Science.gov

Sample records for increasing k-trees introduction

  1. Fast parallel algorithms and enumeration techniques for partial k-trees

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, C.

    1989-01-01

    Recent research by several authors have resulted in systematic way of developing linear-time sequential algorithms for a host of problem: on a fairly general class of graphs variously known as bounded decomposable graphs, graphs of bounded treewidth, partial k-trees, etc. Partial k-trees arise in a variety of real-life applications such as network reliability, VLSI design and database systems and hence fast sequential algorithms on these graphs have been found to be desirable. The linear-time methodologies were independently developed by Bern, Lawler, and Wong ((10)), Arnborg and Proskurowski ((6)), Bodlaender ((14)), and Courcelle ((25)). Wimer ((89)) significantly extended the work of Bern, Lawler and Wong. All of these approaches share the common thread of using dynamic programming on a tree structure. In particular the methodology of Wimer uses a parse-tree as the data structure. The methodologies claim linear-time algorithms on partial k-trees for fixed k, for a number of combinatorial optimization problems given the tree structure as input. It is known that obtaining the tree structure is NP-hard. This dissertation investigates three important classes of problems: (1) Developing parallel algorithms for constructing a k-tree embedding, finding a tree decomposition and most notably obtaining a parse-tree for a partial k-tree. (2) Developing parallel algorithms for parse-tree computations, testing isomorphism of k-trees, and finding a 2-tree embedding of a cactus. (3) Obtaining techniques for counting vertex/edge subsets satisfying a certain property in some classes of partial k-trees. The parallel algorithms the author has developed are in class NC and are either new or improve upon the existing results of Bodlaender (13). The difference equations he has obtained for counting certain sub-graphs are not known in the literature so far.

  2. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to a special issue of the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology dedicated to Insect Endocrinology. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequences ...

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.; Gunsing, F.; Pronyaev, V. G.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Volume 24 `Neutron Resonance Parameters' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides the introduction into the topic and an explanation of the symbols and notation used.

  4. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction to the second edition of the Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases contains a general description of genus and species of commercial importance, some general information about growth and fruiting habits as well as recent production statistics. A general description of major scion c...

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Luigi

    This chapter introduces the context, objectives and structure of the book. This book aims both to contribute to disseminate the knowledge about the scientific research conducted in space and to promote new exploitation of existing data in this field. While space experiments are characterised by a long time for preparation, high costs and few opportunities, significant scientific value is expected from the resulting data for almost scientific disciplines. In this context, ISS is a unique experimental environment for research. As part of its Seventh Framework Programme, the European Commission intends to support further exploitation and valorisation of space experimental data. This book was realised as part of the ULISSE project, co-funded by the European Union. The book intends to provide an introduction to space research with a focus on the experiments performed on the ISS and related disciplines. The book also intends to be a useful guide, not only for scientists but also for teachers, students and newcomers to space research activities.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-04-01

    about these exciting developments in this newsletter. And as usual, you will also find a list of upcoming events, seminars and workshops related to ALMA and radio astronomy that we strongly recommend as well as the latest job opportunities to join the exciting and challenging ALMA adventure. I cannot finish this introduction without drawing your attention to the emerging results of the Herschel satellite and its instruments, HIFI, PACS and SPIRE. The images and spectra are truly stunning and very exciting and of great interest for future ALMA observing programs.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    The purpose of this introduction is - after a few general words on ZnO - to inform the reader about the history of ZnO research, the contents of this book and the intentions of the authors. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a IIb-VI compound semiconductor. This group comprises the binary compounds of Zn, Cd and Hg with O, S, Se, Te and their ternary and quaternary alloys. The band gaps of these compounds cover the whole band gap range from E g ≈ 3. 94 eV for hexagonal ZnS down to semimetals (i.e., E g = 0 eV) for most of the mercury compounds. ZnO itself is also a wide gap semiconductor with E g ≈ 3. 436 eV at T = 0 K and (3. 37 ± 0. 01) eV at room temperature. For more details on the band structure, see Chaps. 4 and 6 or for a recent collection of data on ZnO, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17 B, 22, and 41B, 1999]. Like most of the compounds of groups IV, III-V, IIb-VI and Ib-VII, ZnO shows a tetrahedral coordination. In contrast to several other IIb-VI compounds, which occur both in the hexagonal wurtzite and the cubic zinc blende type structure such as ZnS, which gave the name to these two modifications, ZnO occurs almost exclusively in the wurtzite type structure. It has a relatively strong ionic binding (see Chap. 2). The exciton binding energy in ZnO is 60 meV [Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960], the largest among the IIb-VI compounds, but by far not the largest for all semiconductors since, for example, CuCl and CuO have exciton binding energies around 190 and 150 meV, respectively. See, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17B, 22, and 41B, 1999; Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960; Klingshirn and Haug, Phy. Rep. 70:315, 1981; Hönerlage et al., Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and references therein. More details on excitons will be given in Chap. 6. ZnO has a density of about 5. 6 g / cm3 corresponding to 4. 2 × 1022 ZnO molecules per cm3 [Hallwig and

  8. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 15 years, we have witnessed rapid increases in the R&D and application of hyperspectral imaging in food and agriculture. Hyperspectral imaging integrates the main features of imaging and spectroscopic techniques so as to expand our capability of detecting minor or more sophisticated fe...

  9. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Attansi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the outlook for exploration depends on the economic health of the mining industry and, in turn, general economic conditions. It is too early to determine the overall impact of the cessation of hostilities in the Persian Gulf War. Its conclusion would allow funds to be redirected to individual country's economies. The rebuilding of the war-damaged countries will probably translate into net increases in demand for the minerals industry. A return to stability in energy costs will also benefit the mining industry. Alternatively, the capital requirements to rebuild war-torn countries could put some strain on capital markets and affect the funds available for private commercial investment. Along with increasing the cost of capital to mining operations, a capital shortage could stall recovery of western industrialized economies that are currently in recession.

  10. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Rosenquist, James Niels

    2016-02-01

    When Thomas Insel announced last year that he was stepping down from his position as director of the National Institute of Mental Health to join Google Life Sciences, some surprise was expressed by my colleagues. Typically, their thinking was that individuals in his position would (should?) return to academia or perhaps work at a pharmaceutical firm developing new therapeutics. As someone familiar with both psychiatry and the technology field, I thought Dr Insel's decision was quite rational given the increasing overlap between both fields and that his move reflected this new paradigm. PMID:26930523

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Nedović, Viktor A.

    Consumers prefer food products that are tasty, healthy and convenient. Encapsulation, a process to entrap active agents into particles, is an important way to meet these demands by delivering food ingredients at the right time and place. For example, this technology may allow taste and aroma differentiation, mask bad tasting or bad smelling components, stabilize food ingredients and/or increase their bioavailability. Encapsulation may also be used to immobilize cells or enzymes in the production of food materials or products, as in fermentation or metabolite production.

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegati, Franco; Aracil, Javier; López, Víctor

    At the present time, optical transmission systems are capable of sending data over hundreds of wavelengths on a single fiber thanks to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technologies, reaching bit rates on the order of gigabits per second per wavelength and terabits per second per fiber. In the last decade the availability of such a huge bandwidth caused transport networks to be considered as having infinite capacity. The recent massive deployment of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and broadband wireless access solutions, as well as the outburst of new multimedia network services (such as Skype, YouTube, Joost, etc.) caused a significant increase of end user traffic and bandwidth demands. Therefore, the apparently “infinite” capacity of optical networks appears much more “finite” today, despite the latest developments in photonic transmission.

  13. Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    This is the third iteration of the National Wildlife Health Center's (NWHC) field guide developed primarily to assist field managers and biologists address diseases they encounter. By itself, the first iteration, “Field Guide of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds,” was simply another addition to an increasing array of North American field guides and other publications focusing on disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Collectively, those publications were reflecting the ongoing transition in the convergence of wildlife management and wildlife disease as foundational components within the structure of wildlife conservation as a social enterprise serving the stewardship of our wildlife resources. For context, it is useful to consider those publications relative to a timeline of milestones involving the evolution of wildlife conservation in North America.

  14. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Geisert, Rodney D

    2015-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in a number of mammalian species depends upon a tightly regulated interaction between the semiallogeneic conceptus and the maternal uterine endometrium.The term "Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy" is attributed to Roger V. Short's paper titled "Implantation and the Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy" which was published in proceedings from the 1969 Symposium on Foetal Autonomy.Professor Short's landmark paper stimulated increased interest in elucidating how the conceptus signals its presence to assure maintenance of the corpus luteum beyond the normal length of the estrous or menstrual cycle to allow pregnancy to be established and maintained.Ten years following publication of Professor Short's paper, a Ciba Foundation Symposium entitled "Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy" brought together leading scientists to discuss the multiple mechanisms and pathways by which different viviparous species establish a successful pregnancy.The present volume on "Regulation of Implantation and Establishment of Pregnancy in Mammals" brings together current reviews from leading experts to address the diversity of mechanisms by which species establish and maintain pregnancy.Implantation in mice, dogs, pigs, cattle, sheep, horses, primates, humans and species in which embryonic diapause occurs are discussed.Reviews will provide current knowledge on the role of endometrial steroid receptors, adhesion factors, cytokines, interferons, steroids, prostaglandins, growth factors and immune cells involved with regulation of conceptus development. PMID:26450491

  15. [Introduction].

    PubMed

    Seishima, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that plasma HDL-C shows a negative correlation with the incidence of coronary artery disease, which was confirmed by the Framingham Study, a famous prospective cohort study, in 1977. At first, HDL-C was determined by the precipitation method, and then the homogeneous method of HDL-C determination was developed in the 1990's in Japan. This method enabled HDL-C measurement in a short time for many samples. HDL removes free cholesterol from somatic cells by accepting cell cholesterol via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. Cholesterol ester in HDL is transferred to VLDL and LDL by the action of cholesterol ester transfer protein or is incorporated into the liver via SR-BI. This pathway is called reverse cholesterol transport, which can regress atheromatous plaques. On the other hand, some CETP inhibitors, which can increase the HDL-C level have been developed in the world. However, the development of all candidate drugs was stopped because of side or insufficient effects. In addition, patients with CETP deficiency, whose HDL-C levels are markedly high, sometimes show the findings of coronary artery disease. These observations indicate that elevating HDL-C levels alone may not lower the cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, it was reported that HDL has pleiotropic functions other than reverse cholesterol transport. Actually, HDL inhibits lipid oxidation, impairs leukocyte adhesion and monocyte activation, promotes nitric oxide production, and inhibits the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade. Functional characterization of HDL is, therefore, necessary for precise assessment of the cardiovascular risk and effectiveness of risk reduction. PMID:27192795

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.

    In the history of modern physics and engineering, the electron quantum mechanical effect and its utilization in electronics have attracted much attention. With increase in demand for ultrahigh sensitivity of signal sensing, ultrahigh speed of data processing, ultralow power dissipation of computer components and so on, quantum effect electronics has become more and more promising. Since the middle of the twentieth century most of vacuum electronics have been replaced by the solid state electronics, where the electron dynamics are well described by the band-diagram description. Solid state electronics itself and band-diagram description were originally in the category of quantum mechanics. However, the treatment of carriers based on the band-diagram inside semiconductors used the classical model where the electron wave concept has been missing. One should perceive it to be also true even for semiconductor superlattices. In the late twentieth century, along with the extremely miniaturized scale of semiconductor devices, mesoscopic physics and mesoscopic electronics have boomed. In this research area, one attempts to manipulate directly the coherent electron wave instead of the electron particle. In ordinary semiconductors, however, only the nanoscale dimension allowed us to handle electron wave interference, interaction and so on to some extent. Besides, success was obtained only at cryogenic temperatures. Collisions between electrons or between electron and lattice (or impurity) was recognized again as a forcible enemy of electron wave engineering. It was a time when both researchers and engineers in the field were urged forward to search for better physical and engineering stages where no electron collisions take place thereby maintaining electron wave coherency over very long distances in the appropriate temperature range.

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-09-01

    As this editorial is written, we have seven antennas at the Chajnantor plateau, the "High Site". Seven antennas means twenty-one baselines, i.e. more than twice as many as we had only two months ago. As you know, the bonus we have in interferometry is that the the number of baselines increases roughly with the square of the available antennas. The image quality can be further enhanced, because the projection of a celestial source onto the existing baselines changes due to the rotation of the Earth. A large number of baselines is important but not sufficient to fulfill one important promise of ALMA, namely to provide crisp images. Unlike the sharp images from the Hubble Space Telescope, images from ground based optical or radio telescopes are blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. It is the Holy Grail of observing astronomy to overcome such atmospheric effects. Recently, ALMA has made a big step toward this goal by using Water Vapor Radiometers operating at 183 GHz to measure the amount of atmospheric water vapor at any instant in the line of sight of each antenna, and applying a corresponding correction to the astronomical data received. This not only improves the image quality, it is essential for using ALMA at its lowest wavelengths of around 0.3mm and at baselines exceeding several kilometers. Achieving this has a been a collaborative effort involving many parts of the project and there are all to be congratulated. JAO has now moved into our new Santiago Central Office in Vitacura next to the ESO premises, ending a phase of two years were Santiago based staff was distributed in two different buildings. This new ALMA office will also host the ALMA archive. Although ALMA users are normally not expected to come to Chile to observe, there will be office space for visitors, since ALMA has been and will always be a cooperation of people from many countries and many fields of science and engineering. This newsletter contains a list of workshops, schools and conferences

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    This topic is devoted to communication issues in scalable compute and storage systems, such as parallel computers, networks of workstations, and clusters. All aspects of communication in modern systems were solicited, including advances in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interconnection networks, network interfaces, system and storage area networks, on-chip interconnects, communication protocols, routing and communication algorithms, and communication aspects of parallel and distributed algorithms. In total 15 papers were submitted to this topic of which we selected the 7 strongest papers. We grouped the papers in two sessions of 3 papers each and one paper was selected for the best paper session. We noted a number of papers dealing with changing topologies, stability and forwarding convergence in source routing based cluster interconnect network architectures. We grouped these for the first session. The authors of the paper titled: “Implementing a Change Assimilation Mechanism for Source Routing Interconnects” propose a mechanism that can obtain the new topology, and compute and distribute a new set of fabric paths to the source routed network end points to minimize the impact on the forwarding service. The article entitled “Dependability Analysis of a Fault-tolerant Network Reconfiguration Strateg” reports on a case study analyzing the effects of network size, mean time to node failure, mean time to node repair, mean time to network repair and coverage of the failure when using a 2D mesh network with a fault-tolerant mechanism (similar to the one used in the BlueGene/L system), that is able to remove rows and/or columns in the presence of failures. The last paper in this session: “RecTOR: A New and Efficient Method for Dynamic Network Reconfiguration” presents a new dynamic reconfiguration method, that ensures deadlock-freedom during the reconfiguration without causing performance degradation such as increased latency or decreased

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    This topic is devoted to communication issues in scalable compute and storage systems, such as parallel computers, networks of workstations, and clusters. All aspects of communication in modern systems were solicited, including advances in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interconnection networks, network interfaces, system and storage area networks, on-chip interconnects, communication protocols, routing and communication algorithms, and communication aspects of parallel and distributed algorithms. In total 15 papers were submitted to this topic of which we selected the 7 strongest papers. We grouped the papers in two sessions of 3 papers each and one paper was selected for the best paper session. We noted a number of papers dealing with changing topologies, stability and forwarding convergence in source routing based cluster interconnect network architectures. We grouped these for the first session. The authors of the paper titled: “Implementing a Change Assimilation Mechanism for Source Routing Interconnects” propose a mechanism that can obtain the new topology, and compute and distribute a new set of fabric paths to the source routed network end points to minimize the impact on the forwarding service. The article entitled “Dependability Analysis of a Fault-tolerant Network Reconfiguration Strateg” reports on a case study analyzing the effects of network size, mean time to node failure, mean time to node repair, mean time to network repair and coverage of the failure when using a 2D mesh network with a fault-tolerant mechanism (similar to the one used in the BlueGene/L system), that is able to remove rows and/or columns in the presence of failures. The last paper in this session: “RecTOR: A New and Efficient Method for Dynamic Network Reconfiguration” presents a new dynamic reconfiguration method, that ensures deadlock-freedom during the reconfiguration without causing performance degradation such as increased latency or decreased

  20. Increased introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs during 1986-2002 in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, J Lars G; Melander, Arne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to survey how introduction of new drugs and promotional activities influence drug sales in Sweden. All drugs on the Swedish market were categorized as curative, symptom-alleviating, substitutive, or preventive. The number of new drugs introduced, drug sales in volume and value, and the number of drug advertisements appearing in the major Swedish medical journal during 1986-2002 were determined for each of the 4 drug categories. Between 1986 and 1998, the relative shares of the 4 drug categories were relatively constant. From 1998 to 2002, the share of new preventive drugs increased from 24% to 30%, their share of advertisements increased from 20% to 35%, and their sales value increased from 25% to 30%. During the same period, the shares of other drugs decreased correspondingly. Pharmaceutical companies have shifted their attention to the introduction, advertising, and sales of preventive drugs in an attempt to exploit preventive medicine. This might lead to waste of resources when expensive preventive drugs are used by numerous patients over many years, as the benefit of preventive drugs for the individual patient cannot be judged easily. PMID:16788360

  1. Periphyton response to increased light and salmon carcass introduction in northern California streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ambrose, H.E.; Wilzbach, M.A.; Cummins, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    Periphyton response to riparian canopy opening and salmon carcass addition in coastal streams of northern California was evaluated in a manipulative field experiment. The experiment followed a split-plot design, with streams as whole plots and two 100-m reaches in each of 6 streams as subplots. At the subplot level, riparian hardwoods were removed from one reach in each stream. At the whole-plot level, carcasses were added to both open- and closed-canopy reaches of 3 of the streams. Thus, treatments consisted of reaches with open or closed canopies, in the presence and absence of carcasses. Nutrient limitation of the periphyton was assessed in 2 streams (1 with carcasses and 1 without carcasses) using nutrient-diffusing clay saucers (N-enriched, P-enriched, N+P-enriched, or unenriched control) incubated in open- and closed-canopy reaches in the streams. Canopy and carcass treatments did not affect gross primary productivity or periphyton biomass on natural substrates. The periphyton assemblage consisted primarily of diatoms in all reaches on all dates. N amendment of agar in nutrient-diffusing, clay saucers and canopy removal increased biofilm ash-free dry mass on the saucers, but carcass introduction did not. Failure of periphyton to respond to carcass addition may have reflected overriding light limitation, inadequate within-stream retention of carcass nutrients, and/or limitations of the study design.

  2. Do Loans Increase College Access and Choice? Examining the Introduction of Universal Student Loans. Working Paper 07-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bridget Terry

    2007-01-01

    The returns to college are substantial, including increased earnings and public benefits, such as better health and increased involvement in public service and giving. As a result, since the introduction of the Guaranteed Student Loan program in 1965 and the Pell Grant in 1972, the federal government has experimented with using financial aid to…

  3. Environmental and economic factors can increase the risk of exotic species introductions to the Arctic region through increased ballast water discharge.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Arthur J

    2004-05-01

    The effects of global warming can increase the risk of exotic species introductions in eastern Canadian Arctic waters by reducing surface ice cover and allow increased access to commercial vessels. Ballast water discharged by incoming overseas vessels is an important means for introducing species on a global scale. Analyses of air temperatures at Churchill, Manitoba between 1943 and 2002 indicated an increase in mean temperature within the past decade. Churchill is the only major northern port in this region where grain has been exported on a limited basis due to the short navigation season. Economic analyses of grain exported from Canadian and U.S. ports indicated some cost advantages for using northern ports. The Hudson Bay region is vulnerable to increased exotic species introductions because of its southerly location. Current ballast water exchange measures to reduce the risk of introductions may not be effective because most vessels enter the region with ballast, and the ballast exchange zone is located relatively close to coastal areas where the habitat could be favorable for an introduced species to become established. The probability of a large crab species introduced to this region from northern European waters is discussed. The risk of ballast water-related exotic species introduction to this region may be reduced by expanding the types of cargo handled and developing a strong import market. This approach would accommodate an increase in the number of vessels with cargo, and substantially reduce the volume of ballast carried to this region. PMID:15503388

  4. Environmental and economic factors can increase the risk of exotic species introductions to the Arctic region through increased ballast water discharge.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Arthur J

    2004-05-01

    The effects of global warming can increase the risk of exotic species introductions in eastern Canadian Arctic waters by reducing surface ice cover and allow increased access to commercial vessels. Ballast water discharged by incoming overseas vessels is an important means for introducing species on a global scale. Analyses of air temperatures at Churchill, Manitoba between 1943 and 2002 indicated an increase in mean temperature within the past decade. Churchill is the only major northern port in this region where grain has been exported on a limited basis due to the short navigation season. Economic analyses of grain exported from Canadian and U.S. ports indicated some cost advantages for using northern ports. The Hudson Bay region is vulnerable to increased exotic species introductions because of its southerly location. Current ballast water exchange measures to reduce the risk of introductions may not be effective because most vessels enter the region with ballast, and the ballast exchange zone is located relatively close to coastal areas where the habitat could be favorable for an introduced species to become established. The probability of a large crab species introduced to this region from northern European waters is discussed. The risk of ballast water-related exotic species introduction to this region may be reduced by expanding the types of cargo handled and developing a strong import market. This approach would accommodate an increase in the number of vessels with cargo, and substantially reduce the volume of ballast carried to this region.

  5. Training and education to increase the effectiveness of technology introduction in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Albert H.

    1994-12-01

    Training and education can increase the effectiveness with which new technology can be introduced in medicine. However, the use of technology in the education and training itself can be the vehicle for that increased effectiveness. The most effective way that education and training can be improved by technology is through the use of simulation. Examples are given from, first, the historical perspective in aircrew and spacecrew flight training; an anesthesiology training simulator; and a laparoscopic surgery training simulator.

  6. Introduction of farm stands in low-income communities increases fruit and vegetable among community residents.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alexandra E; Jennings, Rose; Smiley, Andrew W; Medina, Jose L; Sharma, Shreela V; Rutledge, Ronda; Stigler, Melissa H; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal pilot study was to measure the impact of introducing farm stands in low-income communities with limited access to fresh and quality fruits and vegetables (F&V) on residents' F&V consumption. Two farm stands were placed outside two local community sites one day a week for 12 weeks. A variety of locally grown, culturally appropriate produce was sold at the stands. Data on F&V intake, awareness and usage of farmers' markets, family behaviors, and importance of eating F&V were collected from individuals (n=61) before and after farm stands were placed in the two communities. Paired sample t-tests, chi-square and McNemar tests were used to evaluate the impact of the intervention on the outcome variables. Significance level was set at p<.05. Significant increases were found for participants' consumption of fruit, fruit juice, tomatoes, green salad, and other vegetables (P<.05). Additionally, participants also reported increases in mediating variables of F&V consumption. This study underscores the potential of farmers' markets to increase F&V consumption through increasing F&V access in low-income communities.

