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Sample records for increasing consumer demand

  1. The effect of increased consumer demand on fees for aesthetic surgery: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Krieger, L M; Shaw, W W

    1999-12-01

    Economic theory dictates that changes in consumer demand have predictable effects on prices. Demographics represents an important component of demand for aesthetic surgery. Between the years of 1997 and 2010, the U.S. population is projected to increase by 12 percent. The population increase will be skewed such that those groups undergoing the most aesthetic surgery will see the largest increase. Accounting for the age-specific frequencies of aesthetic surgery and the population increase yields an estimate that the overall market for aesthetic surgery will increase by 19 percent. Barring unforeseen changes in general economic conditions or consumer tastes, demand should increase by an analogous amount. An economic demonstration shows the effects of increasing demand for aesthetic surgery on its fees. Between the years of 1992 and 1997, there was an increase in demand for breast augmentation as fears of associated autoimmune disorders subsided. Similarly, there was increased male acceptance of aesthetic surgery. The number of breast augmentations and procedures to treat male pattern baldness, plastic surgeons, and fees for the procedures were tracked. During the study period, the supply of surgeons and consumer demand increased for both of these procedures. Volume of breast augmentation increased by 275 percent, whereas real fees remained stable. Volume of treatment for male pattern baldness increased by 107 percent, and the fees increased by 29 percent. Ordinarily, an increase in supply leads to a decrease in prices. This did not occur during the study period. Economic analysis demonstrates that the increased supply of surgeons performing breast augmentation was offset by increased consumer demand for the procedure. For this reason, fees were not lowered. Similarly, increased demand for treatment of male pattern baldness more than offset the increased supply of surgeons performing it. The result was higher fees. Emphasis should be placed on using these economic

  2. Increasing consumer demand for tobacco treatments: Ten design recommendations for clinicians and healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan Swartz; Jaén, Carlos Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Health professionals play an important role in addressing patient tobacco use in clinical settings. While there is clear evidence that identifying tobacco use and assisting smokers in quitting affects outcomes, challenges to improve routine, clinician-delivered tobacco intervention persist. The Consumer Demand Initiative has identified simple design principles to increase consumers' use of proven tobacco treatments. Applying these design strategies to activities across the healthcare system, we articulate ten recommendations that can be implemented in the context of most clinical systems where most clinicians work. The recommendations are: (1) reframe the definition of success, (2) portray proven treatments as the best care, (3) redesign the 5A's of tobacco intervention, (4) be ready to deliver the right treatment at the right time, (5) move tobacco from the social history to the problem list, (6) use words as therapy and language that makes sense, (7) fit tobacco treatment into clinical team workflows, (8) embed tobacco treatment into health information technology, (9) make every encounter an opportunity to intervene, and (10) end social disparities for tobacco users. Clinical systems need to change to improve tobacco treatment implementation. The consumer- and clinician-centered recommendations provide a roadmap that focuses on increasing clinician performance through greater understanding of the clinician's role in helping tobacco users, highlighting the value of evidence-based tobacco treatments, employing shared decision-making skills, and integrating routine tobacco treatment into clinical system routines.

  3. Increasing consumer demand among Medicaid enrollees for tobacco dependence treatment: The Wisconsin Medicaid Covers It campaign

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Paula A.; Christiansen, Bruce; Kim, Su-Young; Piper, Megan E.; Redmond, Lezli; Adsit, Robert; Fiore, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Smoking prevalence among Medicaid enrollees is higher than the general population, but use of evidence-based cessation treatment is low. We evaluated whether a communications campaign improved cessation treatment utilization. Design Quasi-experimental. Setting Wisconsin. Subjects Enrollees in the Wisconsin Family Medicaid program. The average monthly enrollment during the study period was approximately 170,000 individuals. Intervention Print materials for clinicians and consumers distributed to 13 health maintenance organizations (HMO) serving Wisconsin Medicaid HMO enrollees. Measures Wisconsin Medicaid pharmacy claims data for smoking cessation medications were analyzed before and after a targeted communications campaign. HMO enrollees were the intervention group. Fee-for-service enrollees were a quasi-experimental comparison group. Quit Line utilization data were also analyzed. Analysis Pharmacotherapy claims and number of registered quitline callers were compared pre-and post-campaign. Results Pre-campaign, cessation pharmacotherapy claims declined for the intervention group and increased slightly for the comparison group (t = 2.29, p = 0.03). Post-campaign, claims increased in both groups. However, the rate of increase in the intervention group was significantly greater than in the comparison group (t = −2.2, p = 0.04). A statistically significant increase was also seen in the average monthly number of Medicaid enrollees that registered for Quit Line services post-campaign compared to pre-campaign (F (1,22) = 7.19, p = 0.01). Conclusion This natural experiment demonstrated statistically significant improvements in both pharmacotherapy claims and Quit Line registrations among Medicaid enrollees. These findings may help inform other states’ efforts to improve cessation treatment utilization. PMID:21721965

  4. Consumer health information demand and delivery: implications for libraries.

    PubMed Central

    Deering, M J; Harris, J

    1996-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly interested in information that will help them manage their own health and that of their families. Managed care and other health providers see consumer health information as one tool to help improve patient satisfaction and reduce costs. There is a huge and varied supply of such information, provided through myriad sources. This article summarizes findings from a preliminary assessment of consumer health information demand and delivery supported by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It highlights patterns of consumer interest and supply sources, identifies problems that confront those looking for information, and suggests a role for libraries as providers and interpreters of health information. The last publicly released general study on consumer health information was commissioned by General Mills in 1979. In the sixteen years since then, the scope of consumer health information has become huge and diverse; with increased responsibility for health, consumers have developed both broad interests and very specific needs. The Department of Health and Human Services commissioned a preliminary assessment of consumer health information demand and delivery to lay the foundation for a more comprehensive understanding of the issues. This article highlights some of the key findings that suggest a role for libraries as consumer health information providers and interpreters. PMID:8826626

  5. Consumer Health Information and the Demand for Physician Visits.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The present study empirically investigates the effect of consumer health information on the demand for physician visits. Using a direct information measure based on questions from the Swiss Health Survey, we estimate a Poisson hurdle model for office visits. We find that information has a negative effect on health care utilization, contradicting previous findings in the literature. We consider differences in the used information measures to be the most likely explanation for the different findings. However, our results suggest that increasing consumer health information has the potential to reduce health care expenditures.

  6. Consumer demand for patient-oriented pharmacy services.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, N V; Gagnon, J P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of consumer demand for patient-oriented pharmacy services. Data, collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 300 households, were analyzed using Kruskal's program for additive conjoint analysis. The results indicate substantial consumer demand for making advisory services available on request, moderate demand for provision of patient medication records, and little demand for voluntary provision of advisory services. PMID:6721020

  7. Advertising increases demand for vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Mckenzie, M

    1996-01-01

    The recent evaluation of a 2-year no-scalpel vasectomy (NSV) training program providing on-site, hands-on training for physicians working in 43 publicly funded health centers in 17 states found that demand for vasectomy in low-income and minority communities in the US increased following the implementation of innovative advertising strategies. The program also provided sites with surgical instruments, training materials, a press kit, and some help with public information activities. Participating clinics used a range of formal and informal advertising strategies, including radio and printed advertisements, to inform potential clients about vasectomy services. Many interested clients presented to clinics to undergo vasectomy once they had been made aware of the service and its availability. Several providers even stated that advertising caused the demand for vasectomy to exceed their capacity to provide services. The provision of low- or no-cost procedures helped to attract new clients.

  8. Matching, Demand, Maximization, and Consumer Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of behavioral economics and behavioral psychology in consumer choice has been limited. The current study extends the study of consumer behavior analysis, a synthesis between behavioral psychology, economics, and marketing, to a larger data set. This article presents the current work and results from the early analysis of the data. We…

  9. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  10. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  11. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers. PMID:16673823

  12. The impact of consumer demands and trends on food processing.

    PubMed Central

    Zink, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, consumer demand for new foods and changes in eating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food processing industry. The population is becoming older on average; moreover, consumers want fresh and minimally processed food without synthetic chemical preservatives. To address the need for safer food and compete for consumer acceptance, manufacturers are exploring new food processing and preservation methods. PMID:9366598

  13. The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, Andrei

    The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

  14. Hegemony in the marketplace of biomedical innovation: consumer demand and stem cell science.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian; Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli

    2015-04-01

    The global political economy of stem cell therapies is characterised by an established biomedical hegemony of expertise, governance and values in collision with an increasingly informed health consumer demand able to define and pursue its own interest. How does the hegemony then deal with the challenge from the consumer market and what does this tell us about its modus operandi? In developing a theoretical framework to answer these questions, the paper begins with an analysis of the nature of the hegemony of biomedical innovation in general, its close relationship with the research funding market, the current political modes of consumer incorporation, and the ideological role performed by bioethics as legitimating agency. Secondly, taking the case of stem cell innovation, it explores the hegemonic challenge posed by consumer demand working through the global practice based market of medical innovation, the response of the national and international institutions of science and their reassertion of the values of the orthodox model, and the supporting contribution of bioethics. Finally, the paper addresses the tensions within the hegemonic model of stem cell innovation between the key roles and values of scientist and clinician, the exacerbation of these tensions by the increasingly visible demands of health consumers, and the emergence of political compromise.

  15. Smokers' attitudes and behaviors related to consumer demand for cessation counseling in the medical care setting.

    PubMed

    Weber, Deanne; Wolff, Lisa S; Orleans, Tracy; Mockenhaupt, Robin E; Massett, Holly A; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2007-05-01

    This study describes a new segmentation strategy exploring smokers' interest levels in counseling in the medical care setting in order to understand how public health communications can be designed to increase consumer demand for cessation services within this population. A subsample of 431 smokers from a large, nationally representative mail survey was analyzed and categorized into three cessation-demand groups: Low demand (LD), medium demand (MD), and high demand (HD). HD smokers were most likely to be heavy smokers, to make quitting a high priority, and to have self-efficacy in quitting. MD and LD smokers were less likely than HD smokers to have been told to quit smoking by a health care provider in the past or to believe that counseling is effective. The first step in the regression analysis revealed that age, cigarettes smoked per month, whether smokers were currently trying to quit, and whether they were ever told to quit smoking by their health care provider accounted for 21% of the variance in smokers' interest in smoking cessation counseling, F(4, 234) = 16.49, p<.001. When additional variables on attitudes toward smoking and quitting and perceived effectiveness of receiving counseling in the medical care setting were added to the model, an additional 11% of the variance in smokers' interest in cessation counseling was explained, F(12, 234) = 10.07, p<.001. Results suggest that by categorizing smokers by interest level in cessation counseling, we emerge with three distinct portraits of smokers who might be activated in different ways to increase consumer demand for cessation counseling.

  16. Impacts of demand dynamics and consumer expectations on world oil prices

    SciTech Connect

    Fromholzer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    This research contributes to the study of world oil prices. Models of rational producers and consumers are examined. Producers set prices or production quantities to maximize the value of their oil resources. Consumers purchase oil and other commodities to maximize utility. A market solution is a time path of prices and quantities that balances the choices of producers and consumers. A dynamic model of consumer demand was developed to address alternative pricing implications of consumer technology and objectives. Simplified demand models based on this dynamic model of consumer behavior are combined with simplified models of producer behavior. Sensitivity of pricing results to alternative assumptions about consumer price expectations and to the use of different functional forms for these models are tested. Two alternative models represent demand, using recent oil market data.

  17. Consumer demand for personalized nutrition and functional food.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Jutta; Bruhn, Maike; Mecking, Rebecca-Ariane; Drescher, Larissa S

    2008-12-01

    New developments in nutrigenetic research and the European regulation 1924/2006 on health claims have spurred interest in developing and marketing functional food designed for personalized nutrition. Personalized nutrition uses genetic information regarding a person's health risk profile. Specifically adapted nutrition recommendations are claimed to help reducing disease risk. An internet survey was conducted in December 2007 using a sample of 452 randomly selected adults in Germany. The survey instrument assesses if consumers would be willing to participate in genetic risk profiling, if they are interested in personalized nutrition advice and if they desire functional food products adapted to their individual nutrigenetic profile. In addition, we estimate the acceptance of functional food products designed to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular diseases. Consumers have a positive attitude towards the testing of their genetic profile to be used in nutrient advice. About 45 % of the sample would agree to such a test and like to obtain a personalized advice on nutrition. Similarly, more than 40 % of the sample showed a positive willingness to buy the proposed functional food products. Given these results, the concept of personalized nutrition seems promising. However, several challenges remain regarding targeted nutrition advice and food marketing.

  18. Scenarios for Consuming Standardized Automated Demand Response Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-10-03

    Automated Demand Response (DR) programs require that Utility/ISO's deliver DR signals to participants via a machine to machine communications channel. Typically these DR signals constitute business logic information (e.g. prices and reliability/shed levels) as opposed to commands to control specific loads in the facility. At some point in the chain from the Utility/ISO to the loads in a facility, the business level information sent by the Utility/ISO must be processed and used to execute a DR strategy for the facility. This paper explores the various scenarios and types of participants that may utilize DR signals from the Utility/ISO. Specifically it explores scenarios ranging from single end user facility, to third party facility managers and DR Aggregators. In each of these scenarios it is pointed out where the DR signal sent from the Utility/ISO is processed and turned into the specific load control commands that are part of a DR strategy for a facility. The information in these signals is discussed. In some cases the DR strategy will be completely embedded in the facility while in others it may be centralized at a third party (e.g. Aggregator) and part of an aggregated set of facilities. This paper also discusses the pros and cons of the various scenarios and discusses how the Utility/ISO can use an open standardized method (e.g. Open Automated Demand Response Communication Standards) for delivering DR signals that will promote interoperability and insure that the widest range of end user facilities can participate in DR programs regardless of which scenario they belong to.

  19. Energy: Can We Meet the Increasing Demand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2006-01-01

    Energy is the lifeblood of the United States. It powers its industries and keeps its economy humming. The nation's progress has relied on making energy abundantly available to support the growth of new ideas and products, and the issue of renewable energy is an increasingly important one. In this article, the author discusses some of the basics of…

  20. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  1. Advertising and the Management of Aggregate Consumer Demand: A Cross-National Test of the Galbraithian Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Rebecca C.; And Others

    John Kenneth Galbraith maintains that advertising is the prime instrument for the management of total consumer demand and results in increased consumption. Galbraith also maintains that television is a more effective advertising tool, in that it reaches people in all spectrums of intelligence. Other economists disagree, holding that it is actually…

  2. Meeting Increasing Demands for Rural General Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Mccarthy, Mary C; Bowers, Howard E; Campbell, Damon M; Parikh, Priti P; Woods, Randy J

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic assessment of the effective surgical workforce recommends 27,300 general surgeons in 2030; 2,525 more than are presently being trained. Rural shortages are already critical and there has been insufficient preparation for this need. A literature review of the factors influencing the choice of rural practice was performed. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed and the Web of Science to identify applicable studies in rural practice, surgical training, and rural general surgery. These articles were reviewed to identify the pertinent reports. The articles chosen for review are directed to four main objectives: 1) description of the challenges of rural practice, 2) factors associated with the choice of rural practice, 3) interventions to increase interest and preparation for rural practice, and 4) present successful rural surgical practice models. There is limited research on the factors influencing surgeons in the selection of rural surgery. The family practice literature suggests that physicians are primed for rural living through early experience, with reinforcement during medical school and residency, and retained through community involvement, and personal and professional satisfaction. However, more research into the factors drawing surgeons specifically to rural surgery, and keeping them in the community, is needed.

  3. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S. M.; Mehmood, C. A; Khan, B.; Jawad, M.; Farid, U; Jadoon, J. K.; Ali, M.; Tareen, N. K.; Usman, S.; Majid, M.; Anwar, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion. PMID:27314229

  4. Stochastic and Statistical Analysis of Utility Revenues and Weather Data Analysis for Consumer Demand Estimation in Smart Grids.

    PubMed

    Ali, S M; Mehmood, C A; Khan, B; Jawad, M; Farid, U; Jadoon, J K; Ali, M; Tareen, N K; Usman, S; Majid, M; Anwar, S M

    2016-01-01

    In smart grid paradigm, the consumer demands are random and time-dependent, owning towards stochastic probabilities. The stochastically varying consumer demands have put the policy makers and supplying agencies in a demanding position for optimal generation management. The utility revenue functions are highly dependent on the consumer deterministic stochastic demand models. The sudden drifts in weather parameters effects the living standards of the consumers that in turn influence the power demands. Considering above, we analyzed stochastically and statistically the effect of random consumer demands on the fixed and variable revenues of the electrical utilities. Our work presented the Multi-Variate Gaussian Distribution Function (MVGDF) probabilistic model of the utility revenues with time-dependent consumer random demands. Moreover, the Gaussian probabilities outcome of the utility revenues is based on the varying consumer n demands data-pattern. Furthermore, Standard Monte Carlo (SMC) simulations are performed that validated the factor of accuracy in the aforesaid probabilistic demand-revenue model. We critically analyzed the effect of weather data parameters on consumer demands using correlation and multi-linear regression schemes. The statistical analysis of consumer demands provided a relationship between dependent (demand) and independent variables (weather data) for utility load management, generation control, and network expansion.

  5. Some potential contributions of reinforcement and consumer-demand theory to reducing cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T

    1996-01-01

    Cocaine abuse remains a daunting United States public health problem. Recreational cocaine use is decreasing, but regular use indicative of dependence is stable or increasing. Treatment interventions are often characterized by high rates of early attrition and continued drug use and involve only a small proportion of cocaine users. Hence, more effective and expanded strategies for motivating individuals to forgo or reduce cocaine use are needed. This commentary has a two-part purpose: (a) to underscore the fundamental role of reinforcement in the genesis and maintenance of cocaine use and (b) to illustrate how that knowledge in combination with consumer-demand theory might be translated into effective strategies for reducing cocaine use.

  6. Impacts of demand dynamics and consumer expectations on world oil prices

    SciTech Connect

    Fromholzer, D.

    1980-12-01

    This research contributes to the study of world oil prices. We examine models of rational producers and consumers. Producers set prices or production quantities to maximize the value of their oil resources. Consumers purchase oil and other commodities to maximize utility. A market solution is a time path of prices and quantities that balances the choices of producers and consumers. Most existing models address pricing implications of alternative descriptions of the technology, organization, and objectives of producers. There has been little study of pricing implications of alternative descriptions of consumer behavior. The accurate description of demand is critical for the immediate empirical testing of alternative pricing models and for the projection of future prices. We develop a dynamic model of consumer behavior to improve our ability to address pricing implications of alternative descriptions of consumer technology and objectives. We build several simplified demand models based on this dynamic model of consumer behavior. We combine these models with simplified models of producer behavior. We test the sensitivity of pricing results to alternative assumptions about consumer price expectations and to the use of different functional forms for these models. Based on these tests, we choose two alternative models to represent demand, and we reestimate these models using recent oil market data.We generate and compare price paths for each model, and we discuss implications of these results for the world oil market. We study, in particular, consumers' ability to affect market prices. Finally, we show that price-setting producers have several nearly optimal strategies at their disposal. This gives them an ability to choose pricing strategies based on non-economic factors.

  7. Reorienting health systems to meet the demand for consumer health solutions.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, David L

    2014-01-01

    There is a clear and pronounced gap between the demand for and access to consumer health solutions. Existing health information systems and broader health system factors such as funding models are reasons for this gap. There are strong arguments from the perspectives of the consumer and population health for closing this gap, but the case from the perspective of the current health system is mixed. Closing the gap will require a concerted effort to reorient health information systems and funding models to support online access by consumers to health information and health services.

  8. Expanding Regional Airport Usage to Accommodate Increased Air Traffic Demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2009-01-01

    Small regional airports present an underutilized source of capacity in the national air transportation system. This study sought to determine whether a 50 percent increase in national operations could be achieved by limiting demand growth at large hub airports and instead growing traffic levels at the surrounding regional airports. This demand scenario for future air traffic in the United States was generated and used as input to a 24-hour simulation of the national airspace system. Results of the demand generation process and metrics predicting the simulation results are presented, in addition to the actual simulation results. The demand generation process showed that sufficient runway capacity exists at regional airports to offload a significant portion of traffic from hub airports. Predictive metrics forecast a large reduction of delays at most major airports when demand is shifted. The simulation results then show that offloading hub traffic can significantly reduce nationwide delays.

  9. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  10. Will deregulating natural gas increase its price to consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.

    1983-07-01

    Although it is likely that deregulation will increase the price consumers must pay for natural gas, this increase will occur only if the supply of gas contracts. Decontrol will result in higher wellhead prices and increased production for some categories of gas and lower wellhead prices and decreased production for others. The net effect on the supply of gas and, hence, on the consumer price of gas is not completely clear. However, an analysis of the limited data available suggests that decontrol will probably yield a reduced supply and a higher consumer price. 6 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Blockbusters and controlled substances: Miltown, Quaalude, and consumer demand for drugs in postwar America.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, David

    2011-12-01

    In 1955 Carter Products launched its new tranquilizer Miltown with a huge marketing blitz; Miltown soon became one of America's earliest "blockbuster" celebrity drugs. In 1981, federal agents shut down a network of "stress clinics" and arrested the owners, medical staff, and other personnel for illegally trafficking in the sedative Quaalude; Quaalude soon became a "Schedule I Controlled Substance." Both of these stories are familiar, indeed archetypal, moments from America's postwar medical system. As the Miltown example reminds us, this fundamentally commercial system was built on the creation and courting of consumer demand for medical products and services, particularly drugs. As the Quaalude example shows, however, this system also incorporated tools for reining in excessive consumer demand. Together the two episodes affirm an enduring irony of the American medical system: the need for regulatory campaigns to tame lively markets for drugs that had become popular, in part, because of advertising campaigns. This article uses the Miltown and Quaalude sagas to explore the issue of consumer demand for prescription medicines, arguing that efforts to stoke or quash that demand have shaped (and linked) America's medical system and its drug control regimes.

  12. Increasing consumer satisfaction. One social service and public health initiative shows how social marketing can increase consumer satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C; Kent, E B; Lindenberger, J; Schreiher, J M; Canright, M W; Cole, S; Uccellani, V; Brown, C A; Blair, R C; Bustillo-Hernandez, M M

    1998-01-01

    The key to a successful social marketing approach to health care is continually listening to consumers' feedback and being willing to change the health product or service according to their needs and preferences. This approach can increase the likelihood of consumers being satisfied with, and continuing to utilize or provide the particular health service.

  13. Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, J.L.; Pratchett, M.S.; Messmer, V.; Coker, D.J.; Tobin, A.J.; Hoey, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries. PMID:26345733

  14. Large predatory coral trout species unlikely to meet increasing energetic demands in a warming ocean.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J L; Pratchett, M S; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Tobin, A J; Hoey, A S

    2015-09-08

    Increased ocean temperature due to climate change is raising metabolic demands and energy requirements of marine ectotherms. If productivity of marine systems and fisheries are to persist, individual species must compensate for this demand through increasing energy acquisition or decreasing energy expenditure. Here we reveal that the most important coral reef fishery species in the Indo-west Pacific, the large predatory coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), can behaviourally adjust food intake to maintain body-condition under elevated temperatures, and acclimate over time to consume larger meals. However, these increased energetic demands are unlikely to be met by adequate production at lower trophic levels, as smaller prey species are often the first to decline in response to climate-induced loss of live coral and structural complexity. Consequently, ubiquitous increases in energy consumption due to climate change will increase top-down competition for a dwindling biomass of prey, potentially distorting entire food webs and associated fisheries.

  15. Urban heat island-induced increases in evapotranspirative demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, Samuel C.; Schatz, Jason; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Loheide, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Although the importance of vegetation in mitigating the urban heat island (UHI) is known, the impacts of UHI-induced changes in micrometeorological conditions on vegetation are not well understood. Here we show that plant water requirements are significantly higher in urban areas compared to rural areas surrounding Madison, WI, driven by increased air temperature with minimal effects of decreased air moisture content. Local increases in impervious cover are strongly associated with increased evapotranspirative demand in a consistent manner across years, with most increases caused by elevated temperatures during the growing season rather than changes in changes in growing season length. Potential evapotranspiration is up to 10% higher due to the UHI, potentially mitigating changes to the water and energy balances caused by urbanization. Our results indicate that local-scale land cover decisions (increases in impervious cover) can significantly impact evapotranspirative demand, with likely implications for water and carbon cycling in urban ecosystems.

  16. Decomposition of the price and income elasticities of the consumer demand for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, R.; Gillingham, R.

    1981-04-01

    The authors specify and estimate a model of the short-run demand for gasoline which allows them to decompose a consumer's gasoline demand elasticities into miles-driven and driving-efficiency components. Their model is estimated using detailed household survey data which allows direct focus on the short run, holding both the household's automobile stock and demographic profile fixed. Among the most interesting results are: (1) The data allow interesting insights to be drawn into the interrelationship between these important variables and household behavior with respect to gasoline consumption, miles driven, and driving efficiency. (2) The gasoline demand behavior of one-car and multi-car households differ significantly from each other. Evaluated at overall sample means, one-car households have higher (in absolute value) price elasticites for gasoline, miles driven and fuel-efficiency demand. Conversely, multi-car households have higher (in absolute value) total expenditure elasticities for each category. (3) For both one-car and multi-car households, roughly 75% of the estimated price elasticity and roughly 80% of the estimated total-expenditure elasticity of gasoline demand stem from the miles-driven component. The estimated fuel-efficiency elasticities, though smaller than their standard errors, indicate that households respond to changes in prices and total-expenditure levels not only by changing the number of miles they drive, but also by changing the efficiency with which they drive them. 23 references, 3 tables.

  17. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs.

  18. Wind increases "evaporative demand" but reduces plant water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.

    2015-12-01

    Transpiration is commonly conceptualised as a fraction of some potential rate, determined by stomatal or canopy resistance. Therefore, so-called "atmospheric evaporative demand" or "potential evaporation" is generally used alongside with precipitation and soil moisture to characterise the environmental conditions that affect plant water use. An increase in potential evaporation (e.g. due to climate change) is generally believed to cause increased transpiration and/or vegetation water stress, aggravating drought effects. In the present study, we investigated the question whether potential evaporation constitutes a meaningful reference for transpiration and compared sensitivity of potential evaporation and leaf transpiration to atmospheric forcing. Based on modelling results and supporting experimental evidence, we conclude that stomatal resistance cannot be parameterised as a factor relating transpiration to potential evaporation, as the ratio between transpiration and potential evaporation not only varies with stomatal resistance, but also with wind speed, air temperature, irradiance and relative humidity. Furthermore, the effect of wind speed in particular implies increase in potential evaporation, which is commonly interpreted as increased "water stress", but at the same time can reduce leaf transpiration, implying a decrease in water demand at the leaf scale. In fact, in a range of field measurements, we found that water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, enabling plants to conserve water during photosynthesis. We estimate that the observed global decrease in terrestrial near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We conclude that trends in wind speed and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have to be considered explicitly for the estimation of drought effects on

  19. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  20. The role of consumer knowledge of insurance benefits in the demand for preventive health care among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Parente, Stephen T; Salkever, David S; DaVanzo, Joan

    2005-01-01

    In 1992, the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) introduced new insurance coverage for two preventive services--influenza vaccinations and mammograms. Economists typically assume transactions occur with perfect information and foresight. As a test of the value of information, we estimate the effect of consumer knowledge of these benefits on their demand. Treating knowledge as endogenous in a two-part model of demand, we find that consumer knowledge has a substantial positive effect on the use of preventive services. Our findings suggest that strategies to educate the insured Medicare population about coverage of preventive services may have substantial social value.

  1. Phytochrome A increases tolerance to high evaporative demand.

    PubMed

    Auge, Gabriela Alejandra; Rugnone, Matías Leandro; Cortés, Leandro Emanuel; González, Carina Verónica; Zarlavsky, Gabriela; Boccalandro, Hernán Esteban; Sánchez, Rodolfo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Stresses resulting from high transpiration demand induce adjustments in plants that lead to reductions of water loss. These adjustments, including changes in water absorption, transport and/or loss by transpiration, are crucial to normal plant development. Tomato wild type (WT) and phytochrome A (phyA)-mutant plants, fri1-1, were exposed to conditions of either low or high transpiration demand and several morphological and physiological changes were measured during stress conditions. Mutant plants rapidly wilted compared to WT plants after exposure to high evaporative demand. Root size and hydraulic conductivity did not show significant differences between genotypes, suggesting that water absorption and transport through this organ could not explain the observed phenotype. Moreover, stomatal density was similar between genotypes, whereas transpiration and stomatal conductance were both lower in mutant than in WT plants. This was accompanied by a lower stem-specific hydraulic conductivity in mutant plants, which was associated to lower xylem vessel number and transversal area in fri1-1 plants, producing a reduction in water supply to the leaves, which rapidly wilted under high evaporative demand. PhyA signaling might facilitate the adjustment to environments differing widely in water evaporative demand in part through the modulation of xylem dimensions.

  2. France: oil price increases keep growth below expectations; demand for US products should remain strong

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-14

    The French economy is not growing as fast as was expected earlier. The higher import bill, due largely to OPEC oil price increases, will deplete most of the current account surplus achieved last year and accelerate inflation. France's rapid productivity growth and relatively numerous entrants into the labor force require a growth rate higher than it is expected to achieve to reduce unemployment. The full effects of the oil price increases on the French economy will be felt in 1980 with the likelihood of lower growth, increasing unemployment, higher inflation, and rising trade deficits. Many US exports, especially high-technology products, fill structural gaps in French industrial capabilities while other exports respond to strong consumer demand. (SAC)

  3. Consumer Expectations of Capacity Constrains and Their Effect on the Demand for Multi-Class Air Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battersby, Bryn D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that a consumer's decision on ticket class takes into account the expected likelihood of obtaining a seat in a particular class which, in turn, partially depends on an optimum "transaction cost". Taking into account the preferences of the consumer and the information that the consumer is endowed with, the consumer will select a ticket that includes its own optimal transaction cost. This motivates the inclusion of the capacity constraint as a proxy independent variable for these consumer expectations This then forms the basis of a model of air-travel demand with specific reference to Australia. A censored likelihood function allowing for correlation in the disturbance term across k classes is introduced. The correlation in the disturbances arises as a result of the interdependence of the capacity constraints in k different ticket classes on each flight.

  4. Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Lisa M; Roper, Catherine E; Hamilton, Bridget E; Tellez, Juan José; McSherry, Bernadette M

    2016-03-03

    Objective This paper examines the perspectives of consumers and their supporters regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Methods Five focus groups for consumers and five focus groups for supporters were conducted in four Australian cities and in one rural location. The 66 participants were asked about strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Results All participants supported the reduction of the use of seclusion and restraint. Barriers to reducing these practices related to the environment, the effects of drug and alcohol issues, lack of a human rights focus and poor recognition of trauma, stigma and discrimination. Strategies for reducing or eliminating seclusion and restraint included workforce development, environmental and cultural changes.Conclusions Participants clearly identified that the status quo needs to change and conveyed urgency for action. Participants suggested that the involvement of supporters and a range of consumer roles are integral to reducing the use of seclusion and restraint. The findings support the current policy emphasis of working towards the elimination of these practices.What is known about the topic? Mental health policies across many jurisdictions support the reduction and elimination of restraint and seclusion. Evidence suggests those subjected to restraint and seclusion largely experience a range of harmful consequences. No studies focus on the views of supporters of consumers regarding the reduction and elimination of seclusion and restraint, whereas the views of consumers appear in a minority of international studies.What does this paper add? The research enabled an opportunity to hear from people who have been personally affected by and/or have lived experience of these coercive practices. Participants identified local reforms that can uphold the human rights of consumers. They suggested practices to increase accountability, peer support and

  5. Direct-to-consumer ads can influence behavior. Advertising increases consumer knowledge and prescription drug requests.

    PubMed

    Peyrot, M; Alperstein, N M; Van Doren, D; Poli, L G

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the impact of direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising on prescription drug knowledge and the requesting behavior of consumers. The authors developed and tested a conceptual model of prescription drug knowledge and requests. Consumers' belief that drug advertising can educate them was associated with a greater amount of drug knowledge, and the belief they would upset physicians by asking for specific drugs was associated with less knowledge. The belief that drug advertising reduces prices was associated with greater probability of drug requests, and the belief that physicians should be the sole source of drug information was associated with lesser probability of request. Preference for generic drugs was associated with a lesser likelihood of requesting a specific drug. Media exposure and drug advertising awareness were associated with higher drug knowledge and a greater probability of drug requesting.

  6. Coordination of a supply chain with consumer return under vendor-managed consignment inventory and stochastic demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhihui; Chen, Dongyan; Yu, Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of the coordination policy is investigated for vendor-managed consignment inventory supply chain subject to consumer return. Here, the market demand is assumed to be affected by promotional effort and consumer return policy. The optimal consignment inventory and the optimal promotional effort level are proposed under the decentralized and centralized decisions. Based on the optimal decision conditions, the markdown allowance-promotional cost-sharing contract is investigated to coordinate the supply chain. Subsequently, the comparison between the two extreme policies shows that full-refund policy dominates the no-return policy when the returning cost and the positive effect of return policy are satisfied certain conditions. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the impacts of consumer return policy on the coordination contract and optimal profit as well as the effectiveness of the proposed supply chain decision.

  7. Reformulating partially hydrogenated vegetable oils to maximise health gains in India: is it feasible and will it meet consumer demand?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    consumer preferences. Ensuring that product reformulation is done in a way that maximises health benefits will require shifts in knowledge and subsequent demand of products, decreased reliance on palm oil, investment in research and development and increased capacity for smaller manufacturers. PMID:24308642

  8. Signs point to economic recovery and increased oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.P.A.

    1983-08-01

    A strengthening U.S. economy bodes well for the oil industry. Increased oil consumption, resulting from an expanding economy and somewhat lower oil prices, could have a major role in solidifying world oil prices at or near current levels through the end of 1983. A continuation of economic growth through 1984 and 1985 can be expected to put upward pressure on oil prices in those years.

  9. Biopesticides--towards increased consumer safety in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Katarzyna; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Łyczewska, Monika; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of new food safety regulations in the European Union has resulted in the withdrawal of many synthetic active substances used in plant protection products, in light of their potential or actual harmful effect on human and animal health, as well as on the environment. Alternatives to these compounds are being developed - naturally occurring pesticides, also referred to as biopesticides. The use of biopesticides in crop protection leads to decreased levels of pesticide residues in foods, and as a result to lower risk levels for the consumer. Biologically active agents defined as biopesticides are varied, and therefore application of the same environmental and consumer safety criteria to all of them is impossible. This presents serious complications in the approval of these pesticides as active plant protection products and in their registration. It needs to be stressed that, in the registration procedure of the European Union, biopesticides are subject to the same regulations as synthetic active substances. This situation has resulted in the need to introduce numerous new provisions in the legislation, as well as the preparation of new guidelines facilitating the registration of biopesticides. These activities aim to promote naturally originating pesticides.

  10. Literacy demands of product information intended to supplement television direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; DeJong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2004-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include "adequate provision" for dissemination of the drug's approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to which consumers were referred in 23 DTC television advertisements. SMOG assessments showed that the average reading grade levels were in the high school range for the main body sections of the materials and college-level range for the brief summary sections. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument identified specific difficulties with the materials, including content, graphics, layout, and typography features. Stronger plain language requirements are recommended. Health care providers should be aware that patients who ask about an advertised drug might not have the full information required to make an informed decision.

  11. Food demands of the emerging consumer: the role of modern food technology in meeting that challenge.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E

    1993-08-01

    Traditionally, the food industry has not been driven by technology. However, over the past decade, enormous changes have been introduced because of the changing demographics and evolving lifestyle of the consumer; the public health policies driving these lifestyle alterations; the growing fitness food market, which is a consequence of these changes; and the new aggressive posture taken by the food industry toward use of innovative technologies to satisfy consumer needs. This review is a brief description of the newer, nonbiotechnological food-science approaches that provide an unprecedented array of novel products to satisfy consumer preferences. These include engineered foods, aseptic processing, extrusion, hydroponics, intermediate-moisture foods, microencapsulation, supercritical-fluids extraction, and ingredient technology. Included under the last category is a brief description of fat substitutes that are likely to have a significant effect on the American diet.

  12. Consumer demand as a driver of improved working conditions: the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W Patrick; Dixon, Shane M; Nordvall, Anna-Carin

    2014-01-01

    This article develops and explores the 'Ergo-Brand' proposition, which posits that consumers may prefer to buy goods that are made under good working conditions (GWCs). This preference would enhance a differentiation strategy for companies, thereby fostering the application of ergonomics in production. This proposition is developed in the context of a narrative review of the literature on 'ethical consumerism'. This is supplemented with a survey study, conducted in both Canada and Sweden (n = 141) to explore this proposition. Results indicate that consumers would prefer goods made under GWCs, but not unconditionally as quality and price concerns were ranked higher. Access to information on the working conditions in production was seen as a barrier. Nevertheless, the Ergo-Brand concept may be a viable avenue in promoting attention towards ergonomics in companies - particularly if consumer habits are subject to intervention by advertising. Further research on this strategy is warranted.

  13. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    DOE PAGES

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially neededmore » immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.« less

  14. Resource demand growth and sustainability due to increased world consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Alexander V.; Balatsky, Galina I.; Borysov, Stanislav S.

    2015-03-20

    The paper aims at continuing the discussion on sustainability and attempts to forecast the impossibility of the expanding consumption worldwide due to the planet’s limited resources. As the population of China, India and other developing countries continue to increase, they would also require more natural and financial resources to sustain their growth. We coarsely estimate the volumes of these resources (energy, food, freshwater) and the gross domestic product (GDP) that would need to be achieved to bring the population of India and China to the current levels of consumption in the United States. We also provide estimations for potentially needed immediate growth of the world resource consumption to meet this equality requirement. Given the tight historical correlation between GDP and energy consumption, the needed increase of GDP per capita in the developing world to the levels of the U.S. would deplete explored fossil fuel reserves in less than two decades. These estimates predict that the world economy would need to find a development model where growth would be achieved without heavy dependence on fossil fuels.

