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Sample records for increasing k-trees introduction

  1. k-tree method for high-speed spatial normalization.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, J L; Kochunov, P V; Fox, P T; Nickerson, D

    1998-01-01

    The general approach to spatial normalization using a deformation field is presented. Current high degree-of-freedom deformation methods are extremely time-consuming (10-40 hr), and a k-tree method is proposed to greatly reduce this time. A general k-tree method for analysis of source and target images and synthesis of deformation fields is described. The k-tree method simplifies scale control and feature extraction and matching, making it highly efficient. A two-dimensional (2-D), or quadtree, application program was developed for preliminary testing. The k-tree method was evaluated with 2-D images to test rotating ability, nonhomologous region matching, inner and outer brain-structure independence, and feasibility with human brain images. The results of these tests indicate that a three-dimensional (3-D), or octree, method is feasible. Preliminary work with an octree application program indicates that a processing time of under 10 min for 256(3) image arrays is attainable on a Sun Ultra30 workstation.

  2. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to a special issue of the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology dedicated to Insect Endocrinology. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequences ...

  3. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction to the second edition of the Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases contains a general description of genus and species of commercial importance, some general information about growth and fruiting habits as well as recent production statistics. A general description of major scion c...

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Luigi

    This chapter introduces the context, objectives and structure of the book. This book aims both to contribute to disseminate the knowledge about the scientific research conducted in space and to promote new exploitation of existing data in this field. While space experiments are characterised by a long time for preparation, high costs and few opportunities, significant scientific value is expected from the resulting data for almost scientific disciplines. In this context, ISS is a unique experimental environment for research. As part of its Seventh Framework Programme, the European Commission intends to support further exploitation and valorisation of space experimental data. This book was realised as part of the ULISSE project, co-funded by the European Union. The book intends to provide an introduction to space research with a focus on the experiments performed on the ISS and related disciplines. The book also intends to be a useful guide, not only for scientists but also for teachers, students and newcomers to space research activities.

  5. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Attansi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the outlook for exploration depends on the economic health of the mining industry and, in turn, general economic conditions. It is too early to determine the overall impact of the cessation of hostilities in the Persian Gulf War. Its conclusion would allow funds to be redirected to individual country's economies. The rebuilding of the war-damaged countries will probably translate into net increases in demand for the minerals industry. A return to stability in energy costs will also benefit the mining industry. Alternatively, the capital requirements to rebuild war-torn countries could put some strain on capital markets and affect the funds available for private commercial investment. Along with increasing the cost of capital to mining operations, a capital shortage could stall recovery of western industrialized economies that are currently in recession.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Nedović, Viktor A.

    Consumers prefer food products that are tasty, healthy and convenient. Encapsulation, a process to entrap active agents into particles, is an important way to meet these demands by delivering food ingredients at the right time and place. For example, this technology may allow taste and aroma differentiation, mask bad tasting or bad smelling components, stabilize food ingredients and/or increase their bioavailability. Encapsulation may also be used to immobilize cells or enzymes in the production of food materials or products, as in fermentation or metabolite production.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R

  8. Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    This is the third iteration of the National Wildlife Health Center's (NWHC) field guide developed primarily to assist field managers and biologists address diseases they encounter. By itself, the first iteration, “Field Guide of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds,” was simply another addition to an increasing array of North American field guides and other publications focusing on disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Collectively, those publications were reflecting the ongoing transition in the convergence of wildlife management and wildlife disease as foundational components within the structure of wildlife conservation as a social enterprise serving the stewardship of our wildlife resources. For context, it is useful to consider those publications relative to a timeline of milestones involving the evolution of wildlife conservation in North America.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegati, Franco; Aracil, Javier; López, Víctor

    At the present time, optical transmission systems are capable of sending data over hundreds of wavelengths on a single fiber thanks to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technologies, reaching bit rates on the order of gigabits per second per wavelength and terabits per second per fiber. In the last decade the availability of such a huge bandwidth caused transport networks to be considered as having infinite capacity. The recent massive deployment of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and broadband wireless access solutions, as well as the outburst of new multimedia network services (such as Skype, YouTube, Joost, etc.) caused a significant increase of end user traffic and bandwidth demands. Therefore, the apparently “infinite” capacity of optical networks appears much more “finite” today, despite the latest developments in photonic transmission.

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    This topic is devoted to communication issues in scalable compute and storage systems, such as parallel computers, networks of workstations, and clusters. All aspects of communication in modern systems were solicited, including advances in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interconnection networks, network interfaces, system and storage area networks, on-chip interconnects, communication protocols, routing and communication algorithms, and communication aspects of parallel and distributed algorithms. In total 15 papers were submitted to this topic of which we selected the 7 strongest papers. We grouped the papers in two sessions of 3 papers each and one paper was selected for the best paper session. We noted a number of papers dealing with changing topologies, stability and forwarding convergence in source routing based cluster interconnect network architectures. We grouped these for the first session. The authors of the paper titled: “Implementing a Change Assimilation Mechanism for Source Routing Interconnects” propose a mechanism that can obtain the new topology, and compute and distribute a new set of fabric paths to the source routed network end points to minimize the impact on the forwarding service. The article entitled “Dependability Analysis of a Fault-tolerant Network Reconfiguration Strateg” reports on a case study analyzing the effects of network size, mean time to node failure, mean time to node repair, mean time to network repair and coverage of the failure when using a 2D mesh network with a fault-tolerant mechanism (similar to the one used in the BlueGene/L system), that is able to remove rows and/or columns in the presence of failures. The last paper in this session: “RecTOR: A New and Efficient Method for Dynamic Network Reconfiguration” presents a new dynamic reconfiguration method, that ensures deadlock-freedom during the reconfiguration without causing performance degradation such as increased latency or decreased

  11. Increased introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs during 1986-2002 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, J Lars G; Melander, Arne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey how introduction of new drugs and promotional activities influence drug sales in Sweden. All drugs on the Swedish market were categorized as curative, symptom-alleviating, substitutive, or preventive. The number of new drugs introduced, drug sales in volume and value, and the number of drug advertisements appearing in the major Swedish medical journal during 1986-2002 were determined for each of the 4 drug categories. Between 1986 and 1998, the relative shares of the 4 drug categories were relatively constant. From 1998 to 2002, the share of new preventive drugs increased from 24% to 30%, their share of advertisements increased from 20% to 35%, and their sales value increased from 25% to 30%. During the same period, the shares of other drugs decreased correspondingly. Pharmaceutical companies have shifted their attention to the introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs in an attempt to exploit preventive medicine. This might lead to waste of resources when expensive preventive drugs are used by numerous patients over many years, as the benefit of preventive drugs for the individual patient cannot be judged easily.

  12. Periphyton response to increased light and salmon carcass introduction in northern California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambrose, H.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.; Cummins, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton response to riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition in coastal streams of northern California was evaluated in a manipulative field experiment. The experiment followed a split-plot design, with streams as whole plots and two 100-m reaches in each of 6 streams as subplots. At the subplot level, riparian hardwoods were removed from one reach in each stream. At the whole-plot level, carcasses were added to both open- and closed-canopy reaches of 3 of the streams. Thus, treatments consisted of reaches with open or closed canopies, in the presence and absence of carcasses. Nutrient limitation of the periphyton was assessed in 2 streams (1 with carcasses and 1 without carcasses) using nutrient-diffusing clay saucers (N-enriched, P-enriched, N+P-enriched, or unenriched control) incubated in open- and closed-canopy reaches in the streams. Canopy and carcass treatments did not affect gross primary productivity or periphyton biomass on natural substrates. The periphyton assemblage consisted primarily of diatoms in all reaches on all dates. N amendment of agar in nutrient-diffusing, clay saucers and canopy removal increased biofilm ash-free dry mass on the saucers, but carcass introduction did not. Failure of periphyton to respond to carcass addition may have reflected overriding light limitation, inadequate within-stream retention of carcass nutrients, and/or limitations of the study design.

  13. Do Loans Increase College Access and Choice? Examining the Introduction of Universal Student Loans. Working Paper 07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2007-01-01

    The returns to college are substantial, including increased earnings and public benefits, such as better health and increased involvement in public service and giving. As a result, since the introduction of the Guaranteed Student Loan program in 1965 and the Pell Grant in 1972, the federal government has experimented with using financial aid to…

  14. Environmental and economic factors can increase the risk of exotic species introductions to the Arctic region through increased ballast water discharge.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Arthur J

    2004-05-01

    The effects of global warming can increase the risk of exotic species introductions in eastern Canadian Arctic waters by reducing surface ice cover and allow increased access to commercial vessels. Ballast water discharged by incoming overseas vessels is an important means for introducing species on a global scale. Analyses of air temperatures at Churchill, Manitoba between 1943 and 2002 indicated an increase in mean temperature within the past decade. Churchill is the only major northern port in this region where grain has been exported on a limited basis due to the short navigation season. Economic analyses of grain exported from Canadian and U.S. ports indicated some cost advantages for using northern ports. The Hudson Bay region is vulnerable to increased exotic species introductions because of its southerly location. Current ballast water exchange measures to reduce the risk of introductions may not be effective because most vessels enter the region with ballast, and the ballast exchange zone is located relatively close to coastal areas where the habitat could be favorable for an introduced species to become established. The probability of a large crab species introduced to this region from northern European waters is discussed. The risk of ballast water-related exotic species introduction to this region may be reduced by expanding the types of cargo handled and developing a strong import market. This approach would accommodate an increase in the number of vessels with cargo, and substantially reduce the volume of ballast carried to this region.

  15. Increased Black–White Disparities in Mortality After the Introduction of Lifesaving Innovations: A Possible Consequence of US Federal Laws

    PubMed Central

    Rust, George S.; Pisu, Maria; Agboto, Vincent; Baltrus, Peter A.; Briggs, Nathaniel C.; Zoorob, Roger; Juarez, Paul; Hull, Pamela C.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Hennekens, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether the introduction of 3 lifesaving innovations introduced between 1989 and 1996 increased, decreased, or had no effect on disparities in Black–White mortality in the United States through 2006. Methods. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data were used to assess disease-, age-, gender-, and race-specific changes in mortality after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for treatment of HIV, surfactants for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and Medicare reimbursement of mammography screening for breast cancer. Results. Disparities in Black–White mortality from HIV significantly increased after the introduction of HAART, surfactant therapy, and reimbursement for screening mammography. Between 1989 and 2006, these circumstances may have accounted for an estimated 22 441 potentially avoidable deaths among Blacks. Conclusions. These descriptive data contribute to the formulation of the hypothesis that federal laws promote increased disparities in Black–White mortality by inadvertently favoring Whites with respect to access to lifesaving innovations. Failure of legislation to address known social factors is a plausible explanation, at least in part, for the observed findings. Further research is necessary to test this hypothesis, including analytic epidemiological studies designed a priori to do so. PMID:20864727

  16. Training and education to increase the effectiveness of technology introduction in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Albert H.

    1994-12-01

    Training and education can increase the effectiveness with which new technology can be introduced in medicine. However, the use of technology in the education and training itself can be the vehicle for that increased effectiveness. The most effective way that education and training can be improved by technology is through the use of simulation. Examples are given from, first, the historical perspective in aircrew and spacecrew flight training; an anesthesiology training simulator; and a laparoscopic surgery training simulator.

  17. Increase in the strength characteristics of Portland cement due to introduction of the compound mineral supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Gichko, Nikolai; Mukhina, Irina

    2016-01-01

    At the initial phase of hardening it is the limestone component that plays a major role in the hardening process, which acts as the substrate for the crystallization of hydrate tumors due to its chemical affinity with the products of Portland cement hydration. After 7 days, the diopside supplement influences the processes more significantly. Diopside has a high modulus of elasticity compared to the cement paste. As a result, stresses are redistributed within the cement paste and the whole composition is hardened. An increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement to more than 66.7% does not provide a substantial increase in the strength of the cement paste. As the hardness of diopside is higher than the hardness of limestone, much more energy is required to grind it down to a usable component. Therefore, a further increase in the quantity of diopside in the compound supplement is not economically feasible. An evaluation of the optimum quantity of input compound mineral supplements can be made based on the ideas of close packing of spherical particles and the Pauling rules. The optimum content of the supplement is 8-8.5% provided that its dispersion and density are close to the dispersion and density of the binder. An increase in the dispersion of the supplement reduces its optimal quantity.

  18. Introduction of farm stands in low-income communities increases fruit and vegetable among community residents.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra E; Jennings, Rose; Smiley, Andrew W; Medina, Jose L; Sharma, Shreela V; Rutledge, Ronda; Stigler, Melissa H; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal pilot study was to measure the impact of introducing farm stands in low-income communities with limited access to fresh and quality fruits and vegetables (F&V) on residents' F&V consumption. Two farm stands were placed outside two local community sites one day a week for 12 weeks. A variety of locally grown, culturally appropriate produce was sold at the stands. Data on F&V intake, awareness and usage of farmers' markets, family behaviors, and importance of eating F&V were collected from individuals (n=61) before and after farm stands were placed in the two communities. Paired sample t-tests, chi-square and McNemar tests were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the outcome variables. Significance level was set at p<.05. Significant increases were found for participants' consumption of fruit, fruit juice, tomatoes, green salad, and other vegetables (P<.05). Additionally, participants also reported increases in mediating variables of F&V consumption. This study underscores the potential of farmers' markets to increase F&V consumption through increasing F&V access in low-income communities.

  19. INTRODUCTION OF RENAL KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED UPTAKE OF PERITONEAL DIALYSIS IN A PUBLICLY FUNDED HEALTH SERVICE.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Nigel D; McMahon, Lawrence P; Dowling, Gregory; Holt, Stephen G; Smith, Gillian; Safe, Maria; Knight, Richard; Fair, Kathleen; Linehan, Leanne; Walker, Rowan G; Power, David A

    2016-09-28

    ♦ Background: Increased demand for treatment of end-stage kidney disease has largely been accommodated by a costly increase in satellite hemodialysis (SHD) in most jurisdictions. In the Australian State of Victoria, a marked regional variation in the uptake of home-based dialysis suggests that use of home therapies could be increased as an alternative to SHD. An earlier strategy based solely on increased remuneration had failed to increase uptake of home therapies. Therefore, the public dialysis funder adopted the incidence and prevalence of home-based dialysis therapies as a key performance indicator (KPI) for its health services to encourage greater uptake of home therapies. ♦ Methods: A KPI data collection and bench-marking program was established in 2012 by the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services, with data provided monthly by all renal units in Victoria using a purpose-designed website portal. A KPI Working Group was responsible for analyzing data each quarter and ensuring indicators remained accurate and relevant and each KPI had clear definitions and targets. We present a prospective, observational study of all dialysis patients in Victoria over a 4-year period following the introduction of the renal KPI program, with descriptive analyses to evaluate the proportion of patients using home therapies as well as home dialysis modality survival. ♦ Results: Following the introduction of the KPI program, the net growth of dialysis patient numbers in Victoria remained stable over 4 years, at 75 - 80 per year (approximately 4%). However, unlike the previous decade, about 40% of this growth was through an increase in home dialysis, which was almost exclusively peritoneal dialysis (PD). The increase was identified particularly in the young (20 - 49) and the elderly (> 80). Disappointingly, however, 67% of these incident patients ceased PD within 2 years of commencement, 46% of whom transferred to SHD. ♦ Conclusions: Introduction of a KPI program

  20. Age at first introduction to complementary foods is associated with sociodemographic factors in children with increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Silvis, Katherine; Hummel, Sandra; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2015-10-01

    Infant's age at introduction to certain complementary foods (CF) has in previous studies been associated with islet autoimmunity, which is an early marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Various maternal sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with early introduction to CF. The aims of this study were to describe early infant feeding and identify sociodemographic factors associated with early introduction to CF in a multinational cohort of infants with an increased genetic risk for T1D. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study is a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Infants (N = 6404) screened for T1D high risk human leucocyte antigen-DQ genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9 and DR3/9) were followed for 2 years at six clinical research centres: three in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland, Germany). Age at first introduction to any food was reported at clinical visits every third month from the age of 3 months. Maternal sociodemographic data were self-reported through questionnaires. Age at first introduction to CF was primarily associated with country of residence. Root vegetables and fruits were usually the first CF introduced in Finland and Sweden and cereals were usually the first CF introduced in the United States. Between 15% and 20% of the infants were introduced to solid foods before the age of 4 months. Young maternal age (<25 years), low educational level (<12 years) and smoking during pregnancy were significant predictors of early introduction to CF in this cohort. Infants with a relative with T1D were more likely to be introduced to CF later.

  1. Ionization suppression effects with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry: methods to increase the linear dynamic range and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kyle D; Vandergrift, Gregory W; Krogh, Erik T; Gill, Chris G

    2015-03-01

    Condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS) is an online analytical method that allows for the direct, trace level measurement of a wide range of analytes in complex samples. The technique employs a semi-permeable membrane that transfers analytes from a sample into a flowing acceptor solvent, which is directly infused to an atmospheric pressure ionization source, such as electrospray or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. While CP-MIMS and variants of the technique have been in the literature for nearly a decade, much of the work has focused on instrument development. Few studies have thoroughly addressed quantitative methods related to detection limits, ionization suppression, or linear dynamic range. We examine ionization suppression in the direct rapid quantitation of analytes by CP-MIMS and introduce several analytical strategies to mitigate these effects, including the novel implementation of a continuously infused internal standard in the acceptor phase solvent, and modulation of acceptor phase flow rate. Several representative analytes were used to evaluate this approach with spiked, complex sample matrices, including primary wastewater effluent and artificial urine. Also reported are improved measured detection limits in the low part-per-trillion range, using a 'stopped-flow' acceptor mode.

  2. Unexpected increase in indoor pollutants after the introduction of a smoke-free policy in a correctional center.

    PubMed

    He, C; Knibbs, L D; Tran, Q; Wang, H; Laiman, R; Wang, B; Gu, Y; Morawska, L

    2016-08-01

    Correctional centers (prisons) are one of the few non-residential indoor environments where smoking is still permitted. However, few studies have investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) in these locations. We quantified the level of inmate and staff exposure to secondhand smoke, including particle number (PN) count, and we assessed the impact of the smoking ban on IAQ. We performed measurements of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PN concentrations, personal PN exposure levels, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nicotine both before and after a complete indoor smoking ban in an Australian maximum security prison. Results show that the indoor 24-h average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 6 (±1) μg/m(3) to 17 (±3) μg/m(3) pre-ban. The post-ban levels ranged from 7 (±2) μg/m(3) to 71 (±43) μg/m(3) . While PM2.5 concentrations decreased in one unit post-ban, they increased in the other two units. Similar post-ban increases were also observed in levels of PN and VOCs. We describe an unexpected increase of indoor pollutants following a total indoor smoking ban in a prison that was reflected across multiple pollutants that are markers of smoking. We hypothesise that clandestine post-ban smoking among inmates may have been the predominant cause.

