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Sample records for increasing organic loading

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of solid waste: Effect of increasing organic loading rates and characterization of the solubilised organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Torrijos, Michel; Sousbie, Philippe; Steyer, Jean Philippe; Lugardon, Aurelien; Delgenes, Jean Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The impact of stepwise increase in OLR (up to 7.5kgVS/m(3)d) on methane production, reactor performance and solubilised organic matter production in a high-loading reactor were investigated. A reference reactor operated at low OLR (<2.0kgVS/m(3)d) was used solely to observe the methane potential of the feed substrate. Specific methane yield was 0.33lCH(4)/gVS at the lowest OLR and dropped by about 20% at the maximum OLR, while volumetric methane production increased from 0.35 to 1.38m(3)CH(4)/m(3)d. At higher loadings, solids hydrolysis was affected, with consequent transfer of poorly-degraded organic material into the drain solids. Biodegradability and size-fractionation of the solubilised COD were characterized to evaluate the possibility of a second stage liquid reactor. Only 18% of the organics were truly soluble (<1kD). The rest were in colloidal and very fine particulate form which originated from grass and cow manure and were non-biodegradable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage phiX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal.

  3. Hygienic quality of artificial greywater subjected to aerobic treatment: a comparison of three filter media at increasing organic loading rates

    PubMed Central

    Lalander, Cecilia; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Jönsson, Håkan; Vinnerås, Björn

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population, the lack of reliable water sources is becoming an increasing problem. Reusing greywater could alleviate this problem. When reusing greywater for crop irrigation it is paramount to ensure the removal of pathogenic organisms. This study compared the pathogen removal efficiency of pine bark and activated charcoal filters with that of conventional sand filters at three organic loading rates. The removal efficiency of Escherichia coli O157:H7 decreased drastically when the organic loading rate increased fivefold in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. The reduction in the virus model organism coliphage ΦX174 remained unchanged with increasing organic loading in the charcoal and sand filters, but increased by 2 log10 in the bark filters. Thus, bark was demonstrated to be the most promising material for greywater treatment in terms of pathogen removal. PMID:24527627

  4. The Effect of Increased Loads of Dissolved Organic Matter on Estuarine Microbial Community Composition and Function

    PubMed Central

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.; Sørensen, Helle; Dinasquet, Julie; Stedmon, Colin A.; Andersson, Agneta; Riemann, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated DOM on a coastal pelagic food web from the coastal northern Baltic Sea, in a 32-day mesocosm experiment. In particular, the study addresses the response of bacterioplankton to differences in character and composition of supplied DOM. The supplied DOM differed in stoichiometry and quality and had pronounced effects on the recipient bacterioplankton, driving compositional changes in response to DOM type. The shifts in bacterioplankton community composition were especially driven by the proliferation of Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Planctomycetes, and Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria populations. The DOM additions stimulated protease activity and a release of inorganic nutrients, suggesting that DOM was actively processed. However, no difference between DOM types was detected in these functions despite different community compositions. Extensive release of re-mineralized carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus was associated with the bacterial processing, corresponding to 25–85% of the supplied DOM. The DOM additions had a negative effect on phytoplankton with decreased Chl a and biomass, particularly during the first half of the experiment. However, the accumulating nutrients likely stimulated phytoplankton biomass which was observed to increase towards the end of the experiment. This suggests that the nutrient access partially outweighed the negative effect of increased light attenuation by accumulating DOM. Taken together, our experimental data suggest that parts of the future elevated riverine DOM supply to the Baltic Sea will be efficiently mineralized by microbes. This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and

  5. Investigation of increasing organic loading rate in the co-digestion of energy crops and cow manure mix.

    PubMed

    Comino, Elena; Rosso, Maurizio; Riggio, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The increase of the organic loading rate from 4.45 to 7.78 g-VS/l-d in a one stage, pilot biogas plant was investigated. The experiment was conducted using a co-digestion of cow manure and crop silage mix. The test was divided in three subsequent phases with different feeding ratios. The benefits of optimizing the proportion of crops and loading rate in co-digestion were shown by the fact that during feeding with 70% VS of crop in the feedstock, up to 109% higher specific methane yield was obtained than during the start up phase (only manure). It was also found that further increasing the proportion of crop silage up (to 80%) led to a process breakdown with a decrease of methane proportion down to 48%. On the basis of the present results, it could be possible to obtain an electricity production equal to 15 kwh per 1 t/d. At the end of the monitoring biogas yield was equal to 237 and 249l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the first two phases, and to 61.6l-CH(4)/kg-VS in the third one that led to a process breakdown. The result of this study show, that most agricultural biogas plant have a great potential for a significant capacity increase and technology improvement.

  6. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  7. Reduced temperature hydrolysis at 134 °C before thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge at increasing organic load.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Cesarini, R; Mininni, G

    2013-09-01

    The performance of thermophilic digestion of waste activated sludge, either untreated or thermal pretreated, was evaluated through semi-continuous tests carried out at organic loading rates in the range of 1-3.7 kg VS/m(3)d. Although the thermal pretreatment at T=134 °C proved to be effective in solubilizing organic matter, no significant gain in organics degradation was observed. However, the digestion of pretreated sludge showed significant soluble COD removal (more than 55%) whereas no removal occurred in control reactors. The lower the initial sludge biodegradability, the higher the efficiency of thermal pretreated digestion was observed, in particular as regards higher biogas and methane production rates with respect to the parallel untreated sludge digestion. Heat balance of the combined thermal hydrolysis/thermophilic digestion process, applied on full-scale scenarios, showed positive values for direct combustion of methane. In case of combined heat and power generation, attractive electric energy recoveries were obtained, with a positive heat balance at high load.

  8. Application of immobilized and granular dried anaerobic biomass for stabilizing and increasing anaerobic bio-systems tolerance for high organic loads and phenol shocks.

    PubMed

    Massalha, Nedal; Brenner, Asher; Sheindorf, Chaim; Sabbah, Isam

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on the stability and tolerance of continuous-flow bioreactors inoculated with anaerobic methanogens in three different configurations: (R1) dried granular biomass immobilized in PAC-enriched hydrophilic polyurethane foam, (R2) dried granular biomass, and (R3) wet granular biomass. These systems were tested under two different organic loading rates (OLR) of 6.25 and 10.94 (gCOD/(Lreactor∗d)), using a glucose-based synthetic mixture. The effect of an instantaneous shock load of phenol (5g/L for three days), and of phenol inclusion in the feed (0.5g/L) were also tested. At the lower OLR, all reactors performed similarly, however, increasing the OLR lead to a significant biomass washout and failure of R3. Biomass in R1 was more tolerant to phenol shock load than R2, though activity was recovered in both systems after about one month. PAC provided protection and shortened the adaptation time for 0.5g/L phenol that continuously was fed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of the Organic Loading Rate Increase and the Presence of Zeolite on Microbial Community Composition and Process Stability During Anaerobic Digestion of Chicken Wastes.

    PubMed

    Ziganshina, Elvira E; Belostotskiy, Dmitry E; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Boulygina, Eugenia A; Grigoryeva, Tatiana V; Ziganshin, Ayrat M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigates the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) increase from 1.0 to 3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1) at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35 days on anaerobic reactors' performance and microbial diversity during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich chicken wastes in the absence/presence of zeolite. The effects of anaerobic process parameters on microbial community structure and dynamics were evaluated using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based pyrosequencing approach. Maximum 12 % of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was efficiently removed by zeolite in the fixed zeolite reactor (day 87). In addition, volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the fixed zeolite reactor accumulated in lower concentrations at high OLR of 3.2-3.5 g VS L(-1) day(-1). Microbial communities in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite were dominated by various members of Bacteroidales and Methanobacterium sp. at moderate TAN and VFA levels. The increase of the OLR accompanied by TAN and VFA accumulation and increase in pH led to the predominance of representatives of the family Erysipelotrichaceae and genera Clostridium and Methanosarcina. Methanosarcina sp. reached relative abundances of 94 and 57 % in the fixed zeolite reactor and reactor without zeolite at the end of the experimental period, respectively. In addition, the diminution of Synergistaceae and Crenarchaeota and increase in the abundance of Acholeplasmataceae in parallel with the increase of TAN, VFA, and pH values were observed.

  10. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-25

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance.

  11. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  12. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  13. Organic matter loading affects lodgepole pine seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M J; Armleder, H M

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  14. Effects of increasing organic loading rate on performance and microbial community shift of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating diluted pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Wang, Yuguang; Li, Kai; Zhou, Hongbo

    2014-09-01

    The performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was investigated in the treatment of diluted pharmaceutical fermentation wastewater for a continuous operation of 140 days. The dynamics and compositions of the microbial community were monitored using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2.7 kg COD/m(3) d to 7.2 COD/m(3) d led to an increase in the COD removal efficiency from 83% to 91%. The dominant bacteria shifted from Proteobacteria (23.8%), Chloroflexi (14.5%) and Firmicutes (4.0%) to Firmicutes (48.4%), Bacteroidetes (9.5%) and Proteobacteria (5.4%). For archeaon, the dominant groups changed from Thermoplasmata (24.4%), Thermoprotei (18.0%) and Methanobacteria (30.8%) to Thermoplasmata (70.4%) and Methanomicrobia (16.8%). Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Thermoplasmata and Methanobacteria could outcompete other species and dominated in the reactor under higher OLR. The results indicated that, to some extent, microbial community shift could reflect the performance of the reactor and a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event.

  15. Optimisation of digester performance with increasing organic loading rate for mono- and co-digestion of grass silage and dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of mono-digesting grass silage, dairy slurry and the co-digestion of the two substrates at a range of concentrations with a specific focus on digester performance while increasing organic loading rate (OLR). The results show that the higher the proportion of grass silage in the substrate mix the higher the specific methane yield (SMY) achieved. Optimum conditions were assessed for 100% grass silage at an OLR of 3.5 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 398 L CH4 kg(-1) VS equating to a biomethane efficiency of 1.0. For co-digestion of grass silage with 20% dairy slurry the optimum condition was noted at an OLR of 4.0 kg VS m(-3) d(-1) generating a SMY of 349L CH4 kg(-1) VS and a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. Hydraulic retention times of less than 20 days proved to be a limiting factor in the operation of farm digesters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Running with a load increases leg stiffness.

    PubMed

    Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L

    2015-04-13

    Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (p<0.001) and a smaller change in stance phase leg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (p<0.020), greater hip (p<0.001) and knee flexion (p=0.048) at the time of initial foot contact, and greater peak stance phase hip, knee, and ankle flexion (p<0.05). Our results reveal that subjects run in a more crouched posture and with higher leg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate during the co-digestion of rapeseed oil and sewage sludge in a CSTR--characterization of granules formed due to CaO addition to maintain process stability.

    PubMed

    Kasina, M; Kleyböcker, A; Michalik, M; Würdemann, H

    2015-01-01

    In a co-digestion system running with rapeseed oil and sewage sludge, an extremely fast increase in the organic loading rate was studied to develop a procedure to allow for flexible and demand-driven energy production. The over-acidification of the digestate was successfully prevented by calcium oxide dosage, which resulted in granule formation. Mineralogical analyses revealed that the granules were composed of insoluble salts of long chain fatty acids and calcium and had a porous structure. Long chain fatty acids and calcium formed the outer cover of granules and offered interfaces on the inside thereby enhancing the growth of biofilms. With granule size and age, the pore size increased and indicated degradation of granular interfaces. A stable biogas production up to the organic loading rate of 10.4 kg volatile solids m(-3) d(-1) was achieved although the hydrogen concentration was not favorable for propionic acid degradation. However, at higher organic loading rates, unbalanced granule formation and degradation were observed. Obviously, the adaption time for biofilm growth was too short to maintain the balance, thereby resulting in a low methane yield.

  18. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: exploring increasing sensitivity to nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Evans, Mary Anne; Scavia, Donald

    2010-08-01

    Hypoxia is a critical issue in the Gulf of Mexico that has challenged management efforts in recent years by an increase in hypoxia sensitivity to nitrogen loads. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the recent increase in sensitivity. Two commonly cited mechanisms are bottom-water reducing conditions preventing nitrification and thus denitrification, leading to more N recycling and production of oxygen-consuming organic matter, and carryover of organic matter from previous years increasing oxygen demand, making the system more sensitive. We use models informed by these mechanisms and fit with Bayesian inference to explore changes in Gulf of Mexico hypoxia sensitivity. We show that a model including an annually fit parameter representing variation in the fraction of nutrient loading and recycling contributing to bottom water oxygen demand provides a good fit to observations and is not improved by explicit inclusion of organic matter carryover to subsequent years. Both models support two stepwise increases in system sensitivity during the period of record. This change in sensitivity has greatly increased the nutrient reduction needed to achieve the established hypoxia goal. If the Gulf remains at the current state of sensitivity, our analysis suggests a roughly 70% reduction of spring TN loads from the 1988-1996 average of 6083 ton/day may be required.

  19. Increased fibroblast functionality on CNN2-loaded titania nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongbo; Wu, Shuyi; Feng, Zhihong; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Yan; Wu, Guofeng; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2012-01-01

    Infection and epithelial downgrowth are major problems associated with maxillofacial percutaneous implants. These complications are mainly due to the improper closure of the implant-skin interface. Therefore, designing a percutaneous implant that better promotes the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites is highly desirable. Additionally, the fibroblast has been proven to play an important role in the formation of biologic seals. In this study, titania nanotubes were filled with 11.2 kDa C-terminal CCN2 (connective tissue growth factor) fragment, which could exert full CCN2 activity to increase the biological functionality of fibroblasts. This drug delivery system was fabricated on a titanium implant surface. CCN2 was loaded into anodized titania nanotubes using a simplified lyophilization method and the loading efficiency was approximately 80%. Then, the release kinetics of CCN2 from these nanotubes was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes on fibroblast functionality was examined. The results revealed increased fibroblast adhesion at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, increased fibroblast viability over the course of 5 days, as well as enhanced actin cytoskeleton organization on CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes surfaces compared to uncoated, unmodified counterparts. Therefore, the results from this in vitro study demonstrate that CCN2-loaded titania nanotubes have the ability to increase fibroblast functionality and should be further studied as a method of promoting the formation of a stable soft tissue biologic seal around percutaneous sites.

  20. 29 CFR 1919.77 - Safe working load increase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe working load increase. 1919.77 Section 1919.77 Labor... load increase. (a) In no case shall safe working loads be increased beyond the manufacturer's ratings or original design limitations unless such increase meets with the manufacturer's approval. Where the...

  1. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  2. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus were performed on seven sediments with a series of ratios of total organic carbon in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) that spanned the recommendation of no less than 50:1. With increasing loading of organi...

  3. Sediment Bioaccumulation Test with Lumbriculus variegatus: Effects of Organism Loading.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Billa, Nanditha; Highland, Terry L; Hockett, James R; Mount, David R; Norberg-King, Teresa J

    2016-07-01

    At contaminated sediment sites, the bioavailability of contaminants in sediments is assessed using sediment-bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegates (Lv). The testing protocols recommend that ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) in sediment to L. variegatus (dry weight) (TOC/Lv) should be no less than 50:1. Occasionally, this recommendation is not followed, especially with sediments having low TOC, e.g., <1 %. This study evaluated the impacts and resulting biases in the testing results when the recommendation of "no less than 50:1" is not followed. In the study, seven sediments were tested with a series of TOC/Lv ratios that spanned the recommendation. With increasing loading of organisms, growth of the organisms decreased in six of the seven sediments tested. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the L. variegatus were measured in six of the seven sediments tested, and differences in PCB residues among loading ratios across all sediments were small, i.e., ±50 %, from those measured at the minimum recommended ratio of 50:1 TOC/Lv. In all sediment, PCB residues increased with increasing loading of the organisms for the mono-, di-, and tri-chloro-PCBs. For tetra-chloro and heavier PCBs, residues increased with increasing loading of organisms for only two of the six sediments. PCB residues were not significantly different between TOC/Lv loadings of 50:1 and mid-20:1 ratios indicating that equivalent results can be obtained with TOC/Lv ratios into the mid-20:1 ratios. Overall, the testing results suggest that when testing recommendation of 50:1 TOC/Lv is not followed, potential biases in the biota-sediment accumulations factors from the sediment-bioaccumulation test will be small.

  4. Cognitive Load During Route Selection Increases Reliance on Spatial Heuristics.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Martis, Shaina B; Taylor, Holly A

    2017-03-22

    Planning routes from maps involves perceiving the symbolic environment, identifying alternate routes, and applying explicit strategies and implicit heuristics to select an option. Two implicit heuristics have received considerable attention, the southern route preference and initial segment strategy. The current study tested a prediction from decision making theory, that increasing cognitive load during route planning will increase reliance on these heuristics. In two experiments, participants planned routes while under conditions of minimal (0-back) or high (2-back) working memory load. In Experiment 1, we examined how memory load impacts the southern route heuristic. In Experiment 2, we examined how memory load impacts the initial segment heuristic. Results replicated earlier results demonstrating a southern route preference (Experiment 1) and initial segment strategy (Experiment 2), and further demonstrated that evidence for heuristic reliance is more likely under conditions of concurrent working memory load. Furthermore, the extent to which participants maintained efficient route selection latencies in the 2-back condition predicted the magnitude of this effect. Together, results demonstrate that working memory load increases the application of heuristics during spatial decision making, particularly when participants attempt to maintain quick decisions while managing concurrent task demands.

  5. The effect of shock loading on the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor at constant organic loading rate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The influences of organic loading disturbances on the process performance of a thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating potato-processing wastewater were investigated. For this purpose, while the reactor was operated at steady state conditions with organic loading rate of 5.5 kg COD/m3 · day, an instant acetate concentration increase (1 g/L) was introduced to the reactor. During the shock loading test of acetate, it was observed that the overall process performance was adversely affected by all the shock loading, however, the system reached steady state conditions less than 24 hours of operation indicating that thermophilic anaerobic contact reactor is resistant to shock loading and be capable of returning its normal conditions within a short time period. PMID:24872886

  6. Prostaglandin E2 increases the skeletal response to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, L. Y.; Cullen, D. M.; Yee, J. A.; Jee, W. S.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The study tested the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the skeletal response to increased in vivo mechanical loading through a four-point bending device. One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats (6 months old, 354 +/- 34 g) were divided into 12 groups to accommodate all possible combinations of doses of loads (25, 30, or 35 N) and PGE2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg). Rats received subcutaneous injections of PGE2 daily and in vivo loading of the right tibia every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for four weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of the periosteal and endocortical surfaces following in vivo dual fluorochrome labeling was performed on both the loaded region of the right tibial diaphysis and a similar region of the left tibial diaphysis. Without PGE2, the threshold for loading to stimulate bone formation was 30 N (peak strain 1360 mu epsilon) at the periosteal surface and 25 N (peak strain 580 mu epsilon) at the endocortical surface. Without loading, the minimum dose of PGE2 to stimulate bone formation at all surfaces was 1 mg/kg/day. When 1 mg/kg/day PGE2 was combined with the minimum effective load, an additive effect of PGE2 and loading on bone formation was observed at the endocortical surface, but a synergistic effect was noted at the periosteal surface. No combined effect of ineffective doses of loading and PGE2 was found. A synergistic effect at peak strains of approximately 1625 mu epsilon on the periosteal surface could suggest either the involvement of locally produced growth factors or autoregulation of endogenous synthesis of PGE2 by exogenously administered PGE2.

  7. Prostaglandin E2 increases the skeletal response to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, L. Y.; Cullen, D. M.; Yee, J. A.; Jee, W. S.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The study tested the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the skeletal response to increased in vivo mechanical loading through a four-point bending device. One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats (6 months old, 354 +/- 34 g) were divided into 12 groups to accommodate all possible combinations of doses of loads (25, 30, or 35 N) and PGE2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg). Rats received subcutaneous injections of PGE2 daily and in vivo loading of the right tibia every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for four weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of the periosteal and endocortical surfaces following in vivo dual fluorochrome labeling was performed on both the loaded region of the right tibial diaphysis and a similar region of the left tibial diaphysis. Without PGE2, the threshold for loading to stimulate bone formation was 30 N (peak strain 1360 mu epsilon) at the periosteal surface and 25 N (peak strain 580 mu epsilon) at the endocortical surface. Without loading, the minimum dose of PGE2 to stimulate bone formation at all surfaces was 1 mg/kg/day. When 1 mg/kg/day PGE2 was combined with the minimum effective load, an additive effect of PGE2 and loading on bone formation was observed at the endocortical surface, but a synergistic effect was noted at the periosteal surface. No combined effect of ineffective doses of loading and PGE2 was found. A synergistic effect at peak strains of approximately 1625 mu epsilon on the periosteal surface could suggest either the involvement of locally produced growth factors or autoregulation of endogenous synthesis of PGE2 by exogenously administered PGE2.

  8. The Effects of Algal Turf Sediments and Organic Loads on Feeding by Coral Reef Surgeonfishes

    PubMed Central

    Goatley, Christopher H. R.; Bellwood, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Herbivorous and detritivorous fishes interact closely with the epilithic algal matrix (EAM) on coral reefs. While sediment and organic detrital loads within the EAM might influence this interaction, the responses of functionally distinct fishes to changing sediment and organic loads have not been investigated. Aquarium based feeding trials were performed to assess how different sediment and organic loads affected feeding by the highly abundant surgeonfishes, Ctenochaetus striatus, a detritivore, and Acanthurus nigrofuscus, a herbivore. C. striatus were highly sensitive to even small increases in sediment loads (of just 75 g m-2), displaying a significant decline in feeding rates as sediment loads increased. Although C. striatus is a specialised detritivore, changing organic loads had no effect and suggests that selection of feeding surfaces is primarily mediated by total sediment loads rather than organic loads. By contrast, A. nigrofuscus displayed no changes to its feeding behaviour regardless of sediment or organic load. These findings highlight the complex, species-specific way that sediments may mediate key ecological processes on coral reefs. PMID:28046102

  9. Chondrocyte intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal organization, and gene expression responses to dynamic osmotic loading.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; West, Alan C; Hung, Clark T

    2006-10-01

    While chondrocytes in articular cartilage experience dynamic stimuli from joint loading activities, few studies have examined the effects of dynamic osmotic loading on their signaling and biosynthetic activities. We hypothesize that dynamic osmotic loading modulates chondrocyte signaling and gene expression differently than static osmotic loading. With the use of a novel microfluidic device developed in our laboratory, dynamic hypotonic loading (-200 mosM) was applied up to 0.1 Hz and chondrocyte calcium signaling, cytoskeleton organization, and gene expression responses were examined. Chondrocytes exhibited decreasing volume and calcium responses with increasing loading frequency. Phalloidin staining showed osmotic loading-induced changes to the actin cytoskeleton in chondrocytes. Real-time PCR analysis revealed a stimulatory effect of dynamic osmotic loading compared with static osmotic loading. These studies illustrate the utility of the microfluidic device in cell signaling investigations, and their potential role in helping to elucidate mechanisms that mediate chondrocyte mechanotransduction to dynamic stimuli.

  10. Impacts of increasing aridity and wildfires on aerosol loading in the intermountain Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannet Hallar, A.; Molotch, Noah P.; Hand, Jenny L.; Livneh, Ben; McCubbin, Ian B.; Petersen, Ross; Michalsky, Joseph; Lowenthal, Douglas; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Feedbacks between climate warming, land surface aridity, and wildfire-derived aerosols represent a large source of uncertainty in future climate predictions. Here, long-term observations of aerosol optical depth, surface level aerosol loading, fire-area burned, and hydrologic simulations are used to show that regional-scale increases in aridity and resulting wildfires have significantly increased summertime aerosol loading in remote high elevation regions of the Intermountain West of the United States. Surface summertime organic aerosol loading and total aerosol optical depth were both strongly correlated (p < 0.05) with aridity and fire area burned at high elevation sites across major western US mountain ranges. These results demonstrate that surface-level organic aerosol loading is dominated by summertime wildfires at many high elevation sites. This analysis provides new constraints for climate projections on the influence of drought and resulting wildfires on aerosol loading. These empirical observations will help better constrain projected increases in organic aerosol loading with increased fire activity under climate change.

  11. Occupation-dependent loading increases bone strength in men.

    PubMed

    Biver, E; Perréard Lopreno, G; Hars, M; van Rietbergen, B; Vallée, J P; Ferrari, S; Besse, M; Rizzoli, R

    2016-03-01

    Ex vivo analyses of humeri and radii from an anthropological collection and in vivo analyses of the distal radius of retired men indicate that occupation-dependent loading positively influences bone strength by an increase of bone size when young followed by a slowdown of the age-related endocortical and trabecular bone alteration. Skeleton responds to mechanical stimuli, but it is not established whether chronic loading in the context of occupational activities (OA) influences bone properties. We assessed the impact of occupation-dependent loading on upper limb bone strength. Individuals were classified according to the intensity of physical loading associated with their OA in two models. Ex vivo, computed tomography scans of the humeri and radii of 219 male skeletons (age of death, 20-93 years) from an anthropological collection of the 20th century (Simon collection) were used to determine estimates of bone strength and cross-sectional geometry. In vivo, distal radius were analysed in 180 men enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort study using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis. Heavy-loading OA was associated with higher bone strength in both models. This benefit was associated with higher total area (Tt.Ar), medullary area (Me.Ar) and cortical area (Ct.Ar) in young adult skeletons, but the difference decreased in older age. In older men, the humerus supporting heavy loading had a lower Me.Ar. This effect resulted in greater asymmetries of the Me.Ar and the Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar ratio between the humeri of men with unilateral versus bilateral heavy-loading OA. In vivo, an additional benefit of heavy-loading OA was observed on the distal radius trabecular density and microstructure. Repeated occupation-dependent loading positively influences bone strength by an increase of bone size when young followed by a slowdown of the age-related endocortical and trabecular bone alteration. These data supports the necessity to

  12. Changes in global and regional modularity associated with increasing working memory load

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Using graph theory measures common to complex network analyses of neuroimaging data, the objective of this study was to explore the effects of increasing working memory processing load on functional brain network topology in a cohort of young adults. Measures of modularity in complex brain networks quantify how well a network is organized into densely interconnected communities. We investigated changes in both the large-scale modular organization of the functional brain network as a whole and regional changes in modular organization as demands on working memory increased from n = 1 to n = 2 on the standard n-back task. We further investigated the relationship between modular properties across working memory load conditions and behavioral performance. Our results showed that regional modular organization within the default mode and working memory circuits significantly changed from 1-back to 2-back task conditions. However, the regional modular organization was not associated with behavioral performance. Global measures of modular organization did not change with working memory load but were associated with individual variability in behavioral performance. These findings indicate that regional and global network properties are modulated by different aspects of working memory under increasing load conditions. These findings highlight the importance of assessing multiple features of functional brain network topology at both global and regional scales rather than focusing on a single network property. PMID:25520639

  13. Behavior of an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFFR) under simultaneous organic and ammonium loading.

    PubMed

    Nabizadeh, R; Mesdaghinia, A

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFFR) under simultaneous organic and ammonium loading and its effect on nitrification was studied. Organic loadings varied in the range of 1.93 to 5.29 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) m-2 d-1 and NH4-N loadings were in the range of 116 to 318 mg NH4-N m-2 d-1. Increments of loading rates were obtained both by increasing the flow rate and increasing the influent substrate in individual pilot runs. Results showed that with organic loading rates up to 3.97 g COD m-2 d-1, complete nitrification was achievable. Although high organic loading such as 5.29 g COD m-2 d-1 could cause nitrification to stop, shifting to lower organic loadings made nitrification start and set rapidly to its previous steady-state concentrations. Comparison of results showed that in the ASFFR, nitrification would be severely affected by an organic loading rate of 5.29 g COD m-2 d-1 by increasing either the flow or the influent substrate. It should be noted that the average value of dissolved oxygen was 3.4 mg L-1 with an air supply of 15 L min-1, and there was no indication of oxygen limitation. The results of this study show the flexibility of ASFFRs under changing organic loads. Furthermore, for achieving complete nitrification and optimum application of these reactors for protecting receiving water from the environmental hazards of ammonium, the maximum organic loading that would present complete nitrification should be considered.

  14. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.

  15. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    DOE PAGES

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can bemore » used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.« less

  16. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-08-03

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Lastly, we review applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments and compare the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types.

  17. Metal-loaded organic scintillators for neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Christian; Yeh, Minfang

    2016-09-01

    Organic liquid scintillators are used in many neutrino physics experiments of the past and present. In particular for low energy neutrinos when realtime and energy information are required, liquid scintillators have several advantages compared to other technologies. In many cases the organic liquid needs to be loaded with metal to enhance the neutrino signal over background events. Several metal loaded scintillators of the past suffered from chemical and optical instabilities, limiting the performance of these neutrino detectors. Different ways of metal loading are described in the article with a focus on recent techniques providing metal loaded scintillators that can be used under stable conditions for many years even in ton scale experiments. Applications of metal loaded scintillators in neutrino experiments are reviewed and the performance as well as the prospects of different scintillator types are compared.

  18. Biodegradation and kinetics of aerobic granules under high organic loading rates in sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Liang, David Tee; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradation, kinetics, and microbial diversity of aerobic granules were investigated under a high range of organic loading rate 6.0 to 12.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1) in a sequencing batch reactor. The selection and enriching of different bacterial species under different organic loading rates had an important effect on the characteristics and performance of the mature aerobic granules and caused the difference on granular biodegradation and kinetic behaviors. Good granular characteristics and performance were presented at steady state under various organic loading rates. Larger and denser aerobic granules were developed and stabilized at relatively higher organic loading rates with decreased bioactivity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and specific growth rate (muoverall) or solid retention time. The decrease of bioactivity was helpful to maintain granule stability under high organic loading rates and improve reactor operation. The corresponding biokinetic coefficients of endogenous decay rate (kd), observed yield (Yobs), and theoretical yield (Y) were measured and calculated in this study. As the increase of organic loading rate, a decreased net sludge production (Yobs) is associated with an increased solid retention time, while kd and Y changed insignificantly and can be regarded as constants under different organic loading rates.

  19. Frozen storage increases the ultimate compressive load of porcine vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, J P; McGill, S M

    1995-09-01

    The use of freezing as a method of storage is commonplace in mechanical testing of biological tissues. The effects of freezing on tissues that comprise spinal segments have been examined separately, but little work has been done on intact specimens. We examined the effect of freezing on the structural properties of porcine cervical spines. The intact cervical spines of seven pigs (a total of 14 specimens--seven of C2-C4 and seven of C5-C7) were stored frozen (-20 degrees C) for 1 month. The ultimate compressive load, displacement, stiffness, and energy absorbed were obtained using a monotonic compressive load applied at 3,000 N/sec. The structural properties were compared with those of another 14 porcine cervical specimens (control group, matched for age and weight) that were tested in a fresh state. The frozen storage of the vertebral specimens significantly increased the ultimate compressive load (24%) and energy absorbed to failure (33%). The stiffness and displacement at failure were not affected. We concluded that the use of freezing as a storage medium should be of concern when the resulting measures are used to quantify the ultimate compressive load of the spinal motion segments.

  20. US organ donation breakthrough collaborative increases organ donation.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Teresa J; Wagner, Dennis; Chessare, John; Schall, Marie W; McBride, Virginia; Zampiello, Francis A; Perdue, Jade; O'Connor, Kevin; Lin, Monica J-Y; Burdick, James

    2008-01-01

    More than 92000 Americans are on waiting lists for organ transplants, and an average of 17 of them die each day while waiting. The US Organ Donation Breakthrough Collaborative (ODBC), which began in 2003 at the request of the Secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services, was a formal, concerted effort of the donation and transplantation community to bring about a major change to improve the organ donation system. The nationwide Collaborative was housed within a Health and Human Services agency, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Division of Transplantation, and included participation of the organ procurement organizations (OPOs) throughout the United States and the American hospitals with the largest organ-donor potential. HRSA leaders used the Breakthrough Series Collaborative method, originally developed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, as the model for the intervention. Expert practitioners drawn from hospitals and OPOs that had already demonstrated their ability to achieve and sustain high organ donation rates were chosen as faculty for the collaborative and best practices were gleaned from their institutions. The number of organ donors in Collaborative hospitals increased 14.1% in the first year, a 70% greater increase than the 8.3% increase experienced by non-Collaborative hospitals. Moreover, the increased organ recovery continued into the post-Collaborative periods. Between October 2003 and September 2006, the number of total US organ donors increased 22.5%, an increase 4-fold greater than the 5.5% increase measured over the same number of years in the immediate pre-Collaborative period. The study did not involve a randomized design, but time-series analysis using statistical process control charts shows a highly significant discontinuity in the rate of increase in participating hospitals concurrent with the Collaborative program, and strongly suggests that the activities of the Collaborative were a major

  1. Assessment of increasing loading rate on two-stage digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Voelklein, M A; Jacob, A; O' Shea, R; Murphy, J D

    2016-02-01

    A two-stage food waste digestion system involved a first stage hydrolysis reactor followed by a second stage methanogenic reactor. Organic loading rates (OLR) were increased from 6 to 15 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the hydrolysis reactor and from 2 to 5 g VS L(-1) d(-1) in the methanogenic reactor. The retention time was fixed at 4 days (hydrolysis reactor) and 12 days (methane reactor). A single-stage digester was subjected to similar loading rates as the methanogenic reactor at 16 days retention. Increased OLR resulted in higher quantities of liquid fermentation products from the first stage hydrolysis reactor. Solubilisation of chemical oxygen demand peaked at 47% at the maximum loading. However, enhanced hydrolysis yields had no significant impact on the specific methane yields. The two-stage system increased methane yields up to 23% and enriched methane content by an average of 14% to levels of 71%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of organic loading rate and feedstock composition on foaming in manure-based biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Kougias, P G; Boe, K; Angelidaki, I

    2013-09-01

    Foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. In the present study, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and feedstock composition on foaming was elucidated in continuous reactor experiments. By stepwise increasing the OLR and the concentration of proteins or lipids in the substrate, foaming in biogas reactors was investigated. No foam formation was observed at the OLR of 3.5 g volatile solids/(L-reactor·day). Organic loading was the main factor affecting foam formation in manure digester, while the organic composition, such as content of proteins or lipids were factors that in combination with the organic loading were triggering foaming. More specifically, gelatine could initiate foam formation at a lower OLR than sodium oleate. Moreover, the volume of foam produced by gelatine was relatively stable and was not increased when further increasing either OLR or gelatine concentration in the feed.

  3. Vulnerability of boreal zone for increased nitrogen loading due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The observed rapid warming of the boreal zone that has been observed in Finland (0.14 °C by decade) is expected to continue (http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg1/). Also precipitation is assumed to increase in future. These changes may increase nitrogen (N) loading from terrestrial environments to water bodies by accelerating soil organic matter decay and by increasing runoff. Nitrogen is limiting nutrient in the Baltic Sea but also in some lakes, so increased loading may increase eutrophication. Further, high nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methaemoglobin anemia for humans, and nitrate is also connected to increased risk of diabetes and cancer. Thus EU has set upper limits to nitrate concentration in drinking water. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409) is a project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone. We simulated N loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters by the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA in different climate change and land use change scenarios. We calculated land use specific N loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network. We upscaled the results to the larger river basin, combining them with the information on drinking water supply to assess the vulnerability. Specific emphasis was paid on nitrate concentrations in soil water and groundwater. In general, land use change has higher influence on N loading than increase in precipitation and temperature alone. Peak runoff will sift from snow melting peak in April to late autumn and winter. Growing season will become longer allowing more efficient vegetation uptake of nutrients. Small groundwater aquifers and private wells in the middle of agricultural fields will be in the risk of increased N concentrations, if agricultural N loading increases due to changes in agricultural patterns and land use change.

  4. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-01-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC. PMID:22467369

  5. Fertilization increases paddy soil organic carbon density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-xian; Liang, Xin-qiang; Luo, Qi-xiang; Fan, Fang; Chen, Ying-xu; Li, Zu-zhang; Sun, Huo-xi; Dai, Tian-fang; Wan, Jun-nan; Li, Xiao-jun

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments provide an opportunity to study the effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. We sampled soils from a long-term (25 years) paddy experiment in subtropical China. The experiment included eight treatments: (1) check, (2) PK, (3) NP, (4) NK, (5) NPK, (6) 7F:3M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+30% organic N), (7) 5F:5M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+50% organic N), (8) 3F:7M (N, P, K inorganic fertilizers+70% organic N). Fertilization increased SOC content in the plow layers compared to the non-fertilized check treatment. The SOC density in the top 100 cm of soil ranged from 73.12 to 91.36 Mg/ha. The SOC densities of all fertilizer treatments were greater than that of the check. Those treatments that combined inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments had greater SOC densities than those receiving only inorganic fertilizers. The SOC density was closely correlated to the sum of the soil carbon converted from organic amendments and rice residues. Carbon sequestration in paddy soils could be achieved by balanced and combined fertilization. Fertilization combining both inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments is an effective sustainable practice to sequestrate SOC.

  6. Highly Loaded Behavior of Kinesins Increases the Robustness of Transport Under High Resisting Loads

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Woochul; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2015-01-01

    Kinesins are nano-sized biological motors which walk by repeating a mechanochemical cycle. A single kinesin molecule is able to transport its cargo about 1 μm in the absence of external loads. However, kinesins perform much longer range transport in cells by working collectively. This long range of transport by a team of kinesins is surprising because the motion of the cargo in cells can be hindered by other particles. To reveal how the kinesins are able to accomplish their tasks of transport in harsh intracellular circumstances, stochastic studies on the kinesin motion are performed by considering the binding and unbinding of kinesins to microtubules and their dependence on the force acting on kinesin molecules. The unbinding probabilities corresponding to each mechanochemical state of kinesin are modeled. The statistical characterization of the instants and locations of binding are captured by computing the probability of unbound kinesin being at given locations. It is predicted that a group of kinesins has a more efficient transport than a single kinesin from the perspective of velocity and run length. Particularly, when large loads are applied, the leading kinesin remains bound to the microtubule for long time which increases the chances of the other kinesins to bind to the microtubule. To predict effects of this behavior of the leading kinesin under large loads on the collective transport, the motion of the cargo is studied when the cargo confronts obstacles. The result suggests that the behavior of kinesins under large loads prevents the early termination of the transport which can be caused by the interference with the static or moving obstacles. PMID:25734978

  7. Beta-papillomavirus DNA loads in hair follicles of immunocompetent people and organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Sönke; Neale, Rachel E; Waterboer, Tim; Abeni, Damiano; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Green, Adele C; Harwood, Catherine A; Euvrard, Sylvie; Feltkamp, Mariet C W; de Koning, Maurits N C; Naldi, Luigi; Quint, Wim G V; Tessari, Gianpaolo; Proby, Charlotte M; Wieland, Ulrike; Pfister, Herbert

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing evidence of an association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the beta-genus (beta-PV) and the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The viral DNA load may be an important determinant of pathogenicity, but there are currently no baseline epidemiological data relating to load in people without SCC. We investigated DNA-loads of eight beta-PV types previously associated with risk of SCC. We collected eyebrow hairs from immunocompetent people (ICP) and organ transplant recipients (OTR), determined load by quantitative PCR and obtained demographic, phenotypic, and sun exposure information. Viral loads for ICP from Australia (n = 241) and Italy (n = 223) and OTR from across Europe (n = 318) spanned seven orders of magnitude. The median loads for all types were below one viral DNA copy per 60 cells and were highest for HPV5, HPV8 and HPV20. None of the populations had consistently higher viral loads for all 8 types. However, a higher proportion of OTR were in the top deciles of viral load distributions for six of the eight beta-PV types examined. In a nested analysis of Italian OTR and ICP, this finding was significant for six beta-PV types and cumulative load. Increasing age was significantly associated with higher viral loads in Australia, and there was a weak trend for higher loads with the time elapsed since transplantation in the OTR. We observed a wide distribution of beta-PV loads with OTR significantly more likely to have the highest viral loads. Thus, viral loads may be an important contributor to the higher risk of SCC in OTR.

  8. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  9. The extraction of uranium using graphene aerogel loading organic solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mumei; Li, Zheng; Li, Jihao; Li, Jingye; Li, Qingnuan; Zhang, Lan

    2017-05-01

    A new approach for uranium extraction employing graphene aerogel (GA) as a skeleton loading organic solution (GA-LOS) is proposed and investigated. Firstly, the GA with super-hydrophobicity and high organic solution absorption capacity was fabricated by one-step reduction and self-assembly of graphene oxide with ethylenediamine. By adsorbing Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solution to prepare GA-LOS, the extraction of U(VI) from nitric acid medium using GA-LOS was investigated and compared with conventional solvent extraction. It is found that the GA-LOS method can provide several advantages over conventional solvent extraction and adsorption due to the elimination of aqueous-organic mixing-separation procedures and easy solid-liquid separation. Furthermore, it also possesses higher extraction capacity (the saturated extraction capacity of GA loading TBP for U(VI) was 316.3mgg(-1) ) and lower consumption of organic diluents, leading to less organic waste. Moreover, the stability of GA-LOS in aqueous solution and cycling test were also studied, and it shows a remarkable regeneration capability, making it an ideal candidate for metal extraction from aqueous solution.

  10. Effect of organic carbon shock loading on endogenous denitrification in sequential batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Mora, F; Ferrara de Giner, G; Rodríguez Andara, A; Lomas Esteban, J

    2003-07-01

    This work was focused on the performance evaluation of sequential batch reactors (SBR) treating sewage, through a process of endogenous biological denitrification. Different operational conditions were carried out, and the behaviour under the effects of organic shock loading was examined. Three laboratory scale reactors were operated simultaneously and fed with similar wastewater. The substratum was molasses and nitrate, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The three reactors were operated during different aeration periods (0, 15 and 30 min). Sudden changes (shock loading) in organic matter concentration were performed during the experiment. Thus, influent load was quickly increased threefold in relation to the original concentration. Results indicated that SBR reactors withstand adequately moderate shock loading. With regard to substratum degradation, nitrate elimination achieved was approximately 80%, while denitrification rate was approximately 0.87 mgg(-1)h(-1).

  11. Sibling competition and hunger increase allostatic load in spotted hyaenas

    PubMed Central

    Benhaiem, Sarah; Hofer, Heribert; Dehnhard, Martin; Helms, Janine; East, Marion L.

    2013-01-01

    Allostatis is the process of maintaining homeostatis through behavioural or physiological responses to challenges, and its cumulative energetic cost is termed allostatic load. The allostatic load hypothesis predicts that hunger and the mechanisms that establish and maintain social dominance should have a strong impact on allostatic load. In spotted hyaenas, dominance between twin siblings emerges during intense early competition for maternal milk and involves trained winner/loser effects. Conflict over access to teats declines with age as behavioural dominance conventions are established. In young litters, the allostatic load of subordinates measured in terms of faecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations (fGMCs) should be higher than that of dominants. When low milk provisioning threatens survival, hungry subordinates are more assertive, particularly when competing against a dominant sister. Dominants challenged by assertive subordinates should have allostatic loads and fGMCs above those of dominants with subordinates that adhere to dominance conventions. We show that in young litters, subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than dominants, and dominant sisters had significantly higher fGMCs than dominant brothers. When hungry, both dominants and subordinates had significantly higher fGMCs than when fed. Our results provide evidence that hunger and sibling competition affect allostatic load in spotted hyaenas. PMID:23616643

  12. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation, composition, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N

    2016-12-15

    Chemical characterization of ambient non-refractory submicron aerosols (NR-PM1) was carried out in real time at Kanpur, India. The measurements were performed during the winter (December 2014 to February 2015), and comprised of two very distinct high and low aerosol loading periods coupled with prevalent foggy conditions. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol loading varied significantly from high (HL, ~240μg/m(3)) to low loading (LL, ~100μg/m(3)) period and was dominated by organic aerosols (OA) which contributed more than half (~60%) of the measured aerosol mass. OA source apportionment via positive matrix factorization (PMF) showed drastic changes in the composition of OA from HL to LL period. Overall, O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratios also varied significantly from HL (=0.59) to LL (=0.69) period. Fog episodes (n=17) studied here seem to be reducing the magnitude of the negative impact of OA loading on O/C ratio (OA loading and O/C ratio are anti-correlated, as higher OA loading allows gas to particle partitioning of relatively less oxidized organics) by 60% via aqueous processing. This study provided new insights into the combined effects of OA loading and fog aqueous processing on the evolution of ambient organic aerosols (OA) for the first time.

  13. Growing season surface water loading of fecal indicator organisms within a rural watershed.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, A; Hebb, D; Jamieson, R; Gordon, R; Benedict, K; Fuller, K; Stratton, G W; Madani, A

    2009-03-01

    The loading of microbial contaminants was examined within the Thomas Brook watershed, a 784 ha mixed land-use catchment located in the headwaters of the Cornwallis River drainage basin (Nova Scotia, Canada). The objectives were to: (i) examine spatial and temporal characteristics of fecal bacteria loading during the growing season from five subwatersheds, and (ii) develop areal fecal indicator organism export coefficients for rural landscapes. Fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations and stream flow were monitored at five locations in the watershed over six consecutive growing seasons (May-Oct, 2001-2006). A nested watershed monitoring approach was used to determine bacterial loading from distinct source types (residential vs. agricultural) during both baseflow and stormflow periods. Areal bacterial loading rates increased in each nested watershed moving downstream through the watershed and were highest in the three subcatchments dominated by agricultural activities. Upper watershed bacterial loading throughout the growing season from an agricultural subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.92 x 10(10) CFU ha(-1)) was consistently higher than a residential subcatchment (Growing Season Avg 8.43 x 10(9) CFU ha(-1)). As expected, annual average stormflow bacterial loads were higher than baseflow loads, however baseflow loads still comprised between 14 and 35% of the growing season bacterial loads in the five subwatersheds. Fecal bacteria loads were greater during years with higher annual precipitation. A positive linear relationship was observed between E. coli and TSS loading during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons when both parameters were monitored, indicating that the processes of sediment transport and bacterial transport are linked. It is anticipated that computed areal microbial loading coefficients will be useful in developing watershed management plans. More intensive sampling during stormflow events is recommended for

  14. Increased sternocleidomastoid, but not trapezius, muscle activity in response to increased chewing load.

    PubMed

    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta; Nordh, Erik; Eriksson, Per-Olof

    2013-10-01

    Previous findings, during chewing, that boluses of larger size and harder texture result in larger amplitudes of both mandibular and head-neck movements suggest a relationship between increased chewing load and incremental recruitment of jaw and neck muscles. The present report evaluated jaw (masseter and digastric) and neck [sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and trapezius] muscle activity during the chewing of test foods of different sizes and textures by 10 healthy subjects. Muscle activity was recorded by surface electromyography and simultaneous mandibular and head movements were recorded using an optoelectronic technique. Each subject performed continuous jaw-opening/jaw-closing movements whilst chewing small and large boluses of chewing gum and rubber silicone (Optosil). For jaw opening/jaw closing without a bolus, SCM activity was recorded for jaw opening concomitantly with digastric activity. During chewing, SCM activity was recorded for jaw closing concomitantly with masseter activity. Trapezius activity was present in some, but not all, cycles. For the masseter and SCM muscles, higher activity was seen with larger test foods, suggesting increased demand and recruitment of these muscles in response to an increased chewing load. This result reinforces the previous notion of a close functional connection between the jaw and the neck motor systems in jaw actions and has scientific and clinical significance for studying jaw function and dysfunction.

  15. Organic nanotubes for drug loading and cellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Ai; Asakawa, Masumi; Kogiso, Masaki; Shimizu, Toshimi; Sato, Mamiko; Maitani, Yoshie

    2011-07-15

    Organic nanotubes made of synthetic amphiphilic molecules are novel materials that form by self-assembly. In this study, organic nanotubes with a carboxyl group (ONTs) at the surface were used as a carrier for the anticancer drug doxorubicin, which has a weak amine group. The IC(50) values of ONT for cells were higher than that of conventional liposomes, suggesting that ONTs are safe. The results showed that the drug loading of ONTs was susceptible to the effect of ionic strength and H(+) concentration in the medium, and drug release from ONTs was promoted at lower pH, which is favorable for the release of drugs in the endosome after cellular uptake. ONTs loaded with the drug were internalized, and the drug was released quickly in the cells, as demonstrated on transmission electron microscopy images of ONTs and the detection of a 0.05% dose of ONT chelating gadolinium in the cells. Moreover, ONT could be modified chemically with folate by simply mixing with a folate-conjugate lipid. Therefore, these novel, biodegradable organic nanotubes have the potential to be used as drug carriers for controlled and targeting drug delivery.

  16. Higher organism load associated with failure of azithromycin to treat rectal chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Kong, F Y S; Tabrizi, S N; Fairley, C K; Phillips, S; Fehler, G; Law, M; Vodstrcil, L A; Chen, M; Bradshaw, C S; Hocking, J S

    2016-09-01

    Repeat rectal chlamydia infection is common in men who have sex with men (MSM) following treatment with 1 g azithromycin. This study describes the association between organism load and repeat rectal chlamydia infection, genovar distribution, and efficacy of azithromycin in asymptomatic MSM. Stored rectal chlamydia-positive samples from MSM were analysed for organism load and genotyped to assist differentiation between reinfection and treatment failure. Included men had follow-up tests within 100 days of index infection. Lymphogranuloma venereum and proctitis diagnosed symptomatically were excluded. Factors associated with repeat infection, treatment failure and reinfection were investigated. In total, 227 MSM were included - 64 with repeat infections [28·2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 22·4-34·5]. Repeat positivity was associated with increased pre-treatment organism load [odds ratio (OR) 1·7, 95% CI 1·4-2·2]. Of 64 repeat infections, 29 (12·8%, 95% CI 8·7-17·8) were treatment failures and 35 (15·4%, 95% CI 11·0-20·8) were reinfections, 11 (17·2%, 95% CI 8·9-28·7) of which were definite reinfections. Treatment failure and reinfection were both associated with increased load (OR 2·0, 95% CI 1·4-2·7 and 1·6, 95% CI 1·2-2·2, respectively). The most prevalent genovars were G, D and J. Treatment efficacy for 1 g azithromycin was 83·6% (95% CI 77·2-88·8). Repeat positivity was associated with high pre-treatment organism load. Randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to evaluate azithromycin's efficacy and whether extended doses can overcome rectal infections with high organism load.

