Diabetic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Bideci, Aysun; Damar, Çağrı; Derinkuyu, Betül; Çelik, Nurullah; Döğer, Esra; Yüce, Özge; Özmen, Mehmet Cüneyt; Çamurdan, Mahmut Orhun; Cinaz, Peyami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Soluble endoglin (S-endoglin) has been implicated as a potential marker of endothelial dysfunction (ED) and was reported to be elevated in diabetic adults, correlating with the severity of diabetic vasculopathy. However, circulating S-endoglin and its association with other markers of ED have not been formerly analyzed in the first decade of diabetes onset in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: Fifty-eight adolescents with moderately/poorly controlled T1DM were included in this study and twenty-nine healthy adolescents served as controls. The diabetic group was divided into two groups based on the presence of microalbuminuria, as the microalbuminuria group (n=15) and the normoalbuminuria group (n=43). Functional vascular alterations were evaluated by measuring serum S-endoglin and plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, the flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was measured for evaluation of structural vascular alterations. Results: The S-endoglin and NO levels of both microalbuminuria and normoalbuminuria groups were higher than those of the control group (for S-endoglin, p=0.047 and p<0.001; for NO, p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). The FMD percent was lower in the microalbuminuria group compared to the normoalbuminuria and control groups (p=0.036 and p=0.020, respectively). There were negative correlations between S-endoglin concentration and FMD percent (r=-0.213, p=0.051) and between serum S-endoglin concentration and albumin excretion rate (r=-0.361, p=0.005). No significant differences were found in CIMT among any of the groups (p=0.443). Conclusion: In adolescents with T1DM, S-endoglin concentrations might increase in parallel to the deterioration in endothelial function before subclinical structural vascular alterations become evident. PMID:27097763

  12. PRODUCTION IMPROVEMENT FROM INCREASED PERMEABILITY USING ENGINEERED BIOCHEMICAL SECONDARY RECOVERY METHODOLOGY IN MARGINAL WELLS OF THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett; William S. Botto

    2004-07-14

    A regenerating biochemical mixture and organic surfactant has been applied to wells in the East Texas Field with the goal of restoring permeability, reversing formation damage, mobilizing hydrocarbons, and ultimately increasing production. Initial work in task 1 was designed to open the perforations and remove blockages of scale, asphaltene, and other corrosion debris. This was accomplished on three wells that produce from the Woodbine, and was necessary to prepare the wells for more substantial future treatments. Secondly, in task 2, two wells were treated with much larger quantities of the biochemical mixture, e.g. 25 gallons, followed by approximately 140 barrels of a 2% KCl solution that carried the active biochemical solution into the near wellbore area and into the producing reservoir. After a 7 to 10 day acclamation and reaction period, the wells were put back into production. The biochemical solution successfully broke down the scale, paraffin and other binders blocking permeability and released significant debris which was immediately produced into the flowlines and separators. Oil production was clearly improved and the removed debris was a maintenance issue until the surface equipment could be modified. Next steps include larger treatments and tracer tests to better understand the fluid flow dynamics.

  13. Roemerine Improves the Survival Rate of Septicemic BALB/c Mice by Increasing the Cell Membrane Permeability of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    He, Gonghao; Wang, Chengying; Ma, Chaoyu; Luo, Xiaoxing; Hou, Zheng; Xu, Guili

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently occurring hospital- and community-associated pathogenic bacteria featuring high morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increased persistently over the years. Therefore, developing novel anti-MRSA drugs to circumvent drug resistance of S. aureus is highly important. Roemerine, an aporphine alkaloid, has previously been reported to exhibit antibacterial activity. The present study aimed to investigate whether roemerine can maintain these activities against S.aureus in vivo and further explore the underlying mechanism. We found that roemerine is effective in vitro against four S. aureus strains as well as in vivo against MRSA insepticemic BALB/c mice. Furthermore, roemerine was found to increase cell membrane permeability in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that roemerine may be developed as a promising compound for treating S. aureus, especially methicillin-resistant strains of these bacteria. PMID:26606133

  14. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress.

  15. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    inhibitors and/or selenium in preventing BBB-induced damage by oxidative stress, and in inhibiting breast cancer metastasis to the brain. Further...since selenium has anti- cancer properties that are linked with protection against oxidative stress and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors...BRCA1 in breast cancer cells resulted in an increase in cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, invasion and a loss of p21

  16. Improved Intratumoral Oxygenation Through Vascular Normalization Increases Glioma Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, Mackenzie C.; Hamner, J. Blair; Williams, Regan F.; Rosati, Shannon F.; Sims, Thomas L.; Ng, Catherine Y.; Gaber, M. Waleed; Calabrese, Christopher; Wu Jianrong; Nathwani, Amit C.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Ionizing radiation, an important component of glioma therapy, is critically dependent on tumor oxygenation. However, gliomas are notable for areas of necrosis and hypoxia, which foster radioresistance. We hypothesized that pharmacologic manipulation of the typically dysfunctional tumor vasculature would improve intratumoral oxygenation and, thus, the antiglioma efficacy of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: Orthotopic U87 xenografts were treated with either continuous interferon-beta (IFN-beta) or bevacizumab, alone, or combined with cranial irradiation (RT). Tumor growth was assessed by quantitative bioluminescence imaging; the tumor vasculature using immunohistochemical staining, and tumor oxygenation using hypoxyprobe staining. Results: Both IFN-beta and bevaziumab profoundly affected the tumor vasculature, albeit with different cellular phenotypes. IFN-beta caused a doubling in the percentage of area of perivascular cell staining, and bevacizumab caused a rapid decrease in the percentage of area of endothelial cell staining. However, both agents increased intratumoral oxygenation, although with bevacizumab, the effect was transient, being lost by 5 days. Administration of IFN-beta or bevacizumab before RT was significantly more effective than any of the three modalities as monotherapy or when RT was administered concomitantly with IFN-beta or bevacizumab or 5 days after bevacizumab. Conclusion: Bevacizumab and continuous delivery of IFN-beta each induced significant changes in glioma vascular physiology, improving intratumoral oxygenation and enhancing the antitumor activity of ionizing radiation. Additional investigation into the use and timing of these and other agents that modify the vascular phenotype, combined with RT, is warranted to optimize cytotoxic activity.

  17. Chlorogenic Acid Decreases Intestinal Permeability and Increases Expression of Intestinal Tight Junction Proteins in Weaned Rats Challenged with LPS

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21±1 d of age; 62.26±2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05) in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS. PMID:24887396

  18. Chlorogenic acid decreases intestinal permeability and increases expression of intestinal tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zheng; Liu, Shiqiang; Zhou, Yan; Mi, Shumei; Liu, Gang; Wu, Xin; Yao, Kang; Assaad, Houssein; Deng, Zeyuan; Hou, Yongqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a natural phenolic acid present in fruits and plants, provides beneficial effects for human health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether chlorogenic acid (CHA) could improve the intestinal barrier integrity for weaned rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirty-two weaned male Sprague Dawley rats (21 ± 1 d of age; 62.26 ± 2.73 g) were selected and randomly allotted to four treatments, including weaned rat control, LPS-challenged and chlorogenic acid (CHA) supplemented group (orally 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg body). Dietary supplementation with CHA decreased (P<0.05) the concentrations of urea and albumin in the serum, compared to the LPS-challenged group. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α were lower (P<0.05) in the jejunal and colon of weaned rats receiving CHA supplementation, in comparison with the control group. CHA supplementation increased (P<0.05) villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosae under condictions of LPS challenge. CHA supplementation decreased (P<0.05) intestinal permeability, which was indicated by the ratio of lactulose to mannitol and serum DAO activity, when compared to weaned rats with LPS challenge. Immunohistochemical analysis of tight junction proteins revealed that ZO-1 and occludin protein abundances in the jejunum and colon were increased (P<0.05) by CHA supplementation. Additionally, results of immunoblot analysis revealed that the amount of occludin in the colon was also increased (P<0.05) in CHA-supplemented rats. In conclusion, CHA decreases intestinal permeability and increases intestinal expression of tight junction proteins in weaned rats challenged with LPS.

  19. The protective effect of supplemental calcium on colonic permeability depends on a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity.

    PubMed

    Schepens, Marloes A A; ten Bruggencate, Sandra J M; Schonewille, Arjan J; Brummer, Robert-Jan M; van der Meer, Roelof; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J

    2012-04-01

    An increased intestinal permeability is associated with several diseases. Previously, we have shown that dietary Ca decreases colonic permeability in rats. This might be explained by a calcium-phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity, which protects against an acidic pH due to microbial fermentation. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary phosphate is a co-player in the effect of Ca on permeability. Rats were fed a humanised low-Ca diet, or a similar diet supplemented with Ca and containing either high, medium or low phosphate concentrations. Chromium-EDTA was added as an inert dietary intestinal permeability marker. After dietary adaptation, short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) were added to all diets to stimulate fermentation, acidify the colonic contents and induce an increase in permeability. Dietary Ca prevented the scFOS-induced increase in intestinal permeability in rats fed medium- and high-phosphate diets but not in those fed the low-phosphate diet. This was associated with higher faecal water cytotoxicity and higher caecal lactate levels in the latter group. Moreover, food intake and body weight during scFOS supplementation were adversely affected by the low-phosphate diet. Importantly, luminal buffering capacity was higher in rats fed the medium- and high-phosphate diets compared with those fed the low-phosphate diet. The protective effect of dietary Ca on intestinal permeability is impaired if dietary phosphate is low. This is associated with a calcium phosphate-induced increase in luminal buffering capacity. Dragging phosphate into the colon and thereby increasing the colonic phosphate concentration is at least part of the mechanism behind the protective effect of Ca on intestinal permeability.

  20. Pathogenesis of hemorrhage-induced bacteria/endotoxin translocation in rats. Effects of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Y M; Bahrami, S; Leichtfried, G; Redl, H; Schlag, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to determine the role of gut-derived bacteria/endotoxin in the pathogenesis of the multiple-organ damage and mortality, the possible beneficial effect of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPl21), and whether neutralizing endotoxemia by rBPl21 treatment influences tumor necrosis factor (TNF) formation in rats after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Hypovolemic shock might be associated with bacterial or endotoxin translocation as well as systemic sepsis. Similar to bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPl) protein, rBPl21 has been found to bind endotoxin and inhibit TNF production. METHODS: A rat model of prolonged hemorrhagic shock (30 to 35 mm Hg for 180 min) followed by adequate resuscitation was employed. Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein was administered at 5 mg/kg intravenously. The control group was treated similarly to the BPl group, but received thaumatin as a protein-control preparation in the same dose as rBPl21. RESULTS: Immediately after resuscitation (230 min), plasma endotoxin levels in the control group (61.0 +/- 16.3 pg/mL) were almost neutralized by rBPl21 treatment (13.8 +/- 4.8 pg/mL, p < 0.05). Plasma TNF levels were not significantly influenced by rBPl21 treatment. The 48-hour survival rate was 68.8% in the treatment group versus 37.5% in the control group (p = 0.08). Microscopic histopathologic examination revealed relatively minor damage to various organs in the treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that hemorrhagic shock may lead to bacterial/endotoxin translocation with concomitant TNF formation, endogenous endotoxemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple-organ failure after shock and trauma, TNF formation at an early stage might be related mainly to mechanisms other than Kupffer's cells activation via lipopolysaccharide, and rBPl21 might be a useful therapeutic agent against endogenous bacteria

  1. Surfactant proteins A and D inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria by increasing membrane permeability

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huixing; Kuzmenko, Alexander; Wan, Sijue; Schaffer, Lyndsay; Weiss, Alison; Fisher, James H.; Kim, Kwang Sik; McCormack, Francis X.

    2003-01-01

    The pulmonary collectins, surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D), have been reported to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS), opsonize microorganisms, and enhance the clearance of lung pathogens. In this study, we examined the effect of SP-A and SP-D on the growth and viability of Gram-negative bacteria. The pulmonary clearance of Escherichia coli K12 was reduced in SP-A–null mice and was increased in SP-D–overexpressing mice, compared with strain-matched wild-type controls. Purified SP-A and SP-D inhibited bacterial synthetic functions of several, but not all, strains of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes. In general, rough E. coli strains were more susceptible than smooth strains, and collectin-mediated growth inhibition was partially blocked by coincubation with rough LPS vesicles. Although both SP-A and SP-D agglutinated E. coli K12 in a calcium-dependent manner, microbial growth inhibition was independent of bacterial aggregation. At least part of the antimicrobial activity of SP-A and SP-D was localized to their C-terminal domains using truncated recombinant proteins. Incubation of E. coli K12 with SP-A or SP-D increased bacterial permeability. Deletion of the E. coli OmpA gene from a collectin-resistant smooth E. coli strain enhanced SP-A and SP-D–mediated growth inhibition. These data indicate that SP-A and SP-D are antimicrobial proteins that directly inhibit the proliferation of Gram-negative bacteria in a macrophage- and aggregation-independent manner by increasing the permeability of the microbial cell membrane. PMID:12750409

  2. Thiamylal sodium increased inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoka, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Thiamylal sodium is a common anesthetic barbiturate prepared in alkaline solution for clinical use. There is no previously reported study on the effects of barbiturates on the inflammation and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we examined the effects of clinical-grade thiamylal sodium solution (TSS) on the inflammation and proliferation of rat VSMCs. Methods Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and toll-like receptors in rat VSMCs were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and microarray analyses. The production of IL-6 by cultured VSMCs or ex vivo-cultured rat aortic segments was detected in supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. VSMC proliferation and viability were determined by the water-soluble tetrazolium-1 assay and trypan blue staining, respectively. Results TSS increased expression of IL-1α, IL-6, and TLR4 in VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner, and reduced IL-1β expression. Ex vivo TSS stimulation of rat aorta also increased IL-6. Low concentrations of TSS enhanced VSMC proliferation, while high concentrations reduced both cell proliferation and viability. Expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist, which regulates cell proliferation, was not increased by TSS stimulation. Exposure of cells to the TSS additive, sodium carbonate, resulted in significant upregulation of IL-1α and IL-6 mRNA levels, to a greater extent than TSS. Conclusions TSS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by VSMCs is caused by sodium carbonate. However, pure thiamylal sodium has an anti-inflammatory effect in VSMCs. TSS exposure to VSMCs may promote vascular inflammation, leading to the progression of atherosclerosis or in-stent restenosis, resulting in vessel bypass graft failure. PMID:27274372

  3. Changes of blood flow, oxygen tension, action potential and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the spinal cord in canine model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Shimada, Seiichiro; Guerrero, Alexander Rodríguez; Miyachi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    It is generally considered that the genesis of myelopathy associated with the degenerative conditions of the spine may result from both mechanical compression and circulatory disturbance. Many references about spinal cord tissue ischemic damage can be found in the literature, but not detailed studies about spinal cord microvasculature damage related to congestion or blood permeability. This study investigates the effect of ischemia and congestion on the spinal cord using an in vivo model. The aorta was clamped as an ischemia model of the spinal cord and the inferior vena cava was clamped as a congestion model at the 6th costal level for 30 min using forceps transpleurally. Measurements of blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and conduction velocity in the spinal cord were repeated over a period of 1 h after release of clamping. Finally, we examined the status of blood-spinal cord barrier under fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. Immediately after clamping of the inferior vena cava, the central venous pressure increased by about four times. Blood flow, oxygen tension and action potential were more severely affected by the aorta clamping; but this ischemic model did not show any changes of blood permeability in the spinal cord. The intramedullar edema was more easily produced by venous congestion than by arterial ischemia. In conclusions, venous congestion may be a preceding and essential factor of circulatory disturbance in the compressed spinal cord inducing myelopathy.

  4. Pharmacological modulation of blood-brain barrier increases permeability of doxorubicin into the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Iacopo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Cardellicchio, Stefania; Giunti, Laura; Malvagia, Sabrina; Genitori, Lorenzo; Massimino, Maura; de Martino, Maurizio; Giovannini, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    Our group recently demonstrated in a rat model that pretreatment with morphine facilitates doxorubicin delivery to the brain in the absence of signs of increased acute systemic toxicity. Morphine and other drugs such as dexamethasone or ondansetron seem to inhibit MDR proteins localized on blood-brain barrier, neurons and glial cells increasing the access of doxorubicin to the brain by efflux transporters competition. We explored the feasibility of active modification of the blood-brain barrier protection, by using morphine dexamethasone or ondansetron pretreatment, to allow doxorubicin accumulation into the brain in a rodent model. Rats were pretreated with morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before injection of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Quantitative analysis of doxorubicin was performed by mass spectrometry. Acute hearth and kidney damage was analyzed by measuring doxorubicin accumulation, LDH activity and malondialdehyde plasma levels. The concentration of doxorubicin was significantly higher in all brain areas of rats pretreated with morphine (P < 0.001) or ondansetron (P < 0.05) than in control tissues. The concentration of doxorubicin was significantly higher in cerebral hemispheres and brainstem (P < 0.05) but not in cerebellum of rats pretreated with dexamethasone than in control tissues. Pretreatment with any of these drugs did not increase LDH activity or lipid peroxidation compared to controls. Our data suggest that morphine, dexamethasone or ondansetron pretreatment is able to allow doxorubicin penetration inside the brain by modulating the BBB. This effect is not associated with acute cardiac or renal toxicity. This finding might provide the rationale for clinical applications in the treatment of refractory brain tumors and pave the way to novel applications of active but currently inapplicable chemotherapeutic drugs.

  5. Angiotensin II and NADPH oxidase increase ADMA in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zaiming; Teerlink, Tom; Griendling, Kathy; Aslam, Shakil; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S

    2010-09-01

    Asymmetrical dimethylarginine inhibits nitric oxide synthase, cationic amino acid transport, and endothelial function. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors often have endothelial dysfunction associated with increased plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine and markers of reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species, generated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, enhance cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine. Incubation of rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells with angiotensin II doubled the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase but decreased the activities of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase by 35% and of cationic amino acid transport by 20% and doubled cellular (but not medium) asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations (P<0.01). This was blocked by tempol or candesartan. Cells stably transfected with p22(phox) had a 50% decreased protein expression and activity of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase despite increased promoter activity and mRNA. The decreased DDAH protein expression and the increased asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentration in p22(phox)-transfected cells were prevented by proteosomal inhibition. These cells had enhanced protein arginine methylation, a 2-fold increased expression of protein arginine methyltransferase-3 (P<0.05) and a 30% reduction in cationic amino acid transport activity (P<0.05). Asymmetrical dimethylarginine was increased from 6+/-1 to 16+/-3 micromol/L (P<0.005) in p22(phox)-transfected cells. Thus, angiotensin II increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine via type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase increased cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine by increasing enzymes that generate it, enhancing the degradation of enzymes that metabolize it, and reducing its cellular transport. This could underlie increases in cellular asymmetrical dimethylarginine during

  6. Cyclic strain increases protease-activated receptor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Frye, S. R.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic strain regulates many vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) functions through changing gene expression. This study investigated the effects of cyclic strain on protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) expression in VSMCs and the possible signaling pathways involved, on the basis of the hypothesis that cyclic strain would enhance PAR-1 expression, reflecting increased thrombin activity. Uniaxial cyclic strain (1 Hz, 20%) of cells cultured on elastic membranes induced a 2-fold increase in both PAR-1 mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of PAR-1, as assessed by cell proliferation in response to thrombin, was also increased by cyclic strain. In addition, treatment of cells with antioxidants or an NADPH oxidase inhibitor blocked strain-induced PAR-1 expression. Preincubation of cells with protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine or Ro 31-8220) enhanced strain-increased PAR-1 expression, whereas inhibitors of NO synthase, tyrosine kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinases had no effect. Cyclic strain in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor induced PAR-1 mRNA levels beyond the effect of cyclic strain alone, whereas no additive effect was observed between cyclic strain and platelet-derived growth factor-AB. Our findings that cyclic strain upregulates PAR-1 mRNA expression but that shear stress downregulates this gene in VSMCs provide an opportunity to elucidate signaling differences by which VSMCs respond to different mechanical forces.

  7. Increased proliferation of explanted vascular smooth muscle cells: a marker presaging atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Absher, P M; Schneider, D J; Baldor, L C; Russell, J C; Sobel, B E

    1997-06-01

    The JCR:LA-cp homozygous cp/cp corpulent rat is genetically predisposed to develop atherosclerosis evident after 9 and 18 months of age in males and females and to manifest metabolic derangements resembling those seen in type II diabetes in humans (hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia). The present study was undertaken to determine whether vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) explanted from vessels destined to become atherosclerotic later in life exhibit intrinsic properties ex vivo that presage atherogenesis to provide a means for evaluating promptly intervention designed to modify it. SMCs were cultured from aortic explants of JCR:LA-cp corpulent (cp/cp) and lean control (+/+) rats of 4, 5, 6, and 9 months of age. Compared with SMCs from controls, SMCs from cp/cp rats exhibited increased proliferation, higher saturation density, increased augmentation of proliferation in response to selected mitogens and greater adherence to extracellular matrix proteins. The increased proliferative activity ex vivo anteceded by several months the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Thus, it is a promising marker in assessments of the efficacy of interventions designed to retard or prevent atherosclerosis.

  8. Endothelin Receptor Blockade Ameliorates Vascular Fragility in Endothelial Cell–Specific Fli-1–Knockout Mice by Increasing Fli-1 DNA Binding Ability

    PubMed Central

    Akamata, Kaname; Asano, Yoshihide; Yamashita, Takashi; Noda, Shinji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Takehiro; Ichimura, Yohei; Toyama, Tetsuo; Trojanowska, Maria; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is generally accepted that blockade of endothelin receptors has potentially beneficial effects on vasculopathy associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying these effects using endothelial cell–specific Fli-1–knockout (Fli-1 ECKO) mice, an animal model of SSc vasculopathy. Methods Levels of messenger RNA for target genes and the expression and phosphorylation levels of target proteins were determined in human and murine dermal microvascular endothelial cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. The binding of Fli-1 to the target gene promoters was evaluated using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Expression levels of Fli-1 and α-smooth muscle actin in murine skin were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Vascular structure and permeability were evaluated in mice injected with fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran and Evans blue dye, respectively. Results In human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, endothelin 1 induced phosphorylation of Fli-1 at Thr312 through the sequential activation of c-Abl and protein kinase Cδ, leading to a decrease in Fli-1 protein levels as well as a decrease in binding of Fli-1 to the target gene promoters, whereas bosentan treatment reversed those effects. In Fli-1 ECKO mice, 4 weeks of treatment with bosentan increased endothelial Fli-1 expression, resulting in vascular stabilization and the restoration of impaired leaky vessels. Conclusion The vascular fragility of Fli-1 ECKO mice was improved by bosentan through the normalization of Fli-1 protein levels and activity in endothelial cells, which may explain, in part, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of endothelin receptor blockade on SSc vasculopathy. PMID:25707716

  9. Increased vascular thromboxane generation impairs dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of obese Zucker rats with reduced oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; James, Milinda E; Frisbee, Jefferson C

    2008-10-01

    This study determined if altered vascular prostacyclin (PGI(2)) and/or thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) production with reduced Po(2) contributes to impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of obese Zucker rats (OZRs) versus lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Mechanical responses were assessed in isolated gracilis muscle arterioles following reductions in Po(2) under control conditions and following pharmacological interventions inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism and nitric oxide synthase and alleviating elevated vascular oxidant stress. The production of arachidonic acid metabolites was assessed using pooled arteries from OZRs and LZRs in response to reduced Po(2). Hypoxic dilation, endothelium-dependent in both strains, was attenuated in OZRs versus LZRs. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition had no significant impact on hypoxic dilation in either strain. Cyclooxygenase inhibition dramatically reduced hypoxic dilation in LZRs and abolished responses in OZRs. Treatment of arterioles from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase improved hypoxic dilation, and this improvement was entirely cyclooxygenase dependent. Vascular PGI(2) production with reduced Po(2) was similar between strains, although TxA(2) production was increased in OZRs, a difference that was attenuated by treatment of vessels from OZRs with polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase. Both blockade of PGH(2)/TxA(2) receptors and inhibition of thromboxane synthase increased hypoxic dilation in OZR arterioles. These results suggest that a contributing mechanism underlying impaired hypoxic dilation of skeletal muscle arterioles of OZRs may be an increased vascular production of TxA(2), which competes against the vasodilator influences of PGI(2). These results also suggest that the elevated vascular oxidant stress inherent in metabolic syndrome may contribute to the increased vascular TxA(2) production and may blunt vascular sensitivity to PGI(2).

  10. Metabolic inhibition increases activity of connexin-32 hemichannels permeable to Ca2+ in transfected HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Helmuth A.; Orellana, Juan A.; Verselis, Vytas K.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous cell types express functional connexin (Cx) hemichannels (HCs), and membrane depolarization and/or exposure to a divalent cation-free bathing solution (DCFS) have been shown to promote HC opening. However, little is known about conditions that can promote HC opening in the absence of strong depolarization and when extracellular divalent cation concentrations remain at physiological levels. Here the effects of metabolic inhibition (MI), an in vitro model of ischemia, on the activity of mouse Cx32 HCs were examined. In HeLa cells stably transfected with mouse Cx32 (HeLa-Cx32), MI induced an increase in cellular permeability to ethidium (Etd). The increase in Etd uptake was directly related to an increase in levels of Cx32 HCs present at the cell surface. Moreover, MI increased membrane currents in HeLa-Cx32 cells. Underlying these currents were channels exhibiting a unitary conductance of ∼90 pS, consistent with Cx32 HCs. These currents and Etd uptake were blocked by HC inhibitors. The increase in Cx32 HC activity was preceded by a rapid reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and a rise in free intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). The increase in free [Ca2+]i was prevented by HC blockade or exposure to extracellular DCFS and was virtually absent in parental HeLa cells. Moreover, inhibition of Cx32 HCs expressed by HeLa cells in low-confluence cultures drastically reduced cell death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation, which is a more physiological model of ischemia-reperfusion. Thus HC blockade could reduce the increase in free [Ca2+]i and cell death induced by ischemia-like conditions in cells expressing Cx32 HCs. PMID:19587218

  11. Obesity Increases Vascular Senescence and Susceptibility to Ischemic Injury Through Chronic Activation of Akt and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Yung; Kim, Hyung-Hwan; Hiroi, Yukio; Sawada, Naoki; Salomone, Salvatore; Benjamin, Laura E.; Walsh, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Liao, James K.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and age are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the signaling mechanism linking obesity with age-related vascular senescence is unknown. Here we show that mice fed a high-fat diet show increased vascular senescence and vascular dysfunction compared to mice fed standard chow and are more prone to peripheral and cerebral ischemia. All of these changes involve long-term activation of the protein kinase Akt. In contrast, mice with diet-induced obesity that lack Akt1 are resistant to vascular senescence. Rapamycin treatment of diet-induced obese mice or of transgenic mice with long-term activation of endothelial Akt inhibits activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)–rictor complex 2 and Akt, prevents vascular senescence without altering body weight, and reduces the severity of limb necrosis and ischemic stroke. These findings indicate that long-term activation of Akt-mTOR signaling links diet-induced obesity with vascular senescence and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19293429

  12. alphaB-crystallin promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing vascular survival during tube morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Anna; Rylova, Svetlana; Dieterich, Lothar C; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Schiller, Petter; Wikner, Charlotte; Bohman, Svante; Botling, Johan; Lukinius, Agneta; Wawrousek, Eric F; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2008-02-15

    Selective targeting of endothelial cells in tumor vessels requires delineation of key molecular events in formation and survival of blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. To this end, proteins transiently up-regulated during vessel morphogenesis were screened for their potential as targets in antiangiogenic tumor therapy. The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin was identified as specifically induced with regard to expression level, modification by serine phosphorylation, and subcellular localization during tubular morphogenesis of endothelial cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of alphaB-crystallin expression did not affect endothelial proliferation but led to attenuated tubular morphogenesis, early activation of proapoptotic caspase-3, and increased apoptosis. alphaB-crystallin was expressed in a subset of human tumor vessels but not in normal capillaries. Tumors grown in alphaB-crystallin(-/-) mice were significantly less vascularized than wild-type tumors and displayed increased areas of apoptosis/necrosis. Importantly, tumor vessels in alphaB-crystallin(-/-) mice were leaky and showed signs of caspase-3 activation and extensive apoptosis. Ultrastructural analyses showed defective vessels partially devoid of endothelial lining. These data strongly implicate alphaB-crystallin as an important regulator of tubular morphogenesis and survival of endothelial cell during tumor angiogenesis. Hereby we identify the small heat shock protein family as a novel class of angiogenic modulators.