  7. Load-bearing increase in alumina evoked by introduction of a functional glass gradient

    PubMed Central

    Dorthé, Erik; Zhang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Alumina is the most commonly used ceramic in orthopedics due mainly to its wear resistance and chemical inertness. However, alumina has relatively low load-bearing capacity compared to other advanced ceramics, such as zirconia. We hypothesized that grading the elastic modulus at the surfaces may substantially increase the load-bearing capacity of alumina. In this study, graded structures were fabricated by infiltrating glass into dense alumina plates, resulting in a diminished modulus at the surface layers. The plates were then bonded to polycarbonate substrates and subjected to flexural loading with various loading rates spanning five orders of magnitude (dynamic fatigue) in water. Infiltrated specimens showed an increase in flexural load over homogenous controls for all loading rates, despite the graded alumina exhibiting greater load rate dependence than their homogenous counterparts. Our results indicate that controlled elastic gradients at the surface could be highly beneficial in improving the load-bearing capacity of alumina ceramics. PMID:22639492

  8. Design and introduction of a disulfide bridge in firefly luciferase: increase of thermostability and decrease of pH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Imani, Mehdi; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Ahmadian, Shahin; Nazari, Mahboobeh

    2010-08-01

    The thermal sensitivity and pH-sensitive spectral properties of firefly luciferase have hampered its application in a variety of fields. It is proposed that the stability of a protein can be increased by introduction of disulfide bridge that decreases the configurational entropy of unfolding. A disulfide bridge is introduced into Photinus pyralis firefly luciferase to make two separate mutant enzymes with a single bridge. Even though the A103C/S121C mutant showed remarkable thermal stability, its specific activity decreased, whereas the A296C/A326C mutant showed tremendous thermal stability, relative pH insensitivity and 7.3-fold increase of specific activity. Moreover, the bioluminescence emission spectrum of A296C/A326C was resistant against higher temperatures (37 degrees C). Far-UV CD analysis showed slight secondary structure changes for both mutants. Thermal denaturation analysis showed that conformational stabilities of A103C/S121C and A296C/A326C are more than native firefly luciferase. It is proposed that since A296 and A326 are situated in the vicinity of the enzyme active site microenvironment in comparison with A103 and S121, the formation of a disulfide bridge in this region has more impact on enzyme kinetic characteristics.

  9. Unexpected increase in indoor pollutants after the introduction of a smoke-free policy in a correctional center.

    PubMed

    He, C; Knibbs, L D; Tran, Q; Wang, H; Laiman, R; Wang, B; Gu, Y; Morawska, L

    2016-08-01

    Correctional centers (prisons) are one of the few non-residential indoor environments where smoking is still permitted. However, few studies have investigated indoor air quality (IAQ) in these locations. We quantified the level of inmate and staff exposure to secondhand smoke, including particle number (PN) count, and we assessed the impact of the smoking ban on IAQ. We performed measurements of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and PN concentrations, personal PN exposure levels, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nicotine both before and after a complete indoor smoking ban in an Australian maximum security prison. Results show that the indoor 24-h average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 6 (±1) μg/m(3) to 17 (±3) μg/m(3) pre-ban. The post-ban levels ranged from 7 (±2) μg/m(3) to 71 (±43) μg/m(3) . While PM2.5 concentrations decreased in one unit post-ban, they increased in the other two units. Similar post-ban increases were also observed in levels of PN and VOCs. We describe an unexpected increase of indoor pollutants following a total indoor smoking ban in a prison that was reflected across multiple pollutants that are markers of smoking. We hypothesise that clandestine post-ban smoking among inmates may have been the predominant cause.

  10. Early introduction of dairy products associated with increased risk of IDDM in Finnish children. The Childhood in Diabetes in Finland Study Group.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, S M; Räsänen, L; Ylönen, K; Aro, A; Clayton, D; Langholz, B; Pitkäniemi, J; Savilahti, E; Lounamaa, R; Tuomilehto, J

    1993-12-01

    Associations between infant-feeding patterns and risk of IDDM were investigated in a nationwide Finnish case-control study of 690 IDDM children < 15 yr of age. Each child was matched by date of birth and sex to a randomly selected population-based control child. Univariate analysis revealed that the risk of IDDM was increased by approximately 1.5 in children for whom breast-feeding was terminated at < 2 mo of age, doubled in those who were exclusively breast-fed for < 2 mo, and doubled in those who were introduced to dairy products at < 2 mo of age. In further multivariate analyses of these factors, it was found that introduction of dairy products at an early age was the most important risk factor, and the observed univariate effects of duration of breast-feeding variables were explained by their correlation with this factor. This is the first observational study to show that early introduction of dairy products is independently associated with an increased risk of IDDM. Adjustment for mother's education and age, child's birth order, or birth weight did not affect the results. PMID:8243824

  11. A novel method to identify herds with an increased probability of disease introduction due to animal trade.

    PubMed

    Frössling, Jenny; Nusinovici, Simon; Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan; Lindberg, Ann

    2014-11-15

    In the design of surveillance, there is often a desire to target high risk herds. Such risk-based approaches result in better allocation of resources and improve the performance of surveillance activities. For many contagious animal diseases, movement of live animals is a main route of transmission, and because of this, herds that purchase many live animals or have a large contact network due to trade can be seen as a high risk stratum of the population. This paper presents a new method to assess herd disease risk in animal movement networks. It is an improvement to current network measures that takes direction, temporal order, and also movement size and probability of disease into account. In the study, the method was used to calculate a probability of disease ratio (PDR) of herds in simulated datasets, and of real herds based on animal movement data from dairy herds included in a bulk milk survey for Coxiella burnetii. Known differences in probability of disease are easily incorporated in the calculations and the PDR was calculated while accounting for regional differences in probability of disease, and also by applying equal probability of disease throughout the population. Each herd's increased probability of disease due to purchase of animals was compared to both the average herd and herds within the same risk stratum. The results show that the PDR is able to capture the different circumstances related to disease prevalence and animal trade contact patterns. Comparison of results based on inclusion or exclusion of differences in risk also highlights how ignoring such differences can influence the ability to correctly identify high risk herds. The method shows a potential to be useful for risk-based surveillance, in the classification of herds in control programmes or to represent influential contacts in risk factor studies.

  12. A novel method to identify herds with an increased probability of disease introduction due to animal trade.

    PubMed

    Frössling, Jenny; Nusinovici, Simon; Nöremark, Maria; Widgren, Stefan; Lindberg, Ann

    2014-11-15

    In the design of surveillance, there is often a desire to target high risk herds. Such risk-based approaches result in better allocation of resources and improve the performance of surveillance activities. For many contagious animal diseases, movement of live animals is a main route of transmission, and because of this, herds that purchase many live animals or have a large contact network due to trade can be seen as a high risk stratum of the population. This paper presents a new method to assess herd disease risk in animal movement networks. It is an improvement to current network measures that takes direction, temporal order, and also movement size and probability of disease into account. In the study, the method was used to calculate a probability of disease ratio (PDR) of herds in simulated datasets, and of real herds based on animal movement data from dairy herds included in a bulk milk survey for Coxiella burnetii. Known differences in probability of disease are easily incorporated in the calculations and the PDR was calculated while accounting for regional differences in probability of disease, and also by applying equal probability of disease throughout the population. Each herd's increased probability of disease due to purchase of animals was compared to both the average herd and herds within the same risk stratum. The results show that the PDR is able to capture the different circumstances related to disease prevalence and animal trade contact patterns. Comparison of results based on inclusion or exclusion of differences in risk also highlights how ignoring such differences can influence the ability to correctly identify high risk herds. The method shows a potential to be useful for risk-based surveillance, in the classification of herds in control programmes or to represent influential contacts in risk factor studies. PMID:25139432

  13. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity. PMID:27440530

  14. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  15. Inhibitors incidence rate in Czech previously untreated patients with haemophilia A has not increased since introduction of recombinant factor VIII treatment in 2003.

    PubMed

    Blatny, Jan; Komrska, Vladimir; Blazek, Bohumir; Penka, Miroslav; Ovesna, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the incidence of inhibitors development in Czech Republic since the introduction of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and to look for the factors potentially influencing this parameter. It is to be expected that inhibitors risk may be increased after the introduction of recombinant products. Data of Czech National Haemophilia Programme registry entered from 2003 till 2013 were analysed. Both annual and absolute incidences of newly developed inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) were calculated. Bleeding and treatment data were also extracted, and association to the treatment regimen and development of inhibitors were analysed. Within the given period, we commenced 45 PUPs with haemophilia A on rFVIII and treated them for 137 treatment-years. Twenty-two of the PUPs had severe haemophilia A, being treated for 88 treatment-years. Treatment strategy for them was prophylaxis. Other PUPs were treated on demand. Median annual bleeding rate was 5 for boys with severe haemophilia, 3 for moderate haemophilia and 1 for mild form of the disease. No inhibitors developed in PUPs with moderate/mild haemophilia A. Annual inhibitor incidence rate in PUPs with severe haemophilia A treated with rFVIII was 56.8 per 1000 treatment-years. Absolute incidence was 22.7% (5/22). All inhibitors appeared within the first 50 exposure days. Comparing rFVIII-treated group with the control group treated under same/similar conditions with plasma-derived FVIII during the same follow-up period, we were not able to find significant difference in inhibitor development between these two groups. Our results support the finding that use of rFVIII is not a proven risk factor for inhibitor development in patients with haemophilia A.

  16. Progress in increasing affordability of medicines for non-communicable diseases since the introduction of mandatory health insurance in the Republic of Moldova

    PubMed Central

    Ferrario, Alessandra; Chitan, Elena; Seicas, Rita; Sautenkova, Nina; Bezverhni, Zinaida; Kluge, Hans; Habicht, Jarno

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess progress in improving affordability of medicines since the introduction of mandatory health insurance in the Republic of Moldova. Method: Using data from national health insurance, we estimate affordability of partially reimbursed medicines for the treatment of non-communicable diseases, and analyse which factors contributed to changes in affordability. Results: Affordability of subsidized medicines improved over time. In 2013, it took a median of 0.84 days of income for the lowest income quintile (ranging from 0 to 3.32 days) to purchase 1 month of treatment for cardiovascular conditions in comparison to 1.85 days in 2006. This improvement however was mainly driven by higher incomes rather than deeper coverage through the reimbursement list. Conclusion: If mandatory health insurance is to improve affordability of medicines for the Moldovan population, more funds need to be (re-)allocated to enable higher percentage coverage of essential medicines and efficiencies need to be generated within the health system. These should include a budget reallocation between secondary and primary care, strengthening primary care to manage chronic conditions and raise population awareness, implementation of evidence-based selection and quality use of medicines in both outpatient and inpatient settings, improving monitoring and regulation of prices and the supply chain; and alignment of national treatment guidelines and clinical practice with international best practices and evidence-based medicine. PMID:26830363

  17. Introduction to Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Educationalists and social scientists are increasingly interested in childhood as a distinct social category, and Childhood Studies is now a recognized area of research and analysis. This book brings together the key themes of Childhood Studies in a broad and accessible introduction for students and practitioners working in this field.…

  18. Castel Gandolfo workshop: an introduction to the impact of climate change, the economic crisis, and the increase in the food prices on malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Martin W; Semba, Richard D; Kraemer, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The global food supply system is facing serious new challenges from economic and related crises and climate change, which directly affect the nutritional well-being of the poor by reducing their access to nutritious food. To cope, vulnerable populations prioritize consumption of calorie-rich but nutrient-poor food. Consequently, dietary quality and eventually quantity decline, increasing micronutrient malnutrition (or hidden hunger) and exacerbating preexisting vulnerabilities that lead to poorer health, lower incomes, and reduced physical and intellectual capabilities. This article introduces the series of papers in this supplement, which explore the relationships between crises and their cumulative impacts among vulnerable populations, particularly through hidden hunger.

  19. Increase in nervonic acid content in transformed yeast and transgenic plants by introduction of a Lunaria annua L. 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) gene.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiming; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Francis, Tammy; Katavic, Vesna; Brost, Jennifer M; Giblin, Michael; Barton, Dennis L; Taylor, David C

    2009-03-01

    Nervonic acid is a Very Long-Chain Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (VLCMFA), 24:1 Delta15 (cis-tetracos-15-enoic acid) found in the seed oils of Lunaria annua, borage, hemp, Acer (Purpleblow maple) and Tropaeolum speciosum (Flame flower). However, of these, only the "money plant" (Lunaria annua L.) has been studied and grown sparingly for future development as a niche crop and the outlook has been disappointing. Therefore, our goal was to isolate and characterize strategic new genes for high nervonic acid production in Brassica oilseed crops. To this end, we have isolated a VLCMFA-utilizing 3-Keto-Acyl-CoA Synthase (KCS; fatty acid elongase; EC 2.3.1.86) gene from Lunaria annua and functionally expressed it in yeast, with the recombinant KCS protein able to catalyze the synthesis of several VLCMFAs, including nervonic acid. Seed-specific expression of the Lunaria KCS in Arabidopsis resulted in a 30-fold increase in nervonic acid proportions in seed oils, compared to the very low quantities found in the wild-type. Similar transgenic experiments using B. carinata as the host resulted in a 7-10 fold increase in seed oil nervonic acid proportions. KCS enzyme activity assays indicated that upon using (14)C-22:1-CoA as substrate, the KCS activity from developing seeds of transgenic B. carinata was 20-30-fold higher than the low erucoyl-elongation activity exhibited by wild type control plants. There was a very good correlation between the Lun KCS transcript intensity and the resultant 22:1-CoA KCS activity in developing seed. The highest nervonic acid level in transgenic B. carinata expressing the Lunaria KCS reached 30%, compared to 2.8% in wild type plant. In addition, the erucic acid proportions in these transgenic lines were considerably lower than that found in native Lunaria oil. These results show the functional utility of the Lunaria KCS in engineering new sources of high nervonate/reduced erucic oils in the Brassicaceae. PMID:19082744

  20. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  1. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  2. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. PMID:25685949

  3. Increasing the hydrolysis constant of the reactive site upon introduction of an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant.

    PubMed

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Kumazaki, Takashi; Kojima, Shuichi; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Miura, Kin-Ichiro; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2011-08-01

    P14C/N39C is the disulfide variant of the ovomucoid third domain from silver pheasant (OMSVP3) introducing an engineered Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond near the reactive site on the basis of the sequence homology between OMSVP3 and ascidian trypsin inhibitor. This variant exhibits a narrower inhibitory specificity. We have examined the effects of introducing a Cys¹⁴-Cys³⁹ bond into the flexible N-terminal loop of OMSVP3 on the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis, as well as the thermal stability of reactive site intact inhibitors. P14C/N39C can be selectively cleaved by Streptomyces griseus protease B at the reactive site of OMSVP3 to form a reactive site modified inhibitor. The conversion rate of intact to modified P14C/N39C is much faster than that for wild type under any pH condition. The pH-independent hydrolysis constant (K(hyd) °) is estimated to be approximately 5.5 for P14C/N39C, which is higher than the value of 1.6 for natural OMSVP3. The reactive site modified form of P14C/N39C is thermodynamically more stable than the intact one. Thermal denaturation experiments using intact inhibitors show that the temperature at the midpoint of unfolding at pH 2.0 is 59 °C for P14C/N39C and 58 °C for wild type. There have been no examples, except P14C/N39C, where introducing an engineered disulfide causes a significant increase in K(hyd) °, but has no effect on the thermal stability. The site-specific disulfide introduction into the flexible N-terminal loop of natural Kazal-type inhibitors would be useful to further characterize the thermodynamics of the reactive site peptide bond hydrolysis.

  4. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  5. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  6. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  7. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  8. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  9. Introduction to Biophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Paras N.

    2003-04-01

    Paras Prasad's text provides a basic knowledge of a broad range of topics so that individuals in all disciplines can rapidly acquire the minimal necessary background for research and development in biophotonics. Introduction to Biophotonics serves as both a textbook for education and training as well as a reference book that aids research and development of those areas integrating light, photonics, and biological systems. Each chapter contains a topic introduction, a review of key data, and description of future directions for technical innovation. Introduction to Biophotonics covers the basic principles of Optics Optical spectroscopy Microscopy Each section also includes illustrated examples and review questions to test and advance the reader's knowledge. Sections on biosensors and chemosensors, important tools for combating biological and chemical terrorism, will be of particular interest to professionals in toxicology and other environmental disciplines. Introduction to Biophotonics proves a valuable reference for graduate students and researchers in engineering, chemistry, and the life sciences.

  10. Introduction to stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scilla, Degl'Innocenti

    2016-04-01

    This contribution is meant as a first brief introduction to stellar physics. First I shortly describe the main physical processes active in stellar structures then I summarize the most important features during the stellar life-cycle.

  11. Introduction to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.; McDermott, D.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on artificial intelligence. Topics include reasoning under uncertainty, robot plans, language understanding, and learning. The history of the field as well as intellectual ties to related disciplines are presented.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  13. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  14. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  15. Introduction to HACCP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  16. Introduction to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacka, Monika; Bajan, Katarzyna; Stachowski, Greg; Flin, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Between 15-25 August 2015, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce was the host of a Cosmological School, titled "Introduction to Cosmology". The main purpose of the School was to give the participants, mostly young astronomers and physicists, a basic idea of what, today, are some of the main problems in astronomy.

  17. 4.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  18. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…

  19. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  20. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  1. Introduction to Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  2. Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to articles in this special "Perspectives" issue of "Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology." The articles, taken collectively, contain significant elements of a research agenda in image indexing and retrieval for the next decade. Articles focus on user, representation, and system issues.…

  3. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of Shakespeare's literary genius, and…

  4. Introduction to LHC physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polesello, Giacomo

    2006-11-01

    An elementary introduction to the basic features of experimentation at the LHC is given, with some emphasis on the detector requirements and on some basic experimental techniques. The experimental program is briefly introduced, and bibliographical indications are provided for a detailed study of the key physics topics.

  5. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  6. Pediatric obesity. An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  7. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  8. Neurolaw: A brief introduction

    PubMed Central

    Petoft, Arian

    2015-01-01

    Neurolaw, as an interdisciplinary field which links the brain to law, facilitates the pathway to better understanding of human behavior in order to regulate it accurately through incorporating neuroscience achievements in legal studies. Since 1990’s, this emerging field, by study on human nervous system as a new dimension of legal phenomena, leads to a more precise explanation for human behavior to revise legal rules and decision-makings. This paper strives to bring about significantly a brief introduction to neurolaw so as to take effective steps toward exploring and expanding the scope of law and more thorough understanding of legal issues in the field at hand. PMID:25874060

  9. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  10. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  11. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1999-12-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  12. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  13. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  14. Introduction to drilling research

    SciTech Connect

    Hamblin, J. )

    1993-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction to research projects in the area of drilling technology. A technical panel, composed of representatives of geothermal operators, drilling contractors, and service companies, met in Albuquerque, and heard presentations on various drilling related projects which are ongoing or planned. These projects are fairly small scale, partially funded by DOE, administered through Sandia National Laboratory, and generally cooperative in nature between industry and the laboratory. The author briefly discusses the seven highest rated projects, both by the researchers and the conferees. They are: hard rock bits, slimhole drilling, memory logging tools, lost circulation, the Geothermal Drilling Organization, the Long Valley Exploratory Well, and acoustic telemetry.

  15. Introduction to biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  16. Apoptosis-an introduction.

    PubMed

    Lawen, Alfons

    2003-09-01

    Apoptosis has become a major research area in the biomedical sciences. As there are more than 13,000 papers published annually on the topic, it is impossible to keep track on all developments in the area. The individual aspects of molecular control of apoptosis are well reviewed, but more general, introductory recent reviews into the field are lacking. This review aims to give a brief overview of the field, providing an introduction into the literature for students and newcomers; as it is written for the un-initiated, wherever possible, review articles will be cited rather than original papers.

  17. Introduction of a thermophile-sourced ion pair network in the fourth beta/alpha unit of a psychophile-derived triosephosphate isomerase from Methanococcoides burtonii significantly increases its kinetic thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Dhaunta, Neeraj; Arora, Kanika; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K; Guptasarma, Purnananda

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthermophile proteins commonly have higher numbers of surface ionic interactions than homologous proteins from other domains of life. PfuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) from the hyperthermophile archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, contains an intricate network of 4 ion pairs in its 4th beta/alpha unit, (β/α)4, whereas MbuTIM, a triosephosphate isomerase from a psychrophile archaeon, Methanococcoides burtonii, lacks this network. Notably, (β/α)4 is the first element of the structure formed during folding of certain TIM-type (beta/alpha)8 barrel proteins. Previously, we have shown that elimination of PfuTIM's ion pair network in PfuTIM significantly decreases its kinetic structural stability. Here, we describe the reciprocal experiment in which this ion pair network is introduced into MbuTIM, to produce MutMbuTIM. Recombinant MbuTIM displays multi-state unfolding with apparent Tm values of autonomous structural elements approaching, or above, 70°C, when a temperature scanning rate of 90°C/h is used. The protein displays significant intrinsic kinetic stability, i.e., there is a marked temperature scan rate-dependence of the Tm values associated with unfolding transitions. The Tm values drop by as much as ~10°C when the temperature scanning rate is lowered to 5°C/h. MutMbuTIM, incorporating PfuTIM's ion pair network, shows significantly higher apparent Tm values (raised by 4-6°C over those displayed by MbuTIM). MutMbuTIM also displays significantly higher kinetic thermal stability. Thus, it appears that the thermal stability of triosephosphate isomerase can be increased, or decreased, by either enhancing, or reducing, the strength of ion pair interactions stabilizing (β/α)4, presumably through reduced cooperativity (and increased autonomy) in unfolding transitions.

  18. ZmPUMP encodes a fully functional monocot plant uncoupling mitochondrial protein whose affinity to fatty acid is increased with the introduction of a His pair at the second matrix loop

    SciTech Connect

    Favaro, Regiane Degan; Borecky, Jiri; Colombi, Debora; Maia, Ivan G. . E-mail: igmaia@ibb.unesp.br

    2006-05-26

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are specialized mitochondrial transporter proteins that uncouple respiration from ATP synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding maize uncoupling protein (ZmPUMP) was expressed in Escherichia coli and recombinant ZmPUMP reconstituted in liposomes. ZmPUMP activity was associated with a linoleic acid (LA)-mediated H{sup +} efflux with K {sub m} of 56.36 {+-} 0.27 {mu}M and V {sub max} of 66.9 {mu}mol H{sup +} min{sup -1} (mg prot){sup -1}. LA-mediated H{sup +} fluxes were sensitive to ATP inhibition with K {sub i} of 2.61 {+-} 0.36 mM (at pH 7.2), a value similar to those for dicot UCPs. ZmPUMP was also used to investigate the importance of a histidine pair present in the second matrix loop of mammalian UCP1 and absent in plant UCPs. ZmPUMP with introduced His pair (Lys155His and Ala157His) displayed a 1.55-fold increase in LA-affinity while its activity remained unchanged. Our data indicate conserved properties of plant UCPs and suggest an enhancing but not essential role of the histidine pair in proton transport mechanism.

  19. Introduction to lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  20. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  1. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world. PMID:16909643

  2. An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warhaft, Zellman

    1998-01-01

    This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste products. The book also discusses the greenhouse effect and atmospheric inversions, and the social implications of engineering in a crowded world with increasing energy demands. Students in mechanical, civil, agricultural, environmental, aerospace, and chemical engineering will welcome this engaging, well-illustrated introduction to thermal-fluid engineering.