  17. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A; Vigotsky, Andrew D

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.

  18. Polymer etching in the oxygen afterglow - Increased etch rates with increased reactor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerner, N. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reactor loading has an effect on the etch rate (rate of decrease of film thickness) of films of polyvinylfluoride (Tedlar) and polyethylene exposed in the afterglow of an RF discharge in oxygen. The etch rate is found to increase with the total surface area of the polymer exposed in the reactor. The etch rates of polypyromellitimide (Kapton H) and polystyrene under these conditions are very low. However, the etch rate of these polymers is greatly enhanced by adding either Tedlar or polyethylene to the reactor. A kinetic model is proposed based on the premise that the oxygen atoms produced by the RF discharge react with Tedlar or polyethylene to produce a much more reactive species, which dominates the etching of the polymers studied.

  19. Combined effects of organic aerosol loading and fog processing on organic aerosols oxidation and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhishek; Tripathi, Sachchida; Gupta, Tarun

    2016-04-01

    Fog is a natural meteorological phenomenon that occurs throughout the world, it contains substantial quantity of liquid water and generally seen as a natural cleansing agent but it also has the potential to form highly oxidized secondary organic aerosols (SOA) via aqueous processing of ambient aerosols. On the other hand higher organic aerosols (OA) loading tend to decrease the overall oxidation level (O/C) of the particle phase organics, due to enhanced partitioning of less oxidized organics from gas to particle phase. However, combined impact of these two parameters; aqueous oxidation and OA loading, on the overall oxidation ratio (O/C) of ambient OA has never been studied. To assess this, real time ambient sampling using HR-ToF-AMS was carried out at Kanpur, India from 15 December 2014 - 10 February 2015. In first 3 weeks of this campaign, very high OA loading is (134 ± 42 μg/m3) observed (termed as high loading or HL period) while loading is substantially reduced from 2nd January, 2016 (56 ± 20 μg/m3, termed as low loading or LL period) . However, both the loading period was affected by several fog episodes (10 in HL and 7 in LL), thus providing the opportunity of studying the combined effects of fog and OA loading on OA oxidation. It is found that O/C ratio is very strongly anti-correlated with OA loading in both the loading period, however, slope of this ant-correlation is much steep during HL period than in LL period. Source apportionment of OA revealed that there is drastic change in the types of OA from HL to LL period, clearly indicating difference in OA composition from HL to LL period. During foggy night continuous oxidation of OA is observed from early evening to early morning with 15-20% enhancement in O/C ratio, while the same is absent during non-foggy period, clearly indicating the efficient fog processing of ambient OA. It is also found that night time fog aqueous oxidation can be as effective as daytime photo chemistry in oxidation of OA. Fog

  20. Waste load allocation for conservative substances to protect aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Hutcheson, M.R. )

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  1. Superexchange Charge Transport in Loaded Metal Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tobias; Liu, Jianxi; Wächter, Tobias; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Welle, Alexander; Mugnaini, Veronica; Meded, Velimir; Zharnikov, Michael; Wöll, Christof; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-26

    In the past, nanoporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been mostly studied for their huge potential with regard to gas storage and separation. More recently, the discovery that the electrical conductivity of a widely studied, highly insulating MOF, HKUST-1, improves dramatically when loaded with guest molecules has triggered a huge interest in the charge carrier transport properties of MOFs. The observed high conductivity, however, is difficult to reconcile with conventional transport mechanisms: neither simple hopping nor band transport models are consistent with the available experimental data. Here, we combine theoretical results and new experimental data to demonstrate that the observed conductivity can be explained by an extended hopping transport model including virtual hops through localized MOF states or molecular superexchange. Predictions of this model agree well with precise conductivity measurements, where experimental artifacts and the influence of defects are largely avoided by using well-defined samples and the Hg-drop junction approach.

  2. Increased musculoskeletal stiffness during load carriage at increasing walking speeds maintains constant vertical excursion of the body center of mass.

    PubMed

    Holt, Kenneth G; Wagenaar, Robert C; LaFiandra, Michael E; Kubo, Masayoshi; Obusek, John P

    2003-04-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine changes in body and joint stiffness parameters and kinematics of the knee and body center of mass (COM), that result from wearing a backpack (BP) with a 40% body weight load at increasing speeds of walking. It was hypothesized that there would be speed and load-related increases in stiffness that would prevent significant deviations in the COM trajectory and in lower-extremity joint angles. Three independent biomechanical models employing kinematic data were used to estimate global lower-extremity stiffness, vertical stiffness and knee joint rotational stiffness in the sagittal plane during walking on a treadmill at speeds of 0.6-1.6 ms(-1) in 0.2 ms(-1) increments in BP and no backpack conditions. Kinematic data were collected using an Optotrak, three-dimensional motion analysis system. Knee angles and vertical excursion of the COM during the compression (loading phase) increased as a function of speed but not load. All three estimates of stiffness showed significant increases as a function of both speed and load. Significant interaction effects indicated a convergence of load-related stiffness values at lower speeds. Results suggested that increases in muscle-mediated stiffness are used to maintain a constant vertical excursion of the COM under load across the speeds tested, and thereby limit increases in metabolic cost that would occur if the COM would travel through greater vertical range of motion.

  3. Increased Accountability and the Organization of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Miller, Russell H.

    This study examines how much organizational theories can be applied to understanding schools. According to one organizational theory, certain pressures can force an organization to use more sophisticated methods of coordination. In a school, this would mean that staff and parents would be forced to work together to find ways to deal with…

  4. Neuronal Depolarization Drives Increased Dopamine Synaptic Vesicle Loading via VGLUT.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Jenny I; Dunn, Matthew; Mingote, Susana; Karam, Caline S; Farino, Zachary J; Sonders, Mark S; Choi, Se Joon; Grygoruk, Anna; Zhang, Yuchao; Cela, Carolina; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Flores, Jorge; Freyberg, Robin J; McCabe, Brian D; Mosharov, Eugene V; Krantz, David E; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor; Rayport, Stephen; Freyberg, Zachary

    2017-08-30

    The ability of presynaptic dopamine terminals to tune neurotransmitter release to meet the demands of neuronal activity is critical to neurotransmission. Although vesicle content has been assumed to be static, in vitro data increasingly suggest that cell activity modulates vesicle content. Here, we use a coordinated genetic, pharmacological, and imaging approach in Drosophila to study the presynaptic machinery responsible for these vesicular processes in vivo. We show that cell depolarization increases synaptic vesicle dopamine content prior to release via vesicular hyperacidification. This depolarization-induced hyperacidification is mediated by the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT). Remarkably, both depolarization-induced dopamine vesicle hyperacidification and its dependence on VGLUT2 are seen in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons in the mouse. Together, these data suggest that in response to depolarization, dopamine vesicles utilize a cascade of vesicular transporters to dynamically increase the vesicular pH gradient, thereby increasing dopamine vesicle content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical Load Increases in Bone Formation via a Sclerostin-Independent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Alyson; McDonald, Michelle Maree; Kelly, Natalie H; Melville, Katherine M; Schindeler, Aaron; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; van der Meulen, Marjolein CH; Little, David Graham

    2015-01-01

    Sclerostin, encoded by the Sost gene, is an important negative regulator of bone formation that has been proposed to have a key role in regulating the response to mechanical loading. To investigate the effect of long-term Sclerostin deficiency on mechanotransduction in bone, we performed experiments on unloaded or loaded tibiae of 10 week old female Sost−/− and wild type mice. Unloading was induced via 0.5U botulinum toxin (BTX) injections into the right quadriceps and calf muscles, causing muscle paralysis and limb disuse. On a separate group of mice, increased loading was performed on the left tibiae through unilateral cyclic axial compression of equivalent strains (+1200 µe) at 1200 cycles/day, 5 days/week. Another cohort of mice receiving equivalent loads (−9.0 N) also were assessed. Contralateral tibiae served as normal load controls. Loaded/unloaded and normal load tibiae were assessed at day 14 for bone volume (BV) and formation changes. Loss of BV was seen in the unloaded tibiae of wild type mice, but BV was not different between normal load and unloaded Sost−/− tibiae. An increase in BV was seen in the loaded tibiae of wild type and Sost−/− mice over their normal load controls. The increased BV was associated with significantly increased mid-shaft periosteal mineralizing surface/bone surface (MS/BS), mineral apposition rate (MAR), and bone formation rate/bone surface (BFR/BS), and endosteal MAR and BFR/BS. Notably, loading induced a greater increase in periosteal MAR and BFR/BS in Sost−/− mice than in wild type controls. Thus, long-term Sclerostin deficiency inhibits the bone loss normally induced with decreased mechanical load, but it can augment the increase in bone formation with increased load. PMID:24821585

  6. A Comparison of Increases in Volume Load Over 8 Weeks of Low-Versus High-Load Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Ogborn, Dan; Contreras, Bret; Cappaert, Tom; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Alvar, Brent A.; Vigotsky, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and Methods Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp2 = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp2 = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training. PMID:27625750

  7. Fate of alkylphenolic compounds during activated sludge treatment: impact of loading and organic composition.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Bagnall, John P; Soares, Ana; Koh, Yoong K K; Chiu, Tze Y; Scrimshaw, Mark D; Lester, John N; Cartmell, Elise

    2011-01-01

    The impact of loading and organic composition on the fate of alkylphenolic compounds in the activated sludge plant (ASP) has been studied. Three ASP designs comprising carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification treatment were examined to demonstrate the impact of increasing levels of process complexity and to incorporate a spectrum of loading conditions. Based on mass balance, overall biodegradation efficiencies for nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), short chain carboxylates (NP(1-3)EC) and nonylphenol (NP) were 37%, 59%, and 27% for the carbonaceous, carbonaceous/nitrification, and carbonaceous/nitrification/denitrification ASP, respectively. The presence of a rich community of ammonia oxidizing bacteria does not necessarily facilitate effective alkylphenolic compound degradation. However, a clear correlation between alkylphenolic compound loading and long chain ethoxylate compound biodegradation was determined at the three ASPs, indicating that at higher initial alkylphenolic compound concentrations (or load), greater ethoxylate biotransformation can occur. In addition, the impact of settled sewage organic composition on alkylphenolic compound removal was evaluated. A correlation between the ratio of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to alkylphenolic compound concentration and biomass activity was determined, demonstrating the inhibiting effect of bulk organic matter on alkylphenol polyethoxylate transformation activity. At all three ASPs the biodegradation pathway proposed involves the preferential biodegradation of the amphiphilic ethoxylated compounds, after which the preferential attack of the lipophilic akylphenol moiety occurs. The extent of ethoxylate biodegradation is driven by the initial alkylphenolic compound concentration and the proportion of COD constituted by the alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs) and their metabolites relative to the bulk organic concentration of the sewage composed of proteins, acids, fats

  8. Adaptability of elderly human muscles and tendons to increased loading.

    PubMed

    Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N

    2006-04-01

    Senile sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass associated with aging, is one of the main causes of muscle weakness and reduced locomotor ability in old age. Although this condition is mainly driven by neuropathic processes, nutritional, hormonal and immunological factors, as well as a reduction in physical activity, contribute to this phenomenon. Sarcopenia alone, however, does not fully account for the observed muscle weakness, as the loss of force is greater than that accounted for by the decrease in muscle size. As a consequence, a reduction in the force per unit area, both at single fibre and at whole muscle level, is observed. We recently suggested that at whole muscle level, this reduction in intrinsic force is the result of the combined effect of changes in (1) muscle architecture, (2) tendon mechanical properties, (3) neural drive (reduced agonist and increased antagonist muscle activity) and (4) single fibre-specific tension. Whereas several studies support the role of the last two factors in the loss of intrinsic muscle force with aging, alterations in muscle architecture and in tendon mechanical properties have also been shown to contribute to the above phenomenon. Indeed, sarcopenia of the human plantarflexors, represented by a 25% reduction in muscle volume, was found to be associated with a 10% reduction in fibre fascicle length and 13% reduction in pennation angle. These architectural alterations were accompanied by a 10% decrease in tendon stiffness, attributable to alterations in tendon material properties, as suggested by a 14% decrease in Young's modulus. Most of these changes may be reversed by 14 weeks of resistive training; both fibre fascicle length and tendon stiffness were found to be increased by 10 and 64%, respectively. Surprisingly, however, training had no effect on the estimated relative length-tension properties of the muscle, indicating that the effects of greater tendon stiffness and increased fascicle length cancelled out each other

  9. Reducing organic loads in wastewater effluents from paper recycling plants using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Cheng, Shaoan; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-04-14

    Many industries are charged fees based on the organic loads in effluents. Therefore, it can be advantageous to reduce the wastewater strength prior to discharge. We investigated the use of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of a paper-plant wastewater while at the same time producing electricity in a continuous flow system. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of six hours, COD removal using an unamended wastewater (506 mg/L COD) (organic loading rate, OLR = 2.0 kg COD/(m3 d)) was 26 +/- 2%, with a power density of 5.9 +/- 0.2 W/m3 (210 +/- 7 mW/m2). This amount of power was similar to the maximum power density (5.2 +/- 0.4 W/m3) produced in fed-batch tests using a slightly lower strength wastewater in the same device (405 mg/L COD). Increasing the HRT to 25 h (OLR = 0.5 kg COD/(m3 d)) increased COD removal (41 +/- 2%) but substantially decreased power (2.8 +/- 0.3 W/m3). While wastewater strength affected removal rates, the solution conductivity (0.8 mS/cm) was primarily a factor in low power production. These results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to reduce organic loads in effluents at relatively short HRTs, while at the same time generating power.

  10. Precision-grip force changes in the anatomical and prosthetic limb during predictable load increases.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D L; Wallace, S A; Noteboom, J T

    2000-06-01

    This study examined precision-grip force applied to an instrumented test object held aloft while the weight of the object was predictably varied by transporting and placing loads (50, 100, or 200 g) atop the test object. Transport of the loads was performed either by the subject or the experimenter. Grip force was examined in four non-amputee control subjects and in the anatomical and prosthetic hand of a subject with a prosthetic device. As subjects transported the load, anticipatory grip-force changes occurred in the anatomical hands and prosthetic hand, which were scaled in relation to the load. When the experimenter transported the load to the anatomical hands of control subjects or the prosthetic user, anticipatory increases in grip force occurred that also were scaled in relation to load. However, when the experimenter transported the load to the prosthetic hand, anticipatory grip-force adjustments were absent. During the phase in which the load was being assumed by the postural hand, grip forces in the anatomical hands and prosthetic hand were further scaled to load demands. Ability to adapt grip force in the prosthetic hand during this phase suggested that the subject was utilizing sensory information from the residual limb to adjust grip force. Thus, while anticipatory changes precede the process of adaptation to load changes, actual sensory consequences resulting from added weight remain necessary to fully adapt grip force to load demands, even for the prosthetic user.

  11. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production.

    PubMed

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37°C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% - 6% - 13% - 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS(-1), obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  12. Effects of Increasing Task Load on Memory Impairment in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Holland, Tony; Hall, Scott; Crayton, Lissa

    2005-01-01

    The effect of increasing the number of stimuli to be recalled was investigated to evaluate whether sensitivity for memory impairment was enhanced in adults with Down syndrome when using higher task load. Three levels of load were compared across three groups of adults: those with cognitive deterioration, no cognitive deterioration over age 40, and…

  13. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF THE DIII-D TOROIDAL FIELD COIL TO INCREASED LATERAL LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    REIS,E.E; CHIN,E

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 Recent calibration shots in which full toroidal field (TF) coil current interacted with the maximum poloidal field coils have produced increased lateral loads on the outer sections of the TF-coil. The increased lateral loads have resulted in deflections that have been sufficient to cause the TF-coil to contact adjacent equipment and produce a transient short to ground within the coil. The six outer turns of each TF-coil bundle are clamped together by insulated preloaded studs to provide increased bending stiffness. These sections of the outer bundles depend on friction to react the lateral loads as a bundle rather than six individual turns. A major concern is that the increased loads will produce slip between turns resulting in excessive lateral deflections and possible damage to the insulating sleeve on the preloaded studs. A finite element structural model of the TF-coil was developed for the calculation of deflections and the shear load distribution throughout the coil for the applied lateral loads from a full current calibration shot. The purpose of the updated structural model is to correlate the applied lateral loads to the total shear force between the unbonded sections of the outer turns. An allowable integrated lateral load applied to the outer turns is established based on the maximum shear force that can be reacted by friction. A program that calculates the magnetic fields and integrated lateral load along the outer turns can be incorporated into the plasma control system. The integrated load can then be compared to the calculated allowable value prior to execution of calibration shots. Calibration shots with a calculated total lateral load greater than the allowable value will be prevented.

  14. BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS

    PubMed Central

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hutchinson, Tara C.; Hoehler, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated. PMID:27890969

  15. BEHAVIOR OF POST-INSTALLED ANCHORS TESTED BY STEPWISE INCREASING CYCLIC LOAD PROTOCOLS.

    PubMed

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf; Hutchinson, Tara C; Hoehler, Matthew S

    2016-09-01

    Cyclic loads are a characteristic feature of actions acting on structures and anchorages during earthquakes. For this reason, seismic qualification of post-installed concrete anchors according to the internationally recognized American Concrete Institute (ACI) standard ACI 355 is based on cyclic load tests. The protocols for these tests, however, have limited scientific basis. Therefore, in the present paper newly-developed test protocols with stepwise-increasing load amplitudes are utilized to more realistically evaluate anchor seismic performance. The study focuses on the load-displacement behavior of common anchor types installed in cracked concrete and subjected to both cyclic tension and cyclic shear actions. The results confirmed robust behavior for anchors loaded in cyclic tension even in the presence of crack widths in the anchorage material larger than currently required by ACI 355. In addition, the critical influence of low cycle fatigue on the performance of anchors loaded in cyclic shear is demonstrated.

  16. Thermal Stability of Goethite-Bound Natural Organic Matter Is Impacted by Carbon Loading.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenting; Klaminder, Jonatan; Boily, Jean-François

    2015-12-24

    Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) sorption at mineral surfaces can significantly affect the persistence of organic carbon in soils and sediments. Consequently, determining the mechanisms that stabilize sorbed NOM is crucial for predicting the persistence of carbon in nature. This study determined the effects of loadings and pH on the thermal stability of NOM associated with synthetic goethite (α-FeOOH) particle surfaces, as a proxy for NOM-mineral interactions taking place in nature. NOM thermal stability was investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) in the 30-700 °C range to collect vibration spectra of thermally decomposing goethite-NOM assemblages, and to concomitantly analyze evolved gases using mass spectrometry. Results showed that NOM thermal stability, indicated by the range of temperatures in which CO2 evolved during thermal decomposition, was greatest in unbound NOM and lowest when NOM was bound to goethite. NOM thermal stability was also loading dependent. It decreased when loadings were in increased the 0.01 to 0.42 mg C m(-2) range, where the upper value corresponds to a Langmuirian adsorption maximum. Concomitant Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement showed that these lowered stabilities could be ascribed to direct NOM-goethite interactions that dominated the NOM binding environment. Mineral surface interactions at larger loadings involved, on the contrary, a smaller fraction of the sorbed NOM, thus increasing thermal stability toward that of its unbound counterpart. This study thus identifies a sorption threshold below which NOM sorption to goethite decreases NOM thermal stability, and above which no strong effects are manifested. This should likely influence the fate of organic carbon exposed to thermal gradients in natural environments.

  17. Nitrogen removal from high organic loading wastewater in modified Ludzack-Ettinger configuration MBBR system.

    PubMed

    Torkaman, Mojtaba; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Tahmasebian, Sepehr; Andalibi, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    A moving bed biofilm reactor with pre-denitrification configuration was fed with a synthetic wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia. By changing different variables including ammonium and COD loading, nitrification rate in the aerobic reactor and denitrification rate in the anoxic reactor were monitored. Changing the influent loading was achieved via adjusting the inlet COD (956-2,096 mg/L), inlet ammonium (183-438 mg/L), and hydraulic retention time of the aerobic reactor (8, 12, and 18 hours). The overall organic loading rate was in the range of 3.60-17.37 gCOD/m2·day, of which 18.5-91% was removed in the anoxic reactor depending on the operational conditions. Considering the complementary role of the aerobic reactor, the overall COD removal was in the range 87.3-98.8%. In addition, nitrification rate increased with influent ammonium loading, the maximum rate reaching 3.05 gNH4/m2·day. One of the most important factors affecting nitrification rate was influent C:N entering the aerobic reactor, by increasing which nitrification rate decreased asymptotically. Nitrate removal efficiency in the anoxic reactor was also controlled by the inlet nitrate level entering the anoxic reactor. Furthermore, by increasing the nitrate loading rate from 0.91 to 3.49 gNO/m3·day, denitrification rate increased from 0.496 to 2.47 gNO/m3·day.

  18. What Is Being Done to Increase Organ Donation?

    PubMed

    Scheuher, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The need for organs greatly outnumbers the amount of organs donated for transplantation. This is true for all countries around the world. Many organizations globally have been created to solve this problem. Spain has been very successful with its drive to increase organ donation. Educational campaigns are a great tool being utilized by all countries and the medical communities to promote a positive perception of organ donation. These campaigns include using the television industry, raising money for travel expenses, and education seminars. This article looks at the different groups and programs aimed at increasing organ donation.

  19. Anaerobic slurry co-digestion of poultry manure and straw: effect of organic loading and temperature.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Azadeh; Shayegan, Jalal; Roshani, Anis

    2013-07-03

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digestion of a mixture of poultry manure and wheat straw, the effects of different temperatures and organic loading rates on the biogas yield and methane contents were evaluated. Since poultry manure is a poor substrate, in term of the availability of the nutrients, external supplementation of carbon has to be regularly performed, in order to achieve a stable and efficient process. The complete-mix, pilot-scale digester with working volume of 70 L was used. The digestion operated at 25°C, 30°C and 35°C with organic loading rates of 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 kg Volatile solid/m3d and a HRT of 15 days. At a temperature of 35°C, the methane yield was increased by 43% compared to 25°C. Anaerobic co-digestion appeared feasible with a loading rate of 3.0 kg VS/m3d at 35°C. At this state, the specific methane yield was calculated about 0.12 m3/kg VS with a methane content of 53-70.2% in the biogas. The volatile solid (VS) removal was 72%. As a result of volatile fatty acid accumulation and decrease in pH, when the loading rate was less than 1 or greater than 4 kg VS/m3d, the process was inhibited or overloaded, respectively. Both the lower and higher loading rates resulted in a decline in the methane yield.

  20. Disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water by electron beam radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruthi, Y. Avasn; Das, N. Lakshmana; Hossain, Kaizar; Sarma, K. S. S.; Rawat, K. P.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-09-01

    The efficacy of electron beam radiation for the disinfection and reduction of organic load of sewage water was assessed with ILU-6 Accelerator at Radiation Technology Development Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai India. The current problem on environmental health in relation to water pollution insists for the safe disposal of sewage water. In general, sewage water comprises heterogeneous organic based chemicals as well as pathogens. EB treatment of the wastewater has found to be very effective in reducing the pathogens as well as organic load. EB dose of 1.5 kGy was sufficient for complete elimination of total coli forms. The experimental results elucidated the reduction of biological oxygen demand—BOD (35 and 51.7%) in both inlet and outlet sewage samples. Similarly reduction of chemical oxygen demand—COD was observed (37.54 and 52.32%) in both sewage samples with respect to increase in irradiation doses (0.45-6 kGy). The present study demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation for disinfection of sewage and to increase the water quality of the wastewater by decreasing BOD and COD. So, the irradiation sewage water can find its application either in agriculture for irrigation, in industry for cooling purpose and some selected domestic purposes.

  1. Maximum organic loading rate for the single-stage wet anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Norio; Tajima, Nobuyuki; Kawai, Minako; Niwa, Chiaki; Kurosawa, Norio; Matsuyama, Tatsushi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Toda, Tatsuki

    2012-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted at high OLR from 3.7 to 12.9 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) for 225 days. Periods without organic loading were arranged between the each loading period. Stable operation at an OLR of 9.2 kg-VS (15.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was achieved with a high VS reduction (91.8%) and high methane yield (455 mL g-VS-1). The cell density increased in the periods without organic loading, and reached to 10.9×10(10) cells mL(-1) on day 187, which was around 15 times higher than that of the seed sludge. There was a significant correlation between OLR and saturated TSS in the sludge (y=17.3e(0.1679×), r(2)=0.996, P<0.05). A theoretical maximum OLR of 10.5 kg-VS (17.0 kg-COD) m(-3) day(-1) was obtained for mesophilic single-stage wet anaerobic digestion that is able to maintain a stable operation with high methane yield and VS reduction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic micropollutants in the Yangtze River: seasonal occurrence and annual loads.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weixiao; Müller, Beat; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoit; Singer, Heinz; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Berg, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Twenty percent of the water run-off from China's land surface drains into the Yangtze River and carries the sewage of approximately 400 million people out to sea. The lower stretch of the Yangtze therefore offers the opportunity to assess the pollutant discharge of a huge population. To establish a comprehensive assessment of micropollutants, river water samples were collected monthly from May 2009 to June 2010 along a cross-section at the lowermost hydrological station of the Yangtze River not influenced by the tide (Datong Station, Anhui province). Following a prescreening of 268 target compounds, we examined the occurrence, seasonal variation, and annual loads of 117 organic micropollutants, including 51 pesticides, 43 pharmaceuticals, 7 household and industrial chemicals, and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). During the 14-month study, the maximum concentrations of particulate PAHs (1-5 μg/g), pesticides (11-284 ng/L), pharmaceuticals (5-224 ng/L), and household and industrial chemicals (4-430 ng/L) were generally lower than in other Chinese rivers due to the dilution caused of the Yangtze River's average water discharge of approximately 30,000 m(3)/s. The loads of most pesticides, anti-infectives, and PAHs were higher in the wet season compared to the dry season, which was attributed to the increased agricultural application of chemicals in the summer, an elevated water discharge through the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of high hydraulic loads and the related lower treatment efficiency, and seasonally increased deposition from the atmosphere and runoff from the catchment. The estimated annual load of PAHs in the river accounted for some 4% of the total emission of PAHs in the whole Yangtze Basin. Furthermore, by using sucralose as a tracer for domestic wastewater, we estimate a daily disposal of approximately 47 million m(3) of sewage into the river, corresponding to 1.8% of its average hydraulic load. In summary

  3. Cyclic loading increases friction and changes cartilage surface integrity in lubricin-mutant mouse knees

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Elizabeth I; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C; Zhang, Ling; Warman, Matthew L; Crisco, Joseph J

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of lubricin gene dosage and cyclic loading on whole joint coefficient of friction and articular cartilage surface integrity in mouse knee joints. Methods Joints from mice with 2 (Prg4+/+), 1 (Prg4+/−), or no (Prg4−/−) functioning lubricin alleles were subjected to 26 hours of cyclic loading using a custom-built pendulum. Coefficient of friction values were measured at multiple time points. Contralateral control joints were left unloaded. Following testing, joints were examined for histologic evidence of damage and cell viability. Results At baseline, the coefficient of friction values in Prg4−/− mice were significantly higher than those in Prg4+/+ and Prg4+/− mice (P < 0.001). Cyclic loading continuously increased the coefficient of friction in Prg4−/− mouse joints. In contrast, Prg4+/− and Prg4+/+ mouse joints had no coefficient of friction increases during the first 4 hours of loading. After 26 hours of loading, joints from all genotypes had increased coefficient of friction values compared to baseline and unloaded controls. Significantly greater increases occurred in Prg4−/− and Prg4+/− mouse joints compared to Prg4+/+ mouse joints. The coefficient of friction values were not significantly associated with histologic evidence of damage or loss of cell viability. Conclusion Our findings indicate that mice lacking lubricin have increased baseline coefficient of friction values and are not protected against further increases caused by loading. Prg4+/− mice are indistinguishable from Prg4+/+ mice at baseline, but have significantly greater coefficient of friction values following 26 hours of loading. Lubricin dosage affects joint properties during loading, and may have clinical implications in patients for whom injury or illness alters lubricin abundance. PMID:21905020

  4. Cyclic loading increases friction and changes cartilage surface integrity in lubricin-mutant mouse knees.

    PubMed

    Drewniak, Elizabeth I; Jay, Gregory D; Fleming, Braden C; Zhang, Ling; Warman, Matthew L; Crisco, Joseph J

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of lubricin gene dosage and cyclic loading on whole joint coefficient of friction and articular cartilage surface integrity in mouse knee joints. Joints from mice with 2 (Prg4(+/+)), 1 (Prg4(+/-)), or no (Prg4(-/-)) functioning lubricin alleles were subjected to 26 hours of cyclic loading using a custom-built pendulum. Coefficient of friction values were measured at multiple time points. Contralateral control joints were left unloaded. Following testing, joints were examined for histologic evidence of damage and cell viability. At baseline, the coefficient of friction values in Prg4(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in Prg4(+/+) and Prg4(+/-) mice (P < 0.001). Cyclic loading continuously increased the coefficient of friction in Prg4(-/-) mouse joints. In contrast, Prg4(+/-) and Prg4(+/+) mouse joints had no coefficient of friction increases during the first 4 hours of loading. After 26 hours of loading, joints from all genotypes had increased coefficient of friction values compared to baseline and unloaded controls. Significantly greater increases occurred in Prg4(-/-) and Prg4(+/-) mouse joints compared to Prg4(+/+) mouse joints. The coefficient of friction values were not significantly associated with histologic evidence of damage or loss of cell viability. Our findings indicate that mice lacking lubricin have increased baseline coefficient of friction values and are not protected against further increases caused by loading. Prg4(+/-) mice are indistinguishable from Prg4(+/+) mice at baseline, but have significantly greater coefficient of friction values following 26 hours of loading. Lubricin dosage affects joint properties during loading, and may have clinical implications in patients for whom injury or illness alters lubricin abundance. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. High organic loading treatment for industrial molasses wastewater and microbial community shifts corresponding to system development.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyohei; Chosei, Tomoaki; Nakahara, Nozomi; Hatamoto, Masashi; Wakabayashi, Takashi; Kawai, Toshikazu; Araki, Nobuo; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Molasses wastewater contains high levels of organic compounds, cations, and anions, causing operational problems for anaerobic biological treatment. To establish a high organic loading treatment system for industrial molasses wastewater, this study designed a combined system comprising an acidification tank, a thermophilic multi-stage (MS)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, mesophilic UASB reactor, and down-flow hanging sponge reactor. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand removal rates were 85%±3% and 95%±2%, respectively, at an organic loading rate of 42kgCODcrm(-3)d(-1) in the MS-UASB reactor. By installation of the acidification tank, the MS-UASB reactor achieved low H2-partial pressure. The abundance of syntrophs such as fatty acid-degrading bacteria increased in the MS-UASB and 2nd-UASB reactors. Thus, the acidification tank contributed to maintaining a favorable environment for syntrophic associations. This study provides new information regarding microbial community composition in a molasses wastewater treatment system.

  6. Loaded Ce-Ag organic-inorganic hybrids and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Truffault, Laurianne; Rodrigues, Danilo Fernando; Salgado, Hérida Regida Nunes; Santilli, Celso Valentim; Pulcinelli, Sandra Helena

    2016-11-01

    There are requirements for surfaces with antibacterial properties in various technological fields. U-PEO hybrids with antibacterial properties were synthesized by the sol-gel process, incorporating combinations of cerium and silver salts at different silver molar fractions (0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10, and 1) relative to the total amount of doped cations. The loaded hybrids were characterized by TGA, XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. Release tests were performed using UV-vis spectroscopy, and the antibacterial properties of the hybrids were studied in agar tests and turbidimetry assays. The nanostructural evolution of the hybrids during the release of the antibacterial agents was investigated by in situ SAXS. XRD results showed the presence of the AgCl crystalline phase in the loaded hybrids from a silver molar fraction of 0.05. Raman spectroscopy evidenced the interaction of silver cations with the polymeric part of the hybrid. SAXS results confirmed these interactions and showed that cerium species interacted with both organic and inorganic parts of the hybrids. The loaded U-PEO hybrids were found to release all the incorporated cerium in 1h, while the hybrid containing 100% of silver released only 78% of the incorporated silver. All the loaded hybrids displayed antibacterial activity against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium. The antibacterial activity was found to increase with silver molar fraction. Due to its high antibacterial activity and low silver molar fraction, the loaded hybrid with silver molar fraction of 0.10 seemed to be a good compromise between efficiency, esthetic transparency, and photostability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of increased iliotibial band load on tibiofemoral kinematics and force distributions: a direct measurement in cadaveric knees.

    PubMed

    Gadikota, Hemanth R; Kikuta, Shinsuke; Qi, Wei; Nolan, David; Gill, Thomas J; Li, Guoan

    2013-01-01

    Controlled laboratory study using cadaveric knee specimens and a repeated-measures design. To investigate the effect of increased iliotibial band load (assumed to represent increased tensor fascia latae and gluteus maximus strength) on tibiofemoral kinematics and force distribution on the tibiofemoral articulation. Owing to the difficulty in measuring in vivo joint loading, there is limited evidence on the direct relationship between increased iliotibial band load and force distribution in the tibiofemoral articulation. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric knee specimens were used in this study. A robotic testing system assessed tibiofemoral kinematics under 3 simulated loading conditions: (1) 300-N quadriceps load, 100-N hamstrings load, 0-N iliotibial band load; (2) 300-N quadriceps load, 100-N hamstrings load, 50-N iliotibial band load; and (3) 300-N quadriceps load, 100-N hamstrings load, 100-N iliotibial band load. The load distribution in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral articulation was also measured under these loading conditions by using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Data were collected and analyzed at full extension and at 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30° of knee flexion. The loads transmitted through the medial tibiofemoral articulation significantly decreased when the load on the iliotibial band was increased, with a concomitant significant increase in lateral tibiofemoral articulation load. Greater iliotibial band load also increased anterior tibial translation and valgus tibial rotation, and decreased the amount of internal tibial rotation and medial tibial translation. The present study demonstrated that an increase in iliotibial band load, when tested in a non-weight-bearing condition in a cadaveric model, can significantly decrease the loads transmitted through the medial tibiofemoral articulation.

  8. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  9. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  10. The effect of organic shock loads on the stability of anaerobic granular sludge.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yangcheng; Feng, Huajun; Shen, Dongsheng; Li, Na; Wang, Meizhen; Zhou, Yuyang

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated the effect of organic shock loads on the stability of anaerobic granular sludge (AnGS). At double and triple shock intensity (8 and 12 kg COD/m(3)d organic loading rate (OLR), respectively), the accumulation of volatile fatty acids resulted in the decreasing pH of the reactors. The unstable performances of AnGS also appeared in the macroscopic properties, including the decreasing contents of relative hydrophobicity (RH), granular strength and diameter, and the fluctuation of EPS production. Noteworthily, the contents of loosely bound and tightly bound polysaccharide increased obviously and were higher than that in the control under double and triple OLR shock load. However, the growing trend of protein content was only found in the double OLR shock reactor. In addition, the N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL) content increased following the shock and then decreased during the recovery. The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) content gradually decreased under OLR shock conditions, and then rapidly increased during the recovery phase. The behaviour of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) was opposite that of AI-2. The combination of C6-HSL, AI-2 and DSF had a degraded effect on the properties of AnGS. The results provide a new reference for further research into the inter-effects among multiple signal molecules in anaerobic sludge. 3-oxo-C6-HSL: N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone; AHLs: acyl-homoserine lactone; AI-2: auto-inducers-2; AnGS: anaerobic granular sludge; C4-HSL: N-hydroxybutanoyl-homoserine lactone; C6-HSL: N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone; COD: chemical oxygen demand; DSF: diffusible signal factor; EPS: extracellular polymeric substance; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography; HRT: hydraulic retention time; IC: integrity coefficient; LB-: loosely bound; MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids; MLVSS: mixed liquor volatile suspended solids; OLR: organic loading rate; PN: protein; PS: polysaccharide; QS: quorum sensing; RH: Relative

  11. Increased horizontal shoulder abduction is associated with an increase in shoulder joint load in baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yohei; Oi, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Inui, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Juichi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Nobuhara, Katsuya

    2014-12-01

    Soft tissues of the shoulder undergoes substantial stresses due to humeral head movement, and this may contribute to throwing shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers. Prevention and management of throwing shoulder injuries critically rely on reduction of shear force at the shoulder joint. However, the amount and direction of the force applied to the shoulder during the throwing motion have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to analyze forces applied to the shoulder during a baseball pitch. We performed biomechanical analysis of 213 baseball pitchers of various ages and skill levels. Throwing motion was analyzed with a 3-dimensional motion capture system. The Euler angle sequence was adopted to describe angular values of the upper arm relative to the trunk for shoulder rotation, and inverse dynamics was used to estimate the resultant joint forces at the shoulder. There was a significant relation between horizontal abduction/adduction angle and resultant anterior/posterior force at the point of maximum external rotation (MER) (r = -0.63, P < .01), whereby increased horizontal abduction was associated with increased resultant anterior force. There was a significant but weak correlation between abduction/adduction angle and superior/inferior force at MER (r = 0.24, P < .01). Comparison among the groups with variable ages and skill levels showed larger horizontal abduction and smaller external rotation angles at MER in the adult amateur player group, whereas normalized compression force and internal rotation torque values at MER were smaller in the junior high school- and elementary school-aged groups. These results suggest that excessive horizontal abduction at MER increases anterior shear force in the shoulder and may lead to shoulder injuries. Focusing on reducing horizontal abduction at MER in the throwing motion may be key to preventing and managing shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow

  12. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    SciTech Connect

    Solli, Linn Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  13. The anthropogenic contribution to the organic load of the Lippe River (Germany). Part II: Quantification of specific organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Littke, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    The major goal of this study was to investigate the organic pollution of a river on a quantitative basis. To this end, 14 anthropogenic contaminants which were identified in Lippe River water samples as reported in part I (Dsikowitzky et al., submitted parallel to this manuscript) were surveyed. Dissolved organic loads of the specific compounds were calculated on the basis of their concentrations in water and river runoff on the day of sampling. The organic loads of each compound were compiled along the longitudinal section of the river in order to generate individual spatial pollution profiles. It was observed that distribution of organic loads along the river showed distinctive patterns, depending upon the input situation and physico-chemical properties of the compound. The compounds were classified into three types of which Type 1, due to their stability in the aqueous phase, are of special interest for potential application as anthropogenic markers.

  14. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    DOE PAGES

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized.more » Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.« less

  15. Towards increased waste loading in high level waste glasses: Developing a better understanding of crystallization behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-12-18

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Thus, recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  16. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  17. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells.

  18. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Aagaard, Per; Masiulis, Nerijus; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p < 0.05), 11.4 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05), and 12.8 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) at 3, 10, and 17 days after the final training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p < 0.05) were observed within 17 days after the end of the training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.

  19. Land Cover and Nutrient Loads Explain Changes in Enzymatic Processing of Stream Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosen, J. D.; Febria, C.; McDonough, O.; Palmer, M.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use has been shown to alter organic matter composition as well as its processing, export, and retention in headwater streams. Human activities also increase stream nutrient loading and in turn organic matter processing by heterotrophic microbial communities. Using microbial extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) assays combined with dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigated the interaction between catchment land use, nutrient limitation, heterotrophic microbial communities, and carbon processing in five forested and three urbanized Coastal Plain headwater streams (Maryland, USA). EEA measures microbial production of heterotrophic extracellular enzymes, including aminopeptidase, which facilitates the breakdown of organic nitrogen and phosphatase which facilitates breakdown of organic phosphate. DOM fluorescence spectroscopy enables rapid quantification of different organic matter fluorophores (e.g., amino acid-, humic acid-, and fulvic acid-like). Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of DOM fluorescence can be coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) for detailed quantitative analysis. Samples were collected quarterly from May 2011 to July 2012 and characterized using both EEA and EEM. We show that significant differences in stream EEA are explained by DOM fluorescence, land cover, and inorganic nutrient inputs. Specifically, urbanized sites were characterized by relatively low ortho-phosphate concentrations, high inorganic nitrogen concentrations, high phosphatase EEA, and greater amino acid-like DOM fluorescence. Aminopeptidase activity increased with increasing amino acid-like DOM fluorescence (i.e., a labile form of DOM for microbes) in forested streams. By contrast aminopeptidase activity did not respond to increasing amino acid-like fluorescence in urbanized streams. This points to a difference in limitation in inorganic nutrients between stream types. Thus, we hypothesize that stream microbial communities

  20. Long-term stability and nutrient removal efficiency of aerobic granules at low organic loads.

    PubMed

    Jafari Kang, Abbass; Yuan, Qiuyan

    2017-06-01

    The feasibility of application of aerobic granular sludge cultivated with high organic loads for biological nutrient removal (BNR) from low-strength wastewater was studied. Granules obtained with high-strength (COD=1400mg/L) wastewater were fed with medium (COD=700mg/L) and then low-strength (COD=400mg/L) wastewater. The granules rapidly acclimated to the medium-strength wastewater. However, feeding with low-strength wastewater reduced the F/M ratio from 0.4 to 0.2gCOD/gVSSd and granules disintegration occurred. Re-granulation was obtained after poor settling biomass was washed out and the F/M ratio reached 0.4gCOD/gVSSd. Disintegration of granules coincided with the decrease in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and re-granulation was assisted with the increase in EPS and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. The results indicated that cultivation of aerobic granules with high organic loads and its implication for BNR treatment of low-strength wastewater while balancing the F/M ratio can be an alternative to reduce start-up period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with rheumatoid arthritis or connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Yakova, Maria; Lézin, Agnès; Dantin, Fabienne; Lagathu, Gisèle; Olindo, Stéphane; Jean-Baptiste, Georges; Arfi, Serge; Césaire, Raymond

    2005-02-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is related to the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and has also been shown to be elevated in the peripheral blood in HTLV-1-infected patients with uveitis or alveolitis. Increased proliferation of HTLV-1-infected cells in, or migration of such cells into, the central nervous system is also seen in HAM/TSP. In the present study, we evaluated the proviral load in a cohort of HTLV-1-infected patients with arthritic conditions. HTLV-1 proviral load in the peripheral blood from 12 patients with RA and 6 patients with connective tissue disease was significantly higher than that in matched asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers, but similar to that in matched HAM/TSP controls. HAM/TSP was seen in one-third of the HTLV-1-infected patients with RA or connective tissue disease, but did not account for the higher proviral load compared to the asymptomatic carrier group. The proviral load was increased in the synovial fluid and tissue from an HTLV-1-infected patient with RA, the values suggesting that the majority of infiltrated cells were HTLV-1-infected. In the peripheral blood from HTLV-1-infected patients with RA or connective tissue disease, HTLV-1 proviral load correlated with the percentages of memory CD4+ T cells and activated T cells, and these percentages were shown to be markedly higher in the synovial fluid than in the peripheral blood in an HTLV-1-infected patient with RA. These biological findings are consistent with a role of the retrovirus in the development of arthritis in HTLV-1-infected patients. A high level of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and their accumulation in situ might play a central role in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disorders. Alternatively, the autoimmune arthritis, its etiological factors or treatments might secondarily enhance HTLV-1 proviral load.

  2. Achilles Tendon Load is Progressively Increased with Reductions in Walking Speed.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Torsten; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Horstmann, Thomas; Wearing, Scott C

    2017-10-01

    Achilles tendon rehabilitation protocols commonly recommend a gradual increase in walking speed to progressively intensify tendon loading. This study used transmission-mode ultrasound to evaluate the influence of walking speed on loading of the human Achilles tendon in vivo. Axial transmission speed of ultrasound was measured in the right Achilles tendon of 33 adults (mean ± SD: age, 29 ± 3 yr; height, 1.725 ± 0.069 m; weight, 71.4 ± 19.9 kg) during unshod, steady-state treadmill walking at three speeds (slow, 0.85 ± 0.12 ms; preferred, 1.10 ± 0.13 m·s; fast, 1.35 ± 0.20 m·s). Ankle kinematics, spatiotemporal gait parameters and vertical ground reaction force were simultaneously recorded. Statistical comparisons were made using repeated-measures ANOVA models. Increasing walking speed was associated with higher cadence, longer step length, shorter stance duration, greater ankle plantarflexion, higher vertical ground reaction force peaks, and a greater loading rate (P < 0.05). Maximum (F1,38 = 7.38, P < 0.05) and minimum (F1,46 = 8.95, P < 0.05) ultrasound transmission velocities in the Achilles tendon were significantly lower (16-23 m·s) during the stance but not swing phase of gait, with each increase in walking speed. Despite higher vertical ground reaction forces and greater ankle plantarflexion, increasing walking speed resulted in a reduction in the axial transmission velocity of ultrasound in the Achilles tendon; indicating a speed-dependent reduction in tensile load within the triceps surae muscle-tendon unit during walking. These findings question the rationale for current progressive loading protocols involving the Achilles tendon, in which reduced walking speeds are advocated early in the course of treatment to lower Achilles tendon loads.

  3. Loading and Concurrent Synchronous Whole-Body Vibration Interaction Increases Oxygen Consumption During Resistance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Serravite, Daniel H.; Edwards, David; Edwards, Elizabeth S.; Gallo, Sara E.; Signorile, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise is commonly used as an intervention to increase caloric output and positively affect body composition. A major challenge is the low compliance often seen when the prescribed exercise is associated with high levels of exertion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) may allow increased caloric output with reduced effort; however, there is limited information concerning the effect of WBV on oxygen consumption (VO2). Therefore, this study assessed the synergistic effects of resistance training and WBV on VO2. We examined VO2 at different loads (0%, 20%, and 40% body weight (BW)) and vibration intensities (No vibration (NV), 35HZ, 2-3mm (35L), 50Hz, 57mm (50H)) in ten men (26.5 ± 5.1 years). Data were collected during different stages (rest, six 30s sets of squatting, and recovery). Repeated measures ANOVA showed a stage x load x vibration interaction. Post hoc analysis revealed no differences during rest; however, a significant vibration x load interaction occurred during exercise. Both 35L and 50H produced greater VO2 than NV at a moderate load of 20%BW. Although 40%BW produced greater VO2 than 20%BW or 0%BW using NV, no significant difference in VO2 was seen among vibratory conditions at 40%BW. Moreover, no significant differences were seen between 50H and 35L at 20%BW and NV at 40%BW. During recovery there was a main effect for load. Post hoc analyses revealed that VO2 at 40%BW was significantly higher than 20%BW or 0%BW, and 20%BW produced higher VO2 than no load. Minute-by-minute analysis revealed a significant impact on VO2 due to load but not to vibratory condition. We conclude that the synergistic effect of WBV and active squatting with a moderate load is as effective at increasing VO2 as doubling the external load during squatting without WBV. Key Points Synchronous whole body vibration in conjunction with moderate external loading (app 20% BW) can increase oxygen consumption to the same extent as heavier loading (40% BW) during performance of the parallel

  4. Loading and concurrent synchronous whole-body vibration interaction increases oxygen consumption during resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Serravite, Daniel H; Edwards, David; Edwards, Elizabeth S; Gallo, Sara E; Signorile, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Exercise is commonly used as an intervention to increase caloric output and positively affect body composition. A major challenge is the low compliance often seen when the prescribed exercise is associated with high levels of exertion. Whole-body vibration (WBV) may allow increased caloric output with reduced effort; however, there is limited information concerning the effect of WBV on oxygen consumption (VO2). Therefore, this study assessed the synergistic effects of resistance training and WBV on VO2. We examined VO2 at different loads (0%, 20%, and 40% body weight (BW)) and vibration intensities (No vibration (NV), 35HZ, 2-3mm (35L), 50Hz, 57mm (50H)) in ten men (26.5 ± 5.1 years). Data were collected during different stages (rest, six 30s sets of squatting, and recovery). Repeated measures ANOVA showed a stage x load x vibration interaction. Post hoc analysis revealed no differences during rest; however, a significant vibration x load interaction occurred during exercise. Both 35L and 50H produced greater VO2 than NV at a moderate load of 20%BW. Although 40%BW produced greater VO2 than 20%BW or 0%BW using NV, no significant difference in VO2 was seen among vibratory conditions at 40%BW. Moreover, no significant differences were seen between 50H and 35L at 20%BW and NV at 40%BW. During recovery there was a main effect for load. Post hoc analyses revealed that VO2 at 40%BW was significantly higher than 20%BW or 0%BW, and 20%BW produced higher VO2 than no load. Minute-by-minute analysis revealed a significant impact on VO2 due to load but not to vibratory condition. We conclude that the synergistic effect of WBV and active squatting with a moderate load is as effective at increasing VO2 as doubling the external load during squatting without WBV. Key PointsSynchronous whole body vibration in conjunction with moderate external loading (app 20% BW) can increase oxygen consumption to the same extent as heavier loading (40% BW) during performance of the parallel squat

  5. Influence of feed time and sulfate load on the organic and sulfate removal in an ASBR.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, Gustavo; Friedl, Gregor F; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugênio

    2010-09-01

    The removal of sulfate and organic matter was assessed in an ASBR, which treated wastewater containing 500 mg CODL(-1) (3 g CODL(-1)d(-1)) in 8h-cycles at 30 degrees C. The wastewater was enriched with sulfate at [COD/SO(4)(2-)] ratios of 1.34, 0.67 and 0.34 (8.8,4.5 and 2.2 gSO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1)). For each COD/[SO(4)(2-)] ratio fill times used were: 10 min (batch), 3 and 6h (fed-batch), achieving sulfate reduction of 30%, 72% and 72% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 25%, 58% and 55% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 23%, 37% and 27% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively, and organic matter removal of 87%, 68% and 80% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 1.34); 78%, 75% and 69% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.67) and 85%, 84% and 83% (COD/[SO(4)(2-)] of 0.34), respectively. The results showed that fed-batch operation improved sulfate reduction, whereas organic matter removals were similar for batch and fed-batch operation. In addition, increase in sulfate loading in the fed-batch operation improved organic matter removal.