  13. Acute effects of focused ultrasound-induced increases in blood-brain barrier permeability on rat microvascular transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Dallan; Bendayan, Reina; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic treatment options for central nervous system diseases are greatly limited by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Focused ultrasound (FUS), in conjunction with circulating microbubbles, can be used to induce a targeted and transient increase in BBB permeability, providing a unique approach for the delivery of drugs from the systemic circulation into the brain. While preclinical research has demonstrated the utility of FUS, there remains a large gap in our knowledge regarding the impact of sonication on BBB gene expression. This work is focused on investigating the transcriptional changes in dorsal hippocampal rat microvessels in the acute stages following sonication. Microarray analysis of microvessels was performed at 6 and 24 hrs post-FUS. Expression changes in individual genes and bioinformatic analysis suggests that FUS may induce a transient inflammatory response in microvessels. Increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokine genes appears to be short-lived, largely returning to baseline by 24 hrs. This observation may help to explain some previously observed bioeffects of FUS and may also be a driving force for the angiogenic processes and reduced drug efflux suggested by this work. While further studies are necessary, these results open up intriguing possibilities for novel FUS applications and suggest possible routes for pharmacologically modifying the technique. PMID:28374753

  14. Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Fold–Containing Family Member A1 in Airway Host Protection and Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Britto, Clemente J.

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold–containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease. PMID:25265466

  15. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G.

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600–4,100 m) residents aged 18–25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26092986

  16. Perinatal hypoxia increases susceptibility to high-altitude polycythemia and attendant pulmonary vascular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Gonzales, Marcelino; Rodriguez, Armando; Bellido, Diva; Salmon, Carlos Salinas; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Vargas, Enrique; Moore, Lorna G

    2015-08-15

    Perinatal exposures exert a profound influence on physiological function, including developmental processes vital for efficient pulmonary gas transfer throughout the lifespan. We extend the concept of developmental programming to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a debilitating syndrome marked by polycythemia, ventilatory impairment, and pulmonary hypertension that affects ∼10% of male high-altitude residents. We hypothesized that adverse perinatal oxygenation caused abnormalities of ventilatory and/or pulmonary vascular function that increased susceptibility to CMS in adulthood. Subjects were 67 male high-altitude (3,600-4,100 m) residents aged 18-25 yr with excessive erythrocytosis (EE, Hb concentration ≥18.3 g/dl), a preclinical form of CMS, and 66 controls identified from a community-based survey (n = 981). EE subjects not only had higher Hb concentrations and erythrocyte counts, but also lower alveolar ventilation, impaired pulmonary diffusion capacity, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower pulmonary artery acceleration time, and more frequent right ventricular hypertrophy, than controls. Compared with controls, EE subjects were more often born to mothers experiencing hypertensive complications of pregnancy and hypoxia during the perinatal period, with each increasing the risk of developing EE (odds ratio = 5.25, P = 0.05 and odds ratio = 6.44, P = 0.04, respectively) after other factors known to influence EE status were taken into account. Adverse perinatal oxygenation is associated with increased susceptibility to EE accompanied by modest abnormalities of the pulmonary circulation that are independent of increased blood viscosity. The association between perinatal hypoxia and EE may be due to disrupted alveolarization and microvascular development, leading to impaired gas exchange and/or pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Oxidized low density lipoprotein increases RANKL level in human vascular cells. Involvement of oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mazière, Cécile; Salle, Valéry; Gomila, Cathy; Mazière, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •Oxidized LDL enhances RANKL level in human smooth muscle cells. •The effect of OxLDL is mediated by the transcription factor NFAT. •UVA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and buthionine sulfoximine also increase RANKL level. •All these effects are observed in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been shown to play a role not only in bone remodeling but also in inflammation, arterial calcification and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In human smooth muscle cells, Cu{sup 2+}-oxidized LDL (CuLDL) 10–50 μg/ml increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RANKL level in a dose-dependent manner, whereas OPG level was not affected. The lipid extract of CuLDL reproduced the effects of the whole particle. Vivit, an inhibitor of the transcription factor NFAT, reduced the CuLDL-induced increase in RANKL, whereas PKA and NFκB inhibitors were ineffective. LDL oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO-LDL), or other pro-oxidant conditions such as ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation, incubation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis{sub ,} also induced an oxidative stress and enhanced RANKL level. The increase in RANKL in pro-oxidant conditions was also observed in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Since RANKL is involved in myocardial inflammation, vascular calcification and plaque rupture, this study highlights a new mechanism whereby OxLDL might, by generation of an oxidative stress, exert a deleterious effect on different cell types of the arterial wall.

  18. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism coincide with increased intestinal permeability in young adults under prolonged physiologic stress.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Murphy, Nancy E; Castellani, John W; Gundersen, Yngvar; Hoke, Allison V; Levangie, Michael W; Kumar, Raina; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Hammamieh, Rasha; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-03-23

    The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiologic effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiologic stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiologic stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, and intestinal permeability (IP). 73 Soldiers were provided three rations/d with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a four day cross-country ski march (STRESS). IP was measured before and during STRESS. Blood and stool samples were collected before and after STRESS to measure inflammation, stool microbiota, and stool and plasma global metabolite profiles. IP increased 62%±57% (mean±SD, P<0.001) during STRESS independent of diet group, and was associated with increased inflammation. Intestinal microbiota responses were characterized by increased α-diversity, and changes in the relative abundance of >50% of identified genera, including increased abundances of less dominant taxa at the expense of more dominant taxa such as Bacteroides. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition were linked to 23% of metabolites that were significantly altered in stool after STRESS. Pre-STRESS Actinobacteria relative abundance, and changes in serum IL-6 and stool cysteine concentrations, collectively, accounted for 84% of the variability in the change in IP. Findings demonstrate that a multiple-stressor military training environment induced increases in IP that were associated with alterations in markers of inflammation, and with intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. Observed associations between IP, the pre-stress microbiota, and microbiota metabolites suggest targeting the intestinal microbiota could provide novel strategies for preserving IP during physiologic stress.

  19. Mechanism of action of collagenase on the blood-brain barrier permeability. Increase of endothelial cell pinocytotic activity as shown with horse-radish peroxidase as a tracer.

    PubMed

    Godeau, G; Robert, A M

    1979-12-01

    The ultrastructural mechanism of the protease induced blood-brain barrier permeability-increase was studied with horse-radish peroxidase as a tracer. After intravenous injection of collagenase or pronase, a significantly increased number of pinocytotic vesicles was found in brain capillary endothelial cells. alpha-Chymotrypsine did not exert such an action.

  20. Increase of homologous recombination frequency in vascular tissue of Arabidopsis plants exposed to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Hudson, Darryl; Bhomkar, Prasanna; Kathiria, Palak; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2006-06-01

    Here we analyzed the influence of salt stress on plant genome stability. Homologous recombination events were detected in transgenic Arabidopsis plants that carried in their genome a beta-glucuronidase recombination marker. Recombination events were scored as blue sectors using a stereo microscope. Exposure to 50 mM salt resulted in a 3.0-fold increase in recombination frequency. To analyze the organ and tissue specificity of recombination events, we examined cross-sections of leaves, stems and roots. We found that nearly 30% of recombination events in plants grown under normal conditions and nearly 50% of events in plants grown on salt were undetected by the conventional method. Most of the recombination events represented a cluster/group of cells (12 on average), although events with single cells were also detected. Recombination events were very frequent in leaf mesophyll cells. On average, individual recombination events located on leaves contained more cells than events located on roots or stems. Analysis of recombination events in cross-sectioned tissue of salt-treated plants revealed a shift in the distribution of recombination events towards the vascular tissue. We discuss the significance of the finding for plant stress physiology.

  1. Bradykinin promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and increases angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Shan; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chang, An-Chen; Tai, Huai-Ching; Yeh, Hung-I; Lin, Yu-Min; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-15

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a tendency for metastasis to distant organs. Angiogenesis is required for metastasis. Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator involved in tumor growth and metastasis, but its role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human prostate cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether BK promotes prostate cancer angiogenesis via VEGF expression. We found that exogenous BK increased VEGF expression in prostate cancer cells and further promoted tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment of prostate cancer with B2 receptor antagonist or small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced BK-mediated VEGF production. The Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were activated after BK treatment, and BK-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of the Akt and mTOR cascades. BK also promoted nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity. Importantly, BK knockdown reduced VEGF expression and abolished prostate cancer cell conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that BK operates through the B2 receptor, Akt, and mTOR, which in turn activate NF-κB and AP-1, activating VEGF expression and contributing to angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

  2. The Human Antimicrobial Protein Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein (BPI) Inhibits the Infectivity of Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Pinkenburg, Olaf; Meyer, Torben; Bannert, Norbert; Norley, Steven; Bolte, Kathrin; Czudai-Matwich, Volker; Herold, Susanne; Gessner, André; Schnare, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In addition to their well-known antibacterial activity some antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs) display also antiviral effects. A 27 aa peptide from the N-terminal part of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) previously shown to harbour antibacterial activity inhibits the infectivity of multiple Influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1) the causing agent of the Influenza pneumonia. In contrast, the homologous murine BPI-peptide did not show activity against Influenza A virus. In addition human BPI-peptide inhibits the activation of immune cells mediated by Influenza A virus. By changing the human BPI-peptide to the sequence of the mouse homologous peptide the antiviral activity was completely abolished. Furthermore, the human BPI-peptide also inhibited the pathogenicity of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus but failed to interfere with HIV and measles virus. Electron microscopy indicate that the human BPI-peptide interferes with the virus envelope and at high concentrations was able to destroy the particles completely. PMID:27273104

  3. Increasing the high-frequency magnetic permeability of MnZn ferrite in polyaniline composites by incorporating silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayan, V.; Kazantseva, N. E.; Sapurina, I.; Moučka, R.; Stejskal, J.; Sáha, P.

    2013-05-01

    A hybrid composite containing 73 vol% of MnZn ferrite, 21 vol% of polyaniline, and 6 vol% of silver is obtained by oxidative polymerization of aniline with silver nitrate in the presence of ferrite powder. The hybrid composite contains ferrite particles with a size of 40-80 μm coated by an inhomogeneous layer of polyaniline in the conducting emeraldine form. Silver in the form of nano- and submicrometre -size particles is localized both on the surface of ferrite particles and in the bulk of polyaniline coating. The electrical and magnetic properties of the hybrid composite are investigated and compared with the properties of a composite with 71 vol% of MnZn ferrite coated by a conducting polyaniline layer (29 vol%). The hybrid composite containing silver exhibits an increase in the real and imaginary parts of the complex permeability in the radio-frequency band by more than one and a half times compared with those of the MnZn ferrite-polyaniline composite. The high-frequency permittivity of both composites is determined by the properties of core-shell structure: electric properties of shell as well as its composition and uniformity.

  4. Deep proteome profiling of circulating granulocytes reveals bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein as a biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bleijerveld, Onno B; Wijten, Patrick; Cappadona, Salvatore; McClellan, Elizabeth A; Polat, Ayse N; Raijmakers, Reinout; Sels, Jan-Willem; Colle, Loes; Grasso, Simona; van den Toorn, Henk W; van Breukelen, Bas; Stubbs, Andrew; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Heck, Albert J R; Hoefer, Imo E; Scholten, Arjen

    2012-11-02

    Coronary atherosclerosis represents the major cause of death in Western societies. As atherosclerosis typically progresses over years without giving rise to clinical symptoms, biomarkers are urgently needed to identify patients at risk. Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting cross-talk between the diseased vasculature and cells of the innate immune system. We therefore employed proteomics to search for biomarkers associated with severe atherosclerotic coronary lumen stenosis in circulating leukocytes. In a two-phase approach, we first performed in-depth quantitative profiling of the granulocyte proteome on a small pooled cohort of patients suffering from chronic (sub)total coronary occlusion and matched control patients using stable isotope peptide labeling, two-dimensional LC-MS/MS and data-dependent decision tree fragmentation. Over 3000 proteins were quantified, among which 57 candidate biomarker proteins remained after stringent filtering. The most promising biomarker candidates were subsequently verified in the individual samples of the discovery cohort using label-free, single-run LC-MS/MS analysis, as well as in an independent verification cohort of 25 patients with total coronary occlusion (CTO) and 19 matched controls. Our data reveal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) as a promising biomarker for severe atherosclerotic coronary stenosis, being down-regulated in circulating granulocytes of CTO patients.

  5. New insights into the codon usage patterns of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) gene across nine species.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei-Yun; Gan, Li-Na; Xia, Ri-Wei; Sun, Shou-Yong; Zhu, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Sheng-Long; Bao, Wen-Bin

    2017-03-20

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is a member of a new generation of proteins known as super-antibiotics that are implicated as endotoxin neutralising agents. Non-uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of a protein is known as codon usage bias (CUB). Analysis of CUB and compositional dynamics of coding sequences could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, we performed CUB analysis of the complete coding sequences of the BPI gene from nine different species. The codon usage patterns of BPI across different species were found to be influenced by GC bias, particularly GC3s, with a moderate bias in the codon usage of BPI. We found significant similarities in the codon usage patterns in BPI gene among closely related species, such as Sus_scrofa and Bos_taurus. Moreover, we observed evolutionary conservation of the most over-represented codon CUG for the amino acid leucine in the BPI gene across all species. In conclusion, our analysis provides a novel insight into the codon usage patterns of BPI. This information facilitates an improved understanding of the structural, functional and evolutionary significance of BPI gene among species, and provides a theoretical reference for developing antiseptic drug proteins with high efficiency across species.

  6. Deficient eNOS phosphorylation is a mechanism for diabetic vascular dysfunction contributing to increased stroke size

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Atochin, Dmitriy; Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Earle, John; Wang, Annie; Mandeville, Emiri; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; d'Uscio, Livius V.; Lo, Eng H.; Katusic, Zvonimir; Sessa, William; Huang, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Phosphorylation of eNOS, an important post-translational modulator of its enzymatic activity, is reduced in diabetes. We hypothesized that modulation of eNOS phosphorylation could overcome diabetic vascular dysfunction and improves the outcome to stroke. Methods We used the db/db mouse model of type 2 diabetes. We mated db/db mice with eNOS knockin mice that carry single-amino acid mutations at the S1176 phosphorylation site; the phosphomimetic SD mutation shows increased eNOS enzymatic activity, while the unphosphorylatable SA mutation shows decreased eNOS activity. We characterized the vascular anatomy, baseline physiologic parameters and vascular reactivity. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke and measured infarct volume and neurological deficits. Results db/db mice showed diminished eNOS phosphorylation at S1176. eNOS SD and SA mutations do not change the vascular anatomy at the Circle of Willis, brain capillary density, heart rate, or arterial blood gases of db/db mice. The eNOS SD mutation, but not the SA mutation, lowers blood pressure and improves vascular reactivity to acetylcholine in db/db mice. The eNOS SD mutation reduces stroke size and neurologic deficit following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Conclusion Diminished eNOS phosphorylation is a mechanism of vascular dysfunction in db/db mice. We show here that modulation of the eNOS S1176 phosphorylation site in db/db mice is associated with improved vascular reactivity and improved outcome to stroke following middle cerebral artery occlusion. PMID:23988642

  7. Modulation of Intercellular Junctions by Cyclic-ADT Peptides as a Method to Reversibly Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Laksitorini, Marlyn D.; Kiptoo, Paul K.; On, Ngoc H.; Thliveris, James A.; Miller, Donald W.; Siahaan, Teruna J.

    2015-01-01

    It is challenging to deliver molecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This is primarily due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the entry of many molecules into the brain. In this study, cyclic ADT peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) have been shown to modify the BBB to enhance the delivery of marker molecules (e.g., 14C-mannitol, Gd-DTPA) to the brain via the paracellular pathways of the BBB. The hypothesis is that these peptides modulate cadherin interactions in the adherens junctions of the vascular endothelial cells forming the BBB to increase paracellular drug permeation. In vitro studies indicated that ADTC5 had the best profile to inhibit adherens junction resealing in MDCK cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 mM) with a maximal response at 0.4 mM. Under the current experimental conditions, ADTC5 improved the delivery of 14C-mannitol to the brain about twofold compared to the negative control in the in situ rat brain perfusion model. Furthermore, ADTC5 peptide increased in vivo delivery of Gd-DTPA to the brain of Balb/c mice when administered intravenously (i.v.). In conclusion, ADTC5 has the potential to improve delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain. PMID:25640479

  8. Modulation of intercellular junctions by cyclic-ADT peptides as a method to reversibly increase blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Laksitorini, Marlyn D; Kiptoo, Paul K; On, Ngoc H; Thliveris, James A; Miller, Donald W; Siahaan, Teruna J

    2015-03-01

    It is challenging to deliver molecules to the brain for diagnosis and treatment of brain diseases. This is primarily because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which restricts the entry of many molecules into the brain. In this study, cyclic-ADT peptides (ADTC1, ADTC5, and ADTC6) have been shown to modify the BBB to enhance the delivery of marker molecules [e.g., (14) C-mannitol, gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentacetate (Gd-DTPA)] to the brain via the paracellular pathways of the BBB. The hypothesis is that these peptides modulate cadherin interactions in the adherens junctions of the vascular endothelial cells forming the BBB to increase paracellular drug permeation. In vitro studies indicated that ADTC5 had the best profile to inhibit adherens junction resealing in Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 mM) with a maximal response at 0.4 mM. Under the current experimental conditions, ADTC5 improved the delivery of (14) C-mannitol to the brain about twofold compared with the negative control in the in situ rat brain perfusion model. Furthermore, ADTC5 peptide increased in vivo delivery of Gd-DTPA to the brain of Balb/c mice when administered intravenously. In conclusion, ADTC5 has the potential to improve delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain.

  9. Clinical associations and characterisation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies directed against bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and azurocidin.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T; Savige, J; Nassis, L; Paspaliaris, B; Neeson, P; Neil, J; Knight, K R; Daskalakis, M; Doery, J C

    2000-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and azurocidin (AZ) are recently described target antigens of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). In this study, BPI-ANCA were demonstrated most often in patients with ulcerative colitis (36/92, 39%), Crohn's disease (17/66, 26%) and cystic fibrosis (11/14, 79%), but also in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (8/40, 20%), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (111/65, 17%) and mixed connective tissue disease (4/18, 22%). BPI-ANCA were also common in sera containing antinuclear (ANA) (9/43, 21%) or antidouble-stranded (ds) DNA (7/28, 25%) antibodies. There was no increased frequency of abnormal alpha1-antitrypsin (alphal1AT) phenotypes in patients with BPI-ANCA, and BPI-ANCA were not more common in individuals with an abnormal phenotype. The predominant IgG subclasses were IgG1 and IgG3; IgA but not IgM was present. Both IgG and IgA BPI-ANCA were high affinity antibodies, and the affinity of IgG antibodies did not change with time in the sera tested. Four of the five sera (80%) containing BPI-ANCA did not bind to denatured, reduced BPI, suggesting that most BPI-ANCA recognised conformational epitopes. AZ-ANCA were demonstrated in 2/11 patients (18%) with Wegener's granulomatosis, 3/12 (25%) with cystic fibrosis and 3/14 (21%) with chronic active hepatitis. AZ-ANCA were present in 5/25 sera (25%) with ANA, but the levels were only marginally elevated. AZ-ANCA were uncommon in patients with inflammatory bowel and rheumatological diseases, and in sera containing other autoantibodies. Again, there was no association with abnormal alpha1-AT phenotypes. BPI represents a major ANCA target antigen in patients with rheumatological as well as inflammatory bowel disease and cystic fibrosis, but AZ-ANCA are uncommon.

  10. Loss of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 in vascular endothelium increases pericyte coverage and promotes pulmonary arterial remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xue-Jiao; Tao, Yong-Kang; He, Xiaochen; Roman, Richard J.; Aschner, Judy L.; Chen, Jian-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a leading cause of heart failure. Although pulmonary endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the progression of the PAH, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The HIF-α hydroxylase system is a key player in the regulation of vascular remodeling. Knockout of HIF-2α has been reported to cause pulmonary hypertension. The present study examined the role of endothelial cell specific prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) in the development of PAH and pulmonary vascular remodeling. The PHD2f/f mouse was crossbred with VE-Cadherin-Cre promoter mouse to generate an endothelial specific PHD2 knockout (Cdh5-Cre-PHD2ECKO) mouse. Pulmonary arterial pressure and the size of the right ventricle was significantly elevated in the PHD2ECKO mice relative to the PHD2f/f controls. Knockout of PHD2 in EC was associated with vascular remodeling, as evidenced by an increase in pulmonary arterial media to lumen ratio and number of muscularized arterioles. The pericyte coverage and vascular smooth muscle cells were also significantly increased in the PA. The increase in vascular pericytes was associated with elevated expression of fibroblast specific protein-1 (FSP-1). Moreover, perivascular interstitial fibrosis of pulmonary arteries was significantly increased in the PHD2ECKO mice. Mechanistically, knockout of PHD2 in EC increased the expression of Notch3 and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) in the lung tissue. We conclude that the expression of PHD2 in endothelial cells plays a critical role in preventing pulmonary arterial remodeling in mice. Increased Notch3/TGF-β signaling and excessive pericyte coverage may be contributing to the development of PAH following deletion of endothelial PHD2. PMID:27613846

  11. Major Abdominal Surgery Increases Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Belizon, Avraham; Balik, Emre; Feingold, Daniel L.; Bessler, Marc; Arnell, Tracey D.; Forde, Kenneth A.; Horst, Patrick K.; Jain, Suvinit; Cekic, Vesna; Kirman, Irena; Whelan, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent inducer of angiogenesis that is necessary for wound healing and also promotes tumor growth. It is anticipated that plasma levels would increase after major surgery and that such elevations may facilitate tumor growth. This study's purpose was to determine plasma VEGF levels before and early after major open and minimally invasive abdominal surgery. Methods: Colorectal resection for cancer (n = 139) or benign pathology (n = 48) and gastric bypass for morbid obesity (n = 40) were assessed. Similar numbers of open and laparoscopic patients were studied for each indication. Plasma samples were obtained preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 1 and 3. VEGF levels were determined via ELISA. The following statistical methods were used: Fisher exact test, unmatched Student t test, Wilcoxon's matched pairs test, and the Mann Whitney U Test with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: The mean preoperative VEGF level of the cancer patients was significantly higher than baseline level of benign colon patients. Regardless of indication or surgical method, on POD3, significantly elevated mean VEGF levels were noted for each subgroup. In addition, on POD1, open surgery patients for all 3 indications had significantly elevated VEGF levels; no POD1 differences were noted for the closed surgery patients. At each postoperative time point for each procedure and indication, the open group's VEGF levels were significantly higher than that of the matching laparoscopic group. VEGF elevations correlated with incision length for each indication. Conclusion: As a group colon cancer patients prior to surgery have significantly higher mean VEGF levels than patients without tumors. Also, both open and closed colorectal resection and gastric bypass are associated with significantly elevated plasma VEGF levels early after surgery. This elevation is significantly greater and occurs earlier in open surgery patients. The

  12. Changes in mast cells and in permeability of mesenteric microvessels under the effect of immobilization and electrostimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorizontova, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a reduction in the amount of mast cells in the mesentery and an increase in their degranulation was accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability of rat mesentery. It is supposed that immobilization and electrostimulation causing degranulation of mast cells prompted histamine and serotonin release from them, thus increasing the permeability of the venular portion of the microvascular bed. Prophylactic use of esculamin preparation with P-vitaminic activity decreased mast cell degranulation, which apparently prolonged the release of histamine and serotonin from them and normalized vascular permeability.

  13. Ammonia increases paracellular permeability of rat brain endothelial cells by a mechanism encompassing oxidative/nitrosative stress and activation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Skowrońska, Marta; Zielińska, Magdalena; Wójcik-Stanaszek, Luiza; Ruszkiewicz, Joanna; Milatovic, Dejan; Aschner, Michael; Albrecht, Jan

    2012-04-01

    Ammonia is responsible for cerebral edema associated with acute liver failure, but the role of the vasogenic mechanism has been a matter of dispute. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ammonia induces changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability by a mechanism coupled to oxidative/nitrosative stress (ONS) evoked in the BBB-forming cerebral capillary endothelial cells. Treatment of a rat brain endothelial cell line with ammonia (5 mmol/L, 24 h) caused accumulation of ONS markers: reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and peroxidation products of phospholipid-bound arachidonic acid, F2-isoprostanes. Concurrently, ammonia increased the activity of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9), increased cell permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (40 kDa), and increased the expression of y+LAT2, a transporter that mediates the uptake to the cells of the nitric oxide precursor, arginine. The increase of cell permeability was ameliorated upon co-treatment with a MMP inhibitor, SB-3CT and with an antioxidant, glutathione diethyl ester, which also reduced F2-isoprostanes. Ammonia-induced ONS was attenuated by cytoprotective agents l-ornithine, phenylbutyrate, and their conjugate l-ornithine phenylbutyrate, an ammonia-trapping drug used to treat hyperammonemia. The results support the concept that ONS and ONS-related activation of MMPs in cerebral capillary endothelial cells contribute to the alterations in BBB permeability and to the vasogenic component of cerebral edema associated with acute liver failure.

  14. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    PubMed

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  15. Chronic administration of nicotine-free cigarette smoke extract impaired endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in rats via increased vascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shimosato, Takashi; Geddawy, Ayman; Tawa, Masashi; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been implicated in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disorders and atherosclerosis. Here, we examined the effects of nicotine-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the regulation of cardiovascular function. Rats were subcutaneously administered PBS or nicotine-free CSE at 0.05 to 1.5 mL/day per rat for 4 weeks. Blood pressure, cardiac function, and vascular responsiveness were measured at 4 weeks after administration. Furthermore, acute effects of nicotine-free CSE were also studied in the aorta isolated from normal rats. Blood pressure and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) were significantly increased in the nicotine-free CSE-administered rats, but heart rate, dP/dt(max), and dP/dt(min) were not affected. Endothelium-dependent relaxation by acetylcholine (ACh) in the nicotine-free CSE-treated rats was significantly attenuated compared to PBS-treated rats, but endothelium-independent relaxation by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) did not differ. Pretreatment with superoxide dismutase restored the attenuated ACh-induced relaxation. Contractions by phenylephrine, angiotensin II, and KCl did not differ between two groups. In vitro acute nicotine-free CSE treatment did not alter the response to ACh or SNP. These results suggest that chronic nicotine-free CSE administration impairs endothelial function by increased production of superoxide derived from the vascular wall components other than smooth muscles and induces slight hypertension accompanied with LVSP elevation.