  15. The marketability of electric vehicles: Battery performance and consumer demand for driving range

    SciTech Connect

    Kurani, K.; Sperling, D.; Turrentine, T.

    1996-11-01

    This paper reports on a four-year study of electric vehicle demand. The study was motivated by the hypothesis that most previous studies understate electric vehicle (EV) demand because they largely ignore behavior adaptations of households, the benefits of home recharging, and the likelihood that vehicle purchase and use decisions would change over time as more information and experience becomes available. The authors focused on a newly defined market segment: multi-car hybrid households, in which one car has limited driving range. The authors designed a four-stage mail survey that included a video of EV use and recharging, information material, a 3-day trip diary, and a series of vehicle choice questions. Respondents had a choice of propulsion systems, body styles and sizes, driving ranges, and other features. The variety of driving ranges offered tested the hypothesis that demand for EVs will be segmented by demand for driving range. Prices of EVs varied, but tended to be up to several thousand dollars higher than those of comparable gasoline vehicles. The questionnaires were administered to 740 multi-car households in 6 metropolitan areas of California. The response rate was 61%.

  16. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  17. Rehabilitation services after total joint replacement in Ontario, Canada: can 'prehabilitation' programs mediate an increasing demand?

    PubMed

    Landry, Michel D; Jaglal, Susan B; Wodchis, Walter P; Cooper, Nicole S; Cott, Cheryl A

    2007-12-01

    Total joint replacements (TJR) have emerged as a critical health policy issue. In particular, Canadian demand for these surgeries is forecast to grow annually by 8.7% in the next decade. Although the medical and surgical aspects of TJR have received considerable attention, very little research has explored the impact of increased TJR on the demand for rehabilitation services. In this study, we conducted seven focus group discussions across the province of Ontario (Canada) with multiple stakeholders (n=50) ranging from clinicians and administrators, to policy makers and researchers. Our results indicate that demand for rehabilitation following TJR is rising sharply and that there are three primary factors affecting such demand: (i) increase in the absolute number of TJR surgeries is increasing demand across the continuum of care; (ii) changing profile of clients whereby 'younger and active' groups are more willing to undergo surgery, and 'older and complex' groups are presenting with increased rates of medical complications and comorbidities; and (iii) widespread use of clinical pathways has increased requirements within the rehabilitation sector, but often without corresponding adjustments in levels of human resources. To align increasing demand with supply in the long term, participants offered strong support for health promotion and prevention programs, but they also highlighted the short-term benefits of implementing 'prehabilitation' programs for clients waiting for surgery. Overall, our results indicate that the demand for rehabilitation services after TJR is increasing and that innovative approaches to care delivery are required to align increasing demand with supply.

  18. Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franics, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budget-friendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to…

  19. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Garland, Hanna G; Kimbro, David L

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary's salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs.

  20. Drought Increases Consumer Pressure on Oyster Reefs in Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Hanna G.; Kimbro, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal economies and ecosystems have historically depended on oyster reefs, but this habitat has declined globally by 85% because of anthropogenic activities. In a Florida estuary, we investigated the cause of newly reported losses of oysters. We found that the oyster reefs have deteriorated from north to south and that this deterioration was positively correlated with the abundance of carnivorous conchs and water salinity. In experiments across these gradients, oysters survived regardless of salinity if conchs were excluded. After determining that conchs were the proximal cause of oyster loss, we tested whether elevated water salinity was linked to conch abundance either by increasing conch growth and survivorship or by decreasing the abundance of a predator of conchs. In field experiments across a salinity gradient, we failed to detect spatial variation in predation on conchs or in conch growth and survivorship. A laboratory experiment, however, demonstrated the role of salinity by showing that conch larvae failed to survive at low salinities. Because this estuary’s salinity increased in 2006 in response to reduced inputs of freshwater, we concluded that the ultimate cause of oyster decline was an increase in salinity. According to records from 2002 to 2012, oyster harvests have remained steady in the northernmost estuaries of this ecoregion (characterized by high reef biomass, low salinity, and low conch abundance) but have declined in the southernmost estuaries (characterized by lower reef biomass, increases in salinity, and increases in conch abundance). Oyster conservation in this ecoregion, which is probably one of the few that still support viable oyster populations, may be undermined by drought-induced increases in salinity causing an increased abundance of carnivorous conchs. PMID:26275296

  1. The battery designer's challenge — satisfying the ever-increasing demands of vehicle electrical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, John R.; Johnson, Richard T.

    The automotive battery designer of the 1990s and beyond will encounter an unprecedented array of complex challenges imposed by consumer desires, governmental mandates, and vehicle manufacturers' specifications. It is predicted that enhanced feature content in the areas of safety, convenience, performance, and guidance will result in a three- to six-fold increase in electrical power consumption in vehicles by the year 2000. In the absence of major break-throughs in vehicle electrical systems, these new loads will significantly modify the duty cycle to which the battery is subjected. The micro- and macro-environment in which the battery must survive will significantly impact the product's design and material specifications. Severe weight and size limits will be imposed on batteries in an attempt to meet mandated Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) requirements and additional pre-start electrical loads may be introduced to reduce objectionable emissions. Finally, quality and reliability levels of vehicles and their component parts must undergo continuous improvement. In order to respond to these diverse and sometimes contradictory demands, the battery designer must participate as an integral part of the vehicle electrical system development team. Design considerations for the future must include elevated and multiple voltages, multiple batteries per vehicle designed for specific functions, and further improvements in power and energy density, as well as cycle-life.

  2. [Survey of consumer demand for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations].

    PubMed

    Khmelidze, M G; Ernashvili, V M; Abuladze, N B; Dugashvili, N G

    2007-01-01

    Subject of marketing research may represent medical means as well as consumers which are characterizing the market. The significant and spread out methods of segmentation is group method with one or some signs, also structural and statistical analysis methods. In the grouping process the geographical, demographic, social-economic and sociological principles are frequently used. Segmentation is the method to represent the difference on the basis of defined principles. 107 persons were participated in the interviews, among them 93 women and 14 men. Their age from 20-up to 60, among them 43 participants were with high education, 22 with technical and 20 with secondary education. The majority of population (51,4%) gets the information about new medicines by advertisements. The sources of getting information are equally from doctors (23,37%) and the chemists (23,37%); from other means this index is very low (1,86%). The population gives the priority to import insteroidic antiphlogistic medical means (45, 78%); less to native medicines (24,3%) and 29,9 % of participants can't give the answer on this question. The population mostly use tablets (78,5%), ampoules (11,21%); capsules (5,6%), ointment (3,75%) and candles (9,94%). Our study showed, that population more often use aspirin, diklophenak, indometacin, ibuprophen, ketoprofen. The main factors on the choosing the medicines are quality and price, producing firm's country prestige.

  3. Evidence-based Heuristics for Evaluating Demands on eHealth Literacy and Usability in a Mobile Consumer Health Application.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Heuristic evaluations have proven to be valuable for identifying usability issues in systems. Commonly used sets of heuritics exist; however, they may not always be the most suitable, given the specific goal of the analysis. One such example is seeking to evaluate the demands on eHealth literacy and usability of consumer health information systems. In this study, eight essential heuristics and three optional heuristics subsumed from the evidence on eHealth/health literacy and usability were tested for their utility in assessing a mobile blood pressure tracking application (app). This evaluation revealed a variety of ways the design of the app could both benefit and impede users with limited eHealth literacy. This study demonstrated the utility of a low-cost, single evaluation approach for identifying both eHealth literacy and usability issues based on existing evidence in the literature.

  4. The increasing importance of atmospheric demand for ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novick, Kimberly A.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Stoy, Paul C.; Williams, Christopher A.; Bohrer, Gil; Oishi, A. Christopher; Papuga, Shirley A.; Blanken, Peter D.; Noormets, Asko; Sulman, Benjamin N.; Scott, Russell L.; Wang, Lixin; Phillips, Richard P.

    2016-11-01

    Soil moisture supply and atmospheric demand for water independently limit--and profoundly affect--vegetation productivity and water use during periods of hydrologic stress. Disentangling the impact of these two drivers on ecosystem carbon and water cycling is difficult because they are often correlated, and experimental tools for manipulating atmospheric demand in the field are lacking. Consequently, the role of atmospheric demand is often not adequately factored into experiments or represented in models. Here we show that atmospheric demand limits surface conductance and evapotranspiration to a greater extent than soil moisture in many biomes, including mesic forests that are of particular importance to the terrestrial carbon sink. Further, using projections from ten general circulation models, we show that climate change will increase the importance of atmospheric constraints to carbon and water fluxes in all ecosystems. Consequently, atmospheric demand will become increasingly important for vegetation function, accounting for >70% of growing season limitation to surface conductance in mesic temperate forests. Our results suggest that failure to consider the limiting role of atmospheric demand in experimental designs, simulation models and land management strategies will lead to incorrect projections of ecosystem responses to future climate conditions.

  5. Physician production is at a steady supply, but demand for physician services is increasing.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Perry

    2004-01-01

    A shortage of physicians, not a surplus, is now predicted in the United States, a mismatch of supply at the same annual rate compared to constantly increasing demand. The yearly renewal from U.S. graduates and international medical graduates completing graduate medical education is now in a steady state. The ripple effect of expanded cohorts of actively practicing physicians proceeding through the practice span shows the beginning signs of stabilization. The demand and need for physician services in healthcare delivery continue to rise as population, aging, economic expansion, and technology inexorably increase. The gap in the balance of steady supply and increasing demand produces a dilemma that worsens over time, uncertain as to intervention. An informed dialogue is important to ascertain the role and emphasis of market-place incremental steps and/or the possibilities of governmental intrusion. The time frame for action, as new goals emerge, is approaching given a decade or more years necessary in new physician production.

  6. Consumer behavior and energy-demand forecasts for the United States: a synthesis of neoclassical and behavioral approaches using the Standord Pilot CESM

    SciTech Connect

    Barzelay, M.; Iusem, A.

    1984-08-01

    The Stanford PILOT Consumer Energy Services Module (CESM) assumes that consumers have specific goals and the capacity to realize those goals within the constraints, primarily disposable income, they face. The model details two sets of choice possibilities affecting utility maximization: the level of demand for energy services and the selection of energy systems. The principal weakness of the neoclassical CESM approach is its assumption that consumers are able to adjust to changes in their external environment in a predictable manner. Combining CESM with techniques of marketing research offers forecasters a more realistic, flexible, and comprehensive planning tool. 7 references, 6 tables.

  7. Non-Governmental Religious Schools in Germany--Increasing Demand by Decreasing Religiosity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheunpflug, Annette

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the situation of non-governmental religious schools in Germany. The available empirical data demonstrate an increasing demand for these schools in recent decades. In this paper, possible causes of this development are discussed. First, the given constitutional framework for religion in governmental and non-governmental schools…

  8. Sensitivity to Increased Task Demands: Contributions from Data-Driven and Conceptually Driven Information Processing Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae M.; Marler, Jeffrey A.; Wynn-Dancy, M. Lorraine

    2002-01-01

    This article explores evidence related to the idea that children with language impairments present co-occurring limitations in data-driven and conceptually driven processing. It concludes that together, these limitations contribute to a heightened sensitivity to increasing task demands in children with language impairments. Assessment and…

  9. Increase in the Demand for Private Higher Education: Unmasking the "Paradox"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garwe, Evelyn Chiyevo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It is considered a mystery by many people that, despite charging significantly higher fees when compared to public institutions, research has shown an increase in the demand and enrolments at private higher education institutions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the critical factors considered by students when deciding to make…

  10. Drivers for the Value of Demand Response under Increased Levels of Wind and Solar Power; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Elaine

    2015-07-30

    Demand response may be a valuable flexible resource for low-carbon electric power grids. However, there are as many types of possible demand response as there are ways to use electricity, making demand response difficult to study at scale in realistic settings. This talk reviews our state of knowledge regarding the potential value of demand response in several example systems as a function of increasing levels of wind and solar power, sometimes drawing on the analogy between demand response and storage. Overall, we find demand response to be promising, but its potential value is very system dependent. Furthermore, demand response, like storage, can easily saturate ancillary service markets.

  11. Novel anatomic adaptation of cortical bone to meet increased mineral demands of reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macica, Carolyn M; King, Helen E; Wang, Meina; McEachon, Courtney L; Skinner, Catherine W; Tommasini, Steven M

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of reproductive adaptations to mineral homeostasis on the skeleton in a mouse model of compromised mineral homeostasis compared to adaptations in control, unaffected mice. During pregnancy, maternal adaptations to high mineral demand include more than doubling intestinal calcium absorption by increasing calcitriol production. However, calcitriol biosynthesis is impaired in HYP mice, a murine model of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). In addition, there is a paucity of mineralized trabecular bone, a primary target of bone resorption during pregnancy and lactation. Because the highest density of mineral is in mature cortical bone, we hypothesized that mineral demand is met by utilizing intracortical mineral reserves. Indeed, analysis of HYP mice revealed dramatic increases in intracortical porosity characterized by elevated serum PTH and type-I collagen matrix-degrading enzyme MMP-13. We discovered an increase in carbonate ion substitution in the bone mineral matrix during pregnancy and lactation of HYP mice, suggesting an alternative mechanism of bone remodeling that maintains maternal bone mass during periods of high mineral demand. This phenomenon is not restricted to XLH, as increased carbonate in the mineral matrix also occurred in wild-type mice during lactation. Taken together, these data suggest that increased intracortical perilacunar mineral turnover also contributes to maintaining phosphate levels during periods of high mineral demand. Understanding the mechanisms of skeletal contribution to mineral homeostasis is important to improving the treatment and prevention of fracture risk and bone fragility for female patients with XLH, but also provides important insight into the role and unique adaptations of the maternal skeleton to the demands of fetal development and the needs of postnatal nutrition.

  12. Modification of impulse generation during piqué turns with increased rotational demands.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-06-01

    During initiation of a piqué turn, a dancer generates impulse to achieve the desired lateral translation and whole-body rotation. The goal of this study was to determine how individuals regulate impulse generation when initiating piqué turns with increased rotational demands. Skilled dancers (n=10) performed single (∼360°) and double (∼720°) piqué turns from a stationary position. Linear and angular impulse generated by the push and turn legs were quantified using ground reaction forces and compared across turn conditions as a group and within a dancer using probability-based statistical methods. The results indicate that as the rotation demands of the piqué turn increased, the net angular impulse generated increased whereas net lateral impulse decreased. Early during turn initiation, the free moment contributed to angular impulse generation. Later during turn initiation, horizontal reaction forces were controlled to generate angular impulse. As rotational demands increased, the moment applied increased primarily from redirection of the horizontal reaction force (RFh) at the push leg and a combination of RFh magnitude and moment arm increases at the turn leg. RFh at each leg were coordinated to limit unwanted net linear impulse. Knowledge of observed subject-specific mechanisms is important to inform the design of turning performance training tools.

  13. Modification of Impulse Generation During Pirouette Turns With Increased Rotational Demands.

    PubMed

    Zaferiou, Antonia M; Wilcox, Rand R; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2016-10-01

    This study determined how dancers regulated angular and linear impulse during the initiation of pirouettes of increased rotation. Skilled dancers (n = 11) performed single and double pirouette turns with each foot supported by a force plate. Linear and angular impulses generated by each leg were quantified and compared between turn types using probability-based statistical methods. As rotational demands increased, dancers increased the net angular impulse generated. The contribution of each leg to net angular impulse in both single and double pirouettes was influenced by stance configuration strategies. Dancers who generated more angular impulse with the push leg than with the turn leg initiated the turn with the center of mass positioned closer to the turn leg than did other dancers. As rotational demands increased, dancers tended to increase the horizontal reaction force magnitude at one or both feet; however, they used subject-specific mechanisms. By coordinating the generation of reaction forces between legs, changes in net horizontal impulse remained minimal, despite impulse regulation at each leg used to achieve more rotations. Knowledge gained regarding how an individual coordinates the generation of linear and angular impulse between both legs as rotational demand increased can help design tools to improve that individual's performance.

  14. Motor Variability during Sustained Contractions Increases with Cognitive Demand in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Noven, Marnie L.; Pereira, Hugo M.; Yoon, Tejin; Stevens, Alyssa A.; Nielson, Kristy A.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations) and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20.4 ± 2.1 year: 8 men, 9 women) and 17 older adults (68.8 ± 4.4 years: 9 men, 8 women) attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: (1) high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number); (2) low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by 1); and (3) control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p  < 0.05). Older adults had larger force fluctuations than young adults during: (1) the 5% MVC task as cognitive demand increased (p  = 0.007), and (2) the fatiguing contraction for all sessions (p  = 0.002). Time to task failure did not differ between sessions or age groups (p  > 0.05), but the variability between sessions (standard deviation of three sessions) was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, p  < 0.05). Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low- and moderate-force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks

  15. Repetitive determination of chemical oxygen demand by cyclic flow injection analysis using on-line regeneration of consumed permanganate.

    PubMed

    Zenki, Michio; Fujiwara, Satoru; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    A cyclic flow injection analysis (cyclic FIA) for the repetitive determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was developed. The acidic KMnO4 method was carried out by adopting a single-line circulating flow system. The oxidant (KMnO4) consumed by the oxidation of organic substances was regenerated and reused repeatedly, resulting in an extreme reduction of hazardous wastes. Only 50 ml of the reagent carrier solution containing 0.2 mM KMnO4 and 1 mM HIO4 in 0.8 M H2SO4 solution was continuously circulated through the system. The KMnO4 could play two roles: acting as an oxidant of the organic substances and/or a spectrophotometric reagent. The co-existing HIO4 acted as a regenerator of KMnO4, which made it possible to recycle the system repeatedly. Under two different digestions (70 and 130 degrees C), 50 repetitive determinations of standard sodium oxalate (6.5 mg COD L(-1)) and D-glucose (7.2 mg COD L(-1)) were skillfully carried out with a slightly decreased baseline. The analytical frequency was 30 samples per hour for COD determination. The proposed method saved consumption of the used reagents, KMnO4 and H2SO4, and thus these wastes were extremely reduced. The obtained COD values with the proposed method were co-related with those provided by the manual standard method, but were fairly low owing to the insufficient digestion step.

  16. Subtoxic product levels limit the epoxidation capacity of recombinant E. coli by increasing microbial energy demands.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Daniel; Fritzsch, Frederik S O; Zhang, Xiumei; Wendisch, Volker F; Blank, Lars M; Bühler, Bruno; Schmid, Andreas

    2013-01-20

    The utilization of the cellular metabolism for cofactor regeneration is a common motivation for the application of whole cells in redox biocatalysis. Introduction of an active oxidoreductase into a microorganism has profound consequences on metabolism, potentially affecting metabolic and biotransformation efficiency. An ambitious goal of systems biotechnology is to design process-relevant and knowledge-based engineering strategies to improve biocatalyst performance. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) has shown that the competition for NAD(P)H between redox biocatalysis and the energy metabolism becomes critical during asymmetric styrene epoxidation catalyzed by growing Escherichia coli containing recombinant styrene monooxygenase. Engineering TCA-cycle regulation allowed increased TCA-cycle activities, a delay of acetate formation, and enhanced NAD(P)H yields during batch cultivation. However, at low biomass and product concentrations, the cellular metabolism of both the mutants as well as the native host strains could cope with increased NADH demands during continuous two-liquid phase biotransformations, whereas elevated but still subtoxic product concentrations were found to cause a significantly increased NAD(P)H demand and a compromised efficiency of metabolic operation. In conclusion, operational conditions determine cellular energy and NAD(P)H demands and thus the biocatalytic efficiency of whole-cell redox biocatalysts.

  17. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  18. Increased cognitive demands boost the spatial interference effect in bimanual pointing.

    PubMed

    Stanciu, Ioana; Biehl, Stefanie C; Hesse, Constanze

    2016-03-02

    It is beyond controversy that in bimanual coordination tasks, parameter planning related to the movements of one hand influences the planning and execution of movements simultaneously performed with the other hand. A well-researched example of such bimanual interference is the finding that reaction times tend to be longer when preparing bimanual pointing movements with different amplitudes than for equal amplitude movements. Interestingly, these reaction time costs were found to increase when movement targets were cued symbolically (e.g., using letters) as compared to spatially. Therefore, it was suggested that interference may be primarily related to cue translation and response selection processes rather than resulting from cross-talk at the motor programming level. Here, we argue that spatial interference effects do not necessarily depend on the type of cues used but instead depend on the general task demands (difficulty). In two experiments we show that bimanual interference effects can (1) be abolished in symbolic cueing conditions when highly compatible cues placing minimal demands on response selection processes are used and (2) occur in direct/spatial cueing conditions when a secondary cognitively demanding, but movement-unrelated task is performed. Thus, our findings suggest that whether or not interference effects emerge during movement planning depends on the overall task difficulty and hence the resources available during movement preparation.

  19. Pilot Study on Reconciling Supply and Demand: Who are the Consumers of Information on the North American Carbon Balance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Pielke, R.; Sarewitz, D.

    2004-12-01

    A major stated goal of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) is to advance scientific understanding of the carbon balance of North America. The scientific reasoning behind this focus has been articulated previously (NACP 2002), and includes the need to resolve differences in the magnitude of carbon exchange over the region estimated by independent methods. In addition to these scientific reasons for focusing on the carbon balance of North America, the NACP has also stated that these results will support management of the carbon cycle by providing information of use to society and policy makers (North American Carbon Program Plan 2002, Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program 2003). Given the ever-increasing interest in carbon sequestration and carbon management in business, government, technical and policy sectors, this is a natural assumption to make; but the hypothesis has not yet been tested. It is a research question, therefore, to understand precisely what needs exist, and how information on the North American carbon balance will meet them. This study will summarize briefly what is meant by the North American carbon balance, examine the issue of scale and measurement compatibility, provide a first look at the categories of potential users of such information, and outline a strategy for an in depth study of targeted sectors. This research builds on the concept of "Supply and Demand," borrowed from the classic economic concept of markets being driven by supply and demand for goods. The concept is applied to the use of information in order to identify where there is a good match of information needs and supply, and where there is a "missed opportunity," or a chance to perhaps better connect the supply of scientific information to societal need. Research on the use of information in climate prediction and water management areas suggests that such a systematic approach is necessary to realize the potential usefulness of research, avoid misuse

  20. Exposure to Deepwater Horizon weathered crude oil increases routine metabolic demand in chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Dane H; Dale, Jonathan J; Machado, Benjamin E; Incardona, John P; Farwell, Charles J; Block, Barbara A

    2015-09-15

    During the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident, the continuous release of crude oil from the damaged Macondo 252 wellhead on the ocean floor contaminated surface water habitats for pelagic fish for more than 12weeks. The spill occurred across pelagic, neritic and benthic waters, impacting a variety of ecosystems. Chemical components of crude oil are known to disrupt cardiac function in juvenile fish, and here we investigate the effects of oil on the routine metabolic rate of chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus. Mackerel were exposed to artificially weathered Macondo 252 crude oil, prepared as a Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF), for 72 or 96h. Routine metabolic rates were determined pre- and post-exposure using an intermittent-flow, swim tunnel respirometer. Routine energetic demand increased in all mackerels in response to crude oil and reached statistical significance relative to unexposed controls at 96h. Chemical analyses of bile from exposed fish revealed elevated levels of fluorescent metabolites, confirming the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the exposure WAF. The observed increase in metabolic demand is likely attributable to the bioenergetic costs of contaminant detoxification. These results indicate that short-term exposure (i.e. days) to oil has sub-lethal toxicity to mackerel and results in physiological stress during the active spill phase of the incident.

  1. Can Standards Increase Consumer Welfare? Evidence from a Change in Clothes Washer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiaomei; Roberts, Michael J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Dale, Larry

    2012-12-08

    We study prices and sales of individual clothes washer models before, during and after a 2007 standard that banned manufacture (but not sale) of low-e ciency units and increased the threshold for Energy Star certi cation. While quantities sold of washer models banned from manufacture decreased sharply, prices for banned models increased only modestly. At the same time, sales of higher-e ciency units rose markedly while prices for high-e ciency units declined. On average, washer e ciency increased but prices changed little. A simple welfare analysis indicates that consumer welfare loss from banned washers was far outweighed by gains from lower-priced high-e ciency units. While a full cost-bene t analysis is not feasible with the available data, we estimate a lower-bound gain in consumer surplus equal to 6-16 percent of total sales. This result may accord with earlier theoretical research that shows quality standards can increase welfare in monopolistically competitive industries that possess increasing returns to scale (Ronnen, 1991). Thus, if energy e ciency is a close proxy for quality, energy e ciency standards may increase competition, market e ciency and welfare.

  2. Accumulation of cholesterol and increased demand for zinc in serum-deprived RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sanghamitra; Peterson, Katherine; Yin, Lili; Berger, Alan; Fan, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Having observed that confluent ARPE-19 cells (derived from human RPE) survive well in high-glucose serum-free medium (SFM) without further feeding for several days, we investigated the expression profile of RPE cells under the same conditions. Methods Expression profiles were examined with microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses, followed by western blot analysis of key regulated proteins. The effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and zinc supplementation were examined with qPCR. Immunofluorescence was used to localize the LDL receptor and to examine LDL uptake. Cellular cholesterol levels were measured with filipin binding. Expression patterns in primary fetal RPE cells were compared using qPCR. Results Microarray analyses of gene expression in ARPE-19, confirmed with qPCR, showed upregulation of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in SFM. At the protein level, the cholesterol synthesis control factor SRBEF2 was activated, and other key lipid synthesis proteins increased. Supplementation of SFM with LDL reversed the upregulation of lipid and cholesterol synthesis genes, but not of cholesterol transport genes. The LDL receptor relocated to the plasma membrane, and LDL uptake was activated by day 5–7 in SFM, suggesting increased demand for cholesterol. Confluent ARPE-19 cells in SFM accumulated intracellular cholesterol, compared with cells supplemented with serum, over 7 days. Over the same time course in SFM, the expression of metallothioneins decreased while the major zinc transporter was upregulated, consistent with a parallel increase in demand for zinc. Supplementation with zinc reversed expression changes for metallothionein genes, but not for other zinc-related genes. Similar patterns of regulation were also seen in primary fetal human RPE cells in SFM. Conclusions ARPE-19 cells respond to serum deprivation and starvation with upregulation of the lipid and cholesterol pathways, accumulation of intracellular cholesterol, and

  3. Female but not male zebra finches adjust heat output in response to increased incubation demand.

    PubMed

    Hill, Davina L; Lindström, Jan; McCafferty, Dominic J; Nager, Ruedi G

    2014-04-15

    In many incubating birds, heat transfer from parent to egg is facilitated by the brood patch, an area of ventral abdominal skin that becomes highly vascularised, swells and loses its down feathers around the time of laying. Only the female develops a brood patch in most passerine species, but males of some species can incubate and maintain the eggs at similar temperatures to females even without a brood patch. Here we used a novel application of infrared thermography to examine sex differences in parental care from a physiological perspective. Using incubating male and female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a species in which the male lacks a brood patch, we measured the surface temperature of the ventral plumage overlying the abdomen and a reference area that does not contact the eggs (thorax) twice per pair. In half of the pairs, clutch size was experimentally enlarged between the two sets of measurements to increase incubation demand. We found that the temperature differential between abdomen and thorax plumage was greater in females than in males, and that abdomen plumage was warmer after clutch enlargement than before in females but not in males. These findings are consistent with morphological sex differences in brood patch development and suggest that male and female zebra finches differ in the way they regulate abdomen versus general body surface temperature in response to variation in incubation demand.

  4. Increases in ROPS pricing from 2006-2012 and the impact on ROPS demand.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, J A; Jenkins, P L; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Purschwitz, M A; May, J J

    2013-04-01

    In 2006, a social marketing campaign was developed to increase the installation of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on unprotected New York tractors. Using data gathered from the program's hotline, the impact of price increases on farmers' interest in ROPS is examined. Pricing data were obtained for all rigid ROPS kits commercially available in the U.S. since 2006. These data were stratified into two groups of ROPS suppliers: (1) tractor manufacturers that sell ROPS for their own tractors, referred to in this study as original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), and (2) aftermarket (AM) ROPS suppliers. The trend in price increases was contrasted with the change in the consumer price index (CPI), the probability of retrofitting within quintiles of cost was estimated, and the increase in ROPS prices over time was plotted The average price increase for a ROPS kit (excluding shipping and installation) over the six years of the study was 23.3% for OEM versus 60.5% for AM (p < 0.0001). Out-of-pocket expenses held steady for OEM versus a six-year increase of $203 for AM (p = 0.098). The probability of a farmer retrofitting dropped monotonically from 66.9% in the lowest ROPS cost quintile to 23% in the highest. If these trends continue, the proportion of inquiries resulting in a ROPS retrofit will fall below 20% by 2020 for AM ROPS. Based on other trends identified in the literature, it is reasonable to assume that decreases in ROPS installation are likely to affect the tractor owners who are most likely to need these safety devices.

  5. Higher Balance Task Demands are Associated with an Increase in Individual Alpha Peak Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Hülsdünker, Thorben; Mierau, Andreas; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    Balance control is fundamental for most daily motor activities, and its impairment is associated with an increased risk of falling. Growing evidence suggests the human cortex is essentially contributing to the control of standing balance. However, the exact mechanisms remain unclear and need further investigation. In a previous study, we introduced a new protocol to identify electrocortical activity associated with performance of different continuous balance tasks with the eyes opened. The aim of this study was to extend our previous results by investigating the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a neurophysiological marker of thalamo-cortical information transmission, which remained unconsidered so far in balance research. Thirty-seven subjects completed nine balance tasks varying in surface stability and base of support. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded from 32 scalp locations throughout balancing with the eyes closed to ensure reliable identification of the iAPF. Balance performance was quantified as the sum of anterior-posterior and medio-lateral movements of the supporting platform. The iAPF, as well as power in the theta, lower alpha and upper alpha frequency bands were determined for each balance task after applying an ICA-based artifact rejection procedure. Higher demands on balance control were associated with a global increase in iAPF and a decrease in lower alpha power. These results may indicate increased thalamo-cortical information transfer and general cortical activation, respectively. In addition, a significant increase in upper alpha activity was observed in the fronto-central region whereas it decreased in the centro-parietal region. Furthermore, midline theta increased with higher task demands probably indicating activation of error detection/processing mechanisms. IAPF as well as theta and alpha power were correlated with platform movements. The results provide new insights into spectral and spatial characteristics of cortical

  6. THE DYT1 CARRIER STATE INCREASES ENERGY DEMAND IN THE OLIVOCEREBELLAR NETWORK

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu; Sharma, Nutan; LeDoux, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    DYT1 dystonia is caused by a GAG deletion in TOR1A, the gene which encodes torsinA. Gene expression studies in rodents and functional imaging studies in humans suggest that DYT1 dystonia may be a network disorder of neurodevelopmental origin. To generate high resolution metabolic maps of DYT1 dystonia and pinpoint dysregulated network elements, we performed 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry in transgenic mice expressing human mutant (hMT1) torsinA and wild-type littermates. In comparison with controls, hMT1 mice showed increased glucose utilization (GU) in the inferior olive (IO) medial nucleus (IOM), IO dorsal accessory nucleus and substantia nigra compacta, and decreased GU in the medial globus pallidus (MGP) and lateral globus pallidus. The hMT1 mice showed increased CO activity in the IOM and Purkinje cell layer of cerebellar cortex, and decreased CO activity in the caudal caudate-putamen, substantia nigra reticulata and MGP. These findings suggest that (1) the DYT1 carrier state increases energy demand in the olivocerebellar network and (2) the IO may be a pivotal node for abnormal basal ganglia-cerebellar interactions in dystonia. PMID:21241782

  7. The role of psychological determinants and demographic factors in consumer demand for farm-to-fork traceability systems.

    PubMed

    Myae, Aye Chan; Goddard, Ellen; Aubeeluck, Ashwina

    2011-01-01

    Traceability systems are an important tool (1) for tracking, monitoring, and managing product flows through the supply chain for better efficiency and profitability of suppliers, and (2) to improve consumer confidence in the face of serious food safety incidents. After the global bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis affected producers, consumers, trade, and the health status of animals and humans, new systems to help confirm the status of cattle products along the supply chain from farm to fork were implemented in many countries (Trautman et al. 2008 ). In this study, people's overall food safety beliefs are explored with the main objective of measuring the link between their food safety beliefs and their attitudes toward traceability. A comparison is made among English-speaking Canadians, French-speaking Canadians, and Japanese consumers. In the study, an Internet-based survey was used to collect data from nationally representative samples of the population in Canada-English (1275), Canada-French (343), and Japanese (1940) in the summer of 2009. Respondents' interests in traceability systems are clearly linked to their sense that the industry is primarily responsible for any food safety outbreaks. Moreover, it is clear that certain segments of the population in all samples feel strongly about the importance of farm to fork traceability in beef; thus, policymakers may wish to consider extending traceability beyond the point of slaughter as a way of encouraging beef sales in Canada.

  8. Seed dispersal by pulp consumers, not "legitimate" seed dispersers, increases Guettarda viburnoides population growth.

    PubMed

    Loayza, Andrea P; Knight, Tiffany

    2010-09-01

    We examined the effect of seed dispersal by Purplish Jays (Cyanocorax cyanomelas; pulp consumers) and the Chestnut-eared Araçari (Pteroglossus castanotis; "legitimate" seed dispersers) on population growth of the small tree Guettarda viburnoides (Rubiaceae) in northeastern Bolivian savannas. Because each bird species differs with respect to feeding and post-feeding behavior, we hypothesized that seed dispersal by each species will contribute differently to the rate of increase of G. viburnoides, but that seed dispersal by either species will increase population growth when compared to a scenario with no seed dispersal. To examine the effects of individual dispersers on the future population size of G. viburnoides, we projected population growth rate using demographic models for G. viburnoides that explicitly incorporate data on quantitative and qualitative aspects of seed dispersal by each frugivore species. Our model suggests that seed dispersal by C. cyanomelas leads to positive population growth of G. viburnoides, whereas seed dispersal by P. castanotis has a detrimental effect on the population growth of this species. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report negative effects of a "legitimate" seed disperser on the population dynamics of the plant it consumes. Our results stress the importance of incorporating frugivore effects into population projection matrices, to allow a comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of different dispersers for plant population dynamics.

  9. The neurodevelopmental differences of increasing verbal working memory demand in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Vogan, V M; Morgan, B R; Powell, T L; Smith, M L; Taylor, M J

    2016-02-01

    Working memory (WM) - temporary storage and manipulation of information in the mind - is a key component of cognitive maturation, and structural brain changes throughout development are associated with refinements in WM. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that there is greater activation in prefrontal and parietal brain regions with increasing age, with adults showing more refined, localized patterns of activations. However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of verbal WM development, as the majority of reports examine visuo-spatial WM. We used fMRI and a 1-back verbal WM task with six levels of difficulty to examine the neurodevelopmental changes in WM function in 40 participants, twenty-four children (ages 9-15 yr) and sixteen young adults (ages 20-25 yr). Children and adults both demonstrated an opposing system of cognitive processes with increasing cognitive demand, where areas related to WM (frontal and parietal regions) increased in activity, and areas associated with the default mode network decreased in activity. Although there were many similarities in the neural activation patterns associated with increasing verbal WM capacity in children and adults, significant changes in the fMRI responses were seen with age. Adults showed greater load-dependent changes than children in WM in the bilateral superior parietal gyri, inferior frontal and left middle frontal gyri and right cerebellum. Compared to children, adults also showed greater decreasing activation across WM load in the bilateral anterior cingulate, anterior medial prefrontal gyrus, right superior lateral temporal gyrus and left posterior cingulate. These results demonstrate that while children and adults activate similar neural networks in response to verbal WM tasks, the extent to which they rely on these areas in response to increasing cognitive load evolves between childhood and adulthood.

  10. Increased demand for steroid therapy in hyperprolactinemic patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Bakosová, J; Payer, J; Lukác, J; Raffayová, H; Vigas, M

    2001-01-01

    The role of increased plasma prolactin (PRL) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not fully explained. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features and the treatment administered in RA patients with normal and elevated plasma PRL concentrations. Forty-nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 16 healthy subjects were included in this study In healthy controls, PRL concentrations were 7.6 micro/l (median), in 34 patients plasma PRL was less than 20 micro/l (9.9 micro/l) and in 15 patients it was elevated, with a median of 26.7 micro/l. No differences in clinical features were found compared with normal or increased plasma PRL. The introduction of corticoid therapy produced a significant difference. Steroid therapy was administered to 93% of the patients with hyperprolactinemia, compared with 59% of those with normal PRL concentrations. Daily prednisone doses higher than 5 mg were administered to 43% of the patients with elevated PRL, compared with 25% of patients with normal prolactin concentrations. In conclusion, the clinical feature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis did not differ in subjects with elevated PRL concentrations and in those with normal concentrations. The difference between these two groups was in the higher demand for steroid therapy in patients with hyperprolactinemia.