  3. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    independence, and also more recognition of QoS as an independent research area, was achieved in the above mentioned Paris workshop. This workshop was aligned with the IFIP conference on Formal Methods for Open Object-based Distributed Systems (FMOODS96), but was also independently recognised by IFIP. A fifth workshop is due to take place in May 1997 in New York. This event will be the first not to be organized under the umbrella of another big event. This is indicative of the fact that the community interested in QoS issues has now become large enough to maintain its own independent forum of discussion and exchange of expertise. The five papers in this special issue cover a wide range of QoS research issues and fall broadly into three categories. First we have a paper that addresses a very specific but nevertheless crucial aspect of QoS provision: supporting the QoS of variable bit rate (VBR) traffic in networks with deterministic guarantees. `On the effects of smoothing for deterministic QoS' by Edward Knightly and Paola Rossaro examines the impact of rate smoothing of VBR sources such as MPEG video. The impact of such smoothing on both the QoS as perceived by the user and on resource utilization in the network are considered. Experimental evidence is presented which shows quantitatively how reducing burstiness through source smoothing techniques can significantly reduce the resource utilization of VBR streams while maintaining deterministic QoS for the user (at the cost of some increase in the end-to-end delay bound). It is also shown that a richer traffic characterisation model (D-BIND) can produce better network utilization and user QoS than the usual models based only on peak rate, average rate and burst length. Next we have two papers concerned with broader issues of QoS management. These papers explore approaches to QoS monitoring and adaptation which are intended to be generic and applicable in a range of implementation environments. `Some principles for quality of

  4. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mody, Vicky V; Siwale, Rodney; Singh, Ajay; Mody, Hardik R

    2010-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. They are a focus of interest because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, and preconcentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery, and vehicles for gene and drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. Moreover, various imaging modalities have been developed over the period of time such as MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, SERS, and optical imaging as an aid to image various disease states. These imaging modalities differ in both techniques and instrumentation and more importantly require a contrast agent with unique physiochemical properties. This led to the invention of various nanoparticulated contrast agent such as magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)), gold, and silver nanoparticles for their application in these imaging modalities. In addition, to use various imaging techniques in tandem newer multifunctional nanoshells and nanocages have been developed. Thus in this review article, we aim to provide an introduction to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)), gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and nanocages, and silver nanoparticles followed by their synthesis, physiochemical properties, and citing some recent applications in the diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer. PMID:21180459

  5. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Vicky V.; Siwale, Rodney; Singh, Ajay; Mody, Hardik R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. They are a focus of interest because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, and preconcentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery, and vehicles for gene and drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. Moreover, various imaging modalities have been developed over the period of time such as MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, SERS, and optical imaging as an aid to image various disease states. These imaging modalities differ in both techniques and instrumentation and more importantly require a contrast agent with unique physiochemical properties. This led to the invention of various nanoparticulated contrast agent such as magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold, and silver nanoparticles for their application in these imaging modalities. In addition, to use various imaging techniques in tandem newer multifunctional nanoshells and nanocages have been developed. Thus in this review article, we aim to provide an introduction to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and nanocages, and silver nanoparticles followed by their synthesis, physiochemical properties, and citing some recent applications in the diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer. PMID:21180459

  6. Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nancey

    This chapter provides an overview of some of the history of debates regarding free will, and concurs with several authors who claim that the philosophical discussions have reached a stalemate due to their focus on a metaphysical doctrine of universal determinism. The way ahead, therefore, requires two developments. One is to focus not on determinism but on reductionism; the other is to attend to specific scientific findings that appear to call free will into question. The chapter provides an introduction to the topics of reductionism, emergence, and downward causation, and then surveys the works of Daniel Wegner and Benjamin Libet, which have been taken to show the irrelevance of conscious will in human action. It summarizes the chapters comprising the rest of the volume, and then offers a reflection on the achievement of the work as a whole - in brief, a critique of free-will skeptics based on human capacities such as meta-cognition and long-term planning, which allow agents to exert downward control on neural processes and behavior. It ends by highlighting, in light of Alasdair MacIntyre's work on moral responsibility, an important additional factor involved in creating the possibility for freedom of choice, namely the possession of abstract symbolic language.

  7. Campus Networking Strategies: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael M.

    1988-01-01

    This article is adapted from the introduction to EDUCOM's forthcoming book, Campus Networking Strategies, which includes 10 case study chapters detailing academic experiences with computer networking. Topics discussed in the introduction include network issues for management, networking economics, engineering and telecommunications issues, and…

  8. An Introduction to Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambacher, Robert

    At Millersville University (Pennsylvania), business German is taught in the German section in a two-semester introduction at the sophomore level, a junior-level advanced course, and a senior-level translation course. These four courses are augmented by introductions to business and economics, both taught in English outside the German section.…

  9. Connection with dynamics: General introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief nontechnical introduction to a few theoretical issues to the density-velocity relation. The aim of this introduction is not an exhaustive analysis of the current theoretical situation but rather setting a stage for the following talks. The selection of topics has been determined by the sequel program.

  10. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  11. Introduction to haptics for neurosurgeons.

    PubMed

    L'Orsa, Rachael; Macnab, Chris J B; Tavakoli, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Robots are becoming increasingly relevant to neurosurgeons, extending a neurosurgeon's physical capabilities, improving navigation within the surgical landscape when combined with advanced imaging, and propelling the movement toward minimally invasive surgery. Most surgical robots, however, isolate surgeons from the full range of human senses during a procedure. This forces surgeons to rely on vision alone for guidance through the surgical corridor, which limits the capabilities of the system, requires significant operator training, and increases the surgeon's workload. Incorporating haptics into these systems, ie, enabling the surgeon to "feel" forces experienced by the tool tip of the robot, could render these limitations obsolete by making the robot feel more like an extension of the surgeon's own body. Although the use of haptics in neurosurgical robots is still mostly the domain of research, neurosurgeons who keep abreast of this emerging field will be more prepared to take advantage of it as it becomes more prevalent in operating theaters. Thus, this article serves as an introduction to the field of haptics for neurosurgeons. We not only outline the current and future benefits of haptics but also introduce concepts in the fields of robotic technology and computer control. This knowledge will allow readers to be better aware of limitations in the technology that can affect performance and surgical outcomes, and "knowing the right questions to ask" will be invaluable for surgeons who have purchasing power within their departments.

  12. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade.

  13. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade. PMID:21809759

  14. Introduction to tillage erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage as a source of erosion Tillage erosion is the downslope movement of soil by tillage. During tillage, soil is lifted and gravity moves soil downslope. Soil movement by tillage increases with slope steepness. However, net soil transport by tillage is determined by the change in slope. Soil mov...

  15. Introduction: Overview and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisoni, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    There are many reasons why the International Bureau of Education (IBE) has chosen to devote an article in the journal "Prospects" to policy dialogue in education. Firstly, policy dialogue is increasingly important to the management and development of education systems, as well as to enhancing the quality of education. As such, its role is growing…

  16. Introduction. Biomolecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Adrian J

    2008-12-01

    'Everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms' as Richard Feynman provocatively stated nearly 50 years ago. But how can we 'see' this wiggling and jiggling and understand how it drives biology? Increasingly, computer simulations of biological macromolecules are helping to meet this challenge.

  17. Introduction. Biomolecular simulation

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2008-01-01

    ‘Everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms’ as Richard Feynman provocatively stated nearly 50 years ago. But how can we ‘see’ this wiggling and jiggling and understand how it drives biology? Increasingly, computer simulations of biological macromolecules are helping to meet this challenge. PMID:18826912

  18. Introduction, perspectives, and overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels, which are renewable sources of energy, can help meet some of the increasing need for petroleum, and can be produced from a variety of materials, including agricultural residues, corn stover, grasses, legumes, algae, food processing wastes, and other biological materials. Indeed, the ligno...

  19. Introduction: "Fiscal Neutrality" After Rodriquez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, John E.

    1974-01-01

    An informal introduction to a collection of articles on future directions for public school finance reform which assesses the impact of the Serrano and Rodriquez decision and explores possible future trends in this area. (EH)

  20. Introduction to diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Kirti; Tarr, Joanna M; Ahmad, Shamim I; Kohner, Eva M; Chibber, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast-growing global problem with huge social, health, and economic consequences. It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (approximately 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. An ageing population and obesity are two main reasons for the increase. Furthermore it has been shown that almost 50% of the putative diabetics are not diagnosed until 10 years after onset of the disease, hence the real prevalence of global diabetes must be astronomically high. This chapter introduces the types of diabetes and diabetic complications such as impairment of immune system, periodontal disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, somatic and autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular diseases and diabetic foot. Also included are the current management and treatments, and emerging therapies.

  1. Introduction to diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Kirti; Tarr, Joanna M; Ahmad, Shamim I; Kohner, Eva M; Chibber, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast-growing global problem with huge social, health, and economic consequences. It is estimated that in 2010 there were globally 285 million people (approximately 6.4% of the adult population) suffering from this disease. This number is estimated to increase to 430 million in the absence of better control or cure. An ageing population and obesity are two main reasons for the increase. Furthermore it has been shown that almost 50% of the putative diabetics are not diagnosed until 10 years after onset of the disease, hence the real prevalence of global diabetes must be astronomically high. This chapter introduces the types of diabetes and diabetic complications such as impairment of immune system, periodontal disease, retinopathy, nephropathy, somatic and autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular diseases and diabetic foot. Also included are the current management and treatments, and emerging therapies. PMID:23393665

  2. [Introduction to antiseptics].

    PubMed

    González, Laura López; Gutiérrez Pérez, M Isabel; Lucio-Villegas Menéndez, M Eulalia; Lluch, Natalia Aresté; Morató Agustí, M Luisa; Cachafeiro, Santiago Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Antiseptics are anti-infectious agents for local use on the skin or mucosa, which distinguishes them from disinfectants, which are used on inanimate surfaces usually because of their toxicity. The present article explains the differences among the multiple possible antiseptics; special attention is paid to the most common, such as alcohol, chlorhexidine, povidone iodine, and oxygenated water. Finally, we stress the different antiseptic formulations, which increase the usefulness of these agents in specific indications.

  3. Chapter 1: Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) develops–and encourages consumers and business to adopt–technologies that improve energy efficiency and increase the use of renewable energy. This report describes analysis undertaken by EERE to better understand the extent to which the technologies and market improvements funded by its FY 2004 Budget Request1 will make energy more affordable, cleaner, and more reliable.

  4. Introduction to combined cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, M. J.

    Ideas and concepts underlying the technology of combined cycles including the scientific principles involved and the reasons these cycles are in fashion at the present time, are presented. A cycle is a steady flow process for conversion of heat energy into work, in which a working medium passes through a range of states, returning to its original state. Cycles for power production are the steam cycle, which is a closed cycle, and the gas turbine, which represents an open cycle. Combined cycle thermodynamic parameters, are discussed. The general arrangement of the plant is outlined and important features of their component parts described. The scope for future development is discussed. It is concluded that for the next few years the natural gas fired combined cycle will be the main type of plant installed for electricity generation and cogeneration. Whilst gas turbines may not increase substantially in unit size, there remains scope for further increase in firing temperature with consequent increase in cycle performance. However the larger global reserves of coal are providing an incentive to the development of plant for clean coal combustion using the inherent advantage of the combined cycle to attain high efficiencies.

  5. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  6. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  7. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  8. Introduction: Consider the Archive.

    PubMed

    Yale, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, historians of archives have paid increasingly careful attention to the development of state, colonial, religious, and corporate archives in the early modern period, arguing that power (of various kinds) was mediated and extended through material writing practices in and around archives. The history of early modern science, likewise, has tracked the production of scientific knowledge through the inscription and circulation of written records within and between laboratories, libraries, homes, and public spaces, such as coffeehouses and bookshops. This Focus section interrogates these two bodies of scholarship against each other. The contributors ask how archival digitization is transforming historical practice; how awareness of archival histories can help us to reconceptualize our work as historians of science; how an archive's layered purposes, built up over centuries of record keeping, can shape the historical narratives we write; and how scientific knowledge emerging from archives gained authority and authenticity. PMID:27197412

  9. Introduction: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2012-01-01

    Telemetry provides a powerful and flexible tool for studying fish and other aquatic animals, and its use has become increasingly commonplace. However, telemetry is gear intensive and typically requires more specialized knowledge and training than many other field techniques. As with other scientific methods, collecting good data is dependent on an understanding of the underlying principles behind the approach, knowing how to use the equipment and techniques properly, and recognizing what to do with the data collected. This book provides a road map for using telemetry to study aquatic animals, and provides the basic information needed to plan, implement, and conduct a telemetry study under field conditions. Topics include acoustic or radio telemetry study design, tag implantation techniques, radio and acoustic telemetry principles and case studies, and data management and analysis.

  10. Introduction to the supplement.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2015-06-01

    In July of 2014, a symposium entitled "Enhancing Vaccine Immunity and Value" was held in Siena, Italy. The focus of the symposium was on how to best meet the challenge of developing and implementing vaccines for future disease targets. Vaccination has been responsible for averting estimated 3 billion cases of disease and more than 500 million lives to date through the prevention of infectious diseases. This has largely been responsible for dramatic increases in life span in developed countries. However, with the demographics of the world's population are changing, with many adults now surviving into their 80s, we now face the challenge of protecting the aging and other underserved populations not only against infectious diseases but also against cancer and other chronic conditions that occur in older adults. To face this challenge, we must harness new technologies derived from recent advances in the fields of immunology, structural biology, synthetic biology and genomics that promise a revolution in the vaccine field. Specifically, vaccine adjuvants have the potential to harness the immune system to provide protection against new types of diseases, improve protection in young children and expand this protection to adults and the elderly. However, in order to succeed, we need to overcome the non-technical challenges that could limit the implementation of innovative vaccines, including controversies regarding the safety of adjuvants, increasing regulatory complexity, the inadequate methods used to assess the value of novel vaccines, and the resulting industry alienation from future investment. In this supplement, we have assembled manuscripts from lectures and discussions of the symposium last July that addressed two related questions: how to improve vaccine efficacy using breakthrough technologies and how to capture the full potential of novel vaccines.

  11. 17. Introduction to preparedness.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Preparedness is the aggregate of all measures and policies adopted before an event occurs that promotes mitigation of the damage caused by an event and minimises the dysfunction that could result from the damage. More specifically, it includes all planning and resources that are devoted to preventing deaths and morbidity and, thus, to the alleviation of human (individual and collective) suffering during and after the event has taken place. It consists of measures that individuals, a family, a community, locale, country, region, institution, and states maintain, at a particular time, to combat the potential deleterious effects of hazards. Preparedness includes the absorbing, buffering, and response capacities; it also has been called the resilience of the society at risk, to a hazard(s). As the level of preparedness increases, the vulnerability of the community at risk decreases. Preparedness is difficult to measure. The impact of preparedness measures cannot be realised until the next event occurs or it has been shown to be of benefit during disaster drills and exercises. Hence, investments in preparedness have been relatively meager worldwide. PMID:24785814

  12. Job Hunting, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, Ed; Stringer, Susan

    1998-05-01

    The AAS is again sponsoring a career workshop for Astronomers seeking employment. The workshop will cover a wide range of tools needed by a job seeker with a background in astronomy. There are increasingly fewer job opportunities in the academic areas. Today, astronomers need placement skills and career information to compete strongly in a more diversified jobs arena. The workshop will offer practical training on preparing to enter the job market. Topics covered include resume and letter writing as well as how to prepare for an interview. Advice is given on resources for jobs in astronomy, statistics of employment and education, and networking strategies. Workshop training also deals with a diverse range of career paths for astronomers. The workshop will consist of an two approximately three-hour sessions. The first (1-4pm) will be on the placement tools and job-search skills described above. The second session will be for those who would like to stay and receive personalized information on individual resumes, job search problems, and interview questions and practice. The individual appointments with Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer that will take place during the second session (6-9pm) will be arranged on-site during the first session. A career development and job preparation manual "Preparing Physicists for Work" will be on sale at the workshop for \\9.00. TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION: How to prepare an effective resume How to research prospective employers Interviewing skills Networking to uncover employment Job prospects present and future Traditional and non-traditional positions for astronomers This workshop will be presented by Ed Goldin and Susan Stringer of the American Institute of Physics. The cost of the workshop is \\15.00 which includes a packet of resource materials supporting the workshop presentation. Please send your request for attendance by 8 May 1998 to the Executive Office along with a check, payable to the AAS, for the fee. Credit cards will not be

  13. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  14. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  15. Guest Editor's introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    Special Issue on Performance Modelling Distributed systems are now accepted as a cost-effective alternative to mainframe computer systems in most commercial environments. Their usage continues to become ever more widespread whilst their complexity is increasing rapidly. The essential advantage of client - server systems in particular is the splitting of an application into a client part, which comprises tasks that are executed locally on workstations such as PCs, and a server part, which executes larger scale computations on a remote mainframe or parallel computer. In this way the end-user is offered great flexibility, using a workstation for its specialist capabilities and user interface which is tailored to use by non-technical staff. However, large calculations, for example access to a large central database, can be hived off, via a network, to a central mainframe which has superior performance and is also most appropriate for managing large volumes of shared data. In short, client - server systems can effectively integrate workstations, and perhaps mid-range systems, with mainframes and supercomputers in a cost-effective and user-friendly way. Many other distributed configurations are also used, for example clusters of networked workstations. Whilst this type of partitioning offers tremendous flexibility to users in a cost-effective way, large distributed systems are highly complex, involving large numbers of components performing tasks concurrently, some of which interact. The choice of components, interconnects and software algorithms is therefore critical and the scale of the problem - often many hundreds of clients, possibly many servers which may be parallel computers themselves and several choices of interconnect - demands a design backed up by formal quantitative performance modelling. This special issue is concerned with the performance evaluation of such distributed systems, many of them client - server systems. A system may be considered as comprising

  16. Introduction to Drywall. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of drywall is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  17. Introduction to Sheet Metal. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of sheet metal is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in…

  18. Introduction to Concrete Masonry. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of concrete masonry is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs…

  19. Introduction to Plumbing. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of plumbing is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  20. Introduction to Carpentry. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of carpentry is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in…

  1. Introduction to Bricklaying. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of bricklaying is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in…

  2. Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Jeff; Moffett, Jonathan

    1996-06-01

    reached a point at which a first generation of systems, based on policy representation within systems and automated monitoring systems, are coming into practical use. The papers also serve to identify many of the issues which are open research questions. In particular, as management systems increase in complexity, how far can we automate the refinement of high-level policies into implementations? How can we detect and resolve conflicts between policies? And how can monitoring services deal efficiently with ever-growing complexity and volume? We wish to acknowledge the many contributors, besides the authors, who have made this issue possible: the anonymous reviewers who have done much to assure the quality of these papers, Morris Sloman and his Programme Committee who convened the Workshop, and Thomas Usländer and his team at the Fraunhofer Institute in Karlsruhe who acted as hosts.

  3. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  4. Introduction to Statistical Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brézin, Edouard

    2010-07-01

    1. A few well-known basic results; 2. Introduction: order parameters, broken symmetries; 3. Examples of physical situations modelled by the Ising model; 4. A few results about the Ising model; 5. High temperature and low temperature expansions; 6. Some geometric problems related to phase transitions; 7. Phenomenological description of the critical behaviour; 8. Mean field theory; 9. Beyond mean field theory; 10. Introduction to the renormalization group; 11. Renormalization group for the φ4 theory; 12. Renormalized theory; 13. Goldstone modes; 14. Large n; Index.

  5. Introduction: The Computer After Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Jeremy

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computer Awareness in Science Fiction * Computer Awareness and Self-Awareness * How many senses does a computer have? * Does a computer know that it is a computer? * Does metal know when it is weakening? * Why Does Computer Awareness Matter? * Chapter Overviews * Summary and Conclusions

  6. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  7. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  8. AN INTRODUCTION TO A CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS SERVES AS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER'S JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM. IN ADDITION TO A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM AND OUTLINES OF THE AVERAGE AND HONORS CURRICULA, THE FOLLOWING PAPERS ARE INCLUDED--(1) "THE THEME-CONCEPT UNIT IN LITERATURE," (2) "APPROACHES TO MEANING--A BASIS FOR A…

  9. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  10. Introduction to Computing Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…

  11. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  12. An Introduction to Computational Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Tao

    2010-07-01

    Preface to first edition; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introduction; 2. Approximation of a function; 3. Numerical calculus; 4. Ordinary differential equations; 5. Numerical methods for matrices; 6. Spectral analysis; 7. Partial differential equations; 8. Molecular dynamics simulations; 9. Modeling continuous systems; 10. Monte Carlo simulations; 11. Genetic algorithm and programming; 12. Numerical renormalization; References; Index.

  13. The Lisbon Agenda: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lice, Anita; Striedinger, Angelika; Scholz, Christine; Mac Sithigh, Daithi; Fenech, Justin; Miklavic, Klemen; Geven, Koen; Stambolieva, Marija; Haslinger, Susi

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is an introduction to Lisbon Agenda and it is presented as a basis for ESIB's (The National Unions of Students in Europe) concerted work on the European Union's all-embracing strategy that is changing the parameters of the education systems. The reason for the existence of this handbook is the necessity to coordinate the work on all…

  14. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology. PMID:24341316

  15. Introduction to the Special Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1986-01-01

    Presents a special series of seven articles dealing with biopsychosocial oncology, the role of psychology in cancer treatment. Includes an introduction by Lizette Peterson and articles by Thomas Burish and Michael Carey, Susan Jay et al., Shelley Taylor et al., David Cella and Susan Tross, Gerald Koocher, and Leonard Derogatis. (KS)

  16. Introduction to QCD Sum Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2013-08-01

    A general, and very basic introduction to QCD sum rules is presented, with emphasis on recent issues to be described at length in other papers in this issue. Collectively, these papers constitute the proceedings of the International Workshop on Determination of the Fundamental Parameters of QCD, Singapore, March 2013.

  17. Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This Handbook provides an introduction to basic procedures and methods of data analysis. The authors provide a framework to guide program staff in their thinking about these procedures and methods and their relevant applications in MSHS (Migrant and Seasonal Head Start) settings. Accordingly, this Handbook was developed to support the work of…

  18. AN ACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO HINDI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACDOUGALL, BONNIE G.; STONE, JAMES W.

    THIS TWO-PART INTRODUCTION TO HINDI INCLUDES METHOD GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTRUCTOR AND EMPHASIZES REPRODUCING CORRECT PRONUNCIATION BEFORE UNDERSTANDING MEANING. THE HINDI MICROWAVE COURSE INCORPORATES 47 CYCLES OF INSTRUCTION, MOST OF WHICH CONTAIN AN M-PHASE (MIMICRY AND MEMORIZATION) AND A C-PHASE (COMMUNICATION). THE DRILLS INTRODUCE BASIC…

  19. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  20. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief overview of the current disintegration of Russian society. Maintains that the decline in social services and the education system, in particular, threatens the well-being of Russian children. Currently Russia's educational system is failing to provide for its students' needs. (MJP)

  1. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Spin is an entirely non-classical property of (elementary) particles [1], p. 198. A reference which deals with many aspects of spin (although the—in my mind—seminal Stern-Gerlach experiment (for details see Sect. 8.1 ) is never even mentioned) is "The Story of Spin" by Tomonaga [2] from which we cite: "It is a mysterious beast, and yet its practical effect prevails over the whole of science. The existence of spin, and the statistics associated with it, is the most subtle and ingenious design of Nature—without it the whole universe would collapse" (from the translator's (T. Oka) preface, p. vii). In nuclear physics, the nuclear, nucleon, and even quark spins enter in many ways. Examples are: hyperfine interaction, spin-orbit interaction, tensor force, spin-spin nucleon-nucleon interaction, the relation between spin and statistics which is not only the basis of the periodic table, but markedly influences the scattering of identical particles (e.g.{^{12}C} on {^{12}C} vs.{^{13}C} on ^{13}C,) etc.

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-01-01

    First of all, I would like to wish all of you an happy New Year, which I sincerely hope will bring you success, happiness and interesting new opportunities. For us in ALMA, the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 have been very exciting and this is once more a special moment in the development of our observatory. After transporting our third antenna to the high altitude Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 meters above sea level, our team successfully combined the outputs of these antennas using "phase closure", a standard method in interferometry. This achievement marks one more milestone along the way to the beginning of Commissioning and Science Verification, CSV, which, once completed, will mark the beginning of Early Science for ALMA. There was an official announcement about this milestone at the AAS meeting early January and we also wanted to share this good news with you through this newsletter, which contains the content of the announcement. In another area, this newsletter contains the progress on site and a presentation of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA). This is the second part of a two part series on antennas, a continuation of the article in the last newsletter. The ACA plays a crucial part in the imaging of extended sources with ALMA. Without the ACA, the ability to produce accurate images would be very restricted. Finally, as you know, we like to show the human face of this great endeavour we are building and this time, we decided to highlight the Department of Technical Services, another fundamental piece working actively to make ALMA the most powerful radio observatory ever built.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, J. H.

    1998-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable developments in the ability to control atomic motion by optical techniques. Among the key tools that have been developed for this purpose are the techniques of laser cooling, the significance of which was recognized by the award of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Phillips. These techniques have made it possible to cool atoms to temperatures lower than have been produced in any other physical system - around 10(-8) degrees Kelvin above absolute zero - and to confine those in traps for extended periods of observation.