  16. Plasma inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers increase during human pregnancy but are not affected by oily fish intake.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Cruz E; Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepción M; Mesa, María D; Miles, Elizabeth A; Noakes, Paul S; Vlachava, Maria; Kremmyda, Lefkothea-Stella; Diaper, Norma D; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gil, Angel

    2012-07-01

    The Salmon in Pregnancy Study investigated whether the increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) from farmed Atlantic salmon affects immune function during pregnancy and atopic disease in neonates compared with a habitual diet low in oily fish. In this context, because the ingestion of (n-3) LC-PUFA may lower the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, we investigated whether the consumption of oily fish affects the levels of inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors during pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 123) were randomly assigned to continue their habitual diet (control group, n = 61), which was low in oily fish, or to consume two 150-g salmon portions/wk (salmon group, n = 62; providing 3.45 g EPA plus DHA) from 20 wk of gestation until delivery. Plasma inflammatory cytokines and vascular adhesion factors were measured in maternal plasma samples. Inflammatory biomarkers, including IL-8, hepatocyte growth factor, and monocyte chemotactic protein, increased over the course of pregnancy (P < 0.001), whereas plasma matrix metalloproteinase 9, IL-6, TNFα, and nerve growth factor concentrations were not affected. Vascular homeostasis biomarkers soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, and total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 increased as pregnancy progressed (P < 0.001). The plasma sICAM-1 concentration was greater in the control group than in the salmon group at wk 20 (baseline) and 38 (P = 0.007) but there was no group x time interaction, and when baseline concentration was used as a covariate, the groups did not differ (P = 0.69). The remaining biomarkers analyzed were similar in both groups. Therefore, although some inflammatory and vascular homeostasis biomarkers change during pregnancy, they are not affected by the increased intake of farmed salmon.

  17. [Increased vascular density with indirect myocardial revascularization in normal rat hearts].

    PubMed

    Riera-Kinkel, Carlos; Argüero-Sánchez, Rubén; Foyo-Niembro, Enrique; Castellanos, Emilio; Bravo-Ontiveros, Patricia; García-Hernández, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar si la interacción de los métodos de revascularización miocárdica incrementa el área vascular funcional. Métodos: se realizó un estudio con un diseño factorial de 4x3 en 11 grupos, de cinco ratas por grupo, diez muestras por rata, evaluado a 45 días del posoperatorio, con las diferentes combinaciones quirúrgicas. La magnitud de la interacción fue evaluada tanto por inmunoexpresión del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y receptor de tirosina, para permitir la actividad del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y trombina (Flk-1), así como de la medición del área vascular; ambas medidas fueron realizadas por morfometría computarizada. Resultados: se identificó un incremento de la expresión inmunohistoquímica y del área vascular en proporción directa con la interacción; se puede afirmar (ANOVA p < 0.0001), que con la interacción de todas las maniobras se logra el efecto máximo. Conclusiones: se demuestra que la revascularización miocárdica indirecta tiene un peso especifico dentro de la revascularización miocárdica integral con un impacto real en el costo-beneficio y el costo-efectividad.

  18. Tributyltin chloride increases phenylephrine-induced contraction and vascular stiffness in mesenteric resistance arteries from female rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Nunes, Dieli Oliveira; Ronconi, Karoline de Sousa; de Araújo, Julia F P; Rodrigues, Paula Lopes; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Graceli, Jones B; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2016-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is an organotin compound that reduces estrogen levels in female rats. We aimed to investigate the effects of TBT exposure on vascular tonus and vascular remodelling in the resistance arteries of female rats. Rats were treated daily with TBT (500 ng/kg) for 15 days. TBT did not change arterial blood pressure but did modify some morpho-physiological parameters of third-order mesenteric resistance arteries in the following ways: (1) decreased lumen and external diameters; (2) increased wall/lm ratio and wall thickness; (3) decreased distensibility and increased stiffness; (4) increased collagen deposition; and (5) increased pulse wave velocity. TBT exposure increased the phenylephrine-induced contractile response in mesenteric resistance arteries. However, vasodilatation responses induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were not modified by TBT. It is suggested that TBT exposure reduces vascular nitric oxide (NO) production, because:(1) L-NAME incubation did not cause a leftward shift in the concentration-response curve for phenylephrine; (2) both eNOS protein expression; (3) in situ NO production were reduced. Incubation with L-NAME; and (4) SOD shifted the phenylephrine response curve to the left in TBT rats. Tiron, catalase, ML-171 and VAS2870 decreased vascular reactivity to phenylephrine only in TBT rats. Moreover, increased superoxide anion production was observed in the mesenteric resistance arteries of TBT rats accompanied by an increase in gp91phox, catalase, AT1 receptor and total ERK1/2 protein expression. In conclusion, these findings show that TBT induced alterations are most likely due to a reduction of NO production combined with increased O2(-) production derived from NADPH oxidase and ERK1/2 activation. These findings offer further evidence that TBT is an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  19. Overexpression of miR-18a negatively regulates myocyte enhancer factor 2D to increase the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier via Krüppel-like factor 4-mediated downregulation of zonula occluden-1, claudin-5, and occludin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying-Yu; Zhao, Li-Ni; Wang, Ping; Miao, Yin-Sha; Liu, Yun-Hui; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhen; Li, Zhi-Qing; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-12-01

    miR-18a represses angiogenesis and tumor evasion by weakening vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β signaling to prolong the survival of glioma patients, although it is thought to be an oncogene. This study investigates the potential effects of miR-18a on the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) and its possible molecular mechanisms. An in vitro BTB model was successfully established. The endogenous expression of miR-18a in glioma vascular endothelial cells (GECs) was significantly lower than that in normal vascular ECs, and the overexpression of miR-18a significantly increased the permeability of the BTB as well as downregulating the mRNA and protein expressions of tight junction-related proteins zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5, and occludin in GECs. Dual luciferase reporter assays revealed that miR-18a bound to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D). The overexpression of both miR-18a and MEF2D with the 3'UTR significantly weakened the effect caused by miR-18a of decreasing the mRNA and protein expressions of ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin and of increasing the permeability of the BTB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that MEF2D could directly bind to KLF4 promoter. This study shows that miR-18a targets and negatively regulates MEF2D, which further regulates tight junction-related proteins ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin through transactivation of KLF4 and, finally, changes the permeability of the BTB. MiR-18a should garner growing attention because it might serve as a potential target in opening the BTB and providing a new strategy for the treatment of gliomas.

  20. Loss of smooth muscle cell hypoxia inducible factor-1α underlies increased vascular contractility in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Sedan, Oshra; Cornfield, David N

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an often fatal disease with limited treatment options. Whereas current data support the notion that, in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), expression of transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is increased, the role of HIF-1α in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) remains controversial. This study investigates the hypothesis that, in PASMCs from patients with PAH, decreases in HIF-1α expression and activity underlie augmented pulmonary vascular contractility. PASMCs and tissues were isolated from nonhypertensive control patients and patients with PAH. Compared with controls, HIF-1α and Kv1.5 protein expression were decreased in PAH smooth muscle cells (primary culture). Myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and MLC kinase (MLCK) activity-major determinants of vascular tone-were increased in patients with PAH. Cofactors involved in prolyl hydroxylase domain activity were increased in PAH smooth muscle cells. Functionally, PASMC contractility was inversely correlated with HIF-1α activity. In PASMCs derived from patients with PAH, HIF-1α expression is decreased, and MLCK activity, MLC phosphorylation, and cell contraction are increased. We conclude that compromised PASMC HIF-1α expression may contribute to the increased tone that characterizes pulmonary hypertension.-Barnes, E. A., Chen, C.-H., Sedan, O., Cornfield, D. N. Loss of smooth muscle cell hypoxia inducible factor-1α underlies increased vascular contractility in pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Effects of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI23) on neutrophil activity in burned rats.

    PubMed

    Hansbrough, J; Tenenhaus, M; Wikstrom, T; Braide, M; Rennekampff, O H; Kiessig, V; Bjursten, L M

    1996-06-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil granule protein with potent bactericidal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralizing activities. The purpose of this study was to determine if a human recombinant BPI product, rBPI23, would influence neutrophil (PMN) sequestration into various tissues in a rat burn injury model. Leukosequestration may produce local tissue injury from proteases and high-energy oxygen species released from PMNs. Rats received tracheostomy and venous cannulation, then received 17 to 20% total body surface area full-thickness contact burns and resuscitation with 20 ml, of intraperitoneal saline. Ten mg/kg body weight rBPI23 in saline was given by intravenous injection immediately after burn injury, followed by intravenous doses of 2 mg/kg at 2 and 4 hours. Control animals received intravenous saline only. PMN retention in lung, liver, spleen, gut, skin, muscle, kidney, and brain tissues was determined by removing (before burn injury) and differentially radiolabeling PMNs (111In) and erythrocytes (51Cr), reinfusing cells 4.5 hours after burn injury, and measuring tissue radioactivity 30 minutes later. Edema was estimated by measuring extravasated 125I-labeled albumin in the various tissues, 30 minutes after injection. Peripheral blood PMNS were analyzed for intracellular H2O2 content by flow cytometry using a fluorescent dye that reacts with H2O2. Radioisotope studies demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) leukosequestration into lung, liver, gut, kidney, and skin tissues at 5 hours after burn injury. Tissue edema, manifested by radiolabeled albumin retention, was not observed in any tissues. Postburn PMN deposition in lungs and skin was decreased (p < 0.05) by the immediate administration of rBPI23 after burn injury. Flow cytometry showed increased intracellular H2O2 content in peripheral blood PMNs 5 hours after burn injury (p < 0.05), which was unaffected by administration of rBPI23. Since sequestration of metabolically

  2. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-03-03

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  3. Hindlimb heating increases vascular access of large molecules to murine tibial growth plates measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging.

    PubMed

    Serrat, Maria A; Efaw, Morgan L; Williams, Rebecca M

    2014-02-15

    Advances in understanding the molecular regulation of longitudinal growth have led to development of novel drug therapies for growth plate disorders. Despite progress, a major unmet challenge is delivering therapeutic agents to avascular-cartilage plates. Dense extracellular matrix and lack of penetrating blood vessels create a semipermeable "barrier," which hinders molecular transport at the vascular-cartilage interface. To overcome this obstacle, we used a hindlimb heating model to manipulate bone circulation in 5-wk-old female mice (n = 22). Temperatures represented a physiological range of normal human knee joints. We used in vivo multiphoton microscopy to quantify temperature-enhanced delivery of large molecules into tibial growth plates. We tested the hypothesis that increasing hindlimb temperature from 22°C to 34°C increases vascular access of large systemic molecules, modeled using 10, 40, and 70 kDa dextrans that approximate sizes of physiological regulators. Vascular access was quantified by vessel diameter, velocity, and dextran leakage from subperichondrial plexus vessels and accumulation in growth plate cartilage. Growth plate entry of 10 kDa dextrans increased >150% at 34°C. Entry of 40 and 70 kDa dextrans increased <50%, suggesting a size-dependent temperature enhancement. Total dextran levels in the plexus increased at 34°C, but relative leakage out of vessels was not temperature dependent. Blood velocity and vessel diameter increased 118% and 31%, respectively, at 34°C. These results demonstrate that heat enhances vascular carrying capacity and bioavailability of large molecules around growth plates, suggesting that temperature could be a noninvasive strategy for modulating delivery of therapeutics to impaired growth plates of children.

  4. The Interplay between Radioresistant Caco-2 Cells and the Immune System Increases Epithelial Layer Permeability and Alters Signaling Protein Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Morini, Jacopo; Babini, Gabriele; Barbieri, Sofia; Baiocco, Giorgio; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent type of cancer, with a higher incidence in the developed countries. Colorectal cancer is usually managed with both surgeries, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy has the well-known advantage of targeting the tumor, minimizing normal tissue exposure. Nevertheless, during radiation treatment, exposure of healthy tissues is of great concern, in particular because of the effects on the intestinal barrier functions and on cells belonging to the immune system. The functional role of intestinal barrier in avoiding paracellular trafficking and controlling bacterial spread from gut it is well known and it is due to the presence of tight junction complexes. However, intestinal barrier is fundamental in participating to the interplay with immune system, especially considering the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Until few years ago, radiotherapy was considered to bear only a depressive action on the immune system. However, it is now recognized that the release of pro-inflammatory signals and phenotypic changes in tumoral cells due to ionizing radiation could trigger the immune system against the tumor. In this work, we address how intestinal barrier functions are perturbed by X-ray doses in the range 0–10 Gy, focusing on the interplay between tumoral cells and the immune system. To this aim, we adopted a coculture model in which Caco-2 cells can be grown in presence/absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We focused our attention on changes in the proliferation, trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytokine release, and proteins of the junctional complexes. Our results indicate a high radioresistance of Caco-2 in the investigated dose range, and an increased permeability of the tumoral cell layer due to the presence of PBMC. This is found to be correlated with activation of PBMC, inhibiting the apoptotic pathway, with the enhancement of cytokine release and with variation of tight junction

  5. Repeated sauna therapy attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats by increasing coronary vascularity of noninfarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sobajima, Mitsuo; Nozawa, Takashi; Shida, Takuya; Ohori, Takashi; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsuki, Akira; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Repeated sauna therapy (ST) increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and improves cardiac function in heart failure as well as peripheral blood flow in ischemic limbs. The present study investigates whether ST can increase coronary vascularity and thus attenuate cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We induced MI by ligating the left coronary artery of Wistar rats. The rats were placed in a far-infrared dry sauna at 41°C for 15 min and then at 34°C for 20 min once daily for 4 wk. Cardiac hemodynamic, histopathological, and gene analyses were performed. Despite the similar sizes of MI between the ST and non-ST groups (51.4 ± 0.3 vs. 51.1 ± 0.2%), ST reduced left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (9.7 ± 0.4 vs. 10.7 ± 0.5 mm, P < 0.01) and end-systolic (8.6 ± 0.5 vs. 9.6 ± 0.6 mm, P < 0.01) dimensions and attenuated MI-induced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure. Cross-sectional areas of cardiomyocytes were smaller in ST rats and associated with a significant reduction in myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide mRNA levels. Vascular density was reduced in the noninfarcted myocardium of non-ST rats, and the density of cells positive for CD31 and for α-smooth muscle actin was decreased. These decreases were attenuated in ST rats compared with non-ST rats and associated with increases in myocardial eNOS and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA levels. In conclusion, ST attenuates cardiac remodeling after MI, at least in part, through improving coronary vascularity in the noninfarcted myocardium. Repeated ST might serve as a novel noninvasive therapy for patients with MI.

  6. HSP70 increases extracellular matrix production by human vascular smooth muscle through TGF-β1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    González-Ramos, Marta; Calleros, Laura; López-Ongil, Susana; Raoch, Viviana; Griera, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2013-02-01

    The circulating levels of heat shock proteins (HSP) are increased in cardiovascular diseases; however, the implication of this for the fibrotic process typical of such diseases remains unclear. HSP70 can interact with the vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), the major producer of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, through the Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The transforming growth factor type-β1 (TGF-β1) is a well known vascular pro-fibrotic cytokine that is regulated in part by AP-1-dependent transcriptional mechanisms. We hypothesized that extracellular HSP70 could interact with SMCs, inducing TGF-β1 synthesis and subsequent changes in the vascular ECM. We demonstrate that extracellular HSP70 binds to human aorta SMC TLR4, which up-regulates the AP-1-dependent transcriptional activity of the TGF-β1 promoter. This is achieved through the mitogen activated protein kinases JNK and ERK, as demonstrated by the use of specific blockers and the knockdown of TLR4 with specific small interfering RNAs. The TGF-β1 upregulation increase the expression of the ECM proteins type I collagen and fibronectin. This novel observation may elucidate the mechanisms by which HSP70 contributes in the inflammation and fibrosis present in atherosclerosis and other fibrosis-related diseases.

  7. AM966, an Antagonist of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 1, Increases Lung Microvascular Endothelial Permeability through Activation of Rho Signaling Pathway and Phosphorylation of VE-Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Junting; Suber, Tomeka

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity is important for reducing severity of lung injury. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates cell motility, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and cell growth. Knockdown of LPA receptor 1 (LPA1) has been shown to mitigate lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis. AM966, an LPA1 antagonist exhibiting an antifibrotic property, has been considered to be a future antifibrotic medicine. Here, we report an unexpected effect of AM966, which increases lung endothelial barrier permeability. An electric cell-substrate sensing (ECIS) system was used to measure permeability in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). AM966 decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) value immediately in a dose-dependent manner. VE-cadherin and f-actin double immunostaining reveals that AM966 increases stress fibers and gap formation between endothelial cells. AM966 induced phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) through activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Unlike LPA treatment, AM966 had no effect on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk). Further, in LPA1 silencing cells, we observed that AM966-increased lung endothelial permeability as well as phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were attenuated. This study reveals that AM966 induces lung endothelial barrier dysfunction, which is regulated by LPA1-mediated activation of RhoA/MLC and phosphorylation of VE-cadherin. PMID:28348461

  8. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Aguado, Andrea; Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice; Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María; Alonso, María Jesús; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  9. A Feasibility Study to Determine whether Clinical Contrast-Enhanced MRI can Detect Increased Bladder Permeability in Patients with Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Rheal A.; Wisniewski, Amy B.; Wu, Dee H.; Van Gordon, Samuel B.; Smith, Nataliya; North, Justin C.; McElhaney, Rayburt; Aston, Christopher E.; Shobeiri, S. Abbas; Kropp, Bradley P.; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Hurst, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a bladder pain disorder associated with voiding symptomatology and other systemic chronic pain disorders. Currently diagnosis of IC/BPS is complicated, as patients present with wide ranges of symptoms, physical examination findings, and clinical test responses. One hypothesis is that IC symptoms arise from increased bladder permeability to urine solutes. This study established the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to quantify bladder permeability in IC patients. Materials and Methods Permeability alterations in bladder urothelium were assessed with intravesical administration of a MRI contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) in a small cohort of patients. MRI signal intensities (SI) in IC patient and control bladders were compared regionally and for entire bladders. Results Quantitative assessment of MRI SI indicated a significant increase in SI within anterior bladder regions (p<0.01) compared to posterior regions in IC patients, and significant increases in SI within anterior bladder regions (p<0.001) and kurtosis (descriptor of shape of probability distribution) and skewness (measure of asymmetry of probability distribution) associated with contrast enhancement in total bladders (p<0.05) for IC patients compared to controls. Regarding symptomatology, IC cases differed significantly from controls for the SF-36, PPUF and ICPI questionnaires with no overlap in range of scores for each group, and were significantly different for ICSI but with a slight overlap in range of scores. Conclusions The data suggests that CE-MRI provides an objective, quantifiable measurement of bladder permeability that could be used to stratify bladder pain patients and monitor therapy. PMID:26307161

  10. Prolactin and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Cuevas, Elvis; Lantz, Susan M; Hamilton, W Ryan; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A; Ali, Syed F; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) consists in part of a highly specialized set of cells which separates the brain from the vascular system. The BBB controls the entry and exit of substances from the brain tissue through tight junctions (TJs) between endothelial cells. It is known that the hormone prolactin (PRL) is able to regulate endothelial-dependent processes, like the balance between proliferation and apoptosis and the mammary epithelial permeability. However, the effects of PRL and the role it plays in the BBB permeability are still not well understood. A primary culture of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells was used as in vitro model of BBB. Cells were treated with PRL (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nM) for 24 hours. PRL significantly increased cellular proliferation at 10 and 100 nM, but did not modify basal apoptosis. These effects were dependent on the production of the mitogenic factor nitric oxide (NO). PRL significantly decreased the permeability and promoted an increase in trans-endothelial electrical resistance in a NO-independent way. PRL also increased the expression of the TJs proteins claudin-5 and occludin. The short form of the PRL receptor was detected in these cells but its expression was not modified by PRL. Together, these results suggest that PRL has the ability to increase cellular proliferation associated with a decrease on BBB permeability by increasing the expression of TJs proteins.

  11. Cardiac autonomic function and vascular profile in subclinical hypothyroidism: Increased beat-to-beat QT variability

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Pramila; Yeragani, Vikram K.; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) may have higher incidence of coronary heart disease and autonomic dysfunction. Design of the Study: Prospective case control study. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate beat-to-beat QT variability and vascular stiffness in patients with SH compared to normal controls. Materials and Methods: We compared linear and nonlinear measures of cardiac repolarization liability using beat-to-beat QT intervals derived from the surface electrocardiogram during supine posture and vascular indices including pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index (ABI) during supine posture between female patients with SH and age- and sex-matched normal controls. Spectral analysis was done at very low frequency (LF) (0.003–0.04 Hz), Low frequency (LF) (0.04–0.15 Hz), and high frequency (HF) (0.15–0.4 Hz). The HF represents vagal regulation (parasympathetic) and LF represents both parasympathetic and sympathetic regulation. Results: We recruited 58 women with a mean age of 31.83 ± 8.9 years and 49 controls with mean age of 32.4 ± 9.9 years (P = NS). QT variability index (QTvi) was higher in cases compared to controls (P = 0.01). The ratio of LF/HF of R-R interval which is an index of sympathovagal tone was significantly more in cases compared to controls (P = 0.02). The difference in the left minus the right ABI was significant between cases and controls (P = 0.03). Conclusions: The cases had lower parasympathetic activity as compared to controls, and there was a predominance of sympathetic activity in cases. QTvi may be an important noninvasive tool in this group of patients to study the risk of cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27730068

  12. Taurocholate-induced nitric oxide signaling and the ensuing production of reactive oxygen species lead to an increase in epithelial permeability in cultivated mouse gastric epithelium.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Harri; Kiviluoto, Tuula; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Paimela, Hannu; Mentula, Panu; Kemppainen, Esko; Kivilaakso, Eero

    2008-12-01

    We have here elucidated whether ulcerogenic agents affect the production of NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ulcerogenic agents dose dependently induced NO and ROS production in mouse gastric epithelial cells. Taurocholate (TC, 5 mM) exposure did not affect cell viability, but it increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, NO production, ROS production, and epithelial permeability. Epithelial permeability was inhibited with NOS inhibitors or antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and ethanol was not inhibited with NOS inhibitors. ASA induced ROS production even at low concentrations (1 mM), which did not affect cell viability. Ethanol-induced ROS production was linked to cell viability, suggesting direct oxidative stress caused by ethanol. Taurocholate-induced NO signaling and the ensuing production of ROS might contribute to initiation of defensive or adaptive cellular mechanisms. ASA-induced ROS signaling might have similar effects, whereas ethanol induced direct oxidative stress, having an influence on cell viability.

  13. Sildenafil Citrate Increases Fetal Weight in a Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction with a Normal Vascular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Dilworth, Mark Robert; Andersson, Irene; Renshall, Lewis James; Cowley, Elizabeth; Baker, Philip; Greenwood, Susan; Sibley, Colin Peter; Wareing, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is defined as the inability of a fetus to achieve its genetic growth potential and is associated with a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Clinically, FGR is diagnosed as a fetus falling below the 5th centile of customised growth charts. Sildenafil citrate (SC, Viagra™), a potent and selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, corrects ex vivo placental vascular dysfunction in FGR, demonstrating potential as a therapy for this condition. However, many FGR cases present without an abnormal vascular phenotype, as assessed by Doppler measures of uterine/umbilical artery blood flow velocity. Thus, we hypothesized that SC would not increase fetal growth in a mouse model of FGR, the placental-specific Igf2 knockout mouse, which has altered placental exchange capacity but normal placental blood flow. Fetal weights were increased (by 8%) in P0 mice following maternal SC treatment (0.4 mg/ml) via drinking water. There was also a trend towards increased placental weight in treated P0 mice (P = 0.056). Additionally, 75% of the P0 fetal weights were below the 5th centile, the criterion used to define human FGR, of the non-treated WT fetal weights; this was reduced to 51% when dams were treated with SC. Umbilical artery and vein blood flow velocity measures confirmed the lack of an abnormal vascular phenotype in the P0 mouse; and were unaffected by SC treatment. 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid transfer (measured to assess effects on placental nutrient transporter activity) per g placenta was unaffected by SC, versus untreated, though total transfer was increased, commensurate with the trend towards larger placentas in this group. These data suggest that SC may improve fetal growth even in the absence of an abnormal placental blood flow, potentially affording use in multiple sub-populations of individuals presenting with FGR. PMID:24204949

  14. Chronically Increased Amino Acids Improve Insulin Secretion, Pancreatic Vascularity, and Islet Size in Growth-Restricted Fetal Sheep.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Davis, Melissa; Wai, Sandra; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Hay, William W; Limesand, Sean W; Rozance, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Placental insufficiency is associated with reduced supply of amino acids to the fetus and leads to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). IUGR fetuses are characterized by lower glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, smaller pancreatic islets with less β-cells, and impaired pancreatic vascularity. To test whether supplemental amino acids infused into the IUGR fetus could improve these complications of IUGR we used acute (hours) and chronic (11 d) direct fetal amino acid infusions into a sheep model of placental insufficiency and IUGR near the end of gestation. IUGR fetuses had attenuated acute amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion compared with control fetuses. These results were confirmed in isolated IUGR pancreatic islets. After the chronic fetal amino acid infusion, fetal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet size were restored to control values. These changes were associated with normalization of fetal pancreatic vascularity and higher fetal pancreatic vascular endothelial growth factor A protein concentrations. These results demonstrate that decreased fetal amino acid supply contributes to the pathogenesis of pancreatic islet defects in IUGR. Moreover, the results show that pancreatic islets in IUGR fetuses retain their ability to respond to increased amino acids near the end of gestation after chronic fetal growth restriction.

  15. Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Entamoeba histolytica Signals via EP4 Receptor and Alters Claudin-4 to Increase Ion Permeability of Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lejeune, Manigandan; Moreau, France; Chadee, Kris

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amebic dysentery characterized by severe watery diarrhea. Unfortunately, the parasitic factors involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea are poorly defined. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a host lipid mediator associated with diarrheal diseases. Intriguingly, E. histolytica produces and secretes this inflammatory molecule. We investigated the mechanism whereby ameba-derived PGE2 induces the onset of diarrhea by altering ion permeability of paracellular tight junctions (TJs) in colonic epithelia. PGE2 decreased barrier integrity of TJs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as measured by transepithelial resistance. PGE2 signals were selectively transduced via the EP4 receptor. Furthermore, PGE2 signaling decreased TJ integrity, as revealed by EP receptor-specific agonist and antagonist studies. Loss of mucosal barrier integrity corresponded with increased ion permeability across TJs. Subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy studies highlighted a significant spatial alteration of an important TJ protein, claudin-4, that corresponded with increased sodium ion permeability through TJs toward the lumen. Moreover, PGE2-induced luminal chloride secretion was a prerequisite for alterations at TJs. Thus, the gradient of NaCl created across epithelia could serve as a trigger for osmotic water flow that leads to diarrhea. Our results highlight a pathological role for E. histolytica-derived PGE2 in the onset of diarrhea. PMID:21683675

  16. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, independent of insulin use, is associated with an increased risk of cardiac complications after vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Bakker, E J; Valentijn, T M; van de Luijtgaarden, K M; Hoeks, S E; Voute, M T; Goncalves, F B; Verhagen, H J; Stolker, R J

    2013-09-01

    Previous reports on the prognostic value of diabetes mellitus for cardiac complications after vascular surgery show divergent results, especially in regards to the role of type 2 diabetes as a cardiac risk factor, which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of type 2 diabetes on 30-day cardiac complications after vascular surgery. Patients undergoing elective vascular surgery between 2002 and 2011 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Previous diagnosis of type 1 and 2 diabetes and use of oral glucose-lowering medications and insulin were recorded. Patients with type 1 diabetes were excluded from the analysis. The main outcome parameter was cardiac complications, a composite of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, severe arrhythmia and asymptomatic troponin release within 30 days of surgery. In multivariate analysis, corrections were made for comorbidities, demographics, medication use and surgical risk. Of 1462 patients, 329 (22.5%) patients had type 2 diabetes. Cardiac complications occurred in 155 (13.7%) patients without diabetes and in 68 (20.7%) with type 2 diabetes. In multivariate analysis, type 2 diabetes was associated with a significantly increased risk of 30-day cardiac complications (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.60). Results were similar for type 2 diabetes patients managed with (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 3.37) and without (odds ratio 1.79; 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.70) insulin. Type 2 diabetes is an independent risk factor for cardiac complications after vascular surgery and should be treated as such in preoperative cardiac risk stratification.