  3. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  4. Introduction of a sexual health practice nurse is associated with increased STI testing of men who have sex with men in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objective was to investigate the effect of the introduction of a sexual health practice nurse on HIV and STI testing in a general practice that specialized in gay men’s health. Methods This observational study compared the proportion of gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) tested for HIV, syphilis, chlamydia (urethral and anal) and gonorrhoea (anal), or all of the above (defined as a complete set of tests at a single visit), two years before and one year after the nurse was introduced (Clinic A). Clinic B, a general practice which also specialized in gay men’s health, but with no sexual health nurse, was used as a control. Results In Clinic A, amongst HIV negative MSM the proportion of men who had a complete set of HIV and STI tests increased from 41% to 47% (p < 0.01) after the nurse was introduced. Amongst HIV positive MSM attending clinic A there was an increase in the proportion of men who had a complete set of tests after the nurse was introduced from 27% to 43% (p < 0.001). In Clinic B there was no significant increase in testing in the proportion of either HIV negative or HIV positive men who had a complete set of tests over the same time periods. Conclusions The introduction of the sexual health practice nurse resulted in significant increases in episodes of complete STI testing among MSM. The effect was most pronounced among HIV positive MSM. PMID:23815371

  5. Increased Regulatory T-Cell Percentage Contributes to Poor CD4(+) Lymphocytes Recovery: A 2-Year Prospective Study After Introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saison, Julien; Maucort Boulch, Delphine; Chidiac, Christian; Demaret, Julie; Malcus, Christophe; Cotte, Laurent; Poitevin-Later, Francoise; Miailhes, Patrick; Venet, Fabienne; Trabaud, Mary Anne; Monneret, Guillaume; Ferry, Tristan

    2015-04-01

    Background.  The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of regulatory T cells (Tregs) percentage on immune recovery in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after antiretroviral therapy introduction. Methods.  A 2-year prospective study was conducted in HIV-1 chronically infected naive patients with CD4 count <500 cells/mm(3). Regulatory T cells were identified as CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(low) cells among CD4(+) lymphocytes. Effect of Treg percentage at inclusion on CD4 evolution overtime was analyzed using a mixed-effect Poisson regression for count data. Results.  Fifty-eight patients were included (median CD4 = 293/mm(3), median Treg percentage = 6.1%). Percentage of Treg at baseline and CD4 nadir were independently related to the evolution of CD4 absolute value according to time: (1) at any given nadir CD4 count, 1% increase of initial Treg was associated with a 1.9% lower CD4 absolute value at month 24; (2) at any given Treg percentage at baseline, 10 cell/mm(3) increase of CD4 nadir was associated with a 2.4% increase of CD4 at month 24; and (3) both effects did not attenuate with time. The effect of Treg at baseline on CD4 evolution was as low as the CD4 nadir was high. Conclusions.  Regulatory T-cell percentage at baseline is a strong independent prognostic factor of immune recovery, particularly among patients with low CD4 nadir.

  6. Progress in increasing affordability of medicines for non-communicable diseases since the introduction of mandatory health insurance in the Republic of Moldova

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Chitan, Elena; Seicas, Rita; Sautenkova, Nina; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Kluge, Hans; Habicht, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess progress in improving affordability of medicines since the introduction of mandatory health insurance in the Republic of Moldova. Method: Using data from national health insurance, we estimate affordability of partially reimbursed medicines for the treatment of non-communicable diseases, and analyse which factors contributed to changes in affordability. Results: Affordability of subsidized medicines improved over time. In 2013, it took a median of 0.84 days of income for the lowest income quintile (ranging from 0 to 3.32 days) to purchase 1 month of treatment for cardiovascular conditions in comparison to 1.85 days in 2006. This improvement however was mainly driven by higher incomes rather than deeper coverage through the reimbursement list. Conclusion: If mandatory health insurance is to improve affordability of medicines for the Moldovan population, more funds need to be (re-)allocated to enable higher percentage coverage of essential medicines and efficiencies need to be generated within the health system. These should include a budget reallocation between secondary and primary care, strengthening primary care to manage chronic conditions and raise population awareness, implementation of evidence-based selection and quality use of medicines in both outpatient and inpatient settings, improving monitoring and regulation of prices and the supply chain; and alignment of national treatment guidelines and clinical practice with international best practices and evidence-based medicine. PMID:26830363

  7. Introduction to Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Educationalists and social scientists are increasingly interested in childhood as a distinct social category, and Childhood Studies is now a recognized area of research and analysis. This book brings together the key themes of Childhood Studies in a broad and accessible introduction for students and practitioners working in this field.…

  8. Castel Gandolfo workshop: an introduction to the impact of climate change, the economic crisis, and the increase in the food prices on malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D; Kraemer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually quantity decline, increasing micronutrient malnutrition (or hidden hunger) and exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities that lead to poorer health, lower incomes, and reduced physical and intellectual capabilities. This article introduces the series of papers in this supplement, which explore the relationships between crises and their cumulative impacts among vulnerable populations, particularly through hidden hunger.

  9. Significantly increased detection rate of drugs of abuse in urine following the introduction of new German driving licence re-granting guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-02-10

    In this paper we present the first assessment of the new German driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) guidelines by comparing over 3500 urine samples tested under the old MPA cut-offs to over 5000 samples tested under the new MPA cut-offs. Since the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) technology used previously was not sensitive enough to screen for drugs at such low concentrations, as suggested by the new MPA guidelines, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening kits were used to screen for the drugs of abuse at the new MPA cut-offs. The above comparison revealed significantly increased detection rates of drug use or exposure during the rehabilitation period as follows: 1.61, 2.33, 3.33, and 7 times higher for 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), morphine, benzoylecgonine and amphetamine respectively. The present MPA guidelines seem to be more effective to detect non-abstinence from drugs of abuse and hence to detecting drivers who do not yet fulfil the MPA requirements to regain their revoked driving licence.

  10. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  11. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  12. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. PMID:25685949

  13. Volume 1 - Introduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An introduction to the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) materials. Describes EIIP development, use of EIIP, inventory staff training, and planning, development, documentation, and reporting of inventories.

  14. Increasing the hydrolysis constant of the reactive site upon introduction of an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kumazaki, Takashi; Kojima, Shuichi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Miura, Kin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    P14C/N39C is the disulfide variant of the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant (OMSVP3) introducing an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond near the reactive site on the basis of the sequence homology between OMSVP3 and ascidian trypsin inhibitor. This variant exhibits a narrower inhibitory specificity. We have examined the effects of introducing a Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the flexible N-terminal loop of OMSVP3 on the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis, as well as the thermal stability of reactive site intact inhibitors. P14C/N39C can be selectively cleaved by Streptomyces griseus protease B at the reactive site of OMSVP3 to form a reactive site modified inhibitor. The conversion rate of intact to modified P14C/N39C is much faster than that for wild type under any pH condition. The pH-independent hydrolysis constant (K(hyd) °) is estimated to be approximately 5.5 for P14C/N39C, which is higher than the value of 1.6 for natural OMSVP3. The reactive site modified form of P14C/N39C is thermodynamically more stable than the intact one. Thermal denaturation experiments using intact inhibitors show that the temperature at the midpoint of unfolding at pH 2.0 is 59 °C for P14C/N39C and 58 °C for wild type. There have been no examples, except P14C/N39C, where introducing an engineered disulfide causes a significant increase in K(hyd) °, but has no effect on the thermal stability. The site-specific disulfide introduction into the flexible N-terminal loop of natural Kazal-type inhibitors would be useful to further characterize the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis.

  15. Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    1 1 Introduction Mary K. Klassen-Fischer and Ronald C. Neafie Introduction Protozoa Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic animals first dis...phylogeny of protozoa , see Table 1.1. A recent trend is to replace the term “ protozoa ” with “protista.” For these topics we retain “pro- tozoa” and...JUN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa 5a. CONTRACT

  16. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  17. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  18. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  19. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  20. Introduction to RTM Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Several successful experiments were run using different types of resins and fibers for both RTM and VARTM processes. 3. According to DSC measures...INTRODUCTION TO RTM WORKSTATION Jeffrey M. Lawrence Mathieu Devillard Peter Friede Dr. Suresh G. Advani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction To RTM Workstation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  1. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  3. An increase in the electron mobility in the two-barrier AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure as a result of introduction of thin InAs barriers for polar optical phonons into the GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Pozela, Yu. Pozela, K.; Juciene, V.; Balakauskas, S.; Evtikhiev, V. P.; Schkolnik, A. S.; Storasta, Yu.; Mekys, A.

    2007-12-15

    Confinement and localization of optical phonons in narrow phonon wells with thin phonon barriers decreases the rate of electron-phonon scattering by polar optical phonons by a factor of many times. An increase in mobility and drift velocity of electrons is experimentally observed in strong electric fields upon introduction of thin phonon barriers into the AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well.

  4. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  5. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  6. Introduction to Relational Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    such as Russell’s "rami- tied type theory." In most other respects our notation follows that of Carnap 11] and Whitehead and Russell [8]. There is no... Carnap , R. Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applica- tions, Dover, 1958. [2] Childs, D.L. Feasibility of a set-theoretic data structure based on a

  7. Writing the introduction.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2008-10-01

    The introduction section of a scientific paper aims to introduce a specific topic and to stimulate the reader's interest. It provides background information about what has already been done by others, supported by a limited number of relevant references. The reader should be informed about the purpose of the paper, what it will address, and how it relates to previous work.

  8. An Introduction to Akan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jack; Aidoo, Agnes Akosua

    This introduction to Akan is designed to provide the basic structures and vocabulary that a non-native speaker would need to use Akan. The text is based on the Asante dialect of Akan, and is divided into twenty units. Each unit consists of a conversation given in English and Asante, drills for the classroom or individual practice, grammar notes,…

  9. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-08-26

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  10. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  11. Mauritian Creole: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Morris F.; And Others

    The format of this 23-unit course in Mauritian Creole is based on "microwave" cycles, each cycle beginning with the introduction of new material and ending with the use of that material in communication. A small amount of new material is introduced at a time (usually in a monolog, drill, or dialog) which, after a brief bit of practice is…

  12. Introduction to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  13. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  14. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…

  15. Introduction to HACCP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  16. Introduction to Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    materials’ • 1959 Feynman Lecture “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” provided the vision of exciting new discoveries if one could fabricate...NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Introduction to Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology deals with creation of materials, devices and systems in... lecture will first define nanotechnology, particularly describing what it is and what it is not, followed by detailed examples of change in various

  17. Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-143 9 - 1 Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Turbomachinery Laboratory Texas A... rotordynamics of turbomachinery, excessive vibration and instability. The acceptable performance of a turbomachine depends on the adequate design and operation...on rotordynamics . The basic equations for the modeling of linear rotor-bearing systems are given along with an example for the rotordynamics of a

  18. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2010-07-12

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  19. Introduction to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Preface; Table of physical quantities; Part I. Foundations: 1. Introduction; 2. Magnetohydrodynamics; 3. Conservation laws; Part II. Fundamental Processes: 4. Magnetohydrodynamic waves; 5. Dynamo; 6. Discontinuities and shocks; 7. Magnetic reconnection; Part III. Instabilities and Magnetic Confinement: 8. Static equilibrium; 9. Linear perturbation theory; 10. Study of MHD instabilities; Part IV. Turbulence: 11. Hydrodynamic turbulence; 12. MHD turbulence; 13. Advanced MHD turbulence; Appendix 1. Solutions to the exercises; Appendix 2. Formulary; References; Index.

  20. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  1. Introduction to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryden, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Preface to second edition; Preface to first edition; 1. Introduction; 2. Fundamental observations; 3. Newton versus Einstein; 4. Cosmic dynamics; 5. Model universes; 6. Measuring cosmological parameters; 7. Dark matter; 8. The cosmic microwave background; 9. Nucleosynthesis and the early Universe; 10. Inflation and the very early Universe; 11. Structure formation: gravitational instability; 12. Structure formation: baryons and photons; Epilogue; Bibliography; Table of useful constants; Index.

  2. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  3. Pediatric obesity. An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  4. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  5. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  6. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  7. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  8. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  9. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  10. Neurolaw: A brief introduction

    PubMed Central

    Petoft, Arian

    2015-01-01

    Neurolaw, as an interdisciplinary field which links the brain to law, facilitates the pathway to better understanding of human behavior in order to regulate it accurately through incorporating neuroscience achievements in legal studies. Since 1990’s, this emerging field, by study on human nervous system as a new dimension of legal phenomena, leads to a more precise explanation for human behavior to revise legal rules and decision-makings. This paper strives to bring about significantly a brief introduction to neurolaw so as to take effective steps toward exploring and expanding the scope of law and more thorough understanding of legal issues in the field at hand. PMID:25874060

  11. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  12. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  13. An introduction to phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor components of cellular membranes that play critical regulatory roles in several intracellular functions. This chapter describes the main enzymes regulating the turnover of each of the seven PIs in mammalian cells and introduces to some of their intracellular functions and to some evidences of their involvement in human diseases. Due to the complex interrelation between the distinct PIs and the plethora of functions that they can regulate inside a cell, this chapter is not meant to be a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of PI signalling but rather an introduction to this complex signalling field. For more details of their regulation/functions and extensive description of their intracellular roles, more detailed reviews are suggested on each single topic.

  14. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  15. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  16. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  17. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    independence, and also more recognition of QoS as an independent research area, was achieved in the above mentioned Paris workshop. This workshop was aligned with the IFIP conference on Formal Methods for Open Object-based Distributed Systems (FMOODS96), but was also independently recognised by IFIP. A fifth workshop is due to take place in May 1997 in New York. This event will be the first not to be organized under the umbrella of another big event. This is indicative of the fact that the community interested in QoS issues has now become large enough to maintain its own independent forum of discussion and exchange of expertise. The five papers in this special issue cover a wide range of QoS research issues and fall broadly into three categories. First we have a paper that addresses a very specific but nevertheless crucial aspect of QoS provision: supporting the QoS of variable bit rate (VBR) traffic in networks with deterministic guarantees. `On the effects of smoothing for deterministic QoS' by Edward Knightly and Paola Rossaro examines the impact of rate smoothing of VBR sources such as MPEG video. The impact of such smoothing on both the QoS as perceived by the user and on resource utilization in the network are considered. Experimental evidence is presented which shows quantitatively how reducing burstiness through source smoothing techniques can significantly reduce the resource utilization of VBR streams while maintaining deterministic QoS for the user (at the cost of some increase in the end-to-end delay bound). It is also shown that a richer traffic characterisation model (D-BIND) can produce better network utilization and user QoS than the usual models based only on peak rate, average rate and burst length. Next we have two papers concerned with broader issues of QoS management. These papers explore approaches to QoS monitoring and adaptation which are intended to be generic and applicable in a range of implementation environments. `Some principles for quality of

  18. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  19. Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nancey

    This chapter provides an overview of some of the history of debates regarding free will, and concurs with several authors who claim that the philosophical discussions have reached a stalemate due to their focus on a metaphysical doctrine of universal determinism. The way ahead, therefore, requires two developments. One is to focus not on determinism but on reductionism; the other is to attend to specific scientific findings that appear to call free will into question. The chapter provides an introduction to the topics of reductionism, emergence, and downward causation, and then surveys the works of Daniel Wegner and Benjamin Libet, which have been taken to show the irrelevance of conscious will in human action. It summarizes the chapters comprising the rest of the volume, and then offers a reflection on the achievement of the work as a whole - in brief, a critique of free-will skeptics based on human capacities such as meta-cognition and long-term planning, which allow agents to exert downward control on neural processes and behavior. It ends by highlighting, in light of Alasdair MacIntyre's work on moral responsibility, an important additional factor involved in creating the possibility for freedom of choice, namely the possession of abstract symbolic language.

  20. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  1. Connection with dynamics: General introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief nontechnical introduction to a few theoretical issues to the density-velocity relation. The aim of this introduction is not an exhaustive analysis of the current theoretical situation but rather setting a stage for the following talks. The selection of topics has been determined by the sequel program.

  2. Introduction to IBS

    MedlinePlus

    ... threatening illness, it is associated with a significant health care and economic burden. Studies have shown that IBS patients have an increased number of outpatient health care visits, diagnostic tests, and surgeries. IBS can ...

  3. Introduction to tillage erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage as a source of erosion Tillage erosion is the downslope movement of soil by tillage. During tillage, soil is lifted and gravity moves soil downslope. Soil movement by tillage increases with slope steepness. However, net soil transport by tillage is determined by the change in slope. Soil mov...

  4. Introduction. Biomolecular simulation

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2008-01-01

    ‘Everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms’ as Richard Feynman provocatively stated nearly 50 years ago. But how can we ‘see’ this wiggling and jiggling and understand how it drives biology? Increasingly, computer simulations of biological macromolecules are helping to meet this challenge. PMID:18826912

  5. Introduction: Overview and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisoni, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons why the International Bureau of Education (IBE) has chosen to devote an article in the journal "Prospects" to policy dialogue in education. Firstly, policy dialogue is increasingly important to the management and development of education systems, as well as to enhancing the quality of education. As such, its role…

  6. Introduction to Parallel Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Topology C, Ada, C++, Data-parallel FORTRAN, 2D mesh of node boards, each node FORTRAN-90 (late 1992) board has 1 application processor Devopment Tools ...parallel machines become the wave of the present, tools are increasingly needed to assist programmers in creating parallel tasks and coordinating...their activities. Linda was designed to be such a tool . Linda was designed with three important goals in mind: to be portable, efficient, and easy to use

  7. Introduction: Imaging in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sella, Tamar; Laufer, Neri

    2016-06-01

    The authors of this Views and Reviews outline in detail the indispensable role of imaging tools-ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging-in the diagnosis and treatment of female and male factor infertility. Equipment producing diagnostic images, coupled with ever-increasing computing power, will pave the way for novel functional dynamic studies that will expand the understanding of reproductive processes and their management.

  8. [Introduction to antiseptics].

    PubMed

    González, Laura López; Gutiérrez Pérez, M Isabel; Lucio-Villegas Menéndez, M Eulalia; Lluch, Natalia Aresté; Morató Agustí, M Luisa; Cachafeiro, Santiago Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Antiseptics are anti-infectious agents for local use on the skin or mucosa, which distinguishes them from disinfectants, which are used on inanimate surfaces usually because of their toxicity. The present article explains the differences among the multiple possible antiseptics; special attention is paid to the most common, such as alcohol, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and oxygenated water. Finally, we stress the different antiseptic formulations, which increase the usefulness of these agents in specific indications.

  9. Chapter 1: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops–and encourages consumers and business to adopt–technologies that improve energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable energy. This report describes analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2004 Budget Request1 will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable.

  10. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  11. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  12. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  13. Surveys: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2004-10-01

    Surveys are a valuable research tool for studying the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of a study population. This article explores quantitative analyses of written questionnaires as instruments for survey research. Obtaining accurate and precise information from a survey requires minimizing the possibility of bias from inappropriate sampling or a flawed survey instrument, and this article describes strategies to minimize sampling bias by increasing response rates, comparing responders to nonresponders, and identifying the appropriate sampling population. It is crucial that the survey instrument be valid, meaning that it actually measures what the investigator intends it to measure. In developing a valid survey instrument, it can be useful to adapt survey instruments that were developed by other researchers and to conduct extensive pilot-testing of your survey instrument.

  14. Introduction to Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassedy, Edward S.; Grossman, Peter Z.

    1999-01-01

    Energy issues such as pollution, resource depletion, global warming, nuclear power and waste are problems demanding timely solutions. This book provides a critical examination of the resources, market forces, and social impacts of modern energy production. The book addresses the dilemmas that have arisen due to society's crucial dependence on energy, particularly fossil fuels, and explores the available alternative energy producing technologies. The second edition has increased emphasis on those issues at the forefront of the current energy debate: energy sustainability, climate change, and the radical restructuring of the power industry due to deregulation. Assuming no prior technical expertise and avoiding complex mathematical formulation. The second edition, like the first, will be especially useful as a textbook for undergraduate programs in Science, Technology and Society (STS), and as a supplementary text in a variety of courses that touch on energy studies, including environmental and technology policy, environmental, mineral and business law, energy and resource economics.

  15. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  16. An introduction to tribology.

    PubMed

    Norris, James A; Stabile, Kathryne J; Jinnah, Riyaz H

    2008-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear, lubrication mechanisms, and their interrelationships. Biotribiology focuses on understanding diarthrodial joints and has been a branch of tribology since 1973. Since then, biotribology has played a prominent role in the evaluation and development of joint prostheses, contributing to reduced wear and increased longevity. Total joint replacements are now common for arthritic patients and are also used in treating a variety of other orthopaedic conditions. For this reason, a complete understanding of the joint lubrication and microstructure that exists in nature is crucial. A subfield of biotribology, biomimetic tribology, has been formed with this goal in mind. This review covers the basic concepts of tribology, provides a brief historical perspective on joint prostheses, and presents the application of tribology in understanding diarthrodial and prosthetic joints.

  17. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide.

  18. Introduction to Quantum Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Filinov, Alexei; Böning, Jens; Dufty, James W.