  11. Potential Impact of Increased Use of Biocides in Consumer Products on Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter; McBain, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    There has recently been much controversy surrounding the increased use of antibacterial substances in a wide range of consumer products and the possibility that, as with antibiotics, indiscriminate use of biocides might contribute to the overall pattern of susceptibility in the general environment and in the clinic. Such speculation, based on the isolation of resistant mutants from in vitro monoculture experiments, is not reflected by an emergence of biocide-resistant strains in vivo. This review provides a broad coverage of the biocide and resistance literature and evaluates the potential risks, perceived from such laboratory monoculture experiments, against evidence gathered over 50 years of field studies. An explanation for the continued effectiveness of broad-spectrum biocidal agents against the decline in efficacy of therapeutic agents is provided based on the fitness costs of resistance and the ubiquity of naturally occurring substances that possess antibacterial effect. While we conclude from this review of the literature that the incorporation of antibacterial agents into a widening sphere of personal products has had little or no impact on the patterns of microbial susceptibility observed in the environment, the associated risks remain finite. The use of such products should therefore be associated with a clear demonstration of added value either to consumer health or to the product life. Hygienic products should therefore be targeted to applications for which the risks have been established. PMID:12692093

  12. Disrupting monotony while increasing demand: benefits of rest and intervening tasks on vigilance.

    PubMed

    Ralph, Brandon C W; Onderwater, Kris; Thomson, David R; Smilek, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    In the experiments presented here, we examined the impact of intervening tasks on the vigilance decrement. In Experiment 1 participants either (a) continuously performed a visuospatial vigilance task, (b) received a rest break, or (c) temporarily performed a different, demanding visuospatial task in the middle of the vigil. Both taking a rest break and performing the intervening task were found to alleviate the vigilance decrement in response times. Target detection accuracy was equivalent across groups. In Experiment 2 we obtained subjective ratings of task demand, boredom, motivation, and mind wandering for both the vigilance task and intervening task administered in Experiment 1. The intervening task was rated as more demanding in terms of mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, own performance, effort, and frustration. In addition, participants also reported being more bored, less motivated, and reported mind wandering more frequently when completing the vigil. Disruptions to task monotony (even if cognitively demanding), can alleviate the vigilance decrement. The implications of this finding with respect to current theoretical accounts of the vigilance decrement are discussed.

  13. Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial consumer reliance on a stream resource subsidy.

    PubMed

    Davis, John M; Rosemond, Amy D; Small, Gaston E

    2011-11-01

    Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem boundaries and subsidize predators in recipient ecosystems. Here, we quantified the biomass and abundance of aquatic emergence and terrestrial spiders in a reference and treatment stream that had been continuously enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus for 5 years. Because we previously showed that enrichment increased secondary production of stream consumers, we predicted that aquatic emergence flux would be higher in the treatment stream, subsequently increasing the biomass and abundance of terrestrial spiders. Those increases were predicted to be greatest for spiders specializing on aquatic emergence subsidies (e.g., Tetragnathidae). By adding a (15)N stable isotope tracer to both streams, we also quantified nitrogen flow from the stream into the riparian community. Emergence biomass, but not abundance, was higher in the treatment stream. The average body size of emerging adult insects and the relative dominance of Trichoptera adults were also greater in the treatment stream. However, spider biomass did not differ between streams. Spiders also exhibited substantially lower reliance on aquatic emergence nitrogen in the treatment stream. This reduced reliance likely resulted from shifts in the body size distributions and community composition of insect emergence that may have altered predator consumption efficiency in the treatment stream. Despite nutrient enrichment approximately doubling stream productivity and associated cross-ecosystem resource flows, the response of terrestrial predators depended more on the resource subsidy's characteristics that affected the predator's ability to capitalize on such increases.

  14. Adaptive evolution of mitochondrial energy metabolism genes associated with increased energy demand in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunxia; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Guo, Yan; Yang, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Insects are unique among invertebrates for their ability to fly, which raises intriguing questions about how energy metabolism in insects evolved and changed along with flight. Although physiological studies indicated that energy consumption differs between flying and non-flying insects, the evolution of molecular energy metabolism mechanisms in insects remains largely unexplored. Considering that about 95% of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is supplied by mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation, we examined 13 mitochondrial protein-encoding genes to test whether adaptive evolution of energy metabolism-related genes occurred in insects. The analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA protein-encoding genes are subject to positive selection from the last common ancestor of Pterygota, which evolved primitive flight ability. Positive selection was also found in insects with flight ability, whereas no significant sign of selection was found in flightless insects where the wings had degenerated. In addition, significant positive selection was also identified in the last common ancestor of Neoptera, which changed its flight mode from direct to indirect. Interestingly, detection of more positively selected genes in indirect flight rather than direct flight insects suggested a stronger selective pressure in insects having higher energy consumption. In conclusion, mitochondrial protein-encoding genes involved in energy metabolism were targets of adaptive evolution in response to increased energy demands that arose during the evolution of flight ability in insects.

  15. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  16. Accreditation and training on internal dosimetry in a laboratory network in Brazil: an increasing demand.

    PubMed

    Dantas, B M; Dantas, A L A; Acar, M E D; Cardoso, J C S; Julião, L M Q C; Lima, M F; Taddei, M H T; Arine, D R; Alonso, T; Ramos, M A P; Fajgelj, A

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, Brazilian Nuclear Programme has been reviewed and updated by government authorities in face of the demand for energy supply and its associated environmental constraints. The immediate impact of new national programmes and projects in nuclear field is the increase in the number of exposed personnel and the consequent need for reliable dosimetry services in the country. Several Technical Documents related to internal dosimetry have been released by the International Atomic Energy Agency and International Commission on Radiological Protection. However, standard bioassay procedures and methodologies for bioassay data interpretation are still under discussion and, in some cases, both in routine and emergency internal monitoring, procedures can vary from one laboratory to another and responses may differ markedly among Dosimetry Laboratories. Thus, it may be difficult to interpret and use bioassay data generated from different laboratories of a network. The main goal of this work is to implement a National Network of Laboratories aimed to provide reliable internal monitoring services in Brazil. The establishment of harmonised in vivo and in vitro radioanalytical techniques, dose assessment methods and the implementation of the ISO/IEC 17025 requirements will result in the recognition of technical competence of the network.

  17. Using consumer incentives to increase well-child visits among low-income children.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jessica

    2011-10-01

    This quasi-experimental study examines the impact of Idaho's wellness incentive program, which rewards children with CHIP (Children's Health Insurance Programs) who are up-to-date with well-child visits with $30 in credits per quarter for use toward their CHIP premiums. Between baseline and the second year of implementation, the percentage of CHIP children who were up-to-date with well-child visits increased by 116% (from 23% to 49%), compared with a 13% increase (from 29% to 32%) among children with Medicaid, who were not eligible for the incentive. The incentive program had a greater impact on children who were recommended to have one annual well-child visit compared with those recommended to have two to four annual visits. The program was not, however, more effective for those whose premiums were fully covered by the reward compared with those whose premiums were partially covered. This study provides encouraging evidence to states about using consumer financial incentives for increasing preventive care use.

  18. Increased demand for E-mail health consultation service: analysis of a Web survey.

    PubMed

    Klinar, Ivana; Balazin, Ana; Basić, Martina; Plantas, Igor; Biskupić, Kresimir

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore characteristics of the users of the Interactive Service "Your Questions" that is based on E-mail health consultations. We wanted to find out what motivated users to use it, were they satisfied with it and what were its impacts on their health behavior. Therefore, we developed a Web survey and invited 2,747 users to take part in it. 919 (33.5%) of users responded. Results showed that the majority of respondents were women (79.1%) and that most hold at least a college degree (52.4%). The Service was mostly used for obtaining information about certain medical symptoms or medical conditions (50.1%), for a second opinion on a diagnosis (18.6%) and for more information about medical treatment (14.4%). In terms of Service features, it was used because of its convenience with regard to time (38.7%) and a sense of privacy (25.7%). Before posting a question to the Service, 93.2% of the respondents searched for health articles on the PLIVAzdravlje portal while 90% of them read the Questions and Answers database. Over half of them (61.8%) posted their question after they already visited their physicians on that particular issue. Nevertheless, 48% of them were encouraged to visit their physicians after they received the answer. The results show an important trend of increased demand for e-mail health consultation and the need for reliable medical information, with one thousand questions submitted to the Service in the observed period of 40 days. If the source of medical information is reliable, as in case of our Service as well as other forms of e-mail health consultations, it can have positive impact on valuable physician-patient communication based on knowledge and mutual understanding.

  19. Evaluating the impact of demand-side management on water resources under changing climatic conditions and increasing population.

    PubMed

    Dawadi, Srijana; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2013-01-15

    This study investigated the effect of increasing population and changing climatic conditions on the water resources of a semi-arid region, the Las Vegas Valley (LVV) in southern Nevada. A system dynamics model was developed for the LVV from 1989 to 2035. The impact of climate change on water demand and the water supply from the Colorado River was modeled, using projections from 16 global climate models for 3 emission scenarios. Variability in water demand and supply under different scenarios of population growth and demand management, including water conservation and water pricing, was evaluated. With the population growth that was projected, if no further demand management policies were implemented, the LVV would not be able to meet the water demand in the near future. However, by combining water conservation and pricing policies, the available supply could last well into the future. The reduction in water demand in 2035 was predicted to be 327 million cubic meters (MCM) for 'status quo' population growth, or 30.6%; 408 MCM for 50% of the projected growth, or 38%; and 511 MCM for no population growth, or 47.8%. Water supply reliability decreased significantly with changing climatic conditions. Therefore, major challenges to water sustainability in the LVV would be due to rapid population growth as well as to climate variability. However, with the combination of reduced population growth rate and water conservation policies, the Colorado River supply could meet the future demand of the LVV most of the time.

  20. Demand for Primary Schooling in Rural Mali: Should User Fees Be Increased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy; Orivel, Francois

    1996-01-01

    Assesses the effect of school fees on primary school attendance, using household and school survey data from rural Mali. Estimates elasticity of demand regarding fees and compares it with effects of distance and quality on enrollment. User fees can provide a partial solution to the quality/enrollment problem, but cannot solve the distance problem.…

  1. Europe's Skill Challenge: Lagging Skill Demand Increases Risks of Skill Mismatch. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The main findings of Cedefop's latest skill demand and supply forecast for the European Union (EU) for 2010-20, indicate that although further economic troubles will affect the projected number of job opportunities, the major trends, including a shift to more skill-intensive jobs and more jobs in services, will continue. Between 2008 and 2010…

  2. Failure to modulate neural response to increased task demand in mild Alzheimer's disease: fMRI study of visuospatial processing.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Patrizia; Lehmann, Christoph; Dierks, Thomas; Jann, Kay; Viitanen, Matti; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Almkvist, Ove

    2008-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by disturbances of visuospatial cognition. Given that these impairments are closely related to metabolic and neuropathological changes, our study aimed to investigate the functional competency of brain regions in the visuospatial networks responsible for early clinical symptoms in AD using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants (13AD patients with mild symptoms and 13 age- and education-matched controls) performed an angle discrimination task with varying task demand. Using a novel approach that modeled the dependency of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal on the subject's reaction time allowed us to investigate task demand-dependent signal changes between the groups. Both groups demonstrated overlapping neural networks engaged in angle discrimination, including the parieto-occipital and frontal regions. In several network regions, AD patients showed a significantly weaker and sometimes no BOLD signal due to increased task demand compared with controls, demonstrating failure to modulate the neural response to increased task demand. A general task demand-independent increase of activation in AD patients compared with controls was found in right middle temporal gyrus. This latter finding may indicate an attempt to compensate for dysfunctional areas in the dorsal visual pathway. These results confirm deficits in visuospatial abilities, which occur early in AD, and offer new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying this impairment.

  3. Application of existing technology to meet increasing demands for automated sample handling.

    PubMed

    Chow, A T; Kegelman, J E; Kohli, C; McCabe, D D; Moore, J F

    1990-09-01

    As the clinical laboratory advances toward total automation, the marketplace is now demanding more-efficient sample-handling systems. These demands have arisen over a relatively short period of time, in part because of heightened concern over laboratory safety and the resulting manpower shortages. Adding sample-handling capabilities to existing instrumentation is often a challenge, because usually mechanical or system constraints are present that interfere. This challenge has been overcome in the DuPont Sample Management System (SMS), a second-generation general chemistry analyzer that incorporates the latest barcode and computer-interfacing technology. The development of the SMS system relies heavily on recent advances in technology, e.g., software modeling and computer-aided design. The SMS system includes a barcode scanner based on "charge-coupled device" technology, a random-access sample wheel, and new software that oversees the various functions.

  4. Rapid intervention and treatment zone: redesigning nursing services to meet increasing emergency department demand.

    PubMed

    Considine, Julie; Lucas, Elspeth; Martin, Roslyn; Stergiou, Helen E; Kropman, Matthew; Chiu, Herman

    2012-02-01

    The impact of emergency nursing roles in demand management systems is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate emergency nurses' role in a specific emergency department (ED) demand management system: rapid intervention and treatment zone (RITZ). A descriptive exploratory approach was used. Data were collected from audit of 193 randomly selected patient records and 12 h of clinical practice observation. The median age of participants was 31 years, 51.8% were males and 99.5% were discharged home. Nurse qualifications or seniority had no significant effect on waiting time or length of stay (LOS). There were disparities between documented and observed nursing practice. The designation and qualifications of RITZ nurses made little difference to waiting times and ED LOS. Specific documentation and communication systems for areas of the ED that manage large numbers of low complexity patients warrant further research.

  5. Living to the range limit: consumer isotopic variation increases with environmental stress

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Nessa E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Theoretically, each species’ ecological niche is phylogenetically-determined and expressed spatially as the species’ range. However, environmental stress gradients may directly or indirectly decrease individual performance, such that the precise process delimiting a species range may not be revealed simply by studying abundance patterns. In the intertidal habitat the vertical ranges of marine species may be constrained by their abilities to tolerate thermal and desiccation stress, which may act directly or indirectly, the latter by limiting the availability of preferred trophic resources. Therefore, we expected individuals at greater shore heights to show greater variation in diet alongside lower indices of physiological condition. Methods: We sampled the grazing gastropod Echinolittorina peruviana from the desert coastline of northern Chile at three shore heights, across eighteen regionally-representative shores. Stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) were extracted from E. peruviana and its putative food resources to estimate Bayesian ellipse area, carbon and nitrogen ranges and diet. Individual physiological condition was tracked by muscle % C and % N. Results: There was an increase in isotopic variation at high shore levels, where E. peruviana’s preferred resource, tide-deposited particulate organic matter (POM), appeared to decrease in dietary contribution, and was expected to be less abundant. Both muscle % C and % N of individuals decreased with height on the shore. Discussion: Individuals at higher stress levels appear to be less discriminating in diet, likely because of abiotic forcing, which decreases both consumer mobility and the availability of a preferred resource. Abiotic stress might be expected to increase trophic variation in other selective dietary generalist species. Where this coincides with a lower physiological condition may be a direct factor in setting their range limit. PMID:27280067

  6. Analyzing the pupil response due to increased cognitive demand: an independent component analysis study.

    PubMed

    Jainta, S; Baccino, T

    2010-07-01

    Pupillometry is used to indicate the relative extent of processing demands within or between tasks; however, this analysis is complicated by the fact that the pupil also responds to low-level aspects of visual input. First, we attempted to identify "principal" components that contribute to the pupil response by computing a principal component analysis (PCA) and second, to reveal "hidden" sources within the pupil response by calculating an independent component analysis (ICA). Pupil response data were collected while subjects read, added or multiplied numbers. A set of 3 factors/components were identified as resembling the individual pupil responses, but only one ICA component changed in concordance to the cognitive demand. This component alone accounted for about 50% of the variance of the pupil response during the most demanding task, i.e. the multiplication task. The highest impact of this factor was observed for 2000 to 300ms after task onset. Even though we did not attempt to answer the question of the functional background of the components 1 and 3, we speculated that component 2 might reflect the effort a subject engages to perform a task with greater difficulty.

  7. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.

    PubMed

    Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee

    2006-01-01

    The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.

  8. Red meat from animals offered a grass diet increases plasma and platelet n-3 PUFA in healthy consumers.

    PubMed

    McAfee, A J; McSorley, E M; Cuskelly, G J; Fearon, A M; Moss, B W; Beattie, J A M; Wallace, J M W; Bonham, M P; Strain, J J

    2011-01-01

    Red meat from grass-fed animals, compared with concentrate-fed animals, contains increased concentrations of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA. However, the effects of red meat consumption from grass-fed animals on consumer blood concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA are unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status of consuming red meat produced from either grass-fed animals or concentrate-fed animals. A randomised, double-blinded, dietary intervention study was carried out for 4 weeks on healthy subjects who replaced their habitual red meat intake with three portions per week of red meat (beef and lamb) from animals offered a finishing diet of either grass or concentrate (n 20 consumers). Plasma and platelet fatty acid composition, dietary intake, blood pressure, and serum lipids and lipoproteins were analysed at baseline and post-intervention. Dietary intakes of total n-3 PUFA, as well as plasma and platelet concentrations of LC n-3 PUFA, were significantly higher in those subjects who consumed red meat from grass-fed animals compared with those who consumed red meat from concentrate-fed animals (P < 0·05). No significant differences in concentrations of serum cholesterol, TAG or blood pressure were observed between groups. Consuming red meat from grass-fed animals compared with concentrate-fed animals as part of the habitual diet can significantly increase consumer plasma and platelet LC n-3 PUFA status. As a result, red meat from grass-fed animals may contribute to dietary intakes of LC n-3 PUFA in populations where red meat is habitually consumed.

  9. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  10. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  11. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  12. The Impact of an Increase in User Costs on the Demand for Emergency Services: The Case of Portuguese Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Pedro; Almeida, Alvaro

    2016-11-01

    Evidence on the impact of user costs on healthcare demand in 'universal' public National Health Services (NHS) is scarce. The changes in copayments and in the regulation of the provision of free patient transportation, introduced in early 2012 in Portugal, provide a natural experiment to evaluate that impact. However, those changes in user costs were accompanied with changes in the criteria that determine which patients are exempt from copayments, implying that simple comparisons of user rates would be biased. In this paper, we develop a new methodology to evaluate the impact of increases in direct and indirect user costs on the demand for emergency services (ES) in the presence of compositional changes in co-payment exempt and non-exempt populations. Our results show that the increase in copayments did not have an effect in moderating ES demand by paying users, but we find significant effects of the change in transport regulation. Thus, our results support the conclusion that indirect costs may be more important than direct costs in determining healthcare demand in NHS-countries where copayments are small and wide exemption schemes are in place, especially for older patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Davidson, Carolyn; McLaren, Joyce; Miller, John

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  14. Increasing demands on limited water resources: Consequences for two endangered plants in Amargosa Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Allen, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Recent population expansion throughout the Southwest United States has created an unprecedented demand for already limited water resources, which may have severe consequences on the persistence of some species. Two such species are the federally protected Nitrophila mohavensis (Chenopodiaceae) and Grindelia fraxino-pratensis (Asteraceae) found in Amargosa Valley, one valley east of Death Valley, California. Because both species are federally protected, no plant material could be harvested for analysis. We therefore used a chamber system to collect transpired water for isotopic analysis. After a correction for isotopic enrichment during transpiration, δ(18)O values of plant xylem water were significantly different between N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis throughout the study. Using a multisource mixing model, we found that both N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis used soil moisture near the soil surface in early spring when surface water was present. However, during the dry summer months, G. fraxino-pratensis tracked soil moisture to deeper depths, whereas N. mohavensis continued to use soil moisture near the soil surface. These results indicate that pumping groundwater and subsequently lowering the water table may directly prevent G. fraxino-pratensis from accessing water, whereas these same conditions may indirectly affect N. mohavensis by reducing surface soil moisture and thus its ability to access water.

  15. Pathways to increase consumer trust in meat as a safe and wholesome food.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim; Vermeire, Bert

    2006-09-01

    This paper focuses on the effect of information about meat safety and wholesomeness on consumer trust based on several studies with data collected in Belgium. The research is grounded in the observation that despite the abundant rise of information through labelling, traceability systems and quality assurance schemes, the effect on consumer trust in meat as a safe and wholesome product is only limited. The overload and complexity of information on food products results in misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Functional traceability attributes such as organisational efficiency and chain monitoring are considered to be highly important but not as a basis for market segmentation. However, process traceability attributes such as origin and production method are of interest for particular market segments as a response to meat quality concerns. Quality assurance schemes and associated labels have a poor impact on consumers' perception. It is argued that the high interest of retailers in such schemes is driven by procurement management efficiency rather than safety or overall quality. Future research could concentrate on the distribution of costs and benefits associated with meat quality initiatives among the chain participants.

  16. The Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    Derived from overlapping concepts in consumer health, a consumer health information system refers to any of the broad range of applications, tools, and educational resources developed to empower consumers with knowledge, techniques, and strategies, to manage their own health. As consumer health information systems become increasingly popular, it is important to explore the factors that impact their adoption and success. Accumulating evidence indicates a relationship between usability and consumers' eHealth Literacy skills and the demands consumer HISs place on their skills. Here, we present a new model called the Consumer Health Information System Adoption Model, which depicts both consumer eHealth literacy skills and system demands on eHealth literacy as moderators with the potential to affect the strength of relationship between usefulness and usability (predictors of usage) and adoption, value, and successful use (actual usage outcomes). Strategies for aligning these two moderating factors are described.

  17. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  18. Increasing the impact of health plan report cards by addressing consumers' concerns.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, J H; Harris-Kojetin, L; Mullin, P; Lubalin, J; Garfinkel, S

    2000-01-01

    Most plan report cards that compare the performance of health plans have framed the decision about plan choice as an opportunity to get better-quality care. This study uses a controlled experimental design to examine the effect of reframing the health plan choice decision to one that emphasizes protecting oneself from possible risk. The findings show that framing the health plan decision using a risk message has a consistent and significant positive impact on how consumers comprehend, value, and weight comparative performance information.

  19. Online Advertising as a Public Health and Recruitment Tool: Comparison of Different Media Campaigns to Increase Demand for Smoking Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Pat; Saul, Jessie E; Pfaff, Lillian

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve the overall impact (reach × efficacy) of cessation treatments and to reduce the population prevalence of smoking, innovative strategies are needed that increase consumer demand for and use of cessation treatments. Given that 12 million people search for smoking cessation information each year, online advertising may represent a cost-efficient approach to reach and recruit online smokers to treatment. Online ads can be implemented in many forms, and surveys consistently show that consumers are receptive. Few studies have examined the potential of online advertising to recruit smokers to cessation treatments. Objective The aims of the study were to (1) demonstrate the feasibility of online advertising as a strategy to increase consumer demand for cessation treatments, (2) illustrate the tools that can be used to track and evaluate the impact of online advertising on treatment utilization, and (3) highlight some of the methodological challenges and future directions for researchers. Methods An observational design was used to examine the impact of online advertising compared to traditional recruitment approaches (billboards, television and radio ads, outdoor advertising, direct mail, and physician detailing) on several dependent variables: (1) number of individuals who enrolled in Web- or telephone-based cessation treatment, (2) the demographic, smoking, and treatment utilization characteristics of smokers recruited to treatment, and (3) the cost to enroll smokers. Several creative approaches to online ads (banner ads, paid search) were tested on national and local websites and search engines. The comparison group was comprised of individuals who registered for Web-based cessation treatment in response to traditional advertising during the same time period. Results A total of 130,214 individuals responded to advertising during the study period: 23,923 (18.4%) responded to traditional recruitment approaches and 106,291 (81.6%) to online ads. Of

  20. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  1. Maintaining quality critical peer review (CPR) as the demand for life cycle assessments increases

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental managers and government policy makers are becoming increasingly aware of the need to follow the holistic approach of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to move us in the right strategic direction to best achieve environmental sustainability. Along with this realization ha...

  2. Stimulation of acetoin production in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis by increasing ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianming; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi; Würtz, Anders; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Solem, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Having a sufficient supply of energy, usually in the form of ATP, is essential for all living organisms. In this study, however, we demonstrate that it can be beneficial to reduce ATP availability when the objective is microbial production. By introducing the ATP hydrolyzing F1-ATPase into a Lactococcus lactis strain engineered into producing acetoin, we show that production titer and yield both can be increased. At high F1-ATPase expression level, the acetoin production yield could be increased by 10 %; however, because of the negative effect that the F1-ATPase had on biomass yield and growth, this increase was at the cost of volumetric productivity. By lowering the expression level of the F1-ATPase, both the volumetric productivity and the final yield could be increased by 5 % compared to the reference strain not overexpressing the F1-ATPase, and in batch fermentation, it was possible to convert 176 mM (32 g/L) of glucose into 146.5 mM (12.9 g/L) acetoin with a yield of 83 % of the theoretical maximum. To further demonstrate the potential of the cell factory developed, we complemented it with the lactose plasmid pLP712, which allowed for growth and acetoin production from a dairy waste stream, deproteinized whey. Using this cheap and renewable feedstock, efficient acetoin production with a titer of 157 mM (14 g/L) acetoin was accomplished.

  3. Product Variety, Consumer Preferences, and Web Technology: Can the Web of Data Reduce Price Competition and Increase Customer Satisfaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Martin

    E-Commerce on the basis of current Web technology has created fierce competition with a strong focus on price. Despite a huge variety of offerings and diversity in the individual preferences of consumers, current Web search fosters a very early reduction of the search space to just a few commodity makes and models. As soon as this reduction has taken place, search is reduced to flat price comparison. This is unfortunate for the manufacturers and vendors, because their individual value proposition for a particular customer may get lost in the course of communication over the Web, and it is unfortunate for the customer, because he/she may not get the most utility for the money based on her/his preference function. A key limitation is that consumers cannot search using a consolidated view on all alternative offers across the Web. In this talk, I will (1) analyze the technical effects of products and services search on the Web that cause this mismatch between supply and demand, (2) evaluate how the GoodRelations vocabulary and the current Web of Data movement can improve the situation, (3) give a brief hands-on demonstration, and (4) sketch business models for the various market participants.

  4. Carbon input increases microbial nitrogen demand, but not microbial nitrogen mining in boreal forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Alaei, Saeed; Bengtson, Per; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Schnecker, Jörg; Mayerhofer, Werner; Rütting, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Plant primary production at mid and high latitudes is often limited by low soil N availability. It has been hypothesized that plants can indirectly increase soil N availability via root exudation, i.e., via the release of easily degradable organic compounds such as sugars into the soil. These compounds can stimulate microbial activity and extracellular enzyme synthesis, and thus promote soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition ("priming effect"). Even more, increased C availability in the rhizosphere might specifically stimulate the synthesis of enzymes targeting N-rich polymers such as proteins that store most of the soil N, but are too large for immediate uptake ("N mining"). This effect might be particularly important in boreal forests, where plants often maintain high primary production in spite of low soil N availability. We here tested the hypothesis that increased C availability promotes protein depolymerization, and thus soil N availability. In a laboratory incubation experiment, we added 13C-labeled glucose to a range of soil samples derived from boreal forests across Sweden, and monitored the release of CO2 by C mineralization, distinguishing between CO2 from the added glucose and from the native, unlabeled soil organic C (SOC). Using a set of 15N pool dilution assays, we further measured gross rates of protein depolymerization (the breakdown of proteins into amino acids) and N mineralization (the microbial release of excess N as ammonium). Comparing unamended control samples, we found a high variability in C and N mineralization rates, even when normalized by SOC content. Both C and N mineralization were significantly correlated to SOM C/N ratios, with high C mineralization at high C/N and high N mineralization at low C/N, suggesting that microorganisms adjusted C and N mineralization rates to the C/N ratio of their substrate and released C or N that was in excess. The addition of glucose significantly stimulated the mineralization of native SOC in soils

  5. Keratin subsidies promote feather decomposition via an increase in keratin-consuming arthropods and microorganisms in bird breeding colonies.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji; Masuya, Hayato

    2015-06-01

    Resource subsidies are well known to increase population densities of consumers. The decomposition process of these subsidised resources can be influenced by increasing consumer abundance. However, few studies have assessed whether resource subsidies can promote resource decomposition via a population increase in consumers. Here, we examined the effects of keratin subsidies on feather decomposition in egret and heron breeding colonies. Egrets and herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide large amounts of keratin materials to the forest floor in the form of feathers of chicks (that die). We compared the decrease in the weights of egret and heron feathers (experimentally placed on the forest floor) over a 12-month period among egret/heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. Of the feathers placed experimentally on forest floors, 92-97 % and 99-100 % in colonies and 47-50 % and 71-90 % in non-colony areas were decomposed after 4 and 12 months, respectively. Then, decomposition rates of feathers were faster in colonies than in areas outside of colonies, suggesting that keratin subsidies can promote feather decomposition in colonies. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicated that keratin-feeding arthropods and keratinophilic fungi played important roles in feather decomposition. Therefore, scavenging arthropods and keratinophilic fungi, which dramatically increased in egret and heron breeding colonies, could accelerate the decomposition of feathers supplied to the forest floor of colonies.

  6. Keratin subsidies promote feather decomposition via an increase in keratin-consuming arthropods and microorganisms in bird breeding colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Masuya, Hayato

    2015-06-01

    Resource subsidies are well known to increase population densities of consumers. The decomposition process of these subsidised resources can be influenced by increasing consumer abundance. However, few studies have assessed whether resource subsidies can promote resource decomposition via a population increase in consumers. Here, we examined the effects of keratin subsidies on feather decomposition in egret and heron breeding colonies. Egrets and herons (Ardeidae) frequently breed in inland forests and provide large amounts of keratin materials to the forest floor in the form of feathers of chicks (that die). We compared the decrease in the weights of egret and heron feathers (experimentally placed on the forest floor) over a 12-month period among egret/heron breeding colonies (five sites) and areas outside of colonies (five sites) in central Japan. Of the feathers placed experimentally on forest floors, 92-97 % and 99-100 % in colonies and 47-50 % and 71-90 % in non-colony areas were decomposed after 4 and 12 months, respectively. Then, decomposition rates of feathers were faster in colonies than in areas outside of colonies, suggesting that keratin subsidies can promote feather decomposition in colonies. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicated that keratin-feeding arthropods and keratinophilic fungi played important roles in feather decomposition. Therefore, scavenging arthropods and keratinophilic fungi, which dramatically increased in egret and heron breeding colonies, could accelerate the decomposition of feathers supplied to the forest floor of colonies.

  7. Increasing Consumer Engagement by Tailoring a Public Reporting Website on the Quality of Diabetes Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Bednarz, Lauren; Nordby, Peter A; Fink, Jennifer; Greenlee, Robert T; Bolt, Daniel; Magnan, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of health care utilization decisions in the United States are made by persons with multiple chronic conditions. Existing public reports of health system quality do not distinguish care for these persons and are often not used by the consumers they aim to reach. Objective Our goal was to determine if tailoring quality reports to persons with diabetes mellitus and co-occurring chronic conditions would increase user engagement with a website that publicly reports the quality of diabetes care. Methods We adapted an existing consumer-focused public reporting website using adult learning theory to display diabetes quality reports tailored to the user’s chronic condition profile. We conducted in-depth cognitive interviews with 20 individuals who either had diabetes and/or cared for someone with diabetes to assess the website. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, then analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results Three themes emerged that suggested increased engagement from tailoring the site to a user’s chronic conditions: ability to interact, relevance, and feeling empowered to act. Conclusions We conclude that tailoring can be used to improve public reporting sites for individuals with chronic conditions, ultimately allowing consumers to make more informed health care decisions. PMID:28003173

  8. Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertisements Can Paradoxically Increase Intentions to Adopt Lifestyle Changes.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Maya B; Gould, Michael; Khazeni, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce "boomerang effects," meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual "problem status" often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether priming with real DTC television advertisements elicited boomerang effects on perceptions of lifestyle change and whether these effects, if present, were moderated by individual problem status. Methods: We assembled a sample of real, previously aired DTC television advertisements in order to naturalistically capture the portrayal of lifestyle change in real advertisements. We randomized 819 adults in the United States recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to view or not view an advertisement for a prescription drug. We further randomized subjects to judge either lifestyle change or drugs on three measures: general effectiveness, disease severity for a hypothetical patient, and personal intention to use the intervention if diagnosed with the target health condition. Results: Advertisement exposure induced a statistically significant, but weak, boomerang effect on general effectiveness (p = 0.01, partial R(2) = 0.007) and did not affect disease severity score (p = 0.32, partial R(2) = 0.0009). Advertisement exposure elicited a reverse boomerang effect of similar effect size on personal intentions, such that advertisement-exposed subjects reported comparatively higher intentions to use lifestyle change relative to drugs (p = 0.006, partial R(2) = 0.008). Individual problem status did not

  9. Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertisements Can Paradoxically Increase Intentions to Adopt Lifestyle Changes

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Maya B.; Gould, Michael; Khazeni, Nayer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements are thought to induce “boomerang effects,” meaning they reduce the perceived effectiveness of a potential alternative option: non-pharmaceutical treatment via lifestyle change. Past research has observed such effects using artificially created, text-only advertisements that may not adequate capture the complex, conflicting portrayal of lifestyle change in real television advertisements. In other risk domains, individual “problem status” often moderates boomerang effects, such that subjects who currently engage in the risky behavior exhibit the strongest boomerang effects. Objectives: We aimed to assess whether priming with real DTC television advertisements elicited boomerang effects on perceptions of lifestyle change and whether these effects, if present, were moderated by individual problem status. Methods: We assembled a sample of real, previously aired DTC television advertisements in order to naturalistically capture the portrayal of lifestyle change in real advertisements. We randomized 819 adults in the United States recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk to view or not view an advertisement for a prescription drug. We further randomized subjects to judge either lifestyle change or drugs on three measures: general effectiveness, disease severity for a hypothetical patient, and personal intention to use the intervention if diagnosed with the target health condition. Results: Advertisement exposure induced a statistically significant, but weak, boomerang effect on general effectiveness (p = 0.01, partial R2 = 0.007) and did not affect disease severity score (p = 0.32, partial R2 = 0.0009). Advertisement exposure elicited a reverse boomerang effect of similar effect size on personal intentions, such that advertisement-exposed subjects reported comparatively higher intentions to use lifestyle change relative to drugs (p = 0.006, partial R2 = 0.008). Individual problem status did not

  10. Increasing Variety of Foods Consumed by Blending Nonpreferred Foods into Preferred Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Patel, Meeta R.; Kelley, Michael E.; Pruett, Angela

    2004-01-01

    A treatment with differential or noncontingent reinforcement and nonremoval of the spoon increased the acceptance of one or two of 16 foods for 2 participants with severe food refusal. These differential levels of acceptance were demonstrated empirically in an ABAB design in which A was the presentation of the accepted (preferred) foods and B was…

  11. Pancreatic β-cell response to increased metabolic demand and to pharmacologic secretagogues requires EPAC2A.

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Jin; Mondal, Prosenjit; Li, Yuanyuan; Lee, Suh Eun; Hussain, Mehboob A

    2013-08-01

    Incretin hormone action on β-cells stimulates in parallel two different intracellular cyclic AMP-dependent signaling branches mediated by protein kinase A and exchange protein activated by cAMP islet/brain isoform 2A (EPAC2A). Both pathways contribute toward potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). However, the overall functional role of EPAC2A in β-cells as it relates to in vivo glucose homeostasis remains incompletely understood. Therefore, we have examined in vivo GSIS in global EPAC2A knockout mice. Additionally, we have conducted in vitro studies of GSIS and calcium dynamics in isolated EPAC2A-deficient islets. EPAC2A deficiency does not impact GSIS in mice under basal conditions. However, when mice are exposed to diet-induced insulin resistance, pharmacologic secretagogue stimulation of β-cells with an incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 analog or with a fatty acid receptor 1/G protein-coupled receptor 40 selective activator, EPAC2A is required for the increased β-cell response to secretory demand. Under these circumstances, EPAC2A is required for potentiating the early dynamic increase in islet calcium levels after glucose stimulation, which is reflected in potentiated first-phase insulin secretion. These studies broaden our understanding of EPAC2A function and highlight its significance during increased secretory demand or drive on β-cells. Our findings advance the rationale for developing EPAC2A-selective pharmacologic activators for β-cell-targeted pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes.

  12. Health benefits in 2006: premium increases moderate, enrollment in consumer-directed health plans remains modest.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Gary; Gabel, Jon; Gil, Isadora; Pickreign, Jeremy; Whitmore, Heidi; Finder, Benjamin; DiJulio, Bianca; Hawkins, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    Based on a survey of 2,122 randomly selected public and private employers, this paper reports on the state of employer-sponsored health insurance in spring 2006, including recent changes. Premiums increased 7.7 percent from spring 2005 to spring 2006 and have risen 68 percent since 2001. About 4 percent of workers are enrolled in high-deductible health plans with savings options. The percentage of workers covered by their own employer did not statistically change from 2005 to 2006.

  13. Does EU's energy dependence on Russia increase price volatility for consumers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yekeler, Zeynep

    Europe's dependence on natural gas imports from Russia has raised questions about energy risk and the vulnerability of the European countries, especially after the supply cuts in 2006, 2008, 2009, and 2012. The implementation of the Third Energy Package to finally unify European energy markets by linking the states located on the periphery to the well connected gas hubs in Northern Europe has been slow due to a lack of political will across Europe. This has enabled Russian Gazprom to retain its position as a major player in European markets and hinder any European effort to diversify the energy portfolio of the region. Using residential natural gas and electricity price data from 2000 through 2014, this paper analyzes the impact of EU's import reliance on natural gas from Russia and the supply disruptions on the volatility of natural gas and electricity prices through a fixed effects regression model. Results indicate that while the size of Russian natural gas imports does not significantly affect natural gas and electricity price volatility in EU countries, security supply measures such as natural gas stocks matter, especially for Southeast European countries that consistently pay more according to the results. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of formulating policies that not only aim to reduce overall EU dependence but minimize Southeastern Europe's vulnerabilities. Policy suggestions include increasing cross-border interconnectors and storage capacity as well as increasing LNG import capacity by building regasification terminals in periphery countries like Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia.