  6. In vivo loading increases mechanical properties of scaffold by affecting bone formation and bone resorption rates.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Lambers, Floor M; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Müller, Ralph; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2011-12-01

    A successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails producing bone-scaffold constructs with adequate mechanical properties. Apart from the mechanical properties of the scaffold itself, the forming bone inside the scaffold also adds to the strength of the construct. In this study, we investigated the role of in vivo cyclic loading on mechanical properties of a bone scaffold. We implanted PLA/β-TCP scaffolds in the distal femur of six rats, applied external cyclic loading on the right leg, and kept the left leg as a control. We monitored bone formation at 7 time points over 35 weeks using time-lapsed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The images were then used to construct micro-finite element models of bone-scaffold constructs, with which we estimated the stiffness for each sample at all time points. We found that loading increased the stiffness by 60% at 35 weeks. The increase of stiffness was correlated to an increase in bone volume fraction of 18% in the loaded scaffold compared to control scaffold. These changes in volume fraction and related stiffness in the bone scaffold are regulated by two independent processes, bone formation and bone resorption. Using time-lapsed micro-CT imaging and a newly-developed longitudinal image registration technique, we observed that mechanical stimulation increases the bone formation rate during 4-10 weeks, and decreases the bone resorption rate during 9-18 weeks post-operatively. For the first time, we report that in vivo cyclic loading increases mechanical properties of the scaffold by increasing the bone formation rate and decreasing the bone resorption rate.

  7. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.

    PubMed

    Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s(-1). Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.

  9. Elastic Attention: Enhanced, then Sharpened Response to Auditory Input as Attentional Load Increases

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Michael F.; Williams, Justin; Garell, P. Charles

    2011-01-01

    A long debate in selective attention research is whether attention enhances sensory response or sharpens neural tuning by suppressing response to non-target input. In fact, both processes may occur as a function of load: an uncertain listener might use a broad attentional filter to enhance responses to all inputs (i.e., vigilance), yet employ sharpened tuning to focus on hard to discriminate targets. The present work used the greater signal gain, anatomical precision, and laterality separation of intracranial electrophysiological recordings (electrocorticograms) to investigate these competing effects. Data were recorded from acoustically-responsive cortex in the perisylvian region of a single hemisphere in five neurosurgery patients. Patients performed a dichotic listening task in which they alternately attended toward, away from, or completely ignored (silent reading) tones presented to designated ears at varying presentation rates. Comparisons between the grand-averaged event-related potential (ERP) waveforms show a striking change in the effect of selective auditory attention with attentional load. At slower presentation rates (low-load), ERPs were overall enhanced in response to both input channels and regardless of attended ear, including a significant enhancement of ipsilateral input. This result supports a broadly enhancing model of attention under low perceptual load conditions. At the fastest rate, however, only responses to attended inputs contralateral to grid location remained enhanced. This result supports an increasing suppression, or “sharpening,” of neural responses to non-targets with increasing attentional load. These data provide support for an elastic model of attention in which attentional scope narrows with increasing load. PMID:21559348

  10. Antiretroviral treatment is associated with increased attentional load-dependent brain activation in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Chang, L; Yakupov, R; Nakama, H; Stokes, B; Ernst, T

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine whether antiretroviral medications, especially the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, lead to altered brain activation due to their potential neurotoxic effects in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Forty-two right-handed men were enrolled in three groups: seronegative controls (SN, n = 18), HIV subjects treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+ARV, n = 12), or not treated with antiretroviral medications (HIV+NARV, n = 12). Each subject performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing difficulty or load (tracking two, three or four balls) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. HIV subjects, both groups combined, showed greater load-dependent increases in brain activation in the right frontal regions compared to SN (p-corrected = 0.006). HIV+ARV additionally showed greater load-dependent increases in activation compared to SN in bilateral superior frontal regions (p-corrected = 0.032) and a lower percent accuracy on the performance of the most difficult task (tracking four balls). Region of interest analyses further demonstrated that SN showed load-dependent decreases (with repeated trials despite increasing difficulty), while HIV subjects showed load-dependent increases in activation with the more difficult tasks, especially those on ARVs. These findings suggest that chronic ARV treatments may lead to greater requirement of the attentional network reserve and hence less efficient usage of the network and less practice effects in these HIV patients. As the brain has a limited reserve capacity, exhausting the reserve capacity in HIV+ARV would lead to declined performance with more difficult tasks that require more attention.

  11. Low-load Slow Movement Squat Training Increases Muscle Size and Strength but Not Power.

    PubMed

    Usui, S; Maeo, S; Tayashiki, K; Nakatani, M; Kanehisa, H

    2016-04-01

    We tested a hypothesis that low-load squat training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) would increase muscle size and strength but not necessarily power. Healthy young men were assigned to LST [50% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) load, 3 s for lowering/lifting without pause: n=9] or low-load normal speed (LN: 50% 1-RM load, 1 s for lowering/lifting with 1-s pause; n=7) groups. Both groups underwent an 8-week squat training program (10 repetitions/set, 3 sets/day, and 3 days/week) using the assigned methods. Before and after the intervention, quadriceps femoris muscle thickness, maximal torque during isometric hip extension and knee extension, 1-RM squat, lifting power from squatting position and rate of electromyography rise (RER) in knee extensors during the task, leg extension power and vertical jump height were measured. After the intervention, the LN group showed no changes in all the variables. The LST group significantly (P<0.05) increased muscle thickness (6-10%), isometric hip extension torque (18%) and 1-RM squat (10%), but not isometric knee extension torque, lifting power and RER, leg extension power and vertical jump height. These results suggest that LST can increase muscle size and task-related strength, but has little effect on power production during dynamic explosive movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Sex-based differences in lifting technique under increasing load conditions: A principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, P S; Stevenson, J M; Graham, R B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is a sex-based difference in lifting technique across increasing-load conditions. Eleven male and 14 female participants (n = 25) with no previous history of low back disorder participated in the study. Participants completed freestyle, symmetric lifts of a box with handles from the floor to a table positioned at 50% of their height for five trials under three load conditions (10%, 20%, and 30% of their individual maximum isometric back strength). Joint kinematic data for the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar and thoracic spine were collected using a two-camera Optotrak motion capture system. Joint angles were calculated using a three-dimensional Euler rotation sequence. Principal component analysis (PCA) and single component reconstruction were applied to assess differences in lifting technique across the entire waveforms. Thirty-two PCs were retained from the five joints and three axes in accordance with the 90% trace criterion. Repeated-measures ANOVA with a mixed design revealed no significant effect of sex for any of the PCs. This is contrary to previous research that used discrete points on the lifting curve to analyze sex-based differences, but agrees with more recent research using more complex analysis techniques. There was a significant effect of load on lifting technique for five PCs of the lower limb (PC1 of ankle flexion, knee flexion, and knee adduction, as well as PC2 and PC3 of hip flexion) (p < 0.005). However, there was no significant effect of load on the thoracic and lumbar spine. It was concluded that when load is standardized to individual back strength characteristics, males and females adopted a similar lifting technique. In addition, as load increased male and female participants changed their lifting technique in a similar manner. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in Ex vivo Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Guo; Feng, Min-Shan; Zhan, Jia-Wen; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of mechanically active culture systems helps increase the understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures allow for preservation of the native IVD structure, and adjacent vertebral bodies facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish loading and organ culture methods for rabbit IVD motion segments to study the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Methods: IVD motion segments were harvested from rabbit lumbar spines and cultured in no-loading 6-well plates (control conditions) or custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg, 0.5 MPa) for up to 14 days. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and the matrix gene expression profile were assessed after 3, 7, and 14 days of culturing and compared with those of fresh tissues. Results: The results showed that ex vivo culturing of motion segments preserved tissue integrity under no-loading conditions for 14 days whereas the static load gradually destroyed the morphology after 3 days. Proteoglycan contents were decreased under both conditions, with a more obvious decrease under static load, and proteoglycan gene expression was also downregulated. However, under static load, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen Type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) gene expression were significantly enhanced (61.54 ± 5.91, P = 0.035) and upregulated (1.195 ± 0.040, P = 0.000), respectively, compared with those in the controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, under constant compression, these trends were reversed. Our initial results indicated that short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of collagen Type II alpha 1; however, sustained constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to a decreased proteoglycan content. Conclusions: A loading and organ culture system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed. Using this system, we

  14. Leading Efforts to Increase Organ Donation Through Professionalization of Organ Procurement Organizations and Establishment of Organ and Tissue Donor Registries.

    PubMed

    Vertanous, T; Czer, L S C; de Robertis, M; Kiankhooy, A; Kobashigawa, J; Esmailian, F; Trento, A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of new donor registrations through the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry on the local OneLegacy Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) was examined during a 6-year period. Publicly available data from Donate Life America for California were examined for the 6 calendar years of 2009-2014. Performance data from OneLegacy for the same 6 years for organ donors and number of transplants were also examined. The donor designation rate (DDR) was defined as the rate at which new individuals joined the state donor registry as a percentage of all driver licenses and ID cards issued within a calendar year. The total donor designation (TDD) was defined as the sum of the new and existing people who were registered organ donors. Donor designation share (DDS) was the total number of designated donors as a percentage of all residents of the state who were ≥18 years old. The business practices and educational efforts of the OneLegacy OPO were examined as well. In California, from 2009 through 2014, the DDR was 25.5%-28%. When added to the existing donor registrations, the TDD and DDS increased each year from 2009 through 2014. With the current level of growth, it is projected that California will be able to reach a DDS of 50% by 2017. For the OneLegacy OPO, designated donors from the California Organ and Tissue Donor Registry made up 15% of the total donations in 2009, and 39% of the total donations in 2014, increasing by ∼5% each year since 2009. By increasing professionalization and transparency, and widening its educational and training efforts, OneLegacy was able to take advantage of an increasing percentage of donors who were designated donors and to increase the overall number of donors and organs transplanted, becoming one of the largest OPOs in the nation. This can be a model for OPOs in other donor service areas, and it may set the stage for the United States to serve as an example to the global community in the practice of organ donation. Copyright

  15. Vestibular control of standing balance is enhanced with increased cognitive load.

    PubMed

    McGeehan, Michael A; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Participants either stood quietly or executed a cognitive task (double-digit arithmetic). Surface electromyography (EMG) and anterior-posterior ground-body forces (APF) were measured in order to evaluate vestibular-evoked balance responses in the frequency (coherence and gain) and time (cumulant density) domains. Total distance traveled for anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) was assessed as a metric of balance variability. Despite similar distances traveled for COP, EVS-medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG and EVS-APF coherence and EVS-TA EMG and EVS-MG EMG gain were elevated for multiple frequencies when standing with increased cognitive load. For the time domain, medium-latency peak amplitudes increased by 13-54% for EVS-APF and EVS-EMG relationships with the cognitive task compared to without. Peak short-latency amplitudes were unchanged. These results indicate that reliance on vestibular control of balance is enhanced when cognitive load is elevated. This augmented neural strategy may act to supplement divided cortical processing resources within the balance system and compensate for the acute neuromuscular modifications associated with increased cognitive demand.

  16. Increased levels of FFA during passive heat loading after a 2-week repeated heat load in Koreans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Kim, Tae Wook

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated heat load is closely related to circulating levels of free fatty acids (FFA) during repeated passive heat loading (PHL), defined as immersion of the lower body up to an umbilical level in hot water, 42 ± 0.5 °C (three times/week, 30 min/day) for 2 weeks. There were significant correlations between mean body temperature and FFA before and after repeated heat load ( p < 0.001, respectively), and the level of FFA was significantly higher after repeated heat load during PHL ( p < 0.01). The threshold of mean body temperature for lipolysis was lowered by repeated heat load and enhanced lipolysis during PHL. However, caution is needed for diabetic individuals.

  17. Effect of organic load on phosphorus and bacteria removal from wastewater using alkaline filter materials.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Charlotte; Renman, Gunno; Westholm, Lena Johansson; Renman, Agnieszka; Drizo, Aleksandra

    2013-10-15

    The organic matter released from septic tanks can disturb the subsequent step in on-site wastewater treatment such as the innovative filters for phosphorus removal. This study investigated the effect of organic load on phosphorus (P) and bacteria removal by reactive filter materials under real-life treatment conditions. Two long-term column experiments were conducted at very short hydraulic residence times (average ~5.5 h), using wastewater with high (mean ~120 mg L(-1)) and low (mean ~20 mg L(-1)) BOD7 values. Two alkaline filter materials, the calcium-silicate material Polonite and blast furnace slag (BFS), were tested for the removal capacity of total P, total organic carbon (TOC) and Enterococci. Both experiments showed that Polonite removed P significantly (p < 0.01) better than BFS. An increase in P removal efficiency of 29.3% was observed for the Polonite filter at the lower concentration of BOD7 (p < 0.05). Polonite was also better than BFS with regard to removal of TOC, but there were no significant differences between the two filter materials with regard to removal of Enterococci. The reduction in Enterococci was greater in the experiment using wastewater with high BOD7, an effect attributable to the higher concentration of bacteria in that wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of extensive pre-treatment of wastewater to achieve good phosphorus removal in reactive bed filters and prolonged filter life.

  18. Deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 increases sensitivity to salt loading and angiotensin II infusion.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Hui; Dong, Zheng; Yang, Tianxin

    2006-11-24

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), a membrane-associated protein, is critically involved in the inflammatory response and may be involved in physiological processes as well. The present study examined the role of mPGES-1 in regulation of sodium balance and blood pressure in the settings of salt loading and angiotensin II infusion. mPGES-1 -/- mice developed severe and progressive hypertension associated with an inappropriate increase in sodium balance when fed a high-salt diet. These mice exhibited a significantly impaired ability to excrete an acute enteral load of NaCl. Under these 2 settings of salt loading, urinary excretion of prostaglandin E(2) and nitrate/nitrite were remarkably increased in wild-type animals but not in mPGES-1 -/- mice. The changes of urinary cGMP paralleled that of urinary nitrate/nitrite. mPGES-1 -/- mice exhibited a remarkable inhibition of high salt-induced increase in gene expression of all 3 NO synthase isoforms, whereas these mice had upregulated expression of NO synthase III but not NO synthase I and NO synthase II at basal state. Chronic salt loading remarkably induced mPGES-1 protein expression exclusively in the distal nephron. In primary cultures of CD cells, mPGES-1 expression was significantly increased following exposure to hypertonic NaCl, in parallel with increased prostaglandin E(2) release. These findings have revealed a mPGES-1/prostaglandin E(2)/NO/cGMP pathway that appears to be critically important for salt adaptation. In addition, we provide evidence that mPGES-1 deficiency sensitized the hypertensive effect of angiotensin II. Overall, this study has characterized the natriuretic and antihypertensive role of mPGES-1 that likely contributes to blood pressure homeostasis.

  19. Response of removal rates to various organic carbon and ammonium loads in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands treating artificial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shubiao; Kuschk, Peter; Wiessner, Arndt; Kästner, Matthias; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2013-01-01

    High levels (92 and 91%) of organic carbon were successfully removed from artificial wastewater by a laboratory-scale constructed wetland under inflow loads of 670 mg/m2 x d (100 mg/d) and 1600 mg/m2d (240 mg/d), respectively. Acidification to pH 3.0 was observed at the low organic carbon load, which further inhibited the denitrification process. An increase in carbon load, however, was associated with a significant elevation of pH to 6.0. In general, sulfate and nitrate reduction were relatively high, with mean levels of 87 and 90%, respectively. However, inhibition of nitrification was initiated with an increase in carbon loads. This effect was probably a result of competition for oxygen by heterotrophic bacteria and an inhibitory effect of sulfide (S2) toxicity (concentration approximately 3 mg/L). In addition, numbers of healthy stalks of Juncus effusus (common rush) decreased from 14 000 to 10 000/m2 with an increase of sulfide concentration, indicating the negative effect of sulfide toxicity on the wetland plants.

  20. Unusual infrared absorption increases in photo-degraded organic films

    DOE PAGES

    Shah, Satvik; Biswas, Rana; Koschny, Thomas; ...

    2017-06-05

    Degradation is among the most pressing problems facing organic materials, occurring through ingress of moisture and oxygen, and light exposure. We determine the nanoscale pathways underlying degradation by light-soaking organic films in an environmental chamber, and performing infrared spectroscopy, to identify atomic bonding changes. We utilize as a prototype the low band gap PTB7-PCBM blend. Films light-soaked in the presence of oxygen show unusual increased absorption at 1727 cm–1 attributable to increased C=O modes, and a broad increase at 3240 cm–1 attributable to hydroxyl (O–H) groups bonded within the organic matrix. Films exposed to oxygen in the dark, or light-soakedmore » in an inert atmosphere, do not exhibit significant absorption changes, suggesting simultaneous exposure of oxygen and light that creates singlet excited oxygen is the detrimental factor. Our ab initio electronic structure simulations interpret these by oxidation at the α-C site of the alkyl chains in PTB7, with an irreversible rupture of the alkyl chain and formation of new C=O and C–O–H conformations at the α-C. Infrared spectroscopy coupled with ab initio simulation can provide a powerful tool for quantifying photo-structural atomic bonding changes. As a result, understanding nanoscale light-induced structural changes will open avenues to designing more stable organic materials for organic electronics.« less

  1. Activation of peroxymonosulfate by graphitic carbon nitride loaded on activated carbon for organic pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mingyu; Gao, Long; Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Cai, Wenxuan; Li, Xiaoxia; Xu, Aihua

    2016-10-05

    Graphitic carbon nitride supported on activated carbon (g-C3N4/AC) was prepared through an in situ thermal approach and used as a metal free catalyst for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) without light irradiation. It was found that g-C3N4 was highly dispersed on the surface of AC with the increase of surface area and the exposition of more edges and defects. The much easier oxidation of C species in g-C3N4 to CO was also observed from XPS spectra. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the g-C3N4/AC catalyst within 20min with PMS, while g-C3N4+PMS and AC+PMS showed no significant activity for the reaction. The performance of the catalyst was significantly influenced by the amount of g-C3N4 loaded on AC; but was nearly not affected by the initial solution pH and reaction temperature. In addition, the catalysts presented good stability. A nonradical mechanism accompanied by radical generation (HO and SO4(-)) in AO7 oxidation was proposed in the system. The CO groups play a key role in the process; while the exposure of more N-(C)3 group can further increase its electron density and basicity. This study can contribute to the development of green materials for sustainable remediation of aqueous organic pollutants.

  2. Increased joint loads during walking--a consequence of pain relief in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marius; Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning

    2006-12-01

    Joint pain is a primary symptom in knee osteoarthritis (OA), but the effect of pain and pain relief on the knee joint mechanics of walking is not clear. In this study, the effects of local knee joint analgesia on knee joint loads during walking were studied in a group of knee osteoarthritis patients. A group of healthy subjects was included as a reference group. The joint loads were calculated from standard gait analysis data obtained with standardised walking speed (4 km/h). The gait analyses were performed before and after pain relief by intra-articular injections of 10 mL lidocaine (1%). Pre-injection measurements revealed lower joint loads in the OA group compared to the reference group. Following injections pain during walking decreased significantly and the joint loads increased in the OA group during the late single support phase to a level comparable to the reference group. Although the patients walked with less compressive knee joint forces compared to the reference group, the effects of pain relief may accelerate the degenerative changes.

  3. Intake of green tea inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin A after mental task stress loads

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Green tea has become renowned for its health benefits. In this study, we investigated the anti-stress effect of two kinds of green tea against a mental stress task load. Methods Warm water, ordinary green tea (Sagara), and shaded white tea, which contains more amino acid components than Sagara, were used as test samples in a randomized cross-over design study. Eighteen students (nine male and nine female) participated in three experimental trials on different days at intervals of seven days. Saliva was collected before beverage intake and after performing the mental stress load tasks. Concentration of chromogranin A (CgA) in the saliva was used as an index of autonomic nervous system activity. Results CgA level increased after the mental tasks, but intake of green tea inhibited this increase; the anti-stress effect was even greater after consumption of shaded white tea. Intake of shaded white tea also lowered Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score on the Profile of Mood States (POMS); subjects in this condition tended to perform more calculations in the arithmetic task than those in the warm water treatment condition. Conclusions Salivary CgA concentration levels increased after mental stress load tasks, but ingestion of green tea inhibited this increase. This anti-stress effect was larger after the consumption of shaded white tea than after Sagara. Shaded white tea intake also lowered TMD score (POMS) and tended to improve performance on an arithmetic task compared to warm water, suggesting that shaded white tea might also improve mood during and after mental stress load. PMID:25034805

  4. Increased Hemodynamic Load in Early Embryonic Stages Alters Endocardial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Midgett, Madeline; López, Claudia S.; David, Larry; Maloyan, Alina; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Normal blood flow is essential for proper heart formation during embryonic development, as abnormal hemodynamic load (blood pressure and shear stress) results in cardiac defects seen in congenital heart disease. However, the progressive detrimental remodeling processes that relate altered blood flow to cardiac defects remain unclear. Endothelial–mesenchymal cell transition is one of the many complex developmental events involved in transforming the early embryonic outflow tract into the aorta, pulmonary trunk, interventricular septum, and semilunar valves. This study elucidated the effects of increased hemodynamic load on endothelial–mesenchymal transition remodeling of the outflow tract cushions in vivo. Outflow tract banding was used to increase hemodynamic load in the chicken embryo heart between Hamburger and Hamilton stages 18 and 24. Increased hemodynamic load induced increased cell density in outflow tract cushions, fewer cells along the endocardial lining, endocardium junction disruption, and altered periostin expression as measured by confocal microscopy analysis. In addition, 3D focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy analysis determined that a portion of endocardial cells adopted a migratory shape after outflow tract banding that is more irregular, elongated, and with extensive cellular projections compared to normal cells. Proteomic mass-spectrometry analysis quantified altered protein composition after banding that is consistent with a more active stage of endothelial–mesenchymal transition. Outflow tract banding enhances the endothelial–mesenchymal transition phenotype during formation of the outflow tract cushions, suggesting that endothelial–mesenchymal transition is a critical developmental process that when disturbed by altered blood flow gives rise to cardiac malformation and defects. PMID:28228731

  5. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  6. Increasing the efficiency of organic solar cells using plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhsanov, R. Sh.; Protsenko, I. E.; Uskov, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    Numerical simulations show that the introduction of aluminum nanoparticles into one layer of a bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell leads to an increase in the rate of exciton generation in the active layer of the cell. According to calculations of the optical absorption in the cell, which have been performed in the effective refractive index approximation using the Maxwell-Garnet model, a maximum relative increase in the rate of exciton generation due to plasmonic nanoparticles is about 4%.

  7. Organized Pneumonia Secondary to Increasing Doses of Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Consuegra Vanegas, Angélica; Matachana Martínez, María; Cordero Lorenzana, Lourdes; Vidal García, Iria; Montero Martínez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy have a role in the control of tumor growth, progression, and recurrence in high-grade gliomas. Temozolomide has been incorporated as the main chemotherapy agent for managing these tumors. Here, we present a case of a patient who developed a severe organizing pneumonia after increasing doses of temozolomide for a high-grade glioma. PMID:26487994

  8. The stiffness of bone marrow cell-knit composites is increased during mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, A; Siragusano, D; Ettel, G; Brandsberg, T; Brandsberg, F; Petitmermet, M; Müller, B; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

    2001-12-01

    A novel device for mechanical stimulation of primary adult rat bone marrow cells cultured on three-dimensional knitted textiles has been prototyped. A method has been developed ensuring a well-defined, high-density, and reproducible cell seeding on the knitted fabric. After culturing for 18-52 days the cell-knit composites were subjected to uniaxial 2% stretching and relaxation. The frequency was altered between 0.1 Hz (196 min, loading phase) and 0.01 Hz (360 min, resting phase). Identically treated knits without cells exhibited a slight stiffness reduction, whereas the stiffness of knits with cells increased from cycle to cycle. The stiffness increase was found to depend on the duration of the culture period before mechanical loading. Our data suggest that the extracellular matrix deposited by the cells on the knit and intact microtubuli of living cells cause the observed stiffness increase. In comparison to the unstrained static cell-knit composites cell proliferation and bone cell differentiation were reduced by the mechanical load.

  9. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation.

    PubMed

    Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H; Hemminki, Elina K

    2010-09-01

    There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs' web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland's Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV-company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19(th) century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health-care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20-145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0-1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision-making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co-operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000-15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter competition for financing and visibility in the future.

  10. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation

    PubMed Central

    Toiviainen, Hanna K.; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H.; Hemminki, Elina K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. Setting and participants  National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs’ web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland’s Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV‐company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Results and conclusions  Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19th century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health‐care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20–145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0–1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision‐making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co‐operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000–15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter

  11. Operation of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland--microbial fuel cell treating wastewater under different organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Capilla, P; Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares, P; Fernández, F J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine whether a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland treating wastewater could act simultaneously as a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Specifically, and as the main variable under study, different organic loading rates were used, and the response of the system was monitored. The installation consisted of a synthetic domestic wastewater-feeding system and a pilot-scale constructed wetland for wastewater treatment, which also included coupled devices necessary to function as an MFC. The wetland worked under continuous operation for 180 d, treating three types of synthetic wastewater with increasing organic loading rates: 13.9 g COD m(-2) d(-1), 31.1 g COD m(-2) d(-1), and 61.1 g COD m(-2) d(-1). The COD removal efficiencies and the cell voltage generation were continuously monitored. The wetland worked simultaneously as an MFC generating electric power. Under low organic loading rates, the wastewater organic matter was completely oxidised in the lower anaerobic compartment, and there were slight aerobic conditions in the upper cathodic compartment, thus causing an electrical current. Under high organic loading rates, the organic matter could not be completely oxidised in the anodic compartment and flowed to the cathodic one, which entered into anaerobic conditions and caused the MFC to stop working. The system developed in this work offered similar cell voltage, power density, and current density values compared with the ones obtained in previous studies using photosynthetic MFCs, sediment-type MFCs, and plant-type MFCs. The light/darkness changes caused voltage fluctuations due to the photosynthetic activity of the macrophytes used (Phragmites australis), which affected the conditions in the cathodic compartment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Nandasiri, Manjula I; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F; Nune, Satish K

    2016-06-15

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  13. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    PubMed Central

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model. PMID:27302196

  14. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.

    2016-06-01

    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  15. Do the rotator cuff tendons of young athletic subjects hypertrophy in response to increased loading demands?

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Moran, Daniel S; Safran, Ori; Finsestone, Aharon S

    2012-11-01

    The rotator cuff is composed of muscle and tendon units. Although muscle has been shown to adapt to mechanical loads, the response of human tendon is not well defined. We hypothesized that increased loading demands on the rotator cuff of young trainees would cause an adaptive muscle response but not an adaptive hypertrophic tendon response. The hypertrophic response of the rotator cuff tendon, shoulder strength, aerobic fitness, and the lean body weight of 70 young male recruits were studied before and after a 1-year course of elite infantry training. Shoulder strength was assessed by the maximum number of pull-ups done and the rotator cuff thickness by ultrasound measurement of the supraspinatus thickness. Aerobic physical fitness was assessed by maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max). Lean body weight was measured by skin-fold thickness. The mean number of pull-ups done increased from 17.5 to 21.7 (P = .01), but the supraspinatus thickness at the beginning of training (6.1 mm) was unchanged at the end of the training. Vo(2) max increased from 57 to 64 mL/kg/min (P = .0001). Lean body weight increased from 58.3 to 64.7 kg (P = .0001). As a result of increased loading, the strength of the rotator cuff muscles of young trainees increased, but by the parameter of hypertrophy, no evidence was found of a parallel adaptive response of the rotator cuff tendon. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lordotic vertebrae in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) are adapted to increased loads.

    PubMed

    Kranenbarg, Sander; Waarsing, Jan H; Muller, Mees; Weinans, Harrie; van Leeuwen, Johan L

    2005-06-01

    Lordosis in fish is an abnormal ventral curvature of the vertebral column, accompanied by abnormal calcification of the afflicted vertebrae. Incidences of lordosis are a major problem in aquaculture and often correlate with increased swimming activity. To understand the biomechanical causes and consequences of lordosis, we mapped the morphological changes that occur in the vertebrae of European sea bass during their development from larva to juvenile. Our micro-CT analysis of lordotic and non-lordotic vertebrae revealed significant differences in their micro-architecture. Lordotic vertebrae have a larger bone volume, flattened dorsal zygapophyses and extra lateral ridges. They also have a larger second moment of area (both lateral and dorso-ventral) than non-lordotic vertebrae. This morphology suggests lordotic vertebrae to be adapted to an increased bending moment, caused by the axial musculature during increased swimming activity. We hypothesize the increase in swimming activity to have a two-fold effect in animals that become lordotic. The first effect is buckling failure of the axial skeleton due to an increased compressive load. The second effect is extra bone deposition as an adaptive response of the vertebrae at the cellular level, caused by an increased strain and strain rate in these vertebrae. Lordosis thus comprises both a buckling failure of the vertebral column and a molecular response that adapts the lordotic vertebrae to a new loading regime.

  17. Role of the adrenocortical reaction to physical load in increase in the working capacity of the body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viru, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The maximal duration of swimming by rats with a load of 3% of their body weight increased after 5 weeks of training. This time did not increase in animals receiving dexamethasone in the process of training. The blood corticosterone level of these rats with the maximal load increased less than that of animals trained without administration of dexamethasone.

  18. Evaluation of drug loading capabilities of γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaonan; Wang, Caifen; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xue; Liu, Botao; Singh, Vikramjeet; Wang, Shuxia; Sun, Lixin; Gref, Ruxandra; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-03-10

    Drug loading into γ-cyclodextrin-metal organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOFs) using the impregnation approach is a laborious process. In this study, a γ-CD-MOF construct (2-5μm particle diameter) was used as the stationary phase under HPLC conditions with the aim to correlate retention properties and drug loading capability of the CD-based structure. Ketoprofen, fenbufen and diazepam were chosen as model drugs with m-xylene as a control analyte to investigate the correlation of drug loading and their chromatographic behaviour in the γ-CD-MOF column. Furthermore, γ-CD itself was also prepared as the stationary phase by coupling with silica in the column to illustrate the enhanced interaction between drugs and γ-CD-MOF as a reference. The retention and loading efficiency of the drugs were determined with different ratios of hexane and ethanol (10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, 90:10, v/v) at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 37°C. With the increment in hexane content, the loading efficiency of ketoprofen and fenbufen increased from 2.39±0.06% to 4.38±0.04% and from 5.82±0.94% to 6.37±0.29%, respectively. The retention time and loading efficiency of ketoprofen and diazepam were the lowest at 30°C while those of fenbufen had the different tendency. The excellent relation between the retention and loading efficiency onto γ-CD-MOF could be clearly observed through mobile phase and temperature investigation. In conclusion, a highly efficient chromatographic method has been established to evaluate the drug loading capability of γ-CD-MOF.

  19. Annual loads of organic contaminants in Chesapeake Bay contributed through fluvial transport

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, G.D.; Lippa, K.A.

    1994-12-31

    Organic contaminants in fluvial transport, atmospheric deposition, urban runoff, and shoreline erosion are being quantified and compared in an effort to understand contaminant inputs and mass balances in Chesapeake Bay. Concentrations of nine organonitrogen and organophosphorus (organo-N/P) pesticides, eight organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and four polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in fluvial transport were determined at the Susquehanna, Potomac, and James River fall lines for the period of March 1992 through February 1993. Together these rivers account for ca. 75% of the freshwater inflow to the bay from fluvial sources. Sampling was conducted monthly during base flow conditions and during all major storm events. Analysis of nanogram and picogram per liter concentrations of the organic contaminants was performed for both the dissolved and particulate phases of the surface water samples. Daily fluvial loads were calculated using an iterative-increment method from concentration and discharge data, and the resulting daily load estimates were summed to provide annual loads. Loads contributed by the three tributaries from March 1992 through February 1993 were 6.9 metric tons for the organo-N/P pesticides, 0.73 metric tons for the OC compounds and PCBs, and 1.2 metric tons for the PAH. Preliminary comparisons show that loads from fluvial transport are generally greater than other sources for most contaminants except PAH, where atmospheric deposition and urban runoff contribute greater loads of some compounds.

  20. Characteristics of DO, organic matter, and ammonium profile for practical scale DHS reactor under various organic load and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Naoki; Ali, Muntjeer; Jayaswal, Komal; Iguchi, Akinori; Hatamoto, Masashi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Masanobu; Kubota, Kengo; Tagawa, Tadashi; Uemura, Shigeki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Harada, Hideki

    2017-04-07

    Profile analysis of the down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was conducted under various temperature and organic load conditions to understand the organic removal and nitrification process for sewage treatment . Under high organic load conditions (3.21~7.89 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1)), dissolved oxygen (DO) on the upper layer of the reactor was affected by organic matter concentration and water temperature and some time become around zero. Almost half of the CODCr was removed by the first layer, which could be attributed to the adsorption of organic matter on sponge media. After the first layer, organic removal proceeded along the first-order reaction equation from the second to the fourth layers. The ammonium nitrogen removal ratio decreased under high organic matter concentration (above 100 mg L(-1)) and low DO (less than 1 mg L(-1)) condition. Ammonium nitrogen removal proceeded via a zero-order reaction equation along the reactor height. In addition, profile results of DO, CODCr, and NH3-N were different in horizontal direction. Thus, it is thought the concentration of these item and microbial activities were not a uniform state even in the same sponge layer of the DHS reactor.

  1. Ecological correlates of variable organ sizes and fat loads in the most northerly-wintering shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, R.E.; Summers, R.W.; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds at northern latitudes during the nonbreeding season typically carry relatively large lipid stores and exhibit an up-regulation of lean tissues associated with digestion and thermogenesis. Intraspecific variation in these tissues across sites primarily reflects differences in environmental conditions. Rock (Calidris ptilocnemis (Coues, 1873)) and Purple (Calidris maritima (Brünnich, 1764)) sandpipers are closely related species having the most northerly nonbreeding distributions among shorebirds, living at latitudes up to 61°N in Cook Inlet, Alaska, and up to 71°N in northern Norway, respectively. Cook Inlet is the coldest known site used by nonbreeding shorebirds, and the region’s mudflats annually experience extensive coverage of foraging sites by sea and shore-fast ice. Accordingly, Rock Sandpipers increase their fat stores to nearly 20% of body mass during winter. In contrast, Purple Sandpipers exploit predictably ice-free rocky intertidal foraging sites and maintain low (<6.5%) fat stores. Rock Sandpipers increase the mass of lean tissues from fall to winter, including contour feathers, stomach, and liver components. They also have greater lean pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscle and liver and kidney tissues compared with Purple Sandpipers in winter. This demonstrates a combined emphasis on digestive processes and thermogenesis, whereas Purple Sandpipers primarily augment organs associated with digestive processes. The high winter fat loads and increased lean tissues of Rock Sandpipers in Cook Inlet reflect the region’s persistent cold and abundant but sporadically unavailable food resources.

  2. Organ Donor Recovery Performed at an Organ Procurement Organization-Based Facility Is an Effective Way to Minimize Organ Recovery Costs and Increase Organ Yield.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Majella; Subramanian, Vijay; Vachharajani, Neeta; Collins, Kelly; Wellen, Jason R; Stahlschmidt, Emily; Brockmeier, Diane; Coleman, Jason; Kappel, Dean; Chapman, William C

    2016-04-01

    A new era in organ donation with national redistricting is being proposed. With these proposals, costs of organ acquisition are estimated to more than double. Traditionally, organ recoveries occur in the donor hospital setting, incurring premium hospital expenses. The aim of the study was to determine organ recovery costs and organ yield for donor recoveries performed at an organ procurement organization (OPO) facility. In 2001, we established an OPO facility and in 2008 began transferring the donor expeditiously when brain death was declared. The OPO donor and hospital costs on a per donor basis were calculated. Donation after cardiac death donors cannot be transferred and were included in the hospital cost analysis. From January 2009 to December 2014, nine hundred and sixty-three donors originating in our OPO had organs recovered and transplanted. Seven hundred and sixty-six (79.5%) donors were transferred to the OPO facility 8.6 hours (range 0.6 to 23.6 hours) after declaration of brain death. Donor recovery cost was 51% less when donors were transferred to the OPO facility ($16,153 OPO recovery vs $33,161 hospital recovery; p < 0.0001). Organ yield was 27.5% better (3.43 organs) from OPO-recovered donors vs an organ yield of 2.69 from hospital-recovered donors (p < 0.0001). Standard criteria donor organ yield from our OPO was 6% higher than the national average (3.92 vs 3.7 nationally; p = 0.012) and expanded criteria donor organ yield was 18% higher (2.2 vs 1.87 nationally; p = 0.03). An OPO facility for donor organ recovery increases efficiency and organ yield, reduces costs, and minimizes organ acquisition charge. As we face new considerations with broader sharing, increased efficiencies, cost. and organ use should be considered. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute caffeine ingestion's increase of voluntarily chosen resistance-training load after limited sleep.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian; Beaven, C Martyn; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state. In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol. Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10(-7)). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p < .05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response. Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

  4. Increasing glucose load while maintaining normoglycemia does not evoke neuronal damage in prolonged critically ill rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Romain; den Hertog, Heleen M; Derde, Sarah; Güiza, Fabian; Derese, Inge; Van den Berghe, Greet; Vanhorebeek, Ilse

    2013-12-01

    Preventing severe hyperglycemia with insulin reduced the neuropathological alterations in frontal cortex during critical illness. We investigated the impact of increasing glucose load under normoglycemia on neurons and glial cells. Hyperinflammatory critically ill rabbits were randomized to fasting or combined parenteral nutrition containing progressively increasing amounts of glucose (low, intermediate, high) within the physiological range but with a similar amount of amino acids and lipids. In all groups, normoglycemia was maintained with insulin. On day 7, we studied the neuropathological alterations in frontal cortex neurons, astrocytes and microglia, and MnSOD as marker of oxidative stress. The percentage of damaged neurons was comparable among all critically ill and healthy rabbits. Critical illness induced an overall 1.8-fold increase in astrocyte density and activation status, largely irrespective of the nutritional intake. The percentage of microglia activation in critically ill rabbits was comparable with that in healthy rabbits, irrespective of glucose load. Likewise, MnSOD expression was comparable in critically ill and healthy rabbits without any clear impact of the nutritional interventions. During prolonged critical illness, increasing intravenous glucose infusion while strictly maintaining normoglycemia appeared safe for neuronal integrity and did not substantially affect glial cells in frontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing precision of turbidity-based suspended sediment concentration and load estimates.

    PubMed

    Jastram, John D; Zipper, Carl E; Zelazny, Lucian W; Hyer, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Turbidity is an effective tool for estimating and monitoring suspended sediments in aquatic systems. Turbidity can be measured in situ remotely and at fine temporal scales as a surrogate for suspended sediment concentration (SSC), providing opportunity for a more complete record of SSC than is possible with physical sampling approaches. However, there is variability in turbidity-based SSC estimates and in sediment loadings calculated from those estimates. This study investigated the potential to improve turbidity-based SSC, and by extension the resulting sediment loading estimates, by incorporating hydrologic variables that can be monitored remotely and continuously (typically 15-min intervals) into the SSC estimation procedure. On the Roanoke River in southwestern Virginia, hydrologic stage, turbidity, and other water-quality parameters were monitored with in situ instrumentation; suspended sediments were sampled manually during elevated turbidity events; samples were analyzed for SSC and physical properties including particle-size distribution and organic C content; and rainfall was quantified by geologic source area. The study identified physical properties of the suspended-sediment samples that contribute to SSC estimation variance and hydrologic variables that explained variability of those physical properties. Results indicated that the inclusion of any of the measured physical properties in turbidity-based SSC estimation models reduces unexplained variance. Further, the use of hydrologic variables to represent these physical properties, along with turbidity, resulted in a model, relying solely on data collected remotely and continuously, that estimated SSC with less variance than a conventional turbidity-based univariate model, allowing a more precise estimate of sediment loading, Modeling results are consistent with known mechanisms governing sediment transport in hydrologic systems.

  6. Use of Adaptive Injection Strategies to Increase the Full Load Limit of RCCI Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed; Ickes, Andrew; Wallner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Engine testing was conducted at an engine speed of 1200 RPM over a wide variety of loads and injection conditions. The impact on dual-fuel engine performance and emissions with respect to varying the fuel injection parameters is quantified within this study. The injection strategies used in the work were found to affect the combustion process in similar ways to both conventional diesel combustion and RCCI combustion for phasing control and emissions performance. As the load is increased, the port fuel injection quantity was reduced to keep peak cylinder pressure and maximum pressure rise rate under the imposed limits. Overall, the peak load using the new injection strategy was shown to reach 22 bar BMEP with a peak brake thermal efficiency of 47.6%.

  7. Use of Adaptive Injection Strategies to Increase the Full Load Limit of RCCI Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed; Ickes, Andrew; Wallner, Thomas

    2016-04-12

    Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection (DI) of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve low-temperature combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions, and high indicated thermal efficiency. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is moderating the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13 l multicylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and DI of diesel fuel. Engine testing was conducted at an engine speed of 1200 rpm over a wide variety of loads and injection conditions. The impact on dual-fuel engine performance and emissions with respect to varying the fuel injection parameters is quantified within this study. The injection strategies used in the work were found to affect the combustion process in similar ways to both conventional diesel combustion (CDC) and RCCI combustion for phasing control and emissions performance. As the load is increased, the port fuel injection (PFI) quantity was reduced to keep peak cylinder pressure (PCP) and maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) under the imposed limits. Overall, the peak load using the new injection strategy was shown to reach 22 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with a peak brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of 47.6%.

  8. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros; Vogiatzis, Ioannis

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to approximately 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow.

  9. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  10. Organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations and annual organic carbon load of six selected rivers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malcolm, R.L.; Durum, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    The organic carbon load during 1969-70 of each of the six rivers in this study is substantial. The 3.4-billion-kilogram (3.7-million-ton) and 47-million-kilogram (52-thousandton) annual organic carbon loads of the Mississippi River and the Brazos River (Tex.), respectively, were approximately equally distributed between dissolved and suspended phases, whereas the 725-million-kilogram (79.8-million-ton) organic load of the Missouri River was primarily in the suspended phase. The major portion of the 6.4-million-kilogram (7.3 thousand-ton) and the 19-million-kilogram (21-thousand-ton) organic carbon loads of the Sopchoppy River (Fla.) and the Neuse River (N.C.), respectively, was in the dissolved phase. DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations in most rivers were usually less than 8 milligrams per litre. SOC (suspended organic carbon) concentrations fluctuated markedly with discharge, ranging between 1 and 14 percent, by weight, in sediment of most rivers. DOC concentrations were found to be independent of discharge, whereas SOC and SIC (suspended inorganic carbon) concentrations were positively correlated with discharge. Seasonal fluctuations in DOC and SOC were exhibited by the Missouri, Neuse, Ohio, and Brazos Rivers, but both SOC and DOC concentrations were relatively constant throughout the year in the Mississippi and Sopchoppy Rivers. The carbon-nitrogen ratio in the sediment phase of all river waters averaged less than 8 1 as compared with 12:1 or greater for most soils. This high nitrogen content shows a nitrogen enrichment of the stream sediment over that in adjacent soils, which suggests that different decomposition and humification processes are operating in streams than in the soils. The abundance of organic material in the dissolved and suspended phase of all river waters in this study indicate a large capacity factor for various types of organic reactivity within all streams and the quantitative importance of organic constituents in relation to the

  11. The fate of fixed nitrogen in marine sediments with low organic loading: an in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaglia, Stefano; Hylén, Astrid; Rattray, Jayne E.; Kononets, Mikhail Y.; Ekeroth, Nils; Roos, Per; Thamdrup, Bo; Brüchert, Volker; Hall, Per O. J.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, the impact of human activities on the global nitrogen (N) cycle has drastically increased. Consequently, benthic N cycling has mainly been studied in anthropogenically impacted estuaries and coasts, while in oligotrophic systems its understanding is still scarce. Here we report on benthic solute fluxes and on rates of denitrification, anammox, and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) studied by in situ incubations with benthic chamber landers during two cruises to the Gulf of Bothnia (GOB), a cold, oligotrophic basin located in the northern part of the Baltic Sea. Rates of N burial were also inferred to investigate the fate of fixed N in these sediments. Most of the total dissolved fixed nitrogen (TDN) diffusing to the water column was composed of organic N. Average rates of dinitrogen (N2) production by denitrification and anammox (range: 53-360 µmol N m-2 day-1) were comparable to those from Arctic and subarctic sediments worldwide (range: 34-344 µmol N m-2 day-1). Anammox accounted for 18-26 % of the total N2 production. Absence of free hydrogen sulfide and low concentrations of dissolved iron in sediment pore water suggested that denitrification and DNRA were driven by organic matter oxidation rather than chemolithotrophy. DNRA was as important as denitrification at a shallow, coastal station situated in the northern Bothnian Bay. At this pristine and fully oxygenated site, ammonium regeneration through DNRA contributed more than one-third to the TDN efflux and accounted, on average, for 45 % of total nitrate reduction. At the offshore stations, the proportion of DNRA in relation to denitrification was lower (0-16 % of total nitrate reduction). Median value and range of benthic DNRA rates from the GOB were comparable to those from the southern and central eutrophic Baltic Sea and other temperate estuaries and coasts in Europe. Therefore, our results contrast with the view that DNRA is negligible in cold and well

  12. Severe strongyloidiasis complicated by meningitis and hydrocephalus in an HTLV-1 carrier with increased proviral load.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masao; Futami, Atsushi; Takahira, Kenichiro; Kodaira, Makoto; Tanaka, Tokutaro; Kuriki, Ken; Hori, Eitaro

    2003-12-01

    We report a 47-year-old Japanese man who was a human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carrier with strongyloidiasis, and who was born in an area endemic for both Strongyloides stercoralis ( S. stercoralis) and HTLV-1. He presented with edema of both legs. Laboratory examination on admission revealed hypoalbuminemia, and S. stercoralis rhabditiform larvae were found by stool microscopy. Purulent meningitis, which was suspected to be due to disseminated strongyloidiasis, developed during the first and second treatment for S. stercoralis infection. After the meningitis was alleviated, hydrocephalus with gait disturbance developed, and these features were attenuated by a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Impaired immunity and increased HTLV-1 proviral load, with an increased titer of HTLV-1 antibody, were observed in this patient. These results suggest that HTLV-1 proviral load and/or antibody titer of HTLV-1 can be used for the identification of carriers who are at increased risk of developing severe strongyloidiasis among those patients who are infected with both S. stercoralis and HTLV-1.

  13. Survival and growth of micro-organisms on air filtration media during initial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, P. C.; Neumeister-Kemp, H. G.; Lysek, G.; Murray, F.

    A new type of air filtration medium made from a hygroscopic polymer fibre and constructed in three layers was investigated to measure the survival and growth of micro-organisms on this medium in comparison to a widely used fibreglass medium. Both materials were supplied by the manufacturer and tested "blind". The materials were loaded in an Airotester unit. Micro-organisms were analysed at 2 weekly intervals for 8 weeks by washing filter samples and plating the solution on to agar media and by vital fluorescence microscopy. Filter samples were also weighed to calculate water content and the pH value of the filter material was measured in the wash out eluate. Vital fluorescence microscopy revealed fungi were able to grow on fibreglass medium, but not on the multi-layered polymer. The colony forming unit (CFU) counts did not increase at a steady rate. There was a significant increase on both materials ( P<0.001) during the first 2 weeks which was then followed by a significant decrease in 4 weeks ( P<0.001) but the CFU then significantly increased in 6 weeks ( P<0.05) which were the highest CFU counts during the 2-month trial. There was a significant difference in CFU counts between the filter materials only in week 2 ( P⩽0.001) and week 4 ( P=0.04). Fewer micro-organisms were extracted from the multi-layered polymer than from the fibreglass medium. Fewer fungal species were identified on the multi-layered polymer (nine species) than on the fibreglass medium (13 species). The pH value on the multi-layered polymer was significantly higher than the fibreglass material but only when clean ( P<0.010) and after 2 weeks ( P<0.001). A significantly higher water content on the fibreglass medium ( P<0.001) also indicated a habitat where a wider range of fungal species and bacteria are able to survive. While there was a reduced survival and growth of micro-organisms on the multi-layered polymer material in the initial month of service life, this advantage was cancelled by

  14. Microbial community developments and biomass characteristics in membrane bioreactors under different organic loadings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Yi, Shan; Fane, Anthony G

    2011-07-01

    Microbial community developments and biomass characteristics (concentration, particle size, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and membrane fouling propensity) were compared when three MBRs were fed with the synthetic wastewater at different organic loadings. Results showed that the bacterial communities dynamically shifted in different ways and the EPS displayed dissimilar profiles under various organic loadings, which were associated with the ratios of food to microorganism and dissolved oxygen levels in the MBRs. The membrane fouling tendency of biomass in the low-loading MBR (0.57 g COD/L day) was insignificantly different from that in the medium-loading MBR (1.14 g COD/L day), which was apparently lower than that in the high-loading MBR (2.28 g COD/L day). The membrane fouling propensity of biomass was strongly correlated with their bound EPS contents, indicating cake layer fouling (i.e., deposition of microbial flocs) was predominant in membrane fouling at a high flux of 30 L/m(2)h. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On-demand droplet loading for automated organic chemistry on digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav J; Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Chen, Supin; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; van Dam, R Michael

    2013-07-21

    Organic chemistry applications on digital microfluidic devices often involve reagents that are volatile or sensitive and must be introduced to the chip immediately before use. We present a new technique for automated, on-demand loading of ~1 μL droplets from large (~1 mL), sealed, off-chip reservoirs to a digital microfluidic chip in order to address this challenge. Unlike aqueous liquids which generally are non-wetting to the hydrophobic surface and must be actively drawn into the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) chip by electrode activation, organic liquids tend to be wetting and can spontaneously flood the chip, and hence require a retracting force for controlled liquid delivery. Using a combination of compressed inert gas and gravity to exert driving and retracting forces on the liquid, the simple loading technique enables precise loading of droplets of both wetting and non-wetting liquids in a reliable manner. A key feature from a practical point of view is that all of the wetted parts are inexpensive and potentially disposable, thus avoiding cross-contamination in chemical and biochemical applications. We provide a theoretical treatment of the underlying physics, discuss the effect of geometry and liquid properties on its performance, and show repeatable reagent loading using the technique. Its versatility is demonstrated with the loading of several aqueous and non-aqueous liquids on an EWOD digital microfluidic device.