    Plasmas are generally associated with a hot gas of charged particles which behave classically. However, when the temperature is lowered and/or the density is increased sufficiently, the plasma particles (most importantly, electrons) become quantum degenerate, that is, the extension of their wave functions becomes comparable to the distance between neighboring particles. This is the case in many astrophysical plasmas, such as those occurring in the interior of giant planets or dwarf and neutron stars, but also in various modern laboratory setups where charged particles are compressed by very intense ion or laser beams to multi-megabar pressures. Furthermore, quantum plasmas exist in solids - examples are the electron gas in metals and the electron-hole plasma in semiconductors. Finally, the exotic state of the Universe immediately after the Big Bang is believed to have been a quantum plasma consisting of electrons, quarks, photons, and gluons. In all these situations, a description in terms of classical mechanics, thermodynamics, or classical kinetic theory fails. In this chapter, an overview of quantum plasma features and their occurrence is given. The conditions for the relevance of quantum effects are formulated and discussed. The key concepts for a theoretical description of quantum plasmas are developed and illustrated by simple examples.

  19. Introduction [to Issue 3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Artificial propagation of aquatic organisms is increasing globally and currently accounts for approximately 32% of total world fishery production (Vannuccini, 2004). Between 1970 and 2000, aquaculture production of salmonids has grown from less than 200,000 metric tons per year to over 1.5 million metric tons (Tacon, 2003). In 1995, the number of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) far exceeded the carrying capacity of salmon in the wild but over 94% of all adult Atlantic salmon were in aquaculture environments (Gross, 1998).Since the 1970’s, concerns have arisen about interactions of hatchery and wild produced salmonids in native habitats. In response, research has addressed concerns about domestication and genetic impacts (Reisenbichler and McIntyre, 1977; Hindar et al., 1991; Waples, 1991; Clifford et al., 1998a; Fleming et al., 2000, 2002; Hard et al., 2000), transfer of disease and parasites (Johnsen and Jensen, 1994; Bakke and Harris, 1998), behavior of spawning adults (Fleming and Gross, 1992; Fleming et al., 1994; Økland et al., 1995; Youngston et al., 1998), differences in fitness traits and life history (Jonsson et al., 1991; Thodesen et al., 1999; McGinnity et al., 2003), and behavioral interactions between hatchery and wild juvenile salmon (Swain and Riddell, 1990; Johnsson et al., 1996; Clifford et al., 1998b). Much of this research has been driven by concerns about the impacts of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean (Hansen et al., 1991). Studies of the interactions between hatchery and wild salmonids, with few exceptions (see Myers et al., 2000), have primarily focused on interactions in freshwater environments.Interactions between hatchery and wild fishes in estuarine and marine environments have not received the same attention, but may have signifi- cant impacts on wild populations. To address this issue, we organized a symposium held at the 2003 annual meeting of the Western Division of the American Fisheries Society in San

  20. Job Hunting, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  1. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  2. Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Special Issue on Performance Modelling Distributed systems are now accepted as a cost-effective alternative to mainframe computer systems in most commercial environments. Their usage continues to become ever more widespread whilst their complexity is increasing rapidly. The essential advantage of client - server systems in particular is the splitting of an application into a client part, which comprises tasks that are executed locally on workstations such as PCs, and a server part, which executes larger scale computations on a remote mainframe or parallel computer. In this way the end-user is offered great flexibility, using a workstation for its specialist capabilities and user interface which is tailored to use by non-technical staff. However, large calculations, for example access to a large central database, can be hived off, via a network, to a central mainframe which has superior performance and is also most appropriate for managing large volumes of shared data. In short, client - server systems can effectively integrate workstations, and perhaps mid-range systems, with mainframes and supercomputers in a cost-effective and user-friendly way. Many other distributed configurations are also used, for example clusters of networked workstations. Whilst this type of partitioning offers tremendous flexibility to users in a cost-effective way, large distributed systems are highly complex, involving large numbers of components performing tasks concurrently, some of which interact. The choice of components, interconnects and software algorithms is therefore critical and the scale of the problem - often many hundreds of clients, possibly many servers which may be parallel computers themselves and several choices of interconnect - demands a design backed up by formal quantitative performance modelling. This special issue is concerned with the performance evaluation of such distributed systems, many of them client - server systems. A system may be considered as comprising

  3. Introduction to Drywall. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of drywall is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  4. Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Jeff; Moffett, Jonathan

    1996-06-01

    reached a point at which a first generation of systems, based on policy representation within systems and automated monitoring systems, are coming into practical use. The papers also serve to identify many of the issues which are open research questions. In particular, as management systems increase in complexity, how far can we automate the refinement of high-level policies into implementations? How can we detect and resolve conflicts between policies? And how can monitoring services deal efficiently with ever-growing complexity and volume? We wish to acknowledge the many contributors, besides the authors, who have made this issue possible: the anonymous reviewers who have done much to assure the quality of these papers, Morris Sloman and his Programme Committee who convened the Workshop, and Thomas Usländer and his team at the Fraunhofer Institute in Karlsruhe who acted as hosts.

  5. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  6. A General Introduction to Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors

    This basic introduction to microcomputers provides the neophyte with the terminology, definitions, and concepts that explain the microcomputer and computing technology in general. Mathematical operations with binary numbers, computer storage, controlling logic, and the concepts of stack and interrupt are explained. (RAO)

  7. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  8. Introduction: The Computer After Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Jeremy

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computer Awareness in Science Fiction * Computer Awareness and Self-Awareness * How many senses does a computer have? * Does a computer know that it is a computer? * Does metal know when it is weakening? * Why Does Computer Awareness Matter? * Chapter Overviews * Summary and Conclusions

  9. AN ACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO HINDI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACDOUGALL, BONNIE G.; STONE, JAMES W.

    THIS TWO-PART INTRODUCTION TO HINDI INCLUDES METHOD GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTRUCTOR AND EMPHASIZES REPRODUCING CORRECT PRONUNCIATION BEFORE UNDERSTANDING MEANING. THE HINDI MICROWAVE COURSE INCORPORATES 47 CYCLES OF INSTRUCTION, MOST OF WHICH CONTAIN AN M-PHASE (MIMICRY AND MEMORIZATION) AND A C-PHASE (COMMUNICATION). THE DRILLS INTRODUCE BASIC…

  10. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  11. Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This Handbook provides an introduction to basic procedures and methods of data analysis. The authors provide a framework to guide program staff in their thinking about these procedures and methods and their relevant applications in MSHS (Migrant and Seasonal Head Start) settings. Accordingly, this Handbook was developed to support the work of…

  12. Introduction to the Special Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1986-01-01

    Presents a special series of seven articles dealing with biopsychosocial oncology, the role of psychology in cancer treatment. Includes an introduction by Lizette Peterson and articles by Thomas Burish and Michael Carey, Susan Jay et al., Shelley Taylor et al., David Cella and Susan Tross, Gerald Koocher, and Leonard Derogatis. (KS)

  13. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    The compaction algorithm This section defines mathematically the problem of compaction with auto- matk jog introduction, and presents a practical...t(5) of potential cuts of S, and usng their mutability cmndi to constrain the positiokn of modulo in S. The proof that this technique gen - erates a

  14. The Lisbon Agenda: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lice, Anita; Striedinger, Angelika; Scholz, Christine; Mac Sithigh, Daithi; Fenech, Justin; Miklavic, Klemen; Geven, Koen; Stambolieva, Marija; Haslinger, Susi

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is an introduction to Lisbon Agenda and it is presented as a basis for ESIB's (The National Unions of Students in Europe) concerted work on the European Union's all-embracing strategy that is changing the parameters of the education systems. The reason for the existence of this handbook is the necessity to coordinate the work on all…

  15. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  16. Introduction to Computing Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…

  17. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford; Preston, Daniel N.

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  18. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology.

  19. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  20. AN INTRODUCTION TO A CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS SERVES AS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER'S JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM. IN ADDITION TO A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM AND OUTLINES OF THE AVERAGE AND HONORS CURRICULA, THE FOLLOWING PAPERS ARE INCLUDED--(1) "THE THEME-CONCEPT UNIT IN LITERATURE," (2) "APPROACHES TO MEANING--A…

  1. The Dimensions of Maltreatment: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Diana J.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue includes an introduction and seven papers exploring dimensions of maltreatment including type, severity, chronicity, and substantiation status of referrals to CPS, utilizing a subsample of the LONGSCAN studies. Each paper examines one of the dimensions of maltreatment from various perspectives to determine if different…

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Montorsi, A.; Rasetti, M. G.

    1985-04-01

    The number of exactly solved models in the Statistical Mechanics of classical two-dimensional systems has grown to be relatively large. The field has had its successes uniformly distributed in the period between 1944, when Lars Onsager so ingeniously solved the two-dimensional Ising model, and 1980 when Rodney Baxter produced the solution of the hard hexagon model. In between ice-type models, vertex models and some related models, such as the Ashkin-Teller, Potts or the hard square models, were either solved, or partially dealt with, very often by not so different techniques. Thus recently, the attention of mathematical physicists has been focused more and more on the connection between the different methods of solution, in the effort to understand the relevant underlying structure and to try to extend it eventually to higher dimensional systems. Also the equivalence of several of such classical models with quantum ones, living in one-dimensional space, has played a relevant role, raising the hope to find in the methods characteristic of quantum mechanics and field theory a way out of the often formidable difficulties.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, David

    Many non-scientists tend to think that cosmology became a science only in our own time, prior to which it was a vague system of beliefs that did not amount to much. But in fact the Greeks were cosmological scientists (Plato, Aristotle and many who predated those two), and the tradition continued with Ptolemy in second-century Alexandria, and especially with the likes of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Isaac Newton. Each of those thinkers had a vision of how the Universe works and tried to arrange the empirical facts to fit that vision. That is what cosmology is all about. This book presents essays on the current state of the art by their modern counterparts…

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    This brief introductory chapter sets the stage for a broad discussion of many aspects of virtual worlds, by comparing episodes experienced by two avatar researchers, one in Second Life (SL), and the other in Star Wars Galaxies (SWG). Interviewer Wilber attends a medieval dance on an SL island created by Starfleet, an innovative and hard-working group of 500 Star Trek fans, who have created working virtual technology and soaring architecture to make real their fantasies about the human future. Algorithma Teq visits the Mos Eisley Cantina in SWG, where Luke Skywalker originally met Han Solo, and is scrutinized by two Imperial storm troopers, even as she attempts to remain aloof from the Star Wars mythos and simply practice her engineering skills in making droids. It can be useful to distinguish gamelike virtual worlds from non-game worlds, yet as these examples show, they are not distinct categories, and virtual worlds inevitably mix fantasy and reality in complex ways.

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, René G. M.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings are the fruits of a workshop held on the island of La Palma from 9 to 11 May 2005, hosted by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes. The meeting was inspired by the fact that integral-field spectroscopy and adaptive optics techniques are coming of age and being deployed on several telescopes around the world. The combination of integral-field spectrographs and adaptive optics is still a relatively unexplored area where the potential benefits for astronomy are huge. The scientific prospects are particularly promising in the areas of: the dynamics of the central regions of galaxies and active galactic nuclei; spectroscopy of gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies; star forming regions and outflow of evolved stars, and the dynamics of crowded stellar fields.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdall, Alan R.; Ramsay, Colin R.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    Felsic plutonic rocks ranging from dioritic to granitic in composition and from 900 to 550 Ma in age are a major component of the Arabian Shield. These rocks and the potential for associated mineralization have been extensively investigated by the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources during the past decade in particular. This volume describes the multidisciplinary approach which has been developed, and summarizes results. The classification, distribution, petrology, mineralogy and structure of the felsic plutonic rocks, petrogenetic and metallogenetic concepts and representative examples of mineralization are described. It is concluded that the potential for additional mineral resources is substantial.

  7. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voneche, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Discusses ontogeny and phylogeny in Piaget's work, differences between Piagetian (constructivist) and Darwinian (selectionist) approaches, and problems associated with transposing conceptual systems from one field to another. (RH)

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalia, Giusy; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.

    Liquid crystals are amazing materials. They are amazing because they combine, in a single phase, the fluidity of ordinary liquids with the longrange order that we otherwise find only in crystalline solids. This unique combination reflects the ability of the constituents to self-organize into ordered structures while maintaining a degree of translational freedom that is absent in the solid state. In fact, as counterintuitive as it may seem to the novice, the drive for liquid crystalline ordering is typically dominated by entropic effects, i.e. the ordered structures appear because these states minimize the constraints on the entities building up the phase...

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Sidney

    The way a scientist looks at the materials world is changing dramatically. Advances in the synthesis of nanostructures and in high-resolution microscopy are allowing us to create and probe assemblies of atoms and molecules at a level that was unimagined only a short time ago — the prospect of manipulating materials for device applications, one atom at a time, is no longer a fantasy. Being able to see and touch the materials up close means that we are more interested than ever in understanding their properties and behavior at the atomic level. Another factor which contributes to the present state of affairs is the advent of large-scale computation, once a rare and highly sophisticated resource accessible only to a few privileged scientists. In the past few years materials modeling, in the broad sense of theory and simulation in integration with experiments, has emerged as a field of research with unique capabilities, most notably the ability to analyze and predict a very wide range of physical structures and phenomena. Some would now say the modeling approach is becoming an equal partner to theory and experiment, the traditional methods of scientific inquiry.

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dum, Ralph

    Various types of diverse networks — communication networks, transport networks, global business networks, networks of friends, or the Internet — shape our daily life and the way we think and act. We depend on various social, economic, and technological networks that weave a tissue of businesses, governments, technologies and that contain us as citizens, users, or customers. We only become aware of our dependence if failures occur in these networks: when cities are plunged into darkness because of a breakdown of the power grid like happened recently in New York, when national economies collapse because of a failure of global financial systems like happened in the South-Asian banking crisis, or when computer viruses spread with mind-boggling speed over information networks destroying or, even worse, exposing sensitive data.

  11. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Rabier, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    The special issue "Fitting for Health" offers a critical inquiry into the co-construction of medicine and technology in the early industrial age. It investigates the "social life" of medical things, through their material configuration, invention, improvement, and diversification, the sites of their deployment, their status as both novelties and less spectacular objects of everyday use, and the challenges they faced in fitting themselves into people's lives and European res publica. The set of articles (on steel trusses, medical electricity, anatomical models, and trade catalogs) heuristically uses "technology" to analyze how medicine and its material processes were crafted, endowed with meaning, and woven into European societies. Opening the medical "black box"—circumventing its tendency to be ignored as a mediating tool—provides a significant common point of entry for the four enquiries, triggering further analysis of the relationship between humans and non-humans as shaped in medical knowledge and practice. PMID:27057070

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    The brave new world of ambient intelligence is almost upon us. Ambient intelligence is the phrase coined to describe a world in which "intelligence" is embedded in virtually everything around us. It has been called an Internet of things, where radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are attached to all products. It is a world of smart dust with networked sensors and actuators so small as to be virtually invisible, where the clothes you wear, the paint on your walls, the carpets on your floor, and the paper money in your pocket have a computer communications capability. It is a 4G world where today's mobile phone is transformed into a terminal capable of receiving television, accessing the Internet, downloading music, reading RFIDs, taking pictures, enabling interactive video telephony, and much more. It is a world of convergence, where heterogeneous devices are able to communicate seamlessly across today's disparate networks, a world of machine learning and intelligent software, where computers monitor our activities, routines and behaviours to predict what we will do or want next. In the brave new world of ambient intelligence, we will never have to worry about losing track of our children because they will have a location device implanted under the skin or, if they are squeamish about that, then at least they will have one in their wristwatch.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Spin is an entirely non-classical property of (elementary) particles [1], p. 198. A reference which deals with many aspects of spin (although the—in my mind—seminal Stern-Gerlach experiment (for details see Sect. 8.1 ) is never even mentioned) is "The Story of Spin" by Tomonaga [2] from which we cite: "It is a mysterious beast, and yet its practical effect prevails over the whole of science. The existence of spin, and the statistics associated with it, is the most subtle and ingenious design of Nature—without it the whole universe would collapse" (from the translator's (T. Oka) preface, p. vii). In nuclear physics, the nuclear, nucleon, and even quark spins enter in many ways. Examples are: hyperfine interaction, spin-orbit interaction, tensor force, spin-spin nucleon-nucleon interaction, the relation between spin and statistics which is not only the basis of the periodic table, but markedly influences the scattering of identical particles (e.g.{^{12}C} on {^{12}C} vs.{^{13}C} on ^{13}C,) etc.

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging and Overhauser imaging are magnetic resonance techniques for detecting paramagnetic substances (i.e. molecules which have one or more unpaired electron(s) in their outer orbitals). The main impetus for developing these techniques is the intriguing possibility of detecting and imaging the distribution of free radicals in the body. Naturally occurring free radicals are widely believed to be involved in the early development of many diseases, so the ability to localize and quantify them in vivo would have profound implications for many areas of biomedical research. Stable free radicals can also be used as `contrast agents', and following their fate in the body can give useful insights into organ function. Some free radicals and paramagnetic solids have the ability to probe the chemical and physical nature of their surroundings, also offering a wide variety of potential applications, in particular the measurement of oxygen concentrations in tissues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was first demonstrated in 1945, the same year that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were first carried out. EPR and NMR are very closely related at the fundamental level, differing mainly in the fact that EPR involves a magnetic resonance experiment on unpaired electrons in the sample, while NMR uses atomic nuclei with non-zero spin. On a practical level, the techniques are also closely related, despite the fact that most EPR experiments are continuous-wave, while virtually all NMR is carried out using pulsed, Fourier-transform methods. Overhauser-based techniques combine both flavours of magnetic resonance in EPR/NMR double-resonance experiments. While NMR has found a valuable place in clinical practice, in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biomedical EPR is still in its relative infancy, with about twenty research groups world-wide having the capability to use EPR spectroscopy or imaging to study small animals in vivo. It may appear to the casual observer that progress in the field of EPR is much slower than in NMR, but this is not actually the case: EPR is technically much more demanding than NMR, due to the six orders-of-magnitude shorter relaxation times encountered in EPR. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in the technology and applications of EPR-based methods over the last five years, and the field has now developed sufficiently to enable useful biomedical applications to be investigated. The papers presented in this topical issue represent a broad cross-section of the work being carried out in developing and applying EPR and Overhauser techniques in biology and medicine. A number of papers describe recent advances in technology and methods, including continuous-wave, longitudinally detected and pulsed EPR, and Overhauser imaging. Others focus on applications including those using both endogenous and exogenous free radicals. Two of the most promising areas are in the detection of nitric oxide, a ubiquitous, naturally occurring free radical, and in the measurement of local oxygen concentrations by EPR. Both of these topics are covered in this issue. It is both timely and appropriate that Physics in Medicine and Biology, with its strong reputation in the field of physics applied to medicine and biology, should publish a topical issue on this subject, at a time when rapid improvements in technology are being made, and when useful applications are starting to emerge. The guest editors hope that this summary of the state-of-the-art will act as a comprehensive reference work for those in the field, and will encourage others to develop new applications for the techniques, which we believe have a valuable role to play in biomedical research. David J Lurie Antonello Sotgiu Guest Editors

  15. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009 an interdisciplinary group of leading scientists from 11 countries assembled on the shores of Lake Mendota in Madison, Wisconsin for a three-day conference on sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change. Although there have been numerous conferences on cli...

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    Large igneous provinces represent catastrophic outpourings of immense quantities of basaltic lava, the origin of processes that are hidden deep within Earth's interior and obscured by the movements of tectonic plates. Scientists from many different fields are combining their efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms by which large igneous provinces' form, the distribution and timing of such provinces, and the effects and consequences of the associated volcanism. This book presents a collection of thirteen papers that delve into such fundamental questions for one of Earth's most calamitous events—the profound and extensive magmatism that accompanied the breakup of Pangea. Dramatic relics of the magmatism that accompanied breakup of Pangea are preserved on every continent of the circum-Atlantic region, in exposures of igneous intrusions that once provided magma conduits, as partially eroded and buried flood basalts that once covered large areas of the land, and in the sedimentary strata that host the volcanic remnants. Scientists collect forensic evidence in rock exposures from coastal Brittany to Brazilian rainforests, in strata buried deeply beneath Texas and on plateaus in sub-Saharan Mali in the effort to describe this province and determine its origin. Indeed, over the past several years we have learned through research that much of the magmatism in this province was very sudden, although it may have spread diachronously. The absolute age and stratigraphic juxtaposition of this province seems coincident with the transition from the Triassic to the Jurassic period. Many scientists are now studying this magmatic province in an effort to understand how its effects may relate to the global climate changes and profound mass extinction at the end of the Triassic (when perhaps 80% of Earth's terrestrial and marine faunas perished). And yet such a catastrophic distress for some may provide opportunity to others, as the Jurassic rise of dinosaurs to dominate Earth may have begun with global climate changes wrought by this large igneous province. Thus, the research on this individual magmatic province is part of a broader and contentious scientific trial to determine whether massive volcanic events, meteorite impact events, or combinations of both are responsible for the major mass extinction events that have modulated the course of life on Earth for the past 300 million years.