  14. Reforms are needed to increase public funding and curb demand for private care in Israel's health system.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, Dov

    2013-04-01

    Historically, the Israeli health care system has been considered a high-performance system, providing universal, affordable, high-quality care to all residents. However, a decline in the ratio of physicians to population that reached a modern low in 2006, an approximate ten-percentage-point decline in the share of publicly financed health care between 1995 and 2009, and legislative mandates that favored private insurance have altered Israel's health care system for the worse. Many Israelis now purchase private health insurance to supplement the state-sponsored universal care coverage, and they end up spending more out of pocket even for services covered by the entitlement. Additionally, many publicly paid physicians moonlight at private facilities to earn more money. In this article I recommend that Israel increase public funding for health care and adopt reforms to address the rising demand for privately funded care and the problem of publicly paid physicians who moonlight at private facilities.

  15. Job demands × job control interaction effects: do occupation-specific job demands increase their occurrence?

    PubMed

    Brough, Paula; Biggs, Amanda

    2015-04-01

    Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects and job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the inclusion of generic job demands. This research tested these two propositions via a self-report survey assessing key psychological job characteristics administered twice to a sample of correctional workers (N = 746). The research clearly identified that the assessment of correctional-specific job demands (CJD) was more strongly associated with job satisfaction, work engagement, turnover intentions and psychological strain, as compared with an assessment of generic job demands. However, the CJD did not produce a greater proportion of significant job demands × job control/support interaction effects, as compared with the generic job demands measure. The results thereby provide further support for the acknowledged 'elusiveness' of these theoretical interactions. Overall, however, the results did support the inclusion of occupation-specific measures of job demands for the accurate assessment of the health and job performance of high-risk workers. The implications for theoretical discussions that describe how high job demands are moderated by job resources are discussed.

  16. Effective strategies to provide adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and to increase demand and community support.

    PubMed

    Denno, Donna M; Hoopes, Andrea J; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-01-01

    , and endeavor to generate demand through multiple channels are ready for large-scale implementation. However, further evaluation of these initiatives is needed to clarify mechanisms and impact, especially of specific program components. Quality research is needed to determine effective means to deliver services outside the facilities, to reach marginalized or vulnerable adolescents, and to determine effective approaches to increase community acceptance of adolescent SRHS.

  17. Age-related deficits in selective attention during encoding increase demands on episodic reconstruction during context retrieval: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    James, Taylor; Strunk, Jonathan; Arndt, Jason; Duarte, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) and neuroimaging evidence suggests that directing attention toward single item-context associations compared to intra-item features at encoding improves context memory performance and reduces demands on strategic retrieval operations in young and older adults. In everyday situations, however, there are multiple event features competing for our attention. It is not currently known how selectively attending to one contextual feature while attempting to ignore another influences context memory performance and the processes that support successful retrieval in the young and old. We investigated this issue in the current ERP study. Young and older participants studied pictures of objects in the presence of two contextual features: a color and a scene, and their attention was directed to the object’s relationship with one of those contexts. Participants made context memory decisions for both attended and unattended contexts and rated their confidence in those decisions. Behavioral results showed that while both groups were generally successful in applying selective attention during context encoding, older adults were less confident in their context memory decisions for attended features and showed greater dependence in context memory accuracy for attended and unattended contextual features (i.e., hyper-binding). ERP results were largely consistent between age groups but older adults showed a more pronounced late posterior negativity (LPN) implicated in episodic reconstruction processes. We conclude that age-related suppression deficits during encoding result in reduced selectivity in context memory, thereby increasing subsequent demands on episodic reconstruction processes when sought after details are not readily retrieved. PMID:27094851

  18. Consumers Buy Lower-Cost Plans On Covered California, Suggesting Exposure To Premium Increases Is Less Than Commonly Reported.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon R; Arnold, Daniel R; Fulton, Brent D; Stromberg, Sam T; Green, Matthew; Whitmore, Heidi; Scheffler, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    With the notable exception of California, states have not made enrollment data for their Affordable Care Act (ACA) Marketplace plans publicly available. Researchers thus have tracked premium trends by calculating changes in the average price for plans offered (a straight average across plans) rather than for plans purchased (a weighted average). Using publicly available enrollment data for Covered California, we found that the average purchased price for all plans was 11.6 percent less than the average offered price in 2014, 13.2 percent less in 2015, and 15.2 percent less in 2016. Premium growth measured by plans purchased was roughly 2 percentage points less than when measured by plans offered in 2014-15 and 2015-16. We observed shifts in consumer choices toward less costly plans, both between and within tiers, and we estimate that a $100 increase in a plan's net annual premium reduces its probability of selection. These findings suggest that the Marketplaces are helping consumers moderate premium cost growth.

  19. New insights into the source of decadal increase in chemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved organic carbon in Dianchi Lake.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Yang, Feng; Li, Yanping; Wang, Shengrui

    2017-03-29

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be used an alternative index of water quality instead of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to reflect the organic pollution in water. The monitoring data of water quality in a long-term (1990-2013) from Dianchi Lake confirmed the increase trend of COD concentration in the lake since 2007. The similarities and differences in the DOC components between the lake and its sources and the contribution from allochthonous and autochthonous DOC to the total DOC in this lake were determined to elucidate the reason of COD increase based on C/N atomic ratios, stable isotope abundance of carbon and nitrogen, UV-visible spectroscopy, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The terrigenous organic matter showed humic-like fluorescence, and the autochthonous organic matter showed tryptophan-like components. Agricultural runoff (9.5%), leaf litter (7.5%) and urban runoff (13.2%) were the main sources of DOC in the lake. Sewage tail was a major source of organic materials, 3DEEM for the indicates that sewage tail DOC composition did not change markedly over the biodegradation period, indicating that sewage tail contains a high load of DOC that is resistant to further biodegradation and subsequently accumulates in the lake. The change of land use in the catchment and the increase of sewage tail load into the lake are the key factors for the increase in COD concentration in Dianchi Lake. Thus, the lake should be protected by controlling the pollution from the urban nonpoint sources and refractory composition in point sources.

  20. Increases in fruit intakes in older low consumers of fruit following two community-based repeated exposure interventions.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M

    2013-03-14

    The present study investigated the value of two repeated exposure interventions for increasing intakes of fruit in older people. A total of ninety-five participants (aged 65 years and over) were randomised to receive either one (E1), five (E5) or five plus (E5+) exposures to fruit over a 5-week period. Fruit exposures occurred in community-based church and social groups, through fruit-tasting sessions involving familiar fruits and novel fruit products and dishes (E1, E5, E5+), and through fruit provision (E5+). Daily intakes of fruit and vegetables were assessed before and after all interventions. Liking for all fruits was also measured during repeated exposure (E5, E5+). In low consumers of fruit (one portion/d or less), fruit intakes increased significantly in the repeated exposure groups (E5, E5+) (t(30) = 5·79, P< 0·01), but did not change in the E1 group (t(16) = 0·29, P= 0·78). No differences were found between E5 and E5+ groups (F(3,87) = 1·22, P= 0·31). Similar effects were also found in fruit and vegetable intakes. No effects were found in other participants. Also, no changes in liking were found. These findings suggest that compared to single exposure, repeated exposure to fruit via fruit-tasting sessions once per week for 5 weeks in a community setting significantly improved fruit intakes, and fruit and vegetable intakes in older low consumers of fruit, although no benefits of additional fruit provision were found. Repeated exposure was also easy to implement, of low cost and enjoyable.

  1. Increased evapotranspiration demand in a Mediterranean climate might cause a decline in fungal yields under global warming.

    PubMed

    Ágreda, Teresa; Águeda, Beatriz; Olano, José M; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Fernández-Toirán, Marina

    2015-09-01

    Wild fungi play a critical role in forest ecosystems, and its recollection is a relevant economic activity. Understanding fungal response to climate is necessary in order to predict future fungal production in Mediterranean forests under climate change scenarios. We used a 15-year data set to model the relationship between climate and epigeous fungal abundance and productivity, for mycorrhizal and saprotrophic guilds in a Mediterranean pine forest. The obtained models were used to predict fungal productivity for the 2021-2080 period by means of regional climate change models. Simple models based on early spring temperature and summer-autumn rainfall could provide accurate estimates for fungal abundance and productivity. Models including rainfall and climatic water balance showed similar results and explanatory power for the analyzed 15-year period. However, their predictions for the 2021-2080 period diverged. Rainfall-based models predicted a maintenance of fungal yield, whereas water balance-based models predicted a steady decrease of fungal productivity under a global warming scenario. Under Mediterranean conditions fungi responded to weather conditions in two distinct periods: early spring and late summer-autumn, suggesting a bimodal pattern of growth. Saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi showed differences in the climatic control. Increased atmospheric evaporative demand due to global warming might lead to a drop in fungal yields during the 21st century.

  2. The distances covered by basketball referees in a match increase throughout the competition phases, with no change in physiological demand

    PubMed Central

    Borin, João Paulo; Daniel, José Francisco; Bonganha, Valéria; de Moraes, Anderson Marques; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina; Mercadante, Luciano Allegretti; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Montagner, Paulo Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Background It is crucial to know the demands on basketball referees, in different match periods (MPs) and phases of competition, for planning referee training and subsequent successful refereeing. Objective To measure and evaluate the distance covered by referees in a match by measuring the number of interruptions, percentage of heart rate (%HR), and blood lactate concentration ([lac]) in different phases of competition and in different MPs. Method We studied the qualifying (QP), semifinal (SP), and final (FP) phases of a total of 12 matches (four matches in each phase) of the 2009–2010 Brazilian Basketball League. Distance covered, number of match interruptions, and referees’ %HR and [lac] were analyzed. We compared the results between competition phases and between MPs (1st MP, 2nd MP, 3rd MP, and 4th MP). Results Regarding the distances covered, we observed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd MPs between the FP and the other two phases (SP and QP) throughout the match, between each phase; in the 4th MP, a significant difference was found when comparing the QP and the other two phases. Comparing the periods within each phase, we found that a greater distance was covered in the 4th MP in relation to the 3rd MP during the FP. No significant differences were found among the remaining variables. Conclusion The distances covered by referees in a basketball match increase throughout competition phases. This information is essential for planning of training and for the subsequent success of a referee. PMID:24379725

  3. Take Five, a nutrition education intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intakes: impact on consumer choice and nutrient intakes.

    PubMed

    Cox, D N; Anderson, A S; Reynolds, J; McKellar, S; Lean, M E; Mela, D J

    1998-08-01

    This study reports results from a randomized controlled intervention trial, focusing on: (1) the identification of successful consumer strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intakes to the recommended levels of more than five (80 g) portions per day and (2) impact on overall diet and nutrient intakes. Adult men and women (n 170) fulfilling the main recruitment criterion of eating less than five fruit and vegetable portions per day but contemplating increasing intakes were recruited. Complete valid dietary data was provided by 101 intervention (fifty-nine estimated fruit and vegetable intakes, and forty-two simultaneous weighted total dietary and estimated fruit and vegetable intakes) and twenty-four control subjects (weighed total dietary intakes). Intervention advice included the specific association of high fruit and vegetable intake with reduced risk of disease, practicalities, and portion definition with a target intake of greater than five 80 g fruit and vegetable portions per day for 8 weeks. There were significant effects (P < 0.001) on weighed intakes of fruit and vegetables in the intervention group, rising from 324 (SE 25) to 557 (SE 31) g/d and reflected by validated portion measures at 8 weeks intervention. Successful strategies chosen by 'achievers' of the target intake (65% of subjects) were conventional (fruit as a snack, vegetables with main meals etc.) and favoured fruit. There were significant increases in percentage energy from carbohydrate (from sugars not starch), vitamin C, carotenes and NSP and there was a significant decrease in percentage energy from fat for subjects who had high fat intakes (> 35% energy) at baseline. Follow-up self-reported measures at 6 and 12 months indicated mean intakes of 4.5 and 4.6 defined portions/d respectively, suggesting some sustainable effect. In conclusion, the intervention led to significant increases in fruit and vegetable intakes largely via conventional eating habits, with some desirable effects

  4. Consequences of increasing bioenergy demand on wood and forests: An application of the Global Forest Products Model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buongiorno, J.; Raunikar, R.; Zhu, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) was applied to project the consequences for the global forest sector of doubling the rate of growth of bioenergy demand relative to a base scenario, other drivers being maintained constant. The results showed that this would lead to the convergence of the price of fuelwood and industrial roundwood, raising the price of industrial roundwood by nearly 30% in 2030. The price of sawnwood and panels would be 15% higher. The price of paper would be 3% higher. Concurrently, the demand for all manufactured wood products would be lower in all countries, but the production would rise in countries with competitive advantage. The global value added in wood processing industries would be 1% lower in 2030. The forest stock would be 2% lower for the world and 4% lower for Asia. These effects varied substantially by country. ?? 2011 Department of Forest Economics, SLU Ume??, Sweden.

  5. High Job Demands and Low Job Control Increase Nurses' Professional Leaving Intentions: The Role of Care Setting and Profit Orientation.

    PubMed

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias

    2016-10-01

    We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Increasing protein intake modulates lipid metabolism in healthy young men and women consuming a high-fat hypercaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Schwarz, Jessica; Blokker, Britt A; Siebelink, Els; Kok, Frans J; Afman, Lydia A; Tomé, Daniel; Mensink, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing protein intake, at the expense of carbohydrates, on intrahepatic lipids (IHLs), circulating triglycerides (TGs), and body composition in healthy humans consuming a high-fat, hypercaloric diet. A crossover randomized trial with a parallel control group was performed. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were assigned to either the control diet [n = 10; 27.8 energy percent (en%) fat, 16.9 en% protein, 55.3 en% carbohydrates] for 4 wk or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet (n = 17; >2 MJ/d) crossover trial with 2 periods of 2 wk, with either high-protein (HP) (37.7 en% fat, 25.7 en% protein, 36.6 en% carbohydrates) or normal-protein (NP) (39.4 en% fat, 15.4 en% protein, 45.2 en% carbohydrates) content. Measurements were performed after 2 wk of run-in (baseline), 2 wk of intervention (period 1), and 4 wk of intervention (period 2). A trend toward lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations during the HP condition compared with the NP condition was observed (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04% vs. 0.51 ± 0.08%, P = 0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L, P = 0.07, for HP and NP, respectively). Fat mass was significantly lower (10.6 ± 1.72 vs. 10.9 ± 1.73 kg; P = 0.02) with the HP diet than with the NP diet, whereas fat-free mass was higher (55.7 ± 2.79 vs. 55.2 ± 2.80 kg; P = 0.003). This study indicated that an HP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet affects lipid metabolism. It tends to lower the IHL and circulating TG concentrations and significantly lowers fat mass and increases fat-free mass compared with an NP, high-fat, hypercaloric diet. This trail was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01354626.

  7. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Stanhope, Kimber L.; Schwarz, Jean Marc; Keim, Nancy L.; Griffen, Steven C.; Bremer, Andrew A.; Graham, James L.; Hatcher, Bonnie; Cox, Chad L.; Dyachenko, Artem; Zhang, Wei; McGahan, John P.; Seibert, Anthony; Krauss, Ronald M.; Chiu, Sally; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Ai, Masumi; Otokozawa, Seiko; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Nakano, Takamitsu; Beysen, Carine; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Berglund, Lars; Havel, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Studies in animals have documented that, compared with glucose, dietary fructose induces dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To assess the relative effects of these dietary sugars during sustained consumption in humans, overweight and obese subjects consumed glucose- or fructose-sweetened beverages providing 25% of energy requirements for 10 weeks. Although both groups exhibited similar weight gain during the intervention, visceral adipose volume was significantly increased only in subjects consuming fructose. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations increased by approximately 10% during 10 weeks of glucose consumption but not after fructose consumption. In contrast, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and the 23-hour postprandial triglyceride AUC were increased specifically during fructose consumption. Similarly, markers of altered lipid metabolism and lipoprotein remodeling, including fasting apoB, LDL, small dense LDL, oxidized LDL, and postprandial concentrations of remnant-like particle–triglyceride and –cholesterol significantly increased during fructose but not glucose consumption. In addition, fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels increased and insulin sensitivity decreased in subjects consuming fructose but not in those consuming glucose. These data suggest that dietary fructose specifically increases DNL, promotes dyslipidemia, decreases insulin sensitivity, and increases visceral adiposity in overweight/obese adults. PMID:19381015

  8. eHCM: Resources Reduction & Demand Increase, cover the gap by a managerial approach powered by an IT solutions.

    PubMed

    Buccioli, Matteo; Agnoletti, Vanni; Padovani, Emanuele; Perger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The economic and financial crisis has also had an important impact on the healthcare sector. Available resources have decreased, while at the same time costs as well as demand for healthcare services are on the rise. This coalescing negative impact on availability of healthcare resources is exacerbated even further by a widespread ignorance of management accounting matters. Little knowledge about costs is a strong source of costs augmentation. Although it is broadly recognized that cost accounting has a positive impact on healthcare organizations, it is not widespread adopted. Hospitals are essential components in providing overall healthcare. Operating rooms are critical hospital units not only in patient safety terms but also in expenditure terms. Understanding OR procedures in the hospital provides important information about how health care resources are used. There have been several scientific studies on management accounting in healthcare environments and more than ever there is a need for innovation, particularly by connecting business administration research findings to modern IT tools. IT adoption constitutes one of the most important innovation fields within the healthcare sector, with beneficial effects on the decision making processes. The e-HCM (e-Healthcare Cost Management) project consists of a cost calculation model which is applicable to Business Intelligence. The cost calculation approach comprises elements from both traditional cost accounting and activity-based costing. Direct costs for all surgical procedures can be calculated through a seven step implementation process.

  9. Teaching Consumer-Oriented Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Andrew D.; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for marketing researchers familiar with ethnographic methods, ethnographic consumer research has received little coverage in current marketing curricula. The innovation discussed in the present paper addresses this problem: it introduces the notion of "cultural relativism" and gives students hands-on experience in…

  10. Plerixafor on-demand combined with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: significant improvement in peripheral blood stem cells mobilization and harvest with no increase in costs.

    PubMed

    Milone, Giuseppe; Martino, Massimo; Spadaro, Andrea; Leotta, Salvatore; Di Marco, Annalia; Scalzulli, Potito; Cupri, Alessandra; Di Martina, Valentina; Schinocca, Elena; Spina, Eleonora; Tripepi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To date, no prospective study on Plerixafor 'on-demand' in combination with chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported. We present an interim analysis of the first prospective study in which Plerixafor was administered on-demand in patients affected by multiple myeloma and lymphoma who received high dose cyclophosphamide or DHAP (dexamethasone, cytarabine, cisplatin) plus G-CSF to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). One hundred and two patients were evaluable for response. A cohort of 240 patients receiving the same mobilizing chemotherapy was retrospectively studied. Failure to mobilize CD34(+) cells in peripheral blood was reduced by 'on-demand' strategy compared to conventional mobilization; from 13·0 to 3·0% (P = 0·004). Failure to harvest CD34(+) cells 2 × 10(6) /kg decreased from 20·9 to 4·0% (P = 0·0001). The on-demand Plerixafor strategy also resulted in a lower rate of mobilization failure (P = 0·03) and harvest failure (P = 0·0008) when compared to a 'bias-adjusted set of controls'. Evaluation of economic costs of the two strategies showed that the overall cost of the two treatments were comparable when salvage mobilizations were taken into account. When in combination with cyclophosphamide or DHAP plus G-CSF, the 'on-demand' use of Plerixafor showed, in comparison to conventionally treated patients, a significant improvement in mobilization of PBSC with no increase in overall cost.

  11. Strategies to increase the demand for childhood vaccination in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Myriam Cielo; Arsenault, Catherine; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pai, Nitika Pant; Pahwa, Smriti; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate which strategies to increase demand for vaccination are effective in increasing child vaccine coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library, POPLINE, ECONLIT, CINAHL, LILACS, BDSP, Web of Science and Scopus databases for relevant studies, published in English, French, German, Hindi, Portuguese and Spanish up to 25 March 2014. We included studies of interventions intended to increase demand for routine childhood vaccination. Studies were eligible if conducted in low- and middle-income countries and employing a randomized controlled trial, non-randomized controlled trial, controlled before-and-after or interrupted time series design. We estimated risk of bias using Cochrane collaboration guidelines and performed random-effects meta-analysis. Findings We identified 11 studies comprising four randomized controlled trials, six cluster randomized controlled trials and one controlled before-and-after study published in English between 1996 and 2013. Participants were generally parents of young children exposed to an eligible intervention. Six studies demonstrated low risk of bias and five studies had moderate to high risk of bias. We conducted a pooled analysis considering all 11 studies, with data from 11 512 participants. Demand-side interventions were associated with significantly higher receipt of vaccines, relative risk (RR): 1.30, (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.44). Subgroup analyses also demonstrated significant effects of seven education and knowledge translation studies, RR: 1.40 (95% CI: 1.20–1.63) and of four studies which used incentives, RR: 1.28 (95% CI: 1.12–1.45). Conclusion Demand-side interventions lead to significant gains in child vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Educational approaches and use of incentives were both effective strategies. PMID:26229205

  12. Simultaneous Voltammetric Measurements of Glucose and Dopamine Demonstrate the Coupling of Glucose Availability with Increased Metabolic Demand in the Rat Striatum.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha K; Lee, Christie A; Dausch, Matthew E; Horman, Brian M; Patisaul, Heather B; McCarty, Gregory S; Sombers, Leslie A

    2017-02-15

    Cerebral blood flow ensures delivery of nutrients, such as glucose, to brain sites with increased metabolic demand. However, little is known about rapid glucose dynamics at discrete locations during neuronal activation in vivo. Acute exposure to many substances of abuse elicits dopamine release and neuronal activation in the striatum; however, the concomitant changes in striatal glucose remain largely unknown. Recent developments have combined fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with glucose oxidase enzyme modified carbon-fiber microelectrodes to enable the measurement of glucose dynamics with subsecond temporal resolution in the mammalian brain. This work evaluates several waveforms to enable the first simultaneous detection of endogenous glucose and dopamine at single recording sites. These molecules, one electroactive and one nonelectroactive, were found to fluctuate in the dorsal striatum in response to electrical stimulation of the midbrain and systemic infusion of cocaine/raclopride. The data reveal the second-by-second dynamics of these species in a striatal microenvironment, and directly demonstrate the coupling of glucose availability with increased metabolic demand. This work provides a foundation that will enable detailed investigation of local mechanisms that regulate the coupling of cerebral blood flow with metabolic demand under normal conditions, and in animal studies of drug abuse and addiction.

  13. Responding to increasing RN demand: diversity and retention trends through an accelerated LVN-to-BSN curriculum.

    PubMed

    Porter-Wenzlaff, Linda Jean; Froman, Robin D

    2008-05-01

    By providing accelerated licensed vocational nurses (LVN)-to-BSN academic mobility, our university addresses the nationwide nursing shortage, as well as concerns for retention, diversity, and career advancement. LVNs are committed to health care, are likely to remain working as nurses, and represent ethnic and racial minorities. However, LVNs differ from generic students and benefit from tailored curricula and educational strategies. Disadvantaged personal and academic backgrounds, lower grade point averages, cultural diversity, language challenges, age, life responsibilities, and learned LVN behaviors are considered in the development and implementation of this baccalaureate nursing (BSN) degree program. Strategies to build professional identity, reading comprehension, verbal and written articulation, critical thinking, and leadership skills are addressed. A combination of teaching strategies are used to address adult learner needs, including online and face-to-face projects and case studies. Mixing LVN-to-BSN and RN-to-BSN students benefits both and increases efficiency.

  14. Drivers of U.S. mineral demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sznopek, John L.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The word 'demand' has different meanings for different people. To some, it means their 'wants and needs,' to others it is what they consume. Yet, when considering economics, demand refers to the specific amounts of goods or services that individuals will purchase at various prices. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes, and the price of complementary and substitute goods. In this paper, the term consumption is used fairly synonymously with the term demand. Most mineral commodities, like iron ore, copper, zinc, and gravel, are intermediate goods, which means that they are used in the production of other goods, called final goods. Demand for intermediate goods is called derived demand because such demand is derived from the demand for final goods. When demand increases for a commodity, generally the price rises. With everything else held constant, this increases the profits for those who provide this commodity. Normally, this would increase profits of existing producers and attract new producers to the market. When demand for a commodity decreases, generally the price falls. Normally, this would cause profits to fall and, as a consequence, the least efficient firms may be forced from the industry. Demand changes for specific materials as final goods or production techniques are reengineered while maintaining or improving product performance, for example, the use of aluminum in the place of copper in long distance electrical transmission lines or plastic replacing steel in automobile bumpers. Substitution contributes to efficient material usage by utilizing cheaper or technically superior materials. In this way, it may also alleviate materials scarcity. If a material becomes relatively scarce (and thus more expensive), a more abundant (and less expensive) material generally replaces it (Wagner and others, 2003, p. 91).

  15. Consuming polydextrose in a mid-morning snack increases acute satiety measurements and reduces subsequent energy intake at lunch in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hull, Sarah; Re, Roberta; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Viscione, Luisa; Wickham, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Polydextrose (Litesse®, DuPont) is a polysaccharide that is partially fermented in the colon. Evidence suggests that polydextrose increases satiety when consumed over several weeks; however studies assessing its acute effects on satiety are lacking. This study therefore aimed to assess the impact of different doses of polydextrose on satiety and energy intake at subsequent meals during a test day. Three yogurt-based drinks containing different amounts of polydextrose (0, 6.25 and 12.5g) were tested using a randomised, single-blinded, placebo controlled, cross-over design. Thirty-four healthy male and female volunteers were provided with a standard breakfast, then consumed the test product mid-morning, 90min before an ad libitum lunch, which was followed by an ad libitum dinner. Visual analogue scales were used to measure subjective ratings of appetite, liking and discomfort. Consuming 6.25 and 12.5g polydextrose increased satiety and decreased appetite compared to control immediately after consumption. A reduction in energy intake (218.8kJ) at lunchtime was observed for 12.5g polydextrose. This reduction in energy intake was not compensated for at dinner. This study suggests that polydextrose may aid in increasing satiety feelings post consumption and also reduce energy intake as a result.

  16. Increasing coverage of insecticide-treated nets in rural Nigeria: implications of consumer knowledge, preferences and expenditures for malaria prevention

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ezumah, Nkoli; Shu, Elvis

    2005-01-01

    Background The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their perceptions and expenditures for malaria prevention and to examine the implications for scaling-up ITNs in rural Nigeria. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires to 798 respondents from three malaria hyper-endemic villages from Enugu state, south-east Nigeria were the study tools. Results There was a broad spectrum of malaria preventive tools being used by people. The average monthly expenditure on malaria prevention per household was 55.55 Naira ($0.4). More than 80% of the respondent had never purchased any form of untreated mosquito net. People mostly preferred centralized community-based sales of the ITNS, with instalment payments. Conclusion People were knowledgeable about malaria and the beneficial effects of using nets to protect themselves from the disease. The mostly preferred community-based distribution of ITNs implies that the strategy is a potential untapped additional channel for scaling-up ITNs in Nigeria and possibly other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16026623

  17. Let's look at leeks! Picture books increase toddlers' willingness to look at, taste and consume unfamiliar vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Philippa; Houston-Price, Carmel; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2013-01-01

    Repeatedly looking at picture books about fruits and vegetables with parents enhances young children's visual preferences toward the foods in the book (Houston-Price et al., 2009a) and influences their willingness to taste these foods (Houston-Price et al., 2009b). This article explores whether the effects of picture book exposure are affected by infants' initial familiarity with and liking for the foods presented. In two experiments parents of 19- to 26-month-old toddlers were asked to read a picture book about a liked, disliked or unfamiliar fruit or vegetable with their child every day for 2 weeks. The impact of the intervention on both infants' visual preferences and their eating behavior was determined by the initial status of the target food, with the strongest effects for foods that were initially unfamiliar. Most strikingly, toddlers consumed more of the unfamiliar vegetable they had seen in their picture book than of a matched control vegetable. Results confirm the potential for picture books to play a positive role in encouraging healthy eating in young children. PMID:24653709

  18. High resolution mapping of traits related to whole-plant transpiration under increasing evaporative demand in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Schoppach, Rémy; Taylor, Julian D; Majerus, Elisabeth; Claverie, Elodie; Baumann, Ute; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Fleury, Delphine; Sadok, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a key component of drought and has a strong influence on yields. Whole-plant transpiration rate (TR) response to increasing VPD has been linked to drought tolerance in wheat, but because of its challenging phenotyping, its genetic basis remains unexplored. Further, the genetic control of other key traits linked to daytime TR such as leaf area, stomata densities and – more recently – nocturnal transpiration remains unknown. Considering the presence of wheat phenology genes that can interfere with drought tolerance, the aim of this investigation was to identify at an enhanced resolution the genetic basis of the above traits while investigating the effects of phenology genes Ppd-D1 and Ppd-B1. Virtually all traits were highly heritable (heritabilities from 0.61 to 0.91) and a total of mostly trait-specific 68 QTL were detected. Six QTL were identified for TR response to VPD, with one QTL (QSLP.ucl-5A) individually explaining 25.4% of the genetic variance. This QTL harbored several genes previously reported to be involved in ABA signaling, interaction with DREB2A and root hydraulics. Surprisingly, nocturnal TR and stomata densities on both leaf sides were characterized by highly specific and robust QTL. In addition, negative correlations were found between TR and leaf area suggesting trade-offs between these traits. Further, Ppd-D1 had strong but opposite effects on these traits, suggesting an involvement in this trade-off. Overall, these findings revealed novel genetic resources while suggesting a more direct role of phenology genes in enhancing wheat drought tolerance. PMID:27001921

  19. High resolution mapping of traits related to whole-plant transpiration under increasing evaporative demand in wheat.

    PubMed

    Schoppach, Rémy; Taylor, Julian D; Majerus, Elisabeth; Claverie, Elodie; Baumann, Ute; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Fleury, Delphine; Sadok, Walid

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) is a key component of drought and has a strong influence on yields. Whole-plant transpiration rate (TR) response to increasing VPD has been linked to drought tolerance in wheat, but because of its challenging phenotyping, its genetic basis remains unexplored. Further, the genetic control of other key traits linked to daytime TR such as leaf area, stomata densities and - more recently - nocturnal transpiration remains unknown. Considering the presence of wheat phenology genes that can interfere with drought tolerance, the aim of this investigation was to identify at an enhanced resolution the genetic basis of the above traits while investigating the effects of phenology genes Ppd-D1 and Ppd-B1 Virtually all traits were highly heritable (heritabilities from 0.61 to 0.91) and a total of mostly trait-specific 68 QTL were detected. Six QTL were identified for TR response to VPD, with one QTL (QSLP.ucl-5A) individually explaining 25.4% of the genetic variance. This QTL harbored several genes previously reported to be involved in ABA signaling, interaction with DREB2A and root hydraulics. Surprisingly, nocturnal TR and stomata densities on both leaf sides were characterized by highly specific and robust QTL. In addition, negative correlations were found between TR and leaf area suggesting trade-offs between these traits. Further, Ppd-D1 had strong but opposite effects on these traits, suggesting an involvement in this trade-off. Overall, these findings revealed novel genetic resources while suggesting a more direct role of phenology genes in enhancing wheat drought tolerance.

  20. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  1. Increasing the variety of foods consumed by a picky eater: generalization of effects across caregivers and settings.

    PubMed

    Valdimarsdóttir, Hildur; Halldórsdóttir, Lilja Yr; Sigurthardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, nonremoval of the fork (Hoch, Babbitt, Coe, Krell, & Hackbert, 1994), and stimulus fading on consumption of food rejected previously. The study was conducted in two separate settings, and caregivers were trained in the intervention technique to increase generalization to natural settings. Food variety increased in both settings.

  2. Increasing demands for quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Robert J; Gitomer, Richard S; Greene, William H; Webster, Patricia Reagan; Landry, Kevin R; Riccobono, Charles A

    2013-11-13

    Measurement of health care quality and patient safety is rapidly evolving, in response to long-term needs and more recent efforts to reform the US health system around "value." Development and choice of quality measures is now guided by a national quality strategy and priorities, with a public-private partnership, the National Quality Forum, helping determine the most worthwhile measures for evaluating and rewarding quality and safety of patient care. Yet there remain a number of challenges, including diverse purposes for quality measurement, limited availability of true clinical measures leading to frequent reliance on claims data with its flaws in determining quality, fragmentation of measurement systems with redundancy and conflicting conclusions, few high-quality comprehensive measurement systems and registries, and rapid expansion of required measures with hundreds of measures straining resources. The proliferation of quality measures at the clinician, hospital, and insurer level has created challenges and logistical problems. Recommendations include raising the bar for qualtiy measurements to achieve transformational rather than incremental change in the US quality measurement system, promoting a logical set of measures for the various levels of the health system, leaving room for internal organizational improvement, harmonizing the various national and local quality measurement systems, anchoring on National Quality Forum additions and subtractions of measures to be applied, reducing reliance on and retiring claims-based measures as quickly as possible, promoting comprehensive measurement such as through registries with deep understanding of patient risk factors and outcomes, reducing attention to proprietary report cards, prompt but careful transition to measures from electronic health records, and allocation of sufficient resources to accomplish the goals of an efficient, properly focused measurement system.

  3. INCREASING THE VARIETY OF FOODS CONSUMED BY A PICKY EATER: GENERALIZATION OF EFFECTS ACROSS CAREGIVERS AND SETTINGS

    PubMed Central

    Valdimarsdóttir, Hildur; Halldórsdóttir, Lilja Ýr; SigurÐardóttir, Zuilma Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    A multiple baseline across settings was used to evaluate the effects of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, nonremoval of the fork (Hoch, Babbitt, Coe, Krell, & Hackbert, 1994), and stimulus fading on consumption of food rejected previously. The study was conducted in two separate settings, and caregivers were trained in the intervention technique to increase generalization to natural settings. Food variety increased in both settings. PMID:20808499

  4. Involvement of root ABA and hydraulic conductivity in the control of water relations in wheat plants exposed to increased evaporative demand.

    PubMed

    Kudoyarova, Guzel; Veselova, Svetlana; Hartung, Wolfram; Farhutdinov, Rashit; Veselov, Dmitry; Sharipova, Guzyal

    2011-01-01

    We studied the possible involvement of ABA in the control of water relations under conditions of increased evaporative demand. Warming the air by 3°C increased stomatal conductance and raised transpiration rates of hydroponically grown Triticum durum plants while bringing about a temporary loss of relative water content (RWC) and immediate cessation of leaf extension. However, both RWC and extension growth recovered within 30 min although transpiration remained high. The restoration of leaf hydration and growth were enabled by increased root hydraulic conductivity after increasing the air temperature. The use of mercuric chloride (an inhibitor of water channels) to interfere with the rise on root hydraulic conductivity hindered the restoration of extension growth. Air warming increased ABA content in roots and decreased it in shoots. We propose this redistribution of ABA in favour of the roots which increased the root hydraulic conductivity sufficiently to permit rapid recovery of shoot hydration and leaf elongation rates without the involvement of stomatal closure. This proposal is based on known ability of ABA to increase hydraulic conductivity confirmed in these experiments by measuring the effect of exogenous ABA on osmotically driven flow of xylem sap from the roots. Accumulation of root ABA was mainly the outcome of increased export from the shoots. When phloem transport in air-warmed plants was inhibited by cooling the shoot base this prevented ABA enrichment of the roots and favoured an accumulation of ABA in the shoot. As a consequence, stomata closed.

  5. Mechanisms of increased survival after lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock in mice consuming olive oil-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Leite, Milane S; Pacheco, Patrícia; Gomes, Rachel N; Guedes, Alexandre T; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Patrícia T; Koatz, Vera Lúcia G

    2005-02-01

    We examined the impact of dietary fatty acid intake on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxic shock. C57Bl/6J mice were fed for 6 weeks with a commercial laboratory chow (CC) or with test chows containing 7% (w/w) canola oil (CO), sesame oil (SeO), soybean oil (SO), or virgin olive oil (OO). The increase in body weight and energy consumption were similar for all diets tested. In the sixth week, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 400 microg of bacterial LPS to induce endotoxic shock. LPS induced a massive neutrophil infiltration into the peritoneal cavity and an increase in lipid body (LB) formation in leukocytes recovered from the peritoneal fluid of mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO. In addition, there were increases in prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), leukotriene B4 (LTB(4)), and cytokines IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 in peritoneal lavage, as well as in plasma TNF-alpha. In contrast, mice fed with OO exhibited reduced neutrophil accumulation and LB formation, and also had lower levels of PGE(2), LTB(4), MCP-1, and TNF-alpha. All mice fed with CC, CO, SeO, or SO died within 48 to 72 h after LPS injection. Interestingly, mice fed with the OO diet were resistant to endotoxic shock, with 60% survival at 168 h. These data indicate that intake of OO may have a beneficial role, reducing the magnitude of the inflammatory process triggered by endotoxic shock through modulation of LB formation and of the production of inflammatory mediators.