  16. Effects of organic loading rate on biogas production from macroalgae: Performance and microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xian; Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Manasa, M R K; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biogas production. In order to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae, semi-continuous fermentation was conducted to examine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on biogas production from Macrocystis pyrifer. Results showed that, under OLRs of 1.37, 2.74, 4.12 and 6.85kgVSsubstrate/(m(3)·d), the average unit biogas yields were 438.9, 477.3, 480.1 and 188.7mL/(gVSsubstrated), respectively. It indicated that biogas production was promoted by the increased OLR in an appropriate range while inhibited by the OLR beyond the appropriate range. The investigation on physical-chemical parameters revealed that unfavorable VFAs concentration, pH and salinity might be the main causes for system failure due to the overrange OLR, while the total phenols failed to reach the inhibitory concentration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that several bacterial and archaeal phyla altered with increase in OLR apparently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of organic loading rate and retention time on hydrogen production from a methanogenic CSTR.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, O; Kaparaju, P; Rintala, J

    2011-10-01

    The possibility of shifting a methanogenic process for hydrogen production by changing the process parameters viz., organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) was evaluated. At first, two parallel semi-continuously fed continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were operated as methanogenic reactors (M1 and M2) for 78 days. Results showed that a methane yield of 198-218 L/kg volatile solids fed (VS(fed)) was obtained when fed with grass silage at an OLR of 2 kgVS/m³/d and HRT of 30 days. After 78 days of operation, hydrogen production was induced in M2 by increasing the OLR from 2 to 10 kgVS/m³/d and shortening the HRT from 30 to 6 days. The highest H₂ yield of 42 L/kgVS(fed) was obtained with a maximum H₂ content of 24%. The present results thus demonstrate that methanogenic process can be shifted towards hydrogen production by increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT.

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations associated with organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Haruta, Shin; Sasaki, Daisuke; Hanajima, Dai; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Atsushi; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    Organic loading conditions are an important factor influencing reactor performances in methanogenic bioreactors. Yet the underlying microbiological basis of the process stability, deterioration, and recovery remains to be understood. Here, structural responses of the bacterial and archaeal populations to the change of organic loading conditions in a thermophilic anaerobic digester were investigated by process analyses and 16S rRNA gene-based molecular approaches. The biogas was produced stably without the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) at low organic loading rates (OLRs) in the beginning of reactor operation. Increasing OLR in stages disrupted the stable reactor performance, and high OLR conditions continued the deteriorated performance with slight biogas production and high accumulation of VFAs. Thereafter, the gradual decrease of OLR resulted in the recovery from the deterioration, giving rise to the stable performance again. The stable performances before and after the high OLR conditions conducted were associated with compositionally similar but not identical methanogenic consortia. The bacterial and archaeal populations were synchronously changed at both the transient phases toward the deteriorated performance and in recovery process, during which the dynamic shift of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens including the recently identified Methanomassiliicoccus might contribute to the maintenance of the methanogenic activity. The distinctive bacterial population with a high predominance of Methanobacterium formicicum as archaeal member was found for the deteriorated performance. The results in this study indicate the coordinated reorganization of the bacterial and archaeal populations in response to functional states induced by the change of organic loading conditions in the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Taking the easy way out? Increasing implementation effort reduces probability maximizing under cognitive load.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive load has previously been found to have a positive effect on strategy selection in repeated risky choice. Specifically, whereas inferior probability matching often prevails under single-task conditions, optimal probability maximizing sometimes dominates when a concurrent task competes for cognitive resources. We examined the extent to which this seemingly beneficial effect of increased task demands hinges on the effort required to implement each of the choice strategies. Probability maximizing typically involves a simple repeated response to a single option, whereas probability matching requires choice proportions to be tracked carefully throughout a sequential choice task. Here, we flipped this pattern by introducing a manipulation that made the implementation of maximizing more taxing and, at the same time, allowed decision makers to probability match via a simple repeated response to a single option. The results from two experiments showed that increasing the implementation effort of probability maximizing resulted in decreased adoption rates of this strategy. This was the case both when decision makers simultaneously learned about the outcome probabilities and responded to a dual task (Exp. 1) and when these two aspects were procedurally separated in two distinct stages (Exp. 2). We conclude that the effort involved in implementing a choice strategy is a key factor in shaping repeated choice under uncertainty. Moreover, highlighting the importance of implementation effort casts new light on the sometimes surprising and inconsistent effects of cognitive load that have previously been reported in the literature.

  1. Periostin deficiency increases bone damage and impairs injury response to fatigue loading in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Nicolas; Gineyts, Evelyne; Ammann, Patrick; Conway, Simon J; Garnero, Patrick; Ferrari, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Bone damage removal and callus formation in response to fatigue loading are essential to prevent fractures. Periostin (Postn) is a matricellular protein that mediates adaptive response of cortical bone to loading. Whether and how periostin influences damage and the injury response to fatigue remains unknown. We investigated the skeletal response of Postn(-/-) and Postn(+/+) mice after fatigue stimulus by axial compression of their tibia. In Postn(+/+) mice, cracks number and surface (CsNb, CsS) increased 1h after fatigue, with a decrease in strength compared to non-fatigued tibia. At 15 days, CsNb had started to decline, while CtTV and CtBV increased in fatigued vs non-fatigued tibia, reflecting a woven bone response that was present in 75% of the fatigued bones. Cortical porosity and remodelling also prominently increased in the fatigued tibia of Postn(+/+) mice. At 30 days, paralleling a continuous removal of cortical damage, strength of the fatigued tibia was similar to the non-fatigue tibia. In Postn(-/-) mice, cracks were detectable even in the absence of fatigue, while the amount of collagen crosslinks and tissue hardness was decreased compared to Postn(+/+). Fatigue significantly increased CsNb and CsS in Postn(-/-), but was not associated with changes in CtTV and CtBV, as only 16% of the fatigued bones formed some woven bone. Cortical porosity and remodelling did not increase either after fatigue in Postn(-/-), and the level of damage remained high even after 30 days. As a result, strength remained compromised in Postn(-/-) mice. Contrary to Postn(+/+), which osteocytic lacunae showed a change in the degree of anisotropy (DA) after fatigue, Postn(-/-) showed no DA change. Hence periostin appears to influence bone materials properties, damage accumulation and repair, including local modeling/remodeling processes in response to fatigue. These observations suggest that the level of periostin expression could influence the propensity to fatigue fractures.

  2. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities.

  3. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  4. Understanding soil organic matter dynamics to ecologically increase crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koorneef, Guusje; Zandbergen, Jelmer; Pulleman, Mirjam; Comans, Rob

    2017-04-01

    There is an increasing societal interest to develop farming systems that produce high yields while maintaining or even improving ecosystem functioning. Organic farming is such an ecological-intensive system with generally lower yields but better ecosystem functioning than conventional farming systems. In this project we therefore study how we can accelerate the development of soils in organically managed farming systems to improve yield. We specifically aim to unravel how the quality and quantity of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) drives crop yields. We hypothesize that a higher quality and quantity of different SOM pools leads to enhanced ecosystem functioning (e.g. nutrient availability, water provisioning) through mutual links between soil biota with their physico-chemical environment. To test our hypothesis we will link spatio-temporal variation in crop quality (e.g. leaf-N content) and quantity to variation in biotic and abiotic soil properties in an on-going long-term experiment at the Vredepeel, the Netherlands. We will specifically focus on the possible mechanisms via which SOM dynamics can improve soil functions to achieve high crop yields. We will identify the different SOM pools (e.g. SOM in macro- and microaggregates) and SOM dynamics and link that to soil functioning (e.g. nutrient cycling) and crop yield. Understanding the underlying mechanisms via which SOM influences soil functioning and crop yield will provide tools to accelerate the transition towards a sustainable intensification of farming systems.

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear in an Athlete: Does Increased Heel Loading Contribute to ACL Rupture?

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Bradd; Ford, Kevin R.; Heidt, Robert S.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2008-01-01

    Rupture to the anterior cruciate ligament is a common athletic injury in American football. The lower extremity biomechanics related to increased ACL injury risk are not completely understood. However, foot landing has been purported to be a significant contributing factor to the ACL injury mechanism. In this case report, information is presented on an athlete previously tested for in-shoe loading patterns on artificial turf and subsequently went on to non-contact ACL rupture on the same surface. This case report describes the specific findings in a study participant who suffered an ACL rupture after testing and suggests that flatfoot tendency in running and cutting maneuvers might lead to an increased risk of ACL injury. PMID:20333261

  6. Simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal from salmon industry wastewater: the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration and organic load rate on batch and continuous process.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, C; Hernández, S; Aspé, E; Roeckel, M

    2012-06-30

    Although simultaneous denitrification-anaerobic digestion has been studied extensively, the use of salmon effluents as organic matter source has received little attention. This study evaluated the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration, and organic load rate (OLR) on simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal using salmon effluents. The study was carried out in a batch reactor with suspended biomass at 37 °C and pH 7.5, and in continuous biofilm tubular reactors at 37 °C fed with a mixture of a synthetic substrate and a saline protein-rich salmon-plant effluent. The results of the batch and continuous experiments showed that nitrate abatement was greater than 95% at all the studied C/N ratios, without effect of the C/N ratio on NO(3)(-)-N transformation and ammonia production. An increase of nitrate concentration increased organic matter consumption as well as the hydrolytic rate. The organic matter reduction varied between 88% and 40% in the continuous process. For a continuous process, the increase of the OLR decreases the removal of organic matter.

  7. Geomorphic Influences on Large Wood Dam Loadings, Particulate Organic Matter and Dissolved Organic Carbon in an 0ld-Growth Northern Hardwood Watershed

    Treesearch

    P. Charles Goebel; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Brain J. Palik

    2003-01-01

    We quantified large wood loadings and seasonal concentrations of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three different geomonghic zones (each with unique hydrogeomorphic characteristics) of a pristine, old-growth northern hardwood watershed. The highest large wood dam loadings were in the high-gradient, bedrock controlled geomorphic...

  8. The Relationship between Organic Loading and Effects on Fish Reproduction for Pulp Mill Effluents across Canada.

    PubMed

    Martel, Pierre H; O'Connor, Brian I; Kovacs, Tibor G; van den Heuvel, Michael R; Parrott, Joanne L; McMaster, Mark E; MacLatchy, Deborah L; Van Der Kraak, Glen J; Hewitt, L Mark

    2017-03-09

    This study builds upon the work of a multiagency consortium tasked with determining cost-effective solutions for the effects of pulp mill effluents on fish reproduction. A laboratory fathead minnow egg production test and chemical characterization tools were used to benchmark 81 effluents from 20 mills across Canada, representing the major pulping, bleaching, and effluent treatment technologies. For Kraft and mechanical pulp mills, effluents containing less than 20 mg/L BOD5 were found to have the greatest probability of having no effects. Organic loading, expressed as the total detected solvent-extractable components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), also correlated with decreased egg laying. Exceptions were found for specific Kraft, mechanical, and sulfite mills, suggesting yet unidentified causative agents are involved. Recycled fiber mill effluents, tested for the first time, were found to have little potential for reproductive effects despite large variations in BOD5 and GC/MS profiles. Effluent treatment systems across all production types were generally efficient, achieving a combined 82-98% BOD5 removal. Further reductions of final effluent organic loadings toward the target of less than 20 mg/L are recommended and can be realized through biotreatment optimization, the reduction of organic losses associated with production upsets and selecting best available technologies that reduce organic loadings to biotreatment.

  9. Increased systolic load causes adverse remodeling of fetal aortic and mitral valves

    PubMed Central

    Louey, Samantha; Espinoza, Herbert; Chattergoon, Natasha; You, Fanglei; Thornburg, Kent L.; Giraud, George

    2015-01-01

    While abnormal hemodynamic forces alter fetal myocardial growth, little is known about whether such insults affect fetal cardiac valve development. We hypothesized that chronically elevated systolic load would detrimentally alter fetal valve growth. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep received either a continuous infusion of adult sheep plasma to increase fetal blood pressure, or a lactated Ringer's infusion as a volume control beginning on day 126 ± 4 of gestation. After 8 days, mean arterial pressure was higher in the plasma infusion group (63.0 mmHg vs. 41.8 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mitral annular septal-lateral diameter (11.9 mm vs. 9.1 mm, P < 0.05), anterior leaflet length (7.7 mm vs. 6.4 mm, P < 0.05), and posterior leaflet length (P2; 4.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.05) were greater in the elevated load group. mRNA levels of Notch-1, TGF-β2, Wnt-2b, BMP-1, and versican were suppressed in aortic and mitral valve leaflets; elastin and α1 type I collagen mRNA levels were suppressed in the aortic valves only. We conclude that sustained elevated arterial pressure load on the fetal heart valve leads to anatomic remodeling and, surprisingly, suppression of signaling and extracellular matrix genes that are important to valve development. These novel findings have important implications on the developmental origins of valve disease and may have long-term consequences on valve function and durability. PMID:26354842

  10. Soldier-relevant body borne loads increase knee joint contact force during a run-to-stop maneuver.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, John W; Hancock, Clifford L; O'Donovan, Meghan P; Brown, Tyler N

    2016-12-08

    The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of load carriage on human performance, specifically during a run-to-stop (RTS) task. Using OpenSim analysis tools, knee joint contact force, grounds reaction force, leg stiffness and lower extremity joint angles and moments were determined for nine male military personnel performing a RTS under three load configurations (light, ~6kg, medium, ~20kg, and heavy, ~40kg). Subject-based means for each biomechanical variable were submitted to repeated measures ANOVA to test the effects of load. During the RTS, body borne load significantly increased peak knee joint contact force by 1.2 BW (p<0.001) and peak vertical (p<0.001) and anterior-posterior (p=0.002) ground reaction forces by 0.6 BW and 0.3 BW, respectively. Body borne load also had a significant effect on hip (p=0.026) posture with the medium load and knee (p=0.046) posture with the heavy load. With the heavy load, participants exhibited a substantial, albeit non-significant increase in leg stiffness (p=0.073 and d=0.615). Increases in joint contact force exhibited during the RTS were primarily due to greater GRFs that impact the soldier with each incremental addition of body borne load. The stiff leg, extended knee and large braking force the soldiers exhibited with the heavy load suggests their injury risk may be greatest with that specific load configuration. Further work is needed to determine if the biomechanical profile exhibited with the heavy load configuration translates to unsafe shear forces at the knee joint and consequently, a higher likelihood of injury. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Development of the Zebra load region for increased capability plasma diagnostics and improved Leopard laser access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanovitskiy, Alexey; Presura, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Haboub, A.; Plachaty, C.; Kindel, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    A new geometry for the load area in the Zebra (1MA pulse generator) is developed. It will form the basis for future experiments requiring Leopard (1057nm, 50TW laser) to Zebra coupling and give extended capability to z-pinch diagnostics. This required the development of a new current return, which allows laser access and installation of the OD 4'' parabolic mirror for the x-ray radiography, isochoric heating and magnetized plasma experiments, and accommodates wire-array z-pinch loads, to which the laser may then be coupled. In addition, this configuration allows diagnostics access close to the plasma, leading to a significant increase of the spatial resolution for imaging of z-pinches, as well as the photon flux in imaging and spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas. These diagnostics will allow coupling of the Leopard beam for x-ray laser probing of the pinch plasma and we will test point-projection x-ray backlighting of the pinch plasma.

  12. Small intestinal nematode infection of mice is associated with increased enterobacterial loads alongside the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Sebastian; Held, Josephin; Fischer, André; Heimesaat, Markus M; Kühl, Anja A; Bereswill, Stefan; Hartmann, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are potent modulators of immune reactivity in mice and men. Intestinal nematodes live in close contact with commensal gut bacteria, provoke biased Th2 immune responses upon infection, and subsequently lead to changes in gut physiology. We hypothesized that murine nematode infection is associated with distinct changes of the intestinal bacterial microbiota composition. We here studied intestinal inflammatory and immune responses in mice following infection with the hookworm Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri and applied cultural and molecular techniques to quantitatively assess intestinal microbiota changes in the ileum, cecum and colon. At day 14 post nematode infection, mice harbored significantly higher numbers of γ-Proteobacteria/Enterobacteriaceae and members of the Bacteroides/Prevotella group in their cecum as compared to uninfected controls. Abundance of Gram-positive species such as Lactobacilli, Clostridia as well as the total bacterial load was not affected by worm infection. The altered microbiota composition was independent of the IL-4/-13 - STAT6 signaling axis, as infected IL-4Rα(-/-) mice showed a similar increase in enterobacterial loads. In conclusion, infection with an enteric nematode is accompanied by distinct intestinal microbiota changes towards higher abundance of gram-negative commensal species at the small intestinal site of infection (and inflammation), but also in the parasite-free large intestinal tract. Further studies should unravel the impact of nematode-induced microbiota changes in inflammatory bowel disease to allow for a better understanding of how theses parasites interfere with intestinal inflammation and bacterial communities in men.

  13. Caffeine increases sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity during physical loading.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the effect of caffeine on sudomotor activity and sweating sensitivity during physical loading. Both physiological responses could occur due to energy expenditure. Subjects were 13 athletically trained males (22.1 ± 3.7 years old, 174.2 ± 5.4 cm tall, and weighing 70.9 ± 4.6 kg, with maximal oxygen consumption [VO(2)max] of 53.6 ± 4.4 mL/kg/minute). The study involved a within-subject, random, crossover design. Tests were performed following the ingestion of 3 mg/kg caffeine. The physical loading involved running for 30 minutes at 60% VO(2)max (24.0 ± 0.5°C, 40 ± 3.0% relative humidity). Tympanic temperature (TYMP) was significantly higher in the caffeine-consuming group (Caffe-I) at pre-exercise (40 minutes after caffeine intake and immediately before running) (P<.05). Mean body temperature (mT(b)) was significantly higher in the Caffe-I group at pre- and post-exercise (30 min after start of running) (P<.05). Onset time of localized sweating was significantly shorter in the Caffe-I group (P<.01), but localized sweat volume and active sweat gland output (per single gland) was significantly higher in the Caffe-I group (P<.001). Activated sweat gland density was significantly increased in the Caffe-I group on the abdomen and thigh (P<.01). In conclusion, caffeine ingestion caused not only increases in TYMP and mT(b) through thermogenesis, but also an increased sweating sensitivity via changes in sudomotor activity.

  14. Cumulative loads increase at the knee joint with slow-speed running compared to faster running: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jesper; Sørensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard

    2015-04-01

    Biomechanical cross-sectional study. To investigate the hypothesis that the cumulative load at the knee during running increases as running speed decreases. The knee joint load per stride decreases as running speed decreases. However, by decreasing running speed, the number of strides per given distance is increased. Running a given distance at a slower speed may increase the cumulative load at the knee joint compared with running the same distance at a higher speed, hence increasing the risk of running-related injuries in the knee. Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected from 16 recreational runners, during steady-state running with a rearfoot strike pattern at 3 different speeds (mean ± SD): 8.02 ± 0.17 km/h, 11.79 ± 0.21 km/h, and 15.78 ± 0.22 km/h. The cumulative load (cumulative impulse) over a 1000-m distance was calculated at the knee joint on the basis of a standard 3-D inverse-dynamics approach. Based on a 1000-m running distance, the cumulative load at the knee was significantly higher at a slow running speed than at a high running speed (relative difference, 80%). The mean load per stride at the knee increased significantly across all biomechanical parameters, except impulse, following an increase in running speed. Slow-speed running decreases knee joint loads per stride and increases the cumulative load at the knee joint for a given running distance compared to faster running. The primary reason for the increase in cumulative load at slower speeds is an increase in number of strides needed to cover the same distance.

  15. Salmon contributions to dissolved organic matter and nutrient loads in a coastal stream in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, E.; Fellman, J. B.; Edwards, R. T.

    2005-12-01

    In southeastern Alaska, spawning salmon can have a substantial effect on the water quality of coastal watersheds because salmon move large quantities of marine nutrients into terrestrial freshwater streams. We are measuring the effects of salmon on loads of inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in Peterson Creek near Juneau, Alaska. Peterson Creek receives sizable runs of pink (Oncorhynchus gorbushca) and chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon during the late summer (mid-August through mid-September). To test the effects of salmon on water quality, samples were collected above and below a barrier waterfall on Peterson Creek. During salmon spawning, concentrations of ammonium (NH4+) were up to two orders of magnitude higher at the downstream salmon-influenced site, while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) increased by more than an order of magnitude at the downstream site. For the entire salmon spawning period, concentrations of NH4+, SRP, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly higher at the downstream site compared to the upstream site, however nitrate (NO3-) concentrations were not significantly different between sites. Characterization of DOC samples using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the DOC leached from salmon had a large protein component compared to DOC at the upstream site which was dominated by humic material. These results suggest that salmon provide a pulse of inorganic N and P as well as labile DOC to surface waters during the spawning period. Concurrent measurements of discharge will allow us to assess the importance of salmon-derived nutrients in the seasonal nutrient budget of Peterson Creek.

  16. Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7 %) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57 %) females and 101 (43 %) males. Clinical features were present in 33 % women and 72 % men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70 % (n = 162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46 %), F (22 %), D (8 %), K (8 %), G (7 %), J (4 %), I (1 %) and H (0.6 %). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection.

  17. Loadings of atmospheric trace elements and organic contaminants to the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Leister, D.L.; Church, T.M.; Scudlark, J.R.; Ondov, J.M.; Dickhut, R.M.; Cutter, G.

    1994-12-31

    To assess the absolute magnitude of atmospheric deposition loadings to the chesapeake Bay, a three-station network of integrated precipitation and air samplers was established in mid-1990 and maintained through September 1993. The objectives of the Chesapeake Bay Atmospheric Deposition Study (CBADS) were to document spatial and temporal variability in atmospheric inventories and wet and dry depositional fluxes of a variety of trace elements (Al, As, CD, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) and organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PCB congeners) in the chesapeake Bay region. Monthly wet depositional fluxes were calculated as the product of the volume-weighted mean concentration and the monthly precipitation amount, and annual dry deposition fluxes estimated as the product of particle-associated chemical inventories in the atmosphere and a size dependent deposition velocity. Total loadings to the surface waters of the Chesapeake Bay were estimated by spatially integrating fluxes from the three sites. PAH loadings (wet + dry) range from 19 {+-} 4 kg/year (anthracene) to 330 {+-} 86 kg/year (pyrene) and total PCB loadings were 40 {+-} 9 kg/year. Trace element loadings in 1991 ranged from 1,200 {+-} 130 kg/year for cadmium to 41,000 {+-} 14,000 kg/year for zinc. Results from the CBADS study will be compared and contrasted with those from the Great Lakes Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network.

  18. Pro-inflammatory cytokines expression increases following low- and high-magnitude cyclic loading of lumbar ligaments

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosia, Peter; King, Karen; Davidson, Bradley; Zhou, Bing He; Lu, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive or overuse disorders of the lumbar spine affect the lives of workers and athletes. We hypothesize that repetitive anterior lumbar flexion–extension under low or high load will result in significantly elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines expression several hours post-activity. High loads will exhibit significantly higher expression than low loads. Lumbar spine of in vivo feline was subjected to cyclic loading at 0.25 Hz for six 10-min periods with 10 min of rest in between. One group was subjected to a low peak load of 20 N, whereas the second group to a high peak load of 60 N. Following a 7-h post-loading rest, the supraspinous ligaments of L-3/4, L-4/5 and L-5/6 and the unstimulated T-10/11 were excised for mRNA analysis and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and TGFβ1 pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Creep (laxity) developed in the lumbar spine during the loading and the subsequent 7 h of rest was calculated. A two-way mixed model ANOVA was used to assess difference in each cytokines expression between the two groups and control. Tukey HSD post hoc analysis delineated specific significant effects. Significance was set at 0.05. Low and high-load groups exhibited development of creep throughout the cyclic loading period and gradual recovery throughout the 7-h rest period. Residual creep of 24.8 and 30.2% were present in the low and high-load groups, respectively, 7-h post-loading. Significant increases in expression of all cytokines measured relative to control were obtained for supraspinous ligaments from both low and high-load magnitudes. IL-6, IL-8 and TGFβ1 expression in the high-load group were significantly higher relative to the low-load group. Significant increases in cytokines expression indicating tissue inflammation are observed several hours post-repetitive lumbar flexion–extension regardless of the load magnitude applied. Repetitive occupational and athletic activity, regardless of the load applied, may be associated with the

  19. Effect of increased load on scapular kinematics during manual wheelchair propulsion in individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia.

    PubMed

    Raina, Shashank; McNitt-Gray, Jill L; Mulroy, Sara; Requejo, Philip S

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive loading of the upper extremity musculature during activities like wheelchair propulsion can lead to fatigue of surrounding musculature causing irregular segment kinematics. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of increase in load on the kinematics of the scapula in users with paraplegia and tetraplegia. Data were collected on 18 participants (11 with paraplegia and 7 with tetraplegia) using an electromagnetic motion tracking system (100Hz) and force sensing pushrim (200Hz). The participants propelled under no load and loaded conditions at their customary propulsion velocity. On average a 60N increase in force was elicited with the experimental protocol. Users with tetraplegia showed significant increases (p<.05) in the rate of change of scapular angles in the upward/downward rotation and the retraction/protraction direction under the loaded conditions, whereas users with paraplegia only showed difference in the retraction/protraction rotation direction. Overall both user populations moved towards position of increased downward rotation, anterior tilt and protraction with increase in load hence increasing the risk of impingement. This experiment adds depth to our understanding of dynamic scapular kinematics during wheelchair propulsion under different loading conditions and differences in scapular control between users with paraplegia and tetraplegia.

  20. Detonating Cords Loaded with Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) Recrystallized from Acid or Organic Solvents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-02

    L/TR 75-142 INW 57W AIAo TEEEHAVIC L 3<j\\ I~ VV z WHITE OAK LABORATORY DETONATING CORDS LOADED WITH HEXANITROSTILBEiNJE ( HNS ) RECRYSTALLIZED FROM...mid identify by block number) Hexanitrostilbene ( HNS ) Thermally StabDle Explosives Detonating Cords 20. ASSTRACT (Conlinue on reverse side it nece..auy...describes the results of experimental wo•.k with detonating cords fabricated with the explosive, Hexanitrostilbene ( HNS ), recrystallized from the organic

  1. Photoswitchable nanoporous films by loading azobenzene in metal-organic frameworks of type HKUST-1.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kai; Wadhwa, Jasmine; Singh Malhi, Jasleen; Schöttner, Ludger; Welle, Alexander; Schwartz, Heidi; Hermann, Daniela; Ruschewitz, Uwe; Heinke, Lars

    2017-07-13

    Photoswitchable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) enable the dynamic remote control of their key properties. Here, a readily producible approach is presented where photochromic molecules, i.e. azobenzene (AB) and o-tetrafluoroazobenzene (tfAB), are loaded in MOF films of type HKUST-1. These nanoporous films, which can be reversibly switched with UV/visible or only visible light, have remote-controllable guest uptake properties.

  2. Increased N uptake from soil organic matter through priming may increase NPP of forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Lindén, Aki; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2013-04-01

    The response of plant photosynthesis to changing environmental factors is of crucial importance when trying to understand and quantify changes in ecosystem processes determining the carbon balance of soil. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and elevated temperature are assumed to increase net primary production (NPP) in boreal forest zone. Plant photosynthesis is the main source of labile, easily utilizable carbon (C) in soil ecosystem through litter production but especially through root exudation. Input of fast-cycling C has also been shown to induce so called priming effect, i.e. the accelerated decomposition of more recalcitrant C compounds. We aimed to artificially induce the soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition by adding glucose and/or the plant (Scots pine, Pinus sylvetris) to the boreal humus containing microcosms. In another study, we investigated the influence of different ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal symbionts, crucial in tree nutrient uptake in boreal forests, on the C assimilation and allocation of Scots pine. We found indications on the intimate connection between tree N uptake from SOM and priming effect, induced by glucose additions. Also, the effect of different ectomycorrhizal symbionts on plant photosynthesis was not related to C sink but to N uptake, retention and allocation. To summarize, we conclude that since increased NPP will most probably increase easily utilizable C in soil, the decomposition of recalcitrant SOM will increase if N availability is limited. In case of increased SOM decomposition, N uptake of trees will be improved through ECM fungal symbionts and this may result in increased NPP.

  3. Biomechanical properties of abdominal organs in vivo and postmortem under compression loads.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jacob; Brown, Jeffrey D; De, Smita; Sinanan, Mika; Hannaford, Blake

    2008-04-01

    Accurate knowledge of biomechanical characteristics of tissues is essential for developing realistic computer-based surgical simulators incorporating haptic feedback, as well as for the design of surgical robots and tools. As simulation technologies continue to be capable of modeling more complex behavior, an in vivo tissue property database is needed. Most past and current biomechanical research is focused on soft and hard anatomical structures that are subject to physiological loading, testing the organs in situ. Internal organs are different in that respect since they are not subject to extensive loads as part of their regular physiological function. However, during surgery, a different set of loading conditions are imposed on these organs as a result of the interaction with the surgical tools. Following previous research studying the kinematics and dynamics of tool/tissue interaction in real surgical procedures, the focus of the current study was to obtain the structural biomechanical properties (engineering stress-strain and stress relaxation) of seven abdominal organs, including bladder, gallbladder, large and small intestines, liver, spleen, and stomach, using a porcine animal model. The organs were tested in vivo, in situ, and ex corpus (the latter two conditions being postmortem) under cyclical and step strain compressions using a motorized endoscopic grasper and a universal-testing machine. The tissues were tested with the same loading conditions commonly applied by surgeons during minimally invasive surgical procedures. Phenomenological models were developed for the various organs, testing conditions, and experimental devices. A property database-unique to the literature-has been created that contains the average elastic and relaxation model parameters measured for these tissues in vivo and postmortem. The results quantitatively indicate the significant differences between tissue properties measured in vivo and postmortem. A quantitative understanding of

  4. Running shoes increase achilles tendon load in walking: an acoustic propagation study.

    PubMed

    Wearing, Scott C; Reed, Lloyd; Hooper, Sue L; Bartold, Simon; Smeathers, James E; Brauner, Torsten

    2014-08-01

    Footwear remains a prime candidate for the prevention and rehabilitation of Achilles tendinopathy because it is thought to decrease tension in the tendon through elevation of the heel. However, evidence for this effect is equivocal. This study used an acoustic transmission technique to investigate the effect of running shoes on Achilles tendon loading during barefoot and shod walking. Acoustic velocity was measured in the Achilles tendon of 12 recreationally active males (age, 31 ± 9 yr; height, 1.78 ± 0.06 m; weight, 81.0 ± 16.9 kg) during barefoot and shod walking at matched self-selected speed (3.4 ± 0.7 km·h). Standard running shoes incorporating a 10-mm heel offset were used. Vertical ground reaction force and spatiotemporal parameters were determined with an instrumented treadmill. Axial acoustic velocity in the Achilles tendon was measured using a custom-built ultrasonic device. All data were acquired at a rate of 100 Hz during 10 s of steady-state walking. Statistical comparisons between barefoot and shod conditions were made using paired t-tests and repeated-measure ANOVA. Acoustic velocity in the Achilles tendon was highly reproducible and was typified by two maxima (P1, P2) and minima (M1, M2) during walking. Footwear resulted in a significant increase in step length, stance duration, and peak vertical ground reaction force compared with barefoot walking. Peak acoustic velocity in the Achilles tendon (P1, P2) was significantly higher with running shoes. Peak acoustic velocity in the Achilles tendon was higher with footwear, suggesting that standard running shoes with a 10-mm heel offset increase tensile load in the Achilles tendon. Although further research is required, these findings question the therapeutic role of standard running shoes in Achilles tendinopathy.

  5. Recent Deforestation Causes Rapid Increase in River Sediment Load in the Northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.; Kettner, A.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Human induced soil erosion reduces soil productivity; compromises freshwater ecosystem services, and drives geomorphic and ecological change in rivers and their floodplains. The Andes of Colombia have witnessed severe changes in land-cover and forest loss during the last three decades with the period 2000 and 2010 being the highest on record. We address the following: (1) what are the cumulative impacts of tropical forest loss on soil erosion? and (2) what effects has deforestation had on sediment production, availability, and the transport capacity of Andean rivers? Models and observations are combined to estimate the amount of sediment liberated from the landscape by deforestation within a major Andean basin, the Magdalena. We use a scaling model BQART that combines natural and human forces, like basin area, relief, temperature, runoff, lithology, and sediment trapping and soil erosion induced by humans. Model adjustments in terms of land cover change were used to establish the anthropogenic-deforestation factor for each of the sub-basins. Deforestation patterns across 1980-2010 were obtained from satellite imagery. Models were employed to simulate scenarios with and without human impacts. We estimate that, 9% of the sediment load in the Magdalena River basin is due to deforestation; 482 Mt of sediments was produced due to forest clearance over the last three decades. Erosion rates within the Magdalena drainage basin have increased 33% between 1972 and 2010; increasing the river's sediment load by 44 Mt/y . Much of the river catchment (79%) is under severe erosional conditions due in part to the clearance of more than 70% natural forest between 1980 and 2010.

  6. Measuring temperature in the lens during experimental heat load indirectly as light scattering increase rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaohua; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Kronschläger, Martin; Söderberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to experimentally estimate the temperature in the lens due to heat load indirectly from the measurement of increases in the rate of temperature-induced light scattering. The lens was extracted from Sprague-Dawley rats and put into a temperature-controlled cuvette filled with a balanced salt solution. Altogether, 80 lenses were equally divided into four temperature groups. Each lens was exposed for 5 min to temperature depending on the group to which it belonged while the intensity of forward light scattering was recorded. The inclination coefficients of light scattering increase at the temperature of 37°C, 40°C, 43°C, and 46°C were estimated as a CI(0.95), 3.1±0.8, 4.4±0.8, 5.5±0.9, and 7.0±0.8×10-4 tEDC/s, respectively. The Arrhenius equation implies that the natural logarithm of the inclination coefficient is linearly dependent on the inverse of the temperature. The proportionality constant and the intercept were 9.6±2.4×10 K and 22.8±7.7, respectively. The activation energy was 8.0±2.0×101 kJ·mol-1. The current experiment implies that if averaging 20 measurements of inclination coefficients in a new experiment at constant heat load, the confidence limits for predicted temperature correspond to ± 1.9°C. With the proportionality constant and the intercept estimated in the current experiment, the in vivo temperature in the lens can be determined retrospectively with sufficient resolution.

  7. Effects of Increased Loading on In Vivo Tendon Properties: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    WIESINGER, HANS-PETER; KÖSTERS, ALEXANDER; MÜLLER, ERICH; SEYNNES, OLIVIER R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction In vivo measurements have been used in the past two decades to investigate the effects of increased loading on tendon properties, yet the current understanding of tendon macroscopic changes to training is rather fragmented, limited to reports of tendon stiffening, supported by changes in material properties and/or tendon hypertrophy. The main aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature to gain further insights into tendon adaptations by extracting patterns of dose-response and time-course. Methods PubMed/Medline, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies examining the effect of training on material, mechanical, and morphological properties via longitudinal or cross-sectional designs. Results Thirty-five of 6440 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. The key findings were i) the confirmation of a nearly systematic adaptation of tendon tissue to training, ii) the important variability in the observed changes in tendon properties between and within studies, and iii) the absence of a consistent incremental pattern regarding the dose-response or the time-course relation of tendon adaptation within the first months of training. However, long-term (years) training was associated with a larger tendon cross-sectional area, without any evidence of differences in material properties. Our analysis also highlighted several gaps in the existing literature, which may be addressed in future research. Conclusions In line with some cross-species observations about tendon design, tendon cross-sectional area allegedly constitutes the ultimate adjusting parameter to increased loading. We propose here a theoretical model placing tendon hypertrophy and adjustments in material properties as parts of the same adaptive continuum. PMID:25563908

  8. Load and distribution of organic matter and nutrients in a separated household wastewater stream.

    PubMed

    Todt, Daniel; Heistad, Arve; Jenssen, Petter D

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater from a source-separated sanitation system connected to 24 residential flats was analysed for the content of organic matter and nutrients and other key parameters for microbiological processes used in the treatment and reuse of wastewater. Black water (BW) was the major contributor to the total load of organic matter and nutrients in the wastewater, accounting for 69% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 83% of total nitrogen (N) and 87% of phosphorus (P). With a low COD/N ratio and high content of free ammonia, treating BW alone is a challenge in traditional biological nitrogen removal approaches. However, its high nitrogen concentration (1.4-1.7 g L(-1)) open up for nutrient reuse as well as for novel, more energy efficient N-removal technologies. Grey water (GW) contained low amounts of nutrients relative to organic matter, and this may limit biological treatment processes under certain conditions. GW contains a higher proportion of soluble, readily degradable organic substances compared with BW, which facilitates simple, decentralized treatment approaches. The concentration of organic matter and nutrients varied considerably between our study and other studies, which could be related to different toilet flushing volumes and water use habits. The daily load per capita, on the other hand, was found to be in line with most of the reported studies.

  9. [Influence of organic loading rate on the start-up of a sequencing airlift aerobic granular reactor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-Yuan; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Gao, Lin-Lin; Ma, De-Fang; Zhang, Yu-Meng; Li, Ke-Yu

    2012-10-01

    The cultivation and stability of aerobic granular sludge in a three sequencing airlift internal-loop aerobic granular fluidized beds (R1-R3) under different organic loading rates (OLR) were investigated, where the selective pressure was un-controlled. R1 and R2 were start-up at the COD loading of 7 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) and 3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1) respectively, and R3 was start-up at an increasing COD loading rates of 1.5-3 kg x (m3 x d)(-1). The results showed that the aerobic granules could be formed successfully in all the reactors, however, filamentous bulking happened as the reactor was start-up at an aimed OLR (R1 and R2). It seems the overgrowth of filamentous could be controlled effectively by means of increasing OLR gradually. The granular development characteristics, the physical characteristics and extracellular polymeric substances contents were analyzed especially during the aerobic granules cultivation. Compared with the granules in R1 and R2, aerobic granules formed in R3 presented clearer outer morphology and compact structure, advanced COD removal efficiency and a significant increase in polysaccharides, resulted an enhanced stability.

  10. Maximal rate of increase in heart rate during the rest-exercise transition tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Maximillian J; Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate kinetics are faster in well-trained athletes at exercise onset, indicating sensitivity to training status, but whether they track performance changes due to changes in training load is unknown. Randomised, counterbalanced, cross-over. 17 cyclists completed two weeks of light and two weeks of heavy training. The day after each training period heart rate was recorded during 5 min cycling at 100 W to determine the maximal rate of heart rate increase. Participants then performed a 5 min cycle time-trial after which heart rate recovery was determined. Work during 5 min cycle time-trial decreased 3.5% (P<0.04) in participants (n=8) who increased training load (completed light training then heavy training) and, although maximal rate of heart rate increase did not change (P=0.27), within-individual changes in work were correlated with changes in maximal rate of heart rate increase (r=0.87, P=0.005). Work during 5 min cycle time-trial increased 6.5% (P<0.001) in 9 participants who decreased training load (completed heavy training then light training) and maximal rate of heart rate increase increased 28% (P=0.002) but the changes in maximal work were not related to changes in rate of heart rate increase (r=0.32, P=0.40). Heart rate recovery tended to track changes in 5 min cycle time-trial work following increases and decreases in training load (r=0.65-0.75, P=0.03-0.08). Maximal rate of heart rate increases during cycling at 100 W tracks reductions in exercise performance when training load is increased, but not performance improvements when training loads are reduced. Maximal rate of heart rate increase may be a useful adjunct to heart rate recovery for tracking changes in exercise performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Light-load resistance exercise increases muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy signaling in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Agergaard, Jakob; Bülow, Jacob; Jensen, Jacob K; Reitelseder, Søren; Drummond, Micah J; Schjerling, Peter; Scheike, Thomas; Serena, Anja; Holm, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. Untrained healthy elderly (>65-yr-old) men were subjected to 13 h of supine rest. After 2.5 h of rest, unilateral LL-RE, consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% of 1 repetition maximum (RM), was conducted. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of 4 g of whey protein per hour (PULSE, n = 10), 28 g of whey protein at 0 h and 12 g of whey protein at 7 h postexercise (BOLUS, n = 10), or 4 g of maltodextrin per hour (placebo, n = 10). Quadriceps muscle biopsies were taken at 0, 3, 7, and 10 h postexercise from the resting and the exercised leg of each subject. Myofibrillar FSR and activity of select targets from the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1-signaling cascade were analyzed from the biopsies. LL-RE increased myofibrillar FSR compared with the resting leg throughout the 10-h postexercise period. Phosphorylated (T308) AKT expression increased in the exercised leg immediately after exercise. This increase persisted in the placebo group only. Levels of phosphorylated (T37/46) eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 increased throughout the postexercise period in the exercised leg in the placebo and BOLUS groups and peaked at 7 h. In all three groups, phosphorylated (T56) eukaryotic elongation factor 2 decreased in response to LL-RE. We conclude that resistance exercise at only 16% of 1 RM increased myofibrillar FSR, irrespective of nutrient type and feeding pattern, which indicates an anabolic effect of LL-RE in elderly individuals. This finding was supported by increased signaling for translation initiation and translation elongation in response to LL-RE.

  12. Thiol Peroxidase Deficiency Leads to Increased Mutational Load and Decreased Fitness in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Alaattin; Lobanov, Alexei V.; Gerashchenko, Maxim V.; Koren, Amnon; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Koc, Ahmet; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2014-01-01

    Thiol peroxidases are critical enzymes in the redox control of cellular processes that function by reducing low levels of hydroperoxides and regulating redox signaling. These proteins were also shown to regulate genome stability, but how their dysfunction affects the actual mutations in the genome is not known. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has eight thiol peroxidases of glutathione peroxidase and peroxiredoxin families, and the mutant lacking all these genes (∆8) is viable. In this study, we employed two independent ∆8 isolates to analyze the genome-wide mutation spectrum that results from deficiency in these enzymes. Deletion of these genes was accompanied by a dramatic increase in point mutations, many of which clustered in close proximity and scattered throughout the genome, suggesting strong mutational bias. We further subjected multiple lines of wild-type and ∆8 cells to long-term mutation accumulation, followed by genome sequencing and phenotypic characterization. ∆8 lines showed a significant increase in nonrecurrent point mutations and indels. The original ∆8 cells exhibited reduced growth rate and decreased life span, which were further reduced in all ∆8 mutation accumulation lines. Although the mutation spectrum of the two independent isolates was different, similar patterns of gene expression were observed, suggesting the direct contribution of thiol peroxidases to the observed phenotypes. Expression of a single thiol peroxidase could partially restore the growth phenotype of ∆8 cells. This study shows how deficiency in nonessential, yet critical and conserved oxidoreductase function, leads to increased mutational load and decreased fitness. PMID:25173844

  13. Medial knee joint loading increases in those who respond to hyaluronan injection for medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Briem, Kristin; Axe, Michael J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause of decline in function and the medial compartment is often affected. Intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) is indicated as a symptom modifying treatment with at least 6 months passing between consecutive injection series. The effects of HA injection on gait variables have not been extensively examined. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of HA injection on gait in people with medial knee OA. Twenty-seven subjects were included; each was tested prior to treatment (baseline), no later than 3 weeks following the last injection (post-HA), and again 5 months after treatment ended (follow-up). Responder criteria were defined to identify responders and non-responders. Subjects underwent 3D gait analysis, muscle activity was sampled, and co-contraction indices were calculated. Responders experienced increased peak knee adduction moments post-HA, whereas non-responders did not. Improved self-report scores were associated with increased knee adduction moments and increased medial co-contraction. Pain relief may result in higher loading onto the already vulnerable medial compartment due to changes in lower limb mechanics and muscle activation patterns. Eventually this may result in a more rapid progression of joint deterioration.

  14. Does increasing applied load lead to contact changes indicative of knee osteoarthritis? A subject-specific FEA study.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Jennifer L; Zavatsky, Amy B; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated whether increased loading (representing obesity) in the extended knee and flexed knee led to increased stresses in areas of typical medial and lateral osteoarthritis cartilage lesions, respectively. We created two paired sets of subject-specific finite element models; both sets included models of extended knees and of flexed knees. The first set represented normal loading; the second set represented increased loading. All other variables were held constant. The von Mises stresses and contact areas calculated on the tibial cartilage surfaces of the paired models were then compared. In the extended knee models, applying a larger load led to increased stress in the anterior and central regions of the medial tibial cartilage. These are the typical locations of medial osteoarthritis cartilage lesions. Therefore, the results support that increased loading in the extended knee may result in medial osteoarthritis. In the flexed knee models, applying a larger load increased stress in the anterior and central regions of the lateral tibial cartilage. Lateral osteoarthritis cartilage lesions typically occur centrally and posteriorly. Therefore, these results do not support our hypothesis. Shear stress was increased in areas of typical lateral lesions, however, and should be investigated in future studies.

  15. Generalized Joint Laxity Associated With Increased Medial Foot Loading in Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Barber Foss, Kim D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2009-01-01

    Context: The relationship between generalized joint laxity and plantar pressure distribution of the foot and the potential implications for lower extremity injury have not been studied. Objective: To determine the relationship between generalized joint laxity and dynamic plantar pressure distribution. We hypothesized that individuals with greater generalized joint laxity, or hypermobility, would have greater dynamic medial midfoot pressure and loading during walking than nonhypermobile individuals. Design: Case control. Setting: Institutional biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Participants included 112 female soccer players between 11 and 21 years of age. Main Outcome Measure(s): Each participant was tested for generalized joint laxity using the Beighton and Horan Joint Mobility Index (BHJMI; range, 0–9) and was categorized as having either high (BHJMI score ≥4) or low (BHJMI score <4) generalized joint laxity. Peak pressure and maximum force were calculated from a dynamic, barefoot plantar pressure distribution system. Results: Peak pressure and maximum force were greater in the 27 participants categorized as having high generalized joint laxity than in the 85 participants categorized as having low generalized joint laxity. The midfoot region exhibited greater loading in participants with high generalized joint laxity than in the other participants. We found an effect of BHJMI classification in the medial midfoot; peak pressure in the dominant (F1,109  =  11.262, P  =  .001) and nondominant (F1,109  =  14.32, P < .001) sides and maximum force in the dominant (F1,109  =  7.88, P  =  .006) and nondominant (F1,109  =  9.18, P  =  .003) sides were greater in the high generalized joint laxity group than in the low generalized joint laxity group. Conclusions: Athletes classified as having high generalized joint laxity demonstrated increased midfoot loading. Delineation of risk factors for medial collapse of the foot

  16. Increased neural activity during high working memory load predicts low relapse risk in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Katrin; Beck, Anne; Jorde, Anne; Wimmer, Lioba; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Kiefer, Falk; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Working memory (WM) impairments are often observed in alcohol-dependent individuals, especially in early abstinence, which may contribute to an increased relapse risk after detoxification. Brain imaging studies on visuospatial WM in alcohol-dependent patients compared to controls indicate that information processing requires compensatory increased neural activation to perform at a normal level. However, to date, no study tested whether such increased neural WM activation patterns or the lack thereof predict relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent individuals, and whether such differences persist when adequately correcting for individual grey matter differences. We combined analyses of neural activation during an n-back task and local grey matter volumes using Biological Parametric Mapping in 40 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 40 matched healthy controls (HC), and assessed prospective relapse risk during a 7-month follow-up period. Despite equal task performance, we found increased functional activation during high versus low cognitive WM load (2-back-0-back) in bilateral rostral prefrontal cortex (BA10) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA45,47) in prospective abstainers versus relapsers, and further in left/right lateral/medial premotor cortex (BA6,8) in abstainers versus HC. In prospective abstainers, but not relapsers, subtle cognitive impairment was associated with increased neural task activity in the premotor cortex. These findings suggest that in prospective abstainers, higher functional engagement of presumably less impaired neural resources in executive behavioral control brain areas (BA10, 45, 47, 6, 8) may constitute a resilience factor associated with good treatment outcome. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Odd-impact loading results in increased cortical area and moments of inertia in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Weidauer, Lee; Minett, Maggie; Negus, Charles; Binkley, Teresa; Vukovich, Matt; Wey, Howard; Specker, Bonny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate tibial changes in volumetric bone mineral density and geometry that take place in athletes from pre- to post-season. Female college athletes (n = 36) and ten controls recruited from the student population were included in the study. Participants had their left tibia scanned by pQCT at 4, 20, and 66 % of the overall length from the distal end before and after their competitive seasons. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-athlete (controls, n = 10), moderate-impact (cross-country runners, n = 13), high-impact (volleyball and basketball, n = 11), and odd-impact (soccer, n = 12). Anterior-posterior and medial-lateral diameter increased at the 4 % site in control subjects. In the moderate-impact group, medial-lateral moment of inertia (MOI) increased by 1.2 ± 1.8 (mean ± SD) percent at the 20 % site. In high-impact group, anterior-posterior MOI increased by 1.6 ± 2.0 percent at the 66 % site. In odd-impact group, cortical area (1.4 ± 2.3 %) and cortical thickness (1.8 ± 2.8 %) increased at the 20 % site increased, as did the polar MOI (1.8 ± 2.2 %) at the 66 % site. Load-specific changes resulting in improved measures of bone strength take place in athletes during a competitive season. These changes may result in improved resistance to fractures and stress fractures.