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Barbara; Kienhuis, Bart; Ayguadé, Eduard; Bodin, François; Plata, Oscar; Stotzer, Eric

    During the past few years, mainstream computing has rapidly embraced multicore architectures and there is now considerable research into the design of such systems and into all aspects of their utilization. In particular, much work is needed in order to improve their programmability. Limitations on the amount of memory, bandwidth constraints, multiple layers of parallelism and heterogeneous components all introduce new challenges for application development and execution. In recognition of the importance of this architectural shift, multi-core programming was added to the collection of Euro-Par topics this year. The focus of the topic covered general-purpose multi-core programming techniques, models and languages, as well as those for multi-core embedded systems, and included related work on compilers, run-time systems, and performance and scalability studies.

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Terry M.; Talburt, John R.; Chan, Yupo

    Many companies and organizations face the common problem illustrated in Figure 1.1. The challenge is to take data from the real world and convert it into a model that can be used for decision making. For example, the model can be used as a tool to drive campaigns. The purpose of these campaigns is to affect the real world in a positive way from the perspective of the organization running the campaign. The general process is to collect data from a number of sources, then integrate that data into a consistent and logically related set of data. The integrated data is stored in a repository. This repository is often called a data warehouse and is often stored in a commercial relational database. Using the data, mathematical techniques, and algorithms, a model of the real world is constructed to support the decision making process. A variety of campaign management tools then use the model to drive campaigns executed in the real world.

  19. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces the book, "Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Striving Towards Best Available Practice" which is a summary of the contributions of the second SETAC-Europe Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (WIA-2) to the development and recognition of best...

  20. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Pedro C.; Juurlink, Ben; Darte, Alain; Karl, Wolfgang

    This topic deals with architecture design and compilation for high performance systems. The areas of interest range from microprocessors to large-scale parallel machines; from general-purpose platforms to specialized hardware (e.g., graphic coprocessors, low-power embedded systems); and from hardware design to compiler technology. On the compilation side, topics of interest include programmer productivity issues, concurrent and/or sequential language aspects, program analysis, transformation, automatic discovery and/or management of parallelism at all levels, and the interaction between the compiler and the rest of the system. On the architecture side, the scope spans system architectures, processor micro-architecture, memory hierarchy, and multi-threading, and the impact of emerging trends.

  1. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Tatrallyay, M.

    Venus and Mars, our neighboring planets, have a long history in the human consciousness. Venus, in particular, was notable because of its brightness compared to other star-like objects in the sky. The first observations of Venus on record may be those enscribed by Babylonians on the famous "Venus tablet" in the British museum, which has been dated to ˜1700 BC. Venus has generally been associated with the female gender, except in ancient India. The name comes from the Roman goddess of love and beauty (analogous to the Babylonian Ishtar and the Greek Aphrodite). Venus was first thought by the Greeks to be two objects—a morning star "Phosphorus" and an evening star "Hesperus". Phythagoras, in 6 BC, is credited with being first to recognize they were the same object. Venus has since figured prominently in the history of physics and astronomy. The Greek Aristarchus first suggested (in ˜310-250 BC) that the planets move around the sun, but the idea lost favor to a theory of Ptolemy, which placed Earth at the center of the solar system. In the 9th-15th centuries, Arab astronomers studied Venus, and in the "new world," the Mayas used it in the organization of their calendar. In 1543, Copernicus finally published his own version of Aristarchus' vision of a heliocentric solar system, but it was probably not until Galileo, in ˜1610, telescopically observed that Venus had phases like the moon, that heliocentric theory was widely accepted (despite delays associated with the prevailing religious dogma). He announced that momentous discovery in a coded message to his contemporary Kepler (a usual practice of the time), which translated to "the mother of the loves imitates the phases of Cynthia".

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Kamini; Hyndman, David W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.

    Understanding the processes that control water movement in the subsurface has been recognized as a "grand challenge" in environmental science [National Research Council, 2001b]. Research into methods to estimate hydrologic parameters that control water movement extends at least back to Theis [1935], who worked simultaneously on methods to predict (forward model) aquifer response to pumping, and also to estimate (using an inverse model) the controlling hydrologic parameters—transmissivity and storativity. Seventy years after Theis' pioneering work, hydrologists continue to use pumping tests and slug tests to characterize heterogeneous aquifers. Despite advances in modeling tools and inverse methods, aquifer characterization remains an extremely difficult problem due to spatial heterogeneity, temporal variability, and coupling between chemical, physical, and biological processes.

  4. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2005-03-21

    Discreteness provides unique opportunities for controlling the flow of light. As in solidstate physics, optical discrete or lattice configurations are known to exhibit a succession of allowed Floquet-Bloch bands and forbidden bandgaps. In weakly coupled systems, the Floquet-Bloch states can be accurately described by local modes, and thus the tight-binding approximation or coupled-mode theory is applicable. As a result, the field dynamics become effectively discretized. In optics, arrays of evanescently coupled waveguides, photonic crystal fibers, chains of coupled microresonators, and photonic crystals are prime examples of such structures where discrete wave dynamics can be experimentally investigated. Perhaps the most exciting outcome of the interplay between discreteness and optica nonlinearity is the existence of self-localized entities better known as discrete solitons. This class of optical solitons were first suggested in the late 1980s and successfully observed in AlGaAs waveguide arrays a decade later. Since then, discrete optical solitons have been observed in many other material systems such as in optically induced lattices, in quadratic waveguide arrays, and in liquid-crystal cells. This experimental work has not only resulted in a deeper understanding of nonlinear processes in periodic environments, but it has also helped to assess the potential of these self-trapped states toward future applications. Nowadays, the field of discrete optical dynamics in nonlinear lattices is at an exciting stage of development. Even though some of the basic concepts in this area have been around for a while, much remains to be explored and discovered.

  5. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    It would be hard to argue against the fact that Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a fast growing discipline within material science and engineering. A quick scan of the proceedings from conferences such as Aeromat, Material Science and Technology, and the TMS Annual Meeting clearly shows it. What began a few years ago as one symposium has grown into multiple ICME related symposia at each of these conferences. As encouraging as the number of symposia being offered is the attendance at the symposia. For example, one of the ICME symposia at MS&T 10, the symposium in which this book is based, had five sessions which culminated in a panel discussion that was standing room only. In addition to the large, annual materials science and engineering conferences, smaller 1 to 2-day conferences/workshops sponsored by government agencies (e.g. AFRL and NIST) on specific aspects of ICME and by universities promoting their ICME work are regularly offered. And arguably the most significant news with regards to ICME and conferences is the July 2011 First World Congress on ICME. This five day TMS sponsored conference, specifically focused on ICME with an international advisory board of ICME leaders, shows how far ICME has spread across the globe. Evidence for the growth of ICME can also be found in Academia. The University Materials Council (UMC) is composed of department heads for material science and engineering from major U.S. and Canadian universities. Meeting twice a year to share best practices in order to strengthen both the engineering content [1] and the educational process, the UMC s agenda for their Spring 2010 meeting was dedicated to ICME [2]. This meeting was held in response to the growing awareness that the universities play a major role in the success of ICME and therefore need to develop ICME curriculum in order to meet that need. To aid educators in the development of ICME courses, NSF is funding a "Summer School" on ICME to be held at the University of Michigan in 2011 [3]. Northwestern University recently announced a MS Certificate Program in ICME [4]. Course work for this certificate begins in the Fall of 2011. Other signs that ICME is growing comes from the formation of ICME initiatives from work that did not start off with ICME in mind. One of the committees in ASM International is the Materials Properties Database Committee (MPDC). In the 2010 meeting of the MPDC, based on a study by ASM, the committee decided that it would create an ICME sub-committee in order to determine how ASM can meet the growing needs of the ICME community [5]. In 1999, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) created a consortium, the Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI), with members from both industry and government with a goal of reducing the cost and time to market of producing metal parts for aerospace applications [6].

  6. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullick, Bryan; Byra, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles on the spectrum of teaching styles, a framework of instructional models based on teacher and learner decision making. The article discusses national standards for physical education and reviews the feature articles, which highlight psychomotor, cognitive, and social development spectrum style; maximizing…

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart

    The motivation for writing this book is at least threefold: the extremely promising laser characteristics of high-power diode lasers; their vast application potential in production processes like welding, soldering, polymer joining, cutting, and surface treatment; and last but not least, a 5-year project called "Modular Diode Laser Tools" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, which this book summarizes in terms of results and future outlook.

  8. Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides a quick overview of high-power rocketry as well as a preview for the rest of the High-Power Rocketry video series. The video describes the two recognized rocketry organizations ...

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ICGC Meetings: 1987-2011 When India became an independent nation in 1947, the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru on the scene, as the Prime Minister was a fortunate circumstance. For, Nehru was a visionary, who believed that the future of the new nation should be guided by science and technology (S & T), and so with like-minded scientists like, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, Homi Bhabha, Meghnad Saha, and Daulatsingh Kothari in leading positions, Nehru set about creating an extensive infrastructure for S & T. The initiatives taken in and around 1947 began to yield dividends in a couple of decades, and by the late 60s and early 70s, major S & T organizations and associated trained human resources were making significant contributions to the country's development, both material and intellectual. Amongst these may be included, the creation of various scientific societies devoted to specific subjects. These came in response to the urge of scientists to meet as a group for discussions in their fields of research. So, it was in 1969, a number of research workers in the field of general relativity and gravitation (GRG), who had gathered for a workshop in Ahmedabad, resolved to form a society for GRG. The initiative was taken by P C Vaidya, who pointed out the advantages of forming such a recognized group, mentioning that the international community of workers in GRG had already formed such a society. The Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), thus, came up in 1969 with the veteran relativist V V Narlikar, as its first President. Some three years later, the astronomical community responding to a similar urge, formed the Astronomical Society of India (ASI), under the presidency of Vainu Bappu, the Founder Director of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Since the days of discovery of quasars in 1963, there has been an alliance between gravitation theorists and astrophysicists, resulting in the Texas Symposia, which are held once every two years. The International Society of GRG, referred above, also has a world congress (numbered GR-n) once in four years. The ASI and IAGRG have, naturally, many members in common, and over the years, these organizations have grown. Their national meets take place approximately once in two years. It is customary to invite overseas scientists to these meets, if they happen to be visiting India. In the early 80s, the scientific community in India felt more ambitious, and debated the possibility of hosting a truly international meet in India. Thus, in 1985 the astronomers successfully hosted the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. The GRG members, likewise, were pressing for hosting a meeting in the GR-n series. Since the human resources and institutional base of relativists were not as wide and strong as of the astronomers, they were advised to proceed in stages. ''First successfully hold a miniature version of GR-n, and once your credibility and capability are established, bid for the big one.'' This was the advice of some international veterans. That is how the ICGC-series of conferences came about. The first ICGC As the name (International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology) implies, the conference sought to combine the interests of the Texas Symposia as well as of GR-n. The meetings were planned to be once in four years starting in mid-December 1987. (This was the blank year for the Texas Symposium.) To launch them in an impressive manner, the opening meeting was planned to be in the famous tourist resort state of Goa. As IAGRG lacked the infrastructure to organize such a conference, the main organizational responsibility had to be taken up by one of the research institutes; and the biggest amongst these was the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai. The TIFR, therefore, was approached, and agreed. As the 'most interested person" from TIFR, I was put in charge of the enterprise. Of course, I had the backing of my senior colleague Kumar (S.M.) Chitre and the younger one, Ajit Kembhavi, and the organizational infrastructure of TIFR. In particular, the then administrator dealing with scientific meetings, Parelkar enthusiastically joined me to set up the local boundary conditions in Goa. To get our priorities right, we first picked upon Hotel Mandovi in Panjim (Capital of Goa) as the nodal hotel for catering, accommodation, and arrangements of the academic sessions. We were expecting around 100 participants with 50% from abroad. Kamat, the Manager of Hotel Mandovi, promised all help including beds in nearby hotels to make up any shortfall. Regarding the quality of food, for which Hotel Mandovi was justly famous, its in-charge, Satish Prabhu took care of all our worries. Delegates may still recall the various Goan delicacies featured on the conference menus. Parelkar negotiated the basic deal with the hotels to extract the maximum benefits for the conference. But we were still rather vulnerable in lack of the local conditions. An unexpected helping hand came to make up for our lack of local knowledge. The amateur astronomer organization, called ''Friends of Astronomy in Goa'', led by their venerable President, Percival Noronha offered to run errands for us and play the role of local volunteer. Noronha had been associated with the state government of Goa, since the days when it was a Portuguese colony. His 'inside knowledge' came in useful, especially when he advised us to request the Chief Minister, Pratapsingh Rane to entertain the conference participants in the state catamaran. Somewhat hesitatingly, I wrote a request letter, and to my delightful surprise, the CM agreed. Indeed, the boat-ride followed by the CM's riverside banquet was the entertainment high point of the conference. The food, Goan drinks, and musical entertainment were well appreciated by the participants, and an uninitiated person might be forgiven for thinking that ICGC stood for ''International Conference on Goan Conviviality''. However, it was the academic menu of ICGC-1987 that took precedence over anything else. The Scientific Organizing Committee, consisting of Vishveshwara (Vishu, if your tongue is not up to pronouncing the full name) as the Chairman, and Ashtekar, Barrow, Bertotti, Brill, Carr, Hartle, Hu, Iyer, MacCallum, Narlikar, Novikov, Penrose, and Sciama reflected a nice international mix as well as a mix of active branches of Gravitation and Cosmology. Later meetings The original intention of meeting every four years in some part of India was honoured by the community, and accordingly, the ICGC met in Ahmedabad (1991), Pune (1995), Kharagpur (2000), Cochin (2004), and Pune (2007) before reconvening in Goa in 2011. These meetings were more modestly planned, and instead of trying to cover many fields, each meeting was limited to some specialized topics. Thus, the Kharagpur meeting had highlighted gravitational waves, while the Pune (1995) meeting had emphasized the Raychaudhuri equation and the singularity theorems. These conferences did help to put India firmly on the map of GR and Cosmology, to the extent that the GR-15 was held successfully in Pune with Naresh Dadhich from IUCAA playing the main coordinator's role. It has been a pleasure to see young blood being attracted to these areas of research. Two major developments are on the horizon at the time of writing this piece. The LIGO is planning to set up an extra detector of gravitational waves in India with local help, both in hardware and software. Likewise, steps are being taken for India to join the TMT mega-telescope project as an international partner. These heartening developments help us to bear the loss of old doyens like, V V Narlikar, P C Vaidya, and A K Raychaudhuri. Though 'small is beautiful' is a truism, the decision was taken to return to Goa with a wider and richer academic menu to recall and celebrate the first ICGC. This is how we all find ourselves in Goa and its pleasant surroundings. As they say: ''Your problem is simplified if you choose the right boundary conditions!'' J V Narlikar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Post Bag 4, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India E-mail: jvn@iucaa.ernet.in

  10. Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Quinones, Sandra; Irizarry, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The work of addressing the challenge of the education of Latinos/as has begun through, among other efforts, the National Latino/a Education Research and Policy Project (NLERAP). Beginning in 2000 as a national initiative of the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos at Hunter College, NLERAP's goal has been to add multiple Latino/a perspectives to the…

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    According to Ernst Haeckel, any detailed hypothesis whatever concerning the origin of life must, as yet, be considered worthless, because up till now we have no satisfactory information concerning the extremely peculiar conditions which prevailed on the surface of the earth at the time when the first organisms developed" (Haeckel 1866). Erwin Schrödinger (1943) also expressed pessimism regarding the chances of understanding life. In the same vein: Life is like consciousness. If you think you can explain what it is, you got it all wrong" (Shaw 2002). Niels Bohr interpreted life as a fundamental property of matter analogous to certain quantum properties, to be taken as given, and thus allowing little if any logical scrutiny (Bohr 1933):

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouwen, Rick; van Rooij, Robert; Sauerland, Uli; Schmitz, Hans-Christian

    One could define vagueness as the existence of borderline cases and characterise the philosophical debate on vagueness as being about the nature of these. The prevalent theories of vagueness can be divided into three categories, paralleling three logical interpretations of borderline cases: (i) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value gap; it is neither true nor false; (ii) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value glut; it is both true and false; and (iii) a borderline case is a case where the truth-value is non-classical. The third of these is proposed in the fuzzy logic approach to vagueness. Three-valued approaches have only 1/2 as a value in addition to the standard values 1 and 0. These approaches can be interpreted either as allowing for gaps or gluts, depending on how the notion of satisfaction or truth is defined. If a sentence is taken to be true only if its value is 1, it allows for gaps, but if it is taken to be true already if its value is at least 1/2 it allows for gluts. The most popular theories advertising gluts and gaps, however, are supervaluationism and subvaluationism, both of which make use of the notion of precisifications, that is, ways of making things precise. Truth-value gaps in supervaluationism are due to the way truth simpliciter, or supertruth, is defined: A proposition is supertrue (superfalse) if it is true (false) at all precisifications. This means that a proposition can be neither true nor false in case there exist two precisifications, one of which make it true and one of which makes it false. Conversely, in subvaluation theory, the same scenario would lead to a truth-value glut. That is, the proposition would be both true and false. This is because subvaluationism defines truth simpliciter as being true at some precisifcation.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, J. H.

    1998-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable developments in the ability to control atomic motion by optical techniques. Among the key tools that have been developed for this purpose are the techniques of laser cooling, the significance of which was recognized by the award of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Phillips. These techniques have made it possible to cool atoms to temperatures lower than have been produced in any other physical system - around 10(-8) degrees Kelvin above absolute zero - and to confine those in traps for extended periods of observation.

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel

    Security research as a practical discipline has a long-standing history. Faced with myriad hazards throughout its past, mankind has developed sophisticated means to counter such threats. The latter include natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and fires, but also encompass man-made hazards such as military aggression, terrorist attacks or threats resulting from the malicious application of technological developments. Since the end of the Cold War major armed conflicts between nations of the Western hemisphere have become highly unlikely and genuinely different security issues have become the focus of concern. The terrorist attacks of 2001 against the United States, the train bombings of Madrid in 2004 and the bombings of London in 2005 were horrific embodiments of a new security environment that has evolved on a global scale. One could list numerous other examples of both executed attacks and successfully deterred attempts from around the world. Our modern industrial societies are interlinked with infrastructure networks, providing citizens with mobility, energy and information flows, which also open the door to a whole new dimension of vulnerabilities. Security research, once anything but a practical discipline with a capacity for reacting to short-term demands, has in the span of only a few years evolved into an entirely new scientific discipline uniting various fields of research. Today, security research (in Europe) encompasses a broad community of natural/engineering and social sciences.

  15. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, J.

    The papers in this issue stem from a conference, 'New Directions in the Foundations of Physics: A Memorial Conference for Rob Clifton (1964-2002),' organized by members of the Foundations of Physics Group of the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, and Georgetown University (Jossi Berkovitz, Jeffrey Bub, James Mattingly, and Rob Rynasiewicz), John Earman and John Norton of the University of Pittsburgh, and Jeremy Butterfield of Oxford University.