  6. Use of Economic Compensation to Increase Demand for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Kenya: Qualitative Interviews With Male Participants in a Randomized Controlled Trial and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, Michele; Murray, Kate; Rao, Samwel; Agot, Kawango; Omanga, Eunice; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Interventions to increase demand for medical male circumcision are urgently needed in eastern and southern Africa. Following promising evidence that providing economic compensation can increase male circumcision uptake in Kenya, there is a need to understand the role of this intervention in individuals' decision-making regarding circumcision and explore perceptions of the intervention and concerns such as coercion. Methods: As part of a randomized controlled trial in Kenya that found compensation in the form of food vouchers worth US $8.75–US $15.00 to be effective in increasing male circumcision uptake, we conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with 45 circumcised and uncircumcised male participants and 19 female partners to explore how compensation provision influenced the decision to get circumcised. Interview transcripts were coded and an inductive thematic analysis was conducted to identify patterns in decision-making. Results: Interviews revealed that compensation promoted circumcision uptake by addressing a major barrier to male circumcision uptake: lost wages during and after the circumcision procedure. Participants who did not get circumcised perceived the compensation amounts to be insufficient for offsetting their costs associated with getting circumcised or reported having nonfinancial barriers that were not addressed by the intervention, such as fear of pain. Participants also reported that they did not feel compelled to get circumcised for financial gain. Female partners of circumcised participants felt that the intervention helped to motivate their partners to get circumcised. Conclusions: The results suggest that the provision of economic compensation is an acceptable intervention that can address an important barrier to male circumcision uptake. Providing compensation to circumcision clients in the form of food vouchers warrants further consideration in voluntary medical male circumcision demand creation efforts. PMID:27404013

  7. Consumer Rights in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vago, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    Attempts in both academia and the legal arena to delineate the concepts of academic fraud and malpractice and to develop the positive implications of the student as a responsible consumer may lead to the establishment of a more appropriate student-institution relationship for today's highly diversified and demanding college learners. (Author/EB)

  8. An Increase in Consuming Adequately Iodized Salt May Not Be Enough to Rectify Iodine Deficiency in Pregnancy in an Iodine-Sufficient Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Zhu, Wenming; Mo, Zhe; Wang, Yuanyang; Mao, Guangming; Wang, Xiaofeng; Lou, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Universal salt iodization (USI) has been implemented for two decades in China. It is crucial to periodically monitor iodine status in the most vulnerable population, such as pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an evidence-proved iodine-sufficient province to evaluate iodine intake in pregnancy. According to the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation criteria of adequate iodine intake in pregnancy (150–249 µg/L), the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of the total 8159 recruited pregnant women was 147.5 µg/L, which indicated pregnant women had iodine deficiency at the province level. Overall, 51.0% of the total study participants had iodine deficiency with a UIC < 150 µg/L and only 32.9% of them had adequate iodine. Participants living in coastal areas had iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 130.1 µg/L, while those in inland areas had marginally adequate iodine intake with a median UIC of 158.1 µg/L (p < 0.001). Among the total study participants, 450 pregnant women consuming non-iodized salt had mild-moderate iodine deficiency with a median UIC of 99.6 µg/L; 7363 pregnant women consuming adequately iodized salt had a lightly statistically higher median UIC of 151.9 µg/L, compared with the recommended adequate level by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD (p < 0.001). Consuming adequately iodized salt seemed to lightly increase the median UIC level, but it may not be enough to correct iodine nutrition status to an optimum level as recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD. We therefore suggest that, besides strengthening USI policy, additional interventive measure may be needed to improve iodine intake in pregnancy. PMID:28230748

  9. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  10. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Matzen, Wolfgang; Osiander-Fuchs, Helga; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 μg/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children.

  11. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rowcliffe, M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Alexander, J. S.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Brenya, A.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management. PMID:27632169

  12. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics.

    PubMed

    McNamara, J; Rowcliffe, M; Cowlishaw, G; Alexander, J S; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Brenya, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management.

  13. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities.

    PubMed

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant "for me" (Group 1) and implant "for my child" (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R (2)) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be "positive emotions" and (positive) "subjective norm." This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the "for me" and "for my child" models for "perceived ease of use (PEU)" and "subjective norm." These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance.

  14. Assessing the Moderating Effect of the End User in Consumer Behavior: The Acceptance of Technological Implants to Increase Innate Human Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Pelegrín-Borondo, Jorge; Reinares-Lara, Eva; Olarte-Pascual, Cristina; Garcia-Sierra, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Today, technological implants are being developed to increase innate human capacities, such as memory or calculation speed, and to endow us with new ones, such as the remote control of machines. This study's aim was two-fold: first, to introduce a Cognitive-Affective-Normative (CAN) model of technology acceptance to explain the intention to use this technology in the field of consumer behavior; and second, to analyze the differences in the intention to use it based on whether the intended implant recipient is oneself or one's child (i.e., the moderating effect of the end user). A multi-group analysis was performed to compare the results between the two groups: implant “for me” (Group 1) and implant “for my child” (Group 2). The model largely explains the intention to use the insideable technology for the specified groups [variance explained (R2) of over 0.70 in both cases]. The most important variables were found to be “positive emotions” and (positive) “subjective norm.” This underscores the need to broaden the range of factors considered to be decisive in technology acceptance to include variables related to consumers' emotions. Moreover, statistically significant differences were found between the “for me” and “for my child” models for “perceived ease of use (PEU)” and “subjective norm.” These findings confirm the moderating effect of the end user on new insideable technology acceptance. PMID:26941662

  15. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  16. Short and Long-Term Perspectives: The Impact on Low-Income Consumers of Forecasted Energy Price Increases in 2008 and A Cap & Trade Carbon Policy in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) recently released its short-term forecast for residential energy prices for the winter of 2007-2008. The forecast indicates increases in costs for low-income consumers in the year ahead, particularly for those using fuel oil to heat their homes. In the following analysis, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has integrated the EIA price projections with the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for 2001 in order to project the impact of these price increases on the nation's low-income households by primary heating fuel type, nationally and by Census Region. The report provides an update of bill estimates provided in a previous study, "The Impact Of Forecasted Energy Price Increases On Low-Income Consumers" (Eisenberg, 2005). The statistics are intended for use by policymakers in the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program and elsewhere who are trying to gauge the nature and severity of the problems that will be faced by eligible low-income households during the 2008 fiscal year. In addition to providing expenditure forecasts for the year immediately ahead, this analysis uses a similar methodology to give policy makers some insight into one of the major policy debates that will impact low-income energy expenditures well into the middle decades of this century and beyond. There is now considerable discussion of employing a cap-and-trade mechanism to first limit and then reduce U.S. emissions of carbon into the atmosphere in order to combat the long-range threat of human-induced climate change. The Energy Information Administration has provided an analysis of projected energy prices in the years 2020 and 2030 for one such cap-and-trade carbon reduction proposal that, when integrated with the RECS 2001 database, provides estimates of how low-income households will be impacted over the long term by such a carbon reduction policy.

  17. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  18. Evaluating the effect of conservation motivations on residential water demand.

    PubMed

    Maas, Alexander; Goemans, Christopher; Manning, Dale; Kroll, Stephan; Arabi, Mazdak; Rodriguez-McGoffina, Mariana

    2017-03-20

    Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average. We also find that there is no statistical difference between E&S and C&C consumers in their consumption responses to changing prices, temperature, and precipitation. This implies that targeting future conservation efforts to self-reported consumer groups may not improve policy effectiveness.

  19. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current.

    PubMed

    Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S

    2016-01-01

    stratification due to ocean warming, but also increase the biological demand for iron that is necessary to sustain the growth of large-celled phototrophs and potentially support the diversity of diazotrophs over longer time-scales.

  20. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R.; Messer, Lauren F.; Brown, Mark V.; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D.; McInnes, Allison S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Thompson, Peter A.; Hassler, Christel S.

    2016-01-01

    increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased stratification due to ocean warming, but also increase the biological demand for iron that is necessary to sustain the growth of large-celled phototrophs and potentially support the diversity of diazotrophs over longer time-scales. PMID:27168982

  1. Effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Manuel; Castro, Carla; Pizarro, Fernando; de Romaña, Daniel López

    2013-09-01

    Iron (Fe) and zinc's (Zn) interaction at the absorptive level can have an effect on the success of co-fortification of wheat flour with both minerals on iron deficiency prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of increasing levels of zinc fortificant on the iron absorption of bread co-fortified with iron and zinc consumed with a black tea. Twelve women aged 33-42 years participated in the study. They received on four different days 200 mL of black tea and 100 g of bread made with wheat flour (70% extraction) fortified with either 30 mg Fe/kg alone, as ferrous sulfate (A), or with the same Fe-fortified flour, but with graded levels of Zn, as zinc sulfate: 30 mg/kg (B), 60 mg/kg (C), or 90 mg/kg (D). Fe radioisotopes ((59)Fe and (55)Fe) of high specific activity were used as tracers, and Fe absorption iron was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The geometric mean and range of ±1 SD of Fe absorption were as follows: A = 6.5% (2.2-19.3%), B = 4.6% (1.0-21.0%), C = 2.1% (0.9-4.9%), and D = 2.2% (0.7-6.6%), respectively; ANOVA for repeated measures F = 10.9, p < 0.001 (Scheffè's post hoc test: A vs. C, A vs. D, B vs. C, and B vs. D; p < 0.05). We can conclude that Fe absorption of bread made from low-extraction flour fortified with 30 mg/kg of Fe, as ferrous sulfate, and co-fortified with zinc, as zinc sulfate consumed with black tea is significantly decreased at a zinc fortification level of ≥60 mg/kg flour.

  2. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  3. Impact of Energy Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambel, Ali B.

    1970-01-01

    The types of pollutants associated with the process of power production are identified. A nine-point proposal is presented on the ways the increase in power demands might be achieved with the minimum threat to the environment. (PR)

  4. Latin American demand

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    From Mexico to Argentina, independent power companies are finding great demand for their services in Latin America. But while legal and economic conditions are increasingly favorable, political and financial uncertainties make power development challenging.

  5. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  6. Very Rapid Increase in Demand for Core Information Technology Workers Projected for the 1996-2006 Period. America's New Deficit: Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Technology Policy (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The Office of Technology has analyzed Bureau of Labor Statistics's (BLS's) growth projections for the three core occupational classifications of information technology (IT) workers--computer scientists and engineers, systems analysts, and computer programmers--to assess future United States demand. BLS projections indicate that between 1996-2006,…

  7. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  8. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  9. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions. PMID:26752642

  10. Understanding Urban Demand for Wild Meat in Vietnam: Implications for Conservation Actions.

    PubMed

    Shairp, Rachel; Veríssimo, Diogo; Fraser, Iain; Challender, Daniel; MacMillan, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam is a significant consumer of wildlife, particularly wild meat, in urban restaurant settings. To meet this demand, poaching of wildlife is widespread, threatening regional and international biodiversity. Previous interventions to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable consumption of wild meat in Vietnam have generally focused on limiting supply. While critical, they have been impeded by a lack of resources, the presence of increasingly organised criminal networks and corruption. Attention is, therefore, turning to the consumer, but a paucity of research investigating consumer demand for wild meat will impede the creation of effective consumer-centred interventions. Here we used a mixed-methods research approach comprising a hypothetical choice modelling survey and qualitative interviews to explore the drivers of wild meat consumption and consumer preferences among residents of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Our findings indicate that demand for wild meat is heterogeneous and highly context specific. Wild-sourced, rare, and expensive wild meat-types are eaten by those situated towards the top of the societal hierarchy to convey wealth and status and are commonly consumed in lucrative business contexts. Cheaper, legal and farmed substitutes for wild-sourced meats are also consumed, but typically in more casual consumption or social drinking settings. We explore the implications of our results for current conservation interventions in Vietnam that attempt to tackle illegal and potentially unsustainable trade in and consumption of wild meat and detail how our research informs future consumer-centric conservation actions.

  11. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  12. Moving from outsider to insider: peer status and partnerships between electricity utilities and residential consumers.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.

  13. Potential spillover educational effects of cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising on cancer patients' increased information seeking behaviors: results from a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andy S L

    2014-06-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B = .023, 95% CI = .005-.040, p = .012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B = .009, 95% CI = -.001-.018, p = .067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians.

  14. Towards Real Information on Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Philip

    The phrase "information on demand" is often used to describe situations in which digital electronic information can be delivered to particular points of need at times and in ways that are determined by the specific requirements of individual consumers or client groups. The advent of "mobile" computing equipment now makes the…

  15. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  16. Consumer drop-in centers: operations, services, and consumer involvement.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Carol T; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Holter, Mark C

    2002-11-01

    Interest in involvement of consumers in mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation services delivery has expanded in recent years, encompassing self-help approaches, consumers employed as providers in formal agencies, and consumers operating their own services. This study reports results from in-depth phone surveys conducted with 32 consumer drop-in centers in Michigan. Results indicate that centers operate in many ways like other human services businesses, albeit with much smaller budgets. Funding levels, salaries, and services showed great heterogeneity among the centers and in comparison with reports in the literature. Centers autonomously run by consumers and centers with consumer involvement (operated by a non-consumer agency) were found to differ significantly on several variables, including consumer control, funding and service levels, and challenges. Implications for the growth and increased use of consumer drop-in centers are discussed.

  17. Moral hazard and supplier-induced demand: empirical evidence in general practice.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Christel E; van den Berg, Bernard; Verheij, Robert A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Groenewegen, Peter P; de Bakker, Dinny H

    2013-03-01

    Changes in cost sharing and remuneration system in the Netherlands in 2006 led to clear changes in financial incentives faced by both consumers and general practitioner (GPs). For privately insured consumers, cost sharing was abolished, whereas those socially insured never faced cost sharing. The separate remuneration systems for socially insured consumers (capitation) and privately insured consumers (fee-for-service) changed to a combined system of capitation and fee-for-service for both groups. Our first hypothesis was that privately insured consumers had a higher increase in patient-initiated GP contact rates compared with socially insured consumers. Our second hypothesis was that socially insured consumers had a higher increase in physician-initiated contact rates. Data were used from electronic medical records from 32 GP-practices and 35336 consumers in 2005-2007. A difference-in-differences approach was applied to study the effect of changes in cost sharing and remuneration system on contact rates. Abolition of cost sharing led to a higher increase in patient-initiated utilisation for privately insured consumers in persons aged 65 and older. Introduction of fee-for-service for socially insured consumers led to a higher increase in physician-initiated utilisation. This was most apparent in persons aged 25 to 54. Differences in the trend in physician-initiated utilisation point to an effect of supplier-induced demand. Differences in patient-initiated utilisation indicate limited evidence for moral hazard.

  18. Consumer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gindele, John; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Consumer education activities for secondary, adult, and special needs students are described in "What Does It Cost to Run a Home?" by John and Joseph Gindele; "Taking the Show on the Road" by Linda Lewis; "Special Home Ec Program" by Marty Nelson; and "Understanding Civil Law" by Michael Weis. (SK)

  19. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how…

  20. Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Amy D., Comp.

    The curriculum guide is intended as a source to help teachers plan consumer education classes in Nevada, from junior high school through the adult level. Developed for a semester's (18 weeks) separate course of study, using individual or group instruction, the guide may be expanded to meet the needs of a full year. Each unit can be taught as an…

  1. MAKING THE PATIENT-CONSUMER IN MARGARET THATCHER'S BRITAIN

    PubMed Central

    MOLD, ALEX

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role played by patient organizations in the making of the patient as consumer during Margaret Thatcher's term as prime minster. It details a crucial moment in the reconstitution of the relationship between state and citizen, as universal entitlements to welfare gave way to individualistic rights to, and choice of, services. Though patients had been regarded as consumers prior to this period, it was during the 1980s that the patient-consumer moved from the margins to centre-stage. By examining the activities of patient groups around three key themes – the provision of information, the development of patients' rights, and the notion of patient choice – this article shows that ideas about what it meant to be a patient-consumer came initially from patient groups. Through their work in these areas, patient groups built up a kind of patient consumerism that was concerned with the needs of the wider population, as well as representing demands made by individual patient-consumers. By the end of the 1980s, however, the patient-consumer was reconfigured by the Conservative government, and emphasis moved from the collective needs of patient-consumers to the rights of individuals within increasingly marketized services. This development thus raises questions not only about who speaks for the consumer, but also about the relationship between citizenship and consumption in contemporary Britain. PMID:22826610

  2. Innovations in Consumer Education: How Do We Teach Consumer Ecology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Ann Smith

    1974-01-01

    Innovations in teaching consumer ecology (environmental preservation vs. satisfaction of current demands), possible unit topics, causes and possible solutions for environmental problems, and teaching through filmstrips, audio tapes and games simulating real life decision-making situations are described. A seven-item bibliography accompanies the…

  3. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  4. Coffee Mannooligosaccharides, Consumed As Part of a Free-Living, Weight-Maintaining Diet, Increase the Proportional Reduction in Body Volume in Overweight Men123

    PubMed Central

    Salinardi, Taylor C.; Rubin, Kristin Herron; Black, Richard M.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown that the consumption of coffee mannooligosaccharides (MOS) decreases body fat, suggesting that MOS consumption may be useful for weight management. This study was undertaken to determine whether consumption of coffee MOS improves body composition when consumed as part of a weight-maintaining diet. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 54 men and women, age 19–65 y and with BMI of 27–33 kg/m2, consumed study beverages twice daily, for 12 wk. Beverages were identical except for the presence (MOS group) or absence (placebo group) of MOS (4 g/d). Body composition was assessed at baseline and endpoint using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body weight, blood pressure, and assessments of feelings of appetite and satiety were taken weekly. Fifty men and women completed both baseline and endpoint MRI scans. There was a significant beverage x time interaction on total body volume (P = 0.026), total adipose tissue (TAT) (P = 0.046), and total subcutaneous adipose tissue (P = 0.032) in men but not women. Men consuming the MOS beverage had a greater percent change in total body volume (P = 0.043) and tended to have greater percent changes in subcutaneous (P = 0.069) and TAT (P = 0.098) compared with the placebo group. Consumption of a MOS-containing beverage, as part of a free-living weight-maintaining diet, leads to reductions in total body volume, relative to placebo, in men. More research is needed to further investigate the mechanism by which MOS may act to improve body composition and to elucidate the influence of gender. PMID:20861211

  5. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  6. Demand, Growth, and Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm shift to engaged and collaborative learning delivered via distance education technologies has been led by practitioners in adult and continuing education. Online and blended courses are experiencing increased demand and continued growth at all levels of higher education, professional development, and K-12 education. Adult and…

  7. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  8. Employee retention: applying hospital strategies to EMS. With increasing demand for and decreasing supply of EMTs and paramedics, retention strategies should be a priority for EMS organizations.

    PubMed

    Powers, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Retention strategies are a priority for EMS organizations. These strategies must be broad and varied to address the variety of reasons employees leave healthcare organizations. The value of creating these programs should manifest itself through increased employee satisfaction and an increased sense of belonging to the organization.

  9. Increased Intra-Individual Reaction Time Variability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder across Response Inhibition Tasks with Different Cognitive Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaurio, Rebecca G.; Simmonds, Daniel J.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in children with ADHD is increased moment-to-moment variability in reaction time (RT). The source of increased RT variability can be examined using ex-Gaussian analyses that divide variability into normal and exponential components and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) that allow for detailed examination of the…

  10. Only If It's Good: Teaching a Demand Reduction Campaign and a Bibliography on Women and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamasaki, Joan Marie

    1993-01-01

    Identifies cigarette advertising as an example of marketing harmful products to intended consumers using harmful images. Describes a classroom project in which students learn how to create, increase, and maintain demand. Includes a chart with student-designed "demarketing" campaigns and a bibliography on women and advertising. (CFR)

  11. Poplar demand.

    PubMed Central

    Holton, W C

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial solvent that poses a particular pollution problem in groundwater; while TCE disappears from surface water within a few weeks, groundwater contamination can take months or years to degrade. Humans have not conclusively been shown to develop cancer in response to TCE exposure, but rats and mice exposed to TCE have an increased incidence of liver and lung cancers. PMID:9721263

  12. 77 FR 23282 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 356.2 percent from its... = 100), I certify that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All...

  13. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  14. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  15. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics.

    PubMed

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Tang, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption.

  16. Office of Consumer Services grant program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-15

    The report contains a narrative description of the accomplishments of the Office of Public Counselor Services as a result of the Office of Consumer Services Grant Program. The Grant was awarded to the Office of the Public Counselor to supplement and increase an ongoing activity of consumer intervention and representations, and provide accurate studies related to electric utilities regarding its load and demands for future periods. Program accomplishments are described for Southern Indiana Gas and Electric Rate Case; Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Indiana and Michigan Electric Company and an appeal; Indianapolis Power and Light Company; Load Research and Demand Study; and Indiana Coal Reserves Study. A timetable of major program events is shown. The final financial status report and the assessment of program effectiveness are presented.

  17. Making molehills out of a mountain: experience with a new scheduling strategy to diminish workload variations in response to increased treatment demands

    PubMed Central

    Waters, A.; Alizadeh, M.; Filion, C.; Ashbury, F.; Pun, J.; Chagnon, M.P.; Legrain, A.; Fortin, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A new scheduling strategy was implemented. Before implementation, treatments and planning computed tomography (ct) imaging were both scheduled at the same time. Maximal wait times for treatment are defined by the Quebec Ministry of Health’s plan of action according to treatment aim and site. After implementation, patients requiring rapid treatment (priorities 0–3) continued to have their treatments scheduled at the same time as their planning ct; treatments for priority 4 (P4) patients were scheduled only after the treatment plan was approved. That approach aims to compensate for unexpected increases in planning workload by relocating less delay-sensitive cases to other time slots. We evaluated the impact on the patient experience, workload in various sectors, the care team’s perception of care delivery, access to care, and the department’s efficiency in terms of hours worked per treatment delivered. Methods Three periods were defined for analysis: the pre-transitional phase, for baseline evaluation; the transitional phase, during which there was an overlap in the way patients were being scheduled; and the post-transitional phase. Wait times were calculated from the date that patients were ready to treat to the date of their first treatment. Surveys were distributed to pre- and post-transitional phase patients. Care team members were asked to complete a survey evaluating their perception of how the change affected workload and patient care. Operational data were analyzed. Results We observed a 24% increase in the number of treatments delivered in the post-transitional phase. Before implementation, priority 0–3 patients waited a mean of 7.9 days to begin treatments (n = 241); afterward, they waited 6.3 days (n = 340, p = 0.006). Before implementation, P4 patients waited a mean 15.1 days (n = 233); after implementation, they waited 16.1 days (n = 368, p = 0.22). Surveys showed that patients felt that the time it took to inform them of treatment

  18. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  19. Using consumer preference information to increase the reach and impact of media-based parenting interventions in a public health approach to parenting support.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Carol W; Sanders, Matthew R; Rusby, Julie C; Crowley, Ryann N

    2012-06-01

    Within a public health approach to improving parenting, the mass media offer a potentially more efficient and affordable format for directly reaching a large number of parents with evidence-based parenting information than do traditional approaches to parenting interventions that require delivery by a practitioner. Little is known, however, about factors associated with parents' interest in and willingness to watch video messages about parenting. Knowledge of consumer preferences could inform the effective design of media interventions to maximize parental engagement in the parenting messages. This study examined parents' preferred formats for receiving parenting information, as well as family sociodemographic and child behavior factors that predict parents' ratings of acceptability of a media-based parenting intervention. An ethnically diverse sample of 162 parents of children ages 3-6 years reported their preferences for various delivery formats for parenting information and provided feedback on a prototype episode of a video-format parenting program based on the Triple P Positive Parenting Program. Parents reported the strongest preference for self-administered delivery formats such as television, online programs, and written materials; the least preferred formats were home visits, therapists, and multiweek parenting groups. Parents' ratings of engagement, watchability, and realism of the prototype parenting episode were quite strong. Parents whose children exhibited clinical levels of problem behaviors rated the episode as more watchable, engaging, and realistic. Mothers also rated the episodes as more engaging and realistic than did fathers. Lower income marginally predicted higher watchability ratings. Minority status and expectations of future problems did not predict acceptability ratings. The results suggest that the episode had broad appeal across groups.

  20. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to themore » uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.« less

  1. Robust Unit Commitment Considering Uncertain Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-09-28

    Although price responsive demand response has been widely accepted as playing an important role in the reliable and economic operation of power system, the real response from demand side can be highly uncertain due to limited understanding of consumers' response to pricing signals. To model the behavior of consumers, the price elasticity of demand has been explored and utilized in both research and real practice. However, the price elasticity of demand is not precisely known and may vary greatly with operating conditions and types of customers. To accommodate the uncertainty of demand response, alternative unit commitment methods robust to the uncertainty of the demand response require investigation. In this paper, a robust unit commitment model to minimize the generalized social cost is proposed for the optimal unit commitment decision taking into account uncertainty of the price elasticity of demand. By optimizing the worst case under proper robust level, the unit commitment solution of the proposed model is robust against all possible realizations of the modeled uncertain demand response. Numerical simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System show the e ectiveness of the method. Finally, compared to unit commitment with deterministic price elasticity of demand, the proposed robust model can reduce the average Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) as well as the price volatility.

  2. Energy and housing: consumer and builder perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Burby, R.J.; Marsden, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the demand and supply aspects of energy conservation in the residential sector are analyzed and presented in a form useful to energy policymakers and program personnel. The data cover the energy-conservation requirements for both existing and new houses, focusing jointly on households (demand/consumer) and homebuilders (supply/producer). Five specific aspects are considered: (1) structural characteristics of the existing housing stock that affect energy use in the house; (2) energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of households; (3) consumer demand for energy efficiency in new housing; (4) structural characteristics of the home-building industry that affect its ability to meet consumer demand for energy-efficient housing; and (5) current and emerging status of energy conservation practices of homebuilders. 3 figures, 57 tables.

  3. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively sophisticated

  4. Electricity Markets: Actions Needed to Expand GSA and DOD Participation in Demand-Response Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    consumes about 60 watts, and a comparable compact fluorescent light bulb consumes approximately 15 watts. In fiscal year 2012, DOD installations...enrollment in programs offered by utilities and retail electricity providers, “demand-response aggregators ”—private companies that combine the demand...time. Demand-response aggregators typically enroll multiple electricity consumers in demand-response programs that otherwise would only be open to

  5. Incentive-compatible demand-side management for smart grids based on review strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Demand-side load management is able to significantly improve the energy efficiency of smart grids. Since the electricity production cost depends on the aggregate energy usage of multiple consumers, an important incentive problem emerges: self-interested consumers want to increase their own utilities by consuming more than the socially optimal amount of energy during peak hours since the increased cost is shared among the entire set of consumers. To incentivize self-interested consumers to take the socially optimal scheduling actions, we design a new class of protocols based on review strategies. These strategies work as follows: first, a review stage takes place in which a statistical test is performed based on the daily prices of the previous billing cycle to determine whether or not the other consumers schedule their electricity loads in a socially optimal way. If the test fails, the consumers trigger a punishment phase in which, for a certain time, they adjust their energy scheduling in such a way that everybody in the consumer set is punished due to an increased price. Using a carefully designed protocol based on such review strategies, consumers then have incentives to take the socially optimal load scheduling to avoid entering this punishment phase. We rigorously characterize the impact of deploying protocols based on review strategies on the system's as well as the users' performance and determine the optimal design (optimal billing cycle, punishment length, etc.) for various smart grid deployment scenarios. Even though this paper considers a simplified smart grid model, our analysis provides important and useful insights for designing incentive-compatible demand-side management schemes based on aggregate energy usage information in a variety of practical scenarios.

  6. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  7. Climate change and peak demand for electricity: Evaluating policies for reducing peak demand under different climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Abigail Walker

    This research focuses on the relative advantages and disadvantages of using price-based and quantity-based controls for electricity markets. It also presents a detailed analysis of one specific approach to quantity based controls: the SmartAC program implemented in Stockton, California. Finally, the research forecasts electricity demand under various climate scenarios, and estimates potential cost savings that could result from a direct quantity control program over the next 50 years in each scenario. The traditional approach to dealing with the problem of peak demand for electricity is to invest in a large stock of excess capital that is rarely used, thereby greatly increasing production costs. Because this approach has proved so expensive, there has been a focus on identifying alternative approaches for dealing with peak demand problems. This research focuses on two approaches: price based approaches, such as real time pricing, and quantity based approaches, whereby the utility directly controls at least some elements of electricity used by consumers. This research suggests that well-designed policies for reducing peak demand might include both price and quantity controls. In theory, sufficiently high peak prices occurring during periods of peak demand and/or low supply can cause the quantity of electricity demanded to decline until demand is in balance with system capacity, potentially reducing the total amount of generation capacity needed to meet demand and helping meet electricity demand at the lowest cost. However, consumers need to be well informed about real-time prices for the pricing strategy to work as well as theory suggests. While this might be an appropriate assumption for large industrial and commercial users who have potentially large economic incentives, there is not yet enough research on whether households will fully understand and respond to real-time prices. Thus, while real-time pricing can be an effective tool for addressing the peak load

  8. Demand increases for mandatory Norplant sentences.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    Darlene Johnson, a 28-year-old unwed welfare mother from Visalia, California, was found guilty in January 1991 of beating 2 of her 4 children with a belt and an electric cord while she was pregnant with her 5th child. In addition to a 1-year sentence in a county jail she was ordered to receive the Norplant contraceptive implant or spend 4 years in federal prison. She agreed to the procedure, however, a few days later she changed her mind, and with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union she appealed the decision, arguing that the court was depriving her of a fundamental right and providing a frightening prospect for the country. The case is the most prominent in the controversy about how to prevent low-income teenagers, "crack" cocaine smokers, convicted criminals, and welfare mothers from having children. Legislation was introduced in Kansas providing free Norplant to women on welfare and a $500 cash incentive. In Kansas the cost of treating a baby born to a crack-addicted mother costs about $48,000 in the 1st year, and the annual cost of caring for cocaine-exposed babies amounts to $500 million. Critics charge that forcing contraception on women turns the government into caretakers of women's bodies. However, the rising number of crack babies, child abuse cases, and skyrocketing welfare numbers have convinced politicians and the public about the suitability of this approach. In May 1991 a Los Angeles Times poll showed that 46% of respondents strongly approved of making Norplant mandatory for drug-abusing women. In Denver, Planned Parenthood of the Rocky Mountains has been using $50,000 in private donations to provide free Norplant to teenage girls from drug rehabilitation centers. In Seattle, where 50 disabled crack babies were cared for in 1990, 3 housewives formed a group to lobby for mandatory Norplant for drug-addicted mothers. If the California court ruling is upheld, Norplant debates are expected to continue as more states enact mandatory birth control.

  9. Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in the U.S. due to limited sun exposure and low dietary intake. Few foods naturally contain vitamin D but treatment of mushrooms with ultraviolet (UV) light increases vitamin D2 content and could provide an additional dietary source of vitamin D. We evaluated the imp...

  10. Price Discrimination: Lessons for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Explains price and product discrimination, showing how intelligent consumers can achieve increased purchasing power of their income and discusses how consumer educators can explain this discrimination. Evaluates the pros and cons of price/product discrimination from the social viewpoint. (Author/JOW)

  11. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-side and Supply-side Management of Urban Water Resources using Agent-based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanta, L.; Berglund, E. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger (1) increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir and (2) drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  12. AMI Communication Requirements to Implement Demand-Response: Applicability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum Wireless

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2011-09-30

    While holistically defining the smart grid is a challenge, one area of interest is demand-response. In 2009, the Department of Energy announced over $4 billion in grant and project funding for the Smart Grid. A significant amount of this funding was allotted to utilities for cost sharing projects to deploy Smart Grid technologies, many of whom have deployed and are deploying advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI is an enabler to increase the efficiency of utilities and the bulk power grid. The bulk electrical system is unique in that it produces electricity as it is consumed. Most other industries have a delay between generation and consumption. This aspect of the power grid means that there must be enough generation capacity to meet the highest demand whereas other industries could over produce during off-peak times. This requires significant investment in generation capacity to cover the few days a year of peak consumption. Since bulk electrical storage doesn't yet exist at scale another way to curb the need for new peak period generation is through demand-response; that is to incentivize consumers (demand) to curtail (respond) electrical usage during peak periods. Of the various methods proposed for enabling demand-response, this paper will focus on the communication requirements for creating an energy market using transactional controls. More specifically, the paper will focus on the communication requirements needed to send the peak period notices and receive the response back from the consumers.

  13. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  14. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  15. Speech measures indicating workload demand.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M; Doherty, E T; Shipp, T

    1994-01-01

    Heart rate and six speech measures were evaluated using a manual tracking task under different workload demands. Following training, 17 male subjects performed three task trials: a difficult trial, with a $50 incentive for successful performance at a very demanding level; an easy trial, with a $2 incentive for successful performance at a simple level; and a baseline trial, in which there was physiological monitoring but no tracking performance. Subjects counted aloud during the trials. It was found that heart rate, speaking fundamental frequency (pitch), and vocal intensity (loudness) increased significantly with workload demands. Speaking rate showed a marginal increase, while vocal jitter and vocal shimmer did not show reliable changes. A derived speech measure, which statistically combined information from all other speech measures except shimmer, was also evaluated. It increased significantly with workload demands and was surprisingly robust in showing differences for individual subjects. It appears that speech analysis can provide practical workload information.

  16. 7 CFR 3.12 - Reporting of consumer debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting of consumer debts. 3.12 Section 3.12... and Compromise of Claims § 3.12 Reporting of consumer debts. (a) Notice. In demand letters to debtors... the delinquent consumer debt to credit reporting agencies after 60 days; (2) The specific...

  17. 7 CFR 3.12 - Reporting of consumer debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of consumer debts. 3.12 Section 3.12... and Compromise of Claims § 3.12 Reporting of consumer debts. (a) Notice. In demand letters to debtors... the delinquent consumer debt to credit reporting agencies after 60 days; (2) The specific...

  18. THE DEMAND FOR WATER: CONSUMER RESPONSE TO SCARCITY. (R828070)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Geographically Based Hydrogen Consumer Demand and Infrastructure Analysis: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-10-01

    In FY 2004 and 2005, NREL developed a proposed minimal infrastructure to support nationwide deployment of hydrogen vehicles by offering infrastructure scenarios that facilitated interstate travel. This report identifies key metropolitan areas and regions on which to focus infrastructure efforts during the early hydrogen transition.

  20. Regional Consumer Hydrogen Demand and Optimal Hydrogen Refueling Station Siting

    SciTech Connect

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2008-04-01

    Using a GIS approach to spatially analyze key attributes affecting hydrogen market transformation, this study proposes hypothetical hydrogen refueling station locations in select subregions to demonstrate a method for determining station locations based on geographic criteria.

  1. Improving financial and patient outcomes: the future of demand management.

    PubMed

    Marosits, M J

    1997-08-01

    Demand management has evolved from early managed care models that sought to curtail rising costs through demand-side utilization controls. The first generation of demand management relied heavily on financial incentives for consumers and physicians to demand fewer and less costly resources. The second generation of demand management complemented financial incentives with clinically focused strategies. Often, these strategies were implemented directly by the payer on through a primary care physician gatekeeper. The current and coming generation of demand management activities emphasizes informed consumer choice and active participation in preventative health care, resource utilization decisions, and customization of healthcare services. This personal health management aligns financial incentives, clinical care protocols, and consumer decision-support systems to balance outcomes and resource consumption.

  2. Supply and demand: negotiating the prescription drug labyrinth to reduce costs.

    PubMed

    DeStefino, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Prescription drug costs are increasing at a rate of 15% to 17% a year and a look into the future does not bring much better news. Employers can expect to see more numbers like these as doctors more aggressively treat diseases using drug therapy, the population continues to age and pharmaceutical companies continue to spend billions of dollars on direct-to-consumer advertising aimed at consumers who are desensitized to the true costs of their prescriptions. In this environment, it is unlikely that companies can realistically expect to reverse costs of even to avoid cost increases. However, this article provides employers with a prudent approach to managing both the supply and demand sides of the prescription drug equation in order to reduce their level of increase. Supply-side management focuses on negotiations with vendors, while the demand side focuses on managing employee utilization.

  3. 75 FR 22164 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 106.6 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1...

  4. 77 FR 23283 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 116.6 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1...

  5. 76 FR 31991 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 342.21 percent from its 1974...

  6. 76 FR 31991 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers; United States City Average... this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967 = 100) increased 110.0 percent from its 1984 annual average of 311.1...

  7. 75 FR 22164 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 335.1 percent from its 1974...

  8. 78 FR 35054 - All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... of the Secretary All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers United States City Average... Commission and publishes this notice in the Federal Register that the United States City Average All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (1967=100) increased 365.6 percent from its 1974...

  9. Demand for Telecommunications Services in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald J.

    Although the availability of telecommunications services from the home has been limited because of the high costs and available technology, a restrictive regulatory environment, the conservative nature of communications systems operators, single technology thinking, and uncertain consumer demand, the situation is changing, resulting in expanded…

  10. Investigation of Optimal Configuration of Solar Energy System Considering Configuration of Apparatuses and Electricity Transportation between Interprofessional Consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkura, Masashi; Mori, Shunsuke

    This paper describes about a decision model for solar energy utilization and an investigation of optimal configuration of solar energy system considering electricity transportation between interprofessional consumers. Solar energy is effective energy source for CO2 reduction. Available collectable area for solar energy is limited to consumer's condition. A photovoltaic can supply electricity which is flexible. However its efficiency is low compared to solar heat collector. A solar heat collector has high efficiency. But heat demand varies with consumer type. We investigate optimal ratio of photovoltaic and solar heat collector in several condition. The result shows that solar heat collector is effective energy supply system for consumers which require high hot water demand in daytime. On the other hand, electrical heat pump for hot water supply varies optimal configuration of solar energy system due to the shift of energy source from gas to electricity. To introduce electrical heat pump for hot water supply increases the ratio of photovoltaic due to the increase in electricity demand. However, there is no consumer without solar heat collector. Therefore, solar heat collector does not compare with electrification of consumer.

  11. Crossing Boundaries: Selecting for Research, Professional Development and Consumer Education in an Interdisciplinary Field, the Case of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Both the demand for, and supply of, mental health information has increased across all sectors. Academic, public and special libraries must locate, evaluate and select materials that support consumer education, academic teaching, interdisciplinary research, and professional credentialing. Selectors must navigate disciplinary barriers to develop…

  12. Creating the Future We Want: A Framework for Integrating Family and Consumer Sciences Research, Practice, and Policy on Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.