  18. Organic fertilization leads to increased peach root production and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Baldi, E; Toselli, M; Eissenstat, D M; Marangoni, B

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of mineral and organic fertilizers on peach root dynamics in the growing season from 2003 to 2006 in a nectarine (Prunus persica L.) orchard, planted in 2001 and located in the Po valley, northeastern Italy. Very few studies have conducted long-term investigations of root dynamics of fruit crops. Our main objective was to determine whether organic fertilizers affect root dynamics differently than mineral fertilizers. The experiment was a completely randomized block design with four replicates of three treatments: unfertilized, mineral fertilized and composted with municipal waste. Mineral fertilizers included P (100 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) and K (200 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) applied only at planting and N (70-130 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) split into two applications, one at 40 days after full bloom (60%) and the other in September (40%) each year. The compost fertilization represented a yearly rate of 10 metric tons (t) dry weight ha(-1), which approximates (in kg ha(-1) year(-1)) 240 N, 100 P and 200 K, split similarly to that described for the mineral fertilization of N. Both root growth and survival were evaluated at 20-day intervals during the growing season by the minirhizotron technique. Compost increased the production of new roots compared with the other treatments (P < 0.01). Roots were mainly produced at a depth of 41-80 cm and from March to May and in late summer. An analysis of covariance indicated no significant effect of soil nitrate on root production (P = 0.47). The root lifespan was longer in compost-treated trees than in mineral-fertilized or unfertilized trees (P < 0.01) and it was strongly affected by time of birth; roots born later in the summer lived longer than those born in the spring. Across years and treatments, the average root lifespan was positively correlated with soil nitrate (r = 0.60; P < 0.001). Variation in root lifespan with method of fertilization could be accounted for by variation in soil

  19. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2012-09-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify driving factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of organic mass measured at m/z 44 (f44), a surrogate for carboxylic/organic acids as well as the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C), vs. f43, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. On average, an OH exposure of 2.9 ± 1.3 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase f44 by 1% during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.5 and 15 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ∼1 × 106 cm-3. Not only is the α-pinene SOA more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings, but the functional dependence of oxygenation on mass loading is enhanced at atmospherically-relevant precursor concentrations. Since the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near

  20. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-09-29

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L(-1)) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L(-1) d(-1)). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria.

  1. Effects of Organic-Loading-Rate Reduction on Sludge Biomass and Microbial Community in a Deteriorated Pilot-Scale Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R.; Naganawa, Ryuichi; Habe, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a precipitous decrease in the inlet organic loading rate on sludge reductions and the microbial community in a membrane bioreactor were investigated. The sludge biomass was markedly reduced to 47.4% of the initial concentration (approximately 15,000 mg L−1) within 7 d after the organic loading rate was decreased by half (450 to 225 mg chemical oxygen demand L−1 d−1). An analysis of the microbial community structure using high-throughput sequencing revealed an increase in the abundance of facultative predatory bacteria-related operational taxonomic units as well as microorganisms tolerant to environmental stress belonging to the classes Deinococci and Betaproteobacteria. PMID:27431196

  2. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion.

  3. Cellular and molecular responses to increased skeletal muscle loading after irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation of rat skeletal muscles before increased loading has been shown to prevent compensatory hypertrophy for periods of up to 4 wk, possibly by preventing satellite cells from proliferating and providing new myonuclei. Recent work suggested that stem cell populations exist that might allow irradiated muscles to eventually hypertrophy over time. We report that irradiation essentially prevented hypertrophy in rat muscles subjected to 3 mo of functional overload (OL-Ir). The time course and magnitude of changes in cellular and molecular markers of anabolic and myogenic responses were similar in the OL-Ir and the contralateral nonirradiated, overloaded (OL) muscles for the first 3-7 days. These markers then returned to control levels in OL-Ir muscles while remaining elevated in OL muscles. The number of myonuclei and amount of DNA were increased markedly in OL but not OL-Ir muscles. Thus it appears that stem cells were not added to the irradiated muscles in this time period. These data are consistent with the theory that the addition of new myonuclei may be required for compensatory hypertrophy in the rat.

  4. Cellular and molecular responses to increased skeletal muscle loading after irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Gregory R.; Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Haddad, Fadia; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Irradiation of rat skeletal muscles before increased loading has been shown to prevent compensatory hypertrophy for periods of up to 4 wk, possibly by preventing satellite cells from proliferating and providing new myonuclei. Recent work suggested that stem cell populations exist that might allow irradiated muscles to eventually hypertrophy over time. We report that irradiation essentially prevented hypertrophy in rat muscles subjected to 3 mo of functional overload (OL-Ir). The time course and magnitude of changes in cellular and molecular markers of anabolic and myogenic responses were similar in the OL-Ir and the contralateral nonirradiated, overloaded (OL) muscles for the first 3-7 days. These markers then returned to control levels in OL-Ir muscles while remaining elevated in OL muscles. The number of myonuclei and amount of DNA were increased markedly in OL but not OL-Ir muscles. Thus it appears that stem cells were not added to the irradiated muscles in this time period. These data are consistent with the theory that the addition of new myonuclei may be required for compensatory hypertrophy in the rat.

  5. Increase in Levels of Stratospheric Chlorine and Fluorine Loading between 1985 and 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Lowes, L. L.; Mahieu, E.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Ko, M. K. W.; Sze, N. D.; Weisenstein, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing ratios of 3.44 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 1.23 ppbv for HCl and HF above 50 km, surrogates for total chlorine and fluorine, have been measured by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment on a March 1992 flight of the Space Shuttle. Compared to the measured values obtained on a 1985 flight, these correspond to a 37% and 62% increase for HCl and HF, respectively. The derived trend in HCl (approx. 0.13 ppbv per year) is in good agreement with the model-predicted increase in chlorine loading of 0.13 ppbv per year, and with the measured trends in HCl total column abundance from reported ground-based observations. The main source of this change can be attributed to the release of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's). This new value for HCl represents an upper limit to the inorganic chlorine concentration in the stratosphere available for participation in photochemical processes which destroy ozone.

  6. Increase in Levels of Stratospheric Chlorine and Fluorine Loading between 1985 and 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Abrams, M. C.; Lowes, L. L.; Mahieu, E.; Zander, R.; Rinsland, C. P.; Ko, M. K. W.; Sze, N. D.; Weisenstein, D. K.

    1994-01-01

    Mixing ratios of 3.44 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) and 1.23 ppbv for HCl and HF above 50 km, surrogates for total chlorine and fluorine, have been measured by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment on a March 1992 flight of the Space Shuttle. Compared to the measured values obtained on a 1985 flight, these correspond to a 37% and 62% increase for HCl and HF, respectively. The derived trend in HCl (approx. 0.13 ppbv per year) is in good agreement with the model-predicted increase in chlorine loading of 0.13 ppbv per year, and with the measured trends in HCl total column abundance from reported ground-based observations. The main source of this change can be attributed to the release of man-made chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFC's). This new value for HCl represents an upper limit to the inorganic chlorine concentration in the stratosphere available for participation in photochemical processes which destroy ozone.

  7. Incorporation of amoxicillin-loaded organic montmorillonite into poly(ester-urethane) urea nanofibers as a functional tissue engineering scaffold.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kui; Zhu, Tonghe; Wu, Yu; Zhou, Xiangxiang; Yang, Xingxing; Wang, Juan; Fang, Jun; El-Hamshary, Hany; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-03-01

    A dual drug-loaded system is a promising alternative for the sustained drug release system and skin tissue engineering. In this study, a natural sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was prepared as a carrier to load a model drug - amoxicillin (AMX), the modified organic montmorillonite (CTAB-OMMT) loaded with AMX was marked as AMX@CTAB-OMMT and was subsequently incorporated into poly(ester-urethane) urea (PEUU) and gelatin hybrid nanofibers via electrospinning, resulting in a new drug-loaded nanofibrous scaffold (AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result showed that the fiber morphology did not change after the embedding of AMX@CTAB-OMMT. Meanwhile, there was a significant increase of mechanical properties for PEUU/Gelatin hybrid nanofibers (PU75) after the incorporation of AMX@CTAB-OMMT and CTAB-OMMT. Importantly, AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibers showed a kind of sustained drug release property which could be justified reasonably for the controlled release of AMX depending on the various application. The sustained release property could be identified roughly by the result of antibacterial test. The anaphylactic reaction test proved that there was no any anaphylactic reaction or inflammation on the back of rat for AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibers. Consequently, the prepared drug-loaded AMX@CTAB-OMMT-PU75 nanofibrous scaffold is a promising candidate for application in the skin tissue engineering field and controlled drug release system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks

    DOE PAGES

    Bosch, Mathieu; Zhang, Muwei; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapsemore » upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation.« less

  9. High Dietary Glycemic Load is Associated With Increased Risk of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zelenskiy, Svetlana; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Tucker, Thomas C.; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been inconsistently associated with risk of colon cancer. We analyzed data for 1,093 incident cases and 1,589 controls in a population-based case-control study of colon cancer to further clarify the GL-colon cancer relationship. GL was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cases had a significantly higher GL intake (mean = 136.4, SD = 24.5) than controls (mean = 132.8, SD = 25.2) (P = 0.0003). In a multivariate unconditional logistic regression model, the odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer increased significantly with increasing GL: compared to the bottom quartile of GL, the ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.38 (1.06, 1.80), 1.67 (1.30, 2.13), and 1.61 (1.25, 2.07), respectively (Ptrend < 0.0001). Stratified analyses showed that the association was more pronounced among older participants [ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.35 (0.91, 2.00), 1.87 (1.29, 2.71), 2.02 (1.39, 2.95), respectively] than among younger participants [ORs were 1.46 (1.02, 2.10), 1.53 (1.09, 2.15), and 1.35 (0.96, 1.91), respectively] (Pint = 0.02). Our results provide support for the hypothesis that a diet with high GL increases the risk of colon cancer. PMID:24611536

  10. High dietary glycemic load is associated with increased risk of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zelenskiy, Svetlana; Thompson, Cheryl L; Tucker, Thomas C; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    High dietary glycemic load (GL) has been inconsistently associated with risk of colon cancer. We analyzed data for 1093 incident cases and 1589 controls in a population-based case-control study of colon cancer to further clarify the GL-colon cancer relationship. GL was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Cases had a significantly higher GL intake (mean = 136.4, SD = 24.5) than controls (mean = 132.8, SD = 25.2) (P = 0.0003). In a multivariate unconditional logistic regression model, the odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer increased significantly with increasing GL: compared to the bottom quartile of GL, the ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.38 (1.06, 1.80), 1.67 (1.30, 2.13), and 1.61 (1.25, 2.07), respectively (P trend < 0.0001). Stratified analyses showed that the association was more pronounced among older participants [ORs (95% CI) for the 2nd through the upper quartiles were 1.35 (0.91, 2.00), 1.87 (1.29, 2.71), 2.02 (1.39, 2.95), respectively] than among younger participants [ORs were 1.46 (1.02, 2.10), 1.53 (1.09, 2.15), and 1.35 (0.96, 1.91), respectively] (P int = 0.02). Our results provide support for the hypothesis that a diet with high GL increases the risk of colon cancer.

  11. Clinical Utility of Viral Load in Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection after Solid Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The negative impact of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection on transplant outcomes warrants efforts toward improving its prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. During the last 2 decades, significant breakthroughs in diagnostic virology have facilitated remarkable improvements in CMV disease management. During this period, CMV nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) evolved to become one of the most commonly performed tests in clinical virology laboratories. NAT provides a means for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of CMV infection in transplant recipients. Viral quantification also introduced several principles of CMV disease management. Specifically, viral load has been utilized (i) for prognostication of CMV disease, (ii) to guide preemptive therapy, (iii) to assess the efficacy of antiviral treatment, (iv) to guide the duration of treatment, and (v) to indicate the risk of clinical relapse or antiviral drug resistance. However, there remain important limitations that require further optimization, including the interassay variability in viral load reporting, which has limited the generation of standardized viral load thresholds for various clinical indications. The recent introduction of an international reference standard should advance the major goal of uniform viral load reporting and interpretation. However, it has also become apparent that other aspects of NAT should be standardized, including sample selection, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, detection, and calibration, among others. This review article synthesizes the vast amount of information on CMV NAT and provides a timely review of the clinical utility of viral load testing in the management of CMV in solid organ transplant recipients. Current limitations are highlighted, and avenues for further research are suggested to optimize the clinical application of NAT in the management of CMV after transplantation. PMID:24092851

  12. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  13. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  14. Sediment bioaccumulation test with Lumbriculus variegatus (EPA test method 100.3) effects of feeding and organism loading rate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methodology of USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specifies that the Lumbriculus variegatus should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry weight of no less than 50:1. It ...

  15. Effects of feeding and organism loading rate on PCB accumulation by Lumbriculus variegatus in sediment bioaccumulation testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment bioaccumulation test methods published by USEPA and ASTM in 2000 specify that the Lumbriculus variegatus, a freshwater oligochaete, should not be fed during the 28-day exposure and recommends an organism loading rate of total organic carbon in sediment to organism dry we...

  16. Parasite fecundity decreases with increasing parasite load in the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis infecting Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ugelvik, M S; Skorping, A; Mennerat, A

    2017-05-01

    Aggregation is common amongst parasites, where a small number of hosts carry a large proportion of parasites. This could result in density-dependent effects on parasite fitness. In a laboratory study, we explored whether parasite load affected parasite fecundity and survival, using ectoparasitic salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis Krøyer, 1837) infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hosts. We found a significant reduction in fecundity with higher parasite load, but no significant effect on survival. Together with previous findings, this suggests that stronger competition amongst female lice under high parasite load is a more likely explanation than increased host immune response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The response of epiphytic bacteria on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara (Hydrocharitaceae) to increasing nutrient loadings.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xianlei; Yao, Ling; Gao, Guang; Xie, Yinfeng; Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effects of water column nutrient loading on epiphytic bacteria, we determined the abundance and community composition of epiphytic bacteria on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara during the growth season (June-October) under four different nutrient concentrations (nitrogen (N)-phosphorus (P) in mg L(-1) : 0.5-0.05, 1.0-0.1, 5.0-0.5, 10.0-1.0; hereafter NP-1, NP-2, NP-3, NP-4, respectively), using epifluorescence microscopy method and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, respectively. Relative to low nutrient conditions (NP-1), there was no significant effect on the epiphytic bacterial community, and even a decrease in the number of epiphytic bacteria, which linked to the well growth status of host macrophytes at moderate nutrient conditions (NP-2). However, further nutrient enrichment induced significant increase in the abundance of epiphytic bacteria, and marked changes in the community structures of epiphytic bacteria. Furthermore, at high nutrient conditions, epiphytic bacterial communities varied widely temporally, and were not stable compared with those at the lower nutrient conditions. These results indicated that the effects of nutrient enrichment on epiphytic bacteria were nonlinear and dependent on the nutrient concentrations in the water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Trans-endplate nucleotomy increases deformation and creep response in axial loading.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, Wade; Cloyd, Jordan M; O'Connell, Grace D; Vresilovic, Edward J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2006-04-01

    Knowledge of the functional role of the nucleus pulposus is critical for the development and evaluation of disc treatment strategies to restore mechanical function. While previous motion segment studies have shown that nucleotomy alters disc mechanics, disruption of the annulus fibrosus may have influenced these experiments. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanical role of the nucleus pulposus in support of axial loads via a trans-endplate nucleotomy procedure. Sheep motion segments were randomly assigned to three groups: control, limited nucleotomy, and radical nucleotomy. Mechanical testing consisted of 20 cycles of compression-tension, a 1-h creep, and a slow constant-rate compressive ramp test. Nucleotomy led to increased axial deformations, in particular an elongated neutral zone, a greater range of motion, and altered creep behavior. In general, the elastic properties exhibited a graded response with respect to the amount of nucleus material removed. This graded effect can be attributed to swelling of the nucleus pulposus in the limited nucleotomy group, whereas little swelling was observed in the radical group. The findings of the present study indicate that functional evaluation of nucleus pulposus replacements and disc implants should include range of motion measures (including neutral zone) and viscoelastic creep experiments in addition to considering compressive stiffness.

  19. Pad stress tests with increasing load for the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Liv; Larsen, Elsa Skjønhaug; Schiøtz, Hjalmar A; Kulseng-Hanssen, Sigurd

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to test the ability of pad stress tests with increasing load (supine, jumping on the floor, and jumping on a trampoline) to document stress incontinence in subjectively stress incontinent women. In this prospective study 147 subjectively stress and mixed incontinent women performed consecutively the three pad stress tests with a bladder volume of 300 ml. Nineteen women performed a second trampoline pad stress test to test repeatability of the test. Nine continent women performed a trampoline pad stress test in order to determine if subjectively continent women would leak during the test. Seventy-two women (49%) leaked during the supine, 136 (93%) leaked during the jumping, and 146 (99%) leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The differences between pad stress tests were significant with P < 0.005. Correlation between the two trampoline pad stress tests was high at 0.8. None of the nine continent women leaked during the trampoline pad stress test. The supine pad stress test has low sensitivity and is therefore often falsely negative. The jumping pad stress test is a simple test to perform and is satisfactory for everyday use. Subjectively stress incontinent women who do not leak during the jumping pad stress test may perform a trampoline pad stress test to document stress incontinence. The trampoline pad stress test is also simple to perform and detected leakage in 91% of the women who did not leak during the jumping pad stress test. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An unexpected truth: increasing nitrate loading can decrease nitrate export from watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarizadeh Bardsiri, A.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discharge of anthropogenic nitrate (e.g., from partially treated sewage, return flows from agricultural irrigation, and runoff from animal feeding operations) to streams can negatively impact both human and ecosystem health. Managing these many point and non-point sources to achieve some specific end-point—for example, reducing the annual mass of nitrate exported from a watershed—can be a challenge, particularly in rapidly growing urban areas. Adding to this complexity is the fact that streams are not inert: they too can add or remove nitrate through assimilation (e.g., by stream-associated plants and animals) and microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions that occur in streambed sediments (e.g., respiration, ammonification, nitrification, denitrification). By coupling a previously published correlation for in-stream processing of nitrate [Mulholland et al., Nature, 2008, 452, 202-205] with a stream network model of the Jacksons Creek watershed (Victoria, Australia) I demonstrate that managing anthropogenic sources of stream nitrate without consideration of in-stream processing can result in a number of non-intuitive "surprises"; for example, wastewater effluent discharges that increase nitrate loading but decrease in-stream nitrate concentrations can reduce the mass of nitrate exported from a watershed.

  1. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  2. High-glycaemic index and -glycaemic load meals increase the availability of tryptophan in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christopher P; Smith, Keir; Atkinson, Fiona; Ruell, Patricia; Chow, Chin Moi; O'Connor, Helen; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on the ratio of tryptophan (TRP) relative to other large neutral amino acids (LNAA). Ten healthy men (age 22·9 (sd 3·4) years; BMI 23·5 (sd 1·6) kg/m2) underwent standard GI testing, and later consumed each of a mixed-macronutrient (1915 kJ; 66·5 % carbohydrate (CHO), 17 % protein and 16·5 % fat) high-GI (MHGI), an isoenergetic, mixed-macronutrient low-GI (MLGI) and a CHO-only (3212 kJ; 90 % CHO, 8 % protein, 2 % fat) high-GI (CHGI) meal on separate days. The GI, GL and insulin index values (e.g. area under the curve) were largest after the CHGI meal (117, 200, 158), followed by the MHGI (79, 59, 82) and MLGI (51, 38, 56) meals, respectively (all values were significantly different, P < 0·05). After the MHGI and MLGI meals but not after the CHGI meal, TRP was elevated at 120 and 180 min (P < 0·05). After the CHGI, LNAA was lower compared with the MLGI (P < 0·05); also the rate of decline in LNAA was higher after CHGI compared with MHGI and MLGI (both comparisons P < 0·05). The percentage increase from baseline in TRP:LNAA after CHGI (23 %) was only marginally higher than after the MHGI meal (17 %; P = 0·38), but it was threefold and nearly significantly greater than MLGI (8 %; P = 0·05). The present study demonstrates that the postprandial rise in TRP:LNAA was increased by additional CHO ingestion and higher GI. Therefore, the meal GL appears to be an important factor influencing the postprandial TRP:LNAA concentration.

  3. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  4. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  5. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-13

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  6. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks. PMID:27733773

  7. [Effects of increasing cognitive load on sustained attention tasks in schizophrenic disorders and schizotypy].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Carmelo; Nieto-Moreno, Marta; Cerviño, María Jesús; Fuentenebro, Filiberto

    2006-05-01

    In this study we analyze the attentional performance using different cognitive load attentional tasks: low-load cognition (0-CPT) and high-load cognition (DS-CPT). Participants were a group of schizophrenic patients and two groups of normal population psychometrically classified as low schizotypy and high schizotypy according to the SPQ. Our results show that schizophrenic patients were more sensitive to increments on cognitive load, being their attentional performace worse than the rest of the groups. The lack of significant findings in vigilance on the schizotypal traits group is discussed in terms of conceptual and methodological issues about the utility of psychometric strategies to identify vulnerable populations within the spectrum of the schizophrenic disorders.

  8. Anthropogenic activities have contributed moderately to increased inputs of organic materials in marginal seas off China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wei, Gao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Wu, Feng-Chang; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-15

    Sediment has been recognized as a gigantic sink of organic materials and therefore can record temporal input trends. To examine the impact of anthropogenic activities on the marginal seas off China, sediment cores were collected from the Yellow Sea, the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the sources and spatial and temporal variations of organic materials, i.e., total organic carbon (TOC) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The concentration ranges of TOC were 0.5-1.29, 0.63-0.83, and 0.33-0.85%, while those of Σn-C14-35 (sum of n-alkanes with carbon numbers of 14-35) were 0.08-1.5, 0.13-1.97, and 0.35-0.96 μg/g dry weight in sediment cores from the Yellow Sea, ECS inner shelf, and the SCS, respectively. Terrestrial higher plants were an important source of aliphatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments off China. The spatial distribution of Σn-C14-35 concentrations and source diagnostic ratios suggested a greater load of terrestrial organic materials in the Yellow Sea than in the ECS and SCS. Temporally, TOC and Σn-C14-35 concentrations increased with time and peaked at either the surface or immediate subsurface layers. This increase was probably reflective of elevated inputs of organic materials to marginal seas off China in recent years, and attributed partly to the impacts of intensified anthropogenic activities in mainland China. Source diagnostics also suggested that aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly derived from biogenic sources, with a minority in surface sediment layers from petroleum sources, consistent with the above-mentioned postulation.

  9. Ammonia threshold for inhibition of anaerobic digestion of thin stillage and the importance of organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Moestedt, Jan; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Biogas production from nitrogen-rich feedstock results in release of ammonia (NH3), causing inhibition of the microbial process. The reported threshold ammonia value for stable biogas production varies greatly between studies, probably because of differences in operating conditions. Moreover, it is often difficult to separate the effect of ammonia inhibition from that of organic loading rate (OLR), as these two factors are often interrelated. This study attempted to distinguish the effects of ammonia and OLR by analysis of two laboratory-scale biogas reactors operating with thin stillage and subjected to an increase in free ammonia (from 0.30 to 1.1 g L(-1)) either by addition of an external nitrogen source (urea) or by increasing the OLR (3.2-6.0 g volatile solids L(-1) d(-1)). The results showed that ammonia concentration was detrimental for process performance, with the threshold for stability in both processes identified as being about 1 g NH3-N L(-1), irrespective of OLR. Analysis of the methanogenic community showed limited differences between the two reactors on order level and a clear increase in the abundance of Methanomicrobiales, particularly Methanoculleus sp., in response to increasing ammonia concentration. Further comprehensive molecular analysis revealed that diverse Methanoculleus species dominated in the reactors at a given ammonia level at different OLR. The acetogenic community was clearly affected by both ammonia concentration and OLR, suggesting that the volatile fatty acid load in relation to the higher OLR was important for the dynamics of this community.

  10. AnSBBR applied to the treatment of metalworking fluid wastewater: effect of organic and shock load.

    PubMed

    Carvalhinha, Pedro P; Flôres, Anderson; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    An investigation was performed regarding the application of a mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor containing immobilized biomass on inert polyurethane foam (AnSBBR) to the treatment of soluble metalworking fluids to remove organic matter and produce methane. The effect of increasing organic matter and reactor fill time, as well as shock load, on reactor stability and efficiency have been analyzed. The 5-L AnSBBR was operated at 30 degrees C in 8-h cycles, agitation of 400 rpm, and treated 2.0 L effluent per cycle. Organic matter was increased by increasing the influent concentration (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Fill times investigated were in the batch mode (fill time 10 min) and fed-batch followed by batch (fill time 4 h). In the batch mode, organic matter removal efficiencies were 87%, 86%, and 80% for influent concentrations of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mgCOD/L (1.50, 3.12, and 6.08 gCOD/L.d), respectively. At 3,000 mgCOD/L (9.38 gCOD/L.d), operational stability could not be achieved. The reactor managed to maintain stability when a shock load twice as high the feed concentration was applied, evidencing the robustness of the reactor to potential concentration variations in the wastewater being treated. Increasing the fill time to 4 h did not improve removal efficiency, which was 72% for 2,000 mgCOD/L. Thus, gradual feeding did not improve organic matter removal. The concentration of methane formed at 6.08 gCOD/L was 5.20 mmolCH(4), which corresponded to 78% of the biogas composition. The behavior of the reactor during batch and fed-batch feeding could be explained by a kinetic model that considers organic matter consumption, production, and consumption of total volatile acids and methane production.

  11. Increasing Cognitive Load Reduces Interference from Masked Appetitive and Aversive but Not Neutral Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Uher, Rudolf; Brooks, Samantha J.; Bartholdy, Savani; Tchanturia, Kate; Campbell, Iain C.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between cognition and emotion are important for survival, often occurring in the absence of awareness. These interactions have been proposed to involve competition between cognition and emotion for attentional resources. Emotional stimuli have been reported to impair performance on cognitive tasks of low, but not high, load if stimuli are consciously perceived. This study explored whether this load-dependent interference effect occurred in response to subliminal emotional stimuli. Masked emotional (appetitive and aversive), but not neutral, stimuli interfered with performance accuracy but not response time on a cognitive task (n-back) at low (1-back), but not high (2-back) load. These results show that a load-dependent interference effect applies to masked emotional stimuli and that the effect generalises across stimulus categories with high motivational value. This supports models of selective attention that propose that cognition and emotion compete for attentional resources. More specifically, interference from masked emotional stimuli at low load suggests that attention is biased towards salient stimuli, while dissipation of interference under high load involves top-down regulation of attention. Our data also indicate that top-down goal-directed regulation of attention occurs in the absence of awareness and does not require metacognitive monitoring or evaluation of bias over behaviour, i.e., some degree of self-regulation occurs at a non-conscious level. PMID:24709953

  12. Increasing cognitive load reduces interference from masked appetitive and aversive but not neutral stimuli.

    PubMed

    Uher, Rudolf; Brooks, Samantha J; Bartholdy, Savani; Tchanturia, Kate; Campbell, Iain C

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between cognition and emotion are important for survival, often occurring in the absence of awareness. These interactions have been proposed to involve competition between cognition and emotion for attentional resources. Emotional stimuli have been reported to impair performance on cognitive tasks of low, but not high, load if stimuli are consciously perceived. This study explored whether this load-dependent interference effect occurred in response to subliminal emotional stimuli. Masked emotional (appetitive and aversive), but not neutral, stimuli interfered with performance accuracy but not response time on a cognitive task (n-back) at low (1-back), but not high (2-back) load. These results show that a load-dependent interference effect applies to masked emotional stimuli and that the effect generalises across stimulus categories with high motivational value. This supports models of selective attention that propose that cognition and emotion compete for attentional resources. More specifically, interference from masked emotional stimuli at low load suggests that attention is biased towards salient stimuli, while dissipation of interference under high load involves top-down regulation of attention. Our data also indicate that top-down goal-directed regulation of attention occurs in the absence of awareness and does not require metacognitive monitoring or evaluation of bias over behaviour, i.e., some degree of self-regulation occurs at a non-conscious level.

  13. Ammonium removal in constructed wetland microcosms as influenced by season and organic carbon load.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kate A; Stein, Otto R; Hook, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated ammonium nitrogen removal and nitrogen transformations in three-year-old, batch-operated, subsurface wetland microcosms. Treatments included replicates of Typha latifolia, Carex rostrata, and unplanted controls when influent carbon was excluded, and C. rostrata with an influent containing organic carbon. A series of 10-day batch incubations were conducted over a simulated yearlong cycle of seasons. The presence of plants significantly enhanced ammonium removal during both summer (24 degrees C, active plant growth) and winter (4 degrees C, plant dormancy) conditions, but significant differences between plant species were evident only in summer when C. rostrata outperformed T. latifolia. The effect of organic carbon load was distinctly seasonal, enhancing C. rostrata ammonium removal in winter but having an inhibitory effect in summer. Season did not influence ammonium removal in T. latifolia or unplanted columns. Net production of organic carbon was evident year-round in units without an influent organic carbon source, but was enhanced in summer, especially for C. rostrata, which produced significantly more than T. latifolia and unplanted controls. No differences in production were evident between species in winter. COD values for C. rostrata microcosms with and without influent organic carbon converged within 24 hours in winter and 7 days in summer. Gravel sorption, microbial immobilization and sequential nitrification/denitrification appear to be the major nitrogen removal mechanisms. All evidence suggests differences between season and species are due to differences in seasonal variation of root-zone oxidation.

  14. Lower crop load for Cv. Jonagold apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.) increases polyphenol content and fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Stopar, Matej; Bolcina, Uros; Vanzo, Andreja; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2002-03-13

    The influence of crop load on fruit quality was investigated on 7-year-old slender spindle cv. Jonagold/M.9 apple trees. In mid June five different crop loads per tree were prepared by reducing the fruit number to average 30, 59, 104, 123, and 157 fruits per crown. The fruit from low-cropping trees had more red blush, a higher percentage of soluble solids in fruit flesh, and better flesh firmness in comparison to fruit from high-cropping trees. As the crop load decreased, the concentration of all phenolic compounds in the fruit samples (cortex plus skin) increased; concentrations of the most important individual fruit phenolics were also higher. When crop load fell from 157 to 30 fruits per crown, total polyphenols increased from an average of 1300 to 1680 mg/kg of fruit fresh weight (FW) (+29%), low molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1140 to 1570 mg/kg of FW (+38%), and high molecular weight polyphenols increased from 1740 to 2070 mg/kg of FW (+19%). The average increases in single polyphenols were even greater: chlorogenic acid (+82%); 4'-p-coumaroylquinic acid (+22%); catechin (+178%); and epicatechin (+71%). Ascorbic acid was not significantly dependent on crop load.

  15. Increased Quantum Dot Loading by pH Control Reduces Interfacial Recombination in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Katherine E; Herron, Steven M; Bent, Stacey F

    2015-08-25

    The power conversion efficiency of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) hinges on interfacial charge transfer. Increasing quantum dot (QD) loading on the TiO2 anode has been proposed as a means to block recombination of electrons in the TiO2 to the hole transport material; however, it is not known whether a corresponding increase in QD-mediated recombination processes might lead to an overall higher rate of recombination. In this work, a 3-fold increase in PbS QD loading was achieved by the addition of an aqueous base to negatively charge the TiO2 surface during Pb cation deposition. Increased QD loading improved QDSSC device efficiencies through both increased light absorption and an overall reduction in recombination. Unexpectedly, we also found increased QD size had the detrimental effect of increasing recombination. Kinetic modeling of the effect of QD size on interfacial charge transfer processes provided qualitative agreement with the observed variation in recombination lifetimes. These results demonstrate a robust method of improving QD loading, identify the specific mechanisms by which increased QD deposition impacts device performance, and provide a framework for future efforts optimizing the device architecture of QDSSCs.

  16. [The analysis of increased physical load effect on microcirculation and acoustic properties of human limb skin].

    PubMed

    Grebeniuk, L A

    2014-01-01

    Complex study of limb skin integument has been performed in 20 male "sportsmen of high qualification (track-and-field athletes and wrestlers of Graeco-Roman style) at the age of 17-25 years, as well as in inactive subjects of the same age. The results obtained by us evidence the variability of limb integumentary tissue acoustic properties in sportsmen as manifestation of adaptive response to regular increasedphysical loads experience by them every day. Some differences in microcirculation of skin integument has been established, first of all, those associated with reserve level--higher increase of capillary blood flow in leg skin during functional ischemic test and 66.2% exceeding capillary blood flow reserve index for leg in track-and-field athletes in comparison with that value in non-sportsmen. The speed of propagation of surface acoustic wave in leg skin during testing in different angular directions reliably exceeded the acoustic parameters of femoral integumentary tissue both in the track-and-field athletes and wrestlers examined, and in the subjects of non-sportsmen control group. The speed of propagation of surface acoustic wave in integumentary tissue of limb distal segments have been established to exceed those of proximal segments. When functional test was made in sportsmen for plasticity reserve reveal, modification of the shape of sound velocity envelope curve took place for the change in spatial position of the limb, evidencing the dynamicity of its elastic properties during performing movements of vital function and the presence of certain plastic reserve.

  17. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-07-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps), are here used to reconstruct past aerosol load and composition of the free European troposphere from before World War II to present. Available ice core records include inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, humic-like substances, dissolved organic carbon, water-insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions that permit reconstructing the key aerosol components and their changes over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). Thus, not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water-soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarios dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  18. Towards a quasi-complete reconstruction of past atmospheric aerosol load and composition (organic and inorganic) over Europe since 1920 inferred from Alpine ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preunkert, S.; Legrand, M.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonally resolved chemical ice core records available from the Col du Dôme glacier (4250 m elevation, French Alps) are here revisited in view to reconstruct past aerosol load of the free European troposphere from prior World War II to present. The extended array of inorganic (Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) and organic (carboxylates, HCHO, HUmic LIke Substances, dissolved organic carbon, water insoluble organic carbon, and black carbon) compounds and fractions already investigated permit to examine the overall aerosol composition and its change over the past. It is shown that the atmospheric load of submicron aerosol has been increased by a factor of 3 from the 1921-1951 to 1971-1988 years, mainly as a result of a large increase of sulfate (a factor of 5), ammonium and water-soluble organic aerosol (a factor of 3). It is shown that not only growing anthropogenic emissions of sulfur dioxide and ammonia have caused the enhancement of the atmospheric aerosol load but also biogenic emissions producing water soluble organic aerosol. This unexpected change of biospheric source of organic aerosol after 1950 needs to be considered and further investigated in scenarii dealing with climate forcing by atmospheric aerosol.

  19. Impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR).

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Antônio Djalma Nunes; Zaiat, Marcelo; Gupta, Medhavi; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Nakhla, George

    2014-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (UAnPBR). Two mesophilic UAPBRs (UAnPBR1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1). To overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the UAnPBR2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. The design modifications in UAnPBR2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose at an OLR of 25.7 g COD L(-1)d(-1). Although, a maximum hydrogen production rate of 23.4 ± 0.9 L H2 L(-1)d(-1) was achieved in the UAnPBR2 at an OLR of 51.4 g COD L(-1)d(-1), the hydrogen yield dropped by 50% to around 1 mol-H2 mol(-1)-glucose. The microbiological analysis (PCR/DGGE) showed that the biohydrogen production was due to the presence of the hydrogen and volatile acid producers such as Clostridium beijerinckii, Clostridium butyricum, Megasphaera elsdenii and Propionispira arboris.

  20. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li, Xiu-Fen; Jian, Chen

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10mg/L, 25mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ( approximately 1000 mg/L, approximately 2000 mg/L, approximately 3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1–6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4–3.8) mg C L−1, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha−1 yr−1. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  2. Concentrations, loads, and yields of organic carbon in streams of agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Kronholm, Scott; Capel, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Carbon is cycled to and from large reservoirs in the atmosphere, on land, and in the ocean. Movement of organic carbon from the terrestrial reservoir to the ocean plays an important role in the global cycling of carbon. The transition from natural to agricultural vegetation can change the storage and movement of organic carbon in and from a watershed. Samples were collected from 13 streams located in hydrologically and agriculturally diverse watersheds, to better understand the variability in the concentrations and loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) in the streams, and the variability in watershed yields. The overall annual median concentrations of DOC and POC were 4.9 (range: 2.1-6.8) and 1.1 (range: 0.4-3.8) mg C L, respectively. The mean DOC watershed yield (± SE) was 25 ± 6.8 kg C ha yr. The yields of DOC from these agricultural watersheds were not substantially different than the DOC yield from naturally vegetated watersheds in equivalent biomes, but were at the low end of the range for most biomes. Total organic carbon (DOC + POC) annually exported from the agricultural watersheds was found to average 0.03% of the organic carbon that is contained in the labile plant matter and top 1 m of soil in the watershed. Since the total organic carbon exported from agricultural watersheds is a relatively small portion of the sequestered carbon within the watershed, there is the great potential to store additional carbon in plants and soils of the watershed, offsetting some anthropogenic CO emissions.

  3. Effect of organic loading rate during anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hiya; Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Sunil; Mukherjee, Somnath; Vaidya, Atul N

    2016-10-01

    The effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solids (VS) on subsequent methane (CH4) production during anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied in a laboratory-scale digester. The experiment was performed in 2L anaerobic digester under different experimental conditions using different input mass co-digested with inoculum and organic loading rate (OLR) for 27days at 38±2°C. Three digesters (digesters 1, 2 and 3) were operated at initial loading of 5.1, 10.4 and 15.2g/L CODS per batch which were reduced to 77.9% and 84.2%, respectively. Cumulative biogas productions were 9.3, 10.7 and 17.7L in which CH4 yields were 84.3, 101.0 and 168.4mL/gVS removal in digesters 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The observed COD removal was found to be influenced on variation in CH4 production. Co-efficient of determination (R(2)) was 0.67 and 0.74 in digesters 1 and 2, respectively.

  4. Organic micropollutants degradation in ozone-loaded system with perfluorinated solvent.

    PubMed

    Gromadzka, K; Swietlik, J

    2007-06-01

    In order to provide higher ozonation process efficiency, new methods of advanced oxidation have been investigated. One of them is two-phase ozonation, sometimes called as ozone-loaded system. In this study, the solubility and stability of ozone in Fluorinet FC40 as well as the influence of pH and contact time on diffusion rate of oxidant from saturated FC40 phase to water was examined. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the removal efficiency of organic compounds with different distribution coefficient (K(D)) in conventional and ozone-loaded systems as well as to reveal the mechanism of the process. It is shown that organic micropollutants with high K(D) diffuse into FC40 where degradation reaction takes place. In a case of compounds with high polarity the perfluorinated phase works as ozone reservoir. The results indicated that oxidant is gradually released from FC40 into the water. In consequence, the oxidation reaction occurs in water, not in perfluorinated phase as it has been so far presumed.

  5. Risk factors associated with increased bovine leukemia virus proviral load in infected cattle in Japan from 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ayumu; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsumoto, Yuki; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a malignant B cell lymphoma. BLV has spread worldwide and causes serious problems. After infection, the BLV genome is integrated into the host DNA and can be amplified during periods of latency. We previously designed degenerate primers using the Coordination of Common Motifs (CoCoMo) algorithm to establish a new quantitative real-time PCR method (BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2) of measuring the proviral load of both known and novel BLV variants. Here, we aimed to examine the correlation between proviral load and risk factors for BLV infection, such as breeding systems, parousity, and colostrum feeding. Blood and serum samples were collected from 83 BLV-positive farms in 22 prefectures of Japan, and the BLV proviral load and anti-BLV antibody levels were measured. BLV was detected in 73.3% (1039/1,417) of cattle by BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2 and the provirus was detected in 93 of 1039 antibody-negative samples. The results showed that the proviral load increased with progression of lymphocytosis. Next, the risk factors associated with increasing BLV infection rate were examined along with any association with proviral load. The proviral load was higher in cattle with lymphocytosis than in healthy cattle, and higher in multiparous cows than in nulliparous cows. Finally, proviral loads were higher in contact breeding systems than in non-contact breeding systems. Taken together, these findings may help to formulate a plan for eliminating BLV from contaminated farms. This is the first nationwide study to estimate BLV proviral load in Japanese cattle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of tear location on propagation of isolated supraspinatus tendon tears during increasing levels of cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Araki, Daisuke; Miller, R Matthew; Fujimaki, Yoshimasa; Hoshino, Yuichi; Musahl, Volker; Debski, Richard E

    2015-02-18

    The morphology of the supraspinatus tendon may affect tear propagation. It was hypothesized that tears located in the anterior third of the supraspinatus tendon would propagate more readily and would require lower loads to reach critical amounts of tear propagation than those located in the middle third of the supraspinatus tendon. Twenty-three fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders were tested under increasing levels of cyclic loading. Tears were created in the anterior third (Group A, n=10) or the middle third (Group M, n=13) of the supraspinatus tendon. The maximum load at which a critical tear retraction was reached and the tear area for the final loading set were compared between groups. A correlation analysis was also performed for age compared with maximum load. No significant differences were found between the anterior-third tear group (Group A) and the middle-third tear group (Group M) in maximum load (p=0.09) or tear area (p=0.6). However, Group A first reached a 100% increase in tear size at a significantly lower load than Group M (p=0.03). Strong negative correlations were detected between age and maximum load in Group A (τ=-0.82) and Group M (r=-0.63). Other factors being equal, tears in the anterior supraspinatus tendon may propagate more readily than tears in the tendon's middle part. Age may be a factor for tear propagation. Older patients and patients with tears in the anterior supraspinatus should be followed especially carefully. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  7. Attention bias modification training under working memory load increases the magnitude of change in attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Patrick J F; Branson, Sonya; Chen, Nigel T M; Van Bockstaele, Bram; Salemink, Elske; MacLeod, Colin; Notebaert, Lies

    2017-12-01

    Attention bias modification (ABM) procedures have shown promise as a therapeutic intervention, however current ABM procedures have proven inconsistent in their ability to reliably achieve the requisite change in attentional bias needed to produce emotional benefits. This highlights the need to better understand the precise task conditions that facilitate the intended change in attention bias in order to realise the therapeutic potential of ABM procedures. Based on the observation that change in attentional bias occurs largely outside conscious awareness, the aim of the current study was to determine if an ABM procedure delivered under conditions likely to preclude explicit awareness of the experimental contingency, via the addition of a working memory load, would contribute to greater change in attentional bias. Bias change was assessed among 122 participants in response to one of four ABM tasks given by the two experimental factors of ABM training procedure delivered either with or without working memory load, and training direction of either attend-negative or avoid-negative. Findings revealed that avoid-negative ABM procedure under working memory load resulted in significantly greater reductions in attentional bias compared to the equivalent no-load condition. The current findings will require replication with clinical samples to determine the utility of the current task for achieving emotional benefits. These present findings are consistent with the position that the addition of a working memory load may facilitate change in attentional bias in response to an ABM training procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  9. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  10. The role of irrigation runoff and winter rainfall on dissolved organic carbon loads in an agricultural watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oh, Neung-Hwan; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Bachand, Sandra M.; Ohara, Noriaki; Kavvas, M. Levent; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Horwath, William R.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of land use/land cover and agriculture practices on stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics in the Willow Slough watershed (WSW) from 2006 to 2008. The 415 km2watershed in the northern Central Valley, California is covered by 31% of native vegetation and the remaining 69% of agricultural fields (primarily alfalfa, tomatoes, and rice). Stream discharge and weekly DOC concentrations were measured at eight nested subwatersheds to estimate the DOC loads and yields (loads/area) using the USGS developed stream load estimation model, LOADEST. Stream DOC concentrations peaked at 18.9 mg L−1 during summer irrigation in the subwatershed with the highest percentage of agricultural land use, demonstrating the strong influence of agricultural activities on summer DOC dynamics. These high concentrations contributed to DOC yields increasing up to 1.29 g m−2 during the 6 month period of intensive agricultural activity. The high DOC yields from the most agricultural subwatershed during the summer irrigation period was similar throughout the study, suggesting that summer DOC loads from irrigation runoff would not change significantly in the absence of major changes in crops or irrigation practices. In contrast, annual DOC yields varied from 0.89 to 1.68 g m−2 yr−1 for the most agricultural watershed due to differences in winter precipitation. This suggests that variability in the annual DOC yields will be largely determined by the winter precipitation, which can vary significantly from year to year. Changes in precipitation patterns and intensities as well as agricultural practices have potential to considerably alter the DOC dynamics.

  11. Developmentally regulated ceramide synthase 6 increases mitochondrial Ca2+ loading capacity and promotes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Novgorodov, Sergei A; Chudakova, Daria A; Wheeler, Brian W; Bielawski, Jacek; Kindy, Mark S; Obeid, Lina M; Gudz, Tatyana I

    2011-02-11

    Ceramides, which are membrane sphingolipids and key mediators of cell-stress responses, are generated by a family of (dihydro) ceramide synthases (Lass1-6/CerS1-6). Here, we report that brain development features significant increases in sphingomyelin, sphingosine, and most ceramide species. In contrast, C(16:0)-ceramide was gradually reduced and CerS6 was down-regulated in mitochondria, thereby implicating CerS6 as a primary ceramide synthase generating C(16:0)-ceramide. Investigations into the role of CerS6 in mitochondria revealed that ceramide synthase down-regulation is associated with dramatically decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+)-loading capacity, which could be rescued by addition of ceramide. Selective CerS6 complexing with the inner membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore was detected by immunoprecipitation. This suggests that CerS6-generated ceramide could prevent mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening, leading to increased Ca(2+) accumulation in the mitochondrial matrix. We examined the effect of high CerS6 expression on cell survival in primary oligodendrocyte (OL) precursor cells, which undergo apoptotic cell death during early postnatal brain development. Exposure of OLs to glutamate resulted in apoptosis that was prevented by inhibitors of de novo ceramide biosynthesis, myriocin and fumonisin B1. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA reduced glutamate-triggered OL apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CerS5 had no effect: the pro-apoptotic role of CerS6 was not stimulus-specific. Knockdown of CerS6 with siRNA improved cell survival in response to nerve growth factor-induced OL apoptosis. Also, blocking mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake or decreasing Ca(2+)-dependent protease calpain activity with specific inhibitors prevented OL apoptosis. Finally, knocking down CerS6 decreased calpain activation. Thus, our data suggest a novel role for CerS6 in the regulation of both mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis and calpain, which appears to

  12. Effects of changing hydraulic and organic loading rates on pollutant reduction in bark, charcoal and sand filters treating greywater.

    PubMed

    Dalahmeh, Sahar S; Pell, Mikael; Hylander, Lars D; Lalander, Cecilia; Vinnerås, Björn; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Greywater flows and concentrations vary greatly, thus evaluation and prediction of the response of on-site treatment filters to variable loading regimes is challenging. The performance of 0.6 m × 0.2 m (height × diameter) filters of bark, activated charcoal and sand in reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (Tot-N) and total phosphorus (Tot-P) under variable loading regimes was investigated and modelled. During seven runs, the filters were fed with synthetic greywater at hydraulic loading rates (HLR) of 32-128 L m(-2) day(-1) and organic loading rates (OLR) of 13-76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1). Based on the changes in HLR and OLR, the reduction in pollutants was modelled using multiple linear regression. The models showed that increasing the HLR from 32 to 128 L m(-2) day(-1) decreased COD reduction in the bark filters from 74 to 40%, but increased COD reduction in the charcoal and sand filters from 76 to 90% and 65 to 83%, respectively. Moreover, the models showed that increasing the OLR from 13 to 76 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters except for Tot-P in the bark filters, which decreased slightly from 81 to 73%. Decreasing the HLR from 128 to 32 L m(-2) day(-1) enhanced the pollutant reduction in all filters, but decreasing the OLR from 76 to 14 g BOD5 m(-2) day(-1) detached biofilm and decreased the Tot-N and Tot-P reduction in the bark and sand filters. Overall, the bark filters had the capacity to treat high OLR, while the charcoal filters had the capacity to treat high HLR and high OLR. Both bark and charcoal filters had higher capacity than sand filters in dealing with high and variable loads. Bark seems to be an attractive substitute for sand filters in settings short in water and its effluent would be valuable for irrigation, while charcoal filters should be an attractive alternative for settings both rich and short in water supply and when

  13. The Survival of Meteorite Organic Compounds with Increasing Impact Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George; Horz, Friedrich; Oleary, Alanna; Chang, Sherwood; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The majority of carbonaceous meteorites studied today are thought to originate in the asteroid belt. Impacts among asteroidal objects generate heat and pressure that may have altered or destroyed pre-existing organic matter in both targets and projectiles to a greater or lesser degree depending upon impact velocities. Very little is known about the shock related chemical evolution of organic matter relevant to this stage of the cosmic history of biogenic elements and compounds. The present work continues our study of the effects of shock impacts on selected classes of organic compounds utilizing laboratory shock facilities. Our approach was to subject mixtures of organic compounds, embedded in a matrix of the Murchison meteorite, to a simulated hypervelocity impact. The molecular compositions of products were then analyzed to determine the degree of survival of the original compounds. Insofar as results associated with velocities < 8 km/sec may be relevant to impacts on planetary surfaces (e.g., oblique impacts, impacts on small outer planet satellites) or grain-grain collisions in the interstellar medium, then our experiments will be applicable to these environments as well.

  14. Use of social media and college student organizations to increase support for organ donation and advocacy: a case report.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Peltier, James W; Dahl, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    This report focuses on the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics organ procurement organization's efforts to increase deceased organ and tissue donation by using social media and personalized messages targeting members of university student organizations, their families, and their friends. A grant from the US Department of Health and Human Services funded a 2-year study to (1) identify barriers/opportunities for increasing awareness, attitudes, and behaviors related to organ and tissue donation; (2) implement an intervention using social media and personalized message to increase knowledge, support, and donor registrations; (3) measure impact on awareness and attitudinal and behavioral changes within the organization; and (4) assess behavioral measures across a host of social media analytics and organ donor registrations. The results show increases in knowledge about and support for organ donation, including a 20% increase in donor registration. As a result, funding was secured to continue the project for an additional 2 years.