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The formation of life remains a mystery. In our three-day scientific event, we will hear talks and see posters concerning what astrochemistry and astrobiology can currently tell us about this mystery. The first subject to be explored by our speakers will be astrochemistry, and what has been learned about the formation of complex molecules in star- and planet-forming regions of the interstellar medium. This topic will be sub-divided into three subjects: astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and simulations of the chemistry leading to large molecules, both in the gas and on the surfaces of interstellar dust particles. Some introductory remarks will be given about these subjects. We will next learn about the roles of comets and exoplanets. We will hear how comets can produce water and complex molecules, and possibly deliver them to nascent planets such as the early earth, and we will learn what current space probes such as Rosetta can tell us about the chemical make-up of comets. Regarding exoplanets, speakers will explore their likely atmospheres, and what complex molecules can be simulated in them. The last part of the event will be divided into various fields of astrobiology, including synthetic approaches to primitive life, paths to observations of life on other worlds, simulations of the origin of life, and the particular role of hydrothermal environments. In summary, we will learn about significant progress in astrochemistry and astrobiology, and yet we will also learn about how much more must be known before we can solve in its entirety the basic problem of how life arose.

  5. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    summary Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    The brave new world of ambient intelligence is almost upon us. Ambient intelligence is the phrase coined to describe a world in which "intelligence" is embedded in virtually everything around us. It has been called an Internet of things, where radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are attached to all products. It is a world of smart dust with networked sensors and actuators so small as to be virtually invisible, where the clothes you wear, the paint on your walls, the carpets on your floor, and the paper money in your pocket have a computer communications capability. It is a 4G world where today's mobile phone is transformed into a terminal capable of receiving television, accessing the Internet, downloading music, reading RFIDs, taking pictures, enabling interactive video telephony, and much more. It is a world of convergence, where heterogeneous devices are able to communicate seamlessly across today's disparate networks, a world of machine learning and intelligent software, where computers monitor our activities, routines and behaviours to predict what we will do or want next. In the brave new world of ambient intelligence, we will never have to worry about losing track of our children because they will have a location device implanted under the skin or, if they are squeamish about that, then at least they will have one in their wristwatch.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, R. W.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Particle accelerators are a field of continuing and growing success. Today about 30,000 accelerators are operated with various types of particles, including electrons, positrons, protons, neutrinos and various kinds of ions. These particles are used for the investigation of fundamental particles and forces in our universe. In parallel a fast growing field of accelerator-based photon science has developed since the 1970"s. Modern particle beams produce unique photon pulses that are used in ground-breaking studies on fast processes in chemistry and biology, on structures of viruses and bacteria, on the phenomenon of multi-resistivity to medication, on the functioning of photo-synthesis at the electronic level and on other important challenges for human mankind. Last not least, numerous particle accelerators are being used every day for industrial and medical applications, including the irradiation of tumors in human patients.

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortuem, Gerd; Eertink, Henk; Prehofer, Christian; Strohbach, Martin

    The convergence of wireless networks with mobile devices and embedded sensing technologies has a tremendous impact on how to model, develop and evaluate computer and software systems. Consequently, new computing and system models such as context-aware computing, spatially-aware computing and physically-embedded computing are supplementing or replacing traditional notions of distributed and parallel computing. This topic explores fundamental and practical research questions related to these emerging concepts and mobile and ubiquitous computing in general. This topic is new in the scope of the EuroPar series of conferences. It attracted 4 submissions, of which one was accepted, reflecting a 25% acceptance rate. This particular paper is quite representative for the ubiquitous computing area: it presents solutions for (near) optimal broadcasting, focusing on energy-efficiency in particular. This is very important for battery-powered wireless sensor networks, where broadcasting is the main communication mechanism, and energy efficiency is the key deployment requirement.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    It would be hard to argue against the fact that Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a fast growing discipline within material science and engineering. A quick scan of the proceedings from conferences such as Aeromat, Material Science and Technology, and the TMS Annual Meeting clearly shows it. What began a few years ago as one symposium has grown into multiple ICME related symposia at each of these conferences. As encouraging as the number of symposia being offered is the attendance at the symposia. For example, one of the ICME symposia at MS&T 10, the symposium in which this book is based, had five sessions which culminated in a panel discussion that was standing room only. In addition to the large, annual materials science and engineering conferences, smaller 1 to 2-day conferences/workshops sponsored by government agencies (e.g. AFRL and NIST) on specific aspects of ICME and by universities promoting their ICME work are regularly offered. And arguably the most significant news with regards to ICME and conferences is the July 2011 First World Congress on ICME. This five day TMS sponsored conference, specifically focused on ICME with an international advisory board of ICME leaders, shows how far ICME has spread across the globe. Evidence for the growth of ICME can also be found in Academia. The University Materials Council (UMC) is composed of department heads for material science and engineering from major U.S. and Canadian universities. Meeting twice a year to share best practices in order to strengthen both the engineering content [1] and the educational process, the UMC s agenda for their Spring 2010 meeting was dedicated to ICME [2]. This meeting was held in response to the growing awareness that the universities play a major role in the success of ICME and therefore need to develop ICME curriculum in order to meet that need. To aid educators in the development of ICME courses, NSF is funding a "Summer School" on ICME to be held at the University of Michigan in 2011 [3]. Northwestern University recently announced a MS Certificate Program in ICME [4]. Course work for this certificate begins in the Fall of 2011. Other signs that ICME is growing comes from the formation of ICME initiatives from work that did not start off with ICME in mind. One of the committees in ASM International is the Materials Properties Database Committee (MPDC). In the 2010 meeting of the MPDC, based on a study by ASM, the committee decided that it would create an ICME sub-committee in order to determine how ASM can meet the growing needs of the ICME community [5]. In 1999, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) created a consortium, the Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI), with members from both industry and government with a goal of reducing the cost and time to market of producing metal parts for aerospace applications [6].

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    Lecture notes are organized around the key word dissipation, while focusing on a presentation of modern theoretical developments in the study of irreversible phenomena. A broad cross-disciplinary perspective towards non-equilibrium statistical mechanics is backed by the general theory of nonlinear and complex dynamical systems. The classical-quantum intertwine and semiclassical dissipative borderline issue (decoherence, "classical out of quantum") are here included . Special emphasis is put on links between the theory of classical and quantum dynamical systems (temporal disorder, dynamical chaos and transport processes) with central problems of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics like e.g. the connection between dynamics and thermodynamics, relaxation towards equilibrium states and mechanisms capable to drive and next maintain the physical system far from equilibrium, in a non-equilibrium steady (stationary) state. The notion of an equilibrium state - towards which a system naturally evolves if left undisturbed - is a fundamental concept of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Taken as a primitive point of reference that allows to give an unambiguous status to near equilibrium and far from equilibrium systems, together with the dynamical notion of a relaxation (decay) towards a prescribed asymptotic invariant measure or probability distribution (properties of ergodicity and mixing are implicit). A related issue is to keep under control the process of driving a physical system away from an initial state of equilibrium and either keeping it in another (non-equilibrium) steady state or allowing to restore the initial data (return back, relax). To this end various models of environment (heat bath, reservoir, thermostat, measuring instrument etc.), and the environment - system coupling are analyzed. The central theme of the book is the dynamics of dissipation and various mechanisms responsible for the irreversible behaviour (transport properties) of open systems on classical and quantum levels of description. A distinguishing feature of these lecture notes is that microscopic foundations of irreversibility are investigated basically in terms of "small" systems, when the "system" and/or "environment" may have a finite (and small) number of degrees of freedom and may be bounded. This is to be contrasted with the casual understanding of statistical mechanics which is regarded to refer to systems with a very large number of degrees of freedom. In fact, it is commonly accepted that the accumulation of effects due to many (range of the Avogadro number) particles is required for statistical mechanics reasoning. Albeit those large numbers are not at all sufficient for transport properties. A helpful hint towards this conceptual turnover comes from the observation that for chaotic dynamical systems the random time evolution proves to be compatible with the underlying purely deterministic laws of motion. Chaotic features of the classical dynamics already appear in systems with two degrees of freedom and such systems need to be described in statistical terms, if we wish to quantify the dynamics of relaxation towards an invariant ergodic measure. The relaxation towards equilibrium finds a statistical description through an analysis of statistical ensembles. This entails an extension of the range of validity of statistical mechanics to small classical systems. On the other hand, the dynamics of fluctuations in macroscopic dissipative systems (due to their molecular composition and thermal mobility) may render a characterization of such systems as being chaotic. That motivates attempts of understanding the role of microscopic chaos and various "chaotic hypotheses" - dynamical systems approach is being pushed down to the level of atoms, molecules and complex matter constituents, whose natural substitute are low-dimensional model subsystems (encompassing as well the mesoscopic "quantum chaos") - in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. On the way a number of questions is addressed li

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strzałko, Jarosław; Grabski, Juliusz; Perlikowski, Przemysław; Stefanski, Andrzej; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    The definitions of gambling and gaming are given. We discuss the main differences between these terms. A brief history of gambling is presented. Physical models of the considered mechanical randomizers , namely the coin, the dice, and the roulette are introduced. We discuss under which conditions they can be fair.

  12. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C M

    1999-01-01

    Insights on many important issues related to women's status in India are provided in the narratives written for a workshop on women's lives. Writers were asked to reflect on the lives of their mothers and their grandmothers in relation to their own life. The stories were varied in many ways. It may be a tale of how the author established her own personhood, or a tale of the role of renegade predecessors in the family who set out a pattern of independence, or are stories of strength, of personal growth, of obstacles overcome. Ultimately, almost all these stories tell of women being diminished because of their gender. In reading the eight narratives the collection contains, it can be learned that women's vulnerability to the purposes, tempers and fates of their husbands and families, both natal and affinal, stands out. Without social and economic capacities, to support themselves, even the most determined could only seek to influence the opinion of others. Finally, perhaps stories like these could inspire women to survive, to defend themselves, and to create lives for themselves, their families, and women who follow them.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    Magnetohydrodynamics: MHD. Magneto—having to do with electromagnetic fields; hydro—having to do with fluids; and dynamics—dealing with forces and the laws of motion. Magnetohydrodynamics, or MHD, is the mathematical model for the low-frequency interaction between electrically conducting fluids and electromagnetic fields.

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.

    This document is part of Subvolume E `Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes RON to STI' of Volume 14 `Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'.

  15. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph J.; Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean

    The actinide elements are the 15 chemical elements with atomic numbers 89 through 103, the first member of which is actinium and the last member is lawrencium (Fig. 1.1). The transactinide elements (those beyond the actinides) are the heaviest known chemical elements. Both the actinide and the transactinide elements have chemical properties that are governed by their outermost electronic subshells. Each of these groups of elements is a unique transition series (a group of elements in which d or f electronic subshells are being filled).

  16. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Southern, Sarka O.; Mentzer, Mark A.; Rodriquez-Chavez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 SPIE Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine and Environmental Monitoring conference embraced a wealth of state-of-the-art information in basic and applied science. This event covered the latest developments in the following areas: Non-invasive Disease Diagnostics for Global Health- This opening series of two consecutive sessions focused on oral biospecimen based rapid assays and point-of-care devices for the detection of pathogens causing infectious diseases, biomarkers for cancer, and analytes for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes. They also covered presentations on the human proteasome and microbiome with linkage to human diseases and diagnostic approaches. The sessions were built on the past experience and expertise of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Military Medicine I: Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD-This assembly covered oral-biomarker based diagnostics for brain damage and TBI as well as prevention and rehabilitation technologies. Neurorehabilitation and noninvasive neuromodulation were also discussed as critical approaches for effective functioning. Military Medicine II: Physiology and Medicine of Extreme Environments and Spaceflight-This scientific segment showcased physiological, pharmacological and diagnostic sensing methodologies during spaceflight per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as military-relevant toxicans and future sensing trends per the Department of Defense. It also included latest technologies to determine hydration status in warfighters, eye surgery using the latest laser technologies, and sensing tools for blood analysis. ? Sensing Technologies for Disease Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring-This closing series of two consecutive sessions provided the venues to learn and discuss more results on the next generation of diagnostic tools and field technologies for diseases, including biomarker detection by digital imaging, multiplex technologies, capillary electrophoresis and molecular platforms serving as labs-on-chips. This conference allowed cross-fertilization of ideas, projects and collaborative work by a multidisciplinary audience of national and international colleagues from the academia, industry and federal government: The National Institutes of Health, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Defense.

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    This brief introductory chapter sets the stage for a broad discussion of many aspects of virtual worlds, by comparing episodes experienced by two avatar researchers, one in Second Life (SL), and the other in Star Wars Galaxies (SWG). Interviewer Wilber attends a medieval dance on an SL island created by Starfleet, an innovative and hard-working group of 500 Star Trek fans, who have created working virtual technology and soaring architecture to make real their fantasies about the human future. Algorithma Teq visits the Mos Eisley Cantina in SWG, where Luke Skywalker originally met Han Solo, and is scrutinized by two Imperial storm troopers, even as she attempts to remain aloof from the Star Wars mythos and simply practice her engineering skills in making droids. It can be useful to distinguish gamelike virtual worlds from non-game worlds, yet as these examples show, they are not distinct categories, and virtual worlds inevitably mix fantasy and reality in complex ways.

  18. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces the book, "Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Striving Towards Best Available Practice" which is a summary of the contributions of the second SETAC-Europe Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (WIA-2) to the development and recognition of best...

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ICGC Meetings: 1987-2011 When India became an independent nation in 1947, the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru on the scene, as the Prime Minister was a fortunate circumstance. For, Nehru was a visionary, who believed that the future of the new nation should be guided by science and technology (S & T), and so with like-minded scientists like, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, Homi Bhabha, Meghnad Saha, and Daulatsingh Kothari in leading positions, Nehru set about creating an extensive infrastructure for S & T. The initiatives taken in and around 1947 began to yield dividends in a couple of decades, and by the late 60s and early 70s, major S & T organizations and associated trained human resources were making significant contributions to the country's development, both material and intellectual. Amongst these may be included, the creation of various scientific societies devoted to specific subjects. These came in response to the urge of scientists to meet as a group for discussions in their fields of research. So, it was in 1969, a number of research workers in the field of general relativity and gravitation (GRG), who had gathered for a workshop in Ahmedabad, resolved to form a society for GRG. The initiative was taken by P C Vaidya, who pointed out the advantages of forming such a recognized group, mentioning that the international community of workers in GRG had already formed such a society. The Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), thus, came up in 1969 with the veteran relativist V V Narlikar, as its first President. Some three years later, the astronomical community responding to a similar urge, formed the Astronomical Society of India (ASI), under the presidency of Vainu Bappu, the Founder Director of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Since the days of discovery of quasars in 1963, there has been an alliance between gravitation theorists and astrophysicists, resulting in the Texas Symposia, which are held once every two years. The International Society of GRG, referred above, also has a world congress (numbered GR-n) once in four years. The ASI and IAGRG have, naturally, many members in common, and over the years, these organizations have grown. Their national meets take place approximately once in two years. It is customary to invite overseas scientists to these meets, if they happen to be visiting India. In the early 80s, the scientific community in India felt more ambitious, and debated the possibility of hosting a truly international meet in India. Thus, in 1985 the astronomers successfully hosted the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. The GRG members, likewise, were pressing for hosting a meeting in the GR-n series. Since the human resources and institutional base of relativists were not as wide and strong as of the astronomers, they were advised to proceed in stages. ''First successfully hold a miniature version of GR-n, and once your credibility and capability are established, bid for the big one.'' This was the advice of some international veterans. That is how the ICGC-series of conferences came about. The first ICGC As the name (International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology) implies, the conference sought to combine the interests of the Texas Symposia as well as of GR-n. The meetings were planned to be once in four years starting in mid-December 1987. (This was the blank year for the Texas Symposium.) To launch them in an impressive manner, the opening meeting was planned to be in the famous tourist resort state of Goa. As IAGRG lacked the infrastructure to organize such a conference, the main organizational responsibility had to be taken up by one of the research institutes; and the biggest amongst these was the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai. The TIFR, therefore, was approached, and agreed. As the 'most interested person" from TIFR, I was put in charge of the enterprise. Of course, I had the backing of my senior colleague Kumar (S.M.) Chitre and the younger one, Ajit Kembhavi, and the organizational infrastructure of TIFR. In particular, the then administrator dealing with scientific meetings, Parelkar enthusiastically joined me to set up the local boundary conditions in Goa. To get our priorities right, we first picked upon Hotel Mandovi in Panjim (Capital of Goa) as the nodal hotel for catering, accommodation, and arrangements of the academic sessions. We were expecting around 100 participants with 50% from abroad. Kamat, the Manager of Hotel Mandovi, promised all help including beds in nearby hotels to make up any shortfall. Regarding the quality of food, for which Hotel Mandovi was justly famous, its in-charge, Satish Prabhu took care of all our worries. Delegates may still recall the various Goan delicacies featured on the conference menus. Parelkar negotiated the basic deal with the hotels to extract the maximum benefits for the conference. But we were still rather vulnerable in lack of the local conditions. An unexpected helping hand came to make up for our lack of local knowledge. The amateur astronomer organization, called ''Friends of Astronomy in Goa'', led by their venerable President, Percival Noronha offered to run errands for us and play the role of local volunteer. Noronha had been associated with the state government of Goa, since the days when it was a Portuguese colony. His 'inside knowledge' came in useful, especially when he advised us to request the Chief Minister, Pratapsingh Rane to entertain the conference participants in the state catamaran. Somewhat hesitatingly, I wrote a request letter, and to my delightful surprise, the CM agreed. Indeed, the boat-ride followed by the CM's riverside banquet was the entertainment high point of the conference. The food, Goan drinks, and musical entertainment were well appreciated by the participants, and an uninitiated person might be forgiven for thinking that ICGC stood for ''International Conference on Goan Conviviality''. However, it was the academic menu of ICGC-1987 that took precedence over anything else. The Scientific Organizing Committee, consisting of Vishveshwara (Vishu, if your tongue is not up to pronouncing the full name) as the Chairman, and Ashtekar, Barrow, Bertotti, Brill, Carr, Hartle, Hu, Iyer, MacCallum, Narlikar, Novikov, Penrose, and Sciama reflected a nice international mix as well as a mix of active branches of Gravitation and Cosmology. Later meetings The original intention of meeting every four years in some part of India was honoured by the community, and accordingly, the ICGC met in Ahmedabad (1991), Pune (1995), Kharagpur (2000), Cochin (2004), and Pune (2007) before reconvening in Goa in 2011. These meetings were more modestly planned, and instead of trying to cover many fields, each meeting was limited to some specialized topics. Thus, the Kharagpur meeting had highlighted gravitational waves, while the Pune (1995) meeting had emphasized the Raychaudhuri equation and the singularity theorems. These conferences did help to put India firmly on the map of GR and Cosmology, to the extent that the GR-15 was held successfully in Pune with Naresh Dadhich from IUCAA playing the main coordinator's role. It has been a pleasure to see young blood being attracted to these areas of research. Two major developments are on the horizon at the time of writing this piece. The LIGO is planning to set up an extra detector of gravitational waves in India with local help, both in hardware and software. Likewise, steps are being taken for India to join the TMT mega-telescope project as an international partner. These heartening developments help us to bear the loss of old doyens like, V V Narlikar, P C Vaidya, and A K Raychaudhuri. Though 'small is beautiful' is a truism, the decision was taken to return to Goa with a wider and richer academic menu to recall and celebrate the first ICGC. This is how we all find ourselves in Goa and its pleasant surroundings. As they say: ''Your problem is simplified if you choose the right boundary conditions!'' J V Narlikar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Post Bag 4, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India E-mail: jvn@iucaa.ernet.in

  20. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrossan, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A definition, and a history of the role and functions of state library development agencies since the 1890's are presented. The remaining articles in this issue, which deal with various aspects of the same subject, are summarized. (MBR)

  1. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Rob

    In 2003 we started a new research programme at the Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) that was aiming to help people to further develop their professional competences by using the innovative powers of new media, mobile devices, and modern Internet services. The idea behind the programme was to contribute to one of the bigger challenges in our society: how to deal with the growing complexity, the growing quantity and the permanent changes in knowledge and technologies. For companies this question relates to the core of their business: how to become innovative and stay competitive. For the employees, the ‘professionals’, this question relates directly to their jobs: how to become and stay employable. In this book we will concentrate on the last group, the professionals and their question how to stay employable, how to keep up-to-date and how to develop professional competence during their careers. The professionals represent the human capital, the knowledge, the innovative power in our economy.

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ICGC Meetings: 1987-2011 When India became an independent nation in 1947, the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru on the scene, as the Prime Minister was a fortunate circumstance. For, Nehru was a visionary, who believed that the future of the new nation should be guided by science and technology (S & T), and so with like-minded scientists like, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, Homi Bhabha, Meghnad Saha, and Daulatsingh Kothari in leading positions, Nehru set about creating an extensive infrastructure for S & T. The initiatives taken in and around 1947 began to yield dividends in a couple of decades, and by the late 60s and early 70s, major S & T organizations and associated trained human resources were making significant contributions to the country's development, both material and intellectual. Amongst these may be included, the creation of various scientific societies devoted to specific subjects. These came in response to the urge of scientists to meet as a group for discussions in their fields of research. So, it was in 1969, a number of research workers in the field of general relativity and gravitation (GRG), who had gathered for a workshop in Ahmedabad, resolved to form a society for GRG. The initiative was taken by P C Vaidya, who pointed out the advantages of forming such a recognized group, mentioning that the international community of workers in GRG had already formed such a society. The Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), thus, came up in 1969 with the veteran relativist V V Narlikar, as its first President. Some three years later, the astronomical community responding to a similar urge, formed the Astronomical Society of India (ASI), under the presidency of Vainu Bappu, the Founder Director of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Since the days of discovery of quasars in 1963, there has been an alliance between gravitation theorists and astrophysicists, resulting in the Texas Symposia, which are held once every two years. The International Society of GRG, referred above, also has a world congress (numbered GR-n) once in four years. The ASI and IAGRG have, naturally, many members in common, and over the years, these organizations have grown. Their national meets take place approximately once in two years. It is customary to invite overseas scientists to these meets, if they happen to be visiting India. In the early 80s, the scientific community in India felt more ambitious, and debated the possibility of hosting a truly international meet in India. Thus, in 1985 the astronomers successfully hosted the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. The GRG members, likewise, were pressing for hosting a meeting in the GR-n series. Since the human resources and institutional base of relativists were not as wide and strong as of the astronomers, they were advised to proceed in stages. ''First successfully hold a miniature version of GR-n, and once your credibility and capability are established, bid for the big one.'' This was the advice of some international veterans. That is how the ICGC-series of conferences came about. The first ICGC As the name (International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology) implies, the conference sought to combine the interests of the Texas Symposia as well as of GR-n. The meetings were planned to be once in four years starting in mid-December 1987. (This was the blank year for the Texas Symposium.) To launch them in an impressive manner, the opening meeting was planned to be in the famous tourist resort state of Goa. As IAGRG lacked the infrastructure to organize such a conference, the main organizational responsibility had to be taken up by one of the research institutes; and the biggest amongst these was the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai. The TIFR, therefore, was approached, and agreed. As the 'most interested person" from TIFR, I was put in charge of the enterprise. Of course, I had the backing of my senior colleague Kumar (S.M.) Chitre and the younger one, Ajit Kembhavi, and the organizationa

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    String instruments are found in almost all musical cultures. Bowed string instruments form the backbone of symphony orchestras, and they are used widely as solo instruments and in chamber music as well. Guitars are used universally in pop music as well as in classical music. The piano is probably the most versatile of all musical instruments, used widely not only in ensemble with other musical instruments but also as a solo instrument and to accompany solo instruments and the human voice.