  17. Crustal permeability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  18. Pulpal vascular changes in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Changes in pulpal vessels in experimentally induced acute and chronic pulpitis in dog tooth were investigated using corrosive resin casts and scanning electron microscopic examination. Following a cavity preparation without water spray, increased permeability of blood vessels occurred in the primary stage of acute pulpitis. This was evidenced by the extravasation of resin from the vessel. This phenomenon was found initially in the venular network as well as in the capillary network located under the dentin. The morphological change was minimal in the vascular network underneath the cavity. This is in contrast to an expanded and tortuous vascular network representing an ulceration which was found around an abscess in chronic pulpitis. Furthermore, formation of vascular loops and AVAlc close to the inflamed region may represent a protective change in the pulp against inflammation.

  19. Age decreases mitochondrial motility and increases mitochondrial size in vascular smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, Susan; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Age is proposed to be associated with altered structure and function of mitochondria; however, in fully‐differentiated cells, determining the structure of more than a few mitochondria at a time is challenging. In the present study, the structures of the entire mitochondrial complements of cells were resolved from a pixel‐by‐pixel covariance analysis of fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity during ‘flickers’ of mitochondrial membrane potential.Mitochondria are larger in vascular myocytes from aged rats compared to those in younger adult rats.A subpopulation of mitochondria in myocytes from aged, but not younger, animals is highly‐elongated.Some mitochondria in myocytes from younger, but not aged, animals are highly‐motile.Mitochondria that are motile are located more peripherally in the cell than non‐motile mitochondria. Abstract Mitochondrial function, motility and architecture are each central to cell function. Age‐associated mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to vascular disease. However, mitochondrial changes in ageing remain ill‐defined because of the challenges of imaging in native cells. We determined the structure of mitochondria in live native cells, demarcating boundaries of individual organelles by inducing stochastic ‘flickers’ of membrane potential, recorded as fluctuations in potentiometric fluorophore intensity (flicker‐assisted localization microscopy; FaLM). In freshly‐isolated myocytes from rat cerebral resistance arteries, FaLM showed a range of mitochondrial X‐Y areas in both young adult (3 months; 0.05–6.58 μm2) and aged rats (18 months; 0.05–13.4 μm2). In cells from young animals, most mitochondria were small (mode area 0.051 μm2) compared to aged animals (0.710 μm2). Cells from older animals contained a subpopulation of highly‐elongated mitochondria (5.3% were >2 μm long, 4.2% had a length:width ratio >3) that was rare in younger animals (0.15% of mitochondria >2

  20. MiRNA-200b Regulates RMP7-Induced Increases in Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability by Targeting RhoA and ROCKII

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Xue, Yi-xue

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to investigate the potential roles of miR-200b in regulating RMP7-induced increases in blood-tumor barrier (BTB) permeability and some of the possible molecular mechanisms associated with this effect. Microarray analysis revealed 34 significantly deregulated miRNAs including miR-200b in the BTB as induced by RMP7 and 8 significantly up-regulated miRNAs in the BTB by RMP7. RMP7 induced tight junction (TJ) opening of the BTB, thereby increasing BTB permeability. Associated with this effect of RMP7 was a decrease in miR-200b expression within the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells line hCMEC/D3 (ECs) of the BTB. Overexpression of miR-200b inhibited endothelial leakage and restored normal transendothelial electric resistance values. A simultaneous shift in occludin and claudin-5 distributions from insoluble to soluble fractions were observed to be significantly reduced. In addition, overexpression of miR-200b inhibited the relocation of occludin and claudin-5 from cellular borders into the cytoplasm as well as the production of stress fiber formation in GECs (ECs with U87 glioma cells co-culturing) of the BTB. MiR-200b silencing produced opposite results as that obtained from that of the miR-200b overexpression group. Overexpression of miR-200b was also associated with a down-regulation in RhoA and ROCKII expression, concomitant with a decrease in BTB permeability. Again, results which were opposite to that obtained with the miR-200b silencing group. We further found that miR-200b regulated BTB permeability by directly targeting RhoA and ROCKII. Collectively, these results suggest that miR-200b's contribution to the RMP7-induced increase in BTB permeability was associated with stress fiber formation and TJ disassembly as achieved by directly targeting RhoA and ROCKII. PMID:26903801

  1. H460 non-small cell lung cancer stem-like holoclones yield tumors with increased vascularity

    PubMed Central

    Manley, Eugene; Waxman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer stem-like cells were isolated from several human tumor cell lines by limiting dilution assays and holoclone morphology, followed by assessment of self-renewal capacity, tumor growth, vascularity, and blood perfusion. H460 holoclone-derived tumors grew slower than parental H460 tumors, but displayed significantly increased microvessel density and tumor blood perfusion. Microarray analysis identified 177 differentially regulated genes in the holoclone-derived tumors, of which 47 were associated with angiogenesis. The dysregulated genes include several small leucine-rich proteoglycans that may modulate angiogenesis and serve as novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting cancer stem cell-driven angiogenesis. PMID:24334139

  2. H460 non-small cell lung cancer stem-like holoclones yield tumors with increased vascularity.

    PubMed

    Manley, Eugene; Waxman, David J

    2014-04-28

    Cancer stem-like cells were isolated from several human tumor cell lines by limiting dilution assays and holoclone morphology, followed by assessment of self-renewal capacity, tumor growth, vascularity, and blood perfusion. H460 holoclone-derived tumors grew slower than parental H460 tumors, but displayed significantly increased microvessel density and tumor blood perfusion. Microarray analysis identified 177 differentially regulated genes in the holoclone-derived tumors, of which 47 were associated with angiogenesis. The dysregulated genes include several small leucine-rich proteoglycans that may modulate angiogenesis and serve as novel therapeutic targets for inhibiting cancer stem cell-driven angiogenesis.

  3. An Increase in Mean Platelet Volume/Platelet Count Ratio Is Associated with Vascular Access Failure in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Ho; Rhee, So Yon; Jeon, Hee Jung; Park, Ji-Young; Kang, Shin-Wook; Oh, Jieun

    2017-01-01

    After stenosis of arteriovenous vascular access in hemodialysis patients, platelets play a crucial role in subsequent thrombus formation, leading to access failure. In a previous study, the mean platelet volume (MPV)/platelet count ratio, but not MPV alone, was shown to be an independent predictor of 4-year mortality after myocardial infarction. However, little is known about the potential influence of MPV/platelet count ratio on vascular access patency in hemodialysis patients. A total of 143 patients undergoing routine hemodialysis were recruited between January 2013 and February 2016. Vascular access failure (VAF) was defined as thrombosis or a decrease of greater than 50% of normal vessel diameter, requiring either surgical revision or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Cox proportional hazards model analysis ascertained that the change of MPV/platelet count ratio between baseline and 3 months [Δ(MPV/platelet count ratio)3mo-baseline] had prognostic value for VAF. Additionally, the changes of MPV/platelet count ratio over time were compared in patients with and without VAF by using linear mixed model analysis. Of the 143 patients, 38 (26.6%) were diagnosed with VAF. During a median follow-up of 26.9 months (interquartile range 13.0–36.0 months), Δ(MPV/platelet count ratio)3mo-baseline significantly increased in patients with VAF compared to that in patients without VAF [11.6 (6.3–19.0) vs. 0.8 (-1.8–4.0), P< 0.001]. In multivariate analysis, Δ(MPV/platelet ratio count)3mo-baseline was an independent predictor of VAF, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, vascular access type, the presence of previous VAF, and antiplatelet drug use (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–1.21; P< 0.001). Moreover, a liner mixed model revealed that there was a significant increase of MPV/platelet count ratio over time in patients with VAF compared to those without VAF (P< 0.001). An

  4. Hydroxysafflor yellow A increases BDNF and NMDARs in the hippocampus in a vascular dementia rat model.

    PubMed

    Xing, Mengya; Sun, Qingna; Wang, Yiyi; Cheng, Yan; Zhang, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a drug that exerts angiogenesis regulatory and neuroprotective effects and has become an effective therapy for brain and heart ischemic disorders. There is no definite evidence supporting a therapeutic effect of HSYA in vascular dementia (VaD). We used HSYA in a rat model of chronic cerebral ischemia to determine its potential therapeutic effects in VaD. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate spatial cognitive function, and long-term potentiation (LTP) was tested as a marker of synaptic plasticity. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and two subunits of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR; GluN2A and GluN2B) in the hippocampus were measured via western blotting. The MWM results showed that the experimental VaD group had longer escape latencies than the sham group, whereas the HSYA group had a decreased escape latency compared with the VaD group (P<0.05). The LTP at CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus was also enhanced in the HSYA compared with the VaD group (P<0.05). The western blotting results revealed lower hippocampal BDNF and GluN2B expression in the VaD group compared with the sham group and significantly higher hippocampal expression in the HSYA group compared with the VaD group. No significant change in GluN2A expression was detected. The results indicate that HSYA may enhance the endogenous expression of BDNF and GluN2B, which are associated with the synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus, and may improve spatial learning and memory abilities in a rat model of VaD.

  5. Effect of immunologic reactions on rat intestinal epithelium. Correlation of increased permeability to chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and ovalbumin during acute inflammation and anaphylaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramage, J.K.; Stanisz, A.; Scicchitano, R.; Hunt, R.H.; Perdue, M.H.

    1988-06-01

    In these studies we compared jejunal permeability to two probes--chromium 51-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA) (mol wt, 360) and ovalbumin (mol wt, 45,000)--under control conditions, during acute intestinal inflammation, and in response to systemic anaphylaxis. Acute inflammation was produced after infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and rats were studied at day 0 (control), day 4 (early), day 10 (acute), and day 35 (postinfection). At the latter stage, immune rats were also studied during anaphylaxis induced by i.v. N. brasiliensis antigen. In each study, blood and urine were sampled over 5 h after the probes were simultaneously injected into ligated loops in anesthetized rats. In controls, small quantities (less than 0.04% and 0.002% of the administered dose for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively) appeared in the circulation and plateaued at 1 h. During acute inflammation, the appearance of both probes continued to increase with time. Compared with controls, 5-h values for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin were (a) significantly elevated at day 4 (p less than 0.005), (b) increased approximately 20-fold at day 10 (p less than 0.005 and less than 0.01, respectively), and (c) normal at day 35. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA followed the same pattern. During anaphylaxis, appearance of the probes in the circulation increased at 1 h to values approximately 10-fold those in controls (p less than 0.001 and less than 0.01, for 51Cr-EDTA and ovalbumin, respectively), and then declined. Urinary recovery of 51Cr-EDTA over 5 h was also significantly increased. We conclude that epithelial barrier function becomes impaired during both acute inflammation and anaphylaxis. In this rat model, gut permeability changes to 51Cr-EDTA reflect gut permeability changes to macromolecular antigens.

  6. Methamphetamine transiently increases the blood-brain barrier permeability in the hippocampus: role of tight junction proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9.

    PubMed

    Martins, Tânia; Baptista, Sofia; Gonçalves, Joana; Leal, Ermelindo; Milhazes, Nuno; Borges, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Carlos F; Quintela, Oscar; Lendoiro, Elena; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Ambrósio, António F; Silva, Ana P

    2011-09-09

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful stimulant drug of abuse that has steadily gained popularity worldwide. It is known that METH is highly neurotoxic and causes irreversible damage of brain cells leading to neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. Recent studies suggested that METH-induced neurotoxicity might also result from its ability to compromise blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Due to the crucial role of BBB in the maintenance of brain homeostasis and protection against toxic molecules and pathogenic organisms, its dysfunction could have severe consequences. In this study, we investigated the effect of an acute high dose of METH (30mg/kg) on BBB permeability after different time points and in different brain regions. For that, young adult mice were sacrificed 1h, 24h or 72h post-METH administration. METH increased BBB permeability, but this effect was detected only at 24h after administration, being therefore a transitory effect. Interestingly, we also found that the hippocampus was the most susceptible brain region to METH, comparing to frontal cortex and striatum. Moreover, in an attempt to identify the key players in METH-induced BBB dysfunction we further investigated potential alterations in tight junction (TJ) proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). METH was able to decrease the protein levels of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, claudin-5 and occludin in the hippocampus 24h post-injection, and increased the activity and immunoreactivity of MMP-9. The pre-treatment with BB-94 (30mg/kg), a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, prevented the METH-induced increase in MMP-9 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus. Overall, the present data demonstrate that METH transiently increases the BBB permeability in the hippocampus, which can be explained by alterations on TJ proteins and MMP-9.

  7. Vascular Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack) may increase your risk of developing dementia. Atherosclerosis. This condition occurs when deposits of cholesterol and ... in your arteries and narrow your blood vessels. Atherosclerosis can increase your risk of vascular dementia — and ...

  8. Drying increases intracellular partitioning of amphiphilic substances into the lipid phase. Impact On membrane permeability and significance for desiccation tolerance

    PubMed

    Golovina; Hoekstra; Hemminga

    1998-11-01

    Previously we proposed that endogenous amphiphilic substances may partition from the aqueous cytoplasm into the lipid phase during dehydration of desiccation-tolerant organ(ism)s and vice versa during rehydration. Their perturbing presence in membranes could thus explain the transient leakage from imbibing organisms. To study the mechanism of this phenomenon, amphiphilic nitroxide spin probes were introduced into the pollen of a model organism, Typha latifolia, and their partitioning behavior during dehydration and rehydration was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In hydrated pollen the spin probes mainly occurred in the aqueous phase; during dehydration, however, the amphiphilic spin probes partitioned into the lipid phase and had disappeared from the aqueous phase below 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. During rehydration the probes reappeared in the aqueous phase above 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. The partitioning back into the cytoplasm coincided with the decrease of the initially high plasma membrane permeability. A charged polar spin probe was trapped in the cytoplasm during drying. Liposome experiments showed that partitioning of an amphiphilic spin probe into the bilayer during dehydration caused transient leakage during rehydration. This was also observed with endogenous amphipaths that were extracted from pollen, implying similar partitioning behavior. In view of the fluidizing effect on membranes and the antioxidant properties of many endogenous amphipaths, we suggest that partitioning with drying may be pivotal to desiccation tolerance, despite the risk of imbibitional leakage.

  9. Hypoxia modulates the barrier and coagulant function of cultured bovine endothelium. Increased monolayer permeability and induction of procoagulant properties.

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, S; Gerlach, H; Esposito, C; Pasagian-Macaulay, A; Brett, J; Stern, D

    1990-01-01

    Exposure of cultured endothelium to environments with low concentrations of oxygen, in the range of those observed in pathophysiologic hypoxemic states in vivo, compromises cellular barrier and coagulant function. An atmosphere with PO2 approximately 14 mm Hg was not lethally toxic to endothelial cultures, but cells became larger and exhibited small intercellular gaps. At low oxygen concentrations, passage of macromolecular tracers through hypoxic endothelial monolayers was accelerated in a time- and dose-dependent manner, presumably by a paracellular pathway via the gaps. Cell surface coagulant properties of the endothelium were also perturbed. At PO2 approximately 14 mm Hg thrombomodulin antigen and functional activity on the cell surface were diminished by 80-90%, and Northern blots demonstrated suppression of thrombomodulin mRNA. The decrease in thrombomodulin was twice as great compared with the general decline in total protein synthesis in hypoxia. In addition, expression of a direct Factor X activator developed under hypoxic conditions; the activator was membrane-associated and expressed on the surface of intact cultures, Ca-dependent, inhibited by HgCl2 but not PMSF, and had Km approximately 25 micrograms/ml for the substrate at pH 7.4. Synthesis of the activator was blocked by inclusion of cycloheximide, but not warfarin, in the culture medium. These results demonstrate that endothelial function is perturbed in a selective manner in the presence of low concentrations of oxygen, providing insights into mechanisms which may contribute to vascular dysfunction in hypoxemic states. Images PMID:2156893

  10. Reduced Cystathionine γ-Lyase and Increased miR-21 Expression Are Associated with Increased Vascular Resistance in Growth-Restricted Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Herrera, Emilio A.; Niu, Youguo; Kingdom, John; Giussani, Dino A.; Burton, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased vascular impedance in the fetoplacental circulation is associated with fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. We sought to investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in regulating vasomotor tone in the fetoplacental vasculature. H2S is produced endogenously by catalytic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Immunohistochemical analysis localized CSE to smooth muscle cells encircling arteries in stem villi. Immunoreactivity was reduced in placentas from pregnancies with severe early-onset growth-restriction and preeclampsia displaying abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms compared with preeclamptic placentas with normal waveforms and controls. These findings were confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels. MicroRNA-21, which negatively regulates CSE expression, was increased in placentas with abnormal Doppler waveforms. Exposure of villus explants to hypoxia-reoxygenation significantly reduced CSE protein and mRNA and increased microRNA-21 expression. No changes were observed in cystathionine β-synthase expression, immunolocalized principally to the trophoblast, in pathologic placentas or in vitro. Finally, perfusion of normal placentas with an H2S donor, after preconstriction with a thromboxane mimetic, resulted in dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Glibenclamide and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester partially blocked the effect, indicating that H2S acts through ATP-sensitive K+ channels and nitric oxide synthesis. These results demonstrate that H2S is a powerful vasodilator of the placental vasculature and that expression of CSE is reduced in placentas associated with increased vascular resistance. PMID:23410520

  11. Transforming Growth Factor-β Regulation of Epithelial Tight Junction Proteins Enhances Barrier Function and Blocks Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Increased Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Kathryn L.; Reardon, Colin; Wang, Arthur; Nazli, Aisha; McKay, Derek M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is an enteric pathogen that causes potentially fatal symptoms after intimate adhesion, modulation of intestinal epithelial signal transduction, and alteration of epithelial function (eg, barrier disruption). Although the epithelial barrier is critical to gut homeostasis, only a few agents, such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, can enhance or protect epithelial barrier function. Our aims were to delineate the mechanism(s) behind TGF-β-induced barrier enhancement and to determine whether TGF-β could prevent EHEC-induced barrier disruption. Using monolayers of the human T84 colonic epithelial cell line, we found that TGF-β induced a significant increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (a measure of paracellular permeability) through activation of ERK MAPK and SMAD signaling pathways and up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-1. Additionally, TGF-β pretreatment of epithelia blocked the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in transepithelial passage of [3H]-mannitol caused by EHEC infection. EHEC infection was associated with reduced expression of zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-2 (but not claudin-1 or claudin-4); TGF-β pretreatment prevented these changes. These studies provide insight into EHEC pathogenesis by illustrating the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced epithelial barrier enhancement and identifying TGF-β as an agent capable of blocking EHEC-induced increases in epithelial permeability via maintenance of claudin-2, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 levels. PMID:16314472

  12. Increased intestinal permeability and tight junction disruption by altered expression and localization of occludin in a murine graft versus host disease model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly performed for hematologic diseases. As a major side effect, acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) with serious gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea, gastrointestinal bleeding and high mortality can be observed. Because surveillance and biopsies of human gastrointestinal GvHD are difficult to perform, rare information of the alterations of the gastrointestinal barrier exists resulting in a need for systematic animal models. Methods To investigate the effects of GvHD on the intestinal barrier of the small intestine we utilized an established acute semi allogenic GvHD in C57BL/6 and B6D2F1 mice. Results By assessing the differential uptake of lactulose and mannitol in the jejunum, we observed an increased paracellular permeability as a likely mechanism for disturbed intestinal barrier function. Electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and PCR analysis indicated profound changes of the tight-junction complex, characterized by downregulation of the tight junction protein occludin without any changes in ZO-1. Furthermore TNF-α expression was significantly upregulated. Conclusions This analysis in a murine model of GvHD of the small intestine demonstrates serious impairment of intestinal barrier function in the jejunum, with an increased permeability and morphological changes through downregulation and localization shift of the tight junction protein occludin. PMID:21977944

  13. Increasing of Blood-Brain Tumor Barrier Permeability through Transcellular and Paracellular Pathways by Microbubble-Enhanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in a C6 Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinlong; Liu, Heng; Du, Xuesong; Guo, Yu; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Shunan; Fang, Jingqin; Cao, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    Most of the anticancer agents cannot be efficiently delivered into the brain tumor because of the existence of blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB). The objective of this study was to explore the effect of microbubble-enhanced diagnostic ultrasound (MEUS) on the BTB permeability and the possible mechanism. Glioma-bearing rats were randomized into three groups as follows: the microbubble-enhanced continued diagnostic ultrasound (MECUS) group; the microbubble-enhanced intermittent diagnostic ultrasound (MEIUS) group and the control group. The gliomas were insonicated through the skull with a diagnostic ultrasound and injected with microbubbles through the tail veins. Evans Blue (EB) and dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI were used to test changes in the BTB permeability. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to observe the deposition of the EB in the tumor tissues. The distribution and expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa channels) were detected by a Western blot, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. In the MEUS groups, the EB extravasation (11.0 ± 2.2 μg/g in MECUS group and 17.9 ± 2.3 μg/g in MEIUS group) exhibited a significant increase compared with the control group (5.3 ± 0.9 μg/g). The MEIUS group had more EB extravasation than the MECUS group. The Ktrans value of the dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI in the MEUS groups was higher than that of the control group and correlated strongly with the EB extravasation in the tumor (R2 = 0.97). This showed that the Ktrans value might be a non-invasive method to evaluate the BTB permeability in rat glioma after microbubble-enhanced ultrasound treatment.Western blot, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining revealed that MEUS increased the KCa channels expression and reduced JAM-A expression in glioma. This change was more obvious in the MEIUS group than in the MECUS group. The results demonstrated that MEUS effectively increased the BTB permeability in

  14. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, Dietmar W. . E-mail: siemadw@ufl.edu; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitro clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was {approx}20% in small (<0.3 g) vs. >90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10{sup -1} to 1 x 10{sup -4} with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of vascular

  15. Peripheral vascular disease prevalence increases exponentially withproximity to roadways in an adult cardiac catherization cohort.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested that residential proximity to traffic increases risk ofcardiovascular diseases (CVD) in major urban areas. Objectives: We examined the associations between mobile source air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes in a less ...

  16. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, A Young; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine. In contrast, fennel oil induced [Ca(2+)]c was significantly lower in Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that fennel oil increases [Ca(2+)]c mainly by enhancing Ca(2+) influx into EA cells. [Ca(2+)]c mobilization by trans-anethole was similar to that of fennel oil. Moreover, SOCE was suppressed by fennel oil and trans-anethole. SOCE was also attenuated by lanthanum (La(3+)), a non-selective cation channel (NSC) blocker; 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor and SOCE blocker; and U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC). Further, SOCE was more strongly inhibited by La(3+) plus fennel oil or trans-anethole than by La(3+) alone. These findings suggest that fennel oil and trans-anethole significantly inhibit SOCE-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase in vascular endothelial cells and that these reactions may be mediated by NSC, IP3-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization, and PLC activation.

  17. Aldosterone Increases Oxidant Stress to Impair Guanylyl Cyclase Activity by Cysteinyl Thiol Oxidation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Bradley A.; Zhang, Ying-Yi; Handy, Diane E.; Beuve, Annie; Tang, Shiow-Shih; Loscalzo, Joseph; Leopold, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity owing to increased reactive oxygen species and decreased bioavailable nitric oxide (NO·); however, the effects of aldosterone on vasodilatory signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) remain unknown. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (GC) is a heterodimer that is activated by NO· to convert cytosolic GTP to cGMP, a second messenger required for normal VSMC relaxation. Here, we show that aldosterone (10-9-10-7 mol/liter) diminishes GC activity by activating NADPH oxidase in bovine aortic VSMC to increase reactive oxygen species levels and induce oxidative posttranslational modification(s) of Cys-122, a β1-subunit cysteinyl residue demonstrated previously to modulate NO· sensing by GC. In VSMC treated with aldosterone, Western immunoblotting detected evidence of GC β1-subunit disulfide bonding, whereas mass spectrometry analysis of a homologous peptide containing the Cys-122-bearing sequence exposed to conditions of increased oxidant stress confirmed cysteinyl sulfinic acid (m/z 435), sulfonic acid (m/z 443), and disulfide (m/z 836) bond formation. The functional effect of these modifications was examined by transfecting COS-7 cells with wild-type GC or mutant GC containing an alanine substitution at Cys-122 (C122A). Exposure to aldosterone or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly decreased cGMP levels in cells expressing wild-type GC. In contrast, aldosterone or H2O2 did not influence cGMP levels in cells expressing the mutant C122A GC, confirming that oxidative modification of Cys-122 specifically impairs GC activity. These findings demonstrate that pathophysiologically relevant concentrations of aldosterone increase oxidant stress to convert GC to an NO·-insensitive state, resulting in disruption of normal vasodilatory signaling pathways in VSMC. PMID:19141618

  18. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Eberhardt, Jacob; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G

    2009-08-01

    Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after

  19. Gastrointestinal permeability (GIPerm) is increased in family members of children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased GIPerm has been described in children with FAP/IBS and adults with IBS. We sought to determine if baseline GIPerm is increased and if ibuprofen induces a greater increase in GIPerm in parents and siblings of children with FAP/IBS vs. control families without children with FAP/IBS. Site spe...

  20. The Ketogenic Diet Alters the Hypoxic Response and Affects Expression of Proteins Associated with Angiogenesis, Invasive Potential and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Glioma Model

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Eric C.; Curley, Kara L.; Liu, Qingwei; Turner, Gregory H.; Charlton, Julie A.; Preul, Mark C.; Scheck, Adrienne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful treatment of malignant gliomas remains a challenge despite the current standard of care, which consists of surgery, radiation and temozolomide. Advances in the survival of brain cancer patients require the design of new therapeutic approaches that take advantage of common phenotypes such as the altered metabolism found in cancer cells. It has therefore been postulated that the high-fat, low-carbohydrate, adequate protein ketogenic diet (KD) may be useful in the treatment of brain tumors. We have demonstrated that the KD enhances survival and potentiates standard therapy in a mouse model of malignant glioma, yet the mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods To explore the effects of the KD on various aspects of tumor growth and progression, we used the immunocompetent, syngeneic GL261-Luc2 mouse model of malignant glioma. Results Tumors from animals maintained on KD showed reduced expression of the hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase 9, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha, and decreased activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Additionally, tumors from animals maintained on KD had reduced tumor microvasculature and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vimentin. Peritumoral edema was significantly reduced in animals fed the KD and protein analyses showed altered expression of zona occludens-1 and aquaporin-4. Conclusions The KD directly or indirectly alters the expression of several proteins involved in malignant progression and may be a useful tool for the treatment of gliomas. PMID:26083629

  1. Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M; Pyšek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J; Kučera, Tomáš; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities.