  15. Fast formation of aerobic granules by combining strong hydraulic selection pressure with overstressed organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2015-09-01

    The combined strong hydraulic selection pressure (HSP) with overstressed organic loading rate (OLR) as a fast granulation strategy was used to enhance aerobic granulation. To investigate the wide applicability of this strategy to different scenarios and its relevant mechanism, different settling times, different inoculums, different exchange ratios, different reactor configurations, and different shear force were used in this study. It was found that clear granules were formed within 24 h and steady state reached within three days when the fast granulation strategy was used in a lab-scale reactor seeded with well settled activated sludge (Reactor 2). However, granules appeared after 2-week operation and reached steady state after one month at the traditional step-wise decreased settling time from 20 to 2 min with OLR of 6 g COD/L·d (Reactor 1). With the fast granulation strategy, granules appeared within 24 h even with bulking sludge as seed to start up Reactor 3, but 6-day lag phase was observed compared with Reactor 2. Both Reactor 2 and Reactor 3 experienced sigmoidal growth curve in terms of biomass accumulation and granule size increase after granulation. In addition, the reproducible results in pilot-scale reactors (Reactor 5 and Reactor 6) with diameter of 20 cm and height/diameter ratio (H/D) of 4 further proved that reactor configuration and fluid flow pattern had no effect on the aerobic granulation when the fast granulation strategy was employed, but biomass accumulation experienced a short lag phase too in Reactor 5 and Reactor 6. Although overstressed OLR was favorable for fast granulation, it also led to the fluffy granules after around two-week operation. However, the stable 6-month operation of Reactor 3 demonstrated that the rapidly formed granules were able to maintain long-term stability by reducing OLR from 12 g COD/L·d to 6 g COD/L·d. A mechanism of fast granulation with the strategy of combined strong HSP and OLR was proposed to explain

  16. Organic matter compositions and loadings in soils and sediments along the Fly River, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goñi, Miguel A.; Moore, Eric; Kurtz, Andrew; Portier, Evan; Alleau, Yvan; Merrell, David

    2014-09-01

    The compositions and loadings of organic matter in soils and sediments from a diverse range of environments along the Fly River system were determined to investigate carbon transport and sequestration in this region. Soil horizons from highland sites representative of upland sources have organic carbon contents (%OC) that range from 0.3 to 25 wt%, carbon:nitrogen ratios (OC/N) that range from 7 to 25 mol/mol, highly negative stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13Corg < -26‰) and variable concentrations of lignin phenols (1 < LP < 5 mg/100 mg OC). These compositions reflect inputs from local vegetation, with contributions from bedrock carbon in the deeper mineral horizons. Soils developed on the levees of active floodplains receive inputs of allochthonous materials by overbank deposition as well as autochthonous inputs from local vegetation. In the forested upper floodplain reaches, %OC contents are lower than upland soils (0.8-1.5 wt%) as are OC/N ratios (9-15 mol/mol) while δ13Corg (-25 to -28‰) and LP (2-6 mg/100 mg OC) values are comparable to upland soils. These results indicate that organic matter present in these active floodplain soils reflect local (primarily C3) vegetation inputs mixed with allochthonous organic matter derived from eroded bedrock. In the lower reaches of the floodplain, which are dominated by swamp grass vegetation, isotopic compositions were less negative (δ13Corg > -25‰) and non-woody vegetation biomarkers (cinnamyl phenols and cutin acids) more abundant relative to upper floodplain sites. Soils developed on relict Pleistocene floodplain terraces, which are typically not flooded and receive little sediment from the river, were characterized by low %OC contents (<0.6 wt%), low OC/N ratios (<9 mol/mol), more positive δ13Corg signatures (>-21‰) and low LP concentrations (∼3 mg/100 mg OC). These relict floodplain soils contain modern carbon that reflects primarily local (C3 or C4) vegetation sources. Total suspended solids

  17. Cognitive load and emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder: electrocortical evidence for increased distractibility.

    PubMed

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-08-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may be characterized by emotion regulation deficits attributable to an imbalance between top-down (i.e., goal-driven) and bottom-up (i.e., stimulus-driven) attention. In prior work, these attentional processes were examined by presenting unpleasant and neutral pictures within a working memory paradigm. The late positive potential (LPP) measured attention toward task-irrelevant pictures. Results from this prior work showed that working memory load reduced the LPP across participants; however, this effect was attenuated for individuals with greater self-reported state anxiety, suggesting reduced top-down control. In the current study, the same paradigm was used with 106 medication-free female participants-71 with GAD and 35 without GAD. Unpleasant pictures elicited larger LPPs, and working memory load reduced the picture-elicited LPP. Compared with healthy controls, participants with GAD showed large LPPs to unpleasant pictures presented under high working memory load. Self-reported symptoms of anhedonic depression were related to a reduced effect of working memory load on the LPP elicited by neutral pictures. These results indicate that individuals with GAD show less flexible modulation of attention when confronted with unpleasant stimuli. Furthermore, among those with GAD, anhedonic depression may broaden attentional deficits to neutral distracters.

  18. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czirják, Gábor Árpád; Pap, Péter László; Vágási, Csongor István; Giraudeau, Mathieu; Mureşan, Cosmin; Mirleau, Pascal; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    The preen gland is a holocrine sebaceous gland of the avian integument which produces an oily secretion that is spread on the plumage during preening. It has been suggested that birds may defend themselves against feather-degrading bacteria (FDB) and other potential pathogens using preen gland secretions. However, besides some in vitro studies, the in vivo bacterial inhibitory effects of the preen oil on the abundance of feather-associated bacterial species has not yet been studied in passerines. Here we tested the effect of gland removal on the abundance of FDB and other-cultivable bacterial loads (OCB) of male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus). Our results did not support earlier results on in vitro antibacterial activity of preen oil against FDB since the absence of the preen gland did not significantly affect their loads related to the control birds. In contrast, we found that preen gland removal led to higher loads of OCB. This result suggests that the antimicrobial spectrum of the preen oil is broader than previously thought and that, by reducing the overall feather bacterial loads, the preen gland could help birds to protect themselves against a variety of potentially harmful bacteria.

  19. Dynamic changes of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactors at different organic loading rates: Evidence from spectroscopic and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Tahir; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2017-06-01

    Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were utilized to explore the dynamics in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and effluent for the membrane bioreactors at two different organic loading rates (OLRs). Combination of three different fluorescent components explained the compositional changes of dissolved organic matter. The lower OLR resulted in a higher production of tryptophan-like component (C1) in EPS, while the opposite trends were found for the other two components (humic-like C2 and tyrosine-like C3), signifying the role of C1 in the endogenous condition. Larger sized molecules were more greatly produced in EPS at the lower OLR. Meanwhile, all the size fractions of SMP were more abundant at the higher OLR particular for the early phase of the operation. Irrespective of the OLR, the higher degrees of the membrane retention were found for relatively large sized and protein-like molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  1. Characterization of a ^6Li-loaded organic liquid scintillator for fast neutron spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, C. D.; Heimbach, C. R.; Nico, J. S.; Beise, E. J.; Breuer, H.; Erwin, D.; Langford, T.; Rodrigues, A.

    2010-11-01

    Fast neutrons induced by natural radioactivity and cosmic rays are important sources of background for low-background searches of dark matter, neutrinoless double beta decay, and solar neutrinos. One method for performing fast neutron spectroscopy involves a capture-gated coincidence between a fast neutron that thermalizes through elastic scattering within an organic scintillator and its subsequent capture on a nuclide having a high thermal neutron capture cross section. Thermalization within an organic scintillator occurs within a few ns, but the neutron capture time is typically of order 10s to 100s of μs. A capture signal preceded by a thermalization signal within a characteristic time can be used to select those fast neutrons that have deposited all of their kinetic energy into the scintillator, and the thermalization signal can provide spectroscopic information. We report on a number of measurements performed to characterize the properties of an organic liquid scintillator based on di-isopropyl naphthalene and loaded with ^6Li. This work has been carried out within a joint UMd and NIST project to develop a fast neutron spectrometer suitable for use in a deep underground, low-background laboratory. In particular, we report on measurements of optical properties, light yield, and fast neutron response.

  2. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  3. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  4. Fine-scale monitoring of shifts in microbial community composition after high organic loading in a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Hori, Tomoyuki; Navarro, Ronald R; Habe, Hiroshi; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Ogata, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater sometimes undergoes unexpected changes in physicochemical parameters, such as organic carbon concentration. The aim of this study was to understand how microbial communities in activated sludge in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) adapt to high organic loading and maintain their degradation ability during reactor operation. A pilot-scale MBR was operated for 19 days. On day 8, the concentration of organic matter in the synthetic wastewater increased from 450 to 900 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L. Even under conditions of high organic loading, COD removal rates were high, ranging from 85.3 to 91.4%. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that microbial communities changed drastically with increased organic loading. After day 8, Aquabacterium- and Azospira-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the class β-proteobacteria became dominant; this potentially enhanced the degradation of organic substances and decreased activated sludge microbial diversity. Due to the use of dissolved oxygen (DO) for degradation of organic substances, DO levels in the reactor decreased. This led to an increase in a subset of OTUs related to not only aerobic but also anaerobic bacteria, e.g., those in the class Clostridia. During this period, anaerobic microorganisms may have contributed to the degradation of organic substances to maintain MBR performance. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing also made it possible to identify yet-to-be cultured or minor microorganisms affiliated with the candidate phylogenetic division SR1 and ammonia-oxidizing archaea in activated sludge.

  5. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.

    2016-06-15

    Metal organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. MOHCs utilize the MOF properties to improve the thermo-physical properties of base fluids. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC containing MIL-101(Cr)/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nano MIL-101(Cr) and the properties depend on the amount of GO added. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the preserved crystallinity of MIL-101(Cr) in all nanocomposites with the absence of any unreacted GO. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of near spherical MIL-101(Cr) nanoparticles in the range of 40-80 nm in diameter. MOHC nanofluids containing MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited significant enhancement in the thermal conductivity (by approxi-mately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nano MIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of base fluid (methanol) was enhanced by about 20 %. The enhancement in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to graphene oxide functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  6. Evaluation of increased cesium loading on submerged demineralizer system (SDS) zeolite beds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    A Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) is being installed at the Three Mile Island Unit (TMI-2) Nuclear Power Station for decontamination of the Containment Building (CB) sump water and Reactor Coolant System (RCS) water. A Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force was assembled to evaluate the relative technical and financial benefits in storing, shipping, treating, and disposing of SDS zeolite liners, assuming that the liners will be loaded to a level higher than that (10,000 Ci/liner) originally planned by General Public Utilities (GPU). The DOE-SDS Task Force concludes that it is technically feasible to load the zeolite liners used in the SDS to levels up to 60,000 Ci of cesium per liner without additional preoperational testing. This would result in approximately ten such liners. The Task Force further concludes that these liners can be safely handled, stored, transported, and vitrified.

  7. Permissible radionuclide loading for organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Lin, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-10-01

    A questionnaire on the use of ion exchange resins in nuclear power plants was sent to all operating reactors in the US. Responses were received from 23 of the 48 utilities approached. Information was sought concerning the amounts of radionuclides held by the resins, and the effects of its radiation on the resins both during operation and after removal from service. Relevant information from the questionnaires is summarized and discussed. Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on organic ion exchange resins has been reviewed. On the basis of published data on damage to resins by radiation, the technical rationale is given to support NRC's draft branch technical position on a maximum permissible radionuclide loading. It is considered advisable to formulate the rule in terms of a delivered dose rather than a curie loading. A maximum permissible dose of 10/sup 8/ rad is chosen because, while it is large enough that a measurable amount of damage will be done to the resin, it is small enough that the damage will be negligible at a power plant or disposal site. A test procedure has been written which a generator could use to qualify a specific resin for service at a higher dose than permitted by the general rule.

  8. The link between organic aerosol mass loading and degree of oxygenation: an α-pinene photooxidation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaffenberger, L.; Barmet, P.; Slowik, J. G.; Praplan, A. P.; Dommen, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2013-07-01

    A series of smog chamber (SC) experiments was conducted to identify factors responsible for the discrepancy between ambient and SC aerosol degree of oxygenation. An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer is used to compare mass spectra from α-pinene photooxidation with ambient aerosol. Composition is compared in terms of the fraction of particulate CO2+, a surrogate for carboxylic acids, vs. the fraction of C2H3O+, a surrogate for aldehydes, alcohols and ketones, as well as in the Van Krevelen space, where the evolution of the atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio (H : C) vs. the atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O : C) is investigated. Low (near-ambient) organic mass concentrations were found to be necessary to obtain oxygenation levels similar to those of low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA) commonly identified in ambient measurements. The effects of organic mass loading and OH (hydroxyl radical) exposure were decoupled by inter-experiment comparisons at the same integrated OH concentration. An OH exposure between 3 and 25 × 107 cm-3 h is needed to increase O : C by 0.05 during aerosol aging. For the first time, LV-OOA-like aerosol from the abundant biogenic precursor α-pinene was produced in a smog chamber by oxidation at typical atmospheric OH concentrations. Significant correlation between measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and reference LV-OOA mass spectra is shown by Pearson's R2 values larger than 0.90 for experiments with low organic mass concentrations between 1.2 and 18 μg m-3 at an OH exposure of 4 × 107 cm-3 h, corresponding to about two days of oxidation time in the atmosphere, based on a global mean OH concentration of ~ 1 × 106 cm-3. α-Pinene SOA is more oxygenated at low organic mass loadings. Because the degree of oxygenation influences the chemical, volatility and hygroscopic properties of ambient aerosol, smog chamber studies must be performed at near-ambient concentrations to accurately simulate

  9. The determination of organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekhar, T.M.; Arrecis, J.J.; Witt, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    A method to measure trace quantities of methyl mercuric chloride and other organomercurials in surface waters containing high organic loads has been developed. Since organomercurials are usually present at ultra trace levels (0.02 to 0.2 ng/L) in surface waters, sample pre concentration is often necessary. This paper outlines the use of solid phase extraction to achieve the desired pre concentration. The compounds are then separated using gas chromatography and detected using an atomic fluorescence detector. Unlike the conventional approach which employs ethylation, there is no need to derivative the organomercurials to their more volatile ethylated analogs, and direct injection of the SPE extract onto a column is possible. Moreover this technique lends itself to a limited amount of automation, and higher throughput. Results from the analysis of surface waters from the Florida Everglades will be presented.

  10. The effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Wall, David M; Allen, Eoin; Straccialini, Barbara; O'Kiely, Padraig; Murphy, Jerry D

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of trace element addition to mono-digestion of grass silage at high organic loading rates. Two continuous reactors were compared. The first mono-digested grass silage whilst the second operated in co-digestion, 80% grass silage with 20% dairy slurry (VS basis). The reactors were run for 65weeks with a further 5weeks taken for trace element supplementation for the mono-digestion of grass silage. The co-digestion reactor reported a higher biomethane efficiency (1.01) than mono-digestion (0.90) at an OLR of 4.0kgVSm(-3)d(-1) prior to addition of trace elements. Addition of cobalt, iron and nickel, led to an increase in the SMY in mono-digestion of grass silage by 12% to 404LCH4kg(-1)VS and attained a biomethane efficiency of 1.01. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low-glycemic load decreases postprandial insulin and glucose and increases postprandial ghrelin in white but not black women.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Heymen, Steve; Hinderliter, Alan L; Galanko, Joseph; Macintosh, Beth

    2012-07-01

    Alterations in appetite hormones favoring increased postprandial satiety have been implicated in both the glycemic control and potential weight-loss benefits of a low-glycemic diet. Racial differences exist in dietary glycemic load and appetite hormone concentrations. This study examined the impact of glycemic load on appetite hormones in 20 black women [10 normal weight, BMI = 22.8 ± 1.42 (mean ± SD); 10 obese, BMI = 35.1 ± 2.77] and 20 white women (10 normal weight, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.45; 10 obese, BMI = 34.3 ± 2.77). Each woman completed two 4.5-d weight-maintenance, mixed-macronutrient, high-glycemic vs. low-glycemic load diets that concluded with a test meal of identical composition. Blood samples collected before and serially for 3 h after each test meal were assayed for plasma ghrelin and serum insulin and glucose concentrations. Compared with the high-glycemic load meal, the low-glycemic load meal was associated with lower insulin(AUC) (P = 0.02), glucose(AUC) (P = 0.01), and urge to eat ratings (P = 0.05) but with higher ghrelin(AUC) (P = 0.008). These results suggest the satiating effect of a low-glycemic load meal is not directly linked to enhanced postprandial suppression of ghrelin. Notably, these effects were significant among white but not black women, suggesting that black women may be less sensitive than white women to the glucoregulatory effects of a low-glycemic load. These findings add to a growing literature demonstrating racial differences in postprandial appetite hormone responses. If reproducible, these findings have implications for individualized diet prescription for the purposes of glucose or weight control in women.

  12. Front-loaded linezolid regimens result in increased killing and suppression of the accessory gene regulator system of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Brian T; Brown, Tanya; Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Brazeau, Daniel A; Forrest, Alan; Kelchlin, Pamela A; Holden, Patricia N; Peloquin, Charles A; Hanna, Debra; Bulitta, Jurgen B

    2012-07-01

    Front loading is a strategy used to optimize the pharmacodynamic profile of an antibiotic through the administration of high doses early in therapy for a short duration. Our aims were to evaluate the impact of front loading of linezolid regimens on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance and on RNAIII, the effector molecule of the accessory gene regulator system (encoded by agr) in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Time-killing experiments over 48 h were utilized for linezolid against four strains of MRSA: USA100, USA300, USA400, and ATCC 29213. A hollow-fiber infection model simulated traditional and front-loaded human therapeutic regimens of linezolid versus USA300 at 10(6) CFU/ml over 240 h. Over 48 h in time-kill experiments, linezolid displayed bacteriostatic activity, with reductions of >1 log(10) CFU/ml for all strains. Front-loaded regimens that were administered over 5 days, 1,200 mg every 12 h (q12h) (total, 10 doses) and 2,400 mg q12h (total, 10 doses) followed by 300 mg q12h thereafter, resulted in sustained bactericidal activity, with reductions of the area under the CFU curve of -6.15 and -6.03, respectively, reaching undetectable limits at the 10-day study endpoint. All regimens displayed a reduction in RNAIII relative expression at 24 h and 240 h compared with that of the growth control. Monte Carlo simulations predicted a <1.27× increase in the fractional decreases in platelets for all front-loaded regimens versus the 600 mg q12h regimen, except for the highest-dose front-loaded regimen. Front-loading strategies for linezolid are promising and may be of utility in severe MRSA infections, where early aggressive therapy is necessary.

  13. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    PubMed Central

    Paleckis, Vidas; Mickevičius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Streckis, Vytautas; Pääsuke, Mati; Rutkauskas, Saulius; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9) performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP), patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1) steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2) larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3) increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4) increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement. Key points Frequent drop jump training induces activation mode dependent muscle torque depression late in the training period. No significant changes in the thickness of patellar and Achilles tendons are observed during frequent training, while CSA increases towards the end of training period. Longitudinal effect for jump height but not for muscle strength is evident

  14. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase.

    PubMed

    Paleckis, Vidas; Mickevičius, Mantas; Snieckus, Audrius; Streckis, Vytautas; Pääsuke, Mati; Rutkauskas, Saulius; Steponavičiūtė, Rasa; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9) performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP), patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1) steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2) larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3) increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4) increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement. Key pointsFrequent drop jump training induces activation mode dependent muscle torque depression late in the training period.No significant changes in the thickness of patellar and Achilles tendons are observed during frequent training, while CSA increases towards the end of training period.Longitudinal effect for jump height but not for muscle strength is evident after

  15. Effect of increased load of high-strength food wastewater in thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge on bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Young Mo; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) has been widely used to improve reactor performance, especially methane production. In this study, we applied two different operating temperatures (thermophilic and mesophilic) and gradually increased the load of food wastewater (FWW) to investigate the bacterial communities during the AcoD of waste activated sludge (WAS) and FWW. As the load of FWW was increased, methane production rate (MPR; L CH4/L d) and methane content (%) in both Thermophilic AcoD (TAcoD) and Mesophilic AcoD (MAcoD) increased significantly; the highest MPR and methane content in TAcoD (1.423 L CH4/L d and 68.24%) and MAcoD (1.233 L CH4/L d and 65.21%) were observed when the FWW mixing ratio was 75%. However, MPR and methane yield in both reactors decreased markedly and methane production in TAcoD ceased completely when only FWW was fed into the reactor, resulting from acidification of the reactor caused by accumulation of organic acids. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed a decrease in bacterial diversity in TAcoD and a markedly different composition of bacterial communities between TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load. For example, Bacterial members belonging to two genera Petrotoga (assigned to phylum Thermotogae) and Petrimonas (assigned to phylum Bacteroidetes) became dominant in TAcoD and MAcoD with an increase in FWW load, respectively. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results showed higher bacterial and archaeal populations (expressed as 16S rRNA gene concentration) in TAcoD than MAcoD with an increase in FWW load and showed maximum population when the FWW mixing ratio was 75% in both reactors. Collectively, this study demonstrated the dynamics of key bacterial communities in TAcoD and MAcoD, which were highly affected by the load of FWW.

  16. The bacterial load of Ureaplasma parvum in amniotic fluid is correlated with an increased intrauterine inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Kasper, David C; Mechtler, Thomas P; Reischer, Georg H; Witt, Armin; Langgartner, Michaela; Pollak, Arnold; Herkner, Kurt R; Berger, Angelika

    2010-06-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are the most frequently isolated microorganisms inside the amniotic cavity and have been associated with spontaneous abortion, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), and preterm labor (PL). We analyzed 118 samples from amniotic fluid of preterm infants before 34 weeks of gestation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Bacterial load, Ureaplasma biovar discrimination (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum), and the level of inflammation were correlated with short-term clinical outcome. U. parvum was the predominant biovar, and increased bacterial load was significantly linked to histologic chorioamnionitis, PROM + PL, early-onset sepsis, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the amount of U. parvum and the magnitude of inflammatory response inside the amniotic cavity observed by elevated interleukin 8 levels. We postulate that the bacterial load of Ureaplasma spp. measured by qPCR should be determined in studies investigating the potential clinical impact of intrauterine Ureaplasma spp. on the outcome of preterm infants.

  17. A sequential decision framework for increasing college students' support for organ donation and organ donor registration.

    PubMed

    Peltier, James W; D'Alessandro, Anthony M; Dahl, Andrew J; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2012-09-01

    Despite the fact that college students support social causes, this age group has underparticipated in organ donor registration. Little research attention has been given to understanding deeper, higher-order relationships between the antecedent attitudes toward and perceptions of organ donation and registration behavior. To test a process model useful for understanding the sequential ordering of information necessary for moving college students along a hierarchical decision-making continuum from awareness to support to organ donor registration. The University of Wisconsin organ procurement organization collaborated with the Collegiate American Marketing Association on a 2-year grant funded by the US Health Resources and Services Administration. A total of 981 association members responded to an online questionnaire. The 5 antecedent measures were awareness of organ donation, need acknowledgment, benefits of organ donation, social support, and concerns about organ donation. The 2 consequence variables were support for organ donation and organ donation registration. Structural equation modeling indicated that 5 of 10 direct antecedent pathways led significantly into organ donation support and registration. The impact of the nonsignificant variables was captured via indirect effects through other decision variables. Model fit statistics were good: the goodness of fit index was .998, the adjusted goodness of fit index was .992, and the root mean square error of approximation was .001. This sequential decision-making model provides insight into the need to enhance the acceptance of organ donation and organ donor registration through a series of communications to move people from awareness to behavior.

  18. Fracture characteristics of carbon fibre, ceramic and non-palladium endodontic post systems at monotonously increasing loads.

    PubMed

    Ottl, P; Hahn, L; Lauer, H Ch; Fay, M

    2002-02-01

    A carbon fibre post system, three non-palladium and one palladium metal post systems, two ceramic post systems, and a metal post system with a ceramic core were studied in vitro. The control group consisted of root-filled test teeth without posts. The test teeth were identical artificial roots of an upper central incisor made from a posterior composite whose module of elasticity was similar to that of natural dentine. All posts were cemented in the roots using Panavia 21 TC. Subsequently, standardized full crowns were cemented onto all roots. On a universal testing machine, the test teeth were loaded palatally at monotonously increasing loads until root fracture. The highest mean fracture loads were found for the carbon fibre post system (312.5 +/- 58.8 N). The fracture load of non-palladium metal posts (242.3-300.4 N) did not differ significantly from that of the Perma-dor post (265.9 N), which does contain palladium. Values of 300.3 +/- 89.3 N (aluminium oxide ceramics) and 193.5 +/-57.0 N (zirconia ceramics) were found for the ceramic posts. The control group exhibited a fracture load of 228.8 +/- 35.7 N. The mean distance between the vestibular end of the fracture gap and the point of force application was between 10.1 +/- 2.3 and 14.7 +/- 1.2 mm.

  19. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  20. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  1. Organic loading rate impact on biohydrogen production and microbial communities at anaerobic fluidized thermophilic bed reactors treating sugarcane stillage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Samantha Christine; Rosa, Paula Rúbia Ferreira; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of high organic loading rates (OLR) (60.0-480.00 kg COD m(-3)d(-1)) on biohydrogen production at 55°C, from sugarcane stillage for 15,000 and 20,000 mg CODL(-1), in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR1 and AFBR2). It was obtained, for H2 yield and content, a decreasing trend by increasing the OLR. The maximum H2 yield was observed in AFBR1 (2.23 mmol g COD added(-1)). The volumetric H2 production was proportionally related to the applied hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6, 4, 2 and 1h and verified in AFBR1 the highest value (1.49 L H2 h(-1)L(-1)). Among the organic acids obtained, there was a predominance of lactic acid (7.5-22.5%) and butyric acid (9.4-23.8%). The microbial population was set with hydrogen-producing fermenters (Megasphaera sp.) and other organisms (Lactobacillus sp.).

  2. Zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid films for highly efficient thin-film microextraction of organic volatiles in water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ansai, Toshihiro; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2017-01-15

    ZSM-5 zeolite-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) hybrid thin films were demonstrated for efficient thin-film microextraction (TFME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analyzing organic volatiles in water. The extraction efficiency for a series of aliphatic alcohols and two aromatic compounds was significantly improved owing to the presence of ZSM-5 zeolites. The extraction efficiency of the hybrid films was increased in proportion to the content of ZSM-5 in the PDMS film, with 20wt% of ZSM-5 showing the best results. The 20wt% ZSM-5/PDMS hybrid film exhibited higher volatile organic content extraction compared with the single-component PDMS film or PDMS hybrid films containing other types of zeolite (e.g., SAPO-34). Limits of detection and limits of quantitation for individual analytes were in the range of 0.0034-0.049ppb and of 0.010-0.15 ppb, respectively. The effects of experimental parameters such as extraction time and temperature were optimized, and the molecular dispersion of the zeolites in/on the hybrid film matrix was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, the optimized hybrid film was preliminarily tested for the analysis of organic volatiles contained in commercially available soft drinks.

  3. Methods of Labor Economy Increasing in Educational Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorozhkin, Evgenij M.; Krotov, Yakov E.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.; Kruchkov, Konstantin V.; Korotaev, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of problem under investigation due to fact that increasing demand of the information technology infrastructure development in current conditions of educational institutions functioning, including formation of the information-educational environment point of view. Offered organizational and economic model of constructing processes for…

  4. Investigation of Anion-Exchange and Immunoaffinity Particle-Loaded Membranes for the Isolation of Charged Organic Analytes from Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dombrowski, T.R.; Wilson, G.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    Anion-exchange and immunoaffinity particle loaded membranes (PLMs) were investigated as a mechanism for the isolation of charged organic analytes from water. Kinetic properties determined theoretically included dynamic capacity, pressure drop (??P), residence and diffusion times (Tr, Td), and total membrane porosity (???T). These properties were confirmed through experimental evaluation, and the PLM method showed significant improvement over conventional solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ion-exchange formats. Recoveries of more than 90% were observed for a variety of test compounds at flow rates up to 70 mL/min (equipment-limited maximum flow rate). A fast-flow immunoaffinity column was developed using antibodies (Abs) attached to the PLMs. Reproducible recoveries (88% ?? 4%) were observed at flow rates up to 70 mL/min for the antibody (Ab)-loaded PLMs. Findings indicate increased selectivity over anion-exchange PLMs and conventional SPE or ion-exchange methods and rapid Ab-antigen binding rates given the excellent mass-transfer characteristics of the PLMs.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of grease sludge and sewage sludge: the effect of organic loading and grease sludge content.

    PubMed

    Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Antoniou, K; Avramides, C; Oikonomopoulos, P; Fountoulakis, I

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of co-digesting grease sludge (GS) originating from domestic wastewater along with sewage sludge (SS) and to assess the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and GS content on process performance. Three lab-scale semi-continuous fed mesophilic anaerobic digesters were operated under various OLRs and SS-GS mixtures. According to the results, addition of GS up to 60% of the total VS load of feed resulted in a 55% increase of biogas yield (700 vs. 452m(3)/tVSadded) for an OLR of 3.5kg VS/m(3)/d. A stable and satisfactory operation of anaerobic co-digestion units can be achieved for a GS-OLR up to 2.4kg VSGS/m(3)/d. For such values biogas yield is linearly proportional to the applied GS-OLR, whereas biogas yield is minimal for GS-OLR higher than this limit and acidification of the anaerobic digestion units is taking place.

  6. Skin Globotriaosylceramide 3 Load Is Increased in Men with Advanced Fabry Disease

    PubMed Central

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Schröter, Nils; Kafke, Waldemar; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Sommer, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background The X-chromosomally linked life-limiting Fabry disease (FD) is associated with deposits of the sphingolipid globotriaosylceramide 3 (Gb3) in various tissues. Skin is easily accessible and may be used as an additional diagnostic and follow-up medium. Our aims were to visualize skin Gb3 deposits in FD patients applying immunofluorescence and to determine if cutaneous Gb3 load correlates with disease severity. Methods At our Fabry Center for Interdisciplinary Therapy we enrolled 84 patients with FD and 27 healthy controls. All subjects underwent 5-mm skin punch biopsy at the lateral lower leg and the back. Skin samples were processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies against CD77 (i.e. Gb3). Cutaneous Gb3 deposition was quantified in a blinded manner and correlated to clinical data. Results We found that Gb3 load was higher in distal skin of male FD patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.05). Men (p<0.01) and women (p<0.05) with a classic FD phenotype had higher distal skin Gb3 load than healthy controls. Men with advanced disease as reflected by impaired renal function, and men and women with small fiber neuropathy had more Gb3 deposits in distal skin samples than males with normal renal function (p<0.05) and without small fiber neuropathy. Gb3 deposits were not different between patients with and without enzyme replacement therapy. Conclusions Immunofluorescence on minimally invasive skin punch biopsies may be useful as a tool for assessment and follow-up in FD patients. PMID:27851774

  7. Postoperative Increased Loading Leads to an Alteration in the Radiological Mechanical Axis After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Robert Karl; Fussi, Jasmin; von Roth, Philipp; Perka, Carsten F; Hommel, Hagen

    2016-08-01

    Standing long-leg radiographs allow assessment of the mechanical axis in the frontal plane before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). An alteration in loading, and hence in the forces acting on the knee joint, occurs postoperatively. We therefore postulated that the mechanical axis measured in the long-leg standing radiograph would change within the first year after TKA. Standing long-leg radiographs of 156 patients were performed 7 days, 3 months, and 12 months after TKA with determination of mechanical axis of the lower limb. Seven days after surgery, the mechanical axis amounted 0.8° ± 1.7° valgus. Three months after the operation, at 1.3° ± 1.3° varus, it was significantly different (P < .001) from the primary measurement. No further alteration in the mechanical axis occurred during the first year after TKA. This difference was even more pronounced (P < .001) in patients with a postoperative lack of complete extension. Seven days after surgery, they had a valgus axis deviation of 1.6° ± 1.6°; after 3 months, the measurement amounted 1.2° ± 1.3° varus. Measured by a standing long-leg radiograph, the frontal mechanical axis after TKA changes over time. The predictive power of a standing long-leg radiograph in the first week after surgery is limited because limb loading is altered because of pain and is therefore nonphysiological. The actual mechanical axis resulting after TKA can only be assessed in a standing long-leg radiograph at physiological loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of feedstock carbon to nitrogen ratio and organic loading on foaming potential in mesophilic food waste anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Tanimu, Musa Idris; Mohd Ghazi, Tinia Idaty; Harun, Mohd Razif; Idris, Azni

    2015-05-01

    Foaming problem which occurred occasionally during food waste (FW) anaerobic digestion (AD) was investigated with the Malaysian FW by stepwise increase in organic loading (OL) from 0.5 to 7.5 g VS/L. The FW feedstock with carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 17 was upgraded to C/N ratio of 26 and 30 by mixing with other wastes. The digestion which was carried out at 37 °C in 1-L batch reactors showed that foam formation initiated at OL of 1.5 g VS/L and was further enhanced as OL of feedstock was increased. The digestion foaming reached its maximum at OL of 5.5 g VS/L and did not increase further even when OL was increased to 7.5 g VS/Ld. Increase in the C/N ratio of feedstock significantly enhanced the microbial degradation activity, leading to better removal of foam causing intermediates and reduced foaming in the reactor by up to 60%.

  9. Removal and retention of phosphorus by periphyton from wastewater with high organic load.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinxiang; Hong, Xiaoxing; Pei, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency from organic wastewater (pig farm and distillery wastewater) were estimated by using filamentous green algae (FGA) and benthic algal mats (BAM) treatment systems under laboratory conditions, and the contents of periphyton phosphorus fractions were determined by using a sequential extraction. The removal rates of TP reached 59-78% within the first 8 days of all treatment systems and could achieve average 80% during 30 day period, and the phosphorus removal rates by using BAM was higher than that of FGA. The ability of retention TP of periphyton enhanced gradually, the BAM TP contents were higher than that of FGA, the highest TP concentrations of BAM and FGA were 26.24 and 10.52 mg P g(-1)·dry weight. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) always exceeded 67.5% of TP, but the organic phosphorus fraction only made up less than 20% of TP. The calcium-binding phosphorus (Ca-P) was the dominant fraction and its relative contribution to TP was more than 40%. The TP was also strongly and positively correlated with the IP and Ca-P (p < 0.01) in periphyton. It showed that the periphyton had a potential ability of rapid phosphorus removing and remarkable retention from wastewater with high load phosphorus.

  10. Modified vector control algorithm for increasing partial-load efficiency of fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface PM machines

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman M; Jahns, Thomas M; Reddy, Patel; McKeever, John W

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated-winding surface permanent magnet (SPM) machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. By increasing the amplitude of the negative d-axis current, the resulting increase in the stator copper losses can be more than offset by the reduction in the iron core losses achieved by lowering the stator d-axis flux amplitude. The effectiveness of this technique has been demonstrated using both analytical models and finite element analysis for a 55-kW (peak) SPM machine design developed for a demanding set of traction drive performance requirements. For this example, the modified control strategy increases the partial-load efficiency at 20% of rated torque by > 6% at 2000 r/min compared to the maximum torque/ampere algorithm, making the machine much more attractive for its intended application.

  11. l-Tyrosine-loaded nanoparticles increase the antitumoral activity of direct electric current in a metastatic melanoma cell model

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Vânia Emerich Bucco; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Júnior, Eduardo Ricci; Holandino, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Inhibition of tumor growth induced by treatment with direct electric current (DC) has been reported in several models. One of the mechanisms responsible for the antitumoral activity of DC is the generation of oxidative species, known as chloramines. With the aim of increasing chloramine production in the electrolytic medium and optimizing the antitumoral effects of DC, poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with the amino acid tyrosine were obtained. The physical–chemical characterization showed that the NPs presented size in nanometric range and monomodal distribution. A slightly negative electrokinetic potential was also found in both blank NPs and l-tyrosine-loaded PCL NPs. The yield of the loading process was approximately 50%. Within 3 h of dissolution assay, a burst release of about 80% l-tyrosine was obtained. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DC was significantly increased when associated with l-tyrosine-loaded NPs, using a murine multidrug-resistant melanoma cell line model. This study showed that the use of the combination of nanotechnology and DC has a promising antineoplastic potential and opens a new perspective in cancer therapy. PMID:21187948

  12. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Angel Anne; Wilcox, Christie L

    2017-03-15

    Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as "venom load", has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis). Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More(®) products). Seawater rinsing, considered a "no-harm" alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles.

  13. Deep ploughing increases agricultural soil organic matter stocks.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Viridiana; Don, Axel; Well, Reinhard; Nieder, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    Subsoils play an important role within the global C cycle, since they have high soil organic carbon (SOC) storage capacity due to generally low SOC concentrations. However, measures for enhancing SOC storage commonly focus on topsoils. This study assessed the long-term storage and stability of SOC in topsoils buried in arable subsoils by deep ploughing, a globally applied method for breaking up hard pans and improving soil structure to optimize crop growing conditions. One effect of deep ploughing is translocation of SOC formed near the surface into the subsoil, with concomitant mixing of SOC-poor subsoil material into the 'new' topsoil. Deep-ploughed croplands represent unique long-term in situ incubations of SOC-rich material in subsoils. In this study, we sampled five loamy and five sandy soils that were ploughed to 55-90 cm depth 35-50 years ago. Adjacent, similarly managed but conventionally ploughed subplots were sampled as reference. The deep-ploughed soils contained on average 42 ± 13% more SOC than the reference subplots. On average, 45 years after deep ploughing, the 'new' topsoil still contained 15% less SOC than the reference topsoil, indicating long-term SOC accumulation potential in the topsoil. In vitro incubation experiments on the buried sandy soils revealed 63 ± 6% lower potential SOC mineralisation rates and also 67 ± 2% lower SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried topsoils than in the reference topsoils. Wider C/N ratio in the buried sandy topsoils than in the reference topsoils indicates that deep ploughing preserved SOC. The SOC mineralisation per unit SOC in the buried loamy topsoils was not significantly different from that in the reference topsoils. However, 56 ± 4% of the initial SOC was preserved in the buried topsoils. It can be concluded that deep ploughing contributes to SOC sequestration by enlarging the storage space for SOC-rich material. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of organic loading on nitrification and denitrification in a marine sediment microcosm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Sloth, N.P.; Kaspar, H.F.; Blackburn, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of organic additions on nitrification and denitrification were examined in sediment microcosms. The organic material, heat killed yeast, had a C/N ratio of 7.5 and was added to sieved, homogenized sediments. Four treatments were compared: no addition (control, 30 g dry weight (dw) m-2 mixed throughout the 10 cm sediment column (30 M), 100 g dw m-2 mixed throughout sediments (100M), and 100 g dw m-2 mixed into top 1 cm (100S). After the microcosms had been established for 7-11 days, depth of O2 penetration, sediment-water fluxes and nitrification rates were measured. Nitrification rates were measured using three different techniques: N-serve and acetylene inhibition in intact cores, and nitrification potentials in slurries. Increased organic additions decreased O2 penetration from 2.7 to 0.2 mm while increasing both O2 consumption, from 30 to 70 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, and NO3- flux into sediments. Nitrification rates in intact cores were similar for the two methods. Highest rates occurred in the 30 M treatment, while the lowest rate was measured in the 100S treatment. Total denitrification rates (estimated from nitrification and nitrate fluxes) increased with increased organic addition, because of the high concentrations of NO3- (40 ??M) in the overlying water. The ratio of nitrification: denitrification was used as an indication of the importance of nitrification as the NO3- supply for denitrification. This ratio decreased from 1.55 to 0.05 with increased organic addition.

  15. Biofilm increases permeate quality by organic carbon degradation in low pressure ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Chomiak, A; Traber, J; Morgenroth, E; Derlon, N

    2015-11-15

    We investigated the influence of biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes on the removal of organic model foulants and ultimately on the quality of permeate. Gravity Driven Membrane ultrafiltration (GDM) membrane systems were operated with modified river water during five weeks without control of the biofilm formation. Three GDM systems were studied: two systems with biofilms exposed to (A) variable or (B) constant load of organic foulants, and (C) one system operated without biofilm and exposed to constant foulant loading. Biodegradable dextran or non-biodegradable polystyrene sulfonate model foulants were tested. Substrate biodegradability was confirmed by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) and by degradation batch tests (D). The GDM systems (A) and (B) were fed with pre-filtered river water supplemented with dextran (Dex) of 1, 150 or 2000 kDa, or polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) of 1 or 80 kDa at concentrations of 2-3.5 mgC L(-1). In exp. (C) the feed water consisted of deionized water with 25 mgC L(-1) of either PSS 1, 80 kDa or Dex 2000 kDa. The biofilm formation on UF membrane surfaces controlled the foulant permeation and thus the permeate quality. Biofilms exposed to continuous foulant loading (exp. B) degraded low molecular weight (LMW) biodegradable foulants (1 kDa Dex), which improved the permeate quality. For high molecular weight (HMW) substrates (150, 2000 kDa Dex), the improvement of the permeate quality was observed after 7 days of biofilm formation, and resulted from the foulant hydrolysis followed by degradation. For non-biodegradable foulants, an improvement of 20% of the retention was observed for the polystyrene (1, 80 kDa PSS) due to the presence of biofilms on membrane surfaces. For variable foulant loading (exp. A) the biofilms hydrolysed the large biodegradable foulants but did not degraded them fully, which resulted a deterioration of the permeate quality (except for the LMW dextran (1 kDa) that was fully degraded). Overall, the "biofilm

  16. Do aggregate stability and soil organic matter content increase following organic inputs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; van Leeuwen, Jeroen P.; Bloem, Jaap; Steffens, Markus; Vala Ragnarsdóttir, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is facing several challenges such as loss of soil organic matter (SOM); thus, sustainable farming management practices are needed. Organic farming is growing as an alternative to conventional farming; in Iceland approximately 1% and in Austria 16% of utilized agricultural area is under organic farming practice. We analyzed the effect of different farming practices (organic, and conventional) on soil physicochemical and microbiological properties in grassland soils in Iceland and cropland soils in Austria. Organic farms differed from conventional farms by absence of chemical fertilizers and pesticide use. At these farms, we investigated soil physicochemical (e.g. soil texture, pH, CAL-extractable P and K) and microbiological properties (fungal and bacterial biomass and activity). The effects of farming practices on soil macroaggregate stability and SOM quantity, quality and distribution between different fractions were studied following a density fractionation. In Iceland, we sampled six grassland sites on Brown (BA) and Histic (HA) Andosols; two sites on extensively managed grasslands, two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. In Austria, we sampled four cropland sites on Haplic Chernozems; two sites under organic and two sites under conventional farming practice. We found significantly higher macroaggregate stability in the organic compared to the conventional grasslands in Iceland. In contrast, slightly higher macroaggregation in conventional compared to the organic farming practice was found in croplands in Austria, although the difference was not significant. Macroaggregates were positively correlated with fungal biomass in Iceland, and with Feo and fungal activity in Austria. In Austria, SOM content and nutrient status (except for lower CAL-extractable P at one site) were similar between organic and conventional farms. Our results show that the organic inputs may have enhanced macroaggregation in organic farming

  17. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of "Chernobyl" children with apple-pectin.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, V B; Nesterenko, A V; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Babenko, I V

    2004-01-10

    As a complement of standard radioprotective measures, apple-pectin preparations are given, especially in the Ukraine, to reduce the 137Cs uptake in the organism of children. The question has been raised: is oral pectin also useful when children receive radiologically clean food, or does this polysaccharide only act in binding 137Cs in the gut, blocking its intestinal absorption? In this case, pectin would be useless if radiologically clean food could be given. The study was a randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a dry and milled apple-extract containing 15-16% pectin with a similar placebo-powder, in 64 children originating from the same group of contaminated villages of the Gomel oblast. The average 137Cs load was of about 30 Bq/kg bodyweight (BW). The trial was conducted during the simultaneous one-month stay in the sanatorium Silver Spring. In this clean radiological environment only radiologically "clean" food is given to the children. The average reduction of the 137Cs levels in children receiving oral pectin powder was 62.6%, the reduction with "clean" food and placebo was 13.9%, the difference being statistically significant (p <0.01). The reduction of the 137Cs load is medically relevant, as no child in the placebo group reached values below 20 Bq/kg BW (which is considered by Bandazhevsky as potentially associated with specific pathological tissue damages), with an average value of 25.8 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg. The highest value in the apple-pectin group was 15.4 Bq/kg, the average value being 11.3 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg BW.

  18. Executive functioning and imitation: Increasing working memory load facilitates behavioural imitation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; van Baaren, Rick B; Martin, Douglas; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-12-01

    If perceptual and bodily states are closely linked and if perceiving action automatically leads to corresponding activations in one's own motor system, then why do not we imitate all the time? There is evidence suggesting that executive functioning (EF) may play a moderating role in inhibiting overt imitation [e.g. Luria, A. R. (1966). Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books]. In an experiment we tested this idea. 48 participants received either a high or low working memory (WM) load and were instructed to respond to either a finger cue or spatial cue with a finger movement. Results indicate that occupying WM facilitates reaction times to finger cues while responses to simple spatial cues are unchanged. The findings suggest that imitation is indeed a dominant response and EF is needed to inhibit the spontaneous tendency to imitate.

  19. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of high organic loads from winery wastewater by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Zimmels, Y; Kirzhner, F; Schreiber, J

    2008-09-01

    Laboratory- and field-scale purification tests of raw and diluted winery wastewater (WWW) were carried out using aquatic plants at high organic loads. The laboratory tests were performed using artificial light at 1800 to 1900 lux. The objective of the current study was to define the potential of floating and emergent aquatic macrophytes and the microorganisms attached to their roots, to reduce high organic loads that characterize WWW, thereby providing, for these effluents, an effective treatment and management system. These microorganisms are believed to have a major role in the treatment process. In this context, the potential of floating and emergent macrophytes to improve the water quality of raw compared with diluted WWW was evaluated. In raw WWW (chemical oxygen demand [COD] 5.6 g/L),growth inhibition of both water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) was observed. A 1:1 dilution of WWW with fresh (tap) water facilitated growth of these plants. At this dilution level, growth of pennywort was limited, while that of water hyacinth was robust. In terms of reductions in biochemical oxygen demand, COD, and total suspended solids, both water hyacinth and pennywort performed better in diluted compared with raw WWW. At 1:1 and 1:3 dilution, 95.9 to 97% of the COD was removed after 23 days, in the presence of Hydrocotyle and Eichhornia plants and aeration. The capacity of new emergent plants to remove high organic loads from WWW, at enhanced kinetics, was demonstrated. This unique property was tested and compared with the role of the gravel media that support growth of the high-capacity emergent plants. In the presence of reed and salt marsh plants, 83 to 99% of the COD was removed within a period of 24 to 29 days, at 1.5:1 dilution. The new emergent plants proved to be effective, even at record high levels of COD. At an initial level of 16,460 mg/L, the COD was brought down to 2870 mg/L after 24 days (82.6% removal), while 12

  1. New insights into the source of decadal increase in chemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved organic carbon in Dianchi Lake.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Yang, Feng; Li, Yanping; Wang, Shengrui

    2017-12-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can be used an alternative index of water quality instead of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to reflect the organic pollution in water. The monitoring data of water quality in a long-term (1990-2013) from Dianchi Lake confirmed the increase trend of COD concentration in the lake since 2007. The similarities and differences in the DOC components between the lake and its sources and the contribution from allochthonous and autochthonous DOC to the total DOC in this lake were determined to elucidate the reason of COD increase based on C/N atomic ratios, stable isotope abundance of carbon and nitrogen, UV-visible spectroscopy, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. The terrigenous organic matter showed humic-like fluorescence, and the autochthonous organic matter showed tryptophan-like components. Agricultural runoff (9.5%), leaf litter (7.5%) and urban runoff (13.2%) were the main sources of DOC in the lake. Sewage tail was a major source of organic materials, 3DEEM for the indicates that sewage tail DOC composition did not change markedly over the biodegradation period, indicating that sewage tail contains a high load of DOC that is resistant to further biodegradation and subsequently accumulates in the lake. The change of land use in the catchment and the increase of sewage tail load into the lake are the key factors for the increase in COD concentration in Dianchi Lake. Thus, the lake should be protected by controlling the pollution from the urban nonpoint sources and refractory composition in point sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At −20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load. PMID:24082400

  3. Influence of temperature and organic load on chemical disinfection of Geobacillus steareothermophilus spores, a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Liz

    2013-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of temperature and organic load on the effectiveness of domestic bleach (DB), Surface Decontamination Foam (SDF), and Virkon in inactivating Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, which are a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores. The spores were suspended in light or heavy organic preparations and the suspension was applied to stainless steel carrier disks. The dried spore inoculum was covered with the disinfectants and the disks were then incubated at various temperatures. At -20°C, the 3 disinfectants caused less than a 2.0 log10 reduction of spores in both organic preparations during a 24-h test period. At 4°C, the DB caused a 4.4 log10 reduction of spores in light organic preparations within 2 h, which was about 3 log10 higher than what was achieved with SDF or Virkon. In heavy organic preparations, after 24 h at 4°C the SDF had reduced the spore count by 4.5 log10, which was about 2 log10 higher than for DB or Virkon. In general, the disinfectants were most effective at 23°C but a 24-h contact time was required for SDF and Virkon to reduce spore counts in both organic preparations by at least 5.5 log10. Comparable disinfecting activity with DB only occurred with the light organic load. In summary, at temperatures as low as 4°C, DB was the most effective disinfectant, inactivating spores within 2 h on surfaces with a light organic load, whereas SDF produced the greatest reduction of spores within 24 h on surfaces with a heavy organic load.