    2016-01-01

    Without a doubt, the Digital Age is revolutionizing the field of family and consumer sciences (FCS). New methods and spaces for human interaction and learning, mobile platforms that encourage anytime, anywhere connections, and a global economy increasingly shaped by virtual transactions demand that our research investigates the impact on family…

  13. Electricity demand curtailment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J; Carroll, O; Schnader, M

    1980-01-01

    The state of electricity demand curtailment planning for long term electricity supply disruptions is reviewed. Legal, institutional and technological problems associated with demand curtailment plans are examined, and the existence of well defined social objectives on the part of planners is questioned. A linear programming approach to electricity demand curtailment planning is presented.

  14. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored.

  15. Changing patterns in global lead supply and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H.

    The past decade has seen some very significant changes in the supply and the demand for lead. One of the most obvious developments is the emergence of China—both as the world's largest producer of primary lead and as a very significant consumer. Perhaps less obvious have been the increasing role of secondary lead in meeting demand for refined metal and the rapid growth in demand for industrial batteries, which have helped to sustain an annual average growth rate in Western World consumption of 3.4% between 1993 and 2000. Patchy knowledge about the lead industry in China has made it difficult to anticipate developments there and has created uncertainty in the global market. This uncertainty, and lead's poor environmental image, largely undeserved as it may be today, has meant few companies outside the lead business want to be seen participating in it. This is just one factor accounting for the very limited increase in lead mine production for the foreseeable future. With around 75% of lead now being used in batteries and a very high global scrap recycling rate, it is probable that most, if not all, growth in lead demand can be met without an overall increase in mine production. The challenge for the lead industry will be to ensure that sufficient recycling capacity is in place in the right parts of the world to process an increasing quantity of battery and other lead-bearing scrap. Huge investment in the world's telecommunications infrastructure and IT networks in the second half of the 1990s created a major market for industrial lead-acid batteries. With the collapse of the market for telecommunications equipment in 2001, lead consumption has fallen sharply and has revealed the extent to which demand growth in recent years has been dependent on this sector.

  16. Anticipatory Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    Anticipatory consumer socialization is the learning of consumer roles and perceptions, which will be assumed at a later time, such as those that children acquire before they become adult consumers. A survey of 784 adolescents was conducted in a southern state to examine the anticipatory consumer socialization effects of such factors as the mass…

  17. Demand Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    Demand Response Analysis Tool is a software developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is initially funded by Southern California Edison. Our goal in developing this tool is to provide an online, useable, with standardized methods, an analysis tool to evaluate demand and demand response performance of commercial and industrial facilities. The tool provides load variability and weather sensitivity analysis capabilities as well as development of various types of baselines. It can be used by researchers, real estate management firms, utilities, or any individuals who are interested in analyzing their demand and demand response capabilities.

  18. Consumer Confusion: Reduction Strategies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Graeme

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights the increasingly important topic of consumer confusion. Drawing parallels with experiences in the private sector, the concept of consumer confusion is explored within the higher education sector; what causes the phenomenon, how do consumers react to it and how can it be negated/minimised? The expansion and commercialisation…

  19. [Consumerism, patient empowerment and changing clinical work--patient awareness and treatment demands on the rise].

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Consumerism refers to the accentuation of a patient's status and freedom of choice within the health care. Increasing patient knowledge, empowerment and demands stand out in the medical practice. Patients seek for self-diagnosis before attending the consultation. Regarding the treatment relationship, one doctor out of five experiences the situation positive and two out of five negative. The patients influence prescription decisions. Private doctors have a more positive attitude to patients' consumer role than those working within the public sector.

  20. Defence Technology Strategy for the Demands of the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    B2.71 Simulation is increasingly used in training. Consumer demand in the civil computer gaming industry has driven massive advance in hardware and...computing is a concept that proposes using quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to perform massively parallel calculations...MIDAS Military Integrated Defensive Aid System 184 Defence Technology Strategy MIMO Multiple-Input Multiple-Output MIS Maritime Industrial Strategy

  1. Initial Development of a Brief Behavioral Economic Assessment of Alcohol Demand.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James

    2015-06-01

    Due to difficulties with definition and measurement, the role of conscious craving in substance use disorders remains contentious. To address this, behavioral economics is increasingly being used to quantify aspects of an individual's acute motivation to use a substance. Doing so typically involves the use of a purchase task, in which participants make choices about consuming alcohol or other substances at various prices and multiple indices of alcohol demand are generated. However, purchase tasks can be limited by the time required to administer and score them. In the current study, a brief 3-item measure, designed to capture three important indices of demand that are derived from demand curve modeling (intensity, Omax, and breakpoint), was investigated in a group of 84 heavy drinkers. Participants underwent a cue-reactivity paradigm that is established to increase both conscious craving and alcohol demand on traditional purchase tasks. All three indices of demand for alcohol measured using the abbreviated measure increased significantly in response to alcohol cues, analogous to what has been observed using a traditional purchase task. Additionally, the correlations between these indices and subjective craving were modest-to-moderate, as has been found in studies comparing craving to the indices derived from purchase tasks. These findings suggest that this abbreviated measure may be a useful and efficient way to capture important and distinct aspects of motivation for alcohol. If these results are confirmed, this measure may be able to help increase the portability of behavioral economic indices of demand into novel research and clinical contexts.

  2. 29 CFR 1450.9 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.9..., matters relating to alternative methods of payment, policies with respect to use of consumer reporting... during, or after completion of the demand cycle, FMCS determines to pursue administrative offset,...

  3. 29 CFR 1450.9 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.9..., matters relating to alternative methods of payment, policies with respect to use of consumer reporting... during, or after completion of the demand cycle, FMCS determines to pursue administrative offset,...

  4. 29 CFR 1450.9 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.9..., matters relating to alternative methods of payment, policies with respect to use of consumer reporting... during, or after completion of the demand cycle, FMCS determines to pursue administrative offset,...

  5. 29 CFR 1450.9 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.9..., matters relating to alternative methods of payment, policies with respect to use of consumer reporting... during, or after completion of the demand cycle, FMCS determines to pursue administrative offset,...

  6. 29 CFR 1450.9 - Demand for payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.9..., matters relating to alternative methods of payment, policies with respect to use of consumer reporting... during, or after completion of the demand cycle, FMCS determines to pursue administrative offset,...

  7. Changes in seafood consumer preference patterns and associated changes in risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helen H

    2006-01-01

    Consumers world-wide are driving changes in the agriculture and food sector. Rising consumer income, changing demographics and lifestyles, and shifting preferences due to new information about the links between diet and health all contribute to new demands for foods. At the same time, technological changes in production, processing and distribution, growth in large-scale retailing, and changes in product availability, as well as expansion of trade world wide, have contributed to a rapidly changing market for food products. Changes in seafood consumption reflect these changes. The changes in consumer consumption patterns, new technologies and trade in product offer both expanded markets as well as new challenges to consumer exposure to food-borne risks. The strict quality control requirements of retail brokers, growth of private labels, and development of value-protecting marketing channels have become increasingly important in food markets. This paper addresses major trends that affect seafood consumption and the market for seafood products and the implications of these changes for consumer risk exposure to food safety hazards. The current economic environment highlights similarities and differences between the developed and developing countries, as well as diversity worldwide in consumption of seafood. Within this context, four major trends affect consumer consumption of foods, including seafood and fish products today: rising income; changing demographics; changing markets for food; and an increasingly global market for food products. Changes in consumer risk exposure to food safety problems are addressed in the context of these trends.

  8. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Chelmis, Charalampos; Aman, Saima; Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan; Frincu, Marc; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  9. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  10. Residential electricity demand in Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resendez, Ileana M.

    This study analyzes residential electricity demand in Arkansas. Explanatory variables utilized include real per capita income, residential electricity price, heating degree days, cooling degree days, and residential natural gas price. The results indicate that the income effect dominates the substitution effect given a real personal income increase and a decline in real electricity rates in the state of Arkansas during the period under study.

  11. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Susan

    1976-01-01

    With the emphasis on consumer involvement in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, changes in the counseling relationship must occur. This article discusses new interaction patterns for consumer and counselor. (Author)

  12. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Liggett, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult to maintain good water quality. Sustaining safe disinfectant residuals throughout a building to protect against waterborne pathogens such as Legionella is particularly challenging since copper and other reactive distribution system materials can exert considerable demands. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the consumption of free chlorine associated with corroding copper pipes over time. A copper test-loop pilot system was used to control test conditions and systematically meet the study objectives. Chlorine consumption trends attributed to abiotic reactions with copper over time were different for each pH condition tested, and the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs increased with increasing pH. Orthophosphate eliminated chlorine consumption trends with elapsed time (i.e., chlorine demand was consistent across entire test runs). Orthophosphate also greatly reduced the total amount of chlorine consumed over the test runs. Interestingly, the total amount of chlorine consumed and the consumption rate were not pH dependent when orthophosphate was present. The findings reflect the complex and competing reactions at the copper pipe wall including corrosion, oxidation of Cu(I) minerals and ions, and possible oxidation of Cu(II) minerals, and the change in chlorine species all as a function of pH. The work has practical applications for maintaining chlorine residuals in premise plumbing drinking water systems including large buildings such as hospitals.

  13. Demands of immigration among Chinese immigrant nurses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Amy X; Griffin, Mary T Quinn; Capitulo, Katie L; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demands of immigration among Chinese nurses that have immigrated to the USA. The relationship between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA was investigated also. A descriptive correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 128 nurses was recruited. A self-administered survey was conducted using the demands of immigration scale developed by Aroian, along with a demographic questionnaire. The results showed Chinese immigrant nurses have high demands of immigration. There were significant negative relationships between the demands of immigration and length of stay in the USA. Immigration demands decreased as length of stay increased but remained high even for those who had been in the USA for > 5 years. This information is vital to health-care agencies designing and implementing adaptation programmes targeting these demands to facilitate Chinese nurses' adaptation process.

  14. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  15. Food of Consuming Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina. Education and Communications Branch.

    This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a successful shopping trip. The following topics are…

  16. Be a Smart Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Elizabeth Ann

    This book was prepared especially for the students of the Marie Katzenbach School for the Deaf as a one-year course in consumer education. The purpose of the book is to provide students with necessary information and skills to make wise decisions as consumers in the areas of realizing consumer values and goals; evaluating advertising; managing…

  17. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  18. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  19. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  20. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers.

  1. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    PubMed

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth.

  2. Electricity demand and storage dispatch modeling for buildings and implications for the smartgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Menglian; Meinrenken, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    As an enabler for demand response (DR), electricity storage in buildings has the potential to lower costs and carbon footprint of grid electricity while simultaneously mitigating grid strain and increasing its flexibility to integrate renewables (central or distributed). We present a stochastic model to simulate minute-by-minute electricity demand of buildings and analyze the resulting electricity costs under actual, currently available DR-enabling tariffs in New York State, namely a peak/offpeak tariff charging by consumed energy (monthly total kWh) and a time of use tariff charging by power demand (monthly peak kW). We then introduce a variety of electrical storage options (from flow batteries to flywheels) and determine how DR via temporary storage may increase the overall net present value (NPV) for consumers (comparing the reduced cost of electricity to capital and maintenance costs of the storage). We find that, under the total-energy tariff, only medium-term storage options such as batteries offer positive NPV, and only at the low end of storage costs (optimistic scenario). Under the peak-demand tariff, however, even short-term storage such as flywheels and superconducting magnetic energy offer positive NPV. Therefore, these offer significant economic incentive to enable DR without affecting the consumption habits of buildings' residents. We discuss implications for smartgrid communication and our future work on real-time price tariffs.

  3. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    PubMed

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. Why Consumers Choose Managed Mutual Funds over Index Funds: Hypotheses from Consumer Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Donald R.; Kaufmann, Patrick J.; Bhagat, Sanjai

    1999-01-01

    Using the literature of psychology, consumer behavior, and behavioral finance, a series of hypotheses is presented that account for consumer choices of managed over index mutual funds. Results indicate a need for consumer education to increase awareness of the benefits of index investing. (SK)

  6. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  7. Consumer satisfaction in prosthetics and orthotics facilities.

    PubMed

    Geertzen, J H B; Gankema, H G J; Groothoff, J W; Dijkstra, P U

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess consumer/patient satisfaction with the services of the prosthetics and orthotics (P&O) facilities in the north of the Netherlands, using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire. In this questionnaire, consumer interests and experiences are assessed on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire consisted of 30 items covering 5 domains: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy and the consumers were invited to give an overall rating of satisfaction (scale 1-10). Consumers of four P&O facilities were asked to participate. In total 496 consumers (aged 0-76) participated; 279 consumers received orthopaedic shoes and 217 consumers received either prostheses or orthoses. An overall satisfaction rating of 8 or higher was given by 75% of the consumers (mean 8.0; sd=1.2). Consumers were defined as satisfied with the services of the P&O facility if they rated their experiences on a certain item equal or better than their rating of its importance. Eighty-five percent (85%) or more of the consumers were satisfied with the P&O facility in 24 of the 30 (80%) items of the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Of the 6 less unsatisfying items, 3 were related to the domain "tangibles", 2 were related to the domain "empathy" and 1 to the domain "responsiveness". The management of the P&O facility can use this information to increase consumer satisfaction by improving quality and service at these items. In general, the degree of consumer overall satisfaction was not related to age, gender, and type of assistive device or "length of relationship of consumer" and P&O facility. Only consumers who received orthopaedic shoes rated their overall satisfaction significantly lower (0.3) than consumers who received other types of devices. This difference is clinically not relevant.

  8. Demand management: another marketing tool or a way to quality care?

    PubMed

    Mohler, M J; Harris, J M

    1998-05-01

    Demand management tools are population-based strategies used to control costs and improve utilization of services by assisting health consumers in maintaining their health and seeking appropriate health care. These tools are increasingly used by health care delivery systems and, in the US, by fiscal intermediaries, such as insurance companies. If these tools are not properly applied, there is a clear possibility that their use may lead a reduction of health care services with no improvement in clinical, humanistic, or economic outcomes. Demand management effectiveness has not been rigorously examined by the medical industry or academia. Before adopting or purchasing demand management technologies, health care systems should examine them carefully to determine how the tools were developed and who they were intended to serve. Once implemented, careful tracking of population outcomes is as necessary with these technologies as with any other technologies that can affect health care.

  9. Demand Response Dispatch Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-31

    The Demand Response (DR) Dispatch Tool uses price profiles to dispatch demand response resources and create load modifying profiles. These annual profiles are used as inputs to production cost models and regional planning tools (e.g., PROMOD). The tool has been effectively implemented in transmission planning studies conducted by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council via its Transmission Expansion Planning and Policy Committee. The DR Dispatch Tool can properly model the dispatch of DR resources for both reliability and economic conditions.

  10. Consumer Education: Questions and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Peter R.; Binkley, Joanne L.

    Increasing complexity in the marketplace, and changing interests in consumption have led to an expansion of consumer education. One result of this expansion has been a shift away from the traditional place where the subject has been taught, home economics, into business, distributive education, and social studies. Joseph N. Uhl's Survey and…

  11. Aggregrate consumer expenditures on energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, D.W.

    1984-08-01

    This report presents a new economic model for the allocation of aggregate consumer expenditures on energy in the United States. Our model is based on a theory of consumer behavior involving two stages. In the first stage total expenditures are allocated between and nonenergy commodities. Allocation depends on the price of energy, prices of all nonenergy commodities, and the level of total expenditure. Total energy expenditure in the second stage is allocated among individual types of energy. The second stage allocation depends on the prices of individual types of energy and the level of total energy expenditure. Our econometric model can be applied to the generation of projection of aggregrate energy demand in the United States. Projected future energy prices, the future level and distribution of total energy expenditure, and the future demographic development of the population for projections. The model can also be used to make projections for individual consumer groups within the United States, classified by total energy expenditure and by demographic characteristics. Finally, it can be integrated into a model of energy and nonenergy expenditures to provide a complete model of aggregate consumer behavior. Our econometric model of aggregate consumer behavior can be applied to the generation of projection of demand individual types of energy and for all nonenergy commodities in the United States.

  12. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  13. Consumer-Oriented Health Care Reform Strategies: A Review of the Evidence on Managed Competition and Consumer-Directed Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Buchmueller, Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Context: For many years, leading health care reform proposals have been based on market-oriented strategies. In the 1990s, a number of reform proposals were built around the concept of “managed competition,” but more recently, “consumer-directed health care” models have received attention. Although price-conscious consumer demand plays a critical role in both the managed competition and consumer-directed health care models, the two strategies are based on different visions of the health care marketplace and the best way to use market forces to achieve greater systemwide efficiencies. Methods: This article reviews the research literature that tests the main hypotheses concerning the two policy strategies. Findings: Numerous studies provide consistent evidence that consumers’ health plan choices are sensitive to out-of-pocket premiums. The elasticity of demand appears to vary with consumers’ health risk, with younger, healthier individuals being more price sensitive. This heterogeneity increases the potential for adverse selection. Biased risk selection also is a concern when the menu of health plan options includes consumer-directed health plans. Several studies confirm that such plans tend to attract healthier enrollees. A smaller number of studies test the main hypothesis regarding consumer-directed health plans, which is that they result in lower medical spending than do more generous plans. These studies find little support for this claim. Conclusions: The experiences of employers that have adopted key elements of managed competition are generally consistent with the key hypotheses underlying that strategy. Research in this area, however, has focused on only a narrow range of questions. Because consumer-directed health care is such a recent phenomenon, research on this strategy is even more limited. Additional studies on both topics would be valuable. PMID:20021587

  14. Food irradiation and the consumer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  15. Coupling Agent-Based and Groundwater Modeling to Explore Demand Management Strategies for Shared Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Municipal water demands in growing population centers in the arid southwest US are typically met through increased groundwater withdrawals. Hydro-climatic uncertainties attributed to climate change and land use conversions may also alter demands and impact the replenishment of groundwater supply. Groundwater aquifers are not necessarily confined within municipal and management boundaries, and multiple diverse agencies may manage a shared resource in a decentralized approach, based on individual concerns and resources. The interactions among water managers, consumers, and the environment influence the performance of local management strategies and regional groundwater resources. This research couples an agent-based modeling (ABM) framework and a groundwater model to analyze the effects of different management approaches on shared groundwater resources. The ABM captures the dynamic interactions between household-level consumers and policy makers to simulate water demands under climate change and population growth uncertainties. The groundwater model is used to analyze the relative effects of management approaches on reducing demands and replenishing groundwater resources. The framework is applied for municipalities located in the Verde River Basin, Arizona that withdraw groundwater from the Verde Formation-Basin Fill-Carbonate aquifer system. Insights gained through this simulation study can be used to guide groundwater policy-making under changing hydro-climatic scenarios for a long-term planning horizon.

  16. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  17. Consumer-driven nutrient dynamics in freshwater ecosystems: from individuals to ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carla L; Capps, Krista A; Rugenski, Amanda T; Vanni, Michael J

    2016-12-23

    The role of animals in modulating nutrient cycling [hereafter, consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)] has been accepted as an important influence on both community structure and ecosystem function in aquatic systems. Yet there is great variability in the influence of CND across species and ecosystems, and the causes of this variation are not well understood. Here, we review and synthesize the mechanisms behind CND in fresh waters. We reviewed 131 articles on CND published between 1973 and 1 June 2015. The rate of new publications in CND has increased from 1.4 papers per year during 1973-2002 to 7.3 per year during 2003-2015. The majority of investigations are in North America with many concentrating on fish. More recent studies have focused on animal-mediated nutrient excretion rates relative to nutrient demand and indirect impacts (e.g. decomposition). We identified several mechanisms that influence CND across levels of biological organization. Factors affecting the stoichiometric plasticity of consumers, including body size, feeding history and ontogeny, play an important role in determining the impact of individual consumers on nutrient dynamics and underlie the stoichiometry of CND across time and space. The abiotic characteristics of an ecosystem affect the net impact of consumers on ecosystem processes by influencing consumer metabolic processes (e.g. consumption and excretion/egestion rates), non-CND supply of nutrients and ecosystem nutrient demand. Furthermore, the transformation and transport of elements by populations and communities of consumers also influences the flow of energy and nutrients across ecosystem boundaries. This review highlights that shifts in community composition or biomass of consumers and eco-evolutionary underpinnings can have strong effects on the functional role of consumers in ecosystem processes, yet these are relatively unexplored aspects of CND. Future research should evaluate the value of using species traits and abiotic

  18. Energy demand in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, C Y

    2005-05-01

    This work investigates the energy required to dewater a suspension, i.e., activated sludge dewatered by centrifugation or consolidation. Total energy input to the suspension from the dewatering device, bond strength between adjacent water and solid surface, and intra-cake friction loss were evaluated for original and flocculated sludges. In centrifugal dewatering, most energy input during the initial stage was consumed by overcoming process irreversibility other than intra-cake friction, and, thereby, had a low energy efficiency. To increase centrifuge speed or to flocculate the sludge at optimal flocculant dosage would yield a high-energy input. In the consolidation test, most energy input at the initial stage was consumed in breaking down the bond strength until the moisture content reduced to less than the critical content. During subsequent dewatering stages, friction loss became the dominant source of energy loss. Dewatering sludge with high-energy efficiency is beneficial to optimally operate a dewatering process.

  19. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay.

    PubMed

    Bonny, S P F; Gardner, G E; Pethick, D W; Allen, P; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F

    2017-02-13

    The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer's perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were

  20. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  1. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    PubMed

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  2. Consumer Education Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forkner, Jerry; Schatz, Gail

    This handbook contains model lessons on consumer education for use with intermediate, junior high, and high school students. The handbook was developed as a result of a grant which the Social Science Education Consortium received to conduct three consumer education workshops for approximately 100 Colorado teachers and school administrators. Many…

  3. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  4. Starting Smart Consumers Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonn, Myrtle

    1980-01-01

    The Saint Louis Urban Consumers' Education Project involves community resource persons in the preparation and teaching of consumerism in fifth-grade classrooms. A demonstration program supported by the Office of Consumer Education, the project has improved attendance, math and reading scores, and school-community relations. (SK)

  5. Information for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This revised pamphlet was developed by a national association of credit unions for the purpose of directing consumer complaints to appropriate agencies or heads of agencies for action. Suggestions to aid the consumer are included, such as trying to solve problems at the local level before complaining to top officials. Addresses and phone numbers…

  6. Consumer's Resource Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was designed to help persons avoid consumer problems, handle their own complaints if they occur, and guide them to additional sources of help if necessary. The book can also be helpful to complaint handlers when they attempt to direct consumers to the appropriate source of assistance. The guide contains three general sections. The…

  7. Consumer Economics Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Muriel; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist school districts in the development and implementation of new programs or in strengthening existing programs in consumer economics education at all levels. A variety of resources are included. The need for consumer economics education is discussed and a definition is provided. Goals are listed. Objectives,…

  8. Consumers + Questions = Confusion?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually a...

  9. Travel Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank; Garrow, Dr. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the principal types of both passenger and freight demand models in use today, providing a brief history of model development supported by references to a number of popular texts on the subject, and directing the reader to papers covering some of the more recent technical developments in the area. Over the past half century a variety of methods have been used to estimate and forecast travel demands, drawing concepts from economic/utility maximization theory, transportation system optimization and spatial interaction theory, using and often combining solution techniques as varied as Box-Jenkins methods, non-linear multivariate regression, non-linear mathematical programming, and agent-based microsimulation.

  10. Synthesizing Econometric Evidence: The Case of Demand Elasticity Estimates.

    PubMed

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Don

    2015-06-01

    Econometric estimates of the responsiveness of health-related consumer demand to higher prices are often key ingredients for risk policy analysis. We review the potential advantages and challenges of synthesizing econometric evidence on the price-responsiveness of consumer demand. We draw on examples of research on consumer demand for health-related goods, especially cigarettes. We argue that the overarching goal of research synthesis in this context is to provide policy-relevant evidence for broad-brush conclusions. We propose three main criteria to select among research synthesis methods. We discuss how in principle and in current practice synthesis of research on the price-elasticity of smoking meets our proposed criteria. Our analysis of current practice also contributes to academic research on the specific policy question of the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices to reduce smoking. Although we point out challenges and limitations, we believe more work on research synthesis in this area will be productive and important.

  11. Advertisements Demand Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Self-contained units of study on advertising will help secondary students to critically analyze the utility, completeness, and accuracy of various sources of product information. In the first of five units, students are asked to think about the many benefits consumers and producers derive from advertising. The second unit makes students aware that…

  12. Estimating household water demand using revealed and contingent behaviors: Evidence from Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheesman, Jeremy; Bennett, Jeff; Son, Tran Vo Hung

    2008-11-01

    This article estimates the water demand of households using (1) municipal water exclusively and (2) municipal water and household well water in the capital city of Dak Lak Province in Vietnam. Household water demands are estimated using a panel data set formed by pooling household records of metered municipal water consumption and their stated preferences for water consumption contingent on hypothetical water prices. Estimates show that households using municipal water exclusively have very price inelastic demand. Households using municipal and household well water have more price elastic, but still inelastic, simultaneous water demand and treat municipal water and household well water as substitutes. Household water consumption is influenced by household water storage and supply infrastructure, income, and socioeconomic attributes. The demand estimates are used to forecast municipal water consumption by households in Buon Ma Thuot following an increase to the municipal water tariff to forecast the municipal water supply company's revenue stream following a tariff increase and to estimate the consumer surplus loss resulting from municipal water supply shortages.

  13. Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emma Li; Fader, Marianela; Seaquist, Jonathan W; Nicholas, Kimberly A

    2016-10-11

    In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand. We find that most land acquisitions are planted with crops that demand large volumes of water (>9,000 m(3)⋅ha(-1)) like sugarcane, jatropha, and eucalyptus, and that staple crops have lower water requirements (<7,000 m(3)⋅ha(-1)). Blue water demand varies with irrigation system, crop choice, and climate. Even if the most efficient irrigation systems were implemented, 18% of the land acquisitions, totaling 91,000 ha, would still require more than 50% of water from blue water sources. These hotspots indicate areas at risk for transgressing regional constraints for freshwater use as a result of overconsumption of blue water, where socioenvironmental systems might face increased conflicts and tensions over water resources.

  14. Green and blue water demand from large-scale land acquisitions in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Emma Li; Fader, Marianela; Seaquist, Jonathan W.; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, more than 22 million ha of land have been contracted to large-scale land acquisitions in Africa, leading to increased pressures, competition, and conflicts over freshwater resources. Currently, 3% of contracted land is in production, for which we model site-specific water demands to indicate where freshwater appropriation might pose high socioenvironmental challenges. We use the dynamic global vegetation model Lund–Potsdam–Jena managed Land to simulate green (precipitation stored in soils and consumed by plants through evapotranspiration) and blue (extracted from rivers, lakes, aquifers, and dams) water demand and crop yields for seven irrigation scenarios, and compare these data with two baseline scenarios of staple crops representing previous water demand. We find that most land acquisitions are planted with crops that demand large volumes of water (>9,000 m3⋅ha−1) like sugarcane, jatropha, and eucalyptus, and that staple crops have lower water requirements (<7,000 m3⋅ha−1). Blue water demand varies with irrigation system, crop choice, and climate. Even if the most efficient irrigation systems were implemented, 18% of the land acquisitions, totaling 91,000 ha, would still require more than 50% of water from blue water sources. These hotspots indicate areas at risk for transgressing regional constraints for freshwater use as a result of overconsumption of blue water, where socioenvironmental systems might face increased conflicts and tensions over water resources. PMID:27671634

  15. Overcoming Consumer Inertia to Dietary Guidance12

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love. PMID:26178023

  16. Overcoming consumer inertia to dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    Webb, Densie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2015-07-01

    Despite 35 y of dietary guidance, there has been no substantial shift in consumer compliance. Consumers report that they seek information on nutrition and healthy eating, but most are not paying attention to dietary recommendations. For guidance to be effective, it must be realistic. Even with increasingly detailed nutrition information and evidence that diet affects health outcomes, convenience and taste remain the strongest determinants of food choices. It is up to health educators to clear up confusion and give consumers control with nutrition messages that are realistic, positive, easy to understand, and actionable without an expectation that consumers will surrender foods they love.

  17. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  18. Regional recreation demand and benefits model

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes a regional recreation demand and benefits model that is used to estimate recreation demand and value (consumers' surplus) of four activities at each of 195 sites in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana. The recreation activities considered are camping, fishing, swimming, and boating. The model is a generalization of the single-site travel-cost method of estimating a recreation demand curve to virtually an unlimited number of sites. The major components of the analysis include the theory of recreation benefits, a travel-cost recreation demand curve, and a gravity model of regional recreation travel flows. Existing recreation benefits are estimated for each site in the region and for each activity. Recreation benefits of improved water quality in degraded rivers and streams in the Pacific Northwest are estimated on a county basis for Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. Although water quality is emphasized, the model has the capability of estimating demand and value for new or improved recreation sites at lakes, streams, or reservoirs.

  19. Warranty Policies: Consumer Value Versus Manufacturer Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-28

    customer pro rata (from the Latin word for propor- tional). Two generalizations of the pro rata warianty have appeared recently on the market . The...the fact that from a marketing point of view both generalizations are typically per- ceived as equivalent (by the average consumer), has led to the...policies without the use of renewal theory. Most of these deal with demand functions and market places. Glickman and Berger, for instance, consider

  20. Energy demand and population change.

    PubMed

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  1. [Discussion on logistics management of medical consumables].

    PubMed

    Deng, Sutong; Wang, Miao; Jiang, Xiali

    2011-09-01

    Management of medical consumables is an important part of modern hospital management. In modern medical behavior, drugs and medical devices act directly on the patient, and are important factors affecting the quality of medical practice. With the increasing use of medical materials, based on practical application, this article proposes the management model of medical consumables, and discusses the essence of medical materials logistics management.

  2. Children as Consumers: Advertising and Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and advertising support the U.S. economy by promoting the sale of goods and services to consumers, both adults and children. Sandra Calvert addresses product marketing to children and shows that although marketers have targeted children for decades, two recent trends have increased their interest in child consumers. First, both the…

  3. Curriculum Materials in Consumer Education. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marjorie M.; Strom, Sharon M.

    Five problems dealing with consumer education are presented in this book: (1) Why study human behavior? (2) Recognizing consumer problems in American society; (3) Recognizing that price and brand name are not necessarily measures of quality; (4) Increasing purchasing power and personal satisfaction through making a search for information; and (5)…

  4. Financial Regulatory Reform: Consumer Financial Protection Proposals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-26

    would create a Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection within the Federal Reserve System, which would be provided similar authorities over consumer...systemic risk oversight powers for the Federal Reserve ; heightened prudential standards for financial firms; and increased federal oversight of...regulating over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives; and providing the Federal Reserve with new oversight authority of payment, settlement, and clearing systems

  5. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... retail credit or retail leases is not routinely assigned to an unaffiliated third party finance or... leases be adjusted annually by any annual percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage...) for exempt consumer leases from $25,000 to $50,000, effective July 21, 2011.\\1\\ In addition, the...

  6. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard…

  7. A Framework for Characterizing eHealth Literacy Demands and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Connie V

    2011-01-01

    Background Consumer eHealth interventions are of a growing importance in the individual management of health and health behaviors. However, a range of access, resources, and skills barriers prevent health care consumers from fully engaging in and benefiting from the spectrum of eHealth interventions. Consumers may engage in a range of eHealth tasks, such as participating in health discussion forums and entering information into a personal health record. eHealth literacy names a set of skills and knowledge that are essential for productive interactions with technology-based health tools, such as proficiency in information retrieval strategies, and communicating health concepts effectively. Objective We propose a theoretical and methodological framework for characterizing complexity of eHealth tasks, which can be used to diagnose and describe literacy barriers and inform the development of solution strategies. Methods We adapted and integrated two existing theoretical models relevant to the analysis of eHealth literacy into a single framework to systematically categorize and describe task demands and user performance on tasks needed by health care consumers in the information age. The method derived from the framework is applied to (1) code task demands using a cognitive task analysis, and (2) code user performance on tasks. The framework and method are applied to the analysis of a Web-based consumer eHealth task with information-seeking and decision-making demands. We present the results from the in-depth analysis of the task performance of a single user as well as of 20 users on the same task to illustrate both the detailed analysis and the aggregate measures obtained and potential analyses that can be performed using this method. Results The analysis shows that the framework can be used to classify task demands as well as the barriers encountered in user performance of the tasks. Our approach can be used to (1) characterize the challenges confronted by

  8. [Effects of BSE on consumer attitudes and behavior].

    PubMed

    von Alvenisleben, R

    2002-08-01

    The extremely high media emphasis of the BSE issue during the period December 2000 to February 2001 has caused considerable short term public concern. A significant amount of this concern was due to an intensive communication of pictures. Pictures are "fast shots into the brain" (Kroeber-Riel). Pictured stimuli run under the cognitive control of the recipients effecting the consumer below the threshold of consciousness. However, the issue has fallen into oblivion very soon. In summer 2001 the public concern was not higher than before the BSE crisis. The perception of product quality regained a "normal level". The public concern has caused a considerable decline of the demand for beef and an increase of demand for substitutes and organic meat. When the media emphasis of the BSE issue diminished, the beef demand recovered but did not reach the pre-crisis level again. However, the BSE crisis has intensified animal welfare concerns, polarized public opinion about food and agriculture and had big effects in the political sphere. Furthermore, the BSE crisis has led to additional--politically supported--activities of the organic food suppliers causing a further growth of this market segment.

  9. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  10. Health consumers and stem cell therapy innovation: markets, models and regulation.

    PubMed

    Salter, Brian; Zhou, Yinhua; Datta, Saheli

    2014-05-01

    Global health consumer demand for stem cell therapies is vibrant, but the supply of treatments from the conventional science-based model of innovation is small and unlikely to increase in the near future. At the same time, several models of medical innovation have emerged that can respond to the demand, often employing a transnational value chain to deliver the product. Much of the commentary has approached the issue from a supply side perspective, demonstrating the extent to which national and transnational regulation fails to impose what are regarded as appropriate standards on the 'illicit' supply of stem cell therapies characterized by little data and poor outcomes. By contrast, this article presents a political economic analysis with a strong demand side perspective, arguing that the problem of what is termed 'stem cell tourism' is embedded in the demand-supply relationship of the health consumer market and its engagement with different types of stem cell therapy innovation. To be meaningful, discussions of regulation must recognize that analysis or risk being sidelined by a market, which ignores their often wishful thinking.

  11. Demands of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in Daphnia: are they dependent on body size?

    PubMed

    Sikora, Anna B; Petzoldt, Thomas; Dawidowicz, Piotr; von Elert, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Fatty acids contribute to the nutritional quality of the phytoplankton and, thus, play an important role in Daphnia nutrition. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)--eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)--has been shown to predict carbon transfer between primary producers and consumers in lakes, suggesting that EPA limitation of Daphnia in nature is widespread. Although the demand for EPA must be covered by the diet, the demand of EPA in Daphnia that differ in body size has not been addressed yet. Here, we hypothesize that the demand for EPA in Daphnia is size-dependent and that bigger species have a higher EPA demand. To elucidate this, a growth experiment was conducted in which at 20 °C three Daphnia taxa (small-sized D. longispina complex, medium-sized D. pulicaria, and large-bodied D. magna) were fed Synechococcus elongatus supplemented with cholesterol and increasing concentrations of EPA. In addition, fatty acid analyses of Daphnia were performed. Our results show that the saturation threshold for EPA-dependent growth increased with increasing body size. This increase in thresholds with body size may provide another mechanism contributing to the prevalence of small-bodied cladocera in warm habitats and to the midsummer decline of large cladocera in eutrophic water bodies.

  12. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  13. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  14. Public Reporting and Demand Rationing: Evidence from the Nursing Home Industry.

    PubMed

    He, Daifeng; Konetzka, R Tamara

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines an under-explored unintended consequence of public reporting: the potential for demand rationing. Public reporting, although intended to increase consumer access to high-quality products, may have provided the perverse incentive for high-quality providers facing fixed capacity and administrative pricing to avoid less profitable types of residents. Using data from the nursing home industry before and after the implementation of the public reporting system in 2002, we find that high-quality nursing homes facing capacity constraints reduced admissions of less profitable Medicaid residents while increasing the more profitable Medicare and private-pay admissions, relative to low-quality nursing homes facing no capacity constraints. These effects, although small in magnitude, are consistent with provider rationing of demand on the basis of profitability and underscore the important role of institutional details in designing effective public reporting systems for regulated industries.