  2. Alcohol acutely increases vascular reactivity together with insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Schaller, G; Kretschmer, S; Gouya, G; Haider, D G; Mittermayer, F; Riedl, M; Wagner, O; Pacini, G; Wolzt, M; Ludvik, B

    2010-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that this relates to a direct effect of alcohol and therefore investigated whether acute alcohol intake altered insulin sensitivity or endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes. In an open-label two period design, the effect of a single oral dose of 40 g of alcohol (168 ml 40% vodka) on an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGT) and on endothelium-dependent (flow mediated, FMD) or endothelium-independent (glyceroltrinitrate (GTN)-induced) vasodilation of the brachial artery measured by ultrasound was studied. Experiments were carried out in twelve male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (64+/-6 years, body mass index 28.4+/-5.7 kg/m (2)). Baseline insulin sensitivity index (S (I)) was 1.10+/-0.34 min (-1).microU (-1).ml, baseline FMD was +4.1+/-3.0%, and GTN-induced vasodilation +7.4+/-2.3% from resting brachial artery diameter. Acute alcohol intake increased alcohol plasma levels to 0.33+/-0.04 per thousand, S (I) to 1.86+/-0.45 min (-1).microU (-1).ml (p<0.05), and FMD to +8.2+/-2.8% (p<0.05), while GTN-induced dilation remained unchanged. No relationship was detectable between the observed changes. We conclude that alcohol intake acutely increases endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes together with insulin sensitivity. This acute effect might explain some beneficial effects of low alcohol consumption in epidemiological observations.

  3. Combinatorial effects of doxorubicin and retargeted tissue factor by intratumoral entrapment of doxorubicin and proapoptotic increase of tumor vascular infarction

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Caroline; Höltke, Carsten; Schliemann, Christoph; Kessler, Torsten; Schmidt, Lars Henning; Harrach, Saliha; Mantke, Verena; Hintelmann, Heike; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Wardelmann, Eva; Lenz, Georg; Wünsch, Bernhard; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Mesters, Rolf M.; Schwöppe, Christian; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2016-01-01

    Truncated tissue factor (tTF), retargeted to tumor vasculature by GNGRAHA peptide (tTF-NGR), and doxorubicin have therapeutic activity against a variety of tumors. We report on combination experiments of both drugs using different schedules. We have tested fluorescence- and HPLC-based intratumoral pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin, flow cytometry for cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, and tumor xenograft studies for showing in vivo apoptosis, proliferation decrease, and tumor shrinkage upon combination therapy with doxorubicin and induced tumor vascular infarction. tTF-NGR given before doxorubicin inhibits the uptake of the drug into human fibrosarcoma xenografts in vivo. Reverse sequence does not influence the uptake of doxorubicin into tumor, but significantly inhibits the late wash-out phase, thus entrapping doxorubicin in tumor tissue by vascular occlusion. Incubation of endothelial and tumor cells with doxorubicin in vitro increases PS concentrations in the outer layer of the cell membrane as a sign of early apoptosis. Cells expressing increased PS concentrations show comparatively higher procoagulatory efficacy on the basis of equimolar tTF-NGR present in the Factor X assay. Experiments using human M21 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma xenografts in athymic nude mice indeed show a combinatorial tumor growth inhibition applying doxorubicin and tTF-NGR in sequence over single drug treatment. Combination of cytotoxic drugs such as doxorubicin with tTF-NGR-induced tumor vessel infarction can improve pharmacodynamics of the drugs by new mechanisms, entrapping a cytotoxic molecule inside tumor tissue and reciprocally improving procoagulatory activity of tTF-NGR in the tumor vasculature via apoptosis induction in tumor endothelial and tumor cells. PMID:27738341

  4. Effect of increased vascular pressure on lung fluid balance in unanesthetized sheep.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, A J; Vaughan, T R; Brigham, K L; Woolverton, W C; Staub, N C

    1975-09-01

    In 20 unanesthetized sheep, we measured lung lymph flow and lymph and plasma protein concentrations during steady-state base-line conditions and during steady-state elevations of pulmonary microvascular hydrostatic pressure (range 3 to 23 cm H2O). In every sheep there was a base-line lung lymph flow (average 5.7 +/- 2.5 (SD) ml/hour), demonstrating that net fluid filtration occurred. The base-line lymph-plasma total protein ratio averaged 0.69 +/- 0.05, indicating a high protein osmotic pressure in the interstitial fluid at the filtration site. Lymph flow increased and lymph protein concentration decreased approximately linearly whenever hydrostatic pressure rose. A new steady-state condition was reached in 1-2 hours. The difference in plasma-to-lymph protein osmotic pressure increased by half the hydrostatic pressure increment (50% negative feedback regulation). Extravascular lung water content, measured post-mortem, did not change significantly until microvascular hydrostatic pressure more than doubled, indicating a large safety factor that protects the lungs against fluid accumulation normally. The major contributions to the safety factor appeared to be a sensitive and efficient lymph pump coupled to a washout of interstitial protein. The fluid filtration coefficient, whose calculation required many assumptions, averaged 1.64 +/- 2.65 ml/(cm H2O times hour) in the base-line condition and did not change significantly over the pressure range studied.

  5. Lysophosphatidic acid triggers mast cell-driven atherosclerotic plaque destabilization by increasing vascular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bot, Martine; de Jager, Saskia C A; MacAleese, Luke; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van Berkel, Theo J C; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Heeren, Ron M A; Biessen, Erik A L; Bot, Ilze

    2013-05-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive lysophospholipid, accumulates in the atherosclerotic plaque. It has the capacity to activate mast cells, which potentially exacerbates plaque progression. In this study, we thus aimed to investigate whether LPA contributes to plaque destabilization by modulating mast cell function. We here show by an imaging mass spectrometry approach that several LPA species are present in atherosclerotic plaques. Subsequently, we demonstrate that LPA is a potent mast cell activator which, unlike other triggers, favors release of tryptase. Local perivascular administration of LPA to an atherosclerotic carotid artery segment increases the activation status of perivascular mast cells and promotes intraplaque hemorrhage and macrophage recruitment without impacting plaque cell apoptosis. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn could prevent intraplaque hemorrhage elicited by LPA-mediated mast cell activation. Finally, the involvement of mast cells in these events was further emphasized by the lack of effect of perivascular LPA administration in mast cell deficient animals. We demonstrate that increased accumulation of LPA in plaques induces perivascular mast cell activation and in this way contributes to plaque destabilization in vivo. This study points to local LPA availability as an important factor in atherosclerotic plaque stability.

  6. Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood- and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Miwa; Sasaki, Naoki; Ato, Manabu; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sato, Kiichi; Sato, Kae

    2015-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic model of microcirculation containing both blood and lymphatic vessels for examining vascular permeability. The designed microfluidic device harbors upper and lower channels that are partly aligned and are separated by a porous membrane, and on this membrane, blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were cocultured back-to-back. At cell-cell junctions of both BECs and LECs, claudin-5 and VE-cadherin were detected. The permeability coefficient measured here was lower than the value reported for isolated mammalian venules. Moreover, our results showed that the flow culture established in the device promoted the formation of endothelial cell-cell junctions, and that treatment with histamine, an inflammation-promoting substance, induced changes in the localization of tight and adherens junction-associated proteins and an increase in vascular permeability in the microdevice. These findings indicated that both BECs and LECs appeared to retain their functions in the microfluidic coculture platform. Using this microcirculation device, the vascular damage induced by habu snake venom was successfully assayed, and the assay time was reduced from 24 h to 30 min. This is the first report of a microcirculation model in which BECs and LECs were cocultured. Because the micromodel includes lymphatic vessels in addition to blood vessels, the model can be used to evaluate both vascular permeability and lymphatic return rate. PMID:26332321

  7. Vascular connector devices increase the availability of minimally invasive cardiac surgery to ischemic heart patients.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, M; Bedeir, K

    2011-01-01

    The revival of off-pump cardiac surgery and the exploration of less invasive techniques for coronary artery bypass grafting, have lead to an increasing technical difficulty, as compared to conventional surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. The moving target vessel in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery, as well as the increasingly limited space in minimally invasive cardiac surgery were not convenient to many surgeons, a fact that lead many surgeons to deprive their patients the potential benefits of these techniques. Since the 1950's, surgeons have attempted to make the anastomotic procedure less cumbersome and less time consuming. Many creative ideas and devices were made, but for many different reasons, they eventually faded away. Since then, hand-sewn anastomoses have been the standard of care in coronary artery bypass grafting. Today, with the obvious need for a facilitated and fast coronary anastomosis, interest in these anastomotic devices has been re-awakened. The exact geometry, physiology and dynamics of the perfect anastomosis have thus been studied, in an attempt to provide an understanding of reasons behind anastomosis and graft failure after coronary artery bypass surgery, and eventually design the best performing device. These devices would allow for a faster, more accurate and a more reproducible coronary anastomosis using minimally invasive techniques. Also, due to a short learning curve, the standardization of percutaneous devices would allow much more surgeons to more widely adopt less invasive techniques. In summary, we see anastomotic devices as a solution to the technical challenges surgeons encounter with minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting.

  8. Permeability of porour rhyolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, K.; Rust, A.; Wright, H.; Roberge, J.

    2003-04-01

    The development of permeability in bubble-bearing magmas determines the efficiency of volatile escape during their ascent through volcanic conduits, which, in turn, controls their explosive potential. As permeability requires bubble connectivity, relationships between permeability and porosity in silicic magmas must be controlled by the formation, growth, deformation and coalescence of their constituent bubbles. Although permeability data on porous volcanic pyroclasts are limited, the database can be greatly extended by including data for ceramic and metallic foams1. Several studies indicate that a single number does not adequately describe the permeability of a foam because inertial effects, which predominate at high flow rates, cause deviations from Darcy's law. These studies suggest that permeability is best modeled using the Forschheimer equation to determine both the Darcy permeability (k1) and the non-Darcian (k2) permeability. Importantly, at the high porosities of ceramic foams (75-95%), both k1 and k2 are strongly dependent on pore size and geometry, suggesting that measurement of these parameters provides important information on foam structure. We determined both the connected porosity (by He-pycnometry) and the permeability (k1 and k2) of rhyolitic samples having a wide range in porosity (22-85%) and vesicle textures. In general, these data support previous observations of a power law relationship between connected porosity and Darcy permeability2. In detail, variations in k1 increase at higher porosities. Similarly, k2 generally increases in both mean and standard deviation with increasing porosity. Measurements made on three mutually perpendicular cores from individual pumice clasts suggest that some of the variability can be explained by anisotropy in the vesicle structure. By comparison with ceramic foams, we suggest that the remaining variability results from differences either in average vesicle size or, more likely, in the size of apertures

  9. Probable involvement of serotonin in the increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier by forced swimming. An experimental study using Evans blue and 131I-sodium tracers in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S; Westman, J; Navarro, J C; Dey, P K; Nyberg, F

    1995-12-14

    The possibility that endogenous serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) participates in alteration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following short-term forced swimming (FS) exercise was examined in a rat model. Subjection of conscious young (age 8-9 weeks, 80-90 g) animals to continuous FS (at a water temperature of 30 +/- 1 degrees C) for 30 min, increased the permeability of the BBB to Evans blue albumin (EBA) and 131I-sodium in six and nine brain regions, respectively. The EBA staining was noted in posterior cingulate cortex, parietal, occipital cortices, cerebellar vermis, medial lateral cerebellar cortices and dorsal surface of hippocampus. In addition to these brain regions, the BBB permeability to 131I-sodium was further extended to caudate nucleus, thalamus and hypothalamus. This effect of FS on the BBB permeability was absent in adult (age 24-30 weeks, 300-400 g) animals. Measurement of 5-HT showed a profound increase of plasma and brain in young rats by 180% and 250%, respectively, from the control group. Adult animals showed only a minor increase in brain and plasma 5-HT levels. In young animals, pretreatment with p-CPA (a 5-HT synthesis inhibitor) and indomethacin (a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor) prevented the FS induced increase in BBB permeability and 5-HT levels. Destruction of serotonergic neurons with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) reduced the breakdown of the BBB and attenuated the brain 5-HT level without affecting the plasma 5-HT. Cyproheptadine, ketanserin (5-HT2 receptor antagonists) and vinblastine (a vesicular transport inhibitor) prevented the increased permeability of the BBB alone. The plasma and brain 5-HT continued to remain high. These observations suggest that (i) 5-HT plays an important role in the breakdown of BBB permeability in FS, (ii) this effect of 5-HT on BBB permeability is mediated by 5-HT2 receptors, and (iii) FS induced increase in BBB permeability is age dependent.

  10. Acute exposure to sarin increases blood brain barrier permeability and induces neuropathological changes in the rat brain: dose-response relationships.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, A; Shetty, A K; Abou-Donia, M B

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesize that a single exposure to an LD(50) dose of sarin induces widespread early neuropathological changes in the adult brain. In this study, we evaluated the early changes in the adult brain after a single exposure to different doses of sarin. Adult male rats were exposed to sarin by a single intramuscular injection at doses of 1, 0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 x LD(50). Twenty-four hours after the treatment, both sarin-treated and vehicle-treated (controls) animals were analyzed for: (i) plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity; (ii) brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, (iii) m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m2 mAChR) ligand binding; (iv) blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability using [H(3)]hexamethonium iodide uptake assay and immunostaining for endothelial barrier antigen (EBA); and (v) histopathological changes in the brain using H&E staining, and microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining. In animals treated with 1 x LD(50) sarin, the significant changes include a decreased plasma BChE, a decreased AChE in the cerebrum, brainstem, midbrain and the cerebellum, a decreased m2 mAChR ligand binding in the cerebrum, an increased BBB permeability in the cerebrum, brainstem, midbrain and the cerebellum associated with a decreased EBA expression, a diffuse neuronal cell death and a decreased MAP-2 expression in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and degeneration of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. Animals treated with 0.5 x LD(50) sarin however exhibited only a few alterations, which include decreased plasma BChE, an increased BBB permeability in the midbrain and the brain stem but without a decrease in EBA expression, and degeneration of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum. In contrast, animals treated with 0.1 and 0.01 x LD(50) did not exhibit any of the above changes. However, m2 mAChR ligand binding in the brainstem was increased after exposure to all doses of the sarin.Collectively, the above

  11. Short-term calorie restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice by increasing nitric oxide and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Catarina; Lesniewski, Lisa; Connell, Melanie; LaRocca, Thomas; Donato, Anthony; Seals, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    To determine if short-term calorie restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice, old (O, n = 30) and young (Y, n = 10) male B6D2F1 mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR, approximately 30%) for 8 weeks. Ex vivo carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) was impaired in old ad libitum (OAL) vs. young ad libitum (YAL) (74 +/- 5 vs. 95 +/- 2% of maximum dilation, P < 0.05), whereas old calorie-restricted (OCR) and YCR did not differ (96 +/- 1 vs. 94 +/- 3%). Impaired EDD in OAL was mediated by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability associated with decreased endothelial NO synthase expression (aorta) (P < 0.05), both of which were restored in OCR. Nitrotyrosine, a cellular marker of oxidant modification, was markedly elevated in OAL (P < 0.05), whereas OCR was similar to Y. Aortic superoxide production was 150% greater in OAL vs. YAL (P < 0.05), but normalized in OCR, and TEMPOL, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic that restored EDD in OAL (to 97 +/- 2%), had no effect in Y or OCR. OAL had increased expression and activity of the oxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase, and its inhibition (apocynin) improved EDD, whereas NADPH oxidase in OCR was similar to Y. Manganese SOD activity and sirtuin1 expression were reduced in OAL (P < 0.05), but restored to Y in OCR. Inflammatory cytokines were greater in OAL vs. YAL (P < 0.05), but unaffected by CR. Carotid artery endothelium-independent dilation did not differ among groups. Short-term CR initiated in old age reverses age-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability, reducing oxidative stress (via reduced NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production and stimulation of anti-oxidant enzyme activity), and upregulation of sirtuin-1.

  12. Short-term Calorie Restriction Reverses Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction in Old Mice by Increasing Nitric Oxide and Reducing Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rippe, Catarina; Lesniewski, Lisa; Connell, Melanie; LaRocca, Thomas; Donato, Anthony; Seals, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Summary To determine if short-term calorie restriction reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction in old mice, old (O, n=30) and young (Y, n=10) male B6D2F1 mice were fed ad libitum (AL) or calorie restricted (CR, ∼30%) for 8 weeks. Ex vivo carotid artery endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) was impaired in OAL vs. YAL (74±5 vs. 95±2% of maximum dilation, P<0.05), whereas OCR and YCR did not differ (96±1 vs. 94±3%). Impaired EDD in OAL was mediated by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability associated with decreased endothelial NO synthase expression (aorta) (P<0.05), both of which were restored in OCR. Nitrotyrosine, a cellular marker of oxidant modification, was markedly elevated in OAL (P<0.05), whereas OCR was similar to Y. Aortic superoxide production was 150% greater in OAL vs. YAL (P<0.05), but normalized in OCR, and TEMPOL, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic that restored EDD in OAL (to 97±2%), had no effect in Y or OCR. OAL had increased expression and activity of the oxidant enzyme, NADPH oxidase, and its inhibition (apocynin) improved EDD, whereas NADPH oxidase in OCR was similar to Y. Manganese SOD activity and sirtuin1 expression were reduced in OAL (P<0.05), but restored to Y in OCR. Inflammatory cytokines were greater in OAL vs. YAL (P<0.05), but unaffected by CR. Carotid artery endothelium-independent dilation did not differ among groups. Short-term CR initiated in old age reverses age-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction by restoring NO bioavailability and reducing oxidation stress via reduced NADPH oxidase-mediated superoxide production and stimulation of anti-oxidant enzyme activity, and upregulates sirtuin1. PMID:20121721

  13. Role of connexin 43 in vascular hyperpermeability and relationship to Rock1-MLC20 pathway in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Guang-Ming; Zhu, Yu; Peng, Xiao-Yong; Li, Tao; Liu, Liang-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Connexin (Cx)43 has been shown to participate in several cardiovascular diseases. Increased vascular permeability is a common and severe complication in sepsis or septic shock. Whether or not Cx43 takes part in the regulation of vascular permeability in severe sepsis is not known, and the underlying mechanism has not been described. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) from pulmonary veins, the role of Cx43 in increased vascular permeability and its relationship to the RhoA/Rock1 pathway were studied. It was shown that vascular permeability in the lungs, kidneys, and mesentery in sepsis rats and LPS-stimulated monolayer pulmonary vein VECs was significantly increased and positively correlated with the increased expression of Cx43 and Rock1 in these organs and cultured pulmonary vein VECs. The connexin inhibitor carbenoxolone (10 mg/kg iv) and the Rock1 inhibitor Y-27632 (2 mg/kg iv) alleviated the vascular leakage of lung, mesentery, and kidney in sepsis rats. Overexpressed Cx43 increased the phosphorylation of 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) and the expression of Rock1 and increased the vascular permeability and decreased the transendothelial electrical resistance of pulmonary vein VECs. Cx43 RNA interference decreased the phosphorylation of MLC20 and the expression of Rock1 and decreased LPS-stimulated hyperpermeability of cultured pulmonary vein VECs. The Rock1 inhibitor Y-27632 alleviated LPS- and overexpressed Cx43-induced hyperpermeability of monolayer pulmonary vein VECs. This report shows that Cx43 participates in the regulation of vascular permeability in sepsis and that the mechanism is related to the Rock1-MLC20 phosphorylation pathway.

  14. Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 increases expression and permeability of tight junction in normal and hyposecretory submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Liang; Yang, Ning-Yan; Ding, Chong; Li, Jing; Ding, Qian-Wen; Su, Yun-Chao; Xiang, Ruo-Lan; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan

    2012-05-01

    Tight junction (TJ) is an important structure that regulates material transport through the paracellular pathway across the epithelium, but its significance in salivary physiology and pathogenesis of salivary dysfunctional diseases is not fully understood. We previously demonstrated that a functional transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) expresses in submandibular gland (SMG). However, association of TRPV1-induced saliva secretion with TJ remains unknown. Here we explored the effect of TRPV1 activation on expression and function of TJ of rabbit SMG in vitro and in vivo. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that capsaicin upregulated expression of zonula occludin-1 (ZO-1), claudin (Cldn)-3, and -11, but not Cldn-1, -2, -4, -5, and -7 in cultured SMG cells. Capsaicin also increased the entering of 4 kDa FITC-dextran into the acinar lumen, induced redistribution of cytoskeleton F-actin under confocal microscope, and these effects were abolished by preincubation of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, indicating that activation of TRPV1 increases expression and permeability of TJ in SMG. Additionally, in a hyposecretory model induced by rabbit SMG transplantation, the expression of ZO-1, Cldn-3, and -11 was decreased, whereas other TJs remained unaltered. The structure of TJ was impaired and the width of apical TJs was reduced under transmission electron microscope, concomitant with diminished immunofluorescence of F-actin in peri-apicolateral region, indicating impaired TJ expression and decreased paracellular permeability in the transplanted SMG. Moreover, topical capsaicin cream increased secretion, decreased TJ structural injury, reversed TJ expression levels, and protected F-actin morphology from disarrangement in transplanted SMGs. These data provide the first evidence to demonstrate that TJ components, particularly ZO-1, Cldn-3, and -11 have important roles in secretion of SMG under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The

  15. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka; Toda, Ken-ichi; Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  16. Class specific inhibition of house dust mite proteinases which cleave cell adhesion, induce cell death and which increase the permeability of lung epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Helen L; Wan, Hong; Cannell, Mark B; Thompson, Philip J; Garrod, David R; Stewart, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Clive

    1998-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens with cysteine and serine proteinase activity are risk factors for allergic sensitization and asthma. A simple method to fractionate proteinase activity from HDM faecal pellets into cysteine and serine class activity is described. Both proteinase fractions increased the permeability of epithelial cell monolayers. The effects of the serine proteinase fraction were inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulphonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) and soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI). The effects of the cysteine proteinase fraction could be inhibited by E-64. No reciprocity of action was found. Treatment of epithelial monolayers with either proteinase fraction caused breakdown of tight junctions (TJs). AEBSF inhibited TJ breakdown caused by the serine proteinase fraction, whereas E-64 inhibited the cysteine proteinase fraction. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteinases induced DNA cleavage which was inhibited by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-250. Compound E-64 inhibited DNA fragmentation caused by the cysteine proteinase fraction, but was without effect on the serine proteinase fraction. Staining of proteinase-treated cells with annexin V (AV) and propidium iodide (PI) revealed a diversity of cellular responses. Some cells stained only with AV indicating early apoptosis, whilst others were dead and stained with both AV and PI. HDM proteinases exert profound effects on epithelial cells which will promote allergic sensitization; namely disruption of intercellular adhesion, increased paracellular permeability and initiation of cell death. Attenuation of these actions by proteinase inhibitors leads to the conclusion that compounds designed to be selective for the HDM enzymes may represent a novel therapy for asthma. PMID:9720772

  17. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, P.C.; Dhawan, V.; Strother, S.C.; Sidtis, J.J.; Evans, A.C.; Allen, J.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for /sup 82/Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity.

  18. Obesity Contributes to Ovarian Cancer Metastatic Success through Increased Lipogenesis, Enhanced Vascularity, and Decreased Infiltration of M1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yueying; Metzinger, Matthew N; Lewellen, Kyle A; Cripps, Stephanie N; Carey, Kyle D; Harper, Elizabeth I; Shi, Zonggao; Tarwater, Laura; Grisoli, Annie; Lee, Eric; Slusarz, Ania; Yang, Jing; Loughran, Elizabeth A; Conley, Kaitlyn; Johnson, Jeff J; Klymenko, Yuliya; Bruney, Lana; Liang, Zhong; Dovichi, Norman J; Cheatham, Bentley; Leevy, W Matthew; Stack, M Sharon

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, with high mortality attributable to widespread intraperitoneal metastases. Recent meta-analyses report an association between obesity, ovarian cancer incidence, and ovarian cancer survival, but the effect of obesity on metastasis has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to use an integrative approach combining in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo studies to test the hypothesis that obesity contributes to ovarian cancer metastatic success. Initial in vitro studies using three-dimensional mesomimetic cultures showed enhanced cell-cell adhesion to the lipid-loaded mesothelium. Furthermore, in an ex vivo colonization assay, ovarian cancer cells exhibited increased adhesion to mesothelial explants excised from mice modeling diet-induced obesity (DIO), in which they were fed a "Western" diet. Examination of mesothelial ultrastructure revealed a substantial increase in the density of microvilli in DIO mice. Moreover, enhanced intraperitoneal tumor burden was observed in overweight or obese animals in three distinct in vivo models. Further histologic analyses suggested that alterations in lipid regulatory factors, enhanced vascularity, and decreased M1/M2 macrophage ratios may account for the enhanced tumorigenicity. Together, these findings show that obesity potently affects ovarian cancer metastatic success, which likely contributes to the negative correlation between obesity and ovarian cancer survival.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor increases vascular endothelial growth factor expression and enhances angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Hung, Shih-Ya; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Shih-Wei; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-10-15

    Chondrosarcomas are a type of primary malignant bone cancer, with a potent capacity for local invasion and distant metastasis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is commonly upregulated during neurogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the mechanism involved in BDNF-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma cells. Here, we knocked down BDNF expression in chondrosarcoma cells and assessed their capacity to control VEGF expression and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We found knockdown of BDNF decreased VEGF expression and abolished chondrosarcoma conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis in vitro as well as angiogenesis effects in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane and Matrigel plug nude mouse models. In addition, in the xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, the knockdown of BDNF significantly reduced tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis. BDNF increased VEGF expression and angiogenesis through the TrkB receptor, PLCγ, PKCα, and the HIF-1α signaling pathway. Finally, we analyzed samples from chondrosarcoma patients by immunohistochemical staining. The expression of BDNF and VEGF protein in 56 chondrosarcoma patients was significantly higher than in normal cartilage. In addition, the high level of BDNF expression correlated strongly with VEGF expression and tumor stage. Taken together, our results indicate that BDNF increases VEGF expression and enhances angiogenesis through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, PLCγ, PKCα, and the HIF-1α. Therefore, BDNF may represent a novel target for anti-angiogenic therapy for human chondrosarcoma.