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouwen, Rick; van Rooij, Robert; Sauerland, Uli; Schmitz, Hans-Christian

    One could define vagueness as the existence of borderline cases and characterise the philosophical debate on vagueness as being about the nature of these. The prevalent theories of vagueness can be divided into three categories, paralleling three logical interpretations of borderline cases: (i) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value gap; it is neither true nor false; (ii) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value glut; it is both true and false; and (iii) a borderline case is a case where the truth-value is non-classical. The third of these is proposed in the fuzzy logic approach to vagueness. Three-valued approaches have only 1/2 as a value in addition to the standard values 1 and 0. These approaches can be interpreted either as allowing for gaps or gluts, depending on how the notion of satisfaction or truth is defined. If a sentence is taken to be true only if its value is 1, it allows for gaps, but if it is taken to be true already if its value is at least 1/2 it allows for gluts. The most popular theories advertising gluts and gaps, however, are supervaluationism and subvaluationism, both of which make use of the notion of precisifications, that is, ways of making things precise. Truth-value gaps in supervaluationism are due to the way truth simpliciter, or supertruth, is defined: A proposition is supertrue (superfalse) if it is true (false) at all precisifications. This means that a proposition can be neither true nor false in case there exist two precisifications, one of which make it true and one of which makes it false. Conversely, in subvaluation theory, the same scenario would lead to a truth-value glut. That is, the proposition would be both true and false. This is because subvaluationism defines truth simpliciter as being true at some precisifcation.

  5. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eric F.

    2000-01-01

    Studies show that most adolescents try smoking, over one-third become daily smokers, and nearly one-quarter become addicted to cigarettes. Significant gains in understanding and treating nicotine addiction among adolescents have not been made. Much work remains to be done concerning the developmental appropriateness and usefulness of…

  6. Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Quinones, Sandra; Irizarry, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The work of addressing the challenge of the education of Latinos/as has begun through, among other efforts, the National Latino/a Education Research and Policy Project (NLERAP). Beginning in 2000 as a national initiative of the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos at Hunter College, NLERAP's goal has been to add multiple Latino/a perspectives to the…

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, J. A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science). Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, K.; Meijer, G.; Reuss, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade the use of laser radiation has grown far beyond its traditional role as a convenient, bright and spectrally narrow source of light. In particular, the coherence properties of the radiation have been put to use for very detailed and fine work in spectroscopy, collision dynamics and the manipulation of both the internal structure and the center of mass motion of atoms and molecules. These are the key words describing the work program of the research network "Laser Controlled Dynamics of Molecular Processes and Applications (ERB-CHR-XTC-94-0603),'' established by the European Union under the program "Human Capital and Mobility (HCM)'' with the intent of sending young researchers (postdocs and students) across national borders within the European Union.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging and Overhauser imaging are magnetic resonance techniques for detecting paramagnetic substances (i.e. molecules which have one or more unpaired electron(s) in their outer orbitals). The main impetus for developing these techniques is the intriguing possibility of detecting and imaging the distribution of free radicals in the body. Naturally occurring free radicals are widely believed to be involved in the early development of many diseases, so the ability to localize and quantify them in vivo would have profound implications for many areas of biomedical research. Stable free radicals can also be used as `contrast agents', and following their fate in the body can give useful insights into organ function. Some free radicals and paramagnetic solids have the ability to probe the chemical and physical nature of their surroundings, also offering a wide variety of potential applications, in particular the measurement of oxygen concentrations in tissues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was first demonstrated in 1945, the same year that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were first carried out. EPR and NMR are very closely related at the fundamental level, differing mainly in the fact that EPR involves a magnetic resonance experiment on unpaired electrons in the sample, while NMR uses atomic nuclei with non-zero spin. On a practical level, the techniques are also closely related, despite the fact that most EPR experiments are continuous-wave, while virtually all NMR is carried out using pulsed, Fourier-transform methods. Overhauser-based techniques combine both flavours of magnetic resonance in EPR/NMR double-resonance experiments. While NMR has found a valuable place in clinical practice, in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biomedical EPR is still in its relative infancy, with about twenty research groups world-wide having the capability to use EPR spectroscopy or imaging to study small animals in vivo. It may appear to the casual observer that progress in the field of EPR is much slower than in NMR, but this is not actually the case: EPR is technically much more demanding than NMR, due to the six orders-of-magnitude shorter relaxation times encountered in EPR. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in the technology and applications of EPR-based methods over the last five years, and the field has now developed sufficiently to enable useful biomedical applications to be investigated. The papers presented in this topical issue represent a broad cross-section of the work being carried out in developing and applying EPR and Overhauser techniques in biology and medicine. A number of papers describe recent advances in technology and methods, including continuous-wave, longitudinally detected and pulsed EPR, and Overhauser imaging. Others focus on applications including those using both endogenous and exogenous free radicals. Two of the most promising areas are in the detection of nitric oxide, a ubiquitous, naturally occurring free radical, and in the measurement of local oxygen concentrations by EPR. Both of these topics are covered in this issue. It is both timely and appropriate that Physics in Medicine and Biology, with its strong reputation in the field of physics applied to medicine and biology, should publish a topical issue on this subject, at a time when rapid improvements in technology are being made, and when useful applications are starting to emerge. The guest editors hope that this summary of the state-of-the-art will act as a comprehensive reference work for those in the field, and will encourage others to develop new applications for the techniques, which we believe have a valuable role to play in biomedical research. David J Lurie Antonello Sotgiu Guest Editors

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flomenbom, Ophir; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón; Peeters, François

    2014-11-01

    In this document, we present the Special Issue's projects; these include reviews and articles about mathematical solutions and formulations of single-file dynamics (SFD), yet also its computational modeling, experimental evidence, and value in explaining real life occurrences. In particular, we introduce projects focusing on electron dynamics on liquid helium in channels with changing width, on the zig-zag configuration in files with longitudinal movement, on expanding files, on both heterogeneous and slow files, on files with external forces, and on the importance of the interaction potential shape on the particle dynamics along the file. Applications of SFD are of intrinsic value in life sciences, biophysics, physics, and materials science, since they can explain a large diversity of many-body systems, e.g., biological channels, biological motors, membranes, crowding, electron motion in proteins, etc. These systems are explained in all the projects that participate in this topical issue. This Special Issue can therefore intrigue, inspire and advance scientifically young people, yet also those scientists that actively work in this field.

  11. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voneche, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Discusses ontogeny and phylogeny in Piaget's work, differences between Piagetian (constructivist) and Darwinian (selectionist) approaches, and problems associated with transposing conceptual systems from one field to another. (RH)

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Brett E.

    1998-09-01

    The pace of technological advancement of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) over the last several years has been extremely rapid. The field has progressed from one-dimensional low-coherence ranging to full three-dimensional imaging with individual two-dimensional images aquired at near video rate in a span of less than eight years. Imaging applications have included polymers and advanced composites, Ophthalmology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Urology, Cardiology, Neurology, and Gynecology. These preliminary studies indicate the great potential for OCT to make a significant impact, especially in clinical medicine.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Herbert

    The development of modern fluid mechanics is closely connected to the name of its founder, Ludwig Prandtl. In 1904 it was his famous article on fluid motion with very small friction that introduced boundary-layer theory. His article on airfoil theory, published the following decade, formed the basis for the calculation of friction drag, heat transfer, and flow separation. He introduced fundamental ideas on the modeling of turbulent flows with the Prandtl mixing length for turbulent momentum exchange. His work on gas dynamics, such as the Prandtl-Glauert correction for compressible flows, the theory of shock waves and expansion waves, as well as the first photographs of supersonic flows in nozzles, reshaped this research area. He applied the methods of fluid mechanics to meteorology, and was also pioneering in his contributions to problems of elasticity, plasticity, and rheology.

  15. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This section of the report describes the history of the tribology program of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) in the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The mission of the Office of Transportation Technology is discussed. OTT`s research objectives focus on (1) automobiles and light-duty trucks and vans and (2) heavy duty trucks and buses. Even small gains in efficiency can produce large paybacks for the tax dollar. The mission of the Office of Transportation Materials is also described. Its research objective is to enable the development and engineering of energy-efficient transportation systems that will make possible the transition of the U.S. transportation sector from dependence on petroleum to alternative fuels and electricity. The mission of the Tibology Program is to provide the base technology to enable savings in annual U.S. energy consumption through tribological advances in the transportation sector. Current task areas are in the fields of advanced lubrication, engineered tribological interfaces, advanced tribomaterials and components, and project management.

  16. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    According to Ernst Haeckel, any detailed hypothesis whatever concerning the origin of life must, as yet, be considered worthless, because up till now we have no satisfactory information concerning the extremely peculiar conditions which prevailed on the surface of the earth at the time when the first organisms developed" (Haeckel 1866). Erwin Schrödinger (1943) also expressed pessimism regarding the chances of understanding life. In the same vein: Life is like consciousness. If you think you can explain what it is, you got it all wrong" (Shaw 2002). Niels Bohr interpreted life as a fundamental property of matter analogous to certain quantum properties, to be taken as given, and thus allowing little if any logical scrutiny (Bohr 1933):

  18. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Rabier, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    The special issue "Fitting for Health" offers a critical inquiry into the co-construction of medicine and technology in the early industrial age. It investigates the "social life" of medical things, through their material configuration, invention, improvement, and diversification, the sites of their deployment, their status as both novelties and less spectacular objects of everyday use, and the challenges they faced in fitting themselves into people's lives and European res publica. The set of articles (on steel trusses, medical electricity, anatomical models, and trade catalogs) heuristically uses "technology" to analyze how medicine and its material processes were crafted, endowed with meaning, and woven into European societies. Opening the medical "black box"—circumventing its tendency to be ignored as a mediating tool—provides a significant common point of entry for the four enquiries, triggering further analysis of the relationship between humans and non-humans as shaped in medical knowledge and practice. PMID:27057070

  19. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Arce, G; Boncelet, C; Pitas, I

    1998-12-01

    One of the greatest advantages of the ubiquitous Internet, the free and easy transmission of information, is also one of its greatest weaknesses, leading to the copying and outright theft of information. Of particular interest to the readers of this journal is the theft of images and videos. A content provider may want to publish information without having that information stolen and misrepresented as another's. Legally, the content provider needs to be able to enforce a copyright and convince an impartial arbitrator (e.g., a judge) that the content is his and not the other person's.

  20. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel

    Security research as a practical discipline has a long-standing history. Faced with myriad hazards throughout its past, mankind has developed sophisticated means to counter such threats. The latter include natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and fires, but also encompass man-made hazards such as military aggression, terrorist attacks or threats resulting from the malicious application of technological developments. Since the end of the Cold War major armed conflicts between nations of the Western hemisphere have become highly unlikely and genuinely different security issues have become the focus of concern. The terrorist attacks of 2001 against the United States, the train bombings of Madrid in 2004 and the bombings of London in 2005 were horrific embodiments of a new security environment that has evolved on a global scale. One could list numerous other examples of both executed attacks and successfully deterred attempts from around the world. Our modern industrial societies are interlinked with infrastructure networks, providing citizens with mobility, energy and information flows, which also open the door to a whole new dimension of vulnerabilities. Security research, once anything but a practical discipline with a capacity for reacting to short-term demands, has in the span of only a few years evolved into an entirely new scientific discipline uniting various fields of research. Today, security research (in Europe) encompasses a broad community of natural/engineering and social sciences.

  1. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jinah; Hao, Ming; Wong, Pak C.; Chen, Chaomei

    2011-01-23

    Welcome to the Conference on Visualization and Data Analysis (VDA) 2011. The scope of VDA covers all topics and areas of data visualization and visual analytics. Since the first VDA conference in 1994, the annual event has grown steadily into a major venue for visualization researchers and practitioners from around the world to present their work and share their experiences.

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öchsner, Andreas; Augustin, Christian

    Nature frequently uses cellular and porous materials for creating load-carrying and weight-optimized structures. Thanks to their cellular design, natural materials such as wood, cork, bones, and honeycombs fulfill structural as well as functional demands. For a long time, the development of artificial cellular materials has been aimed at utilizing the outstanding properties of biological materials in technical applications. As an example, the geometry of honeycombs was identically converted into aluminum structures which have been used since the 1960s as cores of lightweight sandwich elements in the aviation and space industries. Nowadays, in particular, foams made of polymeric materials are widely used in all fields of technology. For example, Styrofoam® and hard polyurethane foams are widely used as packaging materials. Other typical application areas are the fields of heat and sound absorption. During the last few years, techniques for foaming metals and metal alloys and for manufacturing novel metallic cellular structures have been developed. Owing to their specific properties, these cellular materials have considerable potential for applications in the future. The combination of specific mechanical and physical properties distinguishes them from traditional dense metals, and applications with multifunctional requirements are of special interest in the context of such cellular metals. Their high stiffness, in conjunction with a very low specific weight, and their high gas permeability combined with a high thermal conductivity can be mentioned as examples. Cellular materials comprise a wide range of different arrangements and forms of cell structures. Metallic foams are being investigated intensively, and they can be produced with an open- or closed-cell structure, cf. Fig. 1.1. Their main characteristic is their very low density. The most common foams are made of aluminum alloys. Essential limiting factors for the utilization are unevenly distributed material parameters and relatively high production costs.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Tatrallyay, M.

    Venus and Mars, our neighboring planets, have a long history in the human consciousness. Venus, in particular, was notable because of its brightness compared to other star-like objects in the sky. The first observations of Venus on record may be those enscribed by Babylonians on the famous "Venus tablet" in the British museum, which has been dated to ˜1700 BC. Venus has generally been associated with the female gender, except in ancient India. The name comes from the Roman goddess of love and beauty (analogous to the Babylonian Ishtar and the Greek Aphrodite). Venus was first thought by the Greeks to be two objects—a morning star "Phosphorus" and an evening star "Hesperus". Phythagoras, in 6 BC, is credited with being first to recognize they were the same object. Venus has since figured prominently in the history of physics and astronomy. The Greek Aristarchus first suggested (in ˜310-250 BC) that the planets move around the sun, but the idea lost favor to a theory of Ptolemy, which placed Earth at the center of the solar system. In the 9th-15th centuries, Arab astronomers studied Venus, and in the "new world," the Mayas used it in the organization of their calendar. In 1543, Copernicus finally published his own version of Aristarchus' vision of a heliocentric solar system, but it was probably not until Galileo, in ˜1610, telescopically observed that Venus had phases like the moon, that heliocentric theory was widely accepted (despite delays associated with the prevailing religious dogma). He announced that momentous discovery in a coded message to his contemporary Kepler (a usual practice of the time), which translated to "the mother of the loves imitates the phases of Cynthia".

  4. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora

    1998-01-01

    Introduces articles from a symposium concerning art education policies in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. Explains that each of the authors present an overview of ideologies and trends for the respective countries over the past 40 years and examine how these trends affect the missions, agendas, and practices of arts educators. (CMK)

  5. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2015-11-01

    The Japanese Society for Vaccinology (JSV) is an academic organization with approximately 1000 members, who work to combat infectious disease outbreak, to develop vaccines, to look into the basic fundamentals of vaccinology, immunology, and infectious diseases, to clarify the epidemiology, and to produce vaccines. JSV has been established in 1997. Although JSV is still young scientific community in the field of a broad-range vaccinology in Japan, we believe that Japanese scientists in the field of vaccinology have contributed to combating or managing the infectious diseases and promotion of the basic research in vaccinology. Prof. M. Takahashi developed a highly attenuated varicella vaccine in the 1970s. Prof. S. Hashizume developed a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine. The development of these vaccines has contributed not only to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in our society, but also to developing the new vaccines for other infectious diseases in the future. The development of varicella vaccine by Prof. M. Takahashi is one of the great achievements in the vaccinology. We, the JSV members, believe that we need to keep and strengthen the academic activity in the field of vaccinology as we have done before. In this supplement, Special Issue from the Japanese Society for Vaccinology, the manuscripts submitted by the members of JSV, which are partly specific to Japan but contribute to the international society, are published. The contents of the manuscripts are focused on development of new vaccines, epidemiology of vaccine preventable diseases, evaluation of currently used vaccines, and basic vaccinology in Japan. PMID:26475446

  6. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Kurizki, G

    1998-04-27

    Decoherence and decay of quantum states in open systems is the main obstacle towards the realization of quantum computing and communications and a major impediment for coherent control (of atomic, molecular and condensed-phase processes) and quantum state engineering (of fields and atoms in cavities and trapped ions). This Focus Issue is an attempt to highlight the development of schemes for the control of quantum decay and decoherence, by presenting the major trends in this area. To this end, I have solicited a number of articles from groups that have been particularly active in the pursuit of these trends.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Michael

    Fred's long and fruitful involvement with double beta decay began with a neodymium-150 experiment reported in the 1956 Nuovo Cimento paper written with his Los Alamos colleagues, Cowan, Harrison, and Langer. The experimental situation at the time was in a state of turmoil, with positive results reported for neutrinoless double beta decay by one laboratory being contradicted by another. A theoretical paper by Furry in 1939 had stimulated interest in measuring a double beta half life as a means of distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. The mode proposed by Furry had the neutrino emitted by one neutron reabsorbed by another in the same nucleus, leaving no neutrinos in the final state. Without neutrinos to share the transition energy, the two electrons would get essentially all of it, and the spectrum of their total energies would be a sharp spike…

  8. Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides a quick overview of high-power rocketry as well as a preview for the rest of the High-Power Rocketry video series. The video describes the two recognized rocketry organizations ...

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    Large igneous provinces represent catastrophic outpourings of immense quantities of basaltic lava, the origin of processes that are hidden deep within Earth's interior and obscured by the movements of tectonic plates. Scientists from many different fields are combining their efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms by which large igneous provinces' form, the distribution and timing of such provinces, and the effects and consequences of the associated volcanism. This book presents a collection of thirteen papers that delve into such fundamental questions for one of Earth's most calamitous events—the profound and extensive magmatism that accompanied the breakup of Pangea. Dramatic relics of the magmatism that accompanied breakup of Pangea are preserved on every continent of the circum-Atlantic region, in exposures of igneous intrusions that once provided magma conduits, as partially eroded and buried flood basalts that once covered large areas of the land, and in the sedimentary strata that host the volcanic remnants. Scientists collect forensic evidence in rock exposures from coastal Brittany to Brazilian rainforests, in strata buried deeply beneath Texas and on plateaus in sub-Saharan Mali in the effort to describe this province and determine its origin. Indeed, over the past several years we have learned through research that much of the magmatism in this province was very sudden, although it may have spread diachronously. The absolute age and stratigraphic juxtaposition of this province seems coincident with the transition from the Triassic to the Jurassic period. Many scientists are now studying this magmatic province in an effort to understand how its effects may relate to the global climate changes and profound mass extinction at the end of the Triassic (when perhaps 80% of Earth's terrestrial and marine faunas perished). And yet such a catastrophic distress for some may provide opportunity to others, as the Jurassic rise of dinosaurs to dominate Earth may have begun with global climate changes wrought by this large igneous province. Thus, the research on this individual magmatic province is part of a broader and contentious scientific trial to determine whether massive volcanic events, meteorite impact events, or combinations of both are responsible for the major mass extinction events that have modulated the course of life on Earth for the past 300 million years.

  10. [Introduction].

    PubMed

    Gerard, Adrienne; van den Bogaard, Alberts

    2008-01-01

    Along with the international trends in history of computing, Dutch contributions over the past twenty years moved away from a focus on machinery to the broader scope of use of computers, appropriation of computing technologies in various traditions, labour relations and professionalisation issues, and, lately, software. It is only natural that an emerging field like computer science sets out to write its genealogy and canonise the important steps in its intellectual endeavour. It is fair to say that a historiography diverging from such "home" interest, started in 1987 with the work of Eda Kranakis--then active in The Netherlands--commissioned by the national bureau for technology assessment, and Gerard Alberts, turning a commemorative volume of the Mathematical Center into a history of the same institute. History of computing in The Netherlands made a major leap in the spring of 1994 when Dirk de Wit, Jan van den Ende and Ellen van Oost defended their dissertations, on the roads towards adoption of computing technology in banking, in science and engineering, and on the gender aspect in computing. Here, history of computing had already moved from machines to the use of computers. The three authors joined Gerard Alberts and Onno de Wit in preparing a volume on the rise of IT in The Netherlands, the sequel of which in now in preparation in a team lead by Adrienne van den Bogaard. Dutch research reflected the international attention for professionalisation issues (Ensmenger, Haigh) very early on in the dissertation by Ruud van Dael, Something to do with computers (2001) revealing how occupations dealing with computers typically escape the pattern of closure by professionalisation as expected by the, thus outdated, sociology of professions. History of computing not only takes use and users into consideration, but finally, as one may say, confronts the technological side of putting the machine to use, software, head on. The groundbreaking works of the 2000 Paderborn meeting and by Martin Campbell-Kelly resonate in work done in The Netherlands and recently in a major research project sponsored by the European Science Foundation: Software for Europe. The four contributions to this issue offer a true cross-section of ongoing history of computing in The Netherlands. Gerard Alberts and Huub de Beer return to the earliest computers at the Mathematical Center. As they do so under the perspective of using the machines, the result is, let us say, remarkable. Adrienne van den Bogaard compares the styles of software as practiced by Van der Poel and Dijkstra: so much had these two pioneers in common, so different the consequences they took. Frank Veraart treats us with an excerpt from his recent dissertation on the domestication of the micro computer technology: appropriation of computing technology is shown by the role of intermediate actors. Onno de Wit, finally, gives an account of the development, prior to internet, of a national data communication network among large scale users and its remarkable persistence under competition with new network technologies. PMID:22586752

  11. [Introduction].

    PubMed

    Gerard, Adrienne; van den Bogaard, Alberts

    2008-01-01

    Along with the international trends in history of computing, Dutch contributions over the past twenty years moved away from a focus on machinery to the broader scope of use of computers, appropriation of computing technologies in various traditions, labour relations and professionalisation issues, and, lately, software. It is only natural that an emerging field like computer science sets out to write its genealogy and canonise the important steps in its intellectual endeavour. It is fair to say that a historiography diverging from such "home" interest, started in 1987 with the work of Eda Kranakis--then active in The Netherlands--commissioned by the national bureau for technology assessment, and Gerard Alberts, turning a commemorative volume of the Mathematical Center into a history of the same institute. History of computing in The Netherlands made a major leap in the spring of 1994 when Dirk de Wit, Jan van den Ende and Ellen van Oost defended their dissertations, on the roads towards adoption of computing technology in banking, in science and engineering, and on the gender aspect in computing. Here, history of computing had already moved from machines to the use of computers. The three authors joined Gerard Alberts and Onno de Wit in preparing a volume on the rise of IT in The Netherlands, the sequel of which in now in preparation in a team lead by Adrienne van den Bogaard. Dutch research reflected the international attention for professionalisation issues (Ensmenger, Haigh) very early on in the dissertation by Ruud van Dael, Something to do with computers (2001) revealing how occupations dealing with computers typically escape the pattern of closure by professionalisation as expected by the, thus outdated, sociology of professions. History of computing not only takes use and users into consideration, but finally, as one may say, confronts the technological side of putting the machine to use, software, head on. The groundbreaking works of the 2000 Paderborn meeting and by Martin Campbell-Kelly resonate in work done in The Netherlands and recently in a major research project sponsored by the European Science Foundation: Software for Europe. The four contributions to this issue offer a true cross-section of ongoing history of computing in The Netherlands. Gerard Alberts and Huub de Beer return to the earliest computers at the Mathematical Center. As they do so under the perspective of using the machines, the result is, let us say, remarkable. Adrienne van den Bogaard compares the styles of software as practiced by Van der Poel and Dijkstra: so much had these two pioneers in common, so different the consequences they took. Frank Veraart treats us with an excerpt from his recent dissertation on the domestication of the micro computer technology: appropriation of computing technology is shown by the role of intermediate actors. Onno de Wit, finally, gives an account of the development, prior to internet, of a national data communication network among large scale users and its remarkable persistence under competition with new network technologies.