  4. Nonlinear modeling and dynamic analysis of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Diyi; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feifei; Ba, Duoduo

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient, we establish a novel nonlinear dynamic model of the hydro-turbine governing system which considers the elastic water-hammer model of the penstock and the second-order model of the generator. The six nonlinear dynamic transfer coefficients of the hydro-turbine are innovatively proposed by utilizing internal characteristics and analyzing the change laws of the characteristic parameters of the hydro-turbine governing system. Moreover, from the point of view of engineering, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the above system are exhaustively investigated based on bifurcation diagrams and time waveforms. More importantly, all of the above analyses supply theoretical basis for allowing a hydropower station to maintain a stable operation in the process of sudden load increase transient.

  5. Epstein-Barr viral load in whole blood of adults with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation does not correlate with clinical course.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Stephan; Trappe, Ralf Ulrich; Zeidler, Kristin; Babel, Nina; Reinke, Petra; Hummel, Manfred; Jonas, Sven; Papp-Vary, Matthias; Subklewe, Marion; Dörken, Bernd; Riess, Hanno; Gärtner, Barbara

    2006-07-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is closely linked to primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A defect of EBV specific cellular immunity is postulated to play a pivotal role in the etiology of PTLD, but there is some debate as to whether EBV load in the peripheral blood of transplant patients predicts onset of PTLD or relapse after treatment. The current prospective, single-center study was undertaken to investigate the impact of therapy on EBV load in adult patients with PTLD. Fifteen patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation were included and of these, seven had EBV-associated PTLD. All 15 patients received Rituximab as primary therapy. In cases of treatment failure or relapse after Rituximab treatment, patients received polychemotherapy according to the cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and prednisone regimen. At onset of PTLD, the median EBV load in the peripheral blood of patients was higher in EBV-associated PTLD than PTLD with no associated EBV infection. After Rituximab therapy, four of seven patients with EBV-associated PTLD achieved long-lasting complete remissions. However, in two of these patients, EBV load increased to reach levels as high as those recorded at onset of PTLD. Another patient showed a dramatic decline of EBV load after the first dose of Rituximab while suffering from progressive disease. The other patient relapsed after Rituximab monotherapy, but his viral load stayed low. In total, discordance in EBV load and clinical course was observed in five of the seven patients with EBV-associated PTLD. We conclude that in adult patients with PTLD, EBV load does not correlate with treatment response and is not suitable as a predictive marker for PTLD relapse.

  6. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters.

  7. Increased human immunodeficiency virus loads in active methamphetamine users are explained by reduced effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Ronald J; Childers, Meredith E; Cherner, Mariana; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor

    2003-12-15

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a frequent comorbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. In cell cultures and animal models, METH accelerates retroviral replication. To determine whether METH increases HIV replication in humans, we evaluated HIV loads in HIV-positive METH users and nonusers. We studied 3 groups: Tox+, active METH use and positive urine toxicology results; METH(+)Tox-, previous METH dependence/abuse and negative urine toxicology results; METH(-)Tox-, no METH dependence/abuse and negative urine toxicology results. Tox+ subjects' plasma virus loads were significantly higher than METH(+)Tox- and METH(-)Tox- subjects'; cerebrospinal fluid virus loads showed a similar but nonsignificant trend. Stratification by use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) revealed that virus loads were higher only in those Tox+ subjects who reported receiving HAART. In contrast, abstinent former METH abusers (METH(+)Tox-) receiving HAART effectively suppressed viral replication. These data suggest that abstinence programs are a key component of effective treatment of HIV in METH-abusing populations.

  8. Impaired Increase of Plasma Abscisic Acid in Response to Oral Glucose Load in Type 2 Diabetes and in Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F.; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8–12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8–12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control. PMID:25723556

  9. Impaired increase of plasma abscisic Acid in response to oral glucose load in type 2 diabetes and in gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Bruzzone, Santina; Mannino, Elena; Sociali, Giovanna; Andraghetti, Gabriella; Salis, Annalisa; Ponta, Monica Laura; Briatore, Lucia; Adami, Giovanni F; Ferraiolo, Antonella; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Maggi, Davide; Cordera, Renzo; Murialdo, Giovanni; Zocchi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is present and active in humans, regulating glucose homeostasis. In normal glucose tolerant (NGT) human subjects, plasma ABA (ABAp) increases 5-fold after an oral glucose load. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an oral glucose load on ABAp in type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects. We chose two sub-groups of patients who underwent an oral glucose load for diagnostic purposes: i) 9 treatment-naive T2D subjects, and ii) 9 pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), who underwent the glucose load before and 8-12 weeks after childbirth. Each group was compared with matched NGT controls. The increase of ABAp in response to glucose was found to be abrogated in T2D patients compared to NGT controls. A similar result was observed in the women with GDM compared to pregnant NGT controls; 8-12 weeks after childbirth, however, fasting ABAp and ABAp response to glucose were restored to normal in the GDM subjects, along with glucose tolerance. We also retrospectively compared fasting ABAp before and after bilio-pancreatic diversion (BPD) in obese, but not diabetic subjects, and in obese T2D patients, in which BPD resulted in the resolution of diabetes. Compared to pre-BPD values, basal ABAp significantly increased 1 month after BPD in T2D as well as in NGT subjects, in parallel with a reduction of fasting plasma glucose. These results indicate an impaired hyperglycemia-induced ABAp increase in T2D and in GDM and suggest a beneficial effect of elevated ABAp on glycemic control.

  10. Functional impact of integrin α5β1 on the homeostasis of intervertebral discs: a study of mechanotransduction pathways using a novel dynamic loading organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Kurakawa, Takuto; Kakutani, Kenichiro; Morita, Yusuke; Kato, Yuki; Yurube, Takashi; Hirata, Hiroaki; Miyazaki, Shingo; Terashima, Yoshiki; Maeno, Koichiro; Takada, Toru; Doita, Minoru; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Inoue, Nozomu; Masuda, Koichi; Nishida, Kotaro

    2015-03-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, a major cause of low back pain, is considered to be induced by daily mechanical loading. Mechanical stress is widely known to affect cell survival and extracellular matrix metabolism in many cell types. Although the involvement of integrin α5β1 transmembrane mechanoreceptor in IVD degeneration has been reported, the precise function of integrin α5β1 remains obscure. To reflect IVD tissue response to mechanical stress using a dynamic loading organ culture system and elucidate the functional impact of integrin α5β1 on the pathomechanism of IVD degeneration. An ex vivo study using a dynamic loading organ culture system. Ninety-six rat IVD explants were examined. Intervertebral discs were subjected to 1.3 MPa, 1.0 Hz dynamic compressive load in the presence or absence of an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide with affinity to the fibronectin binding-site of integrin α5β1. Cell viability and histomorphology were assessed. The localization of integrin α5β1 in the IVD was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression levels of IVD cells were evaluated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In the nucleus pulposus (NP), cell density and viability were reduced by dynamic compressive load. Histologic degenerative alterations, mainly seen in the NP, were the morphologic changes of NP cells. In both NP and annulus fibrosus (AF), immunohistochemistry revealed localization of integrin α5β1 and that the messenger-RNA expression of integrin α5β1 was increased by dynamic load. Dynamic load induced a catabolic effect, the stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 gene expressions by NP and AF cells. The RGD peptide partially blocked the histologic alterations and the catabolic effect. The dynamic loading organ culture system simulated cellular responses to mechanical loading of the IVD. Our results suggest that IVD cells recognize the mechanical stress through RGD integrins, particularly the α5β1

  11. Effects of organic loading, influent concentration, and feed time on biohydrogen production in a mechanically stirred AnSBBR treating sucrose-based wastewater.

    PubMed

    Manssouri, M; Rodrigues, J A D; Ratusznei, S M; Zaiat, M

    2013-12-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR-total volume 7.5 L; liquid volume 3.6 L; treated volume per cycle 1.5 L) treated sucrose-based wastewater to produce biohydrogen (at 30 °C). Different applied volumetric organic loads (AVOL of 9.0, 12.0, 13.5, 18.0, and 27.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1)), which were varied according to the influent concentration (3,600 and 5,400 mg COD L(-1)) and cycle length (4, 3, and 2 h), have been used to assess the following parameters: productivity and yield of biohydrogen per applied and removed load, reactor stability, and efficiency. The removed organic matter (COD) remained stable and close to 18 % and carbohydrates (sucrose) uptake rate remained between 83 and 97 % during operation. The decrease in removal performance of the reactor with increasing AVOL, by increasing the influent concentration (at constant cycle length) and decreasing the cycle lengths (at constant influent concentrations), resulted in lower conversion efficiencies. Under all conditions, when organic load increased there was a predominance of acetic, propionic, and butyric acid as well as ethanol. The highest concentration of biohydrogen in the biogas (24-25 %) was achieved at conditions with AVOL of 12.0 and 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), the highest daily production rate (0.139 mol H2 day(-1)) was achieved at AVOL of 18.0 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and the highest production yields per removed and applied load were 2.83 and 3.04 mol H2 kg SUC(-1), respectively, at AVOL of 13.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). The results indicated that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the "biochemical generation" of biogas, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter involves "biochemical consumption" of the substrate.

  12. The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Sharghi, Elham Abdollahzadeh; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2013-12-01

    In this study the organic pollutant removal performance and the mixed liquor characteristics of a membrane bioreactor (MBR), employing a halophilic bacterial consortium, for the treatment of hypersaline synthetic produced water - at varying organic loading rates (OLR) from 0.3 to 2.6 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) - were considered. The oil and grease (O&G) and COD removal efficiency were 95-99% and 83-93%, respectively with only transient O&G (mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soluble microbial products accumulation being observed. With increasing OLR, in the range 0.9-2.6 kg COD m(-3)d(-1), as a result of change in both extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and zeta potential, bioflocculating ability improved but the compressibility of the flocs decreased resulting in the occurrence of EPS bulking at the highest OLR studied. The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Simple model of dissolved oxygen consumption in a bay within high organic loading: an applied remediation tool.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Ramón; Vargas, José; Pagliero, Liliana

    2006-07-01

    San Vicente Bay is a coastal shallow embayment in Central Chile with multiple uses, one of which is receiving wastewater from industrial fisheries, steel mill effluents, and domestic sewage. A simulation model was developed and applied to dissolved oxygen consumption by organic residues released into this embayment. Three compartments were established as function of: depth, circulation and outfall location. The model compartments had different volumes, and their oxygen saturation value was used as baseline. The parameters: (a) BOD5 of the industrial and urban effluents, (b) oxygen demand by organic sediments, (c) respiration, (d) photosynthesis and (e) re-aeration were included in the model. Iteration results of the model showed severe alterations in Compartment 1, with a decrease of 65% in the oxygen below saturation. Compartment 2 showed a small decline (10%) and compartment 3 did not show apparent changes in oxygen values. Measures recommended for remediation were to decrease the BOD5 loading by 30% in the affected sector. Iteration of the model for 200 h following recommendations derived from the preceding results produced an increase in saturation of 60% (5 ml O2 L(-1)), which suggested an improvement of the environmental conditions.

  14. Organic Carbon Trends, Loads, and Yields to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, Water Years 1980 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saleh, Dina K.; Domagalski, Joseph L.; Kratzer, Charles R.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2003-01-01

    Organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment concentration data were analyzed for the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins for the period 1980-2000. The data were retrieved from three sources: the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Storage and Retrieval System, and the California Interagency Ecological Program's relational database. Twenty sites were selected, all of which had complete records of daily streamflow data. These data met the minimal requirements of the statistical programs used to estimate trends, loads, and yields. The seasonal Kendall program was used to estimate trends in organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment. At all 20 sites, analyses showed that in the 145 analyses for the seven constituents, 95 percent of the analyses had no significant trend. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were significant only for four sites: the American River at Sacramento, the Sacramento River sites near Freeport, Orestimba Creek at River Roads near Crows Landing, and the San Joaquin River near Vernalis. Loads were calculated using two programs, ESTIMATOR and LOADEST2. The 1998 water year was selected to describe loads in the Sacramento River Basin. Organic carbon, nutrient, and suspended sediment loads at the Sacramento River sites near Freeport included transported loads from two main upstream sites: the Sacramento River at Verona and the American River at Sacramento. Loads in the Sacramento River Basin were affected by the amount of water diverted to the Yolo Bypass (the amount varies annually, depending on the precipitation and streamflow). Loads at the Sacramento River sites near Freeport were analyzed for two hydrologic seasons: the irrigation season (April to September) and the nonirrigation season (October to March). DOC loads are lower during the irrigation season then they are during the nonirrigation season. During the irrigation season, water with low

  15. The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms in a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Li, Jixiang; He, Shuying; Xie, Kang; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhang, Yanhao; Duan, Liang; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2010-09-01

    The effect of organic loading on bacterial community composition of membrane biofilms was investigated using a submerged polyvinyl chloride membrane bioreactor. The low and high loadings were set at 0.33 and 0.52 gCOD/(gVSSd), respectively. The results showed that membrane fouling occurred earlier and faster under the high loading conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that the similarity of bacterial community in the membrane biofilms between the two loadings was 0.67, higher than that in the mixed liquors (0.52-0.55), which indicated that some specific bacteria were selected preferentially on the membranes. Clone library analysis of the membrane biofilms indicated that Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes under the high loading were 54.72% and 19.81%, respectively. Microarray results further confirmed that the two bacteria were the dominant microorganisms in the high loading biofilm. The severe membrane fouling may be aroused mainly by the enrichment of the two bacteria under the high loading. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The strength of attentional biases reduces as visual short-term memory load increases

    PubMed Central

    Shimi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite our visual system receiving irrelevant input that competes with task-relevant signals, we are able to pursue our perceptual goals. Attention enhances our visual processing by biasing the processing of the input that is relevant to the task at hand. The top-down signals enabling these biases are therefore important for regulating lower level sensory mechanisms. In three experiments, we examined whether we apply similar biases to successfully maintain information in visual short-term memory (VSTM). We presented participants with targets alongside distracters and we graded their perceptual similarity to vary the extent to which they competed. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the more items held in VSTM before the onset of the distracters, the more perceptually distinct the distracters needed to be for participants to retain the target accurately. Experiment 3 extended these behavioral findings by demonstrating that the perceptual similarity between target and distracters exerted a significantly greater effect on occipital alpha amplitudes, depending on the number of items already held in VSTM. The trade-off between VSTM load and target-distracter competition suggests that VSTM and perceptual competition share a partially overlapping mechanism, namely top-down inputs into sensory areas. PMID:23576694

  17. Increased physical work loads in modern work--a necessity for better health and performance?

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2009-10-01

    Shifting workforce proportions to sedentary occupations and technology developments in traditionally physically demanding occupations have resulted in low physical workloads for many workers. Insufficient physical stress is known to have detrimental short- and long-term effects on health and physical capacity. It is argued herein that many modern workers are at risk of insufficient physical workload. Further, it is argued that the traditional physical ergonomics paradigm of reducing risk by reducing physical loads ('less is better') is not appropriate for many modern occupations. It is proposed that a new paradigm is required, where 'more can be better'. The potential for work to be seen as an arena for improving physical health and capability is discussed and the types of changes to work that may be required are outlined. The paper also discusses challenges and responsibilities presented by this new paradigm for ergonomists, employers, health and safety authorities and the community. The majority of workers in affluent communities now face the significant threat to health of insufficient physical workload. Ergonomics can design work to a prescription that can not only reduce injury risk but enhance health and capacity. However, this will require a change in paradigm.

  18. Effects of Extensive Beetle-Induced Forest Mortality on Aromatic Organic Carbon Loading and Disinfection Byproduct Formation Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillard, B.; Mikkelson, K. M.; Dickenson, E.; Sharp, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent drought and warmer temperatures associated with climate change have caused increased pest-induced forest mortality with impacts on biogeochemical and hydrologic processes. To better understand the seasonal impacts of bark beetle infestation on water quality, samples were collected regularly over two overlapping snow free seasons at surface water intakes of six water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado displaying varying levels of bark beetle infestation (high >40%, moderate 20-40%, and low <20%). Organic carbon concentrations were typically 3 to 6 times higher in waters sourced from high beetle-impacted watersheds compared to moderate and low impact watersheds, revealing elevated specific ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, and humic-like intensity indicative of elevated aromatic carbon signatures. Accordingly, an increase in disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential of 400 to 600% was quantified when contrasted with watersheds containing less tree mortality. Beetle impact exasperated seasonal increases in carbon loading and DBP formation potential following both runoff and precipitation events indicating windows when enhanced water treatment may be utilized by water providers in highly infested regions. Additionally, elevated carbon concentrations throughout the summer and fall along with peaks following precipitation events provide evidence of shifting hydrologic flow paths in areas experiencing high forest mortality from decreased tree water uptake and interception. Collectively, these results demonstrate the need for continued watershed protection and monitoring with a changing climate as the resultant perturbations can have adverse effects on biogeochemistry and water quality in heavily impacted areas.

  19. Influence of organic loading rate on methane production in a CSTR from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    López-Escobar, Luis A; Martínez-Hernández, Sergio; Corte-Cano, Grisel; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) on methane production in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) from physicochemical sludge generated in a poultry slaughterhouse was evaluated. Total solid (TS) to obtain OLR of 1, 5, 10 and 15 g VS L(-1) day(-1), with hydraulic retention times of 29, 6, 6 and 4, respectively, were conditioned. The results showed a decrease in pH levels and an increase in the theoretical volatile fatty acids (VFA). While the yield of methane production decreased from 0.48 to 0.10 LCH4/g VSremoved, respectively, the OLR-10 managed on average 38% removal of volatile solids (VS) and a yield biogas production of 0.81 Lbiogas g(-1) VSremoved and 1.35 L day(-1). This suggests that the OLR increases in an anaerobic system from physicochemical sludge only inhibits the methanogenic metabolism, because there is still substrate consumption and biogas production.

  20. Effects of organic loading rate and effluent recirculation on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhuang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Wanqin; Dong, Renjie

    2013-10-01

    The effects of organic loading rates (OLR) and effluent recirculation on dynamics of acidogenic and methanogenic processes in two-stage anaerobic digestion of vegetable waste were investigated. Two systems were performed at OLRs of 1.3, 1.7, 2.1 and 2.6 g VS/L/d. One system recirculated the effluent from the methanogenic reactor to acidogenic reactor. With increasing OLRs, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration increased to approximately 8500 mg/L in acidogenic digester, where pH decreased from 6.4 to 5.2. Daily biogas production and methane content in methanogenic reactor increased from 1.2 to 4.4 L/d and from 27.4% to 60.5%, respectively. However, inhibition of hydrolysis in acidogenic reactor was demonstrated under the OLR of 2.6 g VS/L/d without recirculation, thus indicating system overloading. Effluent recirculation shown a considerable positive effect on alleviating VFA inhibition and improving biogas production in acidogenic reactor because of the effect of dilution and pH adjustment, particularly at high OLRs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential cause of aerobic granular sludge breakdown at high organic loading rates.

    PubMed

    Adav, Sunil S; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2010-02-01

    Aerobic sludge granules are compact, strong microbial aggregates that have excellent settling ability and capability to efficiently treat high-strength and toxic wastewaters. Aerobic granules disintegrate under high organic loading rates (OLR). This study cultivated aerobic granules using acetate as the sole carbon and energy source in three identical sequencing batch reactors operated under OLR of 9-21.3 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1). The cultivated granules removed 94-96% of fed COD at OLR up to 9-19.5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), and disintegrated at OLR of 21.3 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). Most tested isolates did not grow in the medium at >3,000 mg COD l(-1); additionally, these strains lost capability for auto-aggregation and protein or polysaccharide productivity. This critical COD regime correlates strongly with the OLR range in which granules started disintegrating. Reduced protein quantity secreted by isolates was associated with the noted poor granule integrity under high OLR. This work identified a potential cause of biological nature for aerobic granules breakdown.

  2. Enhanced proton conductivity of Nafion composite membrane by incorporating phosphoric acid-loaded covalent organic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yongheng; Li, Zhen; Yang, Xin; Cao, Li; Wang, Chongbin; Zhang, Bei; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-11-01

    Design and fabrication of efficient proton transport channels within solid electrolytes is crucial and challenging to new energy-relevant devices such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this study, the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) molecules are impregnated into SNW-1-type covalent organic frameworks (COFs) via vacuum assisted method. High loading of H3PO4 in SNW-1 and low guest leaching rate are achieved due to the similar diameter between H3PO4 and micropores in SNW-1. Then the COF-based composite membranes are fabricated for the first time with impregnated COFs (H3PO4@SNW-1) and Nafion matrix. For the composite membranes, the acid-base pairs formed between H3PO4@SNW-1 networks and Nafion optimize the interfacial interactions and hydrophilic domains. The acidic -PO3H2 groups in pores of H3PO4@SNW-1 provide abundant proton transfer sites. As a result, the continuous proton transfer channels with low energy barrier are created. At the filler content of 15 wt%, the composite membrane exhibits a superior proton conductivity of 0.0604 S cm-1 at 51% relative humidity and 80 °C. At the same time, the maximum power density of single fuel cell is 60.3% higher than that of the recast Nafion membrane.

  3. Effect of the organic loading rate on biogas composition in continuous fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Farina, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Some systems did not select for hydrogen-producing microorganisms and an unexpected growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed, although the reactors were operated under well-defined operating conditions that could result in biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the hydrogen and methane composition of the biogas produced in dark fermentative processes. The study was carried out using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in order to evaluate the OLR effect in systems with sludge retention. During continuous operation, the UASB reactor showed the slow development of methanogenic activity, related to the applied OLR. The results demonstrate that operating an UASB reactor at pH 5.5 is not enough to prevent the acclimation of methanogens to the acidic pH and therefore long-term biohydrogen production cannot be achieved. Moreover, this study demonstrates that OLR also has an effect on the biogas composition, where the higher the OLR the greater the biogas H2 content.

  4. Scaffolding Writing Using Feedback in Students' Graphic Organizers--Novice Writers' Relevance of Ideas and Cognitive Loads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chien Ching; Tan, Seng Chee

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to find out two outcomes of feedback in the novice writers' graphic organizers, which are the novice writers' ability to align their ideas to their writing goal, and their perceived germane, metacognitive, extraneous and intrinsic cognitive loads when generating and revising ideas based on the feedback. Data was gathered from the…

  5. Age is a risk factor for maladaptive changes of the pulmonary root in rats exposed to increased pressure loading.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Rizzo, Stefania; Maschietto, Nicola; Boccuzzo, Giovanna; Milanesi, Ornella; Thiene, Gaetano; Stellin, Giovanni; Basso, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary artery root does not adapt properly when exposed to increased pressure stress, with progressive dilatation. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in an animal model, the histologic changes of the pulmonary root wall under increased pressure load. To increase the systolic pressure in the pulmonary root, a banding of the pulmonary artery (PAB) was performed in 10 adult Sprague-Dawley rats and in 10 weanlings, using 7 adults and 8 weanlings as controls. We analyzed the structural changes of the pulmonary artery root after 30 days of increased pressure load. The mean pressure gradient across the banded pulmonary trunk was 53.57 ± 10 mmHg in the adult rats and 86.73 ± 15 mmHg in the weanlings. The pulmonary artery wall was significantly thicker in both age groups of PAB rats when compared to age-matched controls, showing also architectural structural changes, as a higher degree of mucoid degeneration, medionecrosis, and fibrosis as well as elastic fibers fragmentation. The apoptotic index was also increased in both PAB age groups. We also confirmed the physiologic higher degree of elastic fibers disarray in adult rats when compared to weanlings. The pulmonary artery wall seems to present maladaptive architectural changes in the media when exposed to systemic pressure. The PAB-related increase of the apoptotic index seems to reflect an accelerated involution of the pulmonary root's media. The physiologic higher degree of elastic fibers disarray in adult rats can possibly influence the worst adaptation of the pulmonary arterial wall to a systemic pressure load. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The increase in plasma nitrite after a dietary nitrate load is markedly attenuated by an antibacterial mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Mirco; Jansson, Emmelie A; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies surprisingly show that dietary inorganic nitrate, abundant in vegetables, can be metabolized in vivo to form nitrite and then bioactive nitric oxide. A reduction in blood pressure was recently noted in healthy volunteers after dietary supplementation with nitrate; an effect consistent with formation of vasodilatory nitric oxide. Oral bacteria have been suggested to play a role in bioactivation of nitrate by first reducing it to the more reactive anion nitrite. In a cross-over designed study in seven healthy volunteers we examined the effects of a commercially available chlorhexidine-containing antibacterial mouthwash on salivary and plasma levels of nitrite measured after an oral intake of sodium nitrate (10mg/kg dissolved in water). In the control situation the salivary and plasma levels of nitrate and nitrite increased greatly after the nitrate load. Rinsing the mouth with the antibacterial mouthwash prior to the nitrate load had no effect on nitrate accumulation in saliva or plasma but abolished its conversion to nitrite in saliva and markedly attenuated the rise in plasma nitrite. We conclude that the acute increase in plasma nitrite seen after a nitrate load is critically dependent on nitrate reduction in the oral cavity by commensal bacteria. The removal of these bacteria with an antibacterial mouthwash will very likely attenuate the NO-dependent biological effects of dietary nitrate.

  7. Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipid A Phosphatase Activity Is Critical for Colonization and Increasing the Commensal Load in the Rabbit Ligature Model

    PubMed Central

    Zenobia, Camille; Hasturk, Hatice; Nguyen, Daniel; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease of polymicrobial etiology characterized by inflammation, degradation of host tissue, and bone that irreversibly destroys the supporting apparatus of teeth. Porphyromonas gingivalis contains lipid A with structural heterogeneity that has been postulated to contribute to the initiation of dysbiosis in oral communities by modulating the host response, thereby creating a permissive environment for its growth. We examined two P. gingivalis lipid A phosphatase mutants which contain different “locked” lipid A structures that induce different host cellular responses for their ability to induce dysbiosis and periodontitis in rabbits. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations obtained from these strains were also examined. After repeated applications of all strains and their respective LPS preparations, P. gingivalis wild type, but not the lipid A mutants, had a significant impact on both the oral commensal microbial load and composition. In contrast, in rabbits exposed to the mutant strains or the LPS preparations, the microbial load did not increase, and yet significant changes in the oral microbial composition were observed. All strains and their respective LPS preparations induced periodontitis. Therefore, the ability to alter the lipid A composition in response to environmental conditions by lipid A phosphatases is required for both colonization of the rabbit and increases in the microbial load. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that multiple dysbiotic oral microbial communities can elicit periodontitis. PMID:24478080

  8. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipid A phosphatase activity is critical for colonization and increasing the commensal load in the rabbit ligature model.

    PubMed

    Zenobia, Camille; Hasturk, Hatice; Nguyen, Daniel; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Darveau, Richard P

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is a disease of polymicrobial etiology characterized by inflammation, degradation of host tissue, and bone that irreversibly destroys the supporting apparatus of teeth. Porphyromonas gingivalis contains lipid A with structural heterogeneity that has been postulated to contribute to the initiation of dysbiosis in oral communities by modulating the host response, thereby creating a permissive environment for its growth. We examined two P. gingivalis lipid A phosphatase mutants which contain different "locked" lipid A structures that induce different host cellular responses for their ability to induce dysbiosis and periodontitis in rabbits. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations obtained from these strains were also examined. After repeated applications of all strains and their respective LPS preparations, P. gingivalis wild type, but not the lipid A mutants, had a significant impact on both the oral commensal microbial load and composition. In contrast, in rabbits exposed to the mutant strains or the LPS preparations, the microbial load did not increase, and yet significant changes in the oral microbial composition were observed. All strains and their respective LPS preparations induced periodontitis. Therefore, the ability to alter the lipid A composition in response to environmental conditions by lipid A phosphatases is required for both colonization of the rabbit and increases in the microbial load. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that multiple dysbiotic oral microbial communities can elicit periodontitis.

  9. Preliminary marked increase in the national organ donation rate in Israel following implementation of a new organ transplantation law.

    PubMed

    Lavee, J; Ashkenazi, T; Stoler, A; Cohen, J; Beyar, R

    2013-03-01

    Israel's organ donation rate has always been among the lowest in Western countries. In 2008 two new laws relevant to organ transplantation were introduced. The Brain-Respiratory Death Law defines the precise circumstances and mechanisms to determine brain death. The Organ Transplantation Law bans reimbursing transplant tourism involving organ trade, grants prioritization in organ allocation to candidates who are registered donors and removes disincentives for living donation by providing modest insurance reimbursement and social supportive services. The preliminary impact of the gradual introduction and implementation of these laws has been witnessed in 2011. Compared to previous years, in 2011 there was a significant increase in the number of deceased organ donors directly related to an increase in organ donation rate (from 7.8 to 11.4 donors per million population), in parallel to a significant increase in the number of new registered donors. In addition the number of kidney transplantations from living donors significantly increased in parallel to a significant decrease in the number of kidney transplantations performed abroad (from 155 in 2006 to 35 in 2011). The new laws have significantly increased both deceased and living organ donation while sharply decreasing transplant tourism. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Postirradiation cladding strength under biaxial loading with an increasing temperature ramp. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.R.; Hunter, C.W.

    1980-04-01

    The flow behavior of unirradiated 20% cold worked AISI 316 tubing during constant pressure, increasing temperature tests was modeled with a constitutive relation approach; strain below approximately 0.2% came predominantly from an anelastic portion of the model while higher strains were predominantly plastic. The flow of cladding sections from irradiated fuel pins was largely restricted to the strain region attributed to anelastic deformation due to reduced ductility compared to unirradiated tubing. Another major effect of irradiation exposure on cladding flow was softening, or increased strain, found with increasing irradiation temperature. This was noted only when test pressures were high enough to cause flow below 950/sup 0/K.

  11. Angiopoietin-like 4 promotes angiogenesis in the tendon and is increased in cyclically loaded tendon fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mousavizadeh, Rouhollah; Scott, Alex; Lu, Alex; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Behzad, Hayedeh; Lundgreen, Kirsten; Ghaffari, Mazyar; McCormack, Robert G; Duronio, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) modulates tendon neovascularization. Cyclic loading stimulates the activity of transforming growth factor-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and thereby increases the expression and release of ANGPTL4 from human tendon cells. Targeting ANGPTL4 and its regulatory pathways is a potential avenue for regulating tendon vascularization to improve tendon healing or adaptation. The mechanisms that regulate angiogenic activity in injured or mechanically loaded tendons are poorly understood. The present study examined the potential role of angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) in the angiogenic response of tendons subjected to repetitive mechanical loading or injury. Cyclic stretching of human tendon fibroblasts stimulated the expression and release of ANGPTL4 protein via transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) signalling, and the released ANGPTL4 was pro-angiogenic. Angiogenic activity was increased following ANGPTL4 injection into mouse patellar tendons, whereas the patellar tendons of ANGPTL4 knockout mice displayed reduced angiogenesis following injury. In human rotator cuff tendons, the expression of ANGPTL4 was correlated with the density of tendon endothelial cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing a role of ANGPTL4 in the tendon. ANGPTL4 may assist in the regulation of vascularity in the injured or mechanically loaded tendon. TGF-β and HIF-1α comprise two signalling pathways that modulate the expression of ANGPTL4 by mechanically stimulated tendon fibroblasts and, in the future, these could be manipulated to influence tendon healing or adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Relating changes in radon exhalation to increasing loading in rocks. New insights from rock deformation laboratory experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccimei, P.; Vinciguerra, S.; Moretti, S.; Mollo, S.; Castelluccio, M.; Soligo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon emissions increase is regarded as a valuable geophysical precursor of earthquakes. Radon concentrations are observed in the soil or groundwater and have been related to increasing fracturing of the medium, which increases the exhaling surface area and originates pathways for radon release. In order to investigate the relation between increasing load and changes of radon exhalation rates, a volcanic tuff ("Tufo Rosso a Scorie Nere") from Vico volcano (central Italy) has been investigated in the laboratory. Four samples of 120 (length) x 60 (diameter) mm, have been loaded at constant strain rate, to guarantee a homogeneous deformation of the microstructure, with a strain rate of 0.5 micron / s. Two samples have been loaded up to the failure, while the remaining two have been downloaded, before the onset of dilatancy, when the highest compaction of existing voids space was reached. Radon exhalation rates of rock samples before deformation (step 1), at the end of the compaction phase (step 2) and after rupture, with a partial creep along the failure plain (step 3) have been measured in laboratory by using a solid-state alpha detector, connected to a small accumulation chamber kept at the constant temperature of 60 °C, with the aim to enhance radon exhalation. Measurements have been always performed on groups of two samples to achieve strong signals and being able to discriminate better changes in radon emissions. Analyses were repeated several times in order to verify their reproducibility. A decrease of radon emissions, induced by a stress of about 2 MPa has been measured after step 2, when samples porosity (about 47 %) was reduced from the compaction and formation of new cracks did not start yet. On the contrary, radon release increased after rupture, when the total exhaling surface of test samples was evidently enlarged.

  13. Invertebrate response to nutrient-driven epiphytic load increase in Posidonia oceanica meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castejón-Silvo, Inés; Domínguez, Marta; Terrados, Jorge; Tomas, Fiona; Morales-Nin, Beatriz

    2012-10-01

    Nutrient increases in coastal systems are becoming a world-wide concern since they promote strong structural and functional changes in shallow ecosystems. Increased nutrient availability in the water column may strongly enhance the leaf epiphytic communities of key habitat-forming species such as seagrasses through a bottom-up mechanism, competing for light and nutrients with the leaves. Epiphytes support an abundant and diverse community of resident invertebrates which fuel higher trophic levels in Posidonia oceanica food webs. We evaluated the response of seagrass, epiphytes and the invertebrate community to an experimental increase of water column nutrient availability. Nutrient increase was followed by a rise of epiphyte biomass. The increase in epiphytic biomass promoted invertebrate abundance, but appeared to have negative effects on P. oceanica shoot size. On the other hand, the increase in invertebrate abundance did not seem to control epiphytic biomass, which was not reversed to pre-nutrient enrichment levels. This work suggests that the abundance of invertebrate populations is limited by epiphyte biomass, through food or habitat provision, in P. oceanica systems and points to nutrients as the main driver of epiphyte biomass during summer. The results illustrate the control mechanisms at community level in P. oceanica meadows and the possible responses of a threatened ecosystem to human impact such as eutrophication.

  14. Cubozoan Sting-Site Seawater Rinse, Scraping, and Ice Can Increase Venom Load: Upending Current First Aid Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Angel Anne; Wilcox, Christie L.

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are the leading cause of severe and lethal human sting injuries from marine life. The total amount of venom discharged into sting-site tissues, sometimes referred to as “venom load”, has been previously shown to correlate with tentacle contact length and sequelae severity. Since <1% of cnidae discharge upon initial tentacle contact, effective and safe removal of adherent tentacles is of paramount importance in the management of life-threatening cubozoan stings. We evaluated whether common rinse solutions or scraping increased venom load as measured in a direct functional assay of venom activity (hemolysis). Scraping significantly increased hemolysis by increasing cnidae discharge. For Alatina alata, increases did not occur if the tentacles were first doused with vinegar or if heat was applied. However, in Chironex fleckeri, vinegar dousing and heat treatment were less effective, and the best outcomes occurred with the use of venom-inhibiting technologies (Sting No More® products). Seawater rinsing, considered a “no-harm” alternative, significantly increased venom load. The application of ice severely exacerbated A. alata stings, but had a less pronounced effect on C. fleckeri stings, while heat application markedly reduced hemolysis for both species. Our results do not support scraping or seawater rinsing to remove adherent tentacles. PMID:28294982

  15. Type I collagen gel in seeding medium improves murine mesencymal stem cell loading onto the scaffold, increases their subsequent proliferation, and enhances culture mineralization.

    PubMed

    Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Nickmahzar, Aghbibi; Mohamadi, Yossef; Mivehchi, Houri

    2009-08-01

    Collagen I as a major organic component of bone matrix may be important for establishment and maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in osteogenic 3D culture. To explore this subject, murine marrow-derived MSCs were seeded onto hybrid scaffolds of alginate/gelatin/beta-tricalcium phosphate in a medium either with or without collagen I gel. The cultures were then provided with osteogenic medium and incubated for three weeks during which loading efficiency, cell proliferation and the culture mineralization were quantified and statistically compared. According to the findings, in culture with collagen, although about 60% of the cells left the scaffolds, the remaining cells, however, proliferated extensively with a population doubling number (PDN) equivalent to 2.46 +/- 0.31 and organized as cell aggregations that were heavily mineralized (calcium concentration = 1.017 +/- 0.141 mM per scaffold), whereas in the culture without collagen, about 75% of the cells left the scaffolds, less cell proliferation occurred (PDN = 1.48 +/- 0.29) and no cell aggregation was observed. The calcium concentration in this culture was 0.185 +/- 0.029 mM per scaffold. All these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Taken together, these data suggested that using the collagen I in seeding medium could help mMSCs loading into the scaffold, enhance their subsequent proliferation, and increase calcium deposition in 3D culture system.

  16. Effect of feeding strategy on the stability of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor responses to organic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dae-Yeol; Hansen, Conly L

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of feeding strategy on the capability for treatment and the stability of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) under increasing organic loading. The lab-scale ASBR systems were operated at 35 degrees C using synthetic organic wastewater under both batch and fed-batch operational modes with different feed to cycle time (F:C) ratios. Experimental studies were conducted over a wide range of volumetric organic loading rates (VOLRs) (1.524 g COD/l/d) by varying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) (1.25, 2.5, and 5d) and the feed wastewater's COD (3750-30,000 mg/l). With an F:C ratio greater than or equal to 0.42, the fed-batch mode operation showed higher system efficiency in COD removal, volumetric methane production rate (VMPR), and specific methane production rate (SMPR) as compared to those in the batch mode with identical VOLR and HRT. In the fed-batch mode, the COD removals reached 86-95% with VOLR up to 12 g COD/l/d. The maximums for VMPR of 3.17 l CH4/l/d and for SMPR of 1.63 g CH4-COD/g VSS/d were achieved with a VOLR of 12 g COD/l/d at HRTs of 2.5 and 1.25 d, respectively. The fed-batch operation presented a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) than those in the batch operation. A lower concentration of VFAs confirmed the stability and efficiency of the fed-batch mode operation. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) analysis showed that the VFA-degrading activity of the biomass in the fed-batch mode was higher for acetate and butyrate, and lower for propionate. Determined biomass yield and bacterial decay coefficients in the fed-batch operational mode were 0.05 g VSS/g COD rem and 0.001 d(-1), respectively.

  17. Influence of high organic loads during the summer period on the performance of hybrid constructed wetlands (VSSF + HSSF) treating domestic wastewater in the Alps region.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Ortigara, A R C; Ruaben, J; Andreottola, G

    2012-01-01

    One of the limits for the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) in mountain regions (such as the Alps) is associated with the considerable land area requirements. In some mountain areas, the treatment of domestic wastewater at popular tourist destinations is particularly difficult during the summer, when the presence of visitors increases hydraulic and organic loads. This paper aims to evaluate whether a hybrid CW plant designed on the basis of the resident population only, can treat also the additional load produced by the floating population during the tourist period (summer, when temperatures are favourable for biological treatment), without a drastic decrease of efficiency and without clogging problems. The research was carried out by considering two operational periods: the first one was based on literature indications (3.2 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit) and the second one assumed higher hydraulic and organic loads (1.3 m(2)/PE in the VSSF unit). The removal efficiency in the hybrid CW system decreased slightly from 94 to 88% for COD removal and from 78 to 75% for total N removal, even after applying a double hydraulic (from 55 to 123 L m(-2) d(-1)) and organic load (from 37 to 87 g COD m(-2) d(-1) and from 4.4 to 10.3 g TKN m(-2) d(-1)). The results showed that in the summer period the application of high loads did not affect the efficiency of the hybrid CW plant significantly, suggesting that it is possible to refer the CW design to the resident population only, with subsequent considerable savings in superficial area.

  18. Achieving Peak Flow and Sediment Loading Reductions through Increased Water Storage in the Le Sueur Watershed, Minnesota: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, N. A.; Gran, K. B.; Cho, S. J.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kumarasamy, K.

    2015-12-01

    A combination of factors including climate change, land clearing, and artificial drainage have increased many agricultural regions' stream flows and rates at which channel banks and bluffs are eroded. Increasing erosion rates within the Minnesota River Basin have contributed to higher sediment-loading rates, excess turbidity levels, and increases in sedimentation rates in Lake Pepin further downstream. Water storage sites (e.g., wetlands) have been discussed as a means to address these issues. This study uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess a range of water retention site (WRS) implementation scenarios in the Le Sueur watershed in south-central Minnesota, a subwatershed of the Minnesota River Basin. Sediment loading from bluffs was assessed through an empirical relationship developed from gauging data. Sites were delineated as topographic depressions with specific land uses, minimum areas (3000 m2), and high compound topographic index values. Contributing areas for the WRS were manually measured and used with different site characteristics to create 210 initial WRS scenarios. A generalized relationship between WRS area and contributing area was identified from measurements, and this relationship was used with different site characteristics (e.g., depth, hydraulic conductivity (K), and placement) to create 225 generalized WRS scenarios. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates are generally maximized by placing site with high K values in the upper half of the watershed. High K values allow sites to lose more water through seepage, emptying their storages between precipitation events and preventing frequent overflowing. Reductions in peak flow volumes and sediment-loading rates also level off at high WRS extents due to the decreasing frequencies of high-magnitude events. The generalized WRS scenarios were also used to create a simplified empirical model capable of generating peak flows and sediment-loading rates from near

  19. Effect of Static Load on the Nucleus Pulposus of Rabbit Intervertebral Disc Motion Segment in an Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min-Shan; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The development of mechanically active culture systems helps in understanding of the role of mechanical stress in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Motion segment cultures facilitate the application and control of mechanical loads. The purpose of this study was to establish a culturing method for rabbit IVD motion segments to observe the effect of static load on the whole disc organ. Segments were cultured in custom-made apparatuses under a constant, compressive load (3 kg) for 2 weeks. Tissue integrity, matrix synthesis, and matrix gene expression profile were assessed and compared with fresh one. The results showed ex vivo culturing of samples gradually destroyed the morphology. Proteoglycan contents and gene expression were decreased and downregulated obviously. However, immunohistochemical staining intensity and collagen type II gene expression were significantly enhanced and upregulated. In contrast, these trends were reversed under constant compression. These results indicated short-term static load stimulated the synthesis of type II collagen; however, constant compression led to progressive degeneration and specifically to proteoglycan. Through this study a loading and organ-culturing system for ex vivo rabbit IVD motion segments was developed, which can be used to study the effects of mechanical stimulation on the biology of IVDs and the pathomechanics of IVD degeneration. PMID:27872846

  20. Increased soluble phosphorus loads to Lake Erie: Unintended consequences of conservation practices?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cumulative daily flux timeseries show that the early 2000s marked the start of large-scale and widespread increases in riverine soluble reactive phosphorus fluxes entering western Lake Erie basin, from three major tributaries: the Maumee, Sandusky and Raisin Rivers. These elevated soluble reactive ...

  1. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  2. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  3. The Criteria of Adaptation of Primary School Pupils to the Academic Load of the Increased Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telegina, Nadezhda V.; Belicheva, Tatyana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is due to applying various training programs in the modern education system which are supposed to increase teaching efficiency. In-depth study of some subjects at schools, lyceums and gymnasiums which starts in the elementary school quite often leads to tension and failures of adaptation process in innovative…

  4. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  5. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  6. Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptations in muscle mass stimulated by changes in muscle loading state entail alternations in the synthesis and degradation of myofiber proteins and the modulation of myonuclear number such that the ratio between the number of myonuclei and the size of the myofibers remains relatively constant. As depicted schematically in Figure 2.6, the literature regarding the role of IGF-in mediating muscle adaptation to alterations in loading state suggests the following conclusions: During periods of increased loading, myofibers upregulate the expression and secretion of IGF-I. Acting as an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor, IGF-I stimulates myofiber anabolic processes. Acting as a paracrine growth factor, IGF-I also stimulates adjacent satellite cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Continued myofiber production of IGF-I stimulates some satellite cells to differentiate and then fuse with myofibers, thus providing additional myonuclei in order to maintain or reestablish the myonucleus to myofiber size ratios of the enlarged myofibers.

  7. Role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation to increased loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Adaptations in muscle mass stimulated by changes in muscle loading state entail alternations in the synthesis and degradation of myofiber proteins and the modulation of myonuclear number such that the ratio between the number of myonuclei and the size of the myofibers remains relatively constant. As depicted schematically in Figure 2.6, the literature regarding the role of IGF-in mediating muscle adaptation to alterations in loading state suggests the following conclusions: During periods of increased loading, myofibers upregulate the expression and secretion of IGF-I. Acting as an autocrine and/or paracrine growth factor, IGF-I stimulates myofiber anabolic processes. Acting as a paracrine growth factor, IGF-I also stimulates adjacent satellite cells to enter the cell cycle and proliferate. Continued myofiber production of IGF-I stimulates some satellite cells to differentiate and then fuse with myofibers, thus providing additional myonuclei in order to maintain or reestablish the myonucleus to myofiber size ratios of the enlarged myofibers.

  8. Riboflavin-containing telodendrimer nanocarriers for efficient doxorubicin delivery: High loading capacity, increased stability, and improved anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dandan; Shi, Changying; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shengle; Luo, Juntao

    2017-10-01

    We have developed two linear-dendritic telodendrimers (TDs) with rational design using amphiphilic riboflavin (Rf) as building blocks for efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Micellar TD nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell and a Rf-containing affinitive core for DOX encapsulation. Strong DOX-Rf interactions and amphiphilic Rf structure render these nanocarriers with an ultra-high DOX loading capacity (>1/1, DOX/TD, w/w), ∼100% loading efficiency, the sustained drug release and the optimal particle sizes (20-40 nm) for efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery. These nanoformulations significantly prolonged DOX circulation time in the blood without the accelerated clearance observed after multiple injections. DOX-TDs target several types of tumors efficiently in vivo, e.g. Raji lymphoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer. In vivo maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DOX was increased by 2-2.5 folds for the nanoformulations in mice relative to those of free DOX and Doxil(®). These nanoformulations significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts. In summary, Rf-containing nanoformulations with high DOX loading capacity, improved stability and efficient tumor targeting lead to superior antitumor efficacy, which merit the further development for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of the bacterial community involved in the bioflocculation process of wastewater organic matter in high-loaded MBRs.

    PubMed

    Faust, L; Szendy, M; Plugge, C M; van den Brink, P F H; Temmink, H; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-06-01

    High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e., bioreactors equipped with a membrane for biomass retention and operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can concentrate sewage organic matter to facilitate subsequent energy and chemical recovery from these organics. Bioflocculation, accomplished by microorganisms that produce extracellular polymers, is a very important mechanism in these reactors. Bacterial diversity of the sludge and supernatant fraction of HL-MBRs operated at very short sludge retention times (0.125, 0.5, and 1 day) were determined using a PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library approach and compared to the diversity in sewage. Already at a sludge retention time (SRT) of 0.125 day, a distinct bacterial community developed compared to the community in sewage. Bioflocculation, however, was low and the majority of the bacteria, especially Arcobacter, were present in the supernatant fraction. Upon increasing SRT from 0.125 to 1 day, a much stronger bioflocculation was accompanied by an increased abundance of Bacteroidetes in the (solid) sludge fraction: 27.5 % at an SRT of 0.5 day and 46.4 % at an SRT of 1 day. Furthermore, cluster analysis of DGGE profiles revealed that the bacterial community structure in the sludge was different from that in the supernatant. To localize specific bacterial classes in the sludge flocs, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was carried out with three different bacterial probes. This showed that Betaproteobacteria formed clusters in the sludge flocs whereas Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were mainly present as single cells.

  10. Loading mitomycin C inside long circulating hyaluronan targeted nano-liposomes increases its antitumor activity in three mice tumor models.

    PubMed

    Peer, Dan; Margalit, Rimona

    2004-02-20

    The frequent overexpression of the hyaluronan receptors CD44 and RHAMM in cancer cells opens the door for targeting by the naturally-occurring high-M(r) hyaluronan. This is the first time effective in vivo tumor targeting is reported for mitomycin C (MMC) loaded inside nano-sized hyaluronan-liposomes (denoted tHA-LIP). The severe adverse effects of free MMC made it a rational candidate for an effective targeted carrier. In vitro, loading MMC inside tHA-LIP increased drug potency 100-fold, in cells overexpressing, but not in cells underexpressing, hyaluronan receptors. Both types of liposomes were non-toxic and reduced MMC-related toxicity in healthy C57BL/6 mice. In 3 tumor models, BALB/c bearing C-26 solid tumors; C57BL/6 bearing B16F10.9 or (separately) D122 lung metastasis, tHA-LIP were long-circulating, 7-fold and 70-fold longer than nt-LIP and free MMC, respectively. tHA-LIP-mediated MMC accumulation in tumor-bearing lungs was 20% of injected dose, compared to 0.6% and 4% with free drug and nt-LIP, respectively. Tumor-free lungs showed low accumulation, irrespective of drug formulation. Key indicators of therapeutic responses, tumor progression, metastatic burden and survival, were superior (p < 0.001) in animals receiving MMC-loaded tHA-LIP, no treatment, MMC-loaded nt-LIP and free drug. In conclusion, tHA-LIP perform as tumor-targeted carriers, with promising prospects for treatment of tumors overexpressing hyaluronan receptors.

  11. Genetic instability and increased mutational load: which diagnostic tool best direct patients with cancer to immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Giuseppe; Colombino, Maria; Cossu, Antonio; Marchetti, Antonio; Botti, Gerardo; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2017-01-21

    The occurrence of high rates of somatic mutations in cancer is believed to correspond to increased frequency of neo-epitope formation and tumor immunogenicity. Thus, classification of patients with cancer according to degree a somatic hyper-mutational status could be proposed as a predictive biomarker of responsiveness to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we discuss the suitable and reliable tests easily adoptable in clinical practice to assess somatic mutational status in patients with advanced cancer.