  20. Statins are underused in recent-onset Parkinson's disease with increased vascular risk: findings from the UK Tracking Parkinson's and Oxford Parkinson's Disease Centre (OPDC) discovery cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Swallow, Diane M A; Lawton, Michael A; Grosset, Katherine A; Malek, Naveed; Klein, Johannes; Baig, Fahd; Ruffmann, Claudio; Bajaj, Nin P; Barker, Roger A; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Burn, David J; Foltynie, Thomas; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel; Wood, Nicholas W; Hu, Michele T M; Grosset, Donald G

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) influences phenotypic variation in Parkinson's disease (PD), and is usually an indication for statin therapy. It is less clear whether cardiovascular risk factors influence PD phenotype, and if statins are prescribed appropriately. Objectives To quantify vascular risk and statin use in recent-onset PD, and examine the relationship between vascular risk, PD severity and phenotype. Methods Cardiovascular risk was quantified using the QRISK2 calculator (high ≥20%, medium ≥10 and <20%, low risk <10%). Motor severity and phenotype were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) and cognition by the Montreal cognitive assessment. Results In 2909 individuals with recent-onset PD, the mean age was 67.5 years (SD 9.3), 63.5% were men and the mean disease duration was 1.3 years (SD 0.9). 33.8% of cases had high vascular risk, 28.7% medium risk, and 22.3% low risk, while 15.2% of cases had established CVD. Increasing vascular risk and CVD were associated with older age (p<0.001), worse motor score (p<0.001), more cognitive impairment (p<0.001) and worse motor phenotype (p=0.021). Statins were prescribed in 37.2% with high vascular risk, 15.1% with medium vascular risk and 6.5% with low vascular risk, which compared with statin usage in 75.3% of those with CVD. Conclusions Over 60% of recent-onset PD patients have high or medium cardiovascular risk (meriting statin usage), which is associated with a worse motor and cognitive phenotype. Statins are underused in these patients, compared with those with vascular disease, which is a missed opportunity for preventive treatment. Trial registration number GN11NE062, NCT02881099. PMID:27671901

  1. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wiciński, Michał; Malinowski, Bartosz; Węclewicz, Mateusz M; Grześk, Elżbieta; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF), a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE-) induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n = 17) pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o.) or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18 ± 0.12 ng/mL (treated) and 1.17 ± 0.13 ng/mL (control) (p = ns). After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52 ± 0.23 ng/mL and 1.24 ± 0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p = 0.02) Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL and 1.32 ± 0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.031). EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33 ± 1.7 × 10(-7 )M/L versus 4.53 ± 1.2 × 10(-8 )M/L, p < 0.05). These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The

  2. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Bartosz; Grześk, Elżbieta; Grześk, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF), a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE-) induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n = 17) pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o.) or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18 ± 0.12 ng/mL (treated) and 1.17 ± 0.13 ng/mL (control) (p = ns). After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52 ± 0.23 ng/mL and 1.24 ± 0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p = 0.02) Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL and 1.32 ± 0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p = 0.031). EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33 ± 1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53 ± 1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p < 0.05). These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The

  3. Role of transiently altered sarcolemmal membrane permeability and basic fibroblast growth factor release in the hypertrophic response of adult rat ventricular myocytes to increased mechanical activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, D; Pimental, D; Prasad, S; Mäki, T; Berger, H J; McNeil, P L; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1996-01-01

    One of the trophic factors that has been implicated in initiating or facilitating growth in response to increased mechanical stress in several tissues and cell types is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; FGF-2). Although mammalian cardiac muscle cells express bFGF, it is not known whether it plays a role in mediating cardiac adaptation to increased load, nor how release of the cytosolic 18-kD isoform of bFGF would be regulated in response to increased mechanical stress. To test the hypothesis that increased mechanical activity induces transient alterations in sarcolemmal permeability that allow cytosolic bFGF to be released and subsequently to act as an autocrine and paracrine growth stimulus, we examined primary isolates of adult rat ventricular myocytes maintained in serum-free, defined medium that were continually paced at 3 Hz for up to 5 d. Paced myocytes, but not nonpaced control cells, exhibited a "hypertrophic" response, which was characterized by increases in the rate of phenylalanine incorporation, total cellular protein content, and cell size. These changes could be mimicked in control cells by exogenous recombinant bFGF and could be blocked in continually paced cells by a specific neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. In addition, medium conditioned by continually paced myocytes contained significantly more bFGF measured by ELISA and more mitogenic activity for 3T3 cells, activity that could be reduced by a neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. The hypothesis that transient membrane disruptions sufficient to allow release of cytosolic bFGF occur in paced myocytes was examined by monitoring the rate of uptake into myocytes from the medium of 10-kD dextran linked to fluorescein. Paced myocytes exhibited a significantly higher rate of fluoresceinlabeled dextran uptake. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that nonlethal, transient alterations in sarcolemmal membrane permeability with release of cytosolic bFGF is one mechanism by which increased

  4. Glutamate promotes neural stem cell proliferation by increasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor of astrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, C X; Xu, X; Chen, X L; Yang, P B; Zhang, J S; Liu, Y

    2015-09-20

    The high levels of glutamate might involve in neurogenesis after brain injuries. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of glutamate on the proliferation of rat embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) through regulating the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of astrocytes (ASTs) in vitro, and the cyclin D1 expression of NSCs. The results showed that glutamate promoted the expression and secretion of VEGF of rat astrocytes by activating group I mGluRs. Astrocyte conditioned medium-containing Glu [ACM (30%)] promoted the proliferation of embryonic NSCs compared with normal astrocyte conditioned medium+Glu [N-ACM (30%)+Glu (30 μM)] by increasing cell activity, diameter of neurospheres, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and cell division; while ACM+VEGF neutralizing antibody [ACM (30%)+VEGF NAb (15 μg/ml)] significantly inhibited the proliferation of embryonic NSCs compared with ACM (30%). ACM (30%) increased the expressions of cyclin D1 and decreased cell death compared with N-ACM (30%)+Glu (30 μM). ACM (30%)+VEGF NAb (15 μg/ml) decreased the expressions of cyclin D1 and increased cell death compared with ACM (30%). These results demonstrated that glutamate could also indirectly promote the proliferation of rat embryonic NSCs through inducing the VEGF expression of ASTs in vitro, and VEGF may increase the expression of cyclin D1. These finding suggest that glutamate may be a major molecule for regulating embryonic NSC proliferation and facilitate neural repair in the process of NSC transplants after brain injuries.

  5. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.

  6. Age-dependent increase of blood-brain barrier permeability and neuron-binding autoantibodies in S100B knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Brown, Eric V; Acharya, Nimish K; Appelt, Denah M; Marks, Alexander; Nagele, Robert G; Venkataraman, Venkat

    2016-04-15

    S100B is a calcium-sensor protein that impacts multiple signal transduction pathways. It is widely considered to be an important biomarker for several neuronal diseases as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. In this report, we demonstrate a BBB deficiency in mice that lack S100B through detection of leaked Immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the brain parenchyma. IgG leaks and IgG-binding to selected neurons were observed in S100B knockout (S100BKO) mice at 6 months of age but not at 3 months. By 9 months, IgG leaks persisted and the density of IgG-bound neurons increased significantly. These results reveal a chronic increase in BBB permeability upon aging in S100BKO mice for the first time. Moreover, coincident with the increase in IgG-bound neurons, autoantibodies targeting brain proteins were detected in the serum via western blots. These events were concurrent with compromise of neurons, increase of activated microglia and lack of astrocytic activation as evidenced by decreased expression of microtubule-associated protein type 2 (MAP2), elevated number of CD68 positive cells and unaltered expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) respectively. Results suggest a key role for S100B in maintaining BBB functional integrity and, further, propose the S100BKO mouse as a valuable model system to explore the link between chronic functional compromise of the BBB, generation of brain-reactive autoantibodies and neuronal dysfunctions.

  7. Bovine colostrum increases pore-forming claudin-2 protein expression but paradoxically not ion permeability possibly by a change of the intestinal cytokine milieu.

    PubMed

    Bodammer, Peggy; Kerkhoff, Claus; Maletzki, Claudia; Lamprecht, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An impaired intestinal barrier function is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Several nutritional factors are supposed to be effective in IBD treatment but scientific data about the effects on the intestinal integrity remain scarce. Bovine colostrum was shown to exert beneficial effects in DSS-induced murine colitis, and the present study was undertaken to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. Western blot revealed increased claudin-2 expression in the distal ileum of healthy mice after feeding with colostrum for 14 days, whereas other tight junction proteins (claudin-3, 4, 10, 15) remained unchanged. The colostrum-induced claudin-2 induction was confirmed in differentiated Caco-2 cells after culture with colostrum for 48 h. Paradoxically, the elevation of claudin-2, which forms a cation-selective pore, was neither accompanied by increased ion permeability nor impaired barrier function. In an in situ perfusion model, 1 h exposure of the colonic mucosa to colostrum induced significantly increased mRNA levels of barrier-strengthening cytokine transforming growth factor-β, while interleukine-2, interleukine-6, interleukine-10, interleukine-13, and tumor-necrosis factor-α remained unchanged. Thus, modulation of the intestinal transforming growth factor-β expression might have compensated the claudin-2 increase and contributed to the observed barrier strengthening effects of colostrum in vivo and in vitro.

  8. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging assessment of vascular targeting agent effects in rat intracerebral tumor models.

    PubMed

    Muldoon, Leslie L; Gahramanov, Seymur; Li, Xin; Marshall, Deborah J; Kraemer, Dale F; Neuwelt, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    We used dynamic MRI to evaluate the effects of monoclonal antibodies targeting brain tumor vasculature. Female athymic rats with intracerebral human tumor xenografts were untreated or treated with intetumumab, targeting α(V)-integrins, or bevacizumab, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (n = 4-6 per group). Prior to treatment and at 1, 3, and 7 days after treatment, we performed standard MRI to assess tumor volume, dynamic susceptibility-contrast MRI with the blood-pool iron oxide nanoparticle ferumoxytol to evaluate relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to assess tumor vascular permeability. Tumor rCBV increased by 27 ± 13% over 7 days in untreated rats; intetumumab increased tumor rCBV by 65 ± 10%, whereas bevacizumab reduced tumor rCBV by 31 ± 10% at 7 days (P < .001 for group and day). Similarly, intetumumab increased brain tumor vascular permeability compared with controls at 3 and 7 days after treatment, whereas bevacizumab decreased tumor permeability within 24 hours (P = .0004 for group, P = .0081 for day). All tumors grew over the 7-day assessment period, but bevacizumab slowed the increase in tumor volume on MRI. We conclude that the vascular targeting agents intetumumab and bevacizumab had diametrically opposite effects on dynamic MRI of tumor vasculature in rat brain tumor models. Targeting α(V)-integrins increased tumor vascular permeability and blood volume, whereas bevacizumab decreased both measures. These findings have implications for chemotherapy delivery and antitumor efficacy.

  9. Improved social interaction and increased anterior cingulate metabolism after group reminiscence with reality orientation approach for vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Sasaki, Eriko; Chiba, Kentaro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi

    2011-06-30

    A group reminiscence approach (GRA) with reality orientation (RO) is widely used as a psychosocial intervention for dementia. Since clinical effectiveness was reported for the intervention, interest has been directed toward areas of the neuronal network that might be being stimulated. We hypothesized that the frontal lobe associated with social interaction was being stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we studied 24 patients with vascular dementia. In addition to conventional care, a 1-h session of GRA with RO was provided once a week for 3 months in the GRA-RO arm (n=12). Only supportive care was provided in the control arm (n=12). Before and after the interventions, cognitive function, depressive state, and social activities were assessed. Since glucose metabolism is associated with brain function, cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Regarding behavioral improvement, 10 patients in the GRA-RO arm showed improvement compared with only two patients in the control arm, a significant difference. PET demonstrated that metabolism in the anterior cingulate was increased in the GRA-RO arm, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control arm. These results suggest that GRA-RO stimulates the anterior cingulate and has a positive effect on social interaction.

  10. Prelamin A Accumulation Attenuates Rac1 Activity and Increases the Intrinsic Migrational Persistence of Aged Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Lauren J.; Holt, Mark R.; Soong, Daniel; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Warren, Derek T.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) motility is essential during both physiological and pathological vessel remodeling. Although ageing has emerged as a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, our understanding of the impact of ageing on VSMC motility remains limited. Prelamin A accumulation is known to drive VSMC ageing and we show that presenescent VSMCs, that have accumulated prelamin A, display increased focal adhesion dynamics, augmented migrational velocity/persistence and attenuated Rac1 activity. Importantly, prelamin A accumulation in proliferative VSMCs, induced by depletion of the prelamin A processing enzyme FACE1, recapitulated the focal adhesion, migrational persistence and Rac1 phenotypes observed in presenescent VSMCs. Moreover, lamin A/C-depleted VSMCs also display reduced Rac1 activity, suggesting that prelamin A influences Rac1 activity by interfering with lamin A/C function at the nuclear envelope. Taken together, these data demonstrate that lamin A/C maintains Rac1 activity in VSMCs and prelamin A disrupts lamin A/C function to reduce Rac1 activity and induce migrational persistence during VSMC ageing. PMID:27854297

  11. Increasing functional modularity with residence time in the co-distribution of native and introduced vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Cang; Richardson, David M.; Pyšek, Petr; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Kučera, Tomáš; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2013-01-01

    Species gain membership of regional assemblages by passing through multiple ecological and environmental filters. To capture the potential trajectory of structural changes in regional meta-communities driven by biological invasions, one can categorize species pools into assemblages of different residence times. Older assemblages, having passed through more environmental filters, should become more functionally ordered and structured. Here we calculate the level of compartmentalization (modularity) for three different-aged assemblages (neophytes, introduced after 1500 AD; archaeophytes, introduced before 1500 AD, and natives), including 2,054 species of vascular plants in 302 reserves in central Europe. Older assemblages are more compartmentalized than younger ones, with species composition, phylogenetic structure and habitat characteristics of the modules becoming increasingly distinctive. This sheds light on two mechanisms of how alien species are functionally incorporated into regional species pools: the settling-down hypothesis of diminishing stochasticity with residence time, and the niche-mosaic hypothesis of inlaid neutral modules in regional meta-communities. PMID:24045305

  12. Increased expression of the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-Ho; Yang, Wen-Kai; Lee, Jane-Dar

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Varicocele is characterized by dilatation and tortuosity of the internal spermatic vein. Sonic hedgehog plays an important role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling under hypoxic stress. We studied the relationship and distribution of SHH and vascular endothelial growth factor in internal spermatic vein in patients diagnosed with varicocele. Methods Specimens of 1 cm were taken from the internal spermatic vein during left varicocele repair (N = 20). The control samples of ISV were obtained from eight male patients who underwent left inguinal herniorrhaphy. We analyzed the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor expression and distribution by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data were analyzed using the Student's t test. Results Immunoblotting showed higher expression of sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor proteins in varicocele veins than in the control group ( P < 0.05) which located over muscle layer and endothelium was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining. Both proteins with co-localization in the muscle layer and especially distributed in endothelium of varicocele veins were revealed under confocal microscopy. Conclusions These findings showed the upexpression of sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins which imply that the reducing hypoxia or using sonic hedgehog antagonists may be helpful for this vascular disease.

  13. Increased NDRG1 expression is associated with advanced T stages and poor vascularization in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chuifeng; Yu, Juanhan; Liu, Yang; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Enhua

    2012-07-01

    N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a member of the N-myc downstream regulated gene family which belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. Earlier studies have shown its association with inhibition of tumor metastasis. However, its function in malignant tumors is not fully enunciated. Recently there was increasing evidence that NDRG1 is involved in stress responses. In the current study, we examined the expression of NDRG1 and its correlation with clinicopathological factors and microvessel density (MVD) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC (71/115, 61.7%) was higher than that in normal lung tissues (32/115, 27.8%) (p < 0.05). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC cells was found in cytoplasm (63/115, 54.8%), nuclear (24/115, 20.9%) and cell membrane (13/115, 11.3%). NDRG1 expression in NSCLC with advanced T stages (T2-4) (63/84, 75.0%) was significantly higher than that with T1 stage (8/31, 25.8%) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors including lymph node metastasis were found to be associated with NDRG1 expression (p > 0.05). Moreover increased NDRG1 expression was associated with lower MVD in NSCLC (P < 0.05). MVD in adenocarcinoma (33.4 ± 8.4/HP) was significantly higher than that in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (19.3 ± 8.1/HP) (P < 0.05). No other clinicopathological factors were associated with MVD in NSCLC (p > 0.05). The present findings indicate an increase of NDRG1 expression with the progress of tumour extent which may be due to unbalanced tumor oxygenation on account of poor vascularization in NSCLC.

  14. Selective Endothelin-B Receptor Stimulation Increases Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in the Rat Brain during Postnatal Development.

    PubMed

    Leonard, M G; Prazad, P; Puppala, B; Gulati, A

    2015-11-01

    Endothelin, vascular endothelial growth factor and nerve growth factor play important roles in development of the central nervous system. ET(B) receptors have been shown to promote neurovascular remodeling in the adult ischemic brain through an increase in VEGF and NGF. It is possible that ET(B) receptors may be involved in postnatal development of the brain through VEGF and NGF. In the present study, the brains of male rat pups on postnatal days 1, 7, 14 and 28 were analyzed for expression of ET(B) receptors, VEGF and NGF. In order to determine the effect of ET(B) receptor stimulation, a separate group of pups were administered saline or ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL-1620, on day 21, and their brains were analyzed on day 28. The intensity of ET(B) receptor and VEGF staining in the vasculature as well as the number of blood vessels of normal pups increased with age and was significantly higher on postnatal day 14 compared to day 1 and day 7. In contrast, both ET(B) and NGF staining intensity in the cortex and subventricular zones decreased (P<0.01) at postnatal day 14 compared to earlier time points. Stimulation of ET(B) receptors resulted in a significant increase in VEGF and ET(B) intensity both in the vasculature and the brain (P<0.05), however, IRL-1620 did not produce any change in NGF expression. Results indicate that ET(B) receptors appear to play a role in the development of the CNS and selective stimulation of ET(B) receptors enhances VEGF but not NGF in the postnatal rat brain.

  15. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in the reproductive system of male mice may be involved in the sperm-oocyte fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Liu, Yue; Xia, Xiaoyu; Wang, Li; Lu, Meige; Hu, Yanqin; Xu, Chen

    2013-08-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a 455-residue (∼55 kDa) protein found mainly in the primary (azurophilic) granules of human neutrophils. BPI is an endogenous antibiotic protein that belongs to the family of mammalian lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding and lipid transport proteins. Its major function is to kill Gram-negative bacteria, thereby protecting the host from infection. In addition, BPI can inhibit angiogenesis, suppress LPS-mediated platelet activation, increase DNA synthesis, and activate ERK/Akt signaling. In this study, we found that Bpi was expressed in the testis and epididymis but not in the seminal vesicles, prostate, and solidification glands. BPI expression in the epididymis increased upon upregulation of testosterone, caused by injection of GNRH. In orchidectomized mice, BPI expression was significantly reduced, but its expression was restored to 30% of control levels in orchidectomized mice that received supplementary testosterone. The number of sperm fused per egg significantly decreased after incubation with anti-BPI antiserum. These results suggest that BPI may take part in the process of sperm-oocyte fusion and play a unique and significant role in reproduction.

  16. Survey of ocular irritation predictive capacity using Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test historical data for 319 personal care products over fourteen years.

    PubMed

    Donahue, D A; Kaufman, L E; Avalos, J; Simion, F A; Cerven, D R

    2011-03-01

    The Chorioallantoic Membrane Vascular Assay (CAMVA) and Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test are widely used to predict ocular irritation potential for consumer-use products. These in vitro assays do not require live animals, produce reliable predictive data for defined applicability domains compared to the Draize rabbit eye test, and are rapid and inexpensive. Data from 304 CAMVA and/or BCOP studies (319 formulations) were surveyed to determine the feasibility of predicting ocular irritation potential for various formulations. Hair shampoos, skin cleansers, and ethanol-based hair styling sprays were repeatedly predicted to be ocular irritants (accuracy rate=0.90-1.00), with skin cleanser and hair shampoo irritation largely dependent on surfactant species and concentration. Conversely, skin lotions/moisturizers and hair styling gels/lotions were repeatedly predicted to be non-irritants (accuracy rate=0.92 and 0.82, respectively). For hair shampoos, ethanol-based hair stylers, skin cleansers, and skin lotions/moisturizers, future ocular irritation testing (i.e., CAMVA/BCOP) can be nearly eliminated if new formulations are systematically compared to those previously tested using a defined decision tree. For other tested product categories, new formulations should continue to be evaluated in CAMVA/BCOP for ocular irritation potential because either the historical data exhibit significant variability (hair conditioners and mousses) or the historical sample size is too small to permit definitive conclusions (deodorants, make-up removers, massage oils, facial masks, body sprays, and other hair styling products). All decision tree conclusions should be made within a conservative weight-of-evidence context, considering the reported limitations of the BCOP test for alcohols, ketones, and solids.

  17. Leptin-induced transphosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor increases Notch and stimulates endothelial cell angiogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Viola; Gillespie, Corey; Leffers, Merle; Daley-Brown, Danielle; Milner, Joy; Lipsey, Crystal; Webb, Nia; Anderson, Leonard M; Newman, Gale; Waltenberger, Johannes; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben Rene

    2016-10-01

    Leptin increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and Notch expression in cancer cells, and transphosphorylates VEGFR-2 in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms involved in leptin's actions in endothelial cells are not completely known. Here we investigated whether a leptin-VEGFR-Notch axis is involved in these leptin's actions. To this end, human umbilical vein and porcine aortic endothelial cells (wild type and genetically modified to overexpress VEGFR-1 or -2) were cultured in the absence of VEGF and treated with leptin and inhibitors of Notch (gamma-secretase inhibitors: DAPT and S2188, and silencing RNA), VEGFR (kinase inhibitor: SU5416, and silencing RNA) and leptin receptor, OB-R (pegylated leptin peptide receptor antagonist 2: PEG-LPrA2). Interestingly, in the absence of VEGF, leptin induced the expression of several components of Notch signaling pathway in endothelial cells. Inhibition of VEGFR and Notch signaling significantly decreased leptin-induced S-phase progression, proliferation, and tube formation in endothelial cells. Moreover, leptin/OB-R induced transphosphorylation of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 was essential for leptin's effects. These results unveil for the first time a novel mechanism by which leptin could induce angiogenic features via upregulation/trans-activation of VEGFR and downstream expression/activation of Notch in endothelial cells. Thus, high levels of leptin found in overweight and obese patients might lead to increased angiogenesis by activating VEGFR-Notch signaling crosstalk in endothelial cells. These observations might be highly relevant for obese patients with cancer, where leptin/VEGFR/Notch crosstalk could play an important role in cancer growth, and could be a new target for the control of tumor angiogenesis.

  18. Atorvastatin and sildenafil lower blood pressure and improve endothelial dysfunction, but only atorvastatin increases vascular stores of nitric oxide in hypertension☆

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Danielle A.; Rizzi, Elen; Ceron, Carla S.; Pinheiro, Lucas C.; Gerlach, Raquel F.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-derived metabolites including the anion nitrite can recycle back to NO and thus complement NO formation independent of NO synthases. While nitrite is as a major vascular storage pool and source of NO, little is known about drugs that increase tissue nitrite concentrations. This study examined the effects of atorvastatin or sildenafil, or the combination, on vascular nitrite concentrations and on endothelial dysfunction in the 2 kidney-1 clip (2K1C) hypertension model. Sham-operated or 2K1C hypertensive rats were treated with vehicle, atorvastatin (50 mg/Kg), sildenafil (45 mg/Kg), or both for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was monitored weekly. Nitrite concentrations were assessed in the aortas and in plasma samples by ozone-based reductive chemiluminescence assay. Aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation. Aortic NADPH activity and ROS production were evaluated by luminescence and dihydroethidium, respectively, and plasma TBARS levels were measured. Aortic nitrotyrosine staining was evaluated to assess peroxynitrite formation. Atorvastatin and sildenafil, alone or combined, significantly lowered SBP by approximately 40 mmHg. Atorvastatin significantly increased vascular nitrite levels by 70% in hypertensive rats, whereas sildenafil had no effects. Both drugs significantly improved the vascular function, and decreased vascular NADPH activity, ROS, and nitrotyrosine levels. Lower plasma TBARS concentrations were found with both treatments. The combination of drugs showed no improved responses compared to each drug alone. These findings show evidence that atorvastatin, but not sildenafil, increases vascular NO stores, although both drugs exert antioxidant effects, improve endothelial function, and lower blood pressure in 2K1C hypertension. PMID:24363994

  19. Of Men Not Mice: Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Expressed in Human Macrophages Acts as a Phagocytic Receptor and Modulates Entry and Replication of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Arjun; Schnare, Markus; Chakravortty, Dipshikha

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages as immune cells prevent the spreading of pathogens by means of active phagocytosis and killing. We report here the presence of an antimicrobial protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) in human macrophages, which actively participates in engulfment and killing of Gram-negative pathogens. Our studies revealed increased expression of BPI in human macrophages during bacterial infection and upon stimulation with various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, viz., LPS and flagellin. Furthermore, during the course of an infection, BPI interacted with Gram-negative bacteria, resulting in enhanced phagocytosis and subsequent control of the bacterial replication. However, it was observed that bacteria which can maintain an active replicating niche (Salmonella Typhimurium) avoid the interaction with BPI during later stages of infection. On the other hand, Salmonella mutants, which cannot maintain a replicating niche, as well as Shigella flexneri, which quit the endosomal vesicle, showed interaction with BPI. These results propose an active role of BPI in Gram-negative bacterial clearance by human macrophages. PMID:27822215

  20. Demonstration of Increased Permeability as a Factor in the Effect of Acetylcholine on the Electrical Activity of Venom-Treated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Philip; Hoskin, F. C. G.

    1963-01-01

    D-Tubocurarine (curare) and acetylcholine (ACh) had been found to block electrical activity after treatment of squid giant axons with cottonmouth moccasin venom at a concentration which had no effect on conduction. It has now been demonstrated that this effect is attributable to reduction of permeability barriers. The penetration of externally applied C14-labeled dimethylcurare, ACh, choline, and trimethylamine into the axoplasm of the squid giant axon was determined in axons treated with either cottonmouth, rattlesnake, or bee venom, and in untreated control axons. The lipid-soluble tertiary nitrogen compound trimethylamine readily penetrated into the axoplasm of untreated axons. In contrast, after exposure of the axons to the lipid-insoluble quaternary nitrogen compounds for 1 hour their presence in the axoplasm was hardly detectable (less than 1 per cent). However, following 15µg/ml cottonmouth venom 1 to 5 per cent of their external concentration is found within the axoplasm while following 50µg/ml venom 10 to 50 per cent enters. The penetration of dimethylcurare is also increased by 10 µg/ml bee venom but not by 1 µg/ml bee venom nor 1000 µg/ml rattlesnake venom. The experiments show that when ACh and curare, following venom treatment, affect electrical activity, they also penetrate into the axon. Treatments which do not increase penetration are also ineffective in rendering the compounds active. PMID:13974908

  1. PARP-1 activation causes neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region by increasing the expression of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gerace, E; Masi, A; Resta, F; Felici, R; Landucci, E; Mello, T; Pellegrini-Giampietro, D E; Mannaioni, G; Moroni, F

    2014-10-01

    An excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) may trigger a form of neuronal death similar to that occurring in neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate this process, we exposed organotypic hippocampal slices to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG, 100μM for 5min), an alkylating agent widely used to activate PARP-1. MNNG induced a pattern of degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells morphologically similar to that observed after a brief period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). MNNG exposure was also associated with a dramatic increase in PARP-activity and a robust decrease in NAD(+) and ATP content. These effects were prevented by PARP-1 but not PARP-2 inhibitors. In our experimental conditions, cell death was not mediated by AIF translocation (parthanatos) or caspase-dependent apoptotic processes. Furthermore, we found that PARP activation was followed by a significant deterioration of neuronal membrane properties. Using electrophysiological recordings we firstly investigated the suggested ability of ADP-ribose to open TRPM2 channels in MNNG-induced cells death, but the results we obtained showed that TRPM2 channels are not involved. We then studied the involvement of glutamate receptor-ion channel complex and we found that NBQX, a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, was able to effectively prevent CA1 neuronal loss while MK801, a NMDA antagonist, was not active. Moreover, we observed that MNNG treatment increased the ratio of GluA1/GluA2 AMPAR subunit expression, which was associated with an inward rectification of the IV relationship of AMPA sEPSCs in the CA1 but not in the CA3 subfield. Accordingly, 1-naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM), a selective blocker of Ca(2+)-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors, reduced MNNG-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death. In conclusion, our results show that activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP-1 may change the expression of membrane proteins and Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA channels, thus affecting

  2. Effects of increased physical activity on body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, HR-QOL, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling elderly people.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Tamaki, Akira; Nagai, Kotatsu; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Nozaki, Sonoko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Mori, Akiko; Kaya, Mitsumasa; Fujioka, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of increased number of steps on body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and self-efficacy in elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 47 elderly persons who resided in Port Island in the Chuo Ward of Kobe City in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. After the calculation of the mean preintervention physical activity (PA), the subjects were instructed to increase their PA to a target baseline + 1,300 steps/day. Body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, HR-QOL, and self-efficacy were measured at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. These items were compared between a group that increased their PA and a group that did not. [Results] After 6 months, 26.1% of the subjects achieved the PA target. No significant improvements were observed in body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, or self-efficacy for either group after 3 and 6 months. However, the HR-QOL improved significantly after 6 months in the achievement group. [Conclusion] Although the intervention to increase PA did not produce significant improvements after 6 months in body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, or self-efficacy, the HR-QOL improved significantly during this relatively short period.