  12. High genetic diversity is not essential for successful introduction

    PubMed Central

    Rollins, Lee A; Moles, Angela T; Lam, Serena; Buitenwerf, Robert; Buswell, Joanna M; Brandenburger, Claire R; Flores-Moreno, Habacuc; Nielsen, Knud B; Couchman, Ellen; Brown, Gordon S; Thomson, Fiona J; Hemmings, Frank; Frankham, Richard; Sherwin, William B

    2013-01-01

    Some introduced populations thrive and evolve despite the presumed loss of diversity at introduction. We aimed to quantify the amount of genetic diversity retained at introduction in species that have shown evidence of adaptation to their introduced environments. Samples were taken from native and introduced ranges of Arctotheca populifolia and Petrorhagia nanteuilii. Using microsatellite data, we identified the source for each introduction, estimated genetic diversity in native and introduced populations, and calculated the amount of diversity retained in introduced populations. These values were compared to those from a literature review of diversity in native, confamilial populations and to estimates of genetic diversity retained at introduction. Gene diversity in the native range of both species was significantly lower than for confamilials. We found that, on average, introduced populations showing evidence of adaptation to their new environments retained 81% of the genetic diversity from the native range. Introduced populations of P. nanteuilii had higher genetic diversity than found in the native source populations, whereas introduced populations of A. populifolia retained only 14% of its native diversity in one introduction and 1% in another. Our literature review has shown that most introductions demonstrating adaptive ability have lost diversity upon introduction. The two species studied here had exceptionally low native range genetic diversity. Further, the two introductions of A. populifolia represent the largest percentage loss of genetic diversity in a species showing evidence of substantial morphological change in the introduced range. While high genetic diversity may increase the likelihood of invasion success, the species examined here adapted to their new environments with very little neutral genetic diversity. This finding suggests that even introductions founded by small numbers of individuals have the potential to become invasive. PMID:24340190

  13. Subtropical atlantic climate studies: introduction.

    PubMed

    Molinari, R L; Maul, G A; Chew, F; Wilson, W D; Busheell, M; Mayer, D; Leaman, K; Schott, F; Lee, T; Zantopp, R; Larsen, J C; Sanford, T B

    1985-01-18

    This report is an introduction to the accompanying collection of reports that present the results of a 2-year period of intensive monitoring of the Florida Current. Both direct observing systems (ship-deployed current profilers and moored current meters) and indirect observing systems (coastal tide gauge stations, bottom pressure gauge arrays, a submarine cable, acoustic arrays, and radar installations) were used to measure temperature and volume transport. PMID:17742098

  14. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  15. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  16. Introduction to deployable recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.

    1985-08-01

    This report provides an introduction to deployable recovery systems for persons with little or no background in parachutes but who are knowledgeable in aerodynamics. A historical review of parachute development is given along with a description of the basic components of most deployable recovery systems. Descriptions are given of the function of each component and of problems that occur if a component fails to perform adequately. Models are presented for deployable recovery systems. Possible directions for future work are suggested in the summary.

  17. An introduction to quantum turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vinen, W F

    2008-08-28

    This paper provides a brief introduction to quantum turbulence in simple superfluids, in which the required rotational motion in the superfluid component is due entirely to the topological defects that are identified as quantized vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the basic dynamical behaviour of the quantized vortices and on turbulent decay mechanisms at a very low temperature. There are possible analogies with the behaviour of cosmic strings. PMID:18534939

  18. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  19. Introduction to SQL. Ch. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, T.; Santisteban, M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides a very brief introduction to the Structured Query Language (SQL) for getting information from relational databases. We make no pretense that this is a complete or comprehensive discussion of SQL. There are many aspects of the language the will be completely ignored in the presentation. The goal here is to provide enough background so that users understand the basic concepts involved in building and using relational databases. We also go through the steps involved in building a particular astronomical database used in some of the other presentations in this volume.

  20. An Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

  1. An Introduction to Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Bernard F.; Graham-Smith, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. The nature of the radio signal; 3. Signals, noise, radiometers and spectrometers; 4. Single-aperture radio telescopes; 5. The two-element interferometer; 6. Aperture synthesis; 7. Radiation, propagation and absorption of radio waves; 8. The local universe; 9. The interstellar medium; 10. Galactic dynamics; 11. Stars; 12. Pulsars; 13. Radio galaxies and quasars; 14. Cosmology fundamentals; 15. The angular structure of the CMB; 16. Cosmology: discrete radio sources and gravitational lensing; 17. The future of radio astronomy; Appendixes; References; Index.

  2. 26 CFR 44.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 44.0-1 Section 44.0-1 Internal... ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Introduction § 44.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The.... References to a section or other provision of law are references to a section or other provision of...

  3. Classical Mechanics: A Modern Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Martin W.

    2000-12-01

    Classical Mechanics is a clear introduction to the subject, combining a user-friendly style with an authoritative approach, whilst requiring minimal prerequisite mathematics - only elementary calculus and simple vectors are presumed. The text starts with a careful look at Newton's Laws, before applying them in one dimension to oscillations and collisions. More advanced applications - including gravitational orbits, rigid body dynamics and mechanics in rotating frames - are deferred until after the limitations of Newton's inertial frames have been highlighted through an exposition of Einstein's Special Relativity. The examples given throughout are often unusual for an elementary text, although they are made accessible through discussion and diagrams. Complete revision summaries are given at the end of each chapter, together with problems designed to be both illustrative and challenging. Features: * Comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics and relativity * Many novel examples, e.g. stability of the universe, falling cats, crickets bats and snooker * Includes many problems with numerical answers * Revision notes at the end of each chapter

  4. Assessing introduction risk using species' rank-abundance distributions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Farrah T; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J

    2015-01-22

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk. PMID:25473007

  5. Assessing introduction risk using species’ rank-abundance distributions

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Farrah T.; Bradie, Johanna; Briski, Elizabeta; Bailey, Sarah A.; Simard, Nathalie; MacIsaac, Hugh J.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-species assemblages are often unintentionally introduced into new ecosystems. Analysing how assemblage structure varies during transport may provide insights into how introduction risk changes before propagules are released. Characterization of introduction risk is typically based on assessments of colonization pressure (CP, the number of species transported) and total propagule pressure (total PP, the total abundance of propagules released) associated with an invasion vector. Generally, invasion potential following introduction increases with greater CP or total PP. Here, we extend these assessments using rank-abundance distributions to examine how CP : total PP relationships change temporally in ballast water of ocean-going ships. Rank-abundance distributions and CP : total PP patterns varied widely between trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific voyages, with the latter appearing to pose a much lower risk than the former. Responses also differed by taxonomic group, with invertebrates experiencing losses mainly in total PP, while diatoms and dinoflagellates sustained losses mainly in CP. In certain cases, open-ocean ballast water exchange appeared to increase introduction risk by uptake of new species or supplementation of existing ones. Our study demonstrates that rank-abundance distributions provide new insights into the utility of CP and PP in characterizing introduction risk. PMID:25473007

  6. Introduction to immunology and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Germolec, D R

    1999-01-01

    Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system attacks self-molecules as a result of a breakdown of immunologic tolerance to autoreactive immune cells. Many autoimmune disorders have been strongly associated with genetic, infectious, and/or environmental predisposing factors. Comprising multiple disorders and symptoms ranging from organ-specific to systemic, autoimmune diseases include insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, thyroiditis, and multiple sclerosis. There are also implications of autoimmune pathology in such common health problems as arteriosclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, schizophrenia, and certain types of infertility. Largely of unknown etiology, autoimmune disorders affect approximately 3% of the North American and European populations, > 75% of those affected being women. This discussion provides a brief introduction to the immune system and tolerance maintenance, an overview of selected autoimmune diseases and possible mechanisms of immune autoreactivity, and a review of experimental autoimmune models. PMID:10502528

  7. Collider Physics an Experimental Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvezio Pagliarone, Carmine

    2011-04-01

    This paper reviews shortly a small part of the contents of a set of lectures, presented at the XIV International School of Particles and Fields in Morelia, state of Michoacán, Mexico, during November 2010. The main goal of those lectures was to introduce students to some of the basic ideas and tools required for experimental and phenomenological analysis of collider data. In particular, after an introduction to the scientific motivations, that drives the construction of powerful accelerator complexes, and the need of reaching high center of mass energies and luminosities, some basic concept about collider particle detectors will be discussed. A status about the present running colliders and collider experiments as well as future plans and research and development is also given.

  8. Introduction to LCLS Undulator Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Z.

    2005-01-31

    This note gives a general introduction to undulator tuning for the LCLS. It starts with a theoretical discussion in which the equations necessary to understand undulator tuning are derived. The trajectory of an electron in an undulator and the relation between the electron motion and a radiation wave are analyzed. Common terms are defined such as slippage, K{sub eff}, and B{sub eff}. The radiation wavelength is derived. After the theoretical discussion, the results are illustrated with simulations. A program was written which gives simulated undulator field measurements along with an assortment of possible field errors. The simulated measurements are sent to the analysis program we are developing and the effect of various field errors is studied. The shims used to correct the field errors are discussed.

  9. Essential Oils, Part I: Introduction.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; Schmidt, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils are widely used in the flavor, food, fragrance, and cosmetic industries in many applications. Contact allergy to them is well known and has been described for 80 essential oils. The relevance of positive patch test reactions often remains unknown. Knowledge of the chemical composition of essential oils among dermatologists is suspected to be limited, as such data are published in journals not read by the dermatological community. Therefore, the authors have fully reviewed and published the literature on contact allergy to and chemical composition of essential oils. Selected topics from this publication will be presented in abbreviated form in Dermatitis starting with this issue, including I. Introduction; II. General aspects; III. Chemistry; IV. General aspects of contact allergy; V. Peppermint oil, lavender oil and lemongrass oil; VI: Sandalwood oil, ylang-ylang oil, and jasmine absolute. PMID:26983089

  10. Tutorial: an introduction to syntax.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L P

    1997-04-01

    This paper is intended as an introduction to syntax. Borrowing from Chomsky's Government & Binding and Principles & Parameters frameworks (Chomsky, 1986, 1992, 1995), various aspects of syntactic theory are described. These include lexical, functional, and phrasal categories and how they are put together into clauses and sentences, how words are represented in the mental lexicon, how lexical properties project to the syntax, and how noun phrases are assigned structural and semantic information. Additionally, how sentences that are not canonically ordered are derived and represented, how and to what do pronouns refer, and the principles that connect all these theoretical notions to form knowledge of language are described. The paper concludes with a summary of work in normal and disordered language, including treatment of language disorders, that has exploited aspects of the syntactic theory described in this paper.

  11. An Introduction to Applied Biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellerberg, Ian F.; Sawyer, John W. D.

    1999-03-01

    Biogeography is about the geographical distribution, both past and present, of plants, animals and other organisms. In this undergraduate textbook, Spellerberg and Sawyer bring a modern approach to a developing subject, writing in a lively and sometimes provocative manner. Throughout the text, the authors emphasize the applications of biogeography to conservation management, economic production, environmental assessment, sustainable use of resources, landscape planning, and public health. They discuss applications of island biogeography in conservation, the concept of wildlife corridors, the analysis of biogeographical data, and the role of humans and their cultures in biogeography. The applied approach of this textbook, along with its numerous illustrative examples and figures, make it a unique introduction to the field for many geography, biology and environmental science students.

  12. Introduction to Personal Computer Korvet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmanov, Sergei A., Jr.; Rakhimov, Alexander T.; Persianttsev, Igor G.; Roy, Nikolaj N.; Skurikhin, Alexander V.

    1989-08-01

    The BOOK: This book is the user's guid for the begginers. We start with the detailed information about preparing of the Korvet to work. We consider the main functions of the operating system CP/M-80. In this book we carefully describe the Basic language. We use a lot of examples of the Basic language programs as an illustration of the Korvet's possiblities. CONTENTS: What is the personal computer? The possibilities of the PC Korvet. Installing PC Korvet. Magnetic Tape and diskettes. Preparing diskettes for ussing. Operating system PC Korvet. Languages. Start with BASIC. Introduction to BASIC. More about BASIC. Program's editor. Arithmetic statements and functions. Loops and soubroutines. Arrays. Logical statements. How to be an artist with BASIC. String variables. Print statement and graphycs. Memory addressing Peripherial devices. Text redactors and data bases. Examples of programs. READERSHIP: Students of secondary schools and higher schools, scientists and all other peoples which start working with personal computers.

  13. Ethics of technology introduction: theory and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitman, Elizabeth

    1995-10-01

    The introduction of new health care technologies raises a number of ethical considerations that should be addressed by researchers, industry, clinicians, patients, funders, and policy makers. The ethical dimensions of new technologies should be evaluated with respect to: (1) their potential to benefit those by and for whom they are intended to be used and the risks of harm that they pose to patients and society; (2) the degree to which they create or foreclose meaningful options to patients and clinicians; (3) and whether they will reduce or increase societal inequalities regarding access to treatment and the allocation of goods and services. These principles should be considered relevant to five interrelated categories: (1) essential concepts and definitions; (2) diagnosis; (3) prevention and therapy; (4) research; and (5) allocation.

  14. Introduction to machine learning for brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Lemm, Steven; Blankertz, Benjamin; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2011-05-15

    Machine learning and pattern recognition algorithms have in the past years developed to become a working horse in brain imaging and the computational neurosciences, as they are instrumental for mining vast amounts of neural data of ever increasing measurement precision and detecting minuscule signals from an overwhelming noise floor. They provide the means to decode and characterize task relevant brain states and to distinguish them from non-informative brain signals. While undoubtedly this machinery has helped to gain novel biological insights, it also holds the danger of potential unintentional abuse. Ideally machine learning techniques should be usable for any non-expert, however, unfortunately they are typically not. Overfitting and other pitfalls may occur and lead to spurious and nonsensical interpretation. The goal of this review is therefore to provide an accessible and clear introduction to the strengths and also the inherent dangers of machine learning usage in the neurosciences. PMID:21172442

  15. Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Alex G; Hänel, Christine; Chown, Steven L

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of species to areas beyond the limits of their natural distributions has a major homogenizing influence, making previously distinct biotas more similar. The scale of introductions has frequently been commented on, but their rate and spatial pervasiveness have been less well quantified. Here, we report the findings of a detailed study of pterygote insect introductions to Gough Island, one of the most remote and supposedly pristine temperate oceanic islands, and estimate the rate at which introduced species have successfully established. Out of 99 species recorded from Gough Island, 71 are established introductions, the highest proportion documented for any Southern Ocean island. Estimating a total of approximately 233 landings on Gough Island since first human landfall, this equates to one successful establishment for every three to four landings. Generalizations drawn from other areas suggest that this may be only one-tenth of the number of pterygote species that have arrived at the island, implying that most landings may lead to the arrival of at least one alien. These rates of introduction of new species are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than background levels for Gough Island, an increase comparable to that estimated for global species extinctions (many of which occur on islands) as a consequence of human activities. PMID:12803900

  16. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  17. Introduction: rethinking child care research.

    PubMed

    Besharov, Douglas J; Morrow, Jeffrey S

    2006-10-01

    This introduction summarizes the articles in this collection. It describes how the articles address one or more of the key elements of the child care research model: (a) selecting and measuring the independent variablesto determine the characteristics ("qualities") of the child care environment (and, in some studies, the characteristics of parents and family), (b) selecting and measuring the dependent variablesto determine the child's physical and developmental status after a period of time in a particular child care arrangement (usually a school year) compared with that of children in other arrangements (or simply the same child before spending time in the arrangement), (c) establishing causal linksbetween the independent and dependent variables that are either assumed in randomized experiments or estimated through statistical controls in nonexperimental studies, and (d) assessing impacts across subgroups to see whether the program benefits one particular group more (or less) than others. The collection closes with a proposal to develop a systematic federal research program to pursue improvements in child care and early childhood education programs. PMID:16966675

  18. An Introduction to Deepwater Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Kenneth

    2011-04-01

    This presentation is an introduction to deepwater drilling, some of the nomenclature, processes, and ``how things work,'' including illustrations of several of the more complex and technically challenging operational situations encountered in deepwater drilling operations. Drilling and well construction activities are carried out in water depths from just a few feet, to over 10,000 feet. Subsurface pressures encountered may be as high as 35,000 psi, with temperatures over 500 degrees F. Some of the technical aspects of deep water drilling include: 1) locating the well 2) rig types 3) well types 4) rig components 5) drill bits, drill string assemblies, bottom-hole assemblies 6) inclined and horizontal well trajectories 7) anisotropic in-situ earth stresses and operationally induced stresses 8) anisotropic, non-linear, hysteretic, and time-dependent rock behavior 9) steady-state and transient fluid flow and formation pressures 10) complex static and dynamic temperature distributions 11) eccentric wellbore geometries 12) wellbore stability 13) lost circulation 14) formation pressure control 15) sea floor completions 16) robotic operations.

  19. Introduction: Towards Sustainable 2020 Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Faced with the immanent end of the nanometer roadmap at 10 nm, and with an electronics energy crisis, we have to engineer the largest strategy change in the 50-years history of microelectronics, renamed to nanoelectronics in 2000 with the first chips containing 100-nm transistors. Accepting the 10 nm-limit, the new strategy for the future growth of chip functionalities and markets has to deliver, within a decade, another 1,000× improvement in the energy per processing operation as well as in the energy per bit of memory and of communication. As a team from industry and from research, we present expectations, requirements and possible solutions for this challenging energy scenario of femto- and atto-Joule electronics. The introduction outlines the book's structure, which aims to describe the innovation eco-system needed for optimum-energy, sustainable nanoelectronics. For the benefit of the reader, chapters are grouped together into interest areas like transistors and circuits, technology, products and markets, radical innovations, as well as business and policy issues.

  20. Introduction: Unsolved Problems on Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriols, X.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue of the 7th Int. Conf. on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) that took place at Casa Convalescència in Barcelona (Spain) in July 2015. The aim of the UPoN conferences is to provide a forum for researchers working on different fields of noise, fluctuations and variability, where they present their scientific problems which resist solutions. The papers of this Special Issue reflect the interdisciplinary topics (physics, biology, circuits, financial markets, psychology, technology, etc) presented at the UPoN conference. Noise is not only a hindrance to signal detection, but it is indeed a valuable source of information (not present in the signal) that help us to get a deeper understanding on how Nature works. This special issue of the 7th International Conference on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) is dedicated to Laszlo Kish in the occasion of his 60th birthday. He organized the first edition of these UPoN conferences in Szeged (Hungary) in 1996. Many of us have greatly benefited from his ‘volcanic imagination in tackling new problems from unconventional points of views’.

  1. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  2. An Introduction to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2008-04-01

    Space debris is any human-made object in orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose, including defunct satellites, discarded equipment and rocket stages, and fragments from the breakup of satellites and rocket stages. It is a concern because--due to its very high speed in orbit--even relatively small pieces can damage or destroy satellites in a collision. Since debris at high altitudes can stay in orbit for decades or longer, it accumulates as more is produced and the risk of collisions with satellites grows. Since there is currently no effective way to remove large amounts of debris from orbit, controlling the production of debris is essential for preserving the long-term use of space. Today there are 860 active satellites in orbit, supporting a wide range of civil and military uses. The 50 years of space activity since the launch of Sputnik 1 has also resulted in well over half a million pieces of orbiting debris larger than 1 cm in size. There are two main sources of space debris: (1) routine space activity and the accidental breakup of satellites and stages placed in orbit by such activity, and (2) the testing or use of destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons that physically collide with satellites at high speed. The international community is attempting to reduce the first category by developing strict guidelines to limit the debris created as a result of routine space activities. However, the destruction of a single large spy satellite by an ASAT weapon could double the total amount of large debris in low earth orbit, and there are currently no international restrictions on these systems. This talk will give an introduction to what's in space, the origins of space debris, efforts to stem its growth, the threat it poses to satellites in orbit, and the long-term evolution of the debris population.

  3. Investigation of Remedial Education Course Scores as a Predictor of Introduction-Level Course Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Ward; Means, Darris R.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Kristensen, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether performance in remedial English and remedial math is a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or college-level math class; and whether demographic variables increase the likelihood of remedial English and remedial math as a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or…

  4. 45 CFR 1220.1-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1220.1-1 Section 1220.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES General § 1220.1-1 Introduction. Section 419 of the Domestic...

  5. 45 CFR 1220.1-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Introduction. 1220.1-1 Section 1220.1-1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PAYMENT OF VOLUNTEER LEGAL EXPENSES General § 1220.1-1 Introduction. Section 419 of the Domestic...

  6. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... tax on certain luxury items, special fuels, fuel used in commercial transportation on inland waterways... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  7. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... tax on certain luxury items, special fuels, fuel used in commercial transportation on inland waterways... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  8. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax on certain luxury items, special fuels, fuel used in commercial transportation on inland waterways... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  9. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax on certain luxury items, special fuels, fuel used in commercial transportation on inland waterways... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  10. 22 CFR 5.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 5.1 Section 5.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 5.1 Introduction. The sections in this part 5 are issued pursuant to section 3 of the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, effective July 4, 1967....

  11. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  12. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  13. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  14. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  15. 38 CFR 21.9500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 21.9500 Section 21.9500 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill § 21.9500 Introduction. An educational...

  16. 10 CFR 216.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 216.1 Section 216.1 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MATERIALS ALLOCATION AND PRIORITY PERFORMANCE UNDER CONTRACTS OR ORDERS TO MAXIMIZE DOMESTIC ENERGY SUPPLIES § 216.1 Introduction. (a) This part describes and establishes the procedures to be...

  17. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  18. 29 CFR 500.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 500.0 Section 500.0 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.0 Introduction. (a) The Migrant and...

  19. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1500 Section 416.1500 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1500 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1700 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1700 Section 404.1700 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1700 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in any of...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1500 Section 416.1500 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1500 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1700 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1700 Section 404.1700 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1700 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in any of...

  4. 36 CFR 292.14 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 292.14 Section 292.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.14 Introduction. (a) Purpose....

  5. 26 CFR 31.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Introduction § 31.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part relate to the employment taxes imposed by subtitle...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1600 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1600 Section 416.1600 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Residence and Citizenship § 416.1600 Introduction. You are eligible for supplemental...

  7. 20 CFR 416.1600 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1600 Section 416.1600 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Residence and Citizenship § 416.1600 Introduction. You are eligible for supplemental...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1600 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1600 Section 416.1600 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Residence and Citizenship § 416.1600 Introduction. You are eligible for supplemental...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1600 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1600 Section 416.1600 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Residence and Citizenship § 416.1600 Introduction. You are eligible for supplemental...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1600 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1600 Section 416.1600 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Residence and Citizenship § 416.1600 Introduction. You are eligible for supplemental...

  11. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2006-06-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  12. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1... dying after August 16, 1954, and (ii) certain related administrative provisions of subtitle F of the... provided, the Estate Tax Regulations are applicable to the estates of decedents dying after August 16,...

  13. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1... dying after August 16, 1954, and (ii) certain related administrative provisions of subtitle F of the... provided, the Estate Tax Regulations are applicable to the estates of decedents dying after August 16,...

  14. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1... dying after August 16, 1954, and (ii) certain related administrative provisions of subtitle F of the... provided, the Estate Tax Regulations are applicable to the estates of decedents dying after August 16,...

  15. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1... dying after August 16, 1954, and (ii) certain related administrative provisions of subtitle F of the... provided, the Estate Tax Regulations are applicable to the estates of decedents dying after August 16,...

  16. 20 CFR 410.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Introduction, General Provisions, and Definitions § 410.101 Introduction... the provisions of part B (Black Lung Benefits) of title IV of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as enacted December 30, 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, and...

  17. 20 CFR 410.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Introduction, General Provisions, and Definitions § 410.101 Introduction... the provisions of part B (Black Lung Benefits) of title IV of the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as enacted December 30, 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972, and...

  18. 20 CFR 416.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 416.601 Section 416.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.601 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment....

  19. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... published statement (26 CFR (1949 ed., Part 300-End) Parts 600 and 601) with respect to such procedural... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The...