  15. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  16. Energy demand on dairy farms in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Humphreys, J; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; French, P; Dillon, P; De Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    Reducing electricity consumption in Irish milk production is a topical issue for 2 reasons. First, the introduction of a dynamic electricity pricing system, with peak and off-peak prices, will be a reality for 80% of electricity consumers by 2020. The proposed pricing schedule intends to discourage energy consumption during peak periods (i.e., when electricity demand on the national grid is high) and to incentivize energy consumption during off-peak periods. If farmers, for example, carry out their evening milking during the peak period, energy costs may increase, which would affect farm profitability. Second, electricity consumption is identified in contributing to about 25% of energy use along the life cycle of pasture-based milk. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to document electricity use per kilogram of milk sold and to identify strategies that reduce its overall use while maximizing its use in off-peak periods (currently from 0000 to 0900 h). We assessed, therefore, average daily and seasonal trends in electricity consumption on 22 Irish dairy farms, through detailed auditing of electricity-consuming processes. To determine the potential of identified strategies to save energy, we also assessed total energy use of Irish milk, which is the sum of the direct (i.e., energy use on farm) and indirect energy use (i.e., energy needed to produce farm inputs). On average, a total of 31.73 MJ was required to produce 1 kg of milk solids, of which 20% was direct and 80% was indirect energy use. Electricity accounted for 60% of the direct energy use, and mainly resulted from milk cooling (31%), water heating (23%), and milking (20%). Analysis of trends in electricity consumption revealed that 62% of daily electricity was used at peak periods. Electricity use on Irish dairy farms, therefore, is substantial and centered around milk harvesting. To improve the competitiveness of milk production in a dynamic electricity pricing environment, therefore, management

  17. The future of consumer cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  18. Japan's Residential Energy Demand Outlook to 2030 Considering Energy Efficiency Standards"Top-Runner Approach"

    SciTech Connect

    Lacommare, Kristina S H; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Marnay, Chris

    2008-05-15

    As one of the measures to achieve the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions agreed to in the"Kyoto Protocol," an institutional scheme for determining energy efficiency standards for energy-consuming appliances, called the"Top-Runner Approach," was developed by the Japanese government. Its goal is to strengthen the legal underpinnings of various energy conservation measures. Particularly in Japan's residential sector, where energy demand has grown vigorously so far, this efficiency standard is expected to play a key role in mitigating both energy demand growth and the associated CO2 emissions. This paper presents an outlook of Japan's residential energy demand, developed by a stochastic econometric model for the purpose of analyzing the impacts of the Japan's energy efficiency standards, as well as the future stochastic behavior of income growth, demography, energy prices, and climate on the future energy demand growth to 2030. In this analysis, we attempt to explicitly take into consideration more than 30 kinds of electricity uses, heating, cooling and hot water appliances in order to comprehensively capture the progress of energy efficiency in residential energy end-use equipment. Since electricity demand, is projected to exhibit astonishing growth in Japan's residential sector due to universal increasing ownership of electric and other appliances, it is important to implement an elaborate efficiency standards policy for these appliances.

  19. Ecolabeled paper towels: consumer valuation and expenditure analysis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Arun K; Blomquist, Glenn C

    2009-01-01

    Ecolabeled paper towels are manufactured using post-consumer recycled material and sold in markets using a recycle logo. Environmentally conscious consumers purchase these paper towels and thereby contribute to improving environmental quality. In this paper, we estimate the implicit value placed by consumers on ecolabeled paper towels using a hedonic price function and conduct an expenditure analysis using Heckman's selection model. Using the data set from the Internet-based grocery stores called as Peapod we find that some consumers recognize ecolabels on paper towels and place a substantial, positive price premium on them. The expenditure analysis indicates that for the preferred functional form, the demand for ecolabeled paper towels is inelastic for environmentally conscious consumers. The simulated results from the selection model indicate that a small subsidy for ecolabeled paper towels will not substantially change consumers' purchase decisions.

  20. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Current Reality and Barriers: Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. Conclusions and Policy Implications: There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs. PMID:26665120

  1. Forecasting of indirect consumables for a Job Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeel, M.; Khan, S.; Khan, W. A.

    2016-08-01

    A job shop has an arrangement where similar machines (Direct consumables) are grouped together and use indirect consumables to produce a product. The indirect consumables include hack saw blades, emery paper, painting brush etc. The job shop is serving various orders at a particular time for the optimal operation of job shop. Forecasting is required to predict the demand of direct and indirect consumables in a job shop. Forecasting is also needed to manage lead time, optimize inventory cost and stock outs. The objective of this research is to obtain the forecast for indirect consumables. The paper shows how job shop can manage their indirect consumables more accurately by establishing a new technique of forecasting. This results in profitable use of job shop by multiple users.

  2. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  3. An Informatics Approach to Demand Response Optimization in Smart Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Aman, Saima; Cao, Baohua; Giakkoupis, Mike; Kumbhare, Alok; Zhou, Qunzhi; Paul, Donald; Fern, Carol; Sharma, Aditya; Prasanna, Viktor K

    2011-03-03

    Power utilities are increasingly rolling out “smart” grids with the ability to track consumer power usage in near real-time using smart meters that enable bidirectional communication. However, the true value of smart grids is unlocked only when the veritable explosion of data that will become available is ingested, processed, analyzed and translated into meaningful decisions. These include the ability to forecast electricity demand, respond to peak load events, and improve sustainable use of energy by consumers, and are made possible by energy informatics. Information and software system techniques for a smarter power grid include pattern mining and machine learning over complex events and integrated semantic information, distributed stream processing for low latency response,Cloud platforms for scalable operations and privacy policies to mitigate information leakage in an information rich environment. Such an informatics approach is being used in the DoE sponsored Los Angeles Smart Grid Demonstration Project, and the resulting software architecture will lead to an agile and adaptive Los Angeles Smart Grid.

  4. Western municipal water conservation policy: The case of disaggregated demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burness, Stuart; Chermak, Janie; Krause, Kate

    2005-03-01

    We investigate aspects of the felicity of both incentive-based and command and control policies in effecting municipal water conservation goals. When demand can be disaggregated according to uses or users, our results suggest that policy efforts be focused on the submarket wherein demand is more elastic. Under plausible consumer parameters, a household production function approach to water utilization prescribes the nature of demand elasticities in alternative uses and squares nicely with empirical results from the literature. An empirical example illustrates. Overall, given data and other informational limitations, extant institutional structures, and in situ technology, our analysis suggests a predisposition for command and control policies over incentive-based tools.

  5. On the demand for prescription drugs: heterogeneity in price responses.

    PubMed

    Skipper, Niels

    2013-07-01

    This paper estimates the price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs using an exogenous shift in consumer co-payment caused by a reform in the Danish subsidy scheme for the general public. Using purchasing records for the entire Danish population, I show that the average price response for the most commonly used drug yields demand elasticities in the range of -0.36 to -0.5. The reform is shown to affect women, the elderly, and immigrants the most. Furthermore, this paper shows significant heterogeneity in the price response over different types of antibiotics, suggesting that the price elasticity of demand varies considerably even across relatively similar drugs.

  6. Knowledge acquisition and interface design for learning on demand systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners

  7. Trends of jet fuel demand and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Petroleum industry forecasts predict an increasing demand for jet fuels, a decrease in the gasoline-to-distillate (heavier fuel) demand ratio, and a greater influx of poorer quality petroleum in the next two to three decades. These projections are important for refinery product analyses. The forecasts have not been accurate, however, in predicting the recent, short term fluctuations in jet fuel and competing product demand. Changes in petroleum quality can be assessed, in part, by a review of jet fuel property inspections. Surveys covering the last 10 years show that average jet fuel freezing points, aromatic contents, and smoke points have trends toward their specification limits.

  8. Consumers as four-faced creatures. Looking at food consumption from the perspective of contemporary consumers.

    PubMed

    Dagevos, Hans

    2005-08-01

    One would believe that with the increasing importance attached to consumers in contemporary affluent societies, the difficulty to understand today's 'butterfly' or 'unmanageable' consumers seems to double simultaneously. Modern consumers defy traditional segmentation by age, gender or income. Classical criteria to distinguish different homogeneous groups of consumers with corresponding behavioral intentions and patterns, have lost much of their explanatory power. Hence, the behaviour of the inhabitants of modern consumer society can no longer be understood by 'straight' and measurable segmentation criteria only. In order to meet the complexities of modern consumer behaviour, it is suggested that we need to improve our understanding of socio-cultural and socio-psychological influences on consumer choices. Such are awarded to be supplementary to socio-demographic (e.g. age, gender) or socio-economic (e.g. income, occupation) criteria, which are traditionally used in consumer studies. Our contribution to this quest for new perspectives, in which consumption is both seen as an economic/materialistic and a socio-cultural/attitudinal phenomenon, is called the consumer images approach. The underpinnings of this approach are the dimensions materialism/nonmaterialism and individualism/collectivism. Based on these two dimensions, four consumer images are distinguished in a four-quadrantic continuum. This implies that consumer images are not another set of taxonomies to 'box in' consumers. The consumer images approach is in tune with lines of thought in the recent renaissance of the sociology of consumption. To illustrate this, a presentation of the multifaceted consumer will be given that is interlarded with quotations from several new studies on contemporary consumerism which give evidence of the current vitality of scholarly interest in consumption.

  9. Drug Familiarization and Therapeutic Misconception Via Direct-to-Consumer Information.

    PubMed

    Bélisle-Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2015-06-01

    Promotion of prescription drugs may appear to be severely limited in some jurisdictions due to restrictions on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). However, in most jurisdictions, strategies exist to raise consumer awareness about prescription drugs, notably through the deployment of direct-to-consumer information (DTCI) campaigns that encourage patients to seek help for particular medical conditions. In Canada, DTCI is presented by industry and regulated by Health Canada as being purely informational activities, but their design and integration in broader promotional campaigns raise very similar ethical concerns as those associated with DTCA. Specifically, DTCI can be an effective means of familiarizing the public with the scope and benefits of a particular prescription drug and so, like DTCA, can promote increased patient-consumer demand and thus a problematic rise in the prescribing and use of medications that may be neither the most appropriate nor the most cost-effective. Yet, with DTCI the industry is playing within the existing rules and regulations set by health regulators. To respond appropriately to this regulatory incoherence, we argue that DTCI should be regulated as a type of direct-to-consumer indirect advertising. Even if the case and specific regulations presented here are Canadian, the implications extend to every country that has a partial or total prohibition on DTCA.

  10. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  11. Direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Gellad, Ziad F; Lyles, Kenneth W

    2007-06-01

    Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released new guidelines on broadcast direct-to-consumer advertising in 1997, the prevalence of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs has increased exponentially. The impact on providers, patients, and the health care system is varied and dynamic, and the rapid changes in the last several years have markedly altered the health care landscape. To continue providing optimal medical care, physicians and other health care providers must be able to manage this influence on their practice, and a more thorough understanding of this phenomenon is an integral step toward this goal. This review will summarize the history of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements and the current regulations governing them. It will summarize the evidence concerning the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising on the public, providers, and the health care system, and conclude with observations regarding the future of direct-to-consumer advertising.

  12. Consumer Energy Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  13. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  14. Systems Modelling of the Socio-Technical Aspects of Residential Electricity Use and Network Peak Demand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jim; Mengersen, Kerrie; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Bell, John; Morris, Peter; Ledwich, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Provision of network infrastructure to meet rising network peak demand is increasing the cost of electricity. Addressing this demand is a major imperative for Australian electricity agencies. The network peak demand model reported in this paper provides a quantified decision support tool and a means of understanding the key influences and impacts on network peak demand. An investigation of the system factors impacting residential consumers' peak demand for electricity was undertaken in Queensland, Australia. Technical factors, such as the customers' location, housing construction and appliances, were combined with social factors, such as household demographics, culture, trust and knowledge, and Change Management Options (CMOs) such as tariffs, price, managed supply, etc., in a conceptual 'map' of the system. A Bayesian network was used to quantify the model and provide insights into the major influential factors and their interactions. The model was also used to examine the reduction in network peak demand with different market-based and government interventions in various customer locations of interest and investigate the relative importance of instituting programs that build trust and knowledge through well designed customer-industry engagement activities. The Bayesian network was implemented via a spreadsheet with a tickbox interface. The model combined available data from industry-specific and public sources with relevant expert opinion. The results revealed that the most effective intervention strategies involve combining particular CMOs with associated education and engagement activities. The model demonstrated the importance of designing interventions that take into account the interactions of the various elements of the socio-technical system. The options that provided the greatest impact on peak demand were Off-Peak Tariffs and Managed Supply and increases in the price of electricity. The impact in peak demand reduction differed for each of the locations

  15. Consumers' perception of organic product characteristics. A review.

    PubMed

    Schleenbecker, Rosa; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Consumer interest in organic products is growing alongside a diversification of the supply. In order to serve consumers actual needs and wants regarding organic products, those involved in the market need to be informed about consumers' perception of organic products. Therefore, the state of research as regards consumers' perception of organic product characteristics, including basic and additional characteristics, product labelling, product innovations and the range of products on the market is displayed in this contribution. A comprehensive literature analysis was performed uncovering not only the state of the art in the field including employed methodology, but also research needs. Most studies are published on consumers' perception of organic products' design and labelling. A trend towards the so called 'organic-plus' positioning can be perceived, with many consumers expecting an extensive orientation towards sustainability. The diversity of product labels features prominently in related studies. The demand for reliable information, as well as the low degree of awareness of many labels amongst consumers becomes clear in these studies. To date, few results are available on consumers' perception of packaging and design of organic products, and even fewer for consumers' perception of range design. Both consumers' perception of organic product innovation and valued added services are untouched so far.

  16. Rimonabant reduces the essential value of food in the genetically obese Zucker rat: an exponential demand analysis.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Erin B; Reilly, William; Buckley, Jessica; Boomhower, Steven R

    2012-02-01

    Research on free-food intake suggests that cannabinoids are implicated in the regulation of feeding. Few studies, however, have characterized how environmental factors that affect food procurement interact with cannabinoid drugs that reduce food intake. Demand analysis provides a framework to understand how cannabinoid blockers, such as rimonabant, interact with effort in reducing demand for food. The present study examined the effects rimonabant had on demand for sucrose in obese Zucker rats when effort to obtain food varied and characterized the data using the exponential ("essential value") model of demand. Twenty-nine male (15 lean, 14 obese) Zucker rats lever-pressed under eight fixed ratio (FR) schedules of sucrose reinforcement, in which the number of lever-presses to gain access to a single sucrose pellet varied between 1 and 300. After behavior stabilized under each FR schedule, acute doses of rimonabant (1-10mg/kg) were administered prior to some sessions. The number of food reinforcers and responses in each condition was averaged and the exponential and linear demand equations were fit to the data. These demand equations quantify the value of a reinforcer by its sensitivity to price (FR) increases. Under vehicle conditions, obese Zucker rats consumed more sucrose pellets than leans at smaller fixed ratios; however, they were equally sensitive to price increases with both models of demand. Rimonabant dose-dependently reduced reinforcers and responses for lean and obese rats across all FR schedules. Data from the exponential analysis suggest that rimonabant dose-dependently increased elasticity, i.e., reduced the essential value of sucrose, a finding that is consistent with graphical depictions of normalized demand curves.

  17. Accounting for Water Insecurity in Modeling Domestic Water Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaitsis, S. E.; Huber-lee, A. T.; Vogel, R. M.; Naumova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Water demand management uses price elasticity estimates to predict consumer demand in relation to water pricing changes, but studies have shown that many additional factors effect water consumption. Development scholars document the need for water security, however, much of the water security literature focuses on broad policies which can influence water demand. Previous domestic water demand studies have not considered how water security can affect a population's consumption behavior. This study is the first to model the influence of water insecurity on water demand. A subjective indicator scale measuring water insecurity among consumers in the Palestinian West Bank is developed and included as a variable to explore how perceptions of control, or lack thereof, impact consumption behavior and resulting estimates of price elasticity. A multivariate regression model demonstrates the significance of a water insecurity variable for data sets encompassing disparate water access. When accounting for insecurity, the R-squaed value improves and the marginal price a household is willing to pay becomes a significant predictor for the household quantity consumption. The model denotes that, with all other variables held equal, a household will buy more water when the users are more water insecure. Though the reasons behind this trend require further study, the findings suggest broad policy implications by demonstrating that water distribution practices in scarcity conditions can promote consumer welfare and efficient water use.

  18. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    PubMed

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity.

  19. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  20. Ubiquitous green computing techniques for high demand applications in Smart environments.

    PubMed

    Zapater, Marina; Sanchez, Cesar; Ayala, Jose L; Moya, Jose M; Risco-Martín, José L

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time.

  1. Ubiquitous Green Computing Techniques for High Demand Applications in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Zapater, Marina; Sanchez, Cesar; Ayala, Jose L.; Moya, Jose M.; Risco-Martín, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous sensor network deployments, such as the ones found in Smart cities and Ambient intelligence applications, require constantly increasing high computational demands in order to process data and offer services to users. The nature of these applications imply the usage of data centers. Research has paid much attention to the energy consumption of the sensor nodes in WSNs infrastructures. However, supercomputing facilities are the ones presenting a higher economic and environmental impact due to their very high power consumption. The latter problem, however, has been disregarded in the field of smart environment services. This paper proposes an energy-minimization workload assignment technique, based on heterogeneity and application-awareness, that redistributes low-demand computational tasks from high-performance facilities to idle nodes with low and medium resources in the WSN infrastructure. These non-optimal allocation policies reduce the energy consumed by the whole infrastructure and the total execution time. PMID:23112621

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Understanding the Child Consumer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  4. Consumer Involvement in Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursz, Daniel

    A new approach to rehabilitation of the disabled and disadvantaged is necessary, but the problem of how to involve consumers and how to organize groups for community action is a big one. Moreover, citizen participation cannot be a substitute for basic improvement in the quality of service. Service agencies need to be decentralized and staff…

  5. Consumer Information. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Ann, MO.

    One of three projects reported by the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory included analysis of 178 existing consumer information products. Steps in the analytical scheme were preparation of an annotated bibliography and development of a plan for providing objective, comparative information on such products. These were found in the…

  6. Social Studies: Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Charles W.

    The course outlined in this curriculum guide, modified to fit the quinmester organization of schools, focuses on the role of the individual as a consumer. The aim of this elective, grades 7-9 course is to help the student develop sound decision-making habits for functioning more effectively in the marketplace and best fulfilling his role as a…

  7. Consumer-Referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behuniak, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Argues for improving the quality of education assessment by focusing on the needs of the educational consumers. These needs require more carefully designed assessment systems, better professional development, improvements in students' testing experiences, expanded use of technology, and an open public dialogue about assessment means and ends. (PKP)

  8. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  9. Consumer Education Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I.

    This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or…

  10. Youth Explore Consumer World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Charla B.

    1974-01-01

    A series of five short-term, special interest Four-H projects on the consumer world (banking, money management, shopping, supermarket, and credit) are being used in cooperative efforts with schools throughout Florida. The materials can be used for various courses in grades seven through twelve and also are applicable to disadvantaged youth. (EA)

  11. Savvy Consumers through Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Is Bounty the "quicker picker-upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same? The authors' fourth-grade students posed and answered these questions and many more during their recent "Consumer Product Testing" unit in which they designed experiments to assess these products' qualities and learned to question the advertising that…

  12. Educating Tomorrow's Culture Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1979-01-01

    In light of the fact that young Americans spend hundreds of dollars each year on the arts yet have little training in developing critical skills, this writer outlines what must be done in school arts programs to educate culture consumers. (Author/JM)

  13. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  14. Science and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, A. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author defines his concept of science and the practice of nutrition. Discusses the problems of nutritional educators and those of the consumer. Describes how the scientific method should provide a sound basis for nutritional education and discusses its appropriateness in evaluating diet and disease theories. (SMB)

  15. Consumer Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonkers Public Library, NY.

    This annotated bibliography is a listing of more than 2,000 books, booklets, pamphlets, films, filmstrips, and other materials in the field of consumer interests and education. It is intended for use by educators, librarians, executives and other personnel in business and industry, researchers, writers, and housewives. Major categories are: (1)…

  16. A Consumer Way of Thinking: Linking Consumer Socialization and Consumption Motivation Perspectives to Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Soyeon; Serido, Joyce; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of Internet technology and rapidly changing consumer environments, the societal role played by today's adolescents is significantly increasing. They are becoming more influential, not merely as consumers of products and services but also as coproducers in the marketplace. In this paper, we contend that consumption is central to the…

  17. Greywater reuse: A strategy for water demand management in Harare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madungwe, Emaculate; Sakuringwa, Saniso

    Greywater is wastewater from baths, sinks and washing machines, accounting for about 60% of the outflow from homes. It contains little pathogens and 90% less nitrogen than toilet water, so does not require the same treatment process. With the increasing demand for freshwater, its use may reduce irrigation water needs, increasing its availability of freshwater for other primary uses. Agriculture is the main water consumer in Africa, which cannot be compromised due to its role in domestic food security and export supplies. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate findings of the research done on benefits of greywater reuse in some countries, applicable to African countries. In Australia, greywater reuse has reduced freshwater demand, strain on wastewater treatment plants and energy consumption. Aquifer recharge has improved due to increased infiltration flows from greywater uses. In Lebanon, greywater is a valuable resource for encouraging plant growth from nutrients that may otherwise have been wasted. Palestine shares similar climate and water scarcity conditions with most arid sub-Saharan African countries, yet utilizes grey water in production of crops and citrus fruits. Thus use of grey water should be possible in African cities such as Harare, where nearly two thirds of the population rely on agriculture for livelihoods. The problem of blue green algae in sewerage ponds and water reservoirs is significantly reduced by household reuse of grey water in Mexico. Water savings are increased and expenses reduced, as illustrated by the reduction in consumption of municipality freshwater supplies in South African urban areas. Rural communities and schools in Namibia and Egypt have raised funds from grey water reuse in banana plantations. A possible constraint to this strategy could be the unavailability of appropriate technology for primary treatment of grey water before reuse. This strategy may pose health risks where water quality tests are unknown or unavailable

  18. Teacher's Kit for Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide on Consumer Education, designed for high school seniors, was developed to help students become aware of and knowledgeable about their role as consumers in today's society. The following key concepts for study are emphasized: general principles of consumer purchasing; consumer credit; general principles of fraud, quackery,…

  19. Apollo experience report: Consumables budgeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    The procedures and techniques used in predicting the consumables usage for the Apollo mission are discussed. Because of the many interfaces and influences on the consumables system, it is impractical to document all facets of consumables budgeting; therefore, information in this report is limited to the major contributions to the formulation of a consumables budget.

  20. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ookie; Cheung, Kerry

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  1. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  2. Do High Consumers of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Respond Differently to Price Changes? A Finite Mixture IV-Tobit Approach.

    PubMed

    Etilé, Fabrice; Sharma, Anurag

    2015-09-01

    This study compares the impact of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) tax between moderate and high consumers in Australia. The key methodological contribution is that price response heterogeneity is identified while controlling for censoring of consumption at zero and endogeneity of expenditure by using a finite mixture instrumental variable Tobit model. The SSB price elasticity estimates show a decreasing trend across increasing consumption quantiles, from -2.3 at the median to -0.2 at the 95th quantile. Although high consumers of SSBs have a less elastic demand for SSBs, their very high consumption levels imply that a tax would achieve higher reduction in consumption and higher health gains. Our results also suggest that an SSB tax would represent a small fiscal burden for consumers whatever their pre-policy level of consumption, and that an excise tax should be preferred to an ad valorem tax.

  3. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  4. 75 FR 55292 - Amendment to Egg Research and Promotion Order and Regulations To Increase the Rate of Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... programs designed to increase consumer demand for eggs in domestic and international markets. At the... information is designed to strengthen the position of eggs in the marketplace and to establish, maintain, and... muscle retention in the elderly; egg lutein and eye health; egg choline and brain development,...

  5. The evolving state of online search for consumer health information.

    PubMed

    Hunscher, Dale A

    2008-11-06

    Online search for consumer health information is a public health concern. General-purpose search engines have historically returned health-related query results of dubious relevance and quality. Meanwhile, consumers have become increasingly reliant on and trusting of these engines. General-purpose search engines have attempted to make their interfaces more consumer-friendly with respect to consumer health queries and their results more relevant and trustworthy. We illustrate the characteristics of the evolving health search landscape using network visualization.

  6. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    PubMed

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  7. Information and the solar consumer

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, F.

    1981-05-01

    A brief review of the use of solar energy in the US is presented and then the attitude of solar consumer are summarized. Results of research show that information or knowledge of an innovation proceeds at a faster rate than the actual adoption of that innovation. It is noted that until the level of solar knowledge increases to about 30% of the potential end users who have seriously considered the technology and plan to invest in it, adoption of the technology will be limited.

  8. A Test Bed for Self-regulating Distribution Systems: Modeling Intergrated Renewable Energy and Demand Response in the GridLAB-D/MATLAB Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dan; de Wit, Braydon; Parkinson, Simon; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2012-01-16

    This paper discusses the development of a simulation test bed permitting the study of integrated renewable energy generators and controlled distributed heat pumps operating within distribution systems. The test bed is demonstrated in this paper by addressing the important issue of the self-regulating effect of consumer-owned air-source heat pumps on the variability induced by wind power integration, particularly when coupled with increased access to demand response realized through a centralized load control strategy.

  9. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way

  10. World supply and demand for forests products

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, J.; Brooks, D.J.

    1995-10-01

    This article summarizes the forestry issues of the future including increasing scarcity of traditional raw material with resulting substitution and technological change; changes in consumer tastes and preferences, including greater attention to the environmental consequences of production and consumption; and the incorporation of environmental considerations in economic and trade policies. The importance of fuelwood is highlighted in the figures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  11. How consumers view hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by hospitals; (b) which media consumers feel are appropriate for hospital advertising; and (c) whether consumers are seeing hospital advertisements, and if so, through which media. It was found that consumers indeed have a favorable attitude toward hospitals that advertise. It was also found that consumers feel that most media are appropriate for hospital advertising. Finally, it was found that most consumers have seen hospitals advertise their services, especially on television and radio and in the newspaper.

  12. Path Forward to Space Solar Power using the O'Neill - Glaser Model Modified for Climate Change Demand and Considering the Increasing Risk of Human Self-Extinction if Confined to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Nall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy is humanity's economic exchange rate with the universe. Space solar power is the first great step that our technological species has to utilize the energy of its star. The classic Peter Glaser Solar Power Satellite, SPS, and later designs collect a large area of solar energy in space and beam it back to Earth for use in the electric grid, but even with optimistic launch costs and technology innovation a clear economic path is not evident using Earth launch of SPS. O Neill in 1969 solved the transportation costs problem by a model that uses lunar and asteroid materials to build SPS and locates the labor force permanently in space (O Neill free space habitats). This solution closes the economics and predicts large profits after 17-35 years. However the costs of time have up to now prevented this solution. We discuss a strategy to move forward in SPS with the motivations to stop global warming and prevent human selfextinction. There are near term steps that can be taken that place us on this path forward. First, we must reevaluate the technologies for the classic model and update the parameters to current technology. As technological capability continues to increase exponentially, we need to understand when the monetary potential energy hills are small as the technology gets larger. But the chance for self-extinction, if humanity remains in a single vulnerable habitat, also increased exponentially with time. The path forward is to identify investment points while assessing the risks of non-action.

  13. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization

    PubMed Central

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (P <0.001), most commonly for children aged less than 7 years. Consumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P = 0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (P <0.001). Although online reporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity. PMID:25483686

  14. Refrigerated Warehouse Demand Response Strategy Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Doug; Castillo, Rafael; Larson, Kyle; Dobbs, Brian; Olsen, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    This guide summarizes demand response measures that can be implemented in refrigerated warehouses. In an appendix, it also addresses related energy efficiency opportunities. Reducing overall grid demand during peak periods and energy consumption has benefits for facility operators, grid operators, utility companies, and society. State wide demand response potential for the refrigerated warehouse sector in California is estimated to be over 22.1 Megawatts. Two categories of demand response strategies are described in this guide: load shifting and load shedding. Load shifting can be accomplished via pre-cooling, capacity limiting, and battery charger load management. Load shedding can be achieved by lighting reduction, demand defrost and defrost termination, infiltration reduction, and shutting down miscellaneous equipment. Estimation of the costs and benefits of demand response participation yields simple payback periods of 2-4 years. To improve demand response performance, it’s suggested to install air curtains and another form of infiltration barrier, such as a rollup door, for the passageways. Further modifications to increase efficiency of the refrigeration unit are also analyzed. A larger condenser can maintain the minimum saturated condensing temperature (SCT) for more hours of the day. Lowering the SCT reduces the compressor lift, which results in an overall increase in refrigeration system capacity and energy efficiency. Another way of saving energy in refrigerated warehouses is eliminating the use of under-floor resistance heaters. A more energy efficient alternative to resistance heaters is to utilize the heat that is being rejected from the condenser through a heat exchanger. These energy efficiency measures improve efficiency either by reducing the required electric energy input for the refrigeration system, by helping to curtail the refrigeration load on the system, or by reducing both the load and required energy input.

  15. Differentiated Products Demand Systems from a Combination of Micro and Macro Data: The New Car Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Steven; Levinsohn, James; Pakes, Ariel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider how rich sources of information on consumer choice can help to identify demand parameters in a widely used class of differentiated products demand models. Most important, we show how to use "second-choice" data on automotive purchases to obtain good estimates of substitution patterns in the automobile industry. We use…

  16. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  17. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  18. Promoting genuine consumer participation in mental health education: a consumer academic role.

    PubMed

    Happell, Brenda; Roper, Cath

    2009-08-01

    Mental health policy reform in Australia has led to the expectation of increased consumer participation not only in all aspects of service delivery, but also in the education and training of mental health professionals. The aim of this paper is to explore the development and introduction of a role for a consumer of mental health services within an academic institution, including achievements of the role and the principles contributing to successful implementation. The consumer academic position was successfully implemented and has proved a valuable role. The success of the role was considered to be dependent on the following factors: partnership and commitment, support, scope and autonomy. In conclusion, a consumer can play a valuable role within an academic institution. However, success will depend upon a number of important environmental factors that promote the independence of the consumer voice.

  19. Integration of Renewables Via Demand Management: Highly Dispatchable and Distributed Demand Response for the Integration of Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-11

    GENI Project: AutoGrid, in conjunction with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Columbia University, will design and demonstrate automated control software that helps manage real-time demand for energy across the electric grid. Known as the Demand Response Optimization and Management System - Real-Time (DROMS-RT), the software will enable personalized price signal to be sent to millions of customers in extremely short timeframes—incentivizing them to alter their electricity use in response to grid conditions. This will help grid operators better manage unpredictable demand and supply fluctuations in short time-scales —making the power generation process more efficient and cost effective for both suppliers and consumers. DROMS-RT is expected to provide a 90% reduction in the cost of operating demand response and dynamic pricing Projects in the U.S.

  20. Product Manuals: A Consumer Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Linda S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of insights from consumer focus groups on product manual usage reveals consumer perceptions and preferences regarding manual and safety message format. Results can be used to improve manual design and content. (JOW)

  1. The Mystery of Consumer Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carol P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares processes used to investigate issues in consumer chemistry to the solving of a puzzle in a mystery story. Suggests using similar methods to teach problem solving in consumer chemistry classes. Describes how such a process might progress. (CW)

  2. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  3. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions.

  4. Expanding the consumer base for behavior-analytic services: meeting the needs of consumers in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Linda A; Heinicke, Megan R; Baker, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    A growing workforce of behavior analysts provides services to individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities as legislative initiatives have spurred a growth of funding options to support these services. Though many opportunities currently exist for serving individuals with autism, the growing demand for these services may wane or, at some point, the growth in service providers will meet that demand. Other consumer groups could benefit from behavior analytic services, but typically have limited access to qualified providers. Individuals with dementia and traumatic brain injury are used as example consumer groups to illustrate the necessary tasks for a behavior analyst to expand their scope of practice to a new population. This paper provides strategies for developing competence and creating employment opportunities with new consumer groups.

  5. Expanding the Consumer Base for Behavior-Analytic Services: Meeting the Needs of Consumers in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Linda A; Heinicke, Megan R; Baker, Jonathan C

    2012-01-01

    A growing workforce of behavior analysts provides services to individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities as legislative initiatives have spurred a growth of funding options to support these services. Though many opportunities currently exist for serving individuals with autism, the growing demand for these services may wane or, at some point, the growth in service providers will meet that demand. Other consumer groups could benefit from behavior analytic services, but typically have limited access to qualified providers. Individuals with dementia and traumatic brain injury are used as example consumer groups to illustrate the necessary tasks for a behavior analyst to expand their scope of practice to a new population. This paper provides strategies for developing competence and creating employment opportunities with new consumer groups. PMID:23326626

  6. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  7. Consumer's Resource Handbook. 1992 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook for consumers begins with information on its use, content, and other sources of help. The handbook is then divided into two sections. Part I, How to Be a Smart Consumer, lists tips on getting the most for your money, handling your own complaint, and writing a complaint letter. It provides information on the following consumer issues:…

  8. Guide to Federal Consumer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This publication lists the consumer services of every Federal agency or bureau that is either directly of indirectly concerned with consumer issues. Services covered include agricultural research service, consumer and marketing service, extension service, food and nutrition service, rural development and conservation, farm credit, environmental…

  9. One School's Consumer Survival Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charlotte

    1978-01-01

    The Chairman of the Business Education Department at Oak Park-River Forest High School in Illinois and head of the school's consumer education program speaks of the development of consumer awareness among his students over the past seven years and suggests some possible directions for consumer education in the future. (Editor/RK)

  10. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  11. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule, staff... requirements of Regulation M, which implements the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the CLA by...

  12. The role of consumers.

    PubMed

    Raats, Monique M

    2010-01-01

    It is particularly important that in areas of strategic public health significance, e.g. infant feeding, the processes used to extract robust scientific findings are timely, rigorous and transparent. Low rates of breastfeeding, poor weaning practices and variability within and between countries have been reported by many authors and resulted in a call for more consistency of recommendations across regions. The adoption of consumer behaviors in line with recommendations is of course not guaranteed. The consumers in this instance are both the infant and their mother or other carers. As infants completely depend on their carers to make food choices for them, it is important that they understand nutrition, and the importance of food choices for health of the baby and in future life. Parents obtain information from a variety of sources, the quality of which may vary, and is not necessarily evidence-based. Although carers decide what is offered or withheld, the infant may contribute to this decision by expressing dissatisfaction or refusing food. At the heart of all feeding choices lies this interplay between carer and child, influenced by the environment at household, community and societal level.

  13. Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, T.R.; Zimmerman, J.J.

    2001-02-07

    Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) engineers John Zimmerman and Tom Bender directed separate projects within this CRADA. This Project Accomplishments Summary contains their reports independently. Zimmerman: In 1998 Honeywell FM&T partnered with the Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Cooperative Business Management Program to pilot the Supply Chain Integration Planning Prototype (SCIP). At the time, FM&T was developing an enterprise-wide supply chain management prototype called the Integrated Programmatic Scheduling System (IPSS) to improve the DOE's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) supply chain. In the CRADA partnership, FM&T provided the IPSS technical and business infrastructure as a test bed for SCIP technology, and this would provide FM&T the opportunity to evaluate SCIP as the central schedule engine and decision support tool for IPSS. FM&T agreed to do the bulk of the work for piloting SCIP. In support of that aim, DAMA needed specific DOE Defense Programs opportunities to prove the value of its supply chain architecture and tools. In this partnership, FM&T teamed with Sandia National Labs (SNL), Division 6534, the other DAMA partner and developer of SCIP. FM&T tested SCIP in 1998 and 1999. Testing ended in 1999 when DAMA CRADA funding for FM&T ceased. Before entering the partnership, FM&T discovered that the DAMA SCIP technology had an array of applications in strategic, tactical, and operational planning and scheduling. At the time, FM&T planned to improve its supply chain performance by modernizing the NWC-wide planning and scheduling business processes and tools. The modernization took the form of a distributed client-server planning and scheduling system (IPSS) for planners and schedulers to use throughout the NWC on desktops through an off-the-shelf WEB browser. The planning and scheduling process within the NWC then, and today, is a labor-intensive paper-based method that plans and schedules more than 8,000 shipped parts

  14. Demand-controlled lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Automatic lighting is controlled by photocell that measures intensity of available light. Photocell drives motor which operates mercury switches controlling indoor illumination sources. Device effects increase in indoor illumination intensity when illumination input to cell is insufficient. Reverse is true if input is too great.

  15. Social marketing: consumer focused health promotion.

    PubMed

    Blair, J E

    1995-10-01

    1. Social marketing provides a theoretical basis to increase awareness of preventable health conditions and to increase participation in wellness programs. 2. The philosophy of social marketing underscores the necessity to be aware of and responsive to the consumer's perception of needs. 3. Social marketing is distinguished by its emphasis on "non-tangible" products such as ideas, attitudes, and lifestyle changes. 4. "Marketing mix" is a social marketing strategy that intertwines elements of product, price, place, and promotion to satisfy needs and wants of consumers.

  16. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  17. Open-source Software for Demand Forecasting of Clinical Laboratory Test Volumes Using Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Emad A.; Naugler, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Background: Demand forecasting is the area of predictive analytics devoted to predicting future volumes of services or consumables. Fair understanding and estimation of how demand will vary facilitates the optimal utilization of resources. In a medical laboratory, accurate forecasting of future demand, that is, test volumes, can increase efficiency and facilitate long-term laboratory planning. Importantly, in an era of utilization management initiatives, accurately predicted volumes compared to the realized test volumes can form a precise way to evaluate utilization management initiatives. Laboratory test volumes are often highly amenable to forecasting by time-series models; however, the statistical software needed to do this is generally either expensive or highly technical. Method: In this paper, we describe an open-source web-based software tool for time-series forecasting and explain how to use it as a demand forecasting tool in clinical laboratories to estimate test volumes. Results: This tool has three different models, that is, Holt-Winters multiplicative, Holt-Winters additive, and simple linear regression. Moreover, these models are ranked and the best one is highlighted. Conclusion: This tool will allow anyone with historic test volume data to model future demand.

  18. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  19. Harnessing the power of demand

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  20. Diversity of Global Rice Markets and the Science Required for Consumer-Targeted Rice Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N. Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D.; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a ‘one size fits all’ crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market. PMID:24454799

  1. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding.