  3. Effects of increased physical activity on body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, HR-QOL, and self-efficacy in community-dwelling elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Morisawa, Tomoyuki; Tamaki, Akira; Nagai, Kotatsu; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Nozaki, Sonoko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Mori, Akiko; Kaya, Mitsumasa; Fujioka, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of increased number of steps on body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and self-efficacy in elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 47 elderly persons who resided in Port Island in the Chuo Ward of Kobe City in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. After the calculation of the mean preintervention physical activity (PA), the subjects were instructed to increase their PA to a target baseline + 1,300 steps/day. Body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, HR-QOL, and self-efficacy were measured at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. These items were compared between a group that increased their PA and a group that did not. [Results] After 6 months, 26.1% of the subjects achieved the PA target. No significant improvements were observed in body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, or self-efficacy for either group after 3 and 6 months. However, the HR-QOL improved significantly after 6 months in the achievement group. [Conclusion] Although the intervention to increase PA did not produce significant improvements after 6 months in body composition, physical functions, vascular functions, or self-efficacy, the HR-QOL improved significantly during this relatively short period. PMID:28210063

  4. Optimizing your vascular practice: how to communicate with referring doctors, increase referrals, and work with cardiologists and interventional radiologists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Krishna M; Munn, John S; Rummel, Mark C; Johnston, Dan; Longton, Chris; Klemens, Tammy; Cotten, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    After the fellowship in vascular surgery is completed there is the daunting task of going into practice and succeeding. There are various tools that one can use to succeed in practice and also work closely with other specialists. The key to success is marketing and innovation. Using the two together any vascular surgeon can succeed. Marketing has multiple facets not to be confused with advertising. Total marketing revolves around the surgeon. It involves personal attributes, running of the office, behavior in the hospital, working with other physicians, and using advertising channels. Innovation is required as the art and science of the specialty continues to evolve. Vascular surgeons need to be on the cutting edge of providing latest technology as well as latest methods of delivering care.

  5. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets

    PubMed Central

    Baimukanova, Gyulnar; Miyazawa, Byron; Potter, Daniel R.; Muench, Marcus O.; Bruhn, Roberta; Gibb, Stuart L.; Spinella, Philip C.; Cap, Andrew P.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Pati, Shibani

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In current blood banking practices, platelets (PLTs) are stored in plasma at 22°C, with gentle agitation for up to 5 days. To date, the effects of storage and donor variability on PLT regulation of vascular integrity are not known. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, we examined the donor variability of leukoreduced fresh (Day 1) or stored (Day 5) PLTs on vascular endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, PLT effects on endothelial cell (EC) monolayer permeability were assessed by analyzing transendothelial electrical resistances (TEER). PLT aggregation, a measure of hemostatic potential, was analyzed by impedance aggregometry. In vivo, PLTs were investigated in a vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)-induced vascular permeability model in NSG mice, and PLT circulation was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS Treatment of endothelial monolayers with fresh Day 1 PLTs resulted in an increase in EC barrier resistance and decreased permeability in a dose-dependent manner. Subsequent treatment of EC monolayers with Day 5 PLTs demonstrated diminished vasculoprotective effects. Donor variability was noted in all measures of PLT function. Day 1 PLT donors were more variable in their effects on TEER than Day 5 PLTs. In mice, while all PLTs regardless of storage time demonstrated significant protection against VEGF-A–induced vascular leakage, Day 5 PLTs exhibited reduced protection when compared to Day 1 PLTs. Day 1 PLTs demonstrated significant donor variability against VEGF-A–challenged vascular leakage in vivo. Systemic circulating levels of Day 1 PLTs were higher than those of Day 5 PLTs CONCLUSIONS In vitro and in vivo, Day 1 PLTs are protective in measures of vascular endothelial permeability. Donor variability is most prominent in Day 1 PLTs. A decrease in the protective effects is found with storage of the PLT units between Day 1 and Day 5 at 22°C, thereby suggesting that Day 5 PLTs are diminished in their ability to

  6. Vascular Cures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  7. Increased Susceptibility of Gracilinanus microtarsus Liver Mitochondria to Ca2+-Induced Permeability Transition Is Associated with a More Oxidized State of NAD(P)

    PubMed Central

    Ronchi, Juliana A.; Henning, Barbara; Ravagnani, Felipe G.; Figueira, Tiago R.; Castilho, Roger F.; dos Reis, Sergio F.; Vercesi, Anibal E.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to be the cell's powerhouse, mitochondria also contain a cell death machinery that includes highly regulated processes such as the membrane permeability transition pore (PTP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this context, the results presented here provide evidence that liver mitochondria isolated from Gracilinanus microtarsus, a small and short life span (one year) marsupial, when compared to mice, are much more susceptible to PTP opening in association with a poor NADPH dependent antioxidant capacity. Liver mitochondria isolated from the marsupial are well coupled and take up Ca2+ but exhibited a much lower Ca2+ retention capacity than mouse mitochondria. Although the known PTP inhibitors cyclosporin A, ADP, and ATP significantly increased the marsupial mitochondria capacity to retain Ca2+, their effects were much larger in mice than in marsupial mitochondria. Both fluorescence and HPLC analysis of mitochondrial nicotinamide nucleotides showed that both content and state of reduction (mainly of NADPH) were lower in the marsupial mitochondria than in mice mitochondria despite the similarity in the activity of the glutathione peroxidase/reductase system. Overall, these data suggest that PTP opening is an important event in processes of Ca2+ signalling to cell death mediated by mitochondrial redox imbalance in G. microtarsus. PMID:26583063

  8. A Teleost Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein Kills Gram-Negative Bacteria, Modulates Innate Immune Response, and Enhances Resistance against Bacterial and Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is an important factor of innate immunity that in mammals is known to take part in the clearance of invading Gram-negative bacteria. In teleost, the function of BPI is unknown. In the present work, we studied the function of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) BPI, CsBPI. We found that CsBPI was produced extracellularly by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Recombinant CsBPI (rCsBPI) was able to bind to a number of Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive bacteria. Binding to bacteria led to bacterial death through membrane permeabilization and structural destruction, and the bound bacteria were more readily taken up by PBL. In vivo, rCsBPI augmented the expression of a wide arrange of genes involved in antibacterial and antiviral immunity. Furthermore, rCsBPI enhanced the resistance of tongue sole against bacterial as well as viral infection. These results indicate for the first time that a teleost BPI possesses immunoregulatory effect and plays a significant role in antibacterial and antiviral defense. PMID:27105425

  9. DUF538 protein super family is predicted to be the potential homologue of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein in plant system.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Kohnehrouz, Samira Baghban

    2013-03-01

    DUF538 protein super family includes a number of plant proteins that their role is not yet clear. These proteins have been frequently reported to be expressed in plants under various stressful stimuli such as bacteria and elicitors. In order to further understand about this protein family we utilized bioinformatics tools to analyze its structure in details. As a result, plants DUF538 was predicted to be the partial structural homologue of BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing) proteins in mammalian innate immune system that provides the first line of defense against different pathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. Moreover, on the base of the experimental data, it was identified that exogenously applied purified fused product of Celosia DUF538 affects the bacterial growth more possibly similar to BPI through the binding to the bacterial membranes. In conclusion, as the first ever time report, we nominated DUF538 protein family as the potential structural and functional homologue of BPI protein in plants, providing a basis to study the novel functions of this protein family in the biological systems in the future.

  10. A Teleost Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein Kills Gram-Negative Bacteria, Modulates Innate Immune Response, and Enhances Resistance against Bacterial and Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is an important factor of innate immunity that in mammals is known to take part in the clearance of invading Gram-negative bacteria. In teleost, the function of BPI is unknown. In the present work, we studied the function of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) BPI, CsBPI. We found that CsBPI was produced extracellularly by peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Recombinant CsBPI (rCsBPI) was able to bind to a number of Gram-negative bacteria but not Gram-positive bacteria. Binding to bacteria led to bacterial death through membrane permeabilization and structural destruction, and the bound bacteria were more readily taken up by PBL. In vivo, rCsBPI augmented the expression of a wide arrange of genes involved in antibacterial and antiviral immunity. Furthermore, rCsBPI enhanced the resistance of tongue sole against bacterial as well as viral infection. These results indicate for the first time that a teleost BPI possesses immunoregulatory effect and plays a significant role in antibacterial and antiviral defense.

  11. Uremic Serum and Solutes Increase Post–Vascular Interventional Thrombotic Risk Through Altered Stability of Smooth Muscle Cell Tissue Factor

    PubMed Central

    Chitalia, Vipul C.; Shivanna, Sowmya; Martorell, Jordi; Balcells, Mercedes; Bosch, Irene; Kolandaivelu, Kumaran; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stent thrombosis (ST), a postinterventional complication with a mortality rate of 50%, has an incidence that rises precipitously in patients at risk. Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease have emerged as particularly strong ST risk factors, yet the mechanism remains elusive. Tissue factor (TF) is a crucial mediator of injury-related thrombosis and has been implicated for ST. We posit that uremia modulates TF in the local vessel wall to induce postinterventional thrombosis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods and Results As a model of the de-endothelialized, postinterventional state, we exposed primary human vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) pretreated with uremic serum (obtained from ESRD patients on hemodialysis) to coronary-like blood flow. vSMC TF expression, activity, stability, and posttranslational modification were examined after vSMCs were treated with uremic serum or solutes. We found significantly greater clot formation after uremic serum exposure, which was substantially reduced with the prior treatment with anti-TF neutralizing antibody. Uremic sera induced 2- to 3-fold higher TF expression and activity in vSMCs independent of diabetes mellitus. Relevant concentrations of isolated uremic solutes such as indole-3-acetic acid (3.5 μg/mL), indoxyl sulfate (25 μg/mL), and uric acid (80 μg/mL) recapitulated these effects in cell culture and the flow loop model. We show further that TF undergoes ubiquitination at baseline and that uremic serum, indole-3-acetic acid, and indoxyl sulfate significantly prolong TF half-life by inhibiting its ubiquitination. Conclusions The uremic milieu is profoundly thrombogenic and upregulates vSMC TF levels by increasing TF stability and decreasing its ubiquitination. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that the posttranslational regulation of TF in uremia may have a causative role in the increased ST risk observed in uremic patients. These data suggest that

  12. Extracellular accumulation of potently microbicidal bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and p15s in an evolving sterile rabbit peritoneal inflammatory exudate.

    PubMed Central

    Weinrauch, Y; Foreman, A; Shu, C; Zarember, K; Levy, O; Elsbach, P; Weiss, J

    1995-01-01

    To what extent the host defense role of granule-associated antibacterial proteins and peptides of PMN includes extracellular action has not been established. To address this question, we have analyzed the antibacterial activity of cell-free (ascitic) fluid (AF) obtained from glycogen-induced sterile inflammatory rabbit peritoneal exudates in which > 95% of the accumulating cells are PMN. AF, but not plasma collected in parallel, exhibits potent activity toward serum-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Total and specific antibacterial activity of AF increases during the first 12 h after injection of glycogen in parallel with the influx of PMN. At maximum, > 99% of 10(7) encapsulated Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are killed in 30 min/ml of AF. Neutralizing antibodies against the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) of PMN abolishes activity of AF toward encapsulated E. coli but has no effect on activity vs staphylococci. However, BPI alone (approximately 1 microgram/ml in AF) can only account for < or = 20% of AF activity toward E. coli. AF also contains 15 kD PMN proteins (p15s) that act in synergy with BPI. Purified BPI and p15s, in amounts present in AF, reconstitute the growth-inhibitory activity of AF toward encapsulated E. coli. These findings show for the first time an extracellular function of endogenous BPI, providing, together with the p15s, a potent microbicidal system toward Gram-negative bacteria resistant to plasma-derived proteins and phagocytes in inflammatory exudates. Images PMID:7706499

  13. Effect of gamma radiation on resting B lymphocytes. I. Oxygen-dependent damage to the plasma membrane results in increased permeability and cell enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwell, J.D.; Schwartz, R.H.; Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A.

    1986-05-15

    Although the susceptibility of resting B lymphocytes to radiation-induced interphase death is well known, the mechanism by which this occurs is not understood. In this report, we use three measures of plasma membrane integrity (increase in cell volume, uptake of trypan blue, and release of /sup 51/Cr) to assess the effect of radiation on the resting B cell plasma membrane. The delivery of 500 to 1000 rad caused the majority of resting B cells to enlarge slightly, whereas 3000 rad caused virtually all of the cells to approximately double in size within 3 to 4 hr. Measurement of the release of /sup 51/Cr from resting B cells revealed a similar relationship between the dose of radiation and the loss of radioactive label. Trypan blue exclusion was also found to diminish as a function of radiation dose. An analysis of a variety of lymphoid cells suggested that sensitivity to the membrane damaging effects of gamma radiation was in the order of resting B cells greater than resting T cells greater than a long-term L3T4+ T cell clone greater than a B cell lymphoma. LPS-induced B cell blasts treated with 3000 rad were equivalent to 1000 rad-treated resting B cells. The effects of the gamma radiation could be ameliorated by excluding oxygen at the time of irradiation, or by adding the free radical scavenging agent cysteamine. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that gamma radiation results in damage to the plasma membrane of resting lymphocytes via the generation of highly reactive free radical species. This damage is reflected in a rapid increase in plasma membrane permeability and swelling of the cells, and may play a major role in causing interphase death.

  14. Energy-dense diets increase FGF23, lead to phosphorus retention and promote vascular calcifications in rats.

    PubMed

    Raya, Ana I; Rios, Rafael; Pineda, Carmen; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria E; Diez, Elisa; Almaden, Yolanda; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R; Rodriguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Lopez, Ignacio

    2016-11-14

    Rats with normal renal function (Experiment 1, n = 12) and uninephrectomized (1/2Nx) rats (Experiment 2, n = 12) were fed diets with normal P (NP) and either normal (NF) or high fat (HF). Rats with intact renal function (Experiment 3, n = 12) were also fed NF or HF diets with high P (HP). Additionally, uremic (5/6Nx) rats (n = 16) were fed HP diets with NF or HF. Feeding the HF diets resulted in significant elevation of plasma FGF23 vs rats fed NF diets: Experiment 1, 593 ± 126 vs 157 ± 28 pg/ml (p < 0.01); Experiment 2, 538 ± 105 vs 250 ± 18 pg/ml (p < 0.05); Experiment 3, 971 ± 118 vs 534 ± 40 pg/ml (p < 0.01). Rats fed HF diets showed P retention and decreased renal klotho (ratio klotho/actin) vs rats fed NF diets: Experiment 1, 0.75 ± 0.06 vs 0.97 ± 0.02 (p < 0.01); Experiment 2, 0.69 ± 0.07 vs 1.12 ± 0.08 (p < 0.01); Experiment 3, 0.57 ± 0.19 vs 1.16 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05). Uremic rats fed HF diet showed more severe vascular calcification (VC) than rats fed NF diet (aortic Ca = 6.3 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.1 mg/g tissue, p < 0.001). In conclusion, energy-rich diets increased plasma levels of FGF23, a known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even though FGF23 has major phosphaturic actions, feeding HF diets resulted in P retention, likely secondary to decreased renal klotho, and aggravated uremic VC.

  15. Energy-dense diets increase FGF23, lead to phosphorus retention and promote vascular calcifications in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raya, Ana I.; Rios, Rafael; Pineda, Carmen; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria E.; Diez, Elisa; Almaden, Yolanda; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.; Rodriguez, Mariano; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Lopez, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Rats with normal renal function (Experiment 1, n = 12) and uninephrectomized (1/2Nx) rats (Experiment 2, n = 12) were fed diets with normal P (NP) and either normal (NF) or high fat (HF). Rats with intact renal function (Experiment 3, n = 12) were also fed NF or HF diets with high P (HP). Additionally, uremic (5/6Nx) rats (n = 16) were fed HP diets with NF or HF. Feeding the HF diets resulted in significant elevation of plasma FGF23 vs rats fed NF diets: Experiment 1, 593 ± 126 vs 157 ± 28 pg/ml (p < 0.01); Experiment 2, 538 ± 105 vs 250 ± 18 pg/ml (p < 0.05); Experiment 3, 971 ± 118 vs 534 ± 40 pg/ml (p < 0.01). Rats fed HF diets showed P retention and decreased renal klotho (ratio klotho/actin) vs rats fed NF diets: Experiment 1, 0.75 ± 0.06 vs 0.97 ± 0.02 (p < 0.01); Experiment 2, 0.69 ± 0.07 vs 1.12 ± 0.08 (p < 0.01); Experiment 3, 0.57 ± 0.19 vs 1.16 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05). Uremic rats fed HF diet showed more severe vascular calcification (VC) than rats fed NF diet (aortic Ca = 6.3 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 0.1 mg/g tissue, p < 0.001). In conclusion, energy-rich diets increased plasma levels of FGF23, a known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even though FGF23 has major phosphaturic actions, feeding HF diets resulted in P retention, likely secondary to decreased renal klotho, and aggravated uremic VC. PMID:27841294

  16. Early weaning increases intestinal permeability, alters expression of cytokine and tight junction proteins, and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in pigs.

    PubMed

    Hu, C H; Xiao, K; Luan, Z S; Song, J

    2013-03-01

    Although weaning stress has been reported to impair intestinal barrier function, the mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the intestinal morphology and permeability and mRNA expressions of tight junction proteins and cytokines in the intestine of piglets during the 2 wk after weaning were assessed. The phosphorylated (activated) ratios of p38, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) were determined to investigate whether mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are involved in the early weaning process. A shorter villus and deeper crypt were observed on d 3 and 7 postweaning. Although damaged intestinal morphology recovered to preweaning values on d 14 postweaning, the intestinal mucosal barrier, which was reflected by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular flux of dextran (4 kDa) in the Ussing chamber and tight junction protein expression, was not recovered. Compared with the preweaning stage (d 0), jejunal TER and mRNA expressions of occludin and claudin-1 on d 3, 7, and 14 postweaning and Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA on d 3 and 7 postweaning were reduced, and paracellular flux of dextran on d 3, 7, and 14 postweaning was increased. An increase (P < 0.05) of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA on d 3 and d 7 postweaning and an increase (P < 0.05) of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA on d 3 postweaning were observed compared with d 0. No significant increase of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA after weaning was observed. The phosphorylated (activated) ratios of JNK and p38 on d 3 and 7 postweaning and the phosphorylated ratio of ERK1/2 on d 3 postweaning were increased (P < 0.05) compared with d 0. The results indicated that early weaning induced sustained impairment in the intestinal barrier, decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, and upregulated the expression of proinflammatory

  17. Vascular Endothelium and Hypovolemic Shock.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Endothelium is a site of metabolic activity and has a major reservoir of multipotent stem cells. It plays a vital role in the vascular physiological, pathophysiological and reparative processes. Endothelial functions are significantly altered following hypovolemic shock due to ischemia of the endothelial cells and by reperfusion due to resuscitation with fluids. Activation of endothelial cells leads to release of vasoactive substances (nitric oxide, endothelin, platelet activating factor, prostacyclin, mitochondrial N-formyl peptide), mediators of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins, interferons) and thrombosis. Endothelial cell apoptosis is induced following hypovolemic shock due to deprivation of oxygen required by endothelial cell mitochondria; this lack of oxygen initiates an increase in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and release of apoptogenic proteins. The glycocalyx structure of endothelium is compromised which causes an impairment of the protective endothelial barrier resulting in increased permeability and leakage of fluids in to the tissue causing edema. Growth factors such as angiopoetins and vascular endothelial growth factors also contribute towards pathophysiology of hypovolemic shock. Endothelium is extremely active with numerous functions, understanding these functions will provide novel targets to design therapeutic agents for the acute management of hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemic shock also occurs in conditions such as dengue shock syndrome and Ebola hemorrhagic fever, defining the role of endothelium in the pathophysiology of these conditions will provide greater insight regarding the functions of endothelial cells in vascular regulation.

  18. Increased diuresis, renal vascular reactivity, and blood pressure levels in young rats fed high sodium, moderately high fructose, or their association: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Rita de Cássia Vilhena A F; de Souza, Priscila; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    Excessive intakes of sodium or fructose have been described as risk factors for hypertension. We hypothesized that even a moderately high fructose diet (6% fructose), either alone or in combination with high sodium (4% NaCl), may impair diuresis and renal and systemic vascular reactivity, contributing to the onset of high blood pressure in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed chow containing 4% NaCl (HS), 6% fructose (MHF), or both 4% NaCl and 6% fructose (HSMHF) for 6 weeks and had their diuresis, plasma creatinine, vascular reactivity of perfused kidneys and systemic arterial pressure evaluated. We found no differences in augmented diuresis among animals given HS, MHF, or HSMHF diets. After 6 weeks both the HS and HSMHF groups had increased weight in their left kidneys, but only the HSMHF group showed augmented plasma creatinine. The effects of phenylephrine on renal vascular perfusion pressure were similarly enhanced in kidneys from the HS, MHF, and HSMHF groups, but not on the systemic arterial pressure. Although when evaluated in anesthetized rats, only the HSMHF group presented augmented blood pressure, evaluation in conscious animals revealed that both the MHF and HSMHF diets, but not the HS alone, were able to induce tachycardia and hypertension. In conclusion, a MHF diet containing 6% fructose was enough to render the renal vascular bed hyperreactive to phenylephrine and to induce both hypertension and tachycardia. The combination of 6% fructose with 4% NaCl led to plasma accumulation of creatinine and accelerated the development of tachycardia.

  19. Trichostatin A enhances vascular repair by injected human endothelial progenitors through increasing the expression of TAL1-dependent genes.

    PubMed

    Palii, Carmen G; Vulesevic, Branka; Fraineau, Sylvain; Pranckeviciene, Erinija; Griffith, Alexander J; Chu, Alphonse; Faralli, Hervé; Li, Yuhua; McNeill, Brian; Sun, Jie; Perkins, Theodore J; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Suuronen, Erik J; Allan, David S; Brand, Marjorie

    2014-05-01

    A major goal of cell therapy for vascular diseases is to promote revascularization through the injection of endothelial stem/progenitor cells. The gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie endothelial progenitor-mediated vascular repair, however, remain elusive. Here, we identify the transcription factor TAL1/SCL as a key mediator of the vascular repair function of primary human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs). Genome-wide analyses in ECFCs demonstrate that TAL1 activates a transcriptional program that promotes cell adhesion and migration. At the mechanistic level, we show that TAL1 upregulates the expression of migratory and adhesion genes through recruitment of the histone acetyltransferase p300. Based on these findings, we establish a strategy that enhances the revascularization efficiency of ECFCs after ischemia through ex vivo priming with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA. Thus, small molecule epigenetics drugs are effective tools for modifying the epigenome of stem/progenitor cells prior to transplantation as a means to enhance their therapeutic potential.

  20. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Secreted by Leukemic Cells Increase the Permeability of Blood-Brain Barrier by Disrupting Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Saran; Cen, Jiannong; Huang, Yihong; Shen, Hongjie; Yao, Li; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zixing

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in acute leukemia, the mechanisms of leukemic cell infiltration into the CNS have not yet been elucidated. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes CNS become a refugee to leukemic cells and serves as a resource of cells that seed extraneural sites. How can the leukemic cells disrupt this barrier and invasive the CNS, even if many of the currently available chemotherapies can not cross the BBB? Tight junction in endothelial cells occupies a central role in the function of the BBB. Except the well known role of degrading extracellular matrix in metastasis of cancer cells, here we show matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, secreted by leukemic cells, mediate the BBB opening by disrupting tight junction proteins in the CNS leukemia. We demonstrated that leukemic cells impaired tight junction proteins ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin resulting in increased permeability of the BBB. However, these alterations reduced when MMP-2 and -9 activities were inhibited by RNA interference strategy or by MMP inhibitor GM6001 in an in vitro BBB model. We also found that the disruption of the BBB in company with the down-regulation of ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin and the up-regulation of MMP-2 and -9 in mouse brain tissues with leukemic cell infiltration by confocal imaging and the assay of in situ gelatin zymography. Besides, GM6001 protected all mice against CNS leukemia. Our findings suggest that the degradation of tight junction proteins ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin by MMP-2 and -9 secreted by leukemic cells constitutes an important mechanism in the BBB breakdown which contributes to the invasion of leukemic cells to the CNS in acute leukemia. PMID:21857898

  1. The cessation of the long-term exposure to low doses of mercury ameliorates the increase in systolic blood pressure and vascular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Torres, João Guilherme Dini; Escobar, Alyne Goulart; da Silva, Taiz Martins; Moraes, Paola Zambelli; Hernanz, Raquel; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Castro, Marta Miguel; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, Maria Jesús; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2017-02-18

    This study aimed to verify whether a prolonged exposure to low-level mercury promotes haemodynamic disorders and studied the reversibility of this vascular damage. Rats were divided into seven groups: three control groups received saline solution (im) for 30, 60 or 90 days; two groups received HgCl2 (im, first dose, 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day) for 30 or 60 days; two groups received HgCl2 for 30 or 60 days (im, same doses) followed by a 30-day washout period. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, along with analysis of vascular response to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine (Phe) in the absence and presence of endothelium, a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor and an AT1 receptor blocker. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant power were measured in plasma. HgCl2 exposure for 30 and 60 days: a) reduced the endothelium-dependent relaxation; b) increased the Phe-induced contraction and the contribution of ROS, COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids and angiotensin II acting on AT1 receptors to this response while the NO participation was reduced; c) increased the oxidative stress in plasma; d) increased the SBP only after 60 days of exposure. After the cessation of HgCl2 exposure, SBP, endothelium-dependent relaxation, Phe-induced contraction and the oxidative stress were normalised, despite the persistence of the increased COX-derived prostanoids. These results demonstrated that long-term HgCl2 exposure increases SBP as a consequence of vascular dysfunction; however, after HgCl2 removal from the environment the vascular function ameliorates.

  2. Treatment with eCG decreases the vascular density and increases the glandular density of the bovine uterus.

    PubMed

    Mona e Pinto, J; Pavanelo, V; Alves de Fátima, L; Medeiros de Carvalho Sousa, L M; Pacheco Mendes, G; Machado Ferreira, R; Ayres, H; Sampaio Baruselli, P; Palma Rennó, F; de Carvallo Papa, P

    2014-06-01

    The uterus plays an essential role in mammalian reproduction and is a target of several hormonal protocols used to improve fertility in cattle. Many studies highlighted the importance of eCG treatment following fixed-time artificial insemination in improving follicular growth, ovulation and pregnancy rates in cattle. Moreover, eCG has been implicated in angiogenesis, leading to important changes in uterine blood flow and vascularisation. However, there is still a lack of information regarding the specific alterations induced by eCG upon glandular and vascular characteristics of bovine uterus. To investigate the influence of eCG on: uterine thickness and area; uterine artery diameter and area; uterine vascular and gland density; and the expression of the VEGFA-system, the uteri of crossbred beef cows were collected. All cows were submitted to follicular wave emergence synchronization. On day four of protocol, cows submitted to superovulation (n = 6) received 2000 IU eCG, on day eight, after expected follicular deviation, cows submitted to stimulatory treatment (n = 5) received 400 IU eCG. Control cows (n = 5) did not receive eCG. On day five po cows were subjected to ultrassonographic evaluation and slaughtered for uterine tissue sampling on day six po. Uterine vessels and glands were quantified by the counting point stereological method. The VEGFA-system was localized in different cellular types, showing no qualitative or quantitative differences in the site of expression or the intensity of the positive signal among the groups. Vascular density was decreased in the endometrium of stimulated and myometrium of superovulated cows compared with the control ones, which showed higher vascular density in the myometrium and endometrium of the ipsilateral uterine horn. The uterine gland density was higher in superovulated compared with stimulated and control cows. Thus, we can infer that stimulatory or superovulatory treatments with eCG influence the vascular

  3. Vascular tracers alter hemodynamics and airway pressure in anesthetized sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Staub, N.C.