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    A year has passed since Raymond left us, but for many of us it seems like it was yesterday. Indeed, since his departure last July, not a week or even a day has gone by without his former collaborators, students, colleagues having a thought for him. Some initiatives have already been taken in order to celebrate Raymond's memory. The special day for Raymond organized at CERN last December was an opportunity to celebrate this exceptional man. In Annecy, with the implication of CERN and Marseille and thanks to a spontaneous and generous gift of Raymond's wife Marie-Françoise and their children Olivier and Thierry, the opening of a special room containing a huge collection of scientific books of Raymond is almost completed. It is in the same spirit that the present editors decided to dedicate a special issue of Nuclear Physics in memory of Raymond. In the following pages, some important problems Raymond was interested in are presented, discussed and sometimes solved. The diversity of topics in this issue reflects well the extent of Raymond's interests in Physics and Mathematics. Raymond was not only a gifted man for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics and physics, but he was also passionate about arts, music, drawing and of course literature, just as he was a leader always ready to bring his help and share his deep knowledge in physics and mathematics with others. Many people were deeply touched by Paul Sorba's tribute during Raymond's funeral. This is why we asked Paul to translate his speech, originally given in French, which seemed to us a perfect Prolegomena for this special volume of Nuclear Physics. The volume "Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory" is organized as follows:

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, R. W.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Particle accelerators are a field of continuing and growing success. Today about 30,000 accelerators are operated with various types of particles, including electrons, positrons, protons, neutrinos and various kinds of ions. These particles are used for the investigation of fundamental particles and forces in our universe. In parallel a fast growing field of accelerator-based photon science has developed since the 1970"s. Modern particle beams produce unique photon pulses that are used in ground-breaking studies on fast processes in chemistry and biology, on structures of viruses and bacteria, on the phenomenon of multi-resistivity to medication, on the functioning of photo-synthesis at the electronic level and on other important challenges for human mankind. Last not least, numerous particle accelerators are being used every day for industrial and medical applications, including the irradiation of tumors in human patients.

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph J.; Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean

    The actinide elements are the 15 chemical elements with atomic numbers 89 through 103, the first member of which is actinium and the last member is lawrencium (Fig. 1.1). The transactinide elements (those beyond the actinides) are the heaviest known chemical elements. Both the actinide and the transactinide elements have chemical properties that are governed by their outermost electronic subshells. Each of these groups of elements is a unique transition series (a group of elements in which d or f electronic subshells are being filled).

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    This special issue of Applied Surface Science is a compilation of papers inspired by the symposium on 'Surface/Interfaces Characterization and Renewable Energy' held at the 2013 MRS Fall Meeting. Practical uses of renewable energy are one of the greatest technical challenges today. The symposium explored a number of surface and interface-related questions relevant to this overarching theme. Topics from fuel cells to photovoltaics, from water splitting to fundamental and practical issues in charge generation and storage were discussed. The work presented included the use of novel experimental spectroscopic and microscopic analytical techniques, theoretical and computational understanding of interfacial phenomena, characterization of intricate behavior of charged species, as well as molecules and molecular fragments at surfaces and interfaces. It emphasized fundamental understanding of underlying processes, as well as practical devices design and applications of surface and interfacial phenomena related to renewable energy. These subjects are complicated by the transport of photons, electrons, ions, heat, and almost any other form of energy. Given the current concerns of climate change, energy independence and national security, this work is important and of interest to the field of Applied Surface Science. The sixteen papers published in this special issue have all been refereed.

  20. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Matson, C

    1997-11-24

    Imaging through the atmosphere is an important technology area, with applications in fields such as astronomy and remote sensing. For optimal results, many facets of signal collection and recovery must be understood. These facets include understanding relevant atmospheric effects, optimizing the signal collection system, and effectively processing the collected signals to obtain the desired imagery. Many different types of radiation can be used to obtain images through the atmosphere, including microwave, infrared, and optical. This radiation can be supplied by the object or natural sources (passive illumination), or it can be provided by the user (active illumination). This focus issue contains a number of invited papers describing imaging work being accomplished in the Advanced Optics and Imaging Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory, formerly the Optical Sensing Division of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. These papers assume that optical or infrared radiation is being used, either actively or passively.

  1. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Rees, Martin J

    2003-11-15

    It is embarrassing that 95% of the Universe is unaccounted for. Galaxies and larger-scale cosmic structures are composed mainly of "dark matter", whose nature is still unknown. Favoured candidates are weakly interacting particles that have survived from the very early Universe, but more exotic options cannot be excluded. (There are strong arguments that the dark matter is not composed of baryons.) Intensive experimental searches are being made for the "dark" particles (which pervade our entire Galaxy), but we have indirect clues to their nature too. Inferences from galactic dynamics and gravitational lensing allow astronomers to "map" the dark-matter distribution; comparison with numerical simulations of Galaxy formation can constrain (for example) the particle velocities and collision cross-sections; and, of course, progress in understanding the extreme physics of the ultra-early Universe could offer clues to what particles might have existed then, and how many would have survived. The mean cosmic density of dark matter (plus baryons) is now pinned down to be only ca.30% of the so-called critical density corresponding to a "flat" Universe. However, other recent evidence-microwave background anisotropies, complemented by data on distant supernovae-reveals that our Universe actually is "flat", but that its dominant ingredient (ca.70% of the total mass energy) is something quite unexpected: "dark energy" pervading all space, with negative pressure. We now confront two mysteries. (i) Why does the Universe have three quite distinct basic ingredients-baryons, dark matter and dark energy-in the proportions (roughly) 5%, 25% and 70%? (ii) What are the (almost certainly profound) implications of the "dark energy" for fundamental physics?

  2. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This section of the report describes the history of the tribology program of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) in the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The mission of the Office of Transportation Technology is discussed. OTT`s research objectives focus on (1) automobiles and light-duty trucks and vans and (2) heavy duty trucks and buses. Even small gains in efficiency can produce large paybacks for the tax dollar. The mission of the Office of Transportation Materials is also described. Its research objective is to enable the development and engineering of energy-efficient transportation systems that will make possible the transition of the U.S. transportation sector from dependence on petroleum to alternative fuels and electricity. The mission of the Tibology Program is to provide the base technology to enable savings in annual U.S. energy consumption through tribological advances in the transportation sector. Current task areas are in the fields of advanced lubrication, engineered tribological interfaces, advanced tribomaterials and components, and project management.

  3. Introduction*

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Wayne J.; Rockoff, Maxine L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This paper introduces the special supplement to the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) that documents the proceedings of the “Symposium on Community-based Health Information Outreach” held on December 2 and 3, 2004, at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The goal of the symposium was to explore new models of health information outreach that are emerging as technology dramatically changes the abilities of medical and health services libraries to provide resources and services beyond their traditional institutional boundaries, with particular concern for consumer health information outreach through community-based organizations. The symposium's primary objectives were to learn about successful and promising work that had already been done as well as to develop a vision for the future that could inform the NLM's next National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) contract. Another objective was to review and assess the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities with special emphasis on Native Americans. Method: The paper describes the background events and rationale that led to the NLM's decision to convene the symposium and summarizes the supplement's ten other papers, some of which were presented at the symposium and some of which were written afterward to capture the symposium's working sessions. Results: The symposium convened approximately 150 invited participants with a wide variety of perspectives and experience. Sessions were held to present exemplary outreach projects, to review the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities, to summarize the research underpinnings for evaluating outreach projects, and to provide a futurist's perspective. A panel of community representatives gave voice to the participants in outreach projects, and sixteen posters describing outreach projects were available, many of them with community representatives on hand to explain the work. Implications: This JMLA supplement provides a comprehensive summary of the state of the art in community-based outreach and a jumping-off point for future outreach efforts. PMID:16437797

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Meinard; Lyre, Holger; Wayne, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * Ontology of QFT: Aims, Methods and Work Ahead * Why Study the Ontology of QFT * The Ontologist's Toolbox * An Agenda for the Ontologist of QFT * A Layperson's Guide to QFT * The Field Concept * Two Routes to QFT * Basic Mathematical Formulations of QFT * QFT in Hilbert Space * Algebraic QFT * Path Integrals * QFT and Interactions * A Layperson's Guide to Ontology, Semantics and Epistemology * Ontology * Semantics * Epistemology * Overview of this Book * Approaches to Ontology * Field Ontologies for QFT * Relativity, Measurement and Renormalization * Gauge Symmetries and the Vacuum * References

  5. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S

    1997-08-18

    Before the field of electro-optics can realize its potential in the applied world, practical sources and detectors are needed which cover the important spectral ranges. For applications involving either ambient thermal emissions or remote chemical analysis, high brightness sources are needed in the 2 - 15 micron range. Over the last five years, several very promising techniques have been developed for generating solid-state mid-IR sources. Important advances in nonlinear materials have dramatically improved the efficiency and reliability of the frequency down-conversion approach to mid-IR sources. Also parallel efforts to develop direct solid-state mid-IR laser have begun to bear fruit. Room temperature mid-IR lasers have been demonstrated using both cascaded quantum well materials and low phonon rare earth doped materials. While potentially simple and compact, the development of solid-state mid-IR lasers poses a number of difficult material problems. The papers in this issue of Optics Express were invited to present recent progress on materials intended for direct emission in the mid-IR.

  6. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    summary Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  7. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Southern, Sarka O.; Mentzer, Mark A.; Rodriquez-Chavez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 SPIE Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine and Environmental Monitoring conference embraced a wealth of state-of-the-art information in basic and applied science. This event covered the latest developments in the following areas: Non-invasive Disease Diagnostics for Global Health- This opening series of two consecutive sessions focused on oral biospecimen based rapid assays and point-of-care devices for the detection of pathogens causing infectious diseases, biomarkers for cancer, and analytes for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes. They also covered presentations on the human proteasome and microbiome with linkage to human diseases and diagnostic approaches. The sessions were built on the past experience and expertise of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Military Medicine I: Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD-This assembly covered oral-biomarker based diagnostics for brain damage and TBI as well as prevention and rehabilitation technologies. Neurorehabilitation and noninvasive neuromodulation were also discussed as critical approaches for effective functioning. Military Medicine II: Physiology and Medicine of Extreme Environments and Spaceflight-This scientific segment showcased physiological, pharmacological and diagnostic sensing methodologies during spaceflight per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as military-relevant toxicans and future sensing trends per the Department of Defense. It also included latest technologies to determine hydration status in warfighters, eye surgery using the latest laser technologies, and sensing tools for blood analysis. ? Sensing Technologies for Disease Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring-This closing series of two consecutive sessions provided the venues to learn and discuss more results on the next generation of diagnostic tools and field technologies for diseases, including biomarker detection by digital imaging, multiplex technologies, capillary electrophoresis and molecular platforms serving as labs-on-chips. This conference allowed cross-fertilization of ideas, projects and collaborative work by a multidisciplinary audience of national and international colleagues from the academia, industry and federal government: The National Institutes of Health, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Defense.

  8. [Introduction].

    PubMed

    Gerard, Adrienne; van den Bogaard, Alberts

    2008-01-01

    Along with the international trends in history of computing, Dutch contributions over the past twenty years moved away from a focus on machinery to the broader scope of use of computers, appropriation of computing technologies in various traditions, labour relations and professionalisation issues, and, lately, software. It is only natural that an emerging field like computer science sets out to write its genealogy and canonise the important steps in its intellectual endeavour. It is fair to say that a historiography diverging from such "home" interest, started in 1987 with the work of Eda Kranakis--then active in The Netherlands--commissioned by the national bureau for technology assessment, and Gerard Alberts, turning a commemorative volume of the Mathematical Center into a history of the same institute. History of computing in The Netherlands made a major leap in the spring of 1994 when Dirk de Wit, Jan van den Ende and Ellen van Oost defended their dissertations, on the roads towards adoption of computing technology in banking, in science and engineering, and on the gender aspect in computing. Here, history of computing had already moved from machines to the use of computers. The three authors joined Gerard Alberts and Onno de Wit in preparing a volume on the rise of IT in The Netherlands, the sequel of which in now in preparation in a team lead by Adrienne van den Bogaard. Dutch research reflected the international attention for professionalisation issues (Ensmenger, Haigh) very early on in the dissertation by Ruud van Dael, Something to do with computers (2001) revealing how occupations dealing with computers typically escape the pattern of closure by professionalisation as expected by the, thus outdated, sociology of professions. History of computing not only takes use and users into consideration, but finally, as one may say, confronts the technological side of putting the machine to use, software, head on. The groundbreaking works of the 2000 Paderborn meeting and by Martin Campbell-Kelly resonate in work done in The Netherlands and recently in a major research project sponsored by the European Science Foundation: Software for Europe. The four contributions to this issue offer a true cross-section of ongoing history of computing in The Netherlands. Gerard Alberts and Huub de Beer return to the earliest computers at the Mathematical Center. As they do so under the perspective of using the machines, the result is, let us say, remarkable. Adrienne van den Bogaard compares the styles of software as practiced by Van der Poel and Dijkstra: so much had these two pioneers in common, so different the consequences they took. Frank Veraart treats us with an excerpt from his recent dissertation on the domestication of the micro computer technology: appropriation of computing technology is shown by the role of intermediate actors. Onno de Wit, finally, gives an account of the development, prior to internet, of a national data communication network among large scale users and its remarkable persistence under competition with new network technologies.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Ken; Briggs*, Richard J.

    The motivation for the initial development of linear induction accelerators starting in the early 1960s came mainly from applications requiring intense electron pulses with beam currents and a charge per pulse above the range accessible to RF accelerators, and with particle energies beyond the capabilities of single stage pulsed-power diodes. The linear induction accelerators developed to meet these needs utilize a series of induction cells containing magnetic cores (torroidal geometry) driven directly by pulse modulators (pulsed power sources). This multistage "one-to-one transformer" configuration with non-resonant, low impedance induction cells accelerates kilo-Ampere-scale electron beam current pulses in induction linacs.

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-01-01

    First of all, I would like to wish all of you an happy New Year, which I sincerely hope will bring you success, happiness and interesting new opportunities. For us in ALMA, the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 have been very exciting and this is once more a special moment in the development of our observatory. After transporting our third antenna to the high altitude Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 meters above sea level, our team successfully combined the outputs of these antennas using "phase closure", a standard method in interferometry. This achievement marks one more milestone along the way to the beginning of Commissioning and Science Verification, CSV, which, once completed, will mark the beginning of Early Science for ALMA. There was an official announcement about this milestone at the AAS meeting early January and we also wanted to share this good news with you through this newsletter, which contains the content of the announcement. In another area, this newsletter contains the progress on site and a presentation of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA). This is the second part of a two part series on antennas, a continuation of the article in the last newsletter. The ACA plays a crucial part in the imaging of extended sources with ALMA. Without the ACA, the ability to produce accurate images would be very restricted. Finally, as you know, we like to show the human face of this great endeavour we are building and this time, we decided to highlight the Department of Technical Services, another fundamental piece working actively to make ALMA the most powerful radio observatory ever built.

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Corinne; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are fundamental to the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. In the deep biosphere, microbial mediated transformations are responsible for shaping our natural resources over geological time. However, for many years our knowledge and understanding of microrogansisms in sub-surface environments, like oil reservoirs has been based primarily on culture-based approaches such as plate counts or most probable numbers (MPN).

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, J. A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science). Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Brett E.

    1998-09-01

    The pace of technological advancement of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) over the last several years has been extremely rapid. The field has progressed from one-dimensional low-coherence ranging to full three-dimensional imaging with individual two-dimensional images aquired at near video rate in a span of less than eight years. Imaging applications have included polymers and advanced composites, Ophthalmology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Urology, Cardiology, Neurology, and Gynecology. These preliminary studies indicate the great potential for OCT to make a significant impact, especially in clinical medicine.

  14. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  15. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The formation of life remains a mystery. In our three-day scientific event, we will hear talks and see posters concerning what astrochemistry and astrobiology can currently tell us about this mystery. The first subject to be explored by our speakers will be astrochemistry, and what has been learned about the formation of complex molecules in star- and planet-forming regions of the interstellar medium. This topic will be sub-divided into three subjects: astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and simulations of the chemistry leading to large molecules, both in the gas and on the surfaces of interstellar dust particles. Some introductory remarks will be given about these subjects. We will next learn about the roles of comets and exoplanets. We will hear how comets can produce water and complex molecules, and possibly deliver them to nascent planets such as the early earth, and we will learn what current space probes such as Rosetta can tell us about the chemical make-up of comets. Regarding exoplanets, speakers will explore their likely atmospheres, and what complex molecules can be simulated in them. The last part of the event will be divided into various fields of astrobiology, including synthetic approaches to primitive life, paths to observations of life on other worlds, simulations of the origin of life, and the particular role of hydrothermal environments. In summary, we will learn about significant progress in astrochemistry and astrobiology, and yet we will also learn about how much more must be known before we can solve in its entirety the basic problem of how life arose.

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Vaníček, Petr

    A symposium entitled "Slow Deformation and Transmission of Stress in the Earth" was convened at the XIXth General Assembly Meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. This monograph is based on presentations made at that symposium which was held on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada on August 15th and 17th, 1987. The objective of the symposium was to engage geophysicists and geodesists in a discussion of the mechanisms, models, and measurements of slow deformations and stress transmission in the Earth's crust and mantle. These deformations are characterized by their quasi-static nature in which the effects of acceleration are negligible compared to those due to gravitational, rheological, thermal, chemical, and phase-change stresses. Phenomena such as tectonic plate motions, postglacial rebound, mantle convection, strain accumulation, aseismic strain release, and polar motion-induced deformations are included in this description. For many phenomena the effects of anelasticity and temporal nonlinearity are significant. This view of slow deformations is largely geophysical. From a geodetic point of view, however, the maintenance of accurate coordinates of points on the Earth's surface requires that the geometry of ongoing deformation be taken into account [International Association of Geodesy, 1987]. This necessitates an understanding of the geophysical models of the temporal deformations and their predictive powers. Thus the symposium presenters were challenged to address such key issues as: the current state of understanding of the phenomena of slow deformation and transmission of stress, contrasts between alternative models, applicability of geophysical models to prediction of positional changes, and assessment of model and parameter accuracies. These were formidable challenges and as such were pursued by only some of the authors.

  17. High genetic diversity is not essential for successful introduction.

    PubMed

    Rollins, Lee A; Moles, Angela T; Lam, Serena; Buitenwerf, Robert; Buswell, Joanna M; Brandenburger, Claire R; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Nielsen, Knud B; Couchman, Ellen; Brown, Gordon S; Thomson, Fiona J; Hemmings, Frank; Frankham, Richard; Sherwin, William B

    2013-11-01

    Some introduced populations thrive and evolve despite the presumed loss of diversity at introduction. We aimed to quantify the amount of genetic diversity retained at introduction in species that have shown evidence of adaptation to their introduced environments. Samples were taken from native and introduced ranges of Arctotheca populifolia and Petrorhagia nanteuilii. Using microsatellite data, we identified the source for each introduction, estimated genetic diversity in native and introduced populations, and calculated the amount of diversity retained in introduced populations. These values were compared to those from a literature review of diversity in native, confamilial populations and to estimates of genetic diversity retained at introduction. Gene diversity in the native range of both species was significantly lower than for confamilials. We found that, on average, introduced populations showing evidence of adaptation to their new environments retained 81% of the genetic diversity from the native range. Introduced populations of P. nanteuilii had higher genetic diversity than found in the native source populations, whereas introduced populations of A. populifolia retained only 14% of its native diversity in one introduction and 1% in another. Our literature review has shown that most introductions demonstrating adaptive ability have lost diversity upon introduction. The two species studied here had exceptionally low native range genetic diversity. Further, the two introductions of A. populifolia represent the largest percentage loss of genetic diversity in a species showing evidence of substantial morphological change in the introduced range. While high genetic diversity may increase the likelihood of invasion success, the species examined here adapted to their new environments with very little neutral genetic diversity. This finding suggests that even introductions founded by small numbers of individuals have the potential to become invasive.