  20. 20 CFR 404.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... subpart are the same as those used to establish entitlement to Medicare benefits under 42 CFR part 405... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 404.601 Section 404.601...- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms General Provisions § 404.601 Introduction. This subpart...

  1. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... published statement (26 CFR (1949 ed., Part 300-End) Parts 600 and 601) with respect to such procedural... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The...

  2. 20 CFR 404.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... subpart are the same as those used to establish entitlement to Medicare benefits under 42 CFR part 405... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 404.601 Section 404.601...- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms General Provisions § 404.601 Introduction. This subpart...

  3. 20 CFR 416.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 416.601 Section 416.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.601 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment....

  4. 20 CFR 404.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 404.601 Section 404.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms General Provisions § 404.601 Introduction. This subpart contains the Social Security...

  5. 20 CFR 404.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... subpart are the same as those used to establish entitlement to Medicare benefits under 42 CFR part 405... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.601 Section 404.601...- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms General Provisions § 404.601 Introduction. This subpart...

  6. 20 CFR 404.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 404.601 Section 404.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Filing of Applications and Other Forms General Provisions § 404.601 Introduction. This subpart contains the Social Security...

  7. 20 CFR 416.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 416.601 Section 416.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.601 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart explains the principles and...

  8. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... published statement (26 CFR (1949 ed., Part 300-End) Parts 600 and 601) with respect to such procedural... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The...

  9. 20 CFR 416.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction. 416.601 Section 416.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.601 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment. This subpart explains the principles and...

  10. 20 CFR 416.601 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 416.601 Section 416.601 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representative Payment § 416.601 Introduction. (a) Explanation of representative payment....

  11. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... published statement (26 CFR (1949 ed., Part 300-End) Parts 600 and 601) with respect to such procedural... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The...

  12. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The Internal Revenue Service is a bureau of the...

  13. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  14. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  15. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  16. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  17. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  18. An Introduction to Optical Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labeyrie, A.; Lipson, S. G.; Nisenson, P.

    2014-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2 Basic concepts: a qualitative introduction; 3. Interference, diffraction and coherence; 4. Aperture synthesis; 5. Optical effects of the atmosphere; 6. Single-aperture techniques; 7. Intensity interferometry; 8. Amplitude interferometry: techniques and instruments; 9. The hypertelescope; 10. Nulling and coronagraphy; 11. A sampling of interferometric science; 12. Future ground and space projects; Appendices.

  19. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  20. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1201 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Introduction. 831.1201 Section 831.1201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1201 Introduction. This subpart sets out the requirements an...

  3. 48 CFR 1846.670 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Introduction. 1846.670 Section 1846.670 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Material Inspection and Receiving Reports 1846.670 Introduction....

  4. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin...

  5. 26 CFR 1.614-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1.614-0 Section 1.614-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Natural Resources § 1.614-0 Introduction. Section 614 relates to the definition of property and to the various special rules...

  6. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  7. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  8. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  9. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  10. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  11. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  12. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  13. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  14. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  15. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  16. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  17. 32 CFR 651.28 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Introduction. 651.28 Section 651.28 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Categorical Exclusions § 651.28 Introduction....

  18. 32 CFR 651.32 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Introduction. 651.32 Section 651.32 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.32 Introduction. (a) An EA...

  19. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  20. 32 CFR 651.18 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Introduction. 651.18 Section 651.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.18 Introduction....

  1. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  2. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  3. 20 CFR 356.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 356.1 Section 356.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.1 Introduction. (a) The Federal Civil Penalties...

  4. 20 CFR 356.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 356.1 Section 356.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.1 Introduction. (a) The Federal Civil Penalties...

  5. INTRODUCTION: Introduction to Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    Chapters 1-3 of these lectures were given at the University of Oslo during my academic free half-year August l985-January 1986 which I spent at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE). Chapter 4 was given by T Riste during my journeys to other Scandinavian institutions where I held seminars covering much of what is reflected in Chapter 5. That chapter represents a contribution to chaos theory that was carried out in collaboration with J Palmore. In place of the universal properties of unimodal maps, which are well-treated in the books by Cvitanovic and Schuster, I have instead based my elementary introduction to scaling and universality upon the damped driven pendulum and circle maps, which are of current interest to experimenters at IFE and elsewhere, as is reflected in the literature over the past year. Also, the circle map has not been so well-treated pedagogically in available texts. The discussion in Chapter 3 is not advanced, but it should prepare the reader for a better appreciation of the literature in that field. I should say that these lectures for the most part were written for students, for experimenters, and for curious theorists from other fields in physics, but not for the experts in nonlinear dynamics. For example, Chapter 3 ends where the hardest work begins. Tn preparing the lectures, I drew heavily upon the books by Arnol'd, Jorna, Jordan and Smith, Lichtenberg and Lieberman, and Schuster, and upon numerous journal articles. The level of the lectures is that of a second year graduate course at the University of Houston, but beginning with undergraduate-level topics in ordinary differential equations. Throughout, I have emphasized my interest in the connection of nonlinear dynamics to statistical mechanics, as well as my interest in "computer arithmetic". I hope that the reader will also find these subjects to be of interest since they have provided me with a great deal of intellectual enjoyment. My free-half-year at IFE would have been

  6. Introduction to Ion Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Martisikova, Maria

    2010-01-05

    Presently, ion beam therapy reaches an increasing interest within the field of radiation therapy, which is caused by the promising clinical results obtained in the last decades. Ion beams enable higher dose conformation to the tumor and increased sparing of the surrounding tissue in comparison to the standard therapy using high energy photons. Heavy ions, like carbon, offer in addition increased biological effectiveness, which makes them suitable for treatment of radioresistant tumors. This contribution gives an overview over the physical and biological properties of ion beams. Common fundamental principles of ion beam therapy are summarized and differences between standard therapy with high energy photons, proton and carbon ion therapy are discussed. The technologies used for the beam production and delivery are introduced, with emphasis to the differences between passive and active beam delivery systems. The last part concentrates on the quality assurance in ion therapy. Specialties of dosimetry in medical ion beams are discussed.

  7. An introduction to the architectural surety program

    SciTech Connect

    Matalucci, R.V.; Miyoshi, D.S.

    1997-08-01

    This paper provides a summary introduction to the nationally emerging area of Architectural and Infrastructure Surety that is under development at Sandia National Laboratories. This program area, addressing technology requirements at the national level, includes four major elements: education, research, development, and application. It involves a risk management approach to solving problems of the as-built environment through the application of security, safety, and reliability principles developed in the nuclear weapons programs of the Department of Energy. The changing responsibilities of engineering design professionals is addressed in light of the increased public awareness of structural and facility systems vulnerabilities to malevolent, normal, and abnormal environment threats. A brief discussion is presented of the education and technology outreach programs initiated through an infrastructure surety graduate Civil Engineering Department course taught at the University of New Mexico and through the architectural surety workshops and conferences already held and planned for the future. A summary description is also presented of selected technologies with strong potential for application to specific national architectural and infrastructure surety concerns. These technologies include super-computational modeling and structural simulations, window glass fragmentation modeling, risk management procedures, instrumentation and health monitoring systems, and three-dimensional CAD virtual reality visualization techniques.

  8. An Introduction to the Memristor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a revolution in electronics, with a variety of physical phenomena being utilized in the construction of new types of memory circuits for computer application. A device which has had an increasing role is the memristor, whose description and properties have so far had little mention in physics education. This paper…

  9. Chapter 1: Introduction and Summary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2013, total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions measured 6,673 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMT CO2 eq.), rising 5.9 percent from 1990 estimates. Global concentrations of the three most important long-lived greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere have increased measurably since t...

  10. Effect from introduction of new technology in the Georgian SSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhordaniya, I.

    1983-10-01

    The improvement of planning and control and the introduction of scientific and technical achievements into the national economy was discussed. A close connection of control of scientific and technological progress with the general economic administration and inclusion in plans of new technology and real khozraschet activity of the ministries, industrial associations and enterprises was assumed. This has had a positive effect on increasing the rates of economic development of the republic and an improvement of its ranch structure.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Electrical General § 1910.301 Introduction. This subpart addresses... all electric equipment and installations used to provide electric power and light for...

  12. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior... Interior reaffirms that fish and wildlife must be maintained for their ecological, cultural,...

  13. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior... Interior reaffirms that fish and wildlife must be maintained for their ecological, cultural,...

  14. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior... Interior reaffirms that fish and wildlife must be maintained for their ecological, cultural,...

  15. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior... Interior reaffirms that fish and wildlife must be maintained for their ecological, cultural,...

  16. 43 CFR 24.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... POLICY: STATE-FEDERAL RELATIONSHIPS § 24.1 Introduction. (a) In 1970, the Secretary of the Interior... Interior reaffirms that fish and wildlife must be maintained for their ecological, cultural,...

  17. Archimedes' Pi--An Introduction to Iteration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotspeich, Richard

    1988-01-01

    One method (attributed to Archimedes) of approximating pi offers a simple yet interesting introduction to one of the basic ideas of numerical analysis, an iteration sequence. The method is described and elaborated. (PK)

  18. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... collaborative research aimed at furthering the Nation's scientific, industrial, and economic growth. Such... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research...

  19. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged 16... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  20. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged 16... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  1. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged 16... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  2. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged 16... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  3. 43 CFR 32.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC) is a year-round employment program for young men and women aged 16... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.1 Introduction. (a) The Young Adult Conservation Corps (YACC)...

  4. 20 CFR 416.200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABLED Eligibility General § 416.200 Introduction. You are eligible for SSI benefits if you meet all the basic requirements listed in § 416.202. However, the first month for which you may receive SSI...

  5. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Iraq, North Korea, and Rwanda consistent with United Nations Security Council Resolutions. (c) This... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter...

  6. Introduction: The Significance and Complexity of ERISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickles, Carlton R.

    1975-01-01

    This article serves as an introduction to a symposium on the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and its labor law considerations. Commentary is offered on reporting and disclosure, fiduciary responsibilities, vesting, funding, and miscellaneous provisions. (LBH)

  7. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate... collaborative research aimed at furthering the Nation's scientific, industrial, and economic growth....

  8. 15 CFR 256.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.1 Introduction. This part states policies and procedures concerning the Research Associate... collaborative research aimed at furthering the Nation's scientific, industrial, and economic growth....

  9. 38 CFR 21.340 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Leaves of Absence § 21.340 Introduction. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under certain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a veteran in receipt of subsistence allowance shall...

  10. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... encyclopedic documents. CEQ guidance (40 CFR 1502.7) should be followed, establishing a page limit of 150 pages... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  11. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... encyclopedic documents. CEQ guidance (40 CFR 1502.7) should be followed, establishing a page limit of 150 pages... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  12. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... encyclopedic documents. CEQ guidance (40 CFR 1502.7) should be followed, establishing a page limit of 150 pages... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  13. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... encyclopedic documents. CEQ guidance (40 CFR 1502.7) should be followed, establishing a page limit of 150 pages... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  14. 32 CFR 651.40 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... encyclopedic documents. CEQ guidance (40 CFR 1502.7) should be followed, establishing a page limit of 150 pages... ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Impact Statement § 651.40 Introduction. (a)...

  15. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience.

    PubMed

    Hajjeh, Rana

    2011-10-12

    Adoption of new vaccines in developing countries is critical to reducing child mortality and meeting Millennium Development Goal 4. However, such introduction has historically suffered from significant delays that can be attributed to various factors including (i) lack of recognition of the value of a vaccine, (ii) factors related to weak health systems, and (iii) policy considerations. Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by these countries. The experience with Hib vaccines, as well as similar efforts by GAVI to support the introduction of new pneumococcal and rotavirus vaccines, provides a strategy for new vaccine adoption that is reviewed in this paper, providing a useful model to help accelerate the uptake of other life-saving vaccines. This strategy addresses barriers for vaccine adoption by focusing on three major areas: (i) communications to increase awareness about the various factors needed for evidence-based decisions that meet a country's health goals; (ii) research activities to answer key questions that support vaccine introduction and long-term programme sustainability; and (iii) coordination with the various stakeholders at global, regional and country levels to ensure successful programme implementation.

  16. [The clown doctor: an introduction].

    PubMed

    Rösner, M

    2010-02-01

    In the literature, increasing numbers of practitioners have reported their experience using clown doctors in geriatric settings. The reports agree on the positive effects on persons with dementia and also on their caregivers. However, empirical studies on its effectiveness are rare. This article presents the field of activity of a clown doctor in geriatric settings as well as an overview of current scientific research on the topic and the effects on persons with dementia and nursing staff. It will be become clear that the clown doctor is a supporting therapeutic intervention. Through the clown representation, it is possible to obtain access to and interact with a person with dementia, thus, maintaining social contact of the patient with his/her environment. This effect leads to an increase of well-being and contributes to a reduction of problematic behavior. In addition to reduced workload and relief for the nursing staff, it has a positive effect on the working atmosphere. PMID:20033816

  17. [The clown doctor: an introduction].

    PubMed

    Rösner, M

    2010-02-01

    In the literature, increasing numbers of practitioners have reported their experience using clown doctors in geriatric settings. The reports agree on the positive effects on persons with dementia and also on their caregivers. However, empirical studies on its effectiveness are rare. This article presents the field of activity of a clown doctor in geriatric settings as well as an overview of current scientific research on the topic and the effects on persons with dementia and nursing staff. It will be become clear that the clown doctor is a supporting therapeutic intervention. Through the clown representation, it is possible to obtain access to and interact with a person with dementia, thus, maintaining social contact of the patient with his/her environment. This effect leads to an increase of well-being and contributes to a reduction of problematic behavior. In addition to reduced workload and relief for the nursing staff, it has a positive effect on the working atmosphere.

  18. Introduction. Population and the environment.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J; Zaba, B

    1992-01-01

    The complexity of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental concerns is often obscured when the global picture is presented. The variety and complexity of population-environment associations varies with spatial aggregation; analysis is needed at all levels. Of the many organizations involved in researching and discussing these associations, the International Social Science Council established a working committee on population and the environment, which held a symposium in January 1991. 9 papers were the topic of discussions and are summarized in this article. Attention was focused on pollution emissions and population growth by the environmental scientist Paul Harrison. The increased demand for water was discussed as it related to rapid urbanization and changes in agricultural production and industrial development policies. David Noin's paper was on the increased occurrence of natural disasters and mortality, i.e., cyclones and floods. The population densities surrounding areas of natural disasters excluding droughts have increased and contributed to greater impacts. Alina Potrykowska and Roger Bivend provided information on the trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. Mortality increases have appeared during the course of industrialization. Data for Poland on environmental variables such as dust and gas emissions, volume of untreated waste, and hazardous waste are available for 49 voivodships. The most polluted areas show a statistically significant relationships with high morality. Ken Wilson presented his views on the contradiction that African famines did not cause population decline. The possible interpretations are misinterpretation of data, inappropriate scales of measurement, and a misspecification that social, economic, and political changes will improve the population environment links. Matthew Lockwood presented his findings on northern Nigeria that migration is an important cause of high density population, and that

  19. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  20. 26 CFR 25.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Introduction. 25.0-1 Section 25.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Gift Tax § 25.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. (1) The regulations in this part are designated “Gift...

  1. A Short Introduction to Computer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Ulrich

    Computer Networks have become an essential tool in many aspects: human communication, gathering, exchange and sharing of information, distributed work environments, access to remote resources (data and computing power) and many more. Starting from an historical overview, this paper will give an introduction to the underlying ideas and technologies. The second half will concentrate on the most commonly used network technology today (Ethernet and TCP/IP) and give an introduction to the communication mechanisms used.

  2. Introduction to cotranscriptional RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Merkhofer, Evan C; Hu, Peter; Johnson, Tracy L

    2014-01-01

    The discovery that many intron-containing genes can be cotranscriptionally spliced has led to an increased understanding of how splicing and transcription are intricately intertwined. Cotranscriptional splicing has been demonstrated in a number of different organisms and has been shown to play roles in coordinating both constitutive and alternative splicing. The nature of cotranscriptional splicing suggests that changes in transcription can dramatically affect splicing, and new evidence suggests that splicing can, in turn, influence transcription. In this chapter, we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of cotranscriptional splicing and introduce some of the tools used to measure this process.

  3. Adaptation to Space: An Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems are normally exposed to gradients of blood pressure and weight on Earth. These gradients increase blood pressure and tissue weight in dependent tissues of the body. Exposure to actual and simulated microgravity causes blood and tissue fluid to shift from the legs to the head. Studies of humans in space have documented facial edema, space motion sickness, decreased plasma volume, muscle atrophy, and loss of bone strength. Return of astronauts to Earth is accompanied by orthostatic intolerance, decreased neuromuscular coordination, and reduced exercise capacity. These factors decrease performance during descent from orbit and increase risk during emergency egress from the spacecraft. Models of simulated microgravity include 6 deg head-down tilt, immersion, and prolonged horizontal bedrest. Head-down tilt is the most accepted model and studies using this model of up to one year have been performed in Russia. Animal models which offer clear insights into the role of gravity on vertebrates include the developing giraffe and snakes from various habitats. Finally, possible countermeasures to speed readaptation of astronauts to gravity after prolonged space flight will be discussed.

  4. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  5. Palmitic Acid and Health: Introduction.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Carlo; Moreno, Luis; Shamir, Raanan

    2016-09-01

    Interest in the dietary role and metabolic effect of saturated fatty acids has been recently renewed on the basis of epidemiologic observations and economical approach to health and well-being. Saturated fats may favorably increase blood HDL-Cholesterol levels without significant changes of the total cholesterol/HDL-Cholesterol ratio. Also, the negative effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular diseases risk has recently been challenged. Palmitic acid, among all, may have special structural and functional roles in utero and in infancy, and indeed is it is being delivered in a unique form in human milk. Future research should include objective cost-benefit analyses when disentangling the role of saturated fats in dietary recommendations.

  6. An introduction to hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrlund, Ole

    2003-04-01

    This presentation reviews hearing-aid development from analog to advanced digital technology. A basic hearing aid consists of a microphone, an amplification circuit that provides a gain that varies with frequency to accommodate variations in hearing loss with frequency, and a small earphone. In recent years, hearing aid technology has developed rapidly. Digital hearing aids have become commonplace and their share of the marketplace is increasing rapidly. Therefore, the main focus of this talk is signal-processing schemes in advanced digital hearing aids, including microphones with digitally controlled directional characteristics, wide-dynamic-range compression in multiple channels that allow the compression characteristics to vary with frequency, noise reduction, and feedback cancellation. Each of these signal-processing functions help address the needs of individuals with hearing losses.

  7. Introduction to Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Ang, Chee Siang

    Social Network analysis focuses on patterns of relations between and among people, organizations, states, etc. It aims to describe networks of relations as fully as possible, identify prominent patterns in such networks, trace the flow of information through them, and discover what effects these relations and networks have on people and organizations. Social network analysis offers a very promising potential for analyzing human-human interactions in online communities (discussion boards, newsgroups, virtual organizations). This Tutorial provides an overview of this analytic technique and demonstrates how it can be used in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and practice, focusing especially on Computer Mediated Communication (CMC). This topic acquires particular importance these days, with the increasing popularity of social networking websites (e.g., youtube, myspace, MMORPGs etc.) and the research interest in studying them.

  8. An Introduction to Quantum Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannes, Mark

    Using quantum mechanical devices for handling information is not a recent proposal. Recent experimental progress has, however, narrowed the gap with reality, even if there is still a very long way to go in order to achieve the most far-stretching proposals. Modern techniques now really allow to handle very small systems—the paradigms of the Gedankenexperimente in the standard textbooks on quantum mechanics—in an increasingly controlled manner. Because of the counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics, experimental and theoretical aspects have to be developed more or less simultaneously, certainly in order to build complex systems. The renewed interest in theoretical and mathematical aspects of quantum theory is then a natural consequence.

  9. Introduction to Session 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticklen, Mariam B.

    Topics presented in the "Plant Biotechnology and Genomics" session focused on technologies that highlight the important role of plant biotechnology and genomics in the development of future energy crops. Several excellent presentations demonstrated the latest advances in energy crop development through the use of plant cell wall regulation and by engineering new energy crops such as brown midrib sweet sorghum. Approaches included the control of cellulose production by increased expression of cellulase synthase genes and the selection of high-yield varieties of shrub willows. The potential of producing hydrolytic enzymes using transgenic plants as a cost-effective means for the large-scale production of these enzymes was also explored in the session, as was the role of posttranslational modifications on the activities of heterologous expressed cellulases in hosts such as Pichia pastoris.

  10. Cosmic Ray Origins: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandford, Roger; Simeon, Paul; Yuan, Yajie

    2014-11-01

    Physicists have pondered the origin of cosmic rays for over a hundred years. However the last few years have seen an upsurge in the observation, progress in the theory and a genuine increase in the importance attached to the topic due to its intimate connection to the indirect detection of evidence for dark matter. The intent of this talk is to set the stage for the meeting by reviewing some of the basic features of the entire cosmic ray spectrum from GeV to ZeV energy and some of the models that have been developed. The connection will also be made to recent developments in understanding general astrophysical particle acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae, relativistic jets and gamma ray bursts. The prospects for future discoveries, which may elucidate the origin of cosmic rays, are bright.

  11. [Economic evaluation of healthcare technologies: an introduction for physicians].

    PubMed

    Luengo-Fernández, Ramón; Hernández-Quesada, Ciber; Rivero-Arias, Oliver

    2011-07-16

    Economic evaluation of healthcare interventions is becoming increasingly important and are seen by decision makers as a useful tool on how best to allocate scarce resources efficiently by maximising the health of the population. It is therefore important that health care professionals understand the fundamentals of an economic analysis so that they can understand, evaluate and critically appraise published economic evaluations. This article presents an introduction to the economic analysis of health care interventions and describes the basic concepts of an economic evaluation. The authors introduce the concept of efficiency to defend the use of economic tools to guide or help decisions in healthcare. The article presents the cost-effectiveness plane as a useful instrument when presenting the results of an economic evaluation, and summarises the main ways on how costs and outcomes are measured. To help readers understand the concepts presented in this introduction, we draw on published examples of economic analyses undertaken in the field of stroke.

  12. Introduction. Information, knowledge and technology.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Alistair G J

    2003-08-15

    Technology is the sum of the ways in which social groups manipulate order in the world to achieve their ends. It enables our active engagement with the world. Technology is central to our present well-being and vital for our future survival. As such it needs a coherent world view, a conceptual framework which will enable the fundamental problems that it poses for society to be approached in an illuminating way. Furthermore, such an approach, while remaining convincing, must not be overwhelmed by an ever-increasing welter of specialization and diversity of application. It is the purpose of the set of papers presented here to examine some key aspects of such a conceptual framework; not in the sense of offering a fully worked out philosophy of technology--that would be a huge and complex undertaking--but rather by considering some key topics. Subsidiary aims are to survey important relevant areas, to identify key sources that can provide access points for further study, and to consider some possible future developments. Major, coherent domains of activity are characterized by a few, fundamental, extensively used and essentially unifying concepts. Technology is such a domain, and its fundamental concepts are information, knowledge and agency. The following sections give a synoptic overview of the material presented in this theme issue, and set it within a wider context.

  13. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Keith

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction; Part II. Small Systems: 2. Statistics for small systems; 3. Systems with many elements; Part III. Energy and the First Law: 4. Internal energy; 5. Interactions between systems; Part IV. States and the Second Law: 6. Internal energy and the number of accessible states; 7. Entropy and the second law; 8. Entropy and thermal interactions; Part V. Constraints: 9. Natural constraints; 10. Models; 11. Choice of variables; 12. Special processes; 13. Engines; 14. Diffusive interactions; Part VI. Classical Statistics: 15. Probabilities and microscopic behaviours; 16. Kinetic theory and transport processes in gases; 17. Magnetic properties of materials; 18. The partition function; Part VII. Quantum Statistics: 19. Introduction to quantum statistics; 20. Quantum gases; 21. Blackbody radiation; 22. The thermal properties of solids; 23. The electrical properties of materials; 24. Low temperatures and degenerate systems; Appendices; Further reading; Problem solutions; Index.