    1986-11-01

    The technique of vascular labeling was developed to mark sites of increased microvascular permeability. We used the vascular labeling technique in anesthetized sheep and found that hemodynamics and airway pressure were adversely affected by intraarterial infusions of two vascular tracers. Monastral blue (nine sheep) immediately caused systemic arterial hypotension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and bronchoconstriction. All three physiological responses were partially blocked by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin) but not by an H1-antihistamine (chlorpheniramine). Colloidal gold (nine sheep) caused immediate, but less dramatic, pulmonary arterial hypertension which was not attenuated by the blocking agents. We conclude that these two vascular tracers caused detrimental physiological side effects in sheep at the usual doses used to label injured microvessels in other species.

  4. Interleukin-8 Regulates Endothelial Permeability by Down-regulation of Tight Junction but not Dependent on Integrins Induced Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongchi; Huang, Xianliang; Ma, Yunlong; Gao, Min; Wang, Ou; Gao, Ting; Shen, Yang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a common inflammatory factor, which involves in various non-specific pathological processes of inflammation. It has been found that increased endothelial permeability accompanied with high expression of IL-8 at site of injured endothelium and atherosclerotic plaque at early stages, suggesting that IL-8 participated in regulating endothelial permeability in the developing processes of vascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation effects of IL-8 on the vascular endothelial permeability, and the mRNA and protein expression of tight junction components (i.e., ZO-1, Claudin-5 and Occludin). Endothelial cells were stimulated by IL-8 with the dose of 50, 100 and 200 ng/mL, and duration of 2, 4, 6, 8h, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression level of tight junction components with IL-8 under different concentration and duration was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the integrins induced focal adhesions event with IL-8 stimulation was also investigated. The results showed that IL-8 regulated the permeability of endothelium by down-regulation of tight junction in a dose- and time-dependence manner, but was not by integrins induced focal adhesions. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell permeability induced by IL-8, which is expected to provide a new idea as a therapeutic target in vascular diseases. PMID:24155670

  5. HABP2 is a Novel Regulator of Vascular Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mambetsariev, N.; Mirzapoiazova, T.; Mambetsariev, B.; Sammani, S.; Lennon, F.E.; Garcia, J.G.N.; Singleton, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the role of the extracellular serine protease, Hyaluronic Acid Binding Protein 2 (HABP2), in vascular barrier regulation. Methods and Results Using immunoblot and immunohistochemical analysis, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induces HABP2 expression in murine lung endothelium in vivo and in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (HPMVEC) in vitro. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA, ~1 million Da) decreased HABP2 protein expression in HPMVEC and decreased purified HABP2 enzymatic activity whereas low MW HA (LMW-HA, ~2,500 Da) increased these activities. The effects of LMW-HA on HABP2 activity, but not HMW-HA, were inhibited with a peptide of the polyanion binding domain (PABD) of HABP2. Silencing (siRNA) HABP2 expression augmented HMW-HA-induced EC barrier enhancement and inhibited LPS and LMW-HA-mediated EC barrier disruption, results which were reversed with overexpression of HABP2. Silencing PAR receptors 1 and 3, RhoA or ROCK expression attenuated LPS, LMW-HA and HABP2-mediated EC barrier disruption. Utilizing murine models of acute lung injury, we observed that LPS- and ventilator-induced pulmonary vascular hyper-permeability were significantly reduced with vascular silencing (siRNA) of HABP2. Conclusions HABP2 negatively regulates vascular integrity via activation of PAR receptor/RhoA/ROCK signaling and represents a potentially useful therapeutic target for syndromes of increased vascular permeability. PMID:20042707

  6. Glassy Dynamics, Cell Mechanics and Endothelial Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Corey; Rajendran, Kavitha; Manomohan, Greeshma; Tambe, Dhananjay T.; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Martinelli, Roberta; Carman, Christopher V.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of all inflammatory processes is disruption of the vascular endothelial barrier. Such disruption is initiated in part through active contraction of the cytoskeleton of the endothelial cell (EC). Because contractile forces are propagated from cell to cell across a great many cell-cell junctions, this contractile process is strongly cooperative and highly nonlocal. We show here that the characteristic length scale of propagation is modulated by agonists and antagonists that impact permeability of the endothelial barrier. In the presence of agonists including thrombin, histamine, and H202, force correlation length increases, whereas in the presence of antagonists including sphingosine-1-phosphate, hepatocyte growth factor, and the rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632, force correlation length decreases. Intercellular force chains and force clusters are also evident, both of which are reminiscent of soft glassy materials approaching a glass transition. PMID:23638866

  7. Coronary vascular resistance increases under full bypass support of centrifugal pumps--relation between myocardial perfusion and ventricular workload during pump support.

    PubMed

    Ando, Masahiko; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kenji; Kyo, Shunei; Ono, Minoru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Mizuno, Toshihide; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Coronary circulation is closely linked to myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO(2)), and previous reports have suggested decreased coronary flow (CoF) under left ventricular assist device support. Decreased CoF itself under support is not unfavorable because the native heart can be well unloaded and myocardial oxygen demand is also decreased. There should be an autoregulatory system that would maintain optimal CoF according to oxygen demand; however, the detailed mechanism is still unclear. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of centrifugal pumps on CoF under varied bypass rates in relation to left ventricle workload. A centrifugal pump, EVAHEART (Sun Medical Technology Research Corporation, Nagano, Japan), was installed in an adult goat (n = 10, 61.3 ± 6.5 kg). We set up the following conditions, including Circuit-Clamp (i.e., no pump support), 50% bypass, and 100% bypass. In these settings, CoF, MVO(2), pressure-volume area (PVA), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were measured. In 100% bypass, CoF, MVO(2), and PVA were all decreased significantly from clamp. While in 50% bypass, CoF and MVO(2) decreased from clamp, but not PVA. There was a significant 40% increase in CVR in 100% bypass from clamp. This CVR increase in 100% bypass was possibly due to mechanical collapse of coronary vascular bed itself by pump support or increased vascular tone through autoregulatory system. In clinical settings, we should adjust optimal pump speed so as not to cause this vascular collapse. However, to clarify autoregulatory system of the coronary perfusion, further investigation is ongoing in ischemic and heart failure models.

  8. Increased Expression of Tissue Factor and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Vascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Buchs, A. E.; Kornberg, A.; Zahavi, M.; Aharoni, D.; Zarfati, C.; Rapoport, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the expression of tissue factor (TF) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGEs) and vascular complications in patients with longstanding uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D). TF and RAGE mRNAs as well as TF antigen and activity were investigated in 21 T2D patients with and without vascular complications. mRNA expression was assessed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in nonstimulated and advanced glycation end product (AGE) albumin–stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). TF antigen expression was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and TF activity by a modified prothrombin time assay. Basal RAGE mRNA expression was 0.2 ± 0.06 in patients with complications and 0.05 ± 0.06 patients without complications (P = .004). Stimulation did not cause any further increase in either group. TF mRNA was 0.58 ± 0.29 in patients with complications and 0.21 ± 0.18 in patients without complications (P = .003). Stimulation resulted in a nonsignificant increase in both groups. Basal TF activity (U/106 PBMCs) was 18.4 ± 13.2 in patients with complications and 6.96 ± 5.2 in patients without complications (P = .003). It increased 3-fold in both groups after stimulation (P = .001). TF antigen (pg/106 PBMCs) was 33.7 ± 28.6 in patients with complications, 10.4 ± 7.8 in patients without complications (P = .02). Stimulation tripled TF antigen in both groups of patients (P = .001). The RAGE/TF axis is up-regulated inT2Dpatients with vascular complications as compared to patients without complications. This suggests a role for this axis in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in T2D. PMID:15203887

  9. Hypoxia-induced increases in glucose uptake do not cause oxidative injury or advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Viator, Ryan J; Khader, Heba; Hingorani, Neha; Long, Sara; Solodushko, Victor; Fouty, Brian

    2015-01-01

    An increase in glucose uptake by endothelial cells exposed to hyperglycemia is the presumed initiating event that causes systemic vascular disease in individuals with diabetes. Diabetics do not develop clinically significant pulmonary vascular disease, however, despite the pulmonary circulation’s exposure to the same level of glucose. We hypothesized that pulmonary artery endothelial cells are protected from the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia because they take up less glucose than endothelial cells in the systemic circulation, either because of intrinsic differences between the two cell types or because the lower oxygen tension in the pulmonary arterial blood depresses glucose uptake. To test this hypothesis, we exposed normoglycemic and hyperglycemic bovine pulmonary artery (PAECs) and aortic endothelial cells (AECs) from the same animal to progressively lower oxygen tensions and determined glucose uptake. In contrast with our initial hypothesis, we detected no significant difference in glucose uptake between the two cell types. Furthermore, glucose uptake in both PAECs and AECs increased, not decreased, as the oxygen tension dropped; this oxygen-dependent increase in glucose uptake in endothelial cells predominated over the hyperglycemia-mediated decrease in glucose uptake that has been reported by others. Despite the increase in glucose uptake at lower oxygen tensions, we detected no corresponding increase in protein carbonylation or advanced glycation endproducts. These results demonstrate that small physiologically relevant changes in oxygen tension can have an important impact on glucose uptake in endothelial cells. These results also demonstrate that an increase in glucose uptake, by itself, is not sufficient to generate ROS-mediated protein carbonylation or increase intracellular advanced glycation endproducts in vascular endothelial cells. PMID:26177960

  10. Placental-Specific sFLT-1 e15a Protein Is Increased in Preeclampsia, Antagonizes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling, and Has Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kirsten R; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Hastie, Roxanne; Hannan, Natalie J; Ye, Louie; Binder, Natalie; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; Johns, Terrance G; Shub, Alexis; Tong, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    In preeclampsia, the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) is released from placenta into the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction and organ injury. A recently described splice variant, sFLT-1 e15a, is primate specific and the most abundant placentally derived sFLT-1. Therefore, it may be the major sFLT-1 isoform contributing to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. sFLT-1 e15a protein remains poorly characterized: its bioactivity has not been comprehensively examined, and serum levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy have not been reported. We generated and validated an sFLT-1 e15a-specific ELISA to further characterize serum levels during pregnancy, and in the presence of preeclampsia. Furthermore, we performed assays to examine the bioactivity and antiangiogenic properties of sFLT-1 e15a protein. sFLT-1 e15a was expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast, and serum levels rose across pregnancy. Strikingly, serum levels were increased 10-fold in preterm preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls. We confirmed sFLT-1 e15a is bioactive and is able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and block downstream Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, sFLT-1 e15a has antiangiogenic properties. sFLT-1 e15a decreased endothelial cell migration, invasion, and inhibited endothelial cell tube formation. Administering sFLT-1 e15a blocked vascular endothelial growth factor induced sprouts from mouse aortic rings ex vivo. We have demonstrated that sFLT-1 e15a is increased in preeclampsia, antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, and has antiangiogenic activity. Future development of diagnostics and therapeutics for preeclampsia should consider targeting placentally derived sFLT-1 e15a.

  11. Assessment of permeability barriers to macromolecules in the rodent endometrium at the onset of implantation.

    PubMed

    Bany, Brent M; Hamilton, G Scot

    2011-01-01

    In rodents, embryo implantation is an invasive process, which begins with its attachment to the uterine wall and culminates in the formation of the definitive placenta several days later. It is critical that the endometrium provide a supportive environment for the implanting embryo during this process, as the placenta is not yet established. The concept of changing permeability barriers to macromolecules between different extracellular compartments in the rodent uterus at the onset of implantation has been established. This chapter provides protocols that can be used to assess this changing permeability barrier and the associated redistribution of macromolecules during the early phases of implantation in rodents. An increased permeability of the endometrial vasculature to plasma proteins occurs in areas adjacent to the implanting blastocyst. In addition, alterations in the extracellular matrix enhance the accumulation of fluid and extravasated macromolecules. We describe several protocols proven to be effective in studying and quantifying early vascular and extravascular responses to natural and artificial "implantation stimuli." The first three protocols represent qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the early endometrial "vascular permeability" response. On the contrary, the fourth protocol addresses the onset of decidualization and the arising permeability barrier, which restricts the movement of macromolecules through the extracellular space. This barrier is believed to provide transient protection for the implanting embryo against potentially harmful maternal serum proteins. This protocol describes assessment of resistance of the primary decidual zone to the movement of macromolecules across the compartments of the extracellular space.

  12. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  13. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Low, Brad; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. So far, little is known about the signaling mechanisms of second-hand smoke-induced vascular dysfunction. Endothelial junctions are fundamental structures important for maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our study showed that sidestream cigarette smoke (SCS), a major component of second-hand smoke, was able to disrupt endothelial junctions and increase endothelial permeability. Sidestream cigarette smoke stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain (MLC). A selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) prevented SCS-induced loss of endothelial barrier integrity as evidenced by transendothelial resistance measurements. Resveratrol, an antioxidant that was able to inhibit SCS-induced p38 MAPK and MLC phosphorylation, also protected endothelial cells from the damage. Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup

    PubMed Central

    Nullens, Sara; Staessens, Michael; Peleman, Cédric; Plaeke, Philip; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Francque, Sven; De Man, Joris G.; De Winter, Benedicte Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model. Methods OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed. Results Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant. Conclusions Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro

  15. Blast-Associated Shock Waves Result in Increased Brain Vascular Leakage and Elevated ROS Levels in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Petro, Marianne; Dudzinski, Dave; Stewart, Desiree; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Blast-associated shock wave-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) remains a persistent risk for armed forces worldwide, yet its detailed pathophysiology remains to be fully investigated. In this study, we have designed and characterized a laboratory-scale shock tube to develop a rodent model of bTBI. Our blast tube, driven by a mixture of oxygen and acetylene, effectively generates blast overpressures of 20–130 psi, with pressure-time profiles similar to those of free-field blast waves. We tested our shock tube for brain injury response to various blast wave conditions in rats. The results show that blast waves cause diffuse vascular brain damage, as determined using a sensitive optical imaging method based on the fluorescence signal of Evans Blue dye extravasation developed in our laboratory. Vascular leakage increased with increasing blast overpressures and mapping of the brain slices for optical signal intensity indicated nonhomogeneous damage to the cerebral vasculature. We confirmed vascular leakage due to disruption in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following blast exposure. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the brain also increased with increasing blast pressures and with time post-blast wave exposure. Immunohistochemical analysis of the brain sections analyzed at different time points post blast exposure demonstrated astrocytosis and cell apoptosis, confirming sustained neuronal injury response. The main advantages of our shock-tube design are minimal jet effect and no requirement for specialized equipment or facilities, and effectively generate blast-associated shock waves that are relevant to battle-field conditions. Overall data suggest that increased oxidative stress and BBB disruption could be the crucial factors in the propagation and spread of neuronal degeneration following blast injury. Further studies are required to determine the interplay between increased ROS activity and BBB disruption to develop effective therapeutic

  16. Heterogeneous Blood-Tumor Barrier Permeability Determines Drug Efficacy in Experimental Brain Metastases of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lockman, Paul R.; Mittapalli, Rajendar K.; Taskar, Kunal S.; Rudraraju, Vinay; Gril, Brunilde; Bohn, Kaci A.; Adkins, Chris E.; Roberts, Amanda; Thorsheim, Helen R.; Gaasch, Julie A.; Huang, Suyun; Palmieri, Diane; Steeg, Patricia S.; Smith, Quentin R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastases of breast cancer appear to be increasing in incidence, confer significant morbidity, and threaten to compromise gains made in systemic chemotherapy. The blood-tumor barrier (BTB) is compromised in many brain metastases, however, the extent to which this influences chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy is unknown. Herein, we answer this question by measuring BTB passive integrity, chemotherapeutic drug uptake, and anticancer efficacy in vivo in two breast cancer models that metastasize preferentially to brain. Experimental Design Experimental brain metastasis drug uptake and BTB permeability were simultaneously measured using novel fluorescent and phosphorescent imaging techniques in immune compromised mice. Drug-induced apoptosis and vascular characteristics were assessed using immunofluorescent microscopy. Results Analysis of >2000 brain metastases from two models (human 231-BR-Her2 and murine 4T1-BR5) demonstrated partial BTB permeability compromise in >89% lesions, varying in magnitude within and between metastases. Brain metastasis uptake of 14C- paclitaxel and 14C- doxorubicin was generally greater than normal brain but <15% of that of other tissues or peripheral metastases, and only reached cytotoxic concentrations in a small subset (~10%) of the most permeable metastases. Neither drug significantly decreased the experimental brain metastatic ability of 231-BR-Her2 tumor cells. BTB permeability was associated with vascular remodeling and correlated with over expression of the pericyte protein, desmin. Conclusions This work demonstrates that the BTB remains a significant impediment to standard chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy in experimental brain metastases of breast cancer. New brain permeable drugs will be needed. Evidence is presented for vascular remodeling in BTB permeability alterations. PMID:20829328

  17. Low concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal increases heme oxygenase-1 expression through activation of Nrf2 and antioxidative activity in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikado, Atsushi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Ugi, Satoshi; Kondo, Hajime; Makino, Taketoshi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Low doses of 4-HHE and 4-HNE induce HO-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. {yields} 4-HHE and 4-HNE increase the intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2. {yields} 4-HHE and 4-HNE-induced HO-1 expression depends on the activation of Nrf2. {yields} Pretreatment with 4-HHE and 4-HNE prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Large-scale clinical studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids reduce cardiovascular events without improving classical risk factors for atherosclerosis. Recent studies have proposed that direct actions of n-3 PUFAs themselves, or of their enzymatic metabolites, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects on vascular cells. Although a recent study showed that plasma 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a peroxidation product of n-3 PUFA, increased after supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid, the antiatherogenic effects of 4-HHE in vascular cells remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that 4-HHE induces the antioxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) through activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulatory transcriptional factor, and prevents oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in vascular endothelial cells. This mechanism could partly explain the cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were stimulated with 1-10 {mu}M 4-HHE or 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE), a peroxidation product of n-6 PUFAs. Both 4-HHE and 4-HNE dose-dependently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and intranuclear expression and DNA binding of Nrf2 at 5 {mu}M. Small interfering RNA for Nrf2 significantly reduced 4-HHE- or 4-HNE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with 4-HHE or 4-HNE prevented tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, 4-HHE, a peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, stimulated

  18. Effect of ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist in experimental diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and associated dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of ruthenium red and pioglitazone has significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist may be considered as potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. Ryanodine receptor may be explored further for their possible benefits in vascular dementia.

  19. Correlation of permeability with the structure of the endothelial layer of pulmonary artery intimal explants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrick, B.; Perkett, E.A.; Harris, T.R.; Brigham, K.L.

    1987-06-01

    Changes in vascular permeability are associated with structural damage to endothelial cells. These functional and structural changes can be produced experimentally and examined by using intimal explants from bovine pulmonary artery. Correlation of functional with structural changes allows the authors to dissect the mechanisms responsible for endothelial damage. They have shown that incubation of intimal explants with histamine causes transient formation of interendothelial dilations and an increased rate of equilibration of tritiated water and (/sup 14/C)sucrose across the intimal explant. Exposure to endotoxin also causes interendothial dilations but the endothelial damage is more severe than that with histamine, and in vivo experiments show a more prolonged increase in pulmonary vascular permeability. Leukocyte migration has also been suggested to result in a decreased barrier function of the endothelial layer. Experiments with the endothelial layer of intimal explants and separated bovine leukocytes suggest that transendothelial migration may depend on the chemotactic stimulus. Migration toward lymphocyte-conditioned medium does result in increased equilibration of (/sup 14/C)sucrose. Finally, a theoretical model has been used to examine the permeability changes seen for the intimal explants exposed to histamine. The model consists of two compartments with radioactive tracers diffusing across a filter of known permeability. Such a model gives good agreement with data obtained in intact sheep, indicating that mathematical models allow quantitative estimates of barrier function in intimal explants that compare favorably with in vivo data.

  20. Inhibition of endothelin-1 and KCL-induced increase of [CA2+]i by antiglaucoma drugs in cultured A7r5 vascular smooth-muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kwou-Yeung; Wang, Hwei-Zu; Hong, Show-Jen

    2004-06-01

    Over contraction of vascular smooth muscle may result in ischemia to ocular neuronal cells and deteriorate the glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of various commercial antiglaucoma drugs including brimonidine, dipivefrin, betaxolol, timolol, levobunolol, carteolol, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, unoprostone, latanoprost, pilocarpine, and preservative benzalkonium chloride on endothelin-1(ET-1) and KCl-induced increase of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in cultured rat A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. These drugs were diluted from original concentrations to 1/100, 1/1000, and 1/10000. [Ca2+]i mobility was analyzed by spectrofluorometry after loading with fura-2-AM. Betaxolol, timolol, levobunolol, and carteolol were found to inhibit KCl-induced release of [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. High concentrations of betaxolol, timolol, levobunolol, carteolol, and unoprostone also inhibited ET-1-induced increase of [Ca2+]i in A7r5 cells. However, ET-1- and KCl-induced increase of [Ca2+]i was not diminished by other drugs including brimonidine, dipivefrin, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, latanoprost, pilocarpine, and benzalkonium chloride. These results indicate that high concentrations of unoprostone and beta-adrenergic blocking agents including betaxolol, timolol, levobunolol, and carteolol may inhibit ET-1-induced increase of [Ca2+]i. The mechanism may be mediated by inhibition of extracellular calcium influx via blocking of L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel in A7r5 cells.

  1. Honokiol nanosuspensions: preparation, increased oral bioavailability and dramatically enhanced biodistribution in the cardio-cerebro-vascular system.

    PubMed

    Han, Meihua; Yu, Xin; Guo, Yifei; Wang, Yanhong; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2014-04-01

    Honokiol is a phytochemical component with multiple pharmacological activities, but Honokiol's wider use has been restricted by its poor solubility. Using bovine serum albumin and polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilisers in a solvent precipitation-ultrasonication method, Honokiol nanosuspensions were prepared with a mean particle size of 116.2 nm (±2 nm), a zeta potential of -44.7 mV (±1.7 mV) and a high drug payload of 50.4 ± 0.6% (w/w). X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that Honokiol was in an amorphous state in the nanosuspensions, in contrast with bulk Honokiol powder. Honokiol was released faster in vitro from nanosuspensions with no burst release, and the highest 98% cumulative release was after 60 h. Honokiol nanosuspensions improved the oral bioavailability of Honokiol in in vivo studies in rats with a 3.94-fold Cmax and a 2.2-fold AUC(0-t). Remarkably, in contrast to oral administration, intraperitoneal administration of Honokiol nanosuspensions could dramatically alter the biodistribution of Honokiol, resulting in a much higher drug level and tissue bioavailability in the blood, heart and brain, benefitting the treatment of cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases.

  2. Radiation Effects on the Cytoskeleton of Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Monolayer Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrys, Dorota; Greco, Olga; Patel, Gaurang; Prise, Kevin M.; Tozer, Gillian M.; Kanthou, Chryso

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of radiation on the endothelial cytoskeleton and endothelial monolayer permeability and to evaluate associated signaling pathways, which could reveal potential mechanisms of known vascular effects of radiation. Methods and Materials: Cultured endothelial cells were X-ray irradiated, and actin filaments, microtubules, intermediate filaments, and vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin junctions were examined by immunofluorescence. Permeability was determined by the passage of fluorescent dextran through cell monolayers. Signal transduction pathways were analyzed using RhoA, Rho kinase, and stress-activated protein kinase-p38 (SAPK2/p38) inhibitors by guanosine triphosphate-RhoA activation assay and transfection with RhoAT19N. The levels of junction protein expression and phosphorylation of myosin light chain and SAPK2/p38 were assessed by Western blotting. The radiation effects on cell death were verified by clonogenic assays. Results: Radiation induced rapid and persistent actin stress fiber formation and redistribution of VE-cadherin junctions in microvascular, but not umbilical vein endothelial cells, and microtubules and intermediate filaments remained unaffected. Radiation also caused a rapid and persistent increase in microvascular permeability. RhoA-guanosine triphosphatase and Rho kinase were activated by radiation and caused phosphorylation of downstream myosin light chain and the observed cytoskeletal and permeability changes. SAPK2/p38 was activated by radiation but did not influence either the cytoskeleton or permeability. Conclusion: This study is the first to show rapid activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase by radiation in endothelial cells and has demonstrated a link between this pathway and cytoskeletal remodeling and permeability. The results also suggest that the RhoA pathway might be a useful target for modulating the permeability and other effects of radiation for therapeutic gain.

  3. Orientin inhibits high glucose-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kwak, Soyoung; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-12-01

    Vascular inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Orientin, a C-glycosyl flavonoid, is known to have anxiolytic and antioxidative activity. In this study, we assessed whether orientin can suppress vascular inflammation induced by high glucose (HG) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. Our data indicate that HG markedly increased vascular permeability, monocyte adhesion, the expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Remarkably, the vascular inflammatory effects of HG were attenuated by pretreatment with orientin. Since vascular inflammation induced by HG is critical in the development of diabetic complications, our results suggest that orientin may have significant benefits in the treatment of diabetic complications and atherosclerosis.

  4. Hyperoside inhibits high-glucose-induced vascular inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kwak, Soyoung; Kwon, O-Jun; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Hyperoside, an active compound from the genera of Hypericum and Crataegus, was reported to have antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and anticoagulant activities. Vascular inflammatory process has been suggested to play a key role in initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, a major complication of diabetes mellitus. Thus, in this study, we attempted to determine whether hyperoside can suppress vascular inflammatory processes induced by high glucose (HG) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mice. Data showed that HG induced markedly increased vascular permeability, monocyte adhesion, expressions of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Remarkably, all of the above-mentioned vascular inflammatory effects of HG were attenuated by pretreatment with hyperoside. Vascular inflammatory responses induced by HG are critical events underlying development of various diabetic complications; therefore, our results suggest that hyperoside may have significant therapeutic benefits against diabetic complications and atherosclerosis.

  5. Childhood Obesity Associates Haemodynamic and Vascular Changes That Result in Increased Central Aortic Pressure with Augmented Incident and Reflected Wave Components, without Changes in Peripheral Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Juan M.; García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Arana, Maite; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Zócalo, Yanina; Bia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aims were to determine if childhood obesity is associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize haemodynamic and vascular changes associated with BP changes in obese children and adolescents by means of analyzing changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR), and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse wave amplitude. We included 117 subjects (mean/range age: 10 (5–15) years, 49 females), who were obese (OB) or had normal weight (NW). Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV, and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, amplitude of forward and backward components) were measured with tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). With independence of the presence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or sedentarism, the aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in OB than in NW subjects. The increase in central BP could not be explained by the elevation in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave and higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP could be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflect wave components associated to augmented SV and/or PWV. PMID:26881081

  6. Effect of cell shrinkage on permeability of cultured bovine aortic endothelia and frog mesenteric capillaries.

    PubMed Central

    Kajimura, M; O'Donnell, M E; Curry, F E

    1997-01-01

    1. We have tested the hypothesis that a reduction in endothelial cell volume increases microvessel permeability and that the degree of endothelial cell attachment to their basement membranes determines the magnitude of permeability changes caused by a reduction in endothelial cell volume. 2. A decrease in endothelial cell volume was imposed on both intact microvessels and cultured endothelial monolayers by raising osmolarity by 100 mosmol l-1. 3. We found that hypertonic solutions did not increase the hydraulic permeability (Lp) of individually perfused venular microvessels in frog mesentery when the perfusate contained albumin. Hypertonic solutions did increase Lp, however, after we perfused the microvessels with the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP; 0.3 mmol l-1), to disrupt integrin-dependent endothelial ce