  18. High genetic diversity is not essential for successful introduction

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Lee A; Moles, Angela T; Lam, Serena; Buitenwerf, Robert; Buswell, Joanna M; Brandenburger, Claire R; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Nielsen, Knud B; Couchman, Ellen; Brown, Gordon S; Thomson, Fiona J; Hemmings, Frank; Frankham, Richard; Sherwin, William B

    2013-01-01

    Some introduced populations thrive and evolve despite the presumed loss of diversity at introduction. We aimed to quantify the amount of genetic diversity retained at introduction in species that have shown evidence of adaptation to their introduced environments. Samples were taken from native and introduced ranges of Arctotheca populifolia and Petrorhagia nanteuilii. Using microsatellite data, we identified the source for each introduction, estimated genetic diversity in native and introduced populations, and calculated the amount of diversity retained in introduced populations. These values were compared to those from a literature review of diversity in native, confamilial populations and to estimates of genetic diversity retained at introduction. Gene diversity in the native range of both species was significantly lower than for confamilials. We found that, on average, introduced populations showing evidence of adaptation to their new environments retained 81% of the genetic diversity from the native range. Introduced populations of P. nanteuilii had higher genetic diversity than found in the native source populations, whereas introduced populations of A. populifolia retained only 14% of its native diversity in one introduction and 1% in another. Our literature review has shown that most introductions demonstrating adaptive ability have lost diversity upon introduction. The two species studied here had exceptionally low native range genetic diversity. Further, the two introductions of A. populifolia represent the largest percentage loss of genetic diversity in a species showing evidence of substantial morphological change in the introduced range. While high genetic diversity may increase the likelihood of invasion success, the species examined here adapted to their new environments with very little neutral genetic diversity. This finding suggests that even introductions founded by small numbers of individuals have the potential to become invasive. PMID:24340190

  19. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  20. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  1. Lattice QCD: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. B.

    A general introduction to lattice QCD is given. The reader is assumed to have some basic familiarity with the path integral representation of quantum field theory. Emphasis is placed on showing that the lattice regularization provides a robust conceptual and computational framework within quantum field theory. The goal is to provide a useful overview, with many references pointing to the following chapters and to freely available lecture series for more in-depth treatments of specifics topics.

  2. An introduction to quantum turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vinen, W F

    2008-08-28

    This paper provides a brief introduction to quantum turbulence in simple superfluids, in which the required rotational motion in the superfluid component is due entirely to the topological defects that are identified as quantized vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the basic dynamical behaviour of the quantized vortices and on turbulent decay mechanisms at a very low temperature. There are possible analogies with the behaviour of cosmic strings.

  3. Introduction of new technology in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D

    2008-01-01

    In this review paper introduction of new technologies in vascular surgery is discussed. The difficulties compared to introduction of pharmacological treatment are analyzed. Pros and cons with randomized controlled trials and observational studies are listed.

  4. Introduction to SQL. Ch. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, T.; Santisteban, M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides a very brief introduction to the Structured Query Language (SQL) for getting information from relational databases. We make no pretense that this is a complete or comprehensive discussion of SQL. There are many aspects of the language the will be completely ignored in the presentation. The goal here is to provide enough background so that users understand the basic concepts involved in building and using relational databases. We also go through the steps involved in building a particular astronomical database used in some of the other presentations in this volume.

  5. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  6. Modern Introduction to Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Challener, William

    2010-05-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetics of planar surface waves; 3. Single-interface modes in the microwave regime; 4. Single-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 5. Double-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 6. Single-interface surface plasmons; 7. Double-interface surface plasmons in symmetric guides; 8. Quasi one-dimensional surface plasmons; 9. Localized surface plasmons; 10. Techniques for exciting surface plasmons; 11. Plasmonic materials; 12. Applications; Appendixes; Index.

  7. 26 CFR 41.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 41.0-1 Section 41.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Introduction § 41.0-1 Introduction. The regulations...

  8. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 20.0-1 Section 20.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....

  9. 26 CFR 31.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 31.0-1 Section 31.0-1 Internal... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Introduction § 31.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part relate to the employment taxes imposed by subtitle...

  10. 26 CFR 4.954-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 4.954-0 Section 4.954-0 Internal... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 954 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE § 4.954-0 Introduction. (a... corporation beginning after December 31, 1986. (I) § 4.954-0 Introduction. (a) Effective dates. (b)...

  11. 26 CFR 44.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 44.0-1 Section 44.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Introduction § 44.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....

  12. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 48.0-1 Section 48.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  13. 26 CFR 46.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 46.0-1 Section 46.0-1 Internal... TAX ON POLICIES ISSUED BY FOREIGN INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Introduction § 46.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 46 relate to the taxes on policies issued by...

  14. 27 CFR 53.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 53.1 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS MANUFACTURERS EXCISE TAXES-FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Introduction § 53.1 Introduction. The regulations in this part (part 53, subchapter C, chapter I, title 27, Code...

  15. Assessing introduction risk using species' rank-abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Farrah T; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2015-01-22

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk.

  16. An introduction to the Internet.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-03-10

    The aim of this multipart series is to show members of the dental team why the Internet is becoming an essential tool and to encourage colleagues to 'get online'. The various ways of connecting to the Internet are discussed, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. How to use email and browse the World Wide Web is covered in some detail. There are plenty of practical tips on how to use the Internet safely and efficiently. The amount of information available on the Internet is vast and the series gives practical illustrations on how to be successful in searching for relevant information. There is an introduction on how to create a practice website and the final part looks at how to put all these skills together to make the most use of the Internet in the practice of dentistry.

  17. Modelling in nutrition: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Dainty, J R

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to modelling, particularly mathematical modelling, for nutritional researchers with little or no experience of the modelling process. It aims to outline the function of modelling, and to give some guidance on factors to consider when designing protocols to generate data as part of the modelling process. It is not intended in any way to be a comprehensive guide to mathematical modelling. The paper discusses the uses of modelling, and presents a 'hydrodynamic analogy' to compartmental modelling, to explain the process to the non-mathematically-minded and to examine some of the pitfalls to be avoided when using stable-isotope tracers. Examples of the use of modelling in nutrition are presented, including methods for determining absorption, as well as a discussion of possible future avenues for nutritional modelling.

  18. Affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.; Patrick, J.S.; Cooks, R.G. )

    1995-02-15

    A new technique, affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry, is described. In this method, a chemically modified membrane is used to selectively adsorb analytes bearing a particular functional group and concentrate them from solution. Release of the bound analyte results in its transfer across the membrane and allows it to be monitored mass spectrometrically, using, in the present case, a benchtop ion trap instrument. Alkylamine-modified cellulose membranes are used to bind substituted benzaldehydes through imine formation at high pH. Release of the bound aldehyde is achieved by acid hydrolysis of the surface-bound imine. Benzaldehyde is detected with excellent specificity at 10 ppm in a complex mixture using this method. Using the enrichment capability of the membrane, a full mass spectrum of benzaldehyde can be measured at a concentration of 10 ppb. The behavior of a variety of other aldehydes is also discussed to illustrate the capabilities of the method. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Introduction to Statistically Designed Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Mike

    2016-09-13

    Statistically designed experiments can save researchers time and money by reducing the number of necessary experimental trials, while resulting in more conclusive experimental results. Surprisingly, many researchers are still not aware of this efficient and effective experimental methodology. As reported in a 2013 article from Chemical & Engineering News, there has been a resurgence of this methodology in recent years (http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i13/Design-Experiments-Makes-Comeback.html?h=2027056365). This presentation will provide a brief introduction to statistically designed experiments. The main advantages will be reviewed along with the some basic concepts such as factorial and fractional factorial designs. The recommended sequential approach to experiments will be introduced and finally a case study will be presented to demonstrate this methodology.

  20. Introduction to machine learning for brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Lemm, Steven; Blankertz, Benjamin; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2011-05-15

    Machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms have in the past years developed to become a working horse in brain imaging and the computational neurosciences, as they are instrumental for mining vast amounts of neural data of ever increasing measurement precision and detecting minuscule signals from an overwhelming noise floor. They provide the means to decode and characterize task relevant brain states and to distinguish them from non-informative brain signals. While undoubtedly this machinery has helped to gain novel biological insights, it also holds the danger of potential unintentional abuse. Ideally machine learning techniques should be usable for any non-expert, however, unfortunately they are typically not. Overfitting and other pitfalls may occur and lead to spurious and nonsensical interpretation. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an accessible and clear introduction to the strengths and also the inherent dangers of machine learning usage in the neurosciences.

  1. Basic nonlinear acoustics: an introduction for radiological physicists.

    PubMed

    Harpen, Michael D

    2006-09-01

    Presented is a brief introduction to nonlinear acoustics, a topic of increasing importance in modern diagnostic ultrasound. Specifically treated is shock wave and harmonic production in lossless media. We also present a description of linear attenuation mechanisms in soft tissue and finally nonlinear propagation in soft tissue.

  2. Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Alex G; Hänel, Christine; Chown, Steven L

    2003-05-22

    The introduction of species to areas beyond the limits of their natural distributions has a major homogenizing influence, making previously distinct biotas more similar. The scale of introductions has frequently been commented on, but their rate and spatial pervasiveness have been less well quantified. Here, we report the findings of a detailed study of pterygote insect introductions to Gough Island, one of the most remote and supposedly pristine temperate oceanic islands, and estimate the rate at which introduced species have successfully established. Out of 99 species recorded from Gough Island, 71 are established introductions, the highest proportion documented for any Southern Ocean island. Estimating a total of approximately 233 landings on Gough Island since first human landfall, this equates to one successful establishment for every three to four landings. Generalizations drawn from other areas suggest that this may be only one-tenth of the number of pterygote species that have arrived at the island, implying that most landings may lead to the arrival of at least one alien. These rates of introduction of new species are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than background levels for Gough Island, an increase comparable to that estimated for global species extinctions (many of which occur on islands) as a consequence of human activities.

  3. Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Alex G; Hänel, Christine; Chown, Steven L

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of species to areas beyond the limits of their natural distributions has a major homogenizing influence, making previously distinct biotas more similar. The scale of introductions has frequently been commented on, but their rate and spatial pervasiveness have been less well quantified. Here, we report the findings of a detailed study of pterygote insect introductions to Gough Island, one of the most remote and supposedly pristine temperate oceanic islands, and estimate the rate at which introduced species have successfully established. Out of 99 species recorded from Gough Island, 71 are established introductions, the highest proportion documented for any Southern Ocean island. Estimating a total of approximately 233 landings on Gough Island since first human landfall, this equates to one successful establishment for every three to four landings. Generalizations drawn from other areas suggest that this may be only one-tenth of the number of pterygote species that have arrived at the island, implying that most landings may lead to the arrival of at least one alien. These rates of introduction of new species are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than background levels for Gough Island, an increase comparable to that estimated for global species extinctions (many of which occur on islands) as a consequence of human activities. PMID:12803900

  4. Introduction to Software Product Lines (Slides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 by Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Introduction to...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Software...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Introduction to Software Product Lines 2 Copyright 2014 Carnegie

  5. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  6. Introduction: Unsolved Problems on Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriols, X.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue of the 7th Int. Conf. on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) that took place at Casa Convalescència in Barcelona (Spain) in July 2015. The aim of the UPoN conferences is to provide a forum for researchers working on different fields of noise, fluctuations and variability, where they present their scientific problems which resist solutions. The papers of this Special Issue reflect the interdisciplinary topics (physics, biology, circuits, financial markets, psychology, technology, etc) presented at the UPoN conference. Noise is not only a hindrance to signal detection, but it is indeed a valuable source of information (not present in the signal) that help us to get a deeper understanding on how Nature works. This special issue of the 7th International Conference on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) is dedicated to Laszlo Kish in the occasion of his 60th birthday. He organized the first edition of these UPoN conferences in Szeged (Hungary) in 1996. Many of us have greatly benefited from his ‘volcanic imagination in tackling new problems from unconventional points of views’.

  7. Introduction: Towards Sustainable 2020 Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Faced with the immanent end of the nanometer roadmap at 10 nm, and with an electronics energy crisis, we have to engineer the largest strategy change in the 50-years history of microelectronics, renamed to nanoelectronics in 2000 with the first chips containing 100-nm transistors. Accepting the 10 nm-limit, the new strategy for the future growth of chip functionalities and markets has to deliver, within a decade, another 1,000× improvement in the energy per processing operation as well as in the energy per bit of memory and of communication. As a team from industry and from research, we present expectations, requirements and possible solutions for this challenging energy scenario of femto- and atto-Joule electronics. The introduction outlines the book's structure, which aims to describe the innovation eco-system needed for optimum-energy, sustainable nanoelectronics. For the benefit of the reader, chapters are grouped together into interest areas like transistors and circuits, technology, products and markets, radical innovations, as well as business and policy issues.

  8. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, F. M.

    1985-10-01

    A novel polynomial-time algorithm for compacting a VLSI layout is presented. Compared to previous algorithms, the algorithm promises to produce higher quality output while reducing the need for designer intervention. The performance gain is realized by converting wires into constraints on the positions of the active devices. These constraints can be solved by graph-theoretic techniques to yield optimal positions for chip components. A single-layer router is then used to restore the wires to the layout, using as many as jogs as necessary. An automated compaction procedure is an effective tool for cutting production costs of a VLSI circuit at low cost to the designer, because the yield of fabricated chips is strongly dependent on the total circuit area. Sect 1 is an introduction. Sect 2 states the definitions and theoretical results that underlie the new compaction method. Sect 3 shows how the circuit layout is converted to a data structure appropriate for compaction, and Sect 4 details the body of the compaction algorithm. Sect 5 covers several improvements to the algorithm that should make it run considerably faster. Sect 6 comments on the algorithms of results, and a discussion of the practical value of the compaction algorithm.

  9. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio

    The following sections are included: * THE STANDARD MODEL: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL * The "Low Energy" Limit of Renormalizable Gauge Theories * The Standard Model: its purity * The Standard Model: its impurity * Vices and Virtues of the Standard Model * INTRODUCTION TO GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES * When "Strong" and "Weak" Merge Together * The "Big Desert" Picture of the World * A Persistent Cloud: the hierarchy problem * PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GUTs * What is New in GUTs * General Features of the B and L Violating Processes * A FIRST GLIMPSE AT THE SU(5) MODEL * Why SU(5)? * The Higgs Sector and the Hierarchy Nightmare * LOW ENERGY PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SU(5) * The Successful sin2θW Prediction of SU(5) * Fermion Masses in SU(5) * Mixing Angles and Phases * Proton Lifetime: A Death Blow to the SU(5) Model? * B-L and Neutrino Masses in SU(5) * SU(5): A Final Score * NEW PHYSICS NOT FAR FROM THE FERMI SCALE? * L-Right Symmetry: A Fundamental Symmetry? * Massive Majorana Neutrinos * Neutron -Antineutron Oscillations * Lepton Number as a Fourth Colour * THE SO(10) MODEL * Few Generalities on the Orthogonal Groups * The SO(10) Gauge Interactions * Patterns of Symmetry Breaking in the SO(10) Model * The Fermion Mass Spectrum * The Question of the Neutrino Mass * PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INTERMEDIATE MASS SCALES * Renormalization Group Equations in the Presence of IMS * MI and MX in IMS models * Higgs Contributions to the β-Functions * Phenomenological Consequences of IMS * A GENERAL OUTLOOK ON GUTs * General Constraints on GUTs * Major Unsolved Questions in GUTs * Bibliography * References

  10. Appetite - increased

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you noticed any other symptoms such as anxiety, palpitations , increased thirst , vomiting , frequent urination , or unintentional weight gain? Tests that may be done include: Blood tests, ...

  11. An Introduction to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2008-04-01

    Space debris is any human-made object in orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose, including defunct satellites, discarded equipment and rocket stages, and fragments from the breakup of satellites and rocket stages. It is a concern because--due to its very high speed in orbit--even relatively small pieces can damage or destroy satellites in a collision. Since debris at high altitudes can stay in orbit for decades or longer, it accumulates as more is produced and the risk of collisions with satellites grows. Since there is currently no effective way to remove large amounts of debris from orbit, controlling the production of debris is essential for preserving the long-term use of space. Today there are 860 active satellites in orbit, supporting a wide range of civil and military uses. The 50 years of space activity since the launch of Sputnik 1 has also resulted in well over half a million pieces of orbiting debris larger than 1 cm in size. There are two main sources of space debris: (1) routine space activity and the accidental breakup of satellites and stages placed in orbit by such activity, and (2) the testing or use of destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons that physically collide with satellites at high speed. The international community is attempting to reduce the first category by developing strict guidelines to limit the debris created as a result of routine space activities. However, the destruction of a single large spy satellite by an ASAT weapon could double the total amount of large debris in low earth orbit, and there are currently no international restrictions on these systems. This talk will give an introduction to what's in space, the origins of space debris, efforts to stem its growth, the threat it poses to satellites in orbit, and the long-term evolution of the debris population.

  12. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  13. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  14. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  15. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  16. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  17. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  18. 20 CFR 221.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 221.1 Section 221.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.1 Introduction. This part explains the factors involved in deciding whether the...

  19. 20 CFR 330.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 330.1 Section 330.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides for...

  20. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  1. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  2. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  3. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  4. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  5. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  6. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  7. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  8. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1500 Section 416.1500 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1500 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1700 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1700 Section 404.1700 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1700 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in any of...

  11. AN INTRODUCTION TO OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents an introduction to some of the concepts and results currently popular in optimal control theory . The introduction is intended...for someone acquainted with ordinary differential equations and real variables, but with no prior knowledge of control theory . The material covered

  12. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  13. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The Internal... agency by which these functions are performed. Within an internal revenue district the internal...

  14. 9 CFR 204.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 204.1 Section 204.1... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Public Information § 204.1 Introduction. The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (Packers and Stockyards...

  15. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....

  16. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....

  17. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....

  18. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....

  19. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....

  20. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0... POLICIES § 801.0 Introduction. (a) The Governors of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, and... basinwide planning programs and projects, and to take independent action as it determines essential...

  1. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 30.1 Section 30...-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction. (a... Valley project and with the purposes of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1)...

  2. 32 CFR 651.9 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.9 Section 651.9 National... § 651.9 Introduction. (a) The NEPA process is the systematic examination of possible and probable... projects and program planning must occur at the earliest possible time to ensure that: (1) Planning...

  3. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.40 Section 651.40 National... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a) An... (300 pages for complex projects). To the extent practicable, EISs will “incorporate by reference”...

  4. 15 CFR 738.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 738.1 Section 738.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.1 Introduction. (a) Commerce Control List scope. (1) In this...

  5. 14 CFR 34.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 34.80 Section 34.80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND... Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.80 Introduction. Except as provided under § 34.5,...

  6. 15 CFR 764.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 764.1 Section 764.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... MEASURES § 764.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter...

  7. 32 CFR 147.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 147.18 Section 147.18 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... Standards § 147.18 Introduction. The following investigative standards are established for all United...

  8. 26 CFR 1.72-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 1.72-1 Section 1.72-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.72-1 Introduction. (a)...

  9. 45 CFR 1217.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1217.1 Section 1217.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.1 Introduction. Section 105(a)(1), Part A, of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act...

  10. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  11. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.40 Section 651.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  12. 15 CFR 700.2 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 700.2 Section 700.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Overview § 700.2 Introduction. (a) Certain national defense and...

  13. 28 CFR 59.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 59.1 Section 59.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ON METHODS OF OBTAINING DOCUMENTARY MATERIALS HELD BY THIRD PARTIES § 59.1 Introduction. (a) A search for documentary materials necessarily...

  14. 45 CFR 1218.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1218.1 Section 1218.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEERS-HEARING OPPORTUNITY § 1218.1 Introduction. Section 104(d) of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 493.1200 Section 493.1200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Introduction. (a) Each laboratory that performs nonwaived testing must establish and maintain written...

  16. 38 CFR 21.340 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 21.340 Section 21.340 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Leaves of Absence § 21.340 Introduction. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under...

  17. 32 CFR 651.9 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.9 Section 651.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... § 651.9 Introduction. (a) The NEPA process is the systematic examination of possible and...

  18. 8 CFR 100.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 100.1 Section 100.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION § 100.1 Introduction. The following components have been delegated authority under the Immigration...

  19. 26 CFR 40.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 40.0-1 Section 40.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS § 40.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part 40...

  20. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 24.1 Section 24.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the...

  1. 29 CFR 501.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 501.0 Section 501.0 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF... AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.0 Introduction. The regulations in this part cover...