    PubMed

    Calingacion, Mariafe; Laborte, Alice; Nelson, Andrew; Resurreccion, Adoracion; Concepcion, Jeanaflor Crystal; Daygon, Venea Dara; Mumm, Roland; Reinke, Russell; Dipti, Sharifa; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk; Manful, John; Sophany, Sakhan; Lara, Karla Cordero; Bao, Jinsong; Xie, Lihong; Loaiza, Katerine; El-hissewy, Ahmad; Gayin, Joseph; Sharma, Neerja; Rajeswari, Sivakami; Manonmani, Swaminathan; Rani, N Shobha; Kota, Suneetha; Indrasari, Siti Dewi; Habibi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Maryam; Tavasoli, Fatemeh; Suzuki, Keitaro; Umemoto, Takayuki; Boualaphanh, Chanthkone; Lee, Huei Hong; Hung, Yiu Pang; Ramli, Asfaliza; Aung, Pa Pa; Ahmad, Rauf; Wattoo, Javed Iqbal; Bandonill, Evelyn; Romero, Marissa; Brites, Carla Moita; Hafeel, Roshni; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Cheaupun, Kunya; Jongdee, Supanee; Blanco, Pedro; Bryant, Rolfe; Thi Lang, Nguyen; Hall, Robert D; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of the different traits that make up the quality of the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice is by no means a 'one size fits all' crop. Regional preferences are not only striking, they drive the market and hence are of major economic importance in any rice breeding / improvement strategy. In this analysis, we have engaged local experts across the world to perform a full assessment of all the major rice quality trait characteristics and importantly, to determine how these are combined in the most preferred varieties for each of their regions. Physical as well as biochemical characteristics have been monitored and this has resulted in the identification of no less than 18 quality trait combinations. This complexity immediately reveals the extent of the specificity of consumer preference. Nevertheless, further assessment of these combinations at the variety level reveals that several groups still comprise varieties which consumers can readily identify as being different. This emphasises the shortcomings in the current tools we have available to assess rice quality and raises the issue of how we might correct for this in the future. Only with additional tools and research will we be able to define directed strategies for rice breeding which are able to combine important agronomic features with the demands of local consumers for specific quality attributes and hence, design new, improved crop varieties which will be awarded success in the global market.

  2. Survey of consumer and non-consumer mental health service providers on assertive community treatment teams in Ontario.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; Whelan, Chantal; Barnes, J Derrick; Baskerville, Bruce

    2003-06-01

    Reflecting the increasing trend of consumers as providers in mental health services, the standards for Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams in Ontario, Canada require the hiring of at least 0.5 full-time equivalent consumer as a service provider. Through a mail-out survey, we explored how the consumer position has been integrated into these ACT teams. It was found that despite some variation in the roles and degree of integration of the consumers on these teams, consumers were generally well-incorporated team members with equal or better job satisfaction as compared to other employees.

  3. Hospital demand for licensed practical nurses.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Dyer, Wendy T; Chapman, Susan; Seago, Jean Ann

    2006-10-01

    Despite evidence that hospital use of licensed practical nurses (LPNs) declined in the 1990s, the current registered nurse (RN) shortage has prompted interest in LPNs as substitutes for RNs. Hospitals, being the dominant employer of RNs, have an economic incentive to use less expensive LPNs as substitutes. Beside wages, there are several forces underlying hospital demand for LPNs. In this article, the authors model and estimate hospital demand for LPNs as a function of nurse wages and hospital, market, and patient characteristics using a longitudinal data set of short-term general hospitals in the United States. The authors find evidence that higher RN wages increase hospital demand for LPNs, both in levels and relative to RNs, suggesting that hospitals at least partially substitute RNs with LPNs.

  4. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  5. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  6. Demand illumination control apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Carl (Inventor); Arline, Jimmie (Inventor); LaPalme, Julius (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Solar illuminating compensating apparatus is disclosed whereby the interior of a building is illuminated to a substantially constant, predetermined level of light intensity by a combination of natural illumination from the sun and artificial illumination from electricity wherein the intensity of said artificial illumination is controlled by fully electronic means which increases the level of artificial illumination when the natural illumination is inadequate and vice versa.

  7. Effective Systems To Cope with Increasing Demands and Decreasing Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferland, Raymond A.; DiMaria, Joseph P.

    As a solution to the problem of serving large numbers of students with a small staff, the Community College of Rhode Island (CCRI) has adopted three new technologies to advise and register students and respond to telephone inquiries. The first of the technological innovations is TELUS, a telephone voice response registration system offered as an…

  8. Onshore rig surplus diminishes as demand rises

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, E.M.

    1997-09-22

    US and international onshore surplus rig supply is diminishing rapidly as rig demand in many regions continues to increase. Consequently, capital costs associated with reactivating, constructing, and refurbishing new and existing rigs are on the rise. In addition, rising operating costs are putting upward pressure on operating costs. In order to justify replacement of existing rigs, US rig day rates will need to more than double. Current rig-market indicators show that rig demand should continue to rise at current levels, or even accelerate. Day rates will have to rise to a level that justifies investments in new capacity, and with continuing rig attrition, even more rigs will have to be built to offset deletions. It is not a matter of whether this will occur, but only when. This will not necessarily threaten the operators` returns over the long-term because technological advances will continue, resulting in lower exploration and production costs. The paper discusses the drivers of increasing demand, faster recovery rates, increasing rig demand, diminishing rig supply, and escalating component costs.

  9. Understanding why aspirin prevents cancer and why consuming very hot beverages and foods increases esophageal cancer risk. Controlling the division rates of stem cells is an important strategy to prevent cancer

    PubMed Central

    López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is, in essence, a stem cell disease. The main biological cause of cancer is that stem cells acquire DNA alterations during cell division. The more stem cell divisions a tissue accumulates over a lifetime, the higher is the risk of cancer in that tissue. This explains why cancer is diagnosed millions of times more often in some tissues than in others, and why cancer incidence increases so dramatically with age. It may also explain why taking a daily low-dose aspirin for several years reduces the risk of developing and dying from cancer. Since aspirin use reduces PGE2 levels and PGE2 fuels stem cell proliferation, aspirin may prevent cancer by restricting the division rates of stem cells. The stem cell division model of cancer may also explain why regular consumption of very hot foods and beverages increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Given that tissue injury activates stem cell division for repair, the thermal injury associated with this dietary habit will increase esophageal cancer risk by inducing the accumulation of stem cell divisions in the esophagus. Using these two examples, here I propose that controlling the division rates of stem cells is an essential approach to preventing cancer. PMID:26682276

  10. The interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior.

    PubMed

    Baucom, Brian R; Dickenson, Janna A; Atkins, David C; Baucom, Donald H; Fischer, Melanie S; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    The demand/withdraw interaction pattern is a destructive cycle of relationship communication behavior that is associated with negative individual and relationship outcomes. Demand/withdraw behavior is thought to be strongly linked to partners' emotional reactions, but current theories are inconsistent with empirical findings. The current study proposes the interpersonal process model of demand/withdraw behavior, which includes linkages between each partners' emotional reactions and the interpersonal behavior of demanding and withdrawing. Data come from problem solving discussions of 55 German couples with observationally coded demand/withdraw behavior and fundamental frequency (f₀) to measure vocally encoded emotional arousal. Actor-partner interdependence models (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) were used to examine associations among demand/withdraw behavior and f₀ in the overall discussion and 5-min segments. Significant cross-partner associations emerged for demanding and withdrawing behavior across the whole conversation as well as within 5-min segments, and these associations are partially accounted for by each individual's f₀. When behaviorally coded demanders expressed more vocal arousal, they demanded more and withdrew less while their partners withdrew more. In contrast, when behaviorally coded withdrawers expressed more vocal arousal, their partners demanded less and withdrew more. Findings demonstrate that demand/withdraw behavior varies between couples (i.e., some couples engage in a stronger demand/withdraw cycle than others) and between segments (i.e., when 1 partner increases demanding, the other increases withdrawing). Findings support key elements of the interpersonal process model, showing intra- and interpersonal pathways linking demand/withdraw behavior and emotion and demonstrate the importance of partners' behavioral roles in these linkages.

  11. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  12. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  13. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  14. Identification of supplier induced demand in the health care sector.

    PubMed

    Auster, R D; Oaxaca, R L

    1981-01-01

    This paper explores the issues and pitfalls encountered when attempting to test empirically the hypothesis that physician, hospital, or any other input supply level induces increasing demand for health services in the strict sense of demand shift and, through that, increased demand for the input in question. Evidence is presented which suggests that an empirical test of the supplier induced demand (SID) hypothesis of the type traditionally performed may not in fact be feasible with cross-sectional aggregate data such as is usually used.

  15. Reducing power usage on demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  16. Demand management in healthcare IT. Controlling IT demand to meet constrained IT resource supply.

    PubMed

    Mohrmann, Gregg; Schlusberg, Craig; Kropf, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare is behind other industries in the ability to manage and control increasing demand for IT services, and to ensure that IT staff are available when and where needed. From everyday support requests to large capital projects, the IT department's ability to meet demand is limited. Organizational and IT leaders need to proactively address this issue and do a better job of predicting when services will be needed and whether appropriate resources will be available. This article describes the common issues that healthcare IT departments face in the efficient delivery of services as a result of factors such as budget constraints, skill sets and project dependencies. Best practices for controlling demand are discussed, including resource allocation, governance processes and a graphical analysis of forecasted vs. actual thresholds. Using specific healthcare provider examples, the article intends to provide IT management with an approach to predicting and controlling resource demand.

  17. Evolution of future energy demands till 2030 in different world regions: An assessment made for the two International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, A. M.; Hoelzl, A.

    1982-04-01

    Trends in energy demand, per capita consumption, production, and transportation were assessed for all the major world regions, except China and Asian countries with centrally planned economies. High and low economic growth rates relative to 1975, were considered. Energy demand in developed regions is expected to increase by a factor of 1.8 to 2.6. In developing regions it increases by a factor of 7 to 12. Per capita consumption in developed regions increases from a level of 2.8 to 7.9 kw to 3.9 to 11.6 kw; in developing countries it increases from 0.2 to 0.8 kw to 0.5 to 4.6 kw. The share of electricity in final energy continues to increase. Manufacturing activities remain the major energy consumers. Fossil fuels will remain the most important energy source.

  18. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    PubMed

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  19. Three empirical essays on consumer behavior related to climate change and energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Grant Douglas

    This dissertation consists of three essays. All of the chapters address a topic in the area of household and consumer behavior related to climate change or energy. The first chapter is titled "The Al Gore Effect: An Inconvenient Truth and Voluntary Carbon Offsets". This chapter examines the relationship between climate change awareness and household behavior by testing whether Al Gore's documentary An Inconvenient Truth caused an increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The analysis shows that in the two months following the film's release, zip codes within a 10-mile radius of a zip code where the film was shown experienced a 50 percent relative increase in the purchase of voluntary carbon offsets. The second chapter is titled "Are Building Codes Effective at Saving Energy? Evidence from Residential Billing Data in Florida". The analysis shows that Florida's energy-code change that took effect in 2002 is associated with a 4-percent decrease in electricity consumption and a 6-percent decrease in natural-gas consumption in Gainesville, FL. The estimated private payback period for the average residence is 6.4 years and the social payback period ranges between 3.5 and 5.3 years. The third chapter in this dissertation is titled "Do Environmental Offsets Increase Demand for Dirty Goods? Evidence from Residential Electricity Demand". This study evaluates the relationship between green products and existing patterns of consumer behavior by examining the relationship between household enrollment in a green electricity program and consumption of residential electricity. The results suggest there are two different types of green consumers. One type makes a small monthly donation and partially views the donation as a substitute for a previously existing pattern of green behavior, in this case, energy conservation. The other type makes a larger monthly donation and views the donation as a way to make strictly additional improvements in environmental quality.

  20. Consuming a buttermilk drink containing lutein-enriched egg yolk daily for 1 year increased plasma lutein but did not affect serum lipid or lipoprotein concentrations in adults with early signs of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    van der Made, Sanne M; Kelly, Elton R; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Kijlstra, Aize; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2014-09-01

    Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk-derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development, but alternatively might increase cardiovascular disease risk. Here, we report the effect of 1-y daily consumption of a buttermilk drink containing 1.5 lutein-rich egg yolks on serum lipid and lipoprotein and plasma lutein concentrations. Additionally, subgroups that could potentially benefit the most from the intervention were identified. Men and women who had early signs of AMD in at least 1 eye, but were otherwise healthy, participated in a 1-y randomized, placebo-controlled parallel intervention trial. At the start of the study, 101 participants were included: 52 in the experimental (Egg) group and 49 in the control (Con) group. Final analyses were performed with 45 participants in the Egg group and 43 participants in the Con group. As expected, the increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups. Interestingly, participants classified as cholesterol absorbers had higher serum HDL cholesterol concentrations than participants classified as cholesterol synthesizers or participants with average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratios (P < 0.05) at baseline. In addition, cholesterol absorbers had a 229% higher increase in plasma lutein concentrations than participants who were classified as having an average campesterol-to-lathosterol ratio upon consumption of the lutein-enriched egg yolk drink (P < 0.05). Moreover, the change in serum HDL cholesterol upon consumption was significantly different between these 3 groups (P < 0.05). We suggest that cholesterol absorbers particularly might benefit

  1. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  2. Modeling the Demand for Cocaine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    the Demand for Cocaine Susan S. Everingham C. Peter Rydell Pre~redfor the Office of NatinalDrug Control Policy United States Army DRUG POLICY...Demand for Cocaine . 60 50- sm 40- squared 30- delta prevalence 20- 10- 0.2 0 0.15 0.15 󈧄 b C; 0 i Sum squared delta 0.2 prevalence 0.195 EQ 50-50 0,19...model of the demand for cocaine that was fit to 20 years of data on the current cocaine epidemic in the United States. It also describes the analysis

  3. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  4. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is

  5. Universities and Patent Demands

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Andrew K.; Feldman, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. ‘The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.’ The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose. PMID:27774221

  6. Universities and Patent Demands.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  7. Research-grade CMOS image sensors for demanding space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Pé, Olivier; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Larnaudie, Franck; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Belliot, Pierre

    2004-06-01

    Imaging detectors are key elements for optical instruments and sensors on board space missions dedicated to Earth observation (high resolution imaging, atmosphere spectroscopy...), Solar System exploration (micro cameras, guidance for autonomous vehicle...) and Universe observation (space telescope focal planes, guiding sensors...). This market has been dominated by CCD technology for long. Since the mid-90s, CMOS Image Sensors (CIS) have been competing with CCDs for more and more consumer domains (webcams, cell phones, digital cameras...). Featuring significant advantages over CCD sensors for space applications (lower power consumption, smaller system size, better radiations behaviour...), CMOS technology is also expanding in this field, justifying specific R&D and development programs funded by national and European space agencies (mainly CNES, DGA, and ESA). All along the 90s and thanks to their increasingly improving performances, CIS have started to be successfully used for more and more demanding applications, from vision and control functions requiring low-level performances to guidance applications requiring medium-level performances. Recent technology improvements have made possible the manufacturing of research-grade CIS that are able to compete with CCDs in the high-performances arena. After an introduction outlining the growing interest of optical instruments designers for CMOS image sensors, this talk will present the existing and foreseen ways to reach high-level electro-optics performances for CIS. The developments of CIS prototypes built using an imaging CMOS process and of devices based on improved designs will be presented.

  8. Mechanisms that match ATP supply to demand in cardiac pacemaker cells during high ATP demand.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Yael; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Lakatta, Edward G

    2013-06-01

    The spontaneous action potential (AP) firing rate of sinoatrial node cells (SANCs) involves high-throughput signaling via Ca(2+)-calmodulin activated adenylyl cyclases (AC), cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent phosphorylation of SR Ca(2+) cycling and surface membrane ion channel proteins. When the throughput of this signaling increases, e.g., in response to β-adrenergic receptor activation, the resultant increase in spontaneous AP firing rate increases the demand for ATP. We hypothesized that an increase of ATP production to match the increased ATP demand is achieved via a direct effect of increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)m) and an indirect effect via enhanced Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-CaMKII signaling to mitochondria. To increase ATP demand, single isolated rabbit SANCs were superfused by physiological saline at 35 ± 0.5°C with isoproterenol, or by phosphodiesterase or protein phosphatase inhibition. We measured cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) and flavoprotein fluorescence in single SANC, and we measured cAMP, ATP, and O₂ consumption in SANC suspensions. Although the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate was accompanied by an increase in O₂ consumption, the ATP level and flavoprotein fluorescence remained constant, indicating that ATP production had increased. Both Ca(2+)m and cAMP increased concurrently with the increase in AP firing rate. When Ca(2+)m was reduced by Ru360, the increase in spontaneous AP firing rate in response to isoproterenol was reduced by 25%. Thus, both an increase in Ca(2+)m and an increase in Ca(2+) activated cAMP-PKA-CaMKII signaling regulate the increase in ATP supply to meet ATP demand above the basal level.

  9. Responses to human demands.

    PubMed

    1995-04-01

    During China's 1995 National Working Conference for Family Planning (FP), it was noted that the birth of China's 1.2 billionth citizen in February of 1995 points to the success of the FP program (without which the population would be 1.5 billion) and the necessity for the program to continue its efforts on a longterm basis, since even a slight change in the birth rate would result in a huge increase in the absolute number of births. The achievements of the FP program in urban areas have not been mirrored in the countryside where farmers have a tenacious desire for large families. China recognizes the interrelated nature of population growth and development and has recently adopted a strategy of addressing population in the context of overall development. A further challenge is posed by the burgeoning population of internal labor migrants who evade FP programs. Urban workers of childbearing age who have lost or changed their jobs also require services. Thus, the Chinese government is making efforts to strengthen the FP program by sending thousands of workers to rural areas, by promoting an integrated program of family life education and FP services, and by educating staff at the grassroots level about laws and ethical issues. The Administrative Procedure Law was passed in 1989 to provide standards to direct the work of FP staff. In addition, the Law on Compensation by the Government provides for the legal protection of citizens against abuses from administrative organs. New practices have been put in place to cover the migrant population, and efforts are being made to improve the status of women.

  10. Consumer-directed health plans: what happened?

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff

    2007-08-01

    CDHPs can stabilize growth in health costs, but the health plan-subscriber relationship should be more transparent. CFOs should ensure that increased cost exposure in CDHPs is paired with broad, deep disease management and employee assistance support. Hospitals should plan for the likelihood that, one way or another, consumers will be paying more of their healthcare bill.

  11. Saving Electricity and Demand Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    A lot of people lost their lives in the tremendous earthquake in Tohoku region on March 11. A large capacity of electric power plants in TEPCO area was also damaged and large scale power shortage in this summer is predicted. In this situation, electricity customers are making great effort to save electricity to avoid planned outage. Customers take actions not only by their selves but also by some customers' cooperative movements. All actions taken actually are based on responses to request form the government or voluntary decision. On the other hand, demand response based on a financial stimulus is not observed as an actual behavior. Saving electricity by this demand response only discussed in the newspapers. In this commentary, the events regarding electricity-saving measure after this disaster are described and the discussions on demand response, especially a raise in power rate, are put into shapes in the context of this electricity supply-demand gap.

  12. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  13. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  14. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  15. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  16. Altair Lunar Lander Consumables Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polsgrove, Tara; Button, Robert; Linne, Diane

    2009-01-01

    The Altair lunar lander is scheduled to return humans to the moon in the year 2020. Keeping the crew of 4 and the vehicle functioning at their best while minimizing lander mass requires careful budgeting and management of consumables and cooperation with other constellation elements. Consumables discussed here include fluids, gasses, and energy. This paper presents the lander's missions and constraints as they relate to consumables and the design solutions that have been employed in recent Altair conceptual designs.

  17. Development of S-ARIMA Model for Forecasting Demand in a Beverage Supply Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mircetic, Dejan; Nikolicic, Svetlana; Maslaric, Marinko; Ralevic, Nebojsa; Debelic, Borna

    2016-11-01

    Demand forecasting is one of the key activities in planning the freight flows in supply chains, and accordingly it is essential for planning and scheduling of logistic activities within observed supply chain. Accurate demand forecasting models directly influence the decrease of logistics costs, since they provide an assessment of customer demand. Customer demand is a key component for planning all logistic processes in supply chain, and therefore determining levels of customer demand is of great interest for supply chain managers. In this paper we deal with exactly this kind of problem, and we develop the seasonal Autoregressive IntegratedMoving Average (SARIMA) model for forecasting demand patterns of a major product of an observed beverage company. The model is easy to understand, flexible to use and appropriate for assisting the expert in decision making process about consumer demand in particular periods.

  18. Balancing autonomy and utilization of solar power and battery storage for demand based microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  19. Balancing Autonomy and Utilization of Solar Power and Battery Storage for Demand Based Microgrids.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawder, Matthew T.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-04-01

    The growth of intermittent solar power has developed a need for energy storage systems in order to decouple generation and supply of energy. Microgrid (MG) systems comprising of solar arrays with battery energy storage studied in this paper desire high levels of autonomy, seeking to meet desired demand at all times. Large energy storage capacity is required for high levels of autonomy, but much of this expensive capacity goes unused for a majority of the year due to seasonal fluctuations of solar generation. In this paper, a model-based study of MGs comprised of solar generation and battery storage shows the relationship between system autonomy and battery utilization applied to multiple demand cases using a single particle battery model (SPM). The SPM allows for more accurate state-of-charge and utilization estimation of the battery than previous studies of renewably powered systems that have used empirical models. The increased accuracy of battery state estimation produces a better assessment of system performance. Battery utilization will depend on the amount of variation in solar insolation as well as the type of demand required by the MG. Consumers must balance autonomy and desired battery utilization of a system within the needs of their grid.

  20. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  1. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your Home Contains information ...

  2. Understanding consumer decisions using behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N

    2013-01-01

    Consumers make many decisions in everyday life involving finances, food, and health. It is known from behavioral economics research that people are often driven by short-term gratification, that is, people tend to choose the immediate, albeit smaller reward. But choosing the delayed reward, that is, delaying the gratification, can actually be beneficial. How can we motivate consumers to resist the "now" and invest in their future, leading to sustainable or healthy habits? We review recent developments from behavioral and neuroimaging studies that are relevant for understanding consumer decisions. Further, we present results from our field research that examined whether we can increase the perceived value of a (delayed) environmental benefit using tailored communication, that is, change the way it is framed. More specifically, we investigated whether we can boost the value of an abstract, long-term "green" claim of a product by expressing it as a concrete, short-term benefit. This is a new application area for behavioral economics.

  3. Agent-based modelling of consumer energy choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Varun; Henry, Adam Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Strategies to mitigate global climate change should be grounded in a rigorous understanding of energy systems, particularly the factors that drive energy demand. Agent-based modelling (ABM) is a powerful tool for representing the complexities of energy demand, such as social interactions and spatial constraints. Unlike other approaches for modelling energy demand, ABM is not limited to studying perfectly rational agents or to abstracting micro details into system-level equations. Instead, ABM provides the ability to represent behaviours of energy consumers -- such as individual households -- using a range of theories, and to examine how the interaction of heterogeneous agents at the micro-level produces macro outcomes of importance to the global climate, such as the adoption of low-carbon behaviours and technologies over space and time. We provide an overview of ABM work in the area of consumer energy choices, with a focus on identifying specific ways in which ABM can improve understanding of both fundamental scientific and applied aspects of the demand side of energy to aid the design of better policies and programmes. Future research needs for improving the practice of ABM to better understand energy demand are also discussed.

  4. Simulations in the Consumer Economics Classroom. Consumer Education Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachaturoff, Grace

    This inservice manual provides guidelines to help elementary, secondary, and adult education teachers select, use, and design simulation experiences for consumer education. Four example simulations provide students with opportunities to develop decision-making skills as consumers. Simulations may be used as an introductory, developmental, or…

  5. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  6. Elementary Level Consumer Education. Consumer Education Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baecher, Charlotte; And Others

    In this publication, one of a series of six for the Consumer Education Materials (CEMP), form and focus are given to skills emphasized at the elementary school level which parallel consumer competencies. The case studies are organized in two sections. The first section, case studies of interdisciplinary programs, examines a variety of approaches…

  7. Effects of temperature on consumer-resource interactions.

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how temperature variation influences the negative (e.g. self-limitation) and positive (e.g. saturating functional responses) feedback processes that characterize consumer-resource interactions is an important research priority. Previous work on this topic has yielded conflicting outcomes with some studies predicting that warming should increase consumer-resource oscillations and others predicting that warming should decrease consumer-resource oscillations. Here, I develop a consumer-resource model that both synthesizes previous findings in a common framework and yields novel insights about temperature effects on consumer-resource dynamics. I report three key findings. First, when the resource species' birth rate exhibits a unimodal temperature response, as demonstrated by a large number of empirical studies, the temperature range over which the consumer-resource interaction can persist is determined by the lower and upper temperature limits to the resource species' reproduction. This contrasts with the predictions of previous studies, which assume that the birth rate exhibits a monotonic temperature response, that consumer extinction is determined by temperature effects on consumer species' traits, rather than the resource species' traits. Secondly, the comparative analysis I have conducted shows that whether warming leads to an increase or decrease in consumer-resource oscillations depends on the manner in which temperature affects intraspecific competition. When the strength of self-limitation increases monotonically with temperature, warming causes a decrease in consumer-resource oscillations. However, if self-limitation is strongest at temperatures physiologically optimal for reproduction, a scenario previously unanalysed by theory but amply substantiated by empirical data, warming can cause an increase in consumer-resource oscillations. Thirdly, the model yields testable comparative predictions about consumer-resource dynamics under alternative

  8. Air pollution: Household soiling and consumer welfare losses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, W.D.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper uses demand and supply functions for cleanliness to estimate household benefits from reduced particulate matter soiling. A demand curve for household cleanliness is estimated, based upon the assumption that households prefer more cleanliness to less. Empirical coefficients, related to particulate pollution levels, for shifting the cleanliness supply curve, are taken from available studies. Consumer welfare gains, aggregated across 123 SMSAs, from achieving the Federal primary particulate standard, are estimated to range from $0.9 to $3.2 million per year (1971 dollars). ?? 1982.

  9. China expands refining sector to handle booming oil demand

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-10

    China's refining sector is in the midst of a major expansion and reorganization in response to booming domestic demand for petroleum products. Plans call for hiking crude processing capacity to 3.9 million b/d in 1995 from the current 3.085 million b/d. Much of that 26% increase will come where the products demand growth is the strongest: China's coastal provinces, notably those in the southeast. Despite the demand surge, China's refineries operated at only 74% of capacity in 1991, and projections for 1992 weren't much better. Domestic crude supply is limited because of Beijing's insistence on maintaining crude export levels, a major source of hard currency foreign exchange. The paper discusses the superheated demand; exports and imports; the refining infrastructure; the Shenzhen refinery; Hong Kong demand; southeast coast demand; 1993 plans; and foreign investment.

  10. Energy technologies and their impact on demand

    SciTech Connect

    Drucker, H.

    1995-06-01

    Despite the uncertainties, energy demand forecasts must be made to guide government policies and public and private-sector capital investment programs. Three principles can be identified in considering long-term energy prospects. First energy demand will continue to grow, driven by population growth, economic development, and the current low per capita energy consumption in developing countries. Second, energy technology advancements alone will not solve the problem. Energy-efficient technologies, renewable resource technologies, and advanced electric power technologies will all play a major role but will not be able to keep up with the growth in world energy demand. Third, environmental concerns will limit the energy technology choices. Increasing concern for environmental protection around the world will restrict primarily large, centralized energy supply facilities. The conclusion is that energy system diversity is the only solution. The energy system must be planned with consideration of both supply and demand technologies, must not rely on a single source of energy, must take advantage of all available technologies that are specially suited to unique local conditions, must be built with long-term perspectives, and must be able to adapt to change.

  11. The Demand for Higher Education: Pennsylvania's Nonresident Tuition Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorbakhsh, Abbas; Culp, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the estimation of tuition elasticity of resident and nonresident demand for higher education in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Finds that nonresident demand is price elastic, thus explaining the 40 percent decline in nonresident enrollment between 1991 and 1996 after average nonresident tuition increased nearly 20…

  12. Growing Demands for Public Records: How Should Boards Respond?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson-Waldman, Rachel; O'Neil, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In an era of demands for greater accountability in higher education, an increasingly polarized political environment, and scandals such as that at Penn State, access to information is becoming everyone's business, affecting public and independent institutions alike. Although Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) demands are often annoying or…

  13. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer information. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means information and programs that will assist consumers...

  14. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1215.5 Section 1215.5... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5 Consumer information. Consumer information means information and programs that will assist consumers...

  15. Consumer's Resource Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways: (1) it shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; (2) it is a self-help manual for resolving in dividual consumer complaints; and (3) it lists helpful sources of assistance. The handbook has two…

  16. Senior Adult Consumer Advisory Manual,

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ater, E. Carolyn, Ed.

    This manual is intended for use by senior adult peer advisors (age 60 and over) engaged in helping relationships in providing consumer education to other senior adults. The advisory procedures are based on a problem solving approach which incorporates the development of a self-help concept. Chapter 1 provides information on consumer advising. It…

  17. How consumers choose health insurance.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, G; Ettenson, R; Gaeth, G

    1994-01-01

    The authors used choice-based conjoint analysis to model consumers' decision processes when evaluating and selecting health insurance in a multiplan environment. Results indicate that consumer choice is affected by as many as 19 attributes, some of which have received little attention in previous studies. Moreover, the importance of the attributes varies across different demographic segments, giving marketers several targeting opportunities.

  18. Consumer behavior and energy conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ester, P.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a number of behaviour modification instruments aimed at teaching consumers how to use energy in a more efficient way. The following instruments were tested: energy conservation information, bi-weekly and monthly energy consumption feedback and self-monitoring by consumers of their household energy consumption. This study tries to combine psychological paradigms, experimental approaches and policy relevance.

  19. How consumers view physician advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1989-01-01

    In this study, it was found that consumers generally favor advertising by physicians. They felt that newspaper and professional magazines were more appropriate media for such advertising than television, radio, billboards, telephones, direct mail, and popular magazines. Finally, most consumers have not seen physicians advertise, but of those who have, most have noticed such advertising in a newspaper.

  20. Travel and the Consumer 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    The State Education Department of New York has prepared a series of modules--Expanded Programs in Consumer Education. "Travel and the Consumer" is the most recently produced module. It can be used as a discrete unit or with others in the series. The module stresses the importance of making travel creative, getting the most for one's…

  1. Bright Ideas for Consumer Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillman, Nancy Z.

    The bibliography lists 56 K-adult multimedia materials relating to various aspects of consumer education. The objective is to provide curriculum planners and educators with possible audiovisual aids for teaching consumer awareness and skill development to all ages. Materials such as cassettes, filmstrips, posters, charts, slides, films, ditto…

  2. The Vulnerability of Elderly Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Jerrie L.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews research on the vulnerability of the elderly to consumer fraud. Patterns of consumption, situational characteristics, education and product knowledge, psychological losses, social isolation, and psychosocial transitions influence the elderly's vulnerability and ability to cope with consumer abuse. Higher educational attainment and greater…

  3. Home Management and Consumer Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    Designed for use in consumer and homemaking education in Texas, this curriculum guide is on the subject of home management and consumer education. An introduction to the guide, covering its use and program and curriculum planning, provides a list of suggested reading. Information on teaching handicapped and disadvantaged students follows. The…

  4. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  5. Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Anza Coll., Cupertino, CA.

    Six contributions from the Consumer and Homemaking Education Symposium (March 1, 1974) are included. Elaine Shudlick discussed the role of the consumer education teacher, particularly in relation to a management of personal and family finance course, illustrated by a course outline including course description, prerequisities, text and references,…

  6. Teaching Environmental Consumer Education Effectively.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cude, Brenda J.

    1993-01-01

    Effective strategies include (1) helping consumers see how lifestyles and consumer behavior are related; (2) limiting amount of new terminology used; (3) dispelling myths and misperceptions; (4) doing product life-cycle analysis; and (5) emphasizing long-term goals for behavior change. (JOW)

  7. Consumer Leadership in Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inge, Katherine J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides rehabilitation professionals with various information pieces concerning consumer leadership in supported employment of people with disabilities. First, a chart lists five questions concerning self advocacy and supported employment, and provides consumer responses to the questions. A second item describes…

  8. Newspaper Activities for Young Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenup, Tess

    Designed for intermediate and junior high level students, the handbook gives 11 lessons using newspaper activities for teaching consumer education. The activities help students (1) define consumer education terms and distinguish between wants and needs; (2) define the term "caveat emptor" and understand the concept of consumer…

  9. Designing a domestic water supply system—The engineer’s perspective and considerations as a challenge to consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    Water is an essential pre-requisite for survival and development. It supports life of all forms including job and wealth creation in water sector, tourism, recreation and fisheries. It is extracted from rivers, lakes, processed and delivered to households. When population increases, the demand, water use and consumption increases and this puts pressure on the water utilities. This can create scarcity as not all areas may be met by the supply. One possible solution to this problem is to expand the capacity of the utility but the most tangible solution is the installation of borehole and an adequate water supply system that can meet minimal installation and operating costs. A water supply system that uses borehole and tank system can become insufficient in water supply when the population increases. This may require redesigning the system so that it can meet the new demand for water. The design developed for grouped residential with a population of 91 people living in 17 flats was found to accommodate an overhead load tank of 5.7 m 3 at 13.5 m level, a submersible pump with a power rating of 1.2 kW and two centrifugal pumps with the same power rating. The increasing capital, fixed, operating costs was a challenge to the consumer as most of them were not able to install such systems in their households. The paper concludes with a summary of recommendations that the consumers could exploit in order to face the challenges of water provision in their households.

  10. Energy supply and demand in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  11. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  12. Consumer citizenship: acting to minimise environmental health risks related to the food system.

    PubMed

    Kriflik, Lynda

    2006-05-01

    Public health practitioners interested in supporting consumers to make healthy, sustainable food choices need to understand consumer motivations to reduce food system risk. Increasingly food technologies that have enhanced access to food supply are being recognised as also impacting on the sustainability of the food system. This study explored the actions taken by Australian participants in response to their concerns about perceived food related threats to health and environment. Variance in willingness to act is analysed within the context of environmental and ecological citizenship, and a continuum describes the range of positions held. From the outset some participants self-identified as environmentally concerned and proactive, while others indicated a secondary interest in the environment. The catalyst for action for the majority was the priority of individual health and such self-interest can be a powerful motivator for change. Others related health to the environment and described efforts to minimise individual impact. Equally important for action to occur is being at a stage in life where other demands do not compete for the time and energy necessary to take citizenship actions. These results provide insight into the support that public health practitioners can offer to consumers who wish to make sustainable food choices.

  13. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  16. Direct-to-consumer drug marketing: public service or disservice?

    PubMed

    Berger, J T; Kark, P; Rosner, F; Packer, S; Bennett, A J

    2001-05-01

    Pharmaceutical industry spending on direct-to-consumer advertising has been increasing rapidly. While the primary goal of direct-to-consumer advertising is to sell drugs, supposed secondary goals include patient education and improved health. However, these benefits of direct-to-consumer advertising are unproved. Moreover, such advertising may create unnecessary tension between the patient and the patient's physician and insurer, and may divert physicians' efforts away from important patient concerns, and toward marketing-generated discussions. On the other hand, direct-to-consumer advertising may lead to patient-doctor encounters that would not have occurred otherwise. Direct-to-consumer advertising should be modified to unambiguously benefit the health-care interests of consumers and patients.

  17. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits.

  18. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Balzer, Christian; Hill, Jason; Befort, Belinda L

    2011-12-13

    Global food demand is increasing rapidly, as are the environmental impacts of agricultural expansion. Here, we project global demand for crop production in 2050 and evaluate the environmental impacts of alternative ways that this demand might be met. We find that per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960. This relationship forecasts a 100-110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050. Quantitative assessments show that the environmental impacts of meeting this demand depend on how global agriculture expands. If current trends of greater agricultural intensification in richer nations and greater land clearing (extensification) in poorer nations were to continue, ~1 billion ha of land would be cleared globally by 2050, with CO(2)-C equivalent greenhouse gas emissions reaching ~3 Gt y(-1) and N use ~250 Mt y(-1) by then. In contrast, if 2050 crop demand was met by moderate intensification focused on existing croplands of underyielding nations, adaptation and transfer of high-yielding technologies to these croplands, and global technological improvements, our analyses forecast land clearing of only ~0.2 billion ha, greenhouse gas emissions of ~1 Gt y(-1), and global N use of ~225 Mt y(-1). Efficient management practices could substantially lower nitrogen use. Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of underyielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts.

  19. USSR Report, Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade, No. 77.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner, JPRS 84592 24 October 1983 USSR Report CONSUMER GOODS AND DOMESTIC TRADE No. 77 FBIS FOREIGN...and the prices of goods, but he is constantly under the hypnotic influence of advertising organized by the capi- talists to expand the sale of goods...effective demand. It is the second group of needs which has the most substantial role in the pro- cess of reproduction of manpower. They are

  20. Composition and metabolism of the intestinal microbiota in consumers and non-consumers of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Alvaro, Elise; Andrieux, Claude; Rochet, Violaine; Rigottier-Gois, Lionel; Lepercq, Pascale; Sutren, Malène; Galan, Pilar; Duval, Yvonne; Juste, Catherine; Doré, Joël

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a regular consumption of yogurt on the composition and metabolism of the human intestinal microbiota. Adult subjects were selected on the basis of daily food records and divided into two groups: yogurt consumers (at least 200 g yogurt consumed per d, n 30); non-consumers (no yogurt, n 21). Their faecal microbiota was analysed using molecular methods (in situ hybridisation and PCR amplification combined with separation by denaturing gel electrophoresis) and its metabolic characteristics were assessed by measuring glycosidase, P-glucuronidase and reductase activities and profiling SCFA, neutral sterols and bile acids. The yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (identity confirmed by 16S rRNA sequencing) was detected in 73% of faecal samples from fermented milk consumers v. 28% from non-consumers (P=0.003). In yogurt consumers, the level of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower (P=0.006) and 13-galactosidase activity was significantly increased (P=0.048). In addition, within this group, 3-galactosidase activity and the Bifidobacterium population were both positively correlated with the amount of fermented milk ingested (r 0.66, P<0.0001 and r 0.43, P=0.018, respectively). Apart from these effects, which can be considered beneficial to the host, no other major differences could be detected regarding the composition and metabolic activity of intestinal microbiota.