  14. An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Keith

    2007-05-01

    Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Introduction; Part II. Small Systems: 2. Statistics for small systems; 3. Systems with many elements; Part III. Energy and the First Law: 4. Internal energy; 5. Interactions between systems; Part IV. States and the Second Law: 6. Internal energy and the number of accessible states; 7. Entropy and the second law; 8. Entropy and thermal interactions; Part V. Constraints: 9. Natural constraints; 10. Models; 11. Choice of variables; 12. Special processes; 13. Engines; 14. Diffusive interactions; Part VI. Classical Statistics: 15. Probabilities and microscopic behaviours; 16. Kinetic theory and transport processes in gases; 17. Magnetic properties of materials; 18. The partition function; Part VII. Quantum Statistics: 19. Introduction to quantum statistics; 20. Quantum gases; 21. Blackbody radiation; 22. The thermal properties of solids; 23. The electrical properties of materials; 24. Low temperatures and degenerate systems; Appendices; Further reading; Problem solutions; Index.

  15. Introduction of solid food to young infants.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Alice A; Inkelas, Moira; Slusser, Wendelin M; Maidenberg, Molly; Halfon, Neal

    2011-11-01

    Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of 2,068 parents of children aged 4-35 months, which profiled content and quality of health care for young children. African-American and Latino families were over-sampled. Analyses in this report include bivariate tests and logistic regressions. 62% of parents reported introducing solids to their child between 4-6 months of age. African-American mothers (OR=0.5 [0.3, 0.9]), English-speaking Latino mothers (OR=0.4 [0.2, 0.7]), White mothers with more than high school education (OR=0.5 [0.2, 1.0]), and mothers who breastfed for 4 months or longer (OR=0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) were less likely to introduce solids early. Most parents (92%) of children 4-9 months of age reported that their pediatric provider had discussed introduction of solids with them since the child's birth, and provider discussion of feeding was not associated with the timing of introduction of solids. Although most parents recall discussing the introduction of solid foods with their child's physician, several subgroups of mothers introduce solid foods earlier than the AAP recommendation of 4-6 months. More effective discussion of solid food introduction linked to counseling and support of breastfeeding by the primary health care provider may reduce early introduction of solids. PMID:20842523

  16. Introduction to Categories and Categorical Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramsky, S.; Tzevelekos, N.

    The aim of these notes is to provide a succinct, accessible introduction to some of the basic ideas of category theory and categorical logic. The notes are based on a lecture course given at Oxford over the past few years. They contain numerous exercises, and hopefully will prove useful for self-study by those seeking a first introduction to the subject, with fairly minimal prerequisites. The coverage is by no means comprehensive, but should provide a good basis for further study; a guide to further reading is included.

  17. PHEV Market Introduction Workshop Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Adrienne M; Sikes, Karen R

    2009-03-01

    The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study Workshop was attended by approximately forty representatives from various stakeholder organizations. The event took place at the Hotel Helix in Washington, D.C. on December 1-2, 2008. The purpose of this workshop was to follow-up last year s PHEV Value Proposition Study, which showed that indeed, a viable and even thriving market for these vehicles can exist by the year 2030. This workshop aimed to identify immediate action items that need to be undertaken to achieve a successful market introduction and ensuing large market share of PHEVs in the U.S. automotive fleet.

  18. An informal introduction to program transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    In the summer of 1992, I had the opportunity to participate in a Faculty Research Program, at Argonne National Laboratory. During that time I came in contact with some developments in computer science that were unfamiliar to me as a mathematician. Since most mathematicians have some exposure to computers, but certainly are not computer scientists, I felt it was appropriate to write a paper summarizing my introduction to program transformation. This paper is not meant to be a full explanation of the topic, but an informal introduction for the ``mathematical layman.``

  19. Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society

    PubMed Central

    Klug, A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society, the proceedings of a Discussion held at The Royal Society on 7 and 8 May 1997. Organized and edited by J. Grimley Evans, R. Holliday, T. B. L. Kirkwood, P. Laslett and L. Tyler.

  20. Interdisciplinary Studies Program. Introduction to Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    An introduction is provided to the Interdisciplinary Studies (IDS) Program at Valencia Community College (VCC), a 2-year general education core curriculum divided into four courses. A description of VCC is followed by an overview of the program, which integrates the arts, philosophy, religion, English, mathematics, social sciences, and physical…

  1. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  2. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  3. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  4. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  5. 20 CFR 368.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 368.1 Section 368.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION, POLICY AND PROCEDURES PROHIBITION OF CIGARETTE... Cigarette Sales to Minors in Federal Buildings and Lands Act,” which prohibits the sale of tobacco...

  6. An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Suzanne

    The introduction to systemic functional linguistics explores the social semiotic approach to language most closely associated with the work of Michael Halliday and his colleagues. An approach that views language as a strategic, meaning-making resource, systemic linguistics focuses on the analysis of authentic, everyday texts and asks both how…

  7. 49 CFR 1103.10 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by a broad code of ethics and unwritten rules of professional conduct which apply to every activity... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics § 1103.10 Introduction. The following canons of ethics are adopted as a general guide for those admitted to practice before the...

  8. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Valley project and with the purposes of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic, and other values...-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction....

  9. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Valley project and with the purposes of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic, and other values...-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction....

  10. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Valley project and with the purposes of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic, and other values...-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction....

  11. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Valley project and with the purposes of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic, and other values...-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction....

  12. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Lisa J.

    This introduction to African American English (AAE) looks at the grammar as a whole, describing patterns in sentence structure, sound system, word formation, and word use in AAE. The book uses linguistic description and data from conversation to explain that AAE is not a compilation of random deviations from mainstream English but rather a…

  13. 47 CFR 1.1200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 1.1200 Introduction. (a) Purpose. To ensure the fairness and integrity of its decision-making, the...-but-disclose” proceedings, in which ex parte presentations to Commission decision-making personnel are... ex parte presentations to and from Commission decision-making personnel are generally prohibited (§...

  14. 20 CFR 222.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS General § 222.1 Introduction. This part sets forth and describes the family relationships that may make a... or terminated marriage or through birth, death or adoption. Other relevant relationships are having...

  15. An Introduction to the Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Jian-quan; Miao, Dan-min; Zhu, Xia; Gong, Jing-jing

    2007-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) has unsurpassable advantages over traditional testing. It has become the mainstream in large scale examinations in modern society. This paper gives a brief introduction to CAT including differences between traditional testing and CAT, the principles of CAT, psychometric theory and computer algorithms of CAT, the…

  16. 7 CFR 4287.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans § 4287.301 Introduction. (a) This subpart supplements 7 CFR part 4279, subparts A and C, by providing additional requirements and instructions for servicing and liquidating all Biorefinery Assistance...

  17. 7 CFR 4287.301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICING Servicing Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans § 4287.301 Introduction. (a) This subpart supplements 7 CFR part 4279, subparts A and C, by providing additional requirements and instructions for servicing and liquidating all Biorefinery Assistance...

  18. Determining and mitigating risks of disease introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biosecurity can be defined as a system of processes (i.e., inputs, movements and other activities), each with a set of procedures, that taken together minimize the risk of introduction and spread of infectious organisms within or between aquatic animal populations. Biosecurity measures at the site l...

  19. An Introduction to the Research Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenbarger, Brett N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Basic information on the research process is offered to college health professionals in four articles titled: "An Introduction to the Research Process,""Designing the Study,""Representative Designs and Their Challenges," and "Analyzing and Communicating Results." Covered are the literature review, hypothesis development, sampling, measurement…

  20. Cluster: Drafting. Course: Introduction to Technical Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford - Lee County Schools, NC.

    The set of 10 units is designed for use with an instructor as an introduction to technical drafting, and is also keyed to other texts. Each unit contains several task packages specifying prerequisites, rationale for learning, objectives, learning activities to be supervised by the instructor, and learning practice. The units cover: drafting…

  1. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 30.15 Section 30.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Export Control and Licensing Requirements §...

  2. 20 CFR 327.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides for the payment of unemployment benefits to qualified railroad employees for days of unemployment. Under section 1(k) of the...

  3. 20 CFR 330.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides for the... unemployment or days of sickness, subject to a maximum amount per day. The “daily benefit rate” for an...

  4. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  5. 40 CFR 87.80 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.80 Introduction. Except... the test is designed to determine the smoke emission level at various operating points representative of engine usage in aircraft. Other smoke measurement systems may be used if shown to yield...

  6. 29 CFR 501.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enforcement of all contractual obligations, including requirements under 8 U.S.C. 1188 and 20 CFR part 655.... workers in a manner prohibited by the regulations in this part or 20 CFR part 655, subpart B. ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Introduction. 501.0 Section 501.0 Labor...

  7. Introduction to the Sociology of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penalosa, Fernando

    This volume is a summary of current knowledge concerning the relationship between social behavior and language behavior. It is intended both for graduate and advanced undergraduate students and for interested laypersons who have no extensive knowledge of either sociology or linguistics. The introduction and ten chapters cover the following topics:…

  8. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  9. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  10. Introduction to Animal Science. Unit A-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Vernon D.; Backlund, Paul

    This document is a teacher's guide for a unit in the college animal science curriculum. It is intended to be used for 20 hours of instruction for freshmen as an introduction to animal science. It explores the livestock industry and builds a foundation for livestock selection. The unit's objectives are to help the student develop an understanding…

  11. 20 CFR 416.1130 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1130 Introduction. (a) General. Both earned income... support and maintenance). This section and the ones that follow discuss these rules. In these...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1130 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1130 Introduction. (a) General. Both earned income... support and maintenance). This section and the ones that follow discuss these rules. In these...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1130 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1130 Introduction. (a) General. Both earned income... support and maintenance). This section and the ones that follow discuss these rules. In these...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1130 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income In-Kind Support and Maintenance § 416.1130 Introduction. (a) General. Both earned income... support and maintenance). This section and the ones that follow discuss these rules. In these...

  15. Children of La Frontera. Chapter 1: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Judith LeBlanc; Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    This introduction to the papers assembled in "Children of La Frontera" provides background information on Mexican immigration to the United States, Mexican migrant workers and their children, and implications for schools. It discusses economic forces in both Mexico and the United States that push and pull Mexicans to "El Norte"; the economic…

  16. 20 CFR 404.701 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.701 Section 404.701 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... rules about what evidence is needed when a person claims old-age, disability, dependents' and...

  17. 20 CFR 404.701 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 404.701 Section 404.701 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950... rules about what evidence is needed when a person claims old-age, disability, dependents' and...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1 Section 404.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950...) Subpart O relates to the interrelationship of the old-age, survivors and disability insurance program...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1 Section 404.1 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950...) Subpart O relates to the interrelationship of the old-age, survivors and disability insurance program...

  20. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  1. Introductions in Research Articles: Variation across Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, B.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on an analysis of research article introductions from two related fields, Wildlife Behavior and Conservation Biology, using Swales' (1990), "Genre Analysis. English in Academic and Research Settings." Results of the analysis reveal disciplinary variation in the structure of this genre, which has important pedagogical implications.…

  2. Introduction: Special issue on Global Lesbian Cinema.

    PubMed

    Farr, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a brief introduction to this special issue on Global Lesbian Cinema. This issue particularly highlights the importance of recognizing lesbian discourse as a separate, related piece of the discourse of queer transnational and global cinema. Subsequently, brief summaries of the eight articles of this collection are provided.

  3. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL... water and related natural resources of the basin, which includes part of New York, Pennsylvania,...

  4. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL... water and related natural resources of the basin, which includes part of New York, Pennsylvania,...

  5. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  6. 5 CFR 2500.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.1 Introduction. (a) References. (1) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information”, dated June 28, 1978. (2) Information Security Oversight Office Directive No. 1, “National...

  7. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  8. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  9. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  10. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  11. 7 CFR 773.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.1 Introduction. This part contains the terms and conditions for loans made under the Special Apple Loan Program. These regulations are applicable to... program objective is to assist producers of apples suffering from economic loss as a result of low...

  12. An introduction to the ENDF formats

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF Evaluated Nuclear Data Formats are used all over the world to encode nuclear data evaluations for use in research and nuclear technology. This report is an introduction to the formats and how they are used in modern compilations of nuclear data.

  13. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Scope... reexport under stated conditions, items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that would... Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR and items subject to the EAR that would require a license based...

  14. 15 CFR 12.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commerce by sections 5(d) and 5(e) of the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (Pub. L. 89-755, 80 Stat. 1299... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 12.1 Section 12.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING §...

  15. 15 CFR 738.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 738.1 Section 738.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS COMMERCE CONTROL...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1301 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as a World War II veteran, how we determine whether the 90-day active service requirement for a World... War II veteran, how we determine whether the 90-day active service requirement for a post-World War II...- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services General § 404.1301 Introduction....

  17. 36 CFR 292.14 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.14 Introduction. (a) Purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the Act establishing the Sawtooth National Recreation Area (86 Stat. 612... privately owned property within the boundaries of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The standards...

  18. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction. (a... Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Reclamation and of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic,...

  19. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction. (a... Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Reclamation and of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic,...

  20. 36 CFR 292.14 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.14 Introduction. (a) Purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the Act establishing the Sawtooth National Recreation Area (86 Stat. 612... privately owned property within the boundaries of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The standards...

  1. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction. (a... Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Reclamation and of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic,...

  2. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction. (a... Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Reclamation and of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic,...

  3. 36 CFR 292.11 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area § 292.11 Introduction. (a... Central Valley Project of the Bureau of Reclamation and of the recreation area as a whole so as to provide for: (1) Public outdoor recreation benefits; (2) conservation of scenic, scientific, historic,...

  4. 36 CFR 292.14 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RECREATION AREAS Sawtooth National Recreation Area-Private Lands § 292.14 Introduction. (a) Purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the Act establishing the Sawtooth National Recreation Area (86 Stat. 612... privately owned property within the boundaries of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The standards...

  5. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Scope... reexport under stated conditions, items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that would... Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR and items subject to the EAR that would require a license based...

  6. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. A person may undertake transactions subject to the EAR without a license or other authorization... activity is subject to the EAR, the general prohibitions contained in this part and the License...

  7. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. A person may undertake transactions subject to the EAR without a license or other authorization... activity is subject to the EAR, the general prohibitions contained in this part and the License...

  8. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. A person may undertake transactions subject to the EAR without a license or other authorization... activity is subject to the EAR, the general prohibitions contained in this part and the License...

  9. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Scope... reexport under stated conditions, items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that would... supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR and items subject to the EAR that would require a license based...

  10. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Scope... reexport under stated conditions, items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that would... Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR and items subject to the EAR that would require a license based...

  11. 15 CFR 740.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. (a) Scope... reexport under stated conditions, items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) that would... Supplement No. 1 to part 774 of the EAR and items subject to the EAR that would require a license based...

  12. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. A person may undertake transactions subject to the EAR without a license or other authorization... activity is subject to the EAR, the general prohibitions contained in this part and the License...

  13. 15 CFR 736.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII, subchapter C. A person may undertake transactions subject to the EAR without a license or other authorization... activity is subject to the EAR, the general prohibitions contained in this part and the License...

  14. 36 CFR 30.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WHISKEYTOWN-SHASTA-TRINITY NATIONAL RECREATION AREA: ZONING STANDARDS FOR WHISKEYTOWN UNIT § 30.1 Introduction. (a... establishing the national recreation area; (2) promote the protection and development of properties in...

  15. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  16. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  17. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  18. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  19. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  20. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  1. 20 CFR 323.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.1 Introduction. (a) This part defines the phrase nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance and sets forth the procedure by...

  2. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  3. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  4. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  5. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  6. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  7. 20 CFR 348.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 348.1 Section 348.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REPRESENTATIVE... Railroad Retirement Act, which is also applicable to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act, provides...

  8. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  9. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  10. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  11. 20 CFR 322.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REMUNERATION § 322.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides benefits for a qualified employee's days of unemployment or days of sickness, as defined in section 1(k) of the Act. Under...

  12. 20 CFR 302.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 302.1 Section 302.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT QUALIFIED... employee to qualify for benefits under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act with respect to a...

  13. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer employment for young men and women, aged 15 through 18, who work, earn, and learn together by doing projects which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The...

  14. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer employment for young men and women, aged 15 through 18, who work, earn, and learn together by doing projects which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The...

  15. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer employment for young men and women, aged 15 through 18, who work, earn, and learn together by doing projects which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The...

  16. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer employment for young men and women, aged 15 through 18, who work, earn, and learn together by doing projects which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The...

  17. 43 CFR 26.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.1 Introduction. (a) The Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) is a program of summer employment for young men and women, aged 15 through 18, who work, earn, and learn together by doing projects which further the development and conservation of the natural resources of the United States. The...

  18. Introduction to Education Studies. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Steve; Murton, Diana M.

    2007-01-01

    "Introduction to Education Studies" is established as the key text for undergraduate students of education studies as well as for practitioners embarking on a higher degree. The book provides a thorough grounding for students new to the subject without assuming a substantial prior knowledge of the area. It also takes a multidisciplinary approach…

  19. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  20. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  1. 26 CFR 50.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.1 Introduction. The Act entitled “An Act to create the California Debris Commission and regulate hydraulic mining... hydraulic process, shall extend to all such mining in the territory drained by the Sacramento and...

  2. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII..., currently Cuba, Iran, and Syria. This part is the focal point for all the EAR requirements for...

  3. HyperCard for Educators. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen L.; Harris, Judi

    This guide is designed to provide a quick introduction to the basic elements of HyperCard for teachers who are familiar with other computer applications but may not have worked with hypermedia applications; previous familiarity with HyperCard or with Macintosh computers is not necessary. It is noted that HyperCard is a software construction…

  4. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  5. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  6. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  7. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  8. 22 CFR 66.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR DEMOCRACY § 66.1 Introduction. These regulations amend the Code of Federal Regulations to conform with Pub. L. 99-93. Pub. L. 99-93 amended the National Endowment for Democracy Act (22 U.S.C. 4411, et. seq.) to require the National Endowment for Democracy (hereinafter “NED”) to comply fully...

  9. 29 CFR 503.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 503.0 Introduction. The regulations in this part cover... displace U.S. workers in a manner prohibited by the regulations in this part or 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. .... 1184(c) and 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A, applicable to the employment of H-2B workers admitted under......

  10. 29 CFR 501.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... workers in a manner prohibited by the regulations in this part or 20 CFR part 655, subpart B. ... CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.0 Introduction. The regulations in this part cover...

  11. 29 CFR 503.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 503.0 Introduction. The regulations in this part cover... displace U.S. workers in a manner prohibited by the regulations in this part or 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A. .... 1184(c) and 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A, applicable to the employment of H-2B workers admitted under......

  12. Introduction to Data Transmission for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is presented to data transmission technology and networks for information retrieval purposes. Data signals are analyzed, modulation techniques are discussed, communication procedures between terminals and the central processing unit are surveyed, and possible network configurations are considered. (Author/PF)

  13. Biomass Program 2007 Accomplishments - Report Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-27

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE’s) Biomass Program works with industry, academia and its national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. This document provides the introduction to the 2007 Program Accomplishments Report.

  14. 20 CFR 295.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENTS PURSUANT TO COURT DECREE OR COURT-APPROVED PROPERTY SETTLEMENT § 295.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part implements... must comply with a court decree of divorce, annulment or legal separation, or with the terms of...

  15. 20 CFR 295.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENTS PURSUANT TO COURT DECREE OR COURT-APPROVED PROPERTY SETTLEMENT § 295.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part implements... must comply with a court decree of divorce, annulment or legal separation, or with the terms of...

  16. 28 CFR 802.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS General § 802.1 Introduction. This part contains regulations of the Court Services and... demand from a court or other non-congressional authority in connection with a proceeding to which...

  17. 28 CFR 802.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS General § 802.1 Introduction. This part contains regulations of the Court Services and... demand from a court or other non-congressional authority in connection with a proceeding to which...

  18. 28 CFR 802.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS General § 802.1 Introduction. This part contains regulations of the Court Services and... demand from a court or other non-congressional authority in connection with a proceeding to which...

  19. 28 CFR 802.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS General § 802.1 Introduction. This part contains regulations of the Court Services and... demand from a court or other non-congressional authority in connection with a proceeding to which...

  20. 20 CFR 295.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENTS PURSUANT TO COURT DECREE OR COURT-APPROVED PROPERTY SETTLEMENT § 295.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part implements... must comply with a court decree of divorce, annulment or legal separation, or with the terms of...

  1. 20 CFR 295.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENTS PURSUANT TO COURT DECREE OR COURT-APPROVED PROPERTY SETTLEMENT § 295.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part implements... must comply with a court decree of divorce, annulment or legal separation, or with the terms of...

  2. 20 CFR 295.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT PAYMENTS PURSUANT TO COURT DECREE OR COURT-APPROVED PROPERTY SETTLEMENT § 295.1 Introduction. (a) Purpose. This part implements... must comply with a court decree of divorce, annulment or legal separation, or with the terms of...

  3. Introduction--Understanding Education, Fragility and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchert, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This Introduction discusses approaches to and perspectives on analyzing the complex relationship between education, fragility, and conflict and its underlying causes and dynamics. It argues for the need for contextual and time-bound multi-level analyses of interlinked societal dimensions in order to address the ultimate purposes of education…

  4. Open Simulation Laboratories [Guest editors' introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Francis J.; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-09-01

    The introduction for the special issue on open simulation laboratories, the guest editors describe how OSLs will become more common as their potential is better understood and they begin providing access to valuable datasets to much larger segments of the scientific community. Moreover, new analysis tools and ways to do science will inevitably develop as a result.

  5. An Introduction to Distributions Using Weighted Dice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Bart K.

    2011-01-01

    Distributions are the basis for an enormous amount of theoretical and applied work in statistics. While there are formal definitions of distributions and many formulas to characterize them, it is important that students at first get a clear introduction to this basic concept. For many of them, neither words nor formulas can match the power of a…

  6. Teaching Introduction to International Politics with Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeriano, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    This article is an overview of a comprehensive film-based course that covers basic topics appropriate for an introduction to international relations (or world politics) course. Film provides a new and novel perspective by which to view international interactions. I explore how various aspects of international politics are covered by movies with…

  7. Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    Fassbender, Linda L.; Akers, Bret M.; Cooper, Christy

    2007-08-01

    This article is intended to inform firefighters about a new web-based training course called "Introduction to Hydrogen Safety for First Responders." It provides a very brief overview of the course contents, the web address to access the online course, where to get CDs and hard copies of the course, and who to contact for further information.

  8. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL... water and related natural resources of the basin, which includes part of New York, Pennsylvania,...

  9. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL... water and related natural resources of the basin, which includes part of New York, Pennsylvania,...

  10. 18 CFR 801.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Introduction. 801.0 Section 801.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL... water and related natural resources of the basin, which includes part of New York, Pennsylvania,...

  11. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the Inter-American Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records be freely... Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and identifiable records...

  12. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the Inter-American Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records be freely... Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and identifiable records...

  13. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the African Development Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records.... (b) The Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and...

  14. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the Inter-American Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records be freely... Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and identifiable records...

  15. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the African Development Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records.... (b) The Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and...

  16. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the African Development Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records.... (b) The Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and...

  17. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the Inter-American Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records be freely... Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and identifiable records...

  18. 22 CFR 1502.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1502.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the African Development Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records.... (b) The Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and...

  19. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of the Inter-American Foundation that information about its operations, procedures, and records be freely... Foundation will make the fullest possible disclosure of its information and identifiable records...

  20. 26 CFR 40.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 40.0-1 Section 40.0-1 Internal... such taxes before the effective date of this part are contained in 26 CFR parts 43, 46, 48, 49 and 52... form designated for the same use by the Commissioner after October 22, 1992. (c) Definition...