  2. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  3. 40 CFR 49.121 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 49.121 Section 49.121 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN... Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.121 Introduction. (a) What is the purpose of the “General...

  4. 26 CFR 43.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 43.0-1 Section 43.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON TRANSPORTATION BY WATER § 43.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 43 are...

  5. 28 CFR 802.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 802.1 Section 802.1 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS General § 802.1 Introduction. This part contains regulations of the Court Services...

  6. 26 CFR 1.614-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1.614-0 Section 1.614-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.614-0 Introduction. Section 614 relates to the definition...

  7. 49 CFR 1150.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1150.11 Section 1150.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Designated Operators § 1150.11 Introduction. A certificate of designated operator will be issued to...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  9. 15 CFR 756.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 756.1 Section 756.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Introduction. (a) Scope. This part 756 describes the procedures applicable to appeals from...

  10. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  11. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  12. 5 CFR 890.801 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 890.801 Section 890.801 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Benefits for Former Spouses § 890.801 Introduction. This subpart...

  13. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 32.1 Section 32.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUNG ADULT CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1.1200 Section 1.1200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Ex Parte Communications General § 1.1200 Introduction. (a) Purpose. To ensure the fairness and integrity of its decision-making,...

  15. 7 CFR 4279.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 4279.101 Section 4279.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... Introduction. (a) Content. This subpart contains loan processing regulations for the Business and Industry...

  16. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  17. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.0 Introduction. (a) The Governors of the States of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland,...

  18. 45 CFR 1220.1-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1220.1-1 Section 1220.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES General § 1220.1-1 Introduction. Section 419 of the Domestic...

  19. 47 CFR 2.1501 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 2.1501 Section 2.1501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL... Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) General § 2.1501 Introduction. The procedure described herein sets forth uniform...

  20. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 292.11 Section 292.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction....

  1. 29 CFR 1910.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 1910.301 Section 1910.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical General § 1910.301 Introduction. This subpart...

  2. 49 CFR 1103.10 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1103.10 Section 1103.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics § 1103.10 Introduction....

  3. 32 CFR 147.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 147.1 Section 147.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... Introduction. The following adjudicative guidelines are established for all United States Government...

  4. 15 CFR 918.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 918.1 Section 918.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... Introduction. Pursuant to section 207 of the National Sea Grant College Program Act, as amended (Pub. L....

  5. 29 CFR 500.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 500.0 Section 500.0 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.0 Introduction. (a) The Migrant and...

  6. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 26.1 Section 26.1 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of...

  7. 40 CFR 52.02 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 52.02 Section 52.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS General Provisions § 52.02 Introduction. (a) This part sets forth...

  8. CSI: An Engaging Online Classroom Introduction Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Geralyn E.

    2015-01-01

    All course activities should be aimed at moving students towards the learning outcomes, including class introductions. This article provides detailed instructions for implementing an online Class Session Introductions (CSI) activity that immediately engages students with their peers, the content and the instructor. The activity may be useful to…

  9. 49 CFR 1150.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1150.1 Section 1150.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF... 49 U.S.C. 10901 § 1150.1 Introduction. (a) When an application is required. This subpart...

  10. 32 CFR 2102.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 2102.1 Section 2102.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL RULES AND REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2102.1 Introduction. (a) Insofar as the Privacy Act of 1974 (5...

  11. 7 CFR 4287.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 4287.101 Section 4287.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... § 4287.101 Introduction. (a) This subpart supplements part 4279, subparts A and B, by...

  12. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin...

  13. 26 CFR 25.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 25.0-1 Section 25.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Gift Tax § 25.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1) The...

  14. 10 CFR 216.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 216.1 Section 216.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MATERIALS ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY PERFORMANCE UNDER CONTRACTS OR ORDERS TO MAXIMIZE DOMESTIC ENERGY SUPPLIES § 216.1 Introduction. (a) This part describes and establishes the procedures to be...

  15. 32 CFR 651.54 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.54 Section 651.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY... Introduction. (a) Protection of the environment is an Army priority, no matter where the Army actions...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.851 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Introduction. 1951.851 Section 1951.851 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.851 Introduction....

  17. 26 CFR 1.954-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 1.954-0 Section 1.954-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.954-0 Introduction. (a) Effective dates—(1) Final...

  18. 45 CFR 1219.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1219.1 Section 1219.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMPETITIVE SERVICE ELIGIBILITY § 1219.1 Introduction. Section 415(d), Title IV, of the Domestic Volunteer Service...

  19. 32 CFR 516.69 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 516.69 Section 516.69 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Cooperation With the Office of Special Counsel § 516.69 Introduction. This...

  20. 7 CFR 4274.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 4274.301 Section 4274.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL... (IRP) § 4274.301 Introduction. (a) This subpart contains regulations for loans made by the Agency...

  1. 7 CFR 1980.401 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Introduction. 1980.401 Section 1980.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.401 Introduction. (a)...

  2. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 740.1 Section 740.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a)...

  3. 15 CFR 774.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 774.1 Section 774.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... § 774.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter...

  4. 7 CFR 1980.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Introduction. 1980.301 Section 1980.301 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.301 Introduction. (a) Policy. This subpart...

  5. 32 CFR 147.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 147.28 Section 147.28 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... Temporary Access § 147.28 Introduction. The following minimum investigative standards, implementing...

  6. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 746.1 Section 746.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter...

  7. 40 CFR 87.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 87.80 Section 87.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR... Turbine Engines) § 87.80 Introduction. Except as provided under § 87.5, the procedures described in...

  8. 15 CFR 770.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 770.1 Section 770.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. This...

  9. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 736.1 Section 736.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII,...

  10. 45 CFR 1217.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction. 1217.1 Section 1217.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA VOLUNTEER LEADER § 1217.1 Introduction. Section 105(a)(1), Part A, of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, Pub. L. 93-113, 87 Stat....

  11. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  12. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  13. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.40 Section 651.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  14. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  15. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  16. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  17. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  18. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  19. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.40 Section 651.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  20. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.40 Section 651.40 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  1. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  2. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  3. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  4. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  5. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  6. 20 CFR 356.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 356.1 Section 356.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.1 Introduction. (a) The Federal Civil Penalties...

  7. 20 CFR 356.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 356.1 Section 356.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.1 Introduction. (a) The Federal Civil Penalties...

  8. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2006-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  9. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2014-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  10. 20 CFR 404.2001 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 404.2001 Section 404.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2001 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart...

  11. 20 CFR 404.2001 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.2001 Section 404.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2001 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart...

  12. 20 CFR 404.2001 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 404.2001 Section 404.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2001 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart...

  13. 20 CFR 404.2001 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 404.2001 Section 404.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2001 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart...

  14. 20 CFR 404.2001 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 404.2001 Section 404.2001 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representative Payment § 404.2001 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart...

  15. 26 CFR 1.614-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1.614-0 Section 1.614-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.614-0 Introduction. Section 614 relates to the definition...

  16. 20 CFR 410.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Introduction, General Provisions, and Definitions § 410.101 Introduction... the provisions of part B (Black Lung Benefits) of title IV of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as enacted December 30, 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, and...

  17. 20 CFR 410.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Introduction, General Provisions, and Definitions § 410.101 Introduction... the provisions of part B (Black Lung Benefits) of title IV of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as enacted December 30, 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, and...

  18. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  19. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  20. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  1. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  2. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  3. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  4. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  5. Investigation of Remedial Education Course Scores as a Predictor of Introduction-Level Course Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Ward; Means, Darris R.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Kristensen, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether performance in remedial English and remedial math is a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or college-level math class; and whether demographic variables increase the likelihood of remedial English and remedial math as a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or…

  6. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  7. An introduction to the architectural surety program

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This paper provides a summary introduction to the nationally emerging area of Architectural and Infrastructure Surety that is under development at Sandia National Laboratories. This program area, addressing technology requirements at the national level, includes four major elements: education, research, development, and application. It involves a risk management approach to solving problems of the as-built environment through the application of security, safety, and reliability principles developed in the nuclear weapons programs of the Department of Energy. The changing responsibilities of engineering design professionals is addressed in light of the increased public awareness of structural and facility systems vulnerabilities to malevolent, normal, and abnormal environment threats. A brief discussion is presented of the education and technology outreach programs initiated through an infrastructure surety graduate Civil Engineering Department course taught at the University of New Mexico and through the architectural surety workshops and conferences already held and planned for the future. A summary description is also presented of selected technologies with strong potential for application to specific national architectural and infrastructure surety concerns. These technologies include super-computational modeling and structural simulations, window glass fragmentation modeling, risk management procedures, instrumentation and health monitoring systems, and three-dimensional CAD virtual reality visualization techniques.

  8. Chapter 1: Introduction and Summary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions measured 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), rising 5.9 percent from 1990 estimates. Global concentrations of the three most important long-lived greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere have increased measurably since t...

  9. An Introduction to the Memristor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a revolution in electronics, with a variety of physical phenomena being utilized in the construction of new types of memory circuits for computer application. A device which has had an increasing role is the memristor, whose description and properties have so far had little mention in physics education. This paper…

  10. Specialization and Integration: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, David

    1990-01-01

    States that intractable problems' many of which were specific to increasing specialization within individual disciplines, accompanied knowledge expansion in the West. Suggests interdisciplinary training as a solution to fragmentation. Points out that Chinese scholars have not seen specialization as a problem, and contends that they should consider…

  11. An Introduction to Tagmemic Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Janice A.

    Tagmemic invention offers a student several ways of decreasing the unfamiliarity of the early stages of writing. The process of inquiry and the heuristic devices provide the orientation and tools for dealing with new writing tasks with increased confidence and likelihood of success. In the theory of tagmemic rhetoric, language behavior and…

  12. Introduction: The Significance and Complexity of ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickles, Carlton R.

    1975-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to a symposium on the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and its labor law considerations. Commentary is offered on reporting and disclosure, fiduciary responsibilities, vesting, funding, and miscellaneous provisions. (LBH)

  13. Archimedes' Pi--An Introduction to Iteration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotspeich, Richard

    1988-01-01

    One method (attributed to Archimedes) of approximating pi offers a simple yet interesting introduction to one of the basic ideas of numerical analysis, an iteration sequence. The method is described and elaborated. (PK)

  14. Genre-Mixing in Academic Introductions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines introductory genres and their various realizations, conventionally used to introduce academic books and variously named as "introduction,""preface,""acknowledgement," and "publishers blurb" to investigate their nature, function, and structure within the context of current theory in genre analysis…

  15. [The clown doctor: an introduction].

    PubMed

    Rösner, M

    2010-02-01

    In the literature, increasing numbers of practitioners have reported their experience using clown doctors in geriatric settings. The reports agree on the positive effects on persons with dementia and also on their caregivers. However, empirical studies on its effectiveness are rare. This article presents the field of activity of a clown doctor in geriatric settings as well as an overview of current scientific research on the topic and the effects on persons with dementia and nursing staff. It will be become clear that the clown doctor is a supporting therapeutic intervention. Through the clown representation, it is possible to obtain access to and interact with a person with dementia, thus, maintaining social contact of the patient with his/her environment. This effect leads to an increase of well-being and contributes to a reduction of problematic behavior. In addition to reduced workload and relief for the nursing staff, it has a positive effect on the working atmosphere.

  16. Uncertainty and Surprise: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, Reuben R.; Driebe, Dean J.

    Much of the traditional scientific and applied scientific work in the social and natural sciences has been built on the supposition that the unknowability of situations is the result of a lack of information. This has led to an emphasis on uncertainty reduction through ever-increasing information seeking and processing, including better measurement and observational instrumentation. Pending uncertainty reduction through better information, efforts are devoted to uncertainty management and hierarchies of controls. A central goal has been the avoidance of surprise.

  17. An introduction to structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Charles R; Worden, Keith

    2007-02-15

    The process of implementing a damage identification strategy for aerospace, civil and mechanical engineering infrastructure is referred to as structural health monitoring (SHM). Here, damage is defined as changes to the material and/or geometric properties of these systems, including changes to the boundary conditions and system connectivity, which adversely affect the system's performance. A wide variety of highly effective local non-destructive evaluation tools are available for such monitoring. However, the majority of SHM research conducted over the last 30 years has attempted to identify damage in structures on a more global basis. The past 10 years have seen a rapid increase in the amount of research related to SHM as quantified by the significant escalation in papers published on this subject. The increased interest in SHM and its associated potential for significant life-safety and economic benefits has motivated the need for this theme issue. This introduction begins with a brief history of SHM technology development. Recent research has begun to recognize that the SHM problem is fundamentally one of the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) and a paradigm to address such a problem is described in detail herein as it forms the basis for organization of this theme issue. In the process of providing the historical overview and summarizing the SPR paradigm, the subsequent articles in this theme issue are cited in an effort to show how they fit into this overview of SHM. In conclusion, technical challenges that must be addressed if SHM is to gain wider application are discussed in a general manner.

  18. Adaptation to Space: An Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems are normally exposed to gradients of blood pressure and weight on Earth. These gradients increase blood pressure and tissue weight in dependent tissues of the body. Exposure to actual and simulated microgravity causes blood and tissue fluid to shift from the legs to the head. Studies of humans in space have documented facial edema, space motion sickness, decreased plasma volume, muscle atrophy, and loss of bone strength. Return of astronauts to Earth is accompanied by orthostatic intolerance, decreased neuromuscular coordination, and reduced exercise capacity. These factors decrease performance during descent from orbit and increase risk during emergency egress from the spacecraft. Models of simulated microgravity include 6 deg head-down tilt, immersion, and prolonged horizontal bedrest. Head-down tilt is the most accepted model and studies using this model of up to one year have been performed in Russia. Animal models which offer clear insights into the role of gravity on vertebrates include the developing giraffe and snakes from various habitats. Finally, possible countermeasures to speed readaptation of astronauts to gravity after prolonged space flight will be discussed.

  19. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  20. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-09

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  1. Introduction to Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang

    Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.

  2. Introduction to Session 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Topics presented in the "Plant Biotechnology and Genomics" session focused on technologies that highlight the important role of plant biotechnology and genomics in the development of future energy crops. Several excellent presentations demonstrated the latest advances in energy crop development through the use of plant cell wall regulation and by engineering new energy crops such as brown midrib sweet sorghum. Approaches included the control of cellulose production by increased expression of cellulase synthase genes and the selection of high-yield varieties of shrub willows. The potential of producing hydrolytic enzymes using transgenic plants as a cost-effective means for the large-scale production of these enzymes was also explored in the session, as was the role of posttranslational modifications on the activities of heterologous expressed cellulases in hosts such as Pichia pastoris.

  3. What is homeopathy? An introduction.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Homeopathy is based on the idea of 'let like be cured by like'. It was founded by Samuel Hahnemann in the late 18th century, although similar concepts existed earlier. Homeopathy became popular in the 19th century in part because of its success in epidemics but declined during most of the 20th century. Its popularity increased in the late 20th and early 21st centuries in many parts of the world. Homeopathy is controversial because of its use of highly dilute medicines. There is a significant body of clinical research including randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses of such trials which suggest that homeopathy has actions which are not placebo effects. Cohort, observational and economic studies have yielded favourable results. There are several schools of homeopathy. Systems which use homeopathic medicines based on symbolism and metaphor are not homeopathy. Despite the long history of scientific controversy, homeopathy has proved resilient and is now geographically widespread. There is a significant body of scientific evidence with positive results. Homeopathy is an anomaly around which deserves further investigation.

  4. [Introduction to medical data mining].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingyun; Wu, Baoming; Cao, Changxiu

    2003-09-01

    Modern medicine generates a great deal of information stored in the medical database. Extracting useful knowledge and providing scientific decision-making for the diagnosis and treatment of disease from the database increasingly becomes necessary. Data mining in medicine can deal with this problem. It can also improve the management level of hospital information and promote the development of telemedicine and community medicine. Because the medical information is characteristic of redundancy, multi-attribution, incompletion and closely related with time, medical data mining differs from other one. In this paper we have discussed the key techniques of medical data mining involving pretreatment of medical data, fusion of different pattern and resource, fast and robust mining algorithms and reliability of mining results. The methods and applications of medical data mining based on computation intelligence such as artificial neural network, fuzzy system, evolutionary algorithms, rough set, and support vector machine have been introduced. The features and problems in data mining are summarized in the last section.

  5. Introduction. Information, knowledge and technology.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Alistair G J

    2003-08-15

    Technology is the sum of the ways in which social groups manipulate order in the world to achieve their ends. It enables our active engagement with the world. Technology is central to our present well-being and vital for our future survival. As such it needs a coherent world view, a conceptual framework which will enable the fundamental problems that it poses for society to be approached in an illuminating way. Furthermore, such an approach, while remaining convincing, must not be overwhelmed by an ever-increasing welter of specialization and diversity of application. It is the purpose of the set of papers presented here to examine some key aspects of such a conceptual framework; not in the sense of offering a fully worked out philosophy of technology--that would be a huge and complex undertaking--but rather by considering some key topics. Subsidiary aims are to survey important relevant areas, to identify key sources that can provide access points for further study, and to consider some possible future developments. Major, coherent domains of activity are characterized by a few, fundamental, extensively used and essentially unifying concepts. Technology is such a domain, and its fundamental concepts are information, knowledge and agency. The following sections give a synoptic overview of the material presented in this theme issue, and set it within a wider context.

  6. [Economic evaluation of healthcare technologies: an introduction for physicians].

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernández, Ramón; Hernández-Quesada, Ciber; Rivero-Arias, Oliver

    2011-07-16

    Economic evaluation of healthcare interventions is becoming increasingly important and are seen by decision makers as a useful tool on how best to allocate scarce resources efficiently by maximising the health of the population. It is therefore important that health care professionals understand the fundamentals of an economic analysis so that they can understand, evaluate and critically appraise published economic evaluations. This article presents an introduction to the economic analysis of health care interventions and describes the basic concepts of an economic evaluation. The authors introduce the concept of efficiency to defend the use of economic tools to guide or help decisions in healthcare. The article presents the cost-effectiveness plane as a useful instrument when presenting the results of an economic evaluation, and summarises the main ways on how costs and outcomes are measured. To help readers understand the concepts presented in this introduction, we draw on published examples of economic analyses undertaken in the field of stroke.

  7. Evaluation of introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae vaccine in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed

    Yohou, Kévin Sylvestre; Aka, Nicaise Lepri; Noufe, Soualihou; Douba, Alfred; Assi Assi, Bernard; Dagnan, Simplice N Cho

    2016-11-25

    Introduction: Côte d’Ivoire introduced the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine into the EPI in March 2009. Following this introduction, an evaluation was conducted in 2012 in order to evaluate the vaccine introduction process. Methods: Data collection methods consisted of document review, structured interviews and direct observation. This study collected information from six health region officials, 12 health districts and 36 healthcare institutions. Seventy-two mothers or child carers were also interviewed. Collected data were processed and analysed by Excel, Epi Info and SPSS. Results: A vaccine introduction plan was developed, but was not communicated at the operational level. The planned training for district health care providers was conducted eighteen months after introduction of the vaccine. None of the vaccinating centres had communication support about the new vaccine. Temperature recording was regularly performed in 92% of district deposits and 68% of vaccinating centres. Deteriorated vaccines were observed in 6% of vaccinating centres. Only 3.5% of parents had been informed about introduction of the vaccine. Increased immunization coverage for the third dose of pentavalent vaccine was observed in one half of health districts. Conclusion: Evaluation of the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine highlightsthe strengths and weaknesses of the health system and provides lessons for the introduction of other vaccines into the expanded programme on immunization.

  8. A Microfluidic Chip for ICPMS Sample Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Verboket, Pascal E.; Borovinskaya, Olga; Meyer, Nicole; Günther, Detlef; Dittrich, Petra S.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol discusses the fabrication and usage of a disposable low cost microfluidic chip as sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The chip produces monodisperse aqueous sample droplets in perfluorohexane (PFH). Size and frequency of the aqueous droplets can be varied in the range of 40 to 60 µm and from 90 to 7,000 Hz, respectively. The droplets are ejected from the chip with a second flow of PFH and remain intact during the ejection. A custom-built desolvation system removes the PFH and transports the droplets into the ICPMS. Here, very stable signals with a narrow intensity distribution can be measured, showing the monodispersity of the droplets. We show that the introduction system can be used to quantitatively determine iron in single bovine red blood cells. In the future, the capabilities of the introduction device can easily be extended by the integration of additional microfluidic modules. PMID:25867751

  9. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Keith

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction; Part II. Small Systems: 2. Statistics for small systems; 3. Systems with many elements; Part III. Energy and the First Law: 4. Internal energy; 5. Interactions between systems; Part IV. States and the Second Law: 6. Internal energy and the number of accessible states; 7. Entropy and the second law; 8. Entropy and thermal interactions; Part V. Constraints: 9. Natural constraints; 10. Models; 11. Choice of variables; 12. Special processes; 13. Engines; 14. Diffusive interactions; Part VI. Classical Statistics: 15. Probabilities and microscopic behaviours; 16. Kinetic theory and transport processes in gases; 17. Magnetic properties of materials; 18. The partition function; Part VII. Quantum Statistics: 19. Introduction to quantum statistics; 20. Quantum gases; 21. Blackbody radiation; 22. The thermal properties of solids; 23. The electrical properties of materials; 24. Low temperatures and degenerate systems; Appendices; Further reading; Problem solutions; Index.

  10. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Keith

    2007-05-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction; Part II. Small Systems: 2. Statistics for small systems; 3. Systems with many elements; Part III. Energy and the First Law: 4. Internal energy; 5. Interactions between systems; Part IV. States and the Second Law: 6. Internal energy and the number of accessible states; 7. Entropy and the second law; 8. Entropy and thermal interactions; Part V. Constraints: 9. Natural constraints; 10. Models; 11. Choice of variables; 12. Special processes; 13. Engines; 14. Diffusive interactions; Part VI. Classical Statistics: 15. Probabilities and microscopic behaviours; 16. Kinetic theory and transport processes in gases; 17. Magnetic properties of materials; 18. The partition function; Part VII. Quantum Statistics: 19. Introduction to quantum statistics; 20. Quantum gases; 21. Blackbody radiation; 22. The thermal properties of solids; 23. The electrical properties of materials; 24. Low temperatures and degenerate systems; Appendices; Further reading; Problem solutions; Index.

  11. A microfluidic chip for ICPMS sample introduction.

    PubMed

    Verboket, Pascal E; Borovinskaya, Olga; Meyer, Nicole; Günther, Detlef; Dittrich, Petra S

    2015-03-05

    This protocol discusses the fabrication and usage of a disposable low cost microfluidic chip as sample introduction system for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The chip produces monodisperse aqueous sample droplets in perfluorohexane (PFH). Size and frequency of the aqueous droplets can be varied in the range of 40 to 60 µm and from 90 to 7,000 Hz, respectively. The droplets are ejected from the chip with a second flow of PFH and remain intact during the ejection. A custom-built desolvation system removes the PFH and transports the droplets into the ICPMS. Here, very stable signals with a narrow intensity distribution can be measured, showing the monodispersity of the droplets. We show that the introduction system can be used to quantitatively determine iron in single bovine red blood cells. In the future, the capabilities of the introduction device can easily be extended by the integration of additional microfluidic modules.

  12. An Introduction to LANL Mixed Potential Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary; Brosha, Eric Lanich; Kreller, Cortney

    2015-01-26

    These are slides for a webinar given on the topics of an introduction to LANL mixed potential sensors. Topics include the history of LANL electrochemical sensor work, an introduction to mixed potential sensors, LANL uniqueness, and an application of LANL mixed potential sensors. The summary is as follows: Improved understanding of the mixed-potential sensor mechanism (factors controlling the sensor response identified), sensor design optimized to maximize sensor sensitivity and durability (porous electrolyte/dense electrodes), electrodes selected for various specific applications (CO, HC, H2), sensor operating parameters optimized for improved gas selectivity (NOx, NH3).

  13. An informal introduction to program transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    In the summer of 1992, I had the opportunity to participate in a Faculty Research Program, at Argonne National Laboratory. During that time I came in contact with some developments in computer science that were unfamiliar to me as a mathematician. Since most mathematicians have some exposure to computers, but certainly are not computer scientists, I felt it was appropriate to write a paper summarizing my introduction to program transformation. This paper is not meant to be a full explanation of the topic, but an informal introduction for the ``mathematical layman.``

  14. PHEV Market Introduction Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Adrienne M; Sikes, Karen R

    2009-03-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Workshop was attended by approximately forty representatives from various stakeholder organizations. The event took place at the Hotel Helix in Washington, D.C. on December 1-2, 2008. The purpose of this workshop was to follow-up last year s PHEV Value Proposition Study, which showed that indeed, a viable and even thriving market for these vehicles can exist by the year 2030. This workshop aimed to identify immediate action items that need to be undertaken to achieve a successful market introduction and ensuing large market share of PHEVs in the U.S. automotive fleet.

  15. Predictors of introduction success in the South Florida avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Biological invasions are an increasing global challenge, for which single-species studies and analyses focused on testing single hypotheses of causation in isolation are unlikely to provide much additional insight. Species interact with other species to create communities, which derive from species interactions and from the interactions of species with the scale specific elements of the landscape that provide suitable habitat and exploitable resources. I used logistic regression analysis to sort among potential intrinsic, community and landscape variables that theoretically influence introduction success. I utilized the avian fauna of the Everglades of South Florida, and the variables body mass, distance to nearest neighbor (in terms of body mass), year of introduction, presence of congeners, guild membership, continent of origin, distribution in a body mass aggregation or gap, and distance to body-mass aggregation edge (in terms of body mass). Two variables were significant predictors of introduction success. Introduced avian species whose body mass placed them nearer to a body-mass aggregation edge and further from their neighbor were more likely to become successfully established. This suggests that community interactions, and community level phenomena, may be better understood by explicitly incorporating scale. ?? Springer 2006.

  16. 24 CFR 904.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 904.101 Section 904.101 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  17. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  18. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  19. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  20. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  1. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  2. Introduction to Software Packages. [Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Sheila, Ed.; And Others

    This document provides an introduction to applications computer software packages that support functional managers in government and encourages the use of such packages as an alternative to in-house development. A review of current application areas includes budget/project management, financial management/accounting, payroll, personnel,…

  3. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part. For convenience, references to provisions of the EAR, ITAR, CBP, and OFAC regulations that affect the...

  4. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part. For convenience, references to provisions of the EAR, ITAR, CBP, and OFAC regulations that affect the...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1901 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Totalization Agreements General Provisions § 404.1901 Introduction. (a) Under section 233 of the Social... precluding of dual coverage and dual social security taxation for work covered under both systems....

  6. 20 CFR 404.801 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Records of Earnings General Provisions § 404.801 Introduction. The Social Security Administration (SSA) keeps a record of the earnings of all persons who work in employment or self-employment covered...

  7. Human Resource Planning: An Introduction. Report 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Peter

    This report is designed to give readers an introduction to the principles of human resource planning (HRP) and the areas in which it can be used, including those facing today's managers. Chapter 1 outlines why some organizations no longer plan, describes the background of change and uncertainty that discouraged them, and defines HRP. Chapter 2…

  8. 47 CFR 1.1200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 1.1200 Introduction. (a) Purpose. To ensure the fairness and integrity of its decision-making, the...-but-disclose” proceedings, in which ex parte presentations to Commission decision-making personnel are... ex parte presentations to and from Commission decision-making personnel are generally prohibited (§...

  9. Literature for Children: A Short Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David L.

    A concise yet comprehensive survey of works written for young people from infancy through early adolescence, this book provides both students of children's literature and the general reader with an introduction to the study of the field. The book is divided into two parts, the first addressing the contexts within which literature for young people…

  10. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  11. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  12. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  13. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  14. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  15. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  16. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  17. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  18. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  19. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  20. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  1. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  2. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  3. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  4. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  5. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  6. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  7. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  8. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  9. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  10. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  11. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  12. 26 CFR 49.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 49.0-1 Section 49.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES... designated “Facilities and Services Excise Taxes.” The regulations relate to the taxes on communications...

  13. Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Robert W.

    A personal need to create a student-centered introduction to therapeutic counseling gave rise to this text. Emphasized throughout the text is the belief that counselor education and training should be integrative and pragmatic. Chapters are organized into four main parts: (1) The Professional Counselor; (2) Counseling Antecedents and Approaches;…

  14. Introduction to the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penalosa, Fernando

    This volume is a summary of current knowledge concerning the relationship between social behavior and language behavior. It is intended both for graduate and advanced undergraduate students and for interested laypersons who have no extensive knowledge of either sociology or linguistics. The introduction and ten chapters cover the following topics:…

  15. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 746.1 Section 746.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  16. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Introduction. 746.1 Section 746.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  17. 7 CFR 767.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Overview § 767.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part describes the Agency's policies for: (1) Managing inventory property; (2) Selling inventory property; (3) Leasing inventory property; (4) Managing real and chattel property the Agency takes into custody...

  18. 15 CFR 738.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 738.1 Section 738.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS COMMERCE CONTROL...

  19. Children of La Frontera. Chapter 1: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Judith LeBlanc; Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This introduction to the papers assembled in "Children of La Frontera" provides background information on Mexican immigration to the United States, Mexican migrant workers and their children, and implications for schools. It discusses economic forces in both Mexico and the United States that push and pull Mexicans to "El Norte"; the economic…

  20. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE... Access to the Commission's Records and Information. Article 9—General Provisions. (f) These rules...

  1. 20 CFR 222.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.1 Introduction. This part sets forth and describes the family relationships that may make a... or terminated marriage or through birth, death or adoption. Other relevant relationships are having...

  2. An introduction to the ENDF formats

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF Evaluated Nuclear Data Formats are used all over the world to encode nuclear data evaluations for use in research and nuclear technology. This report is an introduction to the formats and how they are used in modern compilations of nuclear data.

  3. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1502.1 Section 1502.1 Foreign... be freely available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act... requirements of the Freedom of Information Act....

  4. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1502.1 Section 1502.1 Foreign... be freely available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act... requirements of the Freedom of Information Act....

  5. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1502.1 Section 1502.1 Foreign... be freely available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act... requirements of the Freedom of Information Act....

  6. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1502.1 Section 1502.1 Foreign... be freely available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act... requirements of the Freedom of Information Act....

  7. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...

  8. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...

  9. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...

  10. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...

  11. 26 CFR 52.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 52 are designated “Environmental Tax Regulations.” The regulations relate to the environmental taxes imposed by chapter 38 of...

  12. Student Career Introduction Program. Standard Operations Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisville Economic Development Cabinet, KY.

    This standard operations manual begins by describing the Student Career Introduction Program in Louisville, Kentucky, to acquaint economically disadvantaged students with careers in engineering, architecture, and accounting. Program activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1984-86 are discussed. Other sections address the application…

  13. Introduction--Understanding Education, Fragility and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This Introduction discusses approaches to and perspectives on analyzing the complex relationship between education, fragility, and conflict and its underlying causes and dynamics. It argues for the need for contextual and time-bound multi-level analyses of interlinked societal dimensions in order to address the ultimate purposes of education…

  14. Missouri Introduction to Communication Technology Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This guide provides materials for the first high school "Introduction to Industrial Technology Education" and "Exploration of Industrial Technology Education" Guides. It consists of three sections in addition to beginning remarks. Section I is the Instructor's Guide, which contains 12 major instructional units: overview; signs,…

  15. 15 CFR 742.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 742.1 Section 742.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL...

  16. 15 CFR 754.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 754.1 Section 754.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS §...

  17. 15 CFR 754.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 754.1 Section 754.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS §...

  18. 15 CFR 742.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 742.1 Section 742.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL...

  19. 15 CFR 754.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Introduction. 754.1 Section 754.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS §...

  20. 15 CFR 754.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 754.1 Section 754.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS §...

  1. 15 CFR 742.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Introduction. 742.1 Section 742.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL...

  2. 15 CFR 754.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 754.1 Section 754.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS SHORT SUPPLY CONTROLS §...

  3. Introduction to Animal Science. Unit A-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in the college animal science curriculum. It is intended to be used for 20 hours of instruction for freshmen as an introduction to animal science. It explores the livestock industry and builds a foundation for livestock selection. The unit's objectives are to help the student develop an understanding…

  4. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  5. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  6. Perspectives on...Hypertext: Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunin, Lois F.; Rada, Roy

    1989-01-01

    This introduction presents a framework for discussing hypertext, previews individual articles, and discusses some relations of hypertext to library science. Historical notes are also provided, as well as biographical information on the authors of individual articles in this special section. (16 references) (CLB)

  7. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  8. Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society

    PubMed Central

    Klug, A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society, the proceedings of a Discussion held at The Royal Society on 7 and 8 May 1997. Organized and edited by J. Grimley Evans, R. Holliday, T. B. L. Kirkwood, P. Laslett and L. Tyler.

  9. Modern Arabic Prose Literature: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Gassick, Trevor

    This is the preliminary draft of a planned "Introduction to Modern Arabic Prose Literature," the completed text of which "would offer basic biographical and bibliographical impressions, rather than extensive treatments, of the major figures in Arabic prose in the 19th and 20th centuries, along with concise assessments of their ranges of interests…

  10. 40 CFR 62.02 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 62.02 Section 62.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND... Administrator with respect to any plan has been submitted by the Governor of the State. (f) Revisions...

  11. Introduction to Data Transmission for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is presented to data transmission technology and networks for information retrieval purposes. Data signals are analyzed, modulation techniques are discussed, communication procedures between terminals and the central processing unit are surveyed, and possible network configurations are considered. (Author/PF)

  12. Typewriting Syllabus. Part 1: Introduction. 1976 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the first of a two-part set. It is directed primarily to the typewriting teacher and provides an introduction to the course designed to assist the secondary school teacher and student in achieving a high level of performance. It briefly describes the nine modules of instruction which are presented in detail in the second volume of…

  13. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer... which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The corps.... (b) The Youth Conservation Corps Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-378) provided for a 3-year pilot program...

  14. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer... which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The corps.... (b) The Youth Conservation Corps Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-378) provided for a 3-year pilot program...

  15. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer... which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The corps.... (b) The Youth Conservation Corps Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91-378) provided for a 3-year pilot program...

  16. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    DOE PAGES

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  17. An introduction to modern astrophysics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Bradley W.; Ostlie, Dale A.

    2006-07-01

    "An introduction to modern astrophysics, 2nd Edition" has been thoroughly revised to reflect the dramatic changes and advancements in astrophysics that have occurred over the past decade. This book has been updated to include the latest results from relevant fields of astrophysics and advances in our theoretical understanding of astrophysical phenomena.

  18. 40 CFR 62.02 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 62.02 Section 62.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 62.02...

  19. 24 CFR 904.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 904.101 Section 904.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.101...

  20. 29 CFR 75.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 75.1 Section 75.1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REVIEW AND CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR RURAL INDUSTRIALIZATION LOAN AND GRANT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CONSOLIDATED FARM AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1972 § 75.1...

  1. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate Program at the National Institute of Standards & Technology. In the exercise of its functions as a...

  2. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate Program at the National Institute of Standards & Technology. In the exercise of its functions as a...

  3. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate Program at the National Institute of Standards & Technology. In the exercise of its functions as a...

  4. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate Program at the National Institute of Standards & Technology. In the exercise of its functions as a...

  5. Sociolinguistics. Oxford Introductions to Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spolsky, Bernard

    This introduction to sociolinguistics is presented in four parts. The first part gives an overview of this branch of language study, its scope and principles of inquiry, and its basic and key concepts. This portion is written for individuals with no prior knowledge or expertise in the subject. Topics covered in this section include: the nature of…

  6. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Report Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides the introduction to the 2007 Program Accomplishments Report.

  7. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  8. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  9. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  10. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  11. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  12. Assessing an Introduction to Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Plate, Richard R.; Colley, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigated the learning outcomes of a brief systems thinking intervention at the undergraduate level. A pre/post experimental design (n = 50) was used to address two primary questions: (1) Can a brief introduction to systems thinking improve students' understanding of systems thinking? and (2) Which teaching method (of…

  13. An Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer, Thomas K; Foltz, Peter W.; Laham, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the theory and implementation of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a theory and method for extracting and representing the contextual-usage meaning of words by statistical computations applied to a large corpus of text. Gives an overview of applications and modeling of human knowledge to which LSA has been applied. (SR)

  14. "LinkWay" for Educators: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glenn; And Others

    This book is designed to provide a quick introduction to LinkWay (one of a new generation of hypermedia programs) for teachers who are familiar with other computer applications, but who may not have worked with hypermedia applications. The book serves as a tutorial that quickly introduces the basic elements of LinkWay, thereby making more…

  15. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 30.15 Section 30.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §...

  16. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  17. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  18. 22 CFR 67.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEMOCRACY § 67.1 Introduction. (a) The National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) was created in... Endowment for Democracy Act (the “Act”), 22 U.S.C. 4411 et seq. (c) The activities supported by NED are... Democracy Act. These six purposes are: (1) To encourage free and democratic institutions throughout...

  19. 22 CFR 67.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEMOCRACY § 67.1 Introduction. (a) The National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) was created in... Endowment for Democracy Act (the “Act”), 22 U.S.C. 4411 et seq. (c) The activities supported by NED are... Democracy Act. These six purposes are: (1) To encourage free and democratic institutions throughout...

  20. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  1. 22 CFR 67.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEMOCRACY § 67.1 Introduction. (a) The National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) was created in... Endowment for Democracy Act (the “Act”), 22 U.S.C. 4411 et seq. (c) The activities supported by NED are... Democracy Act. These six purposes are: (1) To encourage free and democratic institutions throughout...

  2. 22 CFR 67.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEMOCRACY § 67.1 Introduction. (a) The National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) was created in... Endowment for Democracy Act (the “Act”), 22 U.S.C. 4411 et seq. (c) The activities supported by NED are... Democracy Act. These six purposes are: (1) To encourage free and democratic institutions throughout...

  3. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  4. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  5. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUNG ADULT CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged...

  6. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 30.1 Section 30.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN... any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries of the unit,...

  7. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 292.11 Section 292.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL... consent of the owner any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries...

  8. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 292.11 Section 292.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL... consent of the owner any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries...

  9. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 30.1 Section 30.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN... any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries of the unit,...

  10. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 30.1 Section 30.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN... any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries of the unit,...

  11. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Introduction. 30.1 Section 30.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN... any privately owned “improved property” or interests therein within the boundaries of the unit,...

  12. Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.…

  13. 15 CFR 768.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quality to an item controlled under the EAR if it possesses the characteristics specified in the Commerce... Secretary of Commerce or his/her designee. Similar quality. An item is of similar quality to an item that is... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 768.1 Section...

  14. 27 CFR 53.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 53.1 Section... Code of 1986, and to certain related administrative provisions of chapter 32, subchapter F, of the Code... part to the “Internal Revenue Code” or the “Code” are references to the Internal Revenue Code of...

  15. 29 CFR 502.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 502.0 Section 502.0 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF... and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA). These regulations are also applicable to the employment of...

  16. 29 CFR 525.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 525.1 Section 525.1 Labor Regulations... of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-486, 100 Stat. 1229) substantially revised those provisions of the Fair Labor... employers from reducing the wage rates prescribed by certificate in effect on June 1, 1986, for two...

  17. 29 CFR 525.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 525.1 Section 525.1 Labor Regulations... of 1986 (Pub. L. 99-486, 100 Stat. 1229) substantially revised those provisions of the Fair Labor... employers from reducing the wage rates prescribed by certificate in effect on June 1, 1986, for two...

  18. An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Suzanne

    The introduction to systemic functional linguistics explores the social semiotic approach to language most closely associated with the work of Michael Halliday and his colleagues. An approach that views language as a strategic, meaning-making resource, systemic linguistics focuses on the analysis of authentic, everyday texts and asks both how…

  19. 32 CFR 651.54 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.54 Section 651.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...

  20. 32 CFR 651.54 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.54 Section 651.54 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Effects of Major Army Action Abroad §...