  12. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry-an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right-increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40-59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control.

  13. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    PubMed Central

    Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task—primarily involving left hemisphere structures—would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18–80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry—an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right—increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40–59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control. PMID:28280596

  14. Aggravated phosphorus limitation on biomass production under increasing nitrogen loading: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Niu, Shuli; Yu, Guirui

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), either individually or in combination, have been demonstrated to limit biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems. Field studies have been extensively synthesized to assess global patterns of N impacts on terrestrial ecosystem processes. However, to our knowledge, no synthesis has been done so far to reveal global patterns of P impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, especially under different nitrogen (N) levels. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of impacts of P addition, either alone or with N addition, on aboveground (AGB) and belowground biomass production (BGB), plant and soil P concentrations, and N : P ratio in terrestrial ecosystems. Overall, our meta-analysis quantitatively confirmed existing notions: (i) colimitation of N and P on biomass production and (ii) more P limitation in tropical forest than other ecosystems. More importantly, our analysis revealed new findings: (i) P limitation on biomass production was aggravated by N enrichment and (ii) plant P concentration was a better indicator of P limitation than soil P availability. Specifically, P addition increased AGB and BGB by 34% and 13%, respectively. The effect size of P addition on biomass production was larger in tropical forest than grassland, wetland, and tundra and varied with P fertilizer forms, P addition rates, or experimental durations. The P-induced increase in biomass production and plant P concentration was larger under elevated than ambient N. Our findings suggest that the global limitation of P on biomass production will become severer under increasing N fertilizer and deposition in the future.

  15. Peri-Implant Response and Microflora in Organ Transplant Patients 1 Year after Prosthetic Loading: A Prospective Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Montebugnoli, Lucio; Venturi, Mattia; Cervellati, Fabio; Servidio, Dora; Vocale, Caterina; Pagan, Flavia; Landini, Maria Paola; Magnani, Gaia; Sambri, Vittorio

    2015-10-01

    A recent study conducted in humans demonstrated for the first time that bone loss in the immediate period after implant insertion before loading did not significantly differ in organ transplant recipients with respect to normal subjects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate bone and periodontal response and peri-implant microflora in a group of organ-transplanted patients 1 year after prosthetic loading. The study population included 13 consecutive organ-transplanted (11 hearts, two livers) patients and 13 normal (healthy) control subjects who received 29 and 28 submerged dental implants, respectively. Crestal bone level, peri-implant probing depth (PIPD), and bleeding on probing were evaluated at prosthetic loading and after 1 year. Samples for microbiological testing were taken from the subgingival microbiota of each implant 1 year after loading and analyzed with polymerase chain reaction. All samples were examined for the presence of five microorganisms: Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannarella forsythensis, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. A mean bone loss of 0.17 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.10 mm at 1 year was observed in the group of transplant recipients and in controls, respectively (N.S.). Similar results were obtained considering PIPD changes at 1 year (respectively 0.06 ± 0.71 mm in transplants vs 0.11 ± 0.74 mm in controls). Detection frequencies of pathogens were not statistically different between normal and transplanted patients. The present pilot study seems to indicate that bone and periodontal response and microbiological status around submerged dental implants in immunocompromised organ-transplanted patients do not differ 1 year after loading from those observed in control patients and that this particular population of patients may be successfully rehabilitated with dental implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Oceanic loading of wildfire-derived organic compounds from a small mountainous river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunsinger, G.B.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Warrick, J.A.; Alexander, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Small mountainous rivers (SMRs) export substantial amounts of sediment into the world's oceans. The concomitant yield of organic carbon (OC) associated with this class of rivers has also been shown to be significant and compositionally unique. We report here excessively high loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), lignin, and levoglucosan, discharged from the Santa Clara River into the Santa Barbara Channel. The abundance of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin in Santa Barbara Channel sediments ranged from 201.7 to 1232.3 ng gdw-1, 1.3 to 6.9 ??g gdw-1, and 0.3 to 2.2 mg per 100 mg of the sedimentary OC, respectively. Assuming a constant rate of sediment accumulation, the annual fluxes of PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin, to the Santa Barbara Channel were respectively, 885.5 ?? 170.2 ng cm-2 a-1, 3.5 ?? 1.9 ??g cm-2 a-1 and 1.4 ?? 0.3 mg per 100 mg OC cm-2 a-1, over ???30 years. The close agreement between PAHs, levoglucosan, and lignin abundance suggests that the depositional flux of these compounds is largely biomass combustion-derived. To that end, use of the Santa Clara River as a model for SMRs suggests this class of rivers may be one of the largest contributors of pyrolyzed carbon to coastal systems and the open ocean. Wildfire associated carbon discharged from other high yield fluvial systems, when considered collectively, may be a significant source of lignin, pyrolytic PAHs, and other pyrogenic compounds to the ocean. Extrapolating these methods over geologic time may offer useful historical information about carbon sequestration and burial in coastal sediments and affect coastal carbon budgets. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-07-20

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Patrick T.; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.; Zwart, Jacob A.; Jones, Stuart E.

    2016-01-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L−1 in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning).

  19. Experimental whole-lake increase of dissolved organic carbon concentration produces unexpected increase in crustacean zooplankton density.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick T; Craig, Nicola; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C; Zwart, Jacob A; Jones, Stuart E

    2016-08-01

    The observed pattern of lake browning, or increased terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, across the northern hemisphere has amplified the importance of understanding how consumer productivity varies with DOC concentration. Results from comparative studies suggest these increased DOC concentrations may reduce crustacean zooplankton productivity due to reductions in resource quality and volume of suitable habitat. Although these spatial comparisons provide an expectation for the response of zooplankton productivity as DOC concentration increases, we still have an incomplete understanding of how zooplankton respond to temporal increases in DOC concentration within a single system. As such, we used a whole-lake manipulation, in which DOC concentration was increased from 8 to 11 mg L(-1) in one basin of a manipulated lake, to test the hypothesis that crustacean zooplankton production should subsequently decrease. In contrast to the spatially derived expectation of sharp DOC-mediated decline, we observed a small increase in zooplankton densities in response to our experimental increase in DOC concentration of the treatment basin. This was due to significant increases in gross primary production and resource quality (lower seston carbon-to-phosphorus ratio; C:P). These results demonstrate that temporal changes in lake characteristics due to increased DOC may impact zooplankton in ways that differ from those observed in spatial surveys. We also identified significant interannual variability across our study region, which highlights potential difficulty in detecting temporal responses of organism abundances to gradual environmental change (e.g., browning). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Thermal stability increase in metallic nanoparticles-loaded cellulose nanocrystal nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Goikuria, U; Larrañaga, A; Vilas, J L; Lizundia, E

    2017-09-01

    Due to the potential of CNC-based flexible materials for novel industrial applications, the aim of this work is to improve the thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) films through a straightforward and scalable method. Based of nanocomposite approach, five different metallic nanoparticles (ZnO, SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3) have been co-assembled in water with CNCs to obtain free-standing nanocomposite films. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals an increased thermal stability upon nanoparticle. This increase in the thermal stability reaches a maximum of 75°C for the nanocomposites having 10wt% of Fe2O3 and ZnO. The activation energies of thermodegradation process (Ea) determined according to Kissinger and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall methods further confirm the delayed degradation of CNC nanocomposites upon heating. Finally, the changes induced in the crystalline structure during thermodegradation were followed by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). It is also observed that thermal degradation proceeds at higher temperatures for nanocomposites having metallic nanoparticles. Overall, experimental findings here showed make nanocomposite approach a simple low-cost environmentally-friendly strategy to overcome the relatively poor thermal stability of CNCs when extracted via sulfuric acid assisted hydrolysis of cellulose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulleryd, Marcus A.; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics, S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus. Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival. PMID:26857576

  2. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient’s habitual breathing route than a patient interview. PMID:24169579

  3. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M.

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins—envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)—have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4+ T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. PMID:26763429

  4. Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Natsuga, Ken; Cipolat, Sara; Watt, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Mice lacking three epidermal barrier proteins-envoplakin, periplakin, and involucrin (EPI-/- mice)-have a defective cornified layer, reduced epidermal γδ T cells, and increased dermal CD4(+) T cells. They are also resistant to developing skin tumors. The tumor-protective mechanism involves signaling between Rae-1 expressing keratinocytes and the natural killer group 2D receptor on immune cells, which also plays a role in host defenses against infection. Given the emerging link between bacteria and cancer, we investigated whether EPI-/- mice have an altered skin microbiota. The bacterial phyla were similar in wild-type and EPI-/- skin. However, bacteria were threefold more abundant in EPI-/- skin and penetrated deeper into the epidermis. The major epithelial defense mechanism against bacteria is production of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). EPI-/- skin exhibited enhanced expression of antimicrobial peptides. However, reducing the bacterial load by antibiotic treatment or breeding mice under specific pathogen-free conditions did not reduce AMP expression or alleviate the abnormalities in T-cell populations. We conclude that the atopic characteristics of EPI-/- skin are a consequence of the defective barrier rather than a response to the increased bacterial load. It is therefore unlikely that the increase in skin microbiota contributes directly to the observed cancer resistance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of incremental increases in silt load on the cardiovascular performance of riverine and lacustrine rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris.

    PubMed

    Bunt, Christopher M; Cooke, Steven J; Schreer, Jason F; Philipp, David P

    2004-01-01

    Rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) are a widespread centrarchid species with both riverine and lacustrine populations. After precipitation events, rivers often carry elevated silt loads, where as lakes generally remain free from suspended silt and sediment. To examine the physiological effects of silt on rock bass, we conducted a series of experiments using fish from Lake Opinicon and the Grand River in Ontario. Ultrasonic Doppler flow probes were surgically affixed around the ventral aorta to monitor cardiovascular performance. After recovery from surgery replicated treatment groups were exposed to incremental increases in silt load (made from bentonite slurry), while cardiac output and its two components, heart rate and stroke volume, were measured simultaneously. Although both groups of rock bass responded significantly to low concentrations of silt (10 NTU), the response by riverine rock bass was rapidly extinguished by acclimation or physiological adjustment. Compensatory mechanisms to minimize cardiac (and respiratory) disruption attributable to increases in suspended silt appear to be inherent in rock bass of riverine origin. These fish appear to fully compensate for interference in gas exchange at the gill surfaces 60 min after initial exposure. In contrast, individual lacustrine rock bass were highly variable in their response to elevated silt concentrations. Changes in stroke volume and cardiac output suggested no clear compensatory mechanism or strategy to cope with increased silt levels.

  6. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Survival and Decrease Bacterial Load in Mice Subjected to Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Svahn, Sara L; Ulleryd, Marcus A; Grahnemo, Louise; Ståhlman, Marcus; Borén, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov; Johansson, Maria E

    2016-04-01

    Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus is increasing in incidence. With the alarming use of antibiotics,S. aureus is prone to become methicillin resistant. Antibiotics are the only widely used pharmacological treatment for sepsis. Interestingly, mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have better survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis than mice fed HFD rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD-S). To investigate what component of polyunsaturated fatty acids, i.e., omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids, exerts beneficial effects on the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis, mice were fed HFD rich in omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to inoculation with S. aureus Further, mice fed HFD-S were treated with omega-3 fatty acid metabolites known as resolvins. Mice fed HFD rich in omega-3 fatty acids had increased survival and decreased bacterial loads compared to those for mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis. Furthermore, the bacterial load was decreased in resolvin-treated mice fed HFD-S after S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with that in mice treated with vehicle. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids increase the survival of S. aureus-induced sepsis by reversing the deleterious effect of HFD-S on mouse survival.

  7. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-12-04

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (P<0.05), indicating an increased oxygen load. Mouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  8. [Characterization and analysis of direction extraction and precipitation of cerium loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution].

    PubMed

    Mei, Yan; Xia, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-Li; Sun, He; Nie, Zuo-Ren

    2011-11-01

    In the condition of sodium hydroxide saponification, the test results using direction extraction and precipitation of cerium from P507 loading organic phase by oxalic acid solution were studied. Infared (IR) spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetry (TG-DSC) were used to study and characterize organic cerium precipitates and the final calcined products. The results showed that organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were spheric organic cerium coordination and spheric cube CeO2 crystal, respectively, showing their morphologies were successive. IR made out that the structures of organic cerium precipitates and final calcined products were different. TG-DSC indicated that the final calcined products weightlessness was 3.5% and chemical composing was CeO2 x 1/3H2O.

  9. Increased nitrogen availability counteracts climatic change feedback from increased temperature on boreal forest soil organic matter degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhagen, Bjorn; Nilsson, Mats; Oquist, Mats; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Sparrman, Tobias; Schleucher, Jurgen

    2014-05-01

    Over the last century, the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have increased dramatically, greatly exceeding pre-industrial levels that had prevailed for the preceding 420 000 years. At the same time the annual anthropogenic contribution to the global terrestrial nitrogen cycle has increased and currently exceeds natural inputs. Both temperature and nitrogen levels have profound effects on the global carbon cycle including the rate of organic matter decomposition, which is the most important biogeochemical process that returns CO2 to the atmosphere. Here we show for the first time that increasing the availability of nitrogen not only directly affects the rate of organic matter decomposition but also significantly affects its temperature dependence. We incubated litter and soil organic matter from a long-term (40 years) nitrogen fertilization experiment in a boreal Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) forest at different temperatures and determined the temperature dependence of the decomposition of the sample's organic matter in each case. Nitrogen fertilization did not affect the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of the decomposition of fresh plant litter but strongly reduced that for humus soil organic matter. The Q10 response of the 0-3 cm soil layer decreased from 2.5±0.35 to an average of 1.9±0.21 over all nitrogen treatments, and from 2.2±0.19 to 1.6±0.16 in response to the most intense nitrogen fertilization treatment in the 4-7 cm soil layer. Long-term nitrogen additions also significantly affected the organic chemical composition (as determined by 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy) of the soil organic matter. These changes in chemical composition contributed significantly (p<0.05) to the reduced Q10 response. These new insights into the relationship between nitrogen availability and the temperature sensitivity of organic matter decomposition will be important for understanding and predicting how increases in global temperature and rising anthropogenic

  10. Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Inputs from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents Increase Responses of Planktonic Metabolic Rates to Warming.

    PubMed

    Vaquer-Sunyer, Raquel; Conley, Daniel J; Muthusamy, Saraladevi; Lindh, Markus V; Pinhassi, Jarone; Kritzberg, Emma S

    2015-10-06

    Increased anthropogenic pressures on coastal marine ecosystems in the last century are threatening their biodiversity and functioning. Global warming and increases in nutrient loadings are two major stressors affecting these systems. Global warming is expected to increase both atmospheric and water temperatures and increase precipitation and terrestrial runoff, further increasing organic matter and nutrient inputs to coastal areas. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations frequently exceed those of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in aquatic systems. Many components of the DON pool have been shown to supply nitrogen nutrition to phytoplankton and bacteria. Predictions of how global warming and eutrophication will affect metabolic rates and dissolved oxygen dynamics in the future are needed to elucidate their impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Here, we experimentally determine the effects of simultaneous DON additions and warming on planktonic community metabolism in the Baltic Sea, the largest coastal area suffering from eutrophication-driven hypoxia. Both bacterioplankton community composition and metabolic rates changed in relation to temperature. DON additions from wastewater treatment plant effluents significantly increased the activation energies for community respiration and gross primary production. Activation energies for community respiration were higher than those for gross primary production. Results support the prediction that warming of the Baltic Sea will enhance planktonic respiration rates faster than it will for planktonic primary production. Higher increases in respiration rates than in production may lead to the depletion of the oxygen pool, further aggravating hypoxia in the Baltic Sea.

  11. Increased Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Load and Antibodies Against EBNA1 and EA in Sardinian Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Erre, Gian Luca; Mameli, Giuseppe; Cossu, Davide; Muzzeddu, Benedetta; Piras, Cristina; Paccagnini, Daniela; Passiu, Giuseppe; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2015-09-01

    A role for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection in the etiology of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), has long been suggested. However, data about EBV burden in RA patients from Sardinian population, a genetic isolate with high prevalence of autoimmune diseases, have not yet been reported. One hundred thirty-five, Sardinian subjects (77 RA patients and 58 demographically matched healthy donors, HDs) were enrolled in a cross-sectional case-control study. EBV-DNA was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Prevalence and titers of anti-Early Antigen IgG (anti-EA-IgG) and anti-Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen 1 IgG (anti-EBNA-1 IgG) were determined by immunoenzimatic assay. EBV-DNA positivity was more frequent in RA PBMCs than in HD PBMCs (79.2% vs. 56.9% respectively, p=0.008). Similarly EBV relative load was increased in RA than in HD PBMCs [2.83 (6.5) vs. 0.53 (1) 2(-ΔCt) EBV-DNA, respectively, p=0.02]. Moreover, Sardinian RA patients were found to have increased prevalence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG (90% vs. only 69% of HD, p=0.006) and anti-EA IgG (37% compared with only 10.3% of HD, p=0.002). Subgroup analysis revealed that PBMCs from RA receiving Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor monoclonal inhibitor, have significantly lower EBV viral loads in comparison to PBMCs from RA under other immunosuppressors (p=0.03). These data suggest an association between EBV infection and RA in the Sardinian population. The potential influence of IL-6 inhibition on EBV viral load in RA patients should be further explored in prospective trials.

  12. Increases in terrestrially derived carbon stimulate organic carbon processing and CO₂ emissions in boreal aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Jean-François; Guillemette, François; Berggren, Martin; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon have been increasing throughout northern aquatic ecosystems in recent decades, but whether these shifts have an impact on aquatic carbon emissions at the continental scale depends on the potential for this terrestrial carbon to be converted into carbon dioxide. Here, via the analysis of hundreds of boreal lakes, rivers and wetlands in Canada, we show that, contrary to conventional assumptions, the proportion of biologically degradable dissolved organic carbon remains constant and the photochemical degradability increases with terrestrial influence. Thus, degradation potential increases with increasing amounts of terrestrial carbon. Our results provide empirical evidence of a strong causal link between dissolved organic carbon concentrations and aquatic fluxes of carbon dioxide, mediated by the degradation of land-derived organic carbon in aquatic ecosystems. Future shifts in the patterns of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon in inland waters thus have the potential to significantly increase aquatic carbon emissions across northern landscapes.

  13. Preparation and evaluation of raloxifene-loaded solid dispersion nanoparticle by spray-drying technique without an organic solvent.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan Hiep; Poudel, Bijay K; Marasini, Nirmal; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug, raloxifene by solid dispersion (SD) nanoparticles using the spray-drying technique. These spray-dried SD nanoparticles were prepared with raloxifene (RXF), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tween 20 in water. Reconstitution of optimized RXF-loaded SD nanoparticles in pH 1.2 medium showed a mean particle size of approximately 180 nm. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry indicated that RXF existed in an amorphous form within spray-dried nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed an enhanced dissolution rate of RXF at pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and distilled water as compared to pure RXF powder. The improved dissolution of raloxifene from spray-dried SD nanoparticles appeared to be well correlated with enhanced oral bioavailability of raloxifene in rats. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters of the spray-dried SD nanoparticles showed increased AUC(0-∞) and C(max) of RXF by approximately 3.3-fold and 2.3-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the preparation of RXF-SD nanoparticles using the spray drying technique without organic solvents might be a promising approach for improving the oral bioavailability of RXF.

  14. Different organic loading rates on the biogas production during the anaerobic digestion of rice straw: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Jun; Yu, Qing; Yong, Xiaoyu; Xie, Xinxin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wei, Ping; Jia, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mesophilic methane fermentation of rice straw at different organic loading rates (OLRs) in a 300m(3) bioreactor. It was found that biogas production increased when the OLR was below 2.00kg VSsubstrate/(m(3)·d). The average volumetric biogas production reached 0.86m(3)/(m(3)·d) at an OLR of 2.00kg VSsubstrate/(m(3)·d). Biogas production rate was 323m(3)/t dry rice straw over the whole process. The pH, chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acid, and NH4(+)-N concentrations were all in optimal range at different OLRs. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that Firmicutes, Fibrobacteres, and Spirochaetes predominated in straw samples. Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Planctomycetes were more abundant in the slurry. The hydrogenotrophic pathway was the main biochemical pathway of methanogenesis in the reactor. This study provides new information regarding the OLR and the differences in the spatial distribution of specific microbiota in a rice straw biogas plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional recruitment of rat diaphragmatic lymphatics in response to increased pleural or peritoneal fluid load

    PubMed Central

    Moriondo, Andrea; Grimaldi, Annalisa; Sciacca, Laura; Guidali, Maria Luisa; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    The specific role of the diaphragmatic tendinous and muscular tissues in sustaining lymph formation and propulsion in the diaphragm was studied in 24 anaesthetized spontaneously breathing supine rats. Three experimental protocols were used: (a) control; (b) peritoneal ascitis, induced through an intraperitoneal injection of 100 ml kg−1 of iso-oncotic saline; and (c) pleural effusion, induced through an intrapleural injection of 6.6 ml kg−1 saline solution. A group of animals (n = 12) was instrumented to measure the hydraulic transdiaphragmatic pressure gradient between the pleural and peritoneal cavities in the three protocols. In the other group (n = 12), the injected iso-oncotic saline was enriched with 2% fluorescent dextrans (molecular mass = 70 kDa); at 30 min from the injections these animals were suppressed and their diaphragm excised and processed for confocal microscopy analysis. In control conditions, in spite of a favourable peritoneal-to-pleural pressure gradient, the majority of the tracer absorbed into the diaphragmatic lymphatic system converges towards the deeper collecting lymphatic ducts. This suggests that diaphragmatic lymph formation mostly depends upon pressure gradients developing between the serosal cavities and the lymphatic vessel lumen. In addition, the tracer distributes to lymph vessels located in the muscular diaphragmatic tissue, suggesting that active muscle contraction, rather than passive tendon stretch, more efficiently enhances local diaphragmatic lymph flow. Vice versa, a prevailing recruitment of the lymphatics of the tendinous diaphragmatic regions was observed in peritoneal ascitis and pleural effusion, suggesting a functional adaptation of the diaphragmatic network to increased draining requirements. PMID:17218349

  16. Stage duration and increase of work load in incremental testing on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, W; Grathwohl, D; Bürklin, C; Spranz, P; Keul, J

    1997-01-01

    Any variation of the test protocol for incremental testing (IT) in cycle ergometry may affect the accuracy of the determination of anaerobic threshold (AnT). For lactate threshold concepts, indicating the maximum lactate steady-state (max Lass), the formation of the quasi-steady-state (QSS=95% of steady-state level) is evident. Previous studies have not specified the time that it takes for blood lactate to stabilize following incremental changes in WL. The purpose of this study was to identify the minimum duration of exercise necessary to establish QSS following various increments in WL (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 W). Eight male endurance-trained cyclists [relative maximal oxygen consumption = 64.8 (4.2) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] performed three different exercise tests on a cycle ergometer: (1) an exhaustive IT with a starting WL of 100 W, followed by 20-W increments every 3 min; (2) a threshold test with 20-W increments every 9 min to determine the MaxLaSS; and (3) five incremental exercise tests (from 100/110 W, with 20-W increments every 3 min) with a final 10-, 20-, 30-, 40- or 50- W increment lasting 10 min, at 10 W below MaxLaSS (T10-T50 experiments). The time constant of lactate kinetics (tau), the time constant of lactate elimination, and the time taken to elicite QSS, defined as 95% of the time taken to reach steady-state level (t95%), were calculated in the T10-T50 experiments. The tau and t95% increased significantly with WL increment size: the correlation was not linear. Smaller WL increments required proportionally longer durations. Mean (SD) t95% values (min:s) were 1:57 (0:27) (T10), 2:58 (0.16) (T20), 4:08 (0:23) (T30), 4:45 (0:45) (T40) and 5:06 (0:43) (T50). The application of these references in IT protocols may lead to an extension of total test duration, particularly with smaller increments. Therefore, lactate threshold modelling, the training status of the athletes and comparability with lactate measurements obtained during training events should be

  17. [Dynamics of the gamma-band power of induced EEG responses to facial stimuli with increased visual working memory load].

    PubMed

    Dumenko, V N; Kozlov, M K

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of power of short-term (0.8 s) induced responses to facial stimuli (wavelet transform in the 15-60 Hz band) were assessed in the study of the visual cognitive set under conditions of different loads on working memory in two groups of subjects. Subjects of the first group had to react only to facial stimuli (n = 29), whereas the second group solved an additional task loading the working memory (they had to find a target stimulus in a matrix of letters, n = 35). We estimated wavelet spectra in the occipital, temporal, central and frontal areas of both hemispheres. In both groups of subjects with the plastic form of set, the power level in the gamma2 band (41-60 Hz) was significantly higher than in subject with the rigid form. In group A at the set-testing stage, the largest increase in the gamma2 band was related to the central areas of the left hemisphere. In more complex situation (group ), the increase in power in the gamma2 and gamma1 (21-40 Hz) bands was observed in the occipital and temporal areas of both hemispheres. At the same time, the EEG power of the central areas in these gamma bands was significantly lower. In the frontal areas there were no significant differences in the dynamics of power between the subjects of both groups.

  18. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively.

  19. Comparable Cerebral Oxygenation Patterns in Younger and Older Adults during Dual-Task Walking with Increasing Load

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Sarah A.; Dupuy, Olivier; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric; Bherer, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The neuroimaging literature on dual-task gait clearly demonstrates increased prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement when performing a cognitive task while walking. However, findings from direct comparisons of the cerebral oxygenation patterns of younger (YA) and older (OA) adults during dual-task walking are mixed and it is unclear how YA and OA respond to increasing cognitive load (difficulty) while walking. This functional near infra-red (fNIRS) study examined cerebral oxygenation of YA and OA during self-paced dual-task treadmill walking at two different levels of cognitive load (auditory n-back). Changes in accuracy (%) as well as oxygenated (HbO) and deoxygenated (HbR) hemoglobin were examined. For the HbO and HbR measures, eight regions of interest (ROIs) were assessed: the anterior and posterior dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC (aDLPFC, pDLPFC, aVLPFC, pVLPFC) in each hemisphere. Nineteen YA (M = 21.83 years) and 14 OA (M = 66.85 years) walked at a self-selected pace while performing auditory 1-back and 2-back tasks. Walking alone (single motor: SM) and performing the cognitive tasks alone (single cognitive: SC) were compared to dual-task walking (DT = SM + SC). In the behavioural data, participants were more accurate in the lowest level of load (1-back) compared to the highest (2-back; p < 0.001). YA were more accurate than OA overall (p = 0.009), and particularly in the 2-back task (p = 0.048). In the fNIRS data, both younger and older adults had task effects (SM < DT) in specific ROIs for ΔHbO (three YA, one OA) and ΔHbR (seven YA, eight OA). After controlling for walk speed differences, direct comparisons between YA and OA did not reveal significant age differences, but did reveal a difficulty effect in HbO in the left aDLPFC (p = 0.028) and significant task effects (SM < DT) in HbR for six of the eight ROIs. Findings suggest that YA and OA respond similarly to manipulations of cognitive load when walking on a treadmill at a self-selected pace. PMID

  20. Morphine increases hippocampal viral load and suppresses frontal lobe CCL5 expression in the LP-BM5 AIDS model.

    PubMed

    McLane, Virginia D; Cao, Ling; Willis, Colin L

    2014-04-15

    Chronic opiate abuse accelerates the development of cognitive deficits in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 patients. To investigate morphine's effects on viral infection of the central nervous system, we applied chronic morphine treatment to the LP-BM5 murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) model. LP-BM5 infection induces proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, correlating to increased blood-brain barrier permeability. Morphine treatment significantly increased LP-BM5 viral load in the hippocampus, but not in the frontal lobe. Morphine reduced the chemokine CCL5 to non-infected levels in the frontal lobe, but not in the hippocampus. These data indicate a region-specific mechanism for morphine's effects on virally-induced neurocognitive deficits.

  1. Hydropedological hotspots for dissolved organic carbon loading to streams along the perhumid temperate rainforest coastal margin of Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Edwards, R.; Herendeen, P. A.; Fellman, J.; Hood, E. W.

    2015-12-01

    Integrating terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemical research is essential for understanding the amount of material exported from terrestrial systems to streams and coastal margins. Integrated models are needed to elucidate how shifts in vegetation communities driven by soil moisture can predict plant community composition and biomass changes that alter the balance of carbon cycling and export to aquatic systems. Soil saturation has long been recognized as an important control on many ecological and biogeochemical relationships in coastal rainforests. However, the lack of working models for soil drainage with enough precision to provide accurate site assessments has limited interpretations of biogeochemical fluxes from terrestrial ecosystems to coastal zones. We have established a hydropedological model that can be used to identify the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of soil saturation and associated anaerobic conditions in soils. Periods of critical DOC loading and peak export associated with these conditions highlight the ability of rainforest soils to produce copious quantities of dissolved organic carbon export to streams. The loading of dissolved organic carbon to streams is closely coupled to seasonal temperature cycles, but constrained by the flow of water through the soil matrix. Episodic storm surges produce varying amounts of dissolved organic carbon flow depending on antecedent conditions. The largest amount of dissolved organic carbon loading to streams occurs after peak temperature and coincident with higher storm surges. Dissolved organic carbon flows more frequently and in higher quantities from wetland soils, but is also produced in large quantities from upland soils. These advances in modeling hydropedologic functions and dissolved organic carbon export establish a framework for climate change vulnerability assessments in rainforest soils.

  2. An Increase in Postural Load Facilitates an Anterior Shift of Processing Resources to Frontal Executive Function in a Postural-Suprapostural Task

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng-Ya; Chang, Gwo-Ching; Tsai, Yi-Ying; Hwang, Ing-Shiou

    2016-01-01

    Increase in postural-demand resources does not necessarily degrade a concurrent motor task, according to the adaptive resource-sharing hypothesis of postural-suprapostural dual-tasking. This study investigated how brain networks are organized to optimize a suprapostural motor task when the postural load increases and shifts postural control into a less automatic process. Fourteen volunteers executed a designated force-matching task from a level surface (a relative automatic process in posture) and from a stabilometer board while maintaining balance at a target angle (a relatively controlled process in posture). Task performance of the postural and suprapostural tasks, synchronization likelihood (SL) of scalp EEG, and graph-theoretical metrics were assessed. Behavioral results showed that the accuracy and reaction time of force-matching from a stabilometer board were not affected, despite a significant increase in postural sway. However, force-matching in the stabilometer condition showed greater local and global efficiencies of the brain networks than force-matching in the level-surface condition. Force-matching from a stabilometer board was also associated with greater frontal cluster coefficients, greater mean SL of the frontal and sensorimotor areas, and smaller mean SL of the parietal-occipital cortex than force-matching from a level surface. The contrast of supra-threshold links in the upper alpha and beta bands between the two stance conditions validated load-induced facilitation of inter-regional connections between the frontal and sensorimotor areas, but that contrast also indicated connection suppression between the right frontal-temporal and the parietal-occipital areas for the stabilometer stance condition. In conclusion, an increase in stance difficulty alters the neurocognitive processes in executing a postural-suprapostural task. Suprapostural performance is not degraded by increase in postural load, due to (1) increased effectiveness of information

  3. Prompt increases in retinol-binding protein 4 and endothelial progenitor cells during acute exercise load in diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Atsushi; Murata, Miho; Asano, Tomoko; Ikoma, Aki; Sasaki, Masami; Saito, Tomoyuki; Otani, Taeko; Jinbo, Sachimi; Ikeda, Nahoko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether acute exercise load alters serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and numbers of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in diabetic subjects. Sixty-two subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the present study. They were 50 males and 12 females with the ages of 65.1±8.1 (mean ± SD) years. Cardio-pulmonary exercise stress test (CPX) was carried out, and the numbers of EPC and serum RBP4 levels before and after the CPX were measured. RBP4 is a cytokine synthesized in hepatocytes, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, and serum RBP4 was determined by ELISA. EPC was determined as CD34(+)/133(+) cells by FACS. The subjects were subgrouped into two groups with or without nephropathy. Serum RBP4 levels promptly increased from 48.2±4.3 (mean±SEM) to 54.3±4.2 μg/mL after the CPX (mean exercise time of 8 min) in the diabetic subjects without nephropathy (p=0.0006), but did not in those with nephropathy. There was a positive correlation between changes in serum RBP4 during the exercise and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=0.30, p=0.018). Also, an acute exercise load promptly increased the number of EPCs in the diabetic subjects with and without nephropathy. These findings suggest that a prompt increase in exercise-induced RBP4 is retarded by progression of nephropathy, and that an exercise-induced mobilization of EPCs could maintain endothelial cells in diabetic subjects.

  4. Increased circulatory asymmetric dimethylarginine and multiple organ failure: bile duct ligation in rat as a model.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Li-Tung

    2014-03-05

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats exhibit cholestasis, increased systemic oxidative stress, and liver fibrosis, which ultimately lead to liver cirrhosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that can decrease the synthesis of nitric oxide. BDL rats have higher plasma and hepatic ADMA levels, which may be due to increased hepatic protein arginine methyltransferase-1 and decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase expression. BDL rats also exhibit renal and brain damage characterized by increased tissue ADMA concentrations. The increased plasma ADMA levels and multiple organ damages seen here are also observed following multiple organ failures associated with critical illness. This review discusses the dysregulation of ADMA in major organs in BDL rats and the role of increased ADMA in multiple organ damages.

  5. Near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry for measuring organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant aerosol mass loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, S.; Nichols, B.; Todd, K.; Zahardis, J.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2010-08-01

    A new method, near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (NIR-LDI-AMS), is described for the real time analysis of organic aerosols at atmospherically relevant total mass loadings. Particles are sampled with an aerodynamic lens onto an aluminum probe. A moderate energy NIR laser pulse at 1064 nm is directed onto the probe to vaporize and ionize particle components. Delayed pulse extraction is then used to sample the ions into a reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer for chemical analysis. The soft ionization afforded by the NIR photons results in minimal fragmentation (loss of a hydrogen atom) producing intact pseudo-molecular anions at [M-H]-. The limit of detection measured for pure oleic acid particles (geometric mean diameter and standard deviation of 180 nm and 1.3, respectively) was 140 fg (or 1.7 ng m-3 per minute sampling time). As an example of the utility of NIR-LDI-AMS to measurements of atmospheric importance, the method was applied to laboratory chamber measurements of the secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene. High quality mass spectra were recorded with a 2-min time resolution for total aerosol mass loadings ranging from 1.5 to 8.7 μg m-3. These results demonstrate the potential of NIR-LDI-AMS to allow for more accurate measurements of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate at realistic mass loadings. Measurements at ambient-levels of SOA mass loading are important to improve parameterizations of chamber-based SOA formation for modeling regional and global SOA fluxes and to aid in remediating the discrepancy between modeled and observed atmospheric total SOA production rates and concentrations.

  6. Near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry for measuring organic aerosol at atmospherically relevant aerosol mass loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, S.; Nichols, B.; Todd, K.; Zahardis, J.; Petrucci, G. A.

    2010-05-01

    A new method, near-infrared laser desorption/ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (NIR-LDI-AMS), is described for the real time analysis of organic aerosols at atmospherically relevant total mass loadings. Particles are sampled with an aerodynamic lens onto an aluminium probe and moderate energy NIR laser pulse at 1064 nm is directed onto the probe to vaporize and ionize particle components. Delayed pulse extraction is then used to sample the ions into a reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer for chemical analysis. The soft ionization afforded by the NIR photons results in minimal fragmentation (loss of a hydrogen atom) producing intact pseudo-molecular anions at [M-H]-. The limit of detection measured for pure oleic acid particles (geometric mean diameter and standard deviation of 180 nm and 1.3, respectively) was 140 fg (or 1.7 ng m-3 per minute sampling time). As an example of the utility of NIR-LDI-AMS to measurements of atmospheric importance, the method was applied to laboratory chamber measurements of the secondary organic aerosol formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene. High quality mass spectra were recorded with a 2-min time resolution for total aerosol mass loadings ranging from 1.5 to 8.7 μg m-3. These results demonstrate the potential of NIR-LDI-AMS to allow for more accurate measurements of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate at realistic mass loadings. Measurements at ambient-levels of SOA mass loading are important to improve parameterizations of chamber-based SOA formation for modeling regional and SOA fluxes and to aid in remediating the discrepancy between modeled and observed atmospheric total SOA production rates and concentrations.

  7. [Comparative analysis of gas exchange and cardiorespiratory systems reactions to increasing normobaric hypoxia and physical load of swimmers and skiers].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekin, S G; Divert, V E; Mel'nikov, V N; Vodianitskiĭ, S N; Girenko, L A

    2013-01-01

    Qualification comparable groups of young men engaged in cyclic kinds of sports were tested with stepwise accruing loads on bicycle ergometer and 25-minute exponential increasing normobaric hypoxia to final concentration of 10% oxygen. Group of skiers, having the greatest values of the maximal oxygen consumption at muscular work, show the relaxed cardiorespiratory reactions and more falling of blood oxygen in the hypoxia. The swimmers, having restrictions of ventilatory function in the course of trainings, form preadaptation to hypoxia with changes of external respiration and gas exchange functions that allows at hypoxia to better oxygen sate the blood in lungs. The joint assessment of aerobic capacity at physical work and physiological reactions to hypoxia shows the direct relation between individual maximal oxygen consumption and the descent rate of blood oxygen saturation at accruing hypoxia that can be useful at an assessment of a sportsman functional state and its correction at training processes.

  8. Change of teicoplanin loading dose requirement for incremental increases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome score in the setting of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takafumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Takata, Tohru; Irie, Keiichi; Sano, Kazunori; Imakyure, Osamu; Mishima, Kenichi; Futagami, Koujiro

    2016-08-01

    Background Target trough concentrations are recommended for teicoplanin (TEIC) to minimize its adverse effects and to maximize efficacy in sepsis caused by grampositive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, optimal doses to attain proper trough values in patients with sepsis have not yet been well established for TEIC. Objective This study investigated whether the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) score could predict the pharmacokinetics of TEIC in patients with sepsis. Setting This study was conducted at Fukuoka University Hospital in Japan. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients using TEIC between April 2012 and March 2015. SIRS positive was defined as infection with a SIRS score ≥2. Estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a Bayesian method. Creatinine clearance rates were estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula (eCcr). Main outcome measure Change of TEIC loading dose requirement for incremental increases of SIRS score. Results In total, 133 patients were enrolled: 50 non-SIRS patients and 83 patients with SIRS. The TEIC plasma trough concentration was significantly lower in SIRS than non-SIRS patients (15.7 ± 7.1 vs. 20.1 ± 8.6 μg/mL; P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference in the loading dose administered. Moreover, SIRS scores were increasingly predictive of eCcr and TEIC clearance in a stepwise manner. To achieve the target trough concentration (15-30 μg/mL), the optimal doses required in non-SIRS versus SIRS patients were 12-24 versus 18-30 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the first 48 h. Conclusions These findings suggest that the pharmacokinetics of TEIC are altered in SIRS patients, who required higher doses than non-SIRS patients to achieve the target trough concentration. We suggest that the SIRS score can become a new modality to determine the initial TEIC loading dose.

  9. Edge loading does not increase wear rates of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene articulations.

    PubMed

    Halma, Jelle J; Señaris, Jose; Delfosse, Daniel; Lerf, Reto; Oberbach, Thomas; van Gaalen, Steven M; de Gast, Arthur

    2014-11-01

    The mal-positioning of total hip arthroplasty components can result in edge loading conditions. Purpose of this study was to determine if the wear rate of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene increases under edge loading conditions. The literature was reviewed to determine which of the commonly used hip bearings is the most forgiving to implant mal-orientation. Two 28-mm ceramic-on-ceramic articulations were tested in vitro: pure alumina (PAL) ceramic versus the new alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ). Two 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene articulations were tested in vitro: conventional ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) versus highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) stabilized with vitamin E. All bearings were tested at standard and at highest possible inclination angles. Hip simulator tests were run for five million cycles based on N = 3 tests per condition. The average wear rate of ATZ-on-ATZ is 0.024 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45° and 0.018 mm(3) /Mcycles at 65°. Wear rate of PAL-on-PAL is between 0.02 and 0.03 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45°, as well as 65°. The wear rate of UHMWPE was 31 ± 1 mm(3) /Mcycles at an inclination angle of 45° and 26 ± 1 mm(3) /Mcycles at 80°. The wear rate of vitamin E stabilized HXLPE was 5.9 ± 0.2 mm(3) /Mcycles at 45° and 5.8 ± 0.2 mm(3) /Mcycles at 80°. Edge loading does not increase the wear rate of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene articulations. The newest biomaterials showed markedly lower wear rates compared with their conventional counterparts. ATZ-on-ATZ showed the lowest wear rate of all tested pairings, but the vitamin E stabilized HXLPE seems to be the most forgiving material when it comes to implant mal-orientation.

  10. Long-term repetitive mechanical loading of the knee joint by in vivo muscle stimulation accelerates cartilage degeneration and increases chondrocyte death in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Horisberger, Monika; Fortuna, Rafael; Valderrabano, Victor; Herzog, Walter

    2013-06-01

    Excessive chronic loading is thought to be one factor responsible for the onset of osteoarthritis. For example, studies using treadmill running have shown an increased risk for osteoarthritis, thereby suggesting that muscle-induced joint loading may play a role in osteoarthritis onset and progression. However, in these studies, muscle-induced loading was not carefully quantified. Here, we present a model of controlled muscular loading which allows for the accurate quantification of joint loading. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term, cyclic, isometric and dynamic, muscle-induced joint loading of physiologic magnitude but excessive intensity on cartilage integrity and cell viability in the rabbit knee. 24 rabbits were divided into an (i) eccentric, (ii) concentric, or (iii) isometric knee extensor contraction group (50 min of cyclic, submaximal stimulation 3 times/week for four weeks=19,500 cycles) controlled by the stimulation of a femoral nerve cuff electrode on the right hind limb. The contralateral knee was used as a non-loaded control. The knee articular cartilages were analysed by confocal microscopy for chondrocyte death, and histologically for Mankin Score, cartilage thickness and cell density. All loaded knees had significantly increased cell death rates and Mankin Scores compared to the non-loaded joints. Cartilage thicknesses did not systematically differ between loaded and control joints. Chondrocyte death and Mankin Scores were significantly increased in the loaded joints, thereby linking muscular exercise of physiologic magnitude but excessive intensity to cartilage degeneration and cell death in the rabbit knee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Morphogenetic foundations for increased evolutionary complexity in the organization of thecate hydroids shoots (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae)].

    PubMed

    Kosevich, I A

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenetic approach is applied to analyze the diversity of spatial organization of shoots in thecate hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae). The main tendencies and constraints of increased evolutionary complexity in thecate hydroids colonies are uncovered.

  12. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    PubMed

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Organic Load on Biohydrogen Production in an AnSBBR Treating Glucose-Based Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Souza, L P; Lullio, T G; Ratusznei, S M; Rodrigues, J A D; Zaiat, M

    2015-06-01

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with immobilized biomass (AnSBBR) was applied to the production of biohydrogen treating a glucose-based wastewater. The influence of the applied volumetric organic load was studied by varying the concentration of influent at 3600 and 5250 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) and cycle lengths of 4, 3, and 2 h resulting in volumetric organic loads of 10.5 to 31.1 g COD L(-1). The results revealed system stability in the production of biohydrogen and substrate consumption. The best performance was an organic removal (COD) of 24 % and carbohydrate removal (glucose) of 99 %. Volumetric and specific molar productivity were 60.9 mol H2 m(-3) day(-1) and 5.8 mol H2 kg SVT(-1) day(-1) (biogas containing 40 % H2 and no CH4) at 20.0 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (5250 mg COD L(-1) and 3 h). The yield between produced hydrogen and removed organic matter in terms of carbohydrates was 0.94 mol H2 Mol GLU(-1) (biogas containing 52 % H2 and no CH4) at 10.5 g COD L(-1) day(-1) (3600 mg COD L(-1) and 4 h), corresponding to 23 and 47 % of the theoretical values of the acetic and butyric acid metabolic routes, respectively. Metabolites present at significant amounts were ethanol, acetic acid, and butyric acid. The conditions with higher influent concentration and intermediate cycle length, and the condition with lower influent concentration and longer cycle showed the best results in terms of productivity and yield, respectively. This indicates that the best productivity tends to occur at higher organic loads, as this parameter involves the biogas production, and the best yield tends to occur at lower and/or intermediate organic loads, as this parameter also involves substrate consumption.

  14. Effect of organic loading rate on the performance of two-stage anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyen; Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was carried out: hydrolysis and acidogenesis in a continuous anaerobic hydrolytic leach bed (AHLB) reactor loaded at different rates (Bv = 3.8-7 gVSSL⁻¹d⁻¹) and methanogenesis of leachates, diluted with municipal wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at organic loading rates of 6.6-13 gCODLr⁻¹d⁻¹. In the AHLB reactor, 51-76% and 58-71% volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were obtained. During the hydrolysis and acidogenesis phases, the effluents were at pH 4.93, the leachate had a volatile fatty acids concentration of 35 g/L and the biogas was composed only of CO₂. The average methane production in the UASB in the load of 4.4 gVS L⁻¹ d⁻¹ in the AHLB was 3.32 LCH4Lr⁻¹d⁻¹ (yCH4 = 80%), with COD removal efficiency of 95% and methane yield 279 LCH4KgVS⁻¹OFMSW degraded.

  15. Emerging organic contaminants in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of media size, loading frequency and use of active aeration.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Nivala, Jaime; Olsson, Linda; Kassa, Kinfe; Headley, Tom; Mueller, Roland A; Bayona, Josep Maria; García, Joan

    2014-10-01

    Four side-by-side pilot-scale vertical flow (VF) constructed wetlands of different designs were evaluated for the removal of eight widely used emerging organic contaminants from municipal wastewater (i.e. ibuprofen, acetaminophen, diclofenac, tonalide, oxybenzone, triclosan, ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A). Three of the systems were free-draining, with one containing a gravel substrate (VGp), while the other two contained sand substrate (VS1p and VS2p). The fourth system had a saturated gravel substrate and active aeration supplied across the bottom of the bed (VAp). All beds were pulse-loaded on an hourly basis, except VS2p, which was pulse-loaded every 2h. Each system had a surface area of 6.2m(2), received a hydraulic loading rate of 95 mm/day and was planted with Phragmites australis. The beds received an organic loading rate of 7-16 gTOC/m(2)d. The sand-based VF (VS1p) performed significantly better (p<0.05) than the gravel-based wetland (VGp) both in the removal of conventional water quality parameters (TSS, TOC, NH4-N) and studied emerging organic contaminants except for diclofenac (85 ± 17% vs. 74 ± 15% average emerging organic contaminant removal for VS1p and VGp, respectively). Although loading frequency (hourly vs. bi-hourly) was not observed to affect the removal efficiency of the cited conventional water quality parameters, significantly lower removal efficiencies were found for tonalide and bisphenol A for the VF wetland that received bi-hourly dosing (VS2p) (higher volume per pulse), probably due to the more reducing conditions observed in that system. However, diclofenac was the only contaminant showing an opposite trend to the rest of the compounds, achieving higher elimination rates in the wetlands that exhibited less-oxidizing conditions (VS2p and VGp). The use of active aeration in the saturated gravel bed (VAp) generally improved the treatment performance compared to the free-draining gravel bed (VGp) and achieved a similar performance to the

  16. Organic Acid Excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron Increases with Ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Vrabl, Pamela; Fuchs, Viktoria; Pichler, Barbara; Schinagl, Christoph W.; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH. We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions, or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi. In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium-limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2–7), and ammonium or phosphate-limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7). Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids. Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation, and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e., overflow metabolism, charge balance, and aggressive acidification hypothesis. PMID:22493592

  17. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Design Prospective audit. Setting All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. Participants 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Main outcome measures Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Results Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Conclusions Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. PMID:27401356

  18. Prospective audit to evaluate the potential of the coronial system to increase solid organ donation.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Huw; Haigh, Andrew; Williment, Claire; Hudson, Cara; Whitney, Julie; Neuberger, James

    2016-07-08

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that organ donation from deceased donors referred to the Coroner/Procurator Fiscal (PF) could be increased if all followed best practice. The aim of this prospective audit was to establish how referrals affected organ donation and to develop evidence-based guidelines to ensure that organ donation can be facilitated safely without interfering in the Coroner/PF's investigative process. Prospective audit. All acute National Health Service Hospitals in the UK where deceased organ donation was considered. 1437 deceased patients who met the eligibility criteria for organ donation and were referred to Coroner/PF. Number of cases where permission for transplantation was given, number of organs where permission was refused and number of organs which might have been transplanted if all had followed best practice. Full permission for organ retrieval was given in 87% cases and partial permission in 9%. However, if full permission had been given where no autopsy was performed or restrictions seemed unjustified, up to 77 organs (22 lungs, 22 kidneys, 9 pancreases, 9 livers, 8 hearts and 7 small bowels) could have been available for transplant. Coroners/PFs and their officers show strong support for transplantation but improvement in practice could result in a small but significant increase in life-saving and life-enhancing transplants. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Financial incentives to increase Canadian organ donation: quick fix or fallacy?

    PubMed

    Gill, John S; Klarenbach, Scott; Barnieh, Lianne; Caulfield, Timothy; Knoll, Greg; Levin, Adeera; Cole, Edward H

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the United States, the potential to increase organ donation in Canada may be sufficient to meet the need for transplantation. However, there has been no national coordinated effort to increase organ donation. Strategies that do not involve payment for organs, such as investment in health care resources to support deceased donor organ donation and introduction of a remuneration framework for the work of deceased organ donation, should be prioritized for implementation. Financial incentives that may be permitted under existing legislation and that pose little risk to existing donation sources should be advanced, including the following: payment of funeral expenses for potential donors who register their decision on organ donation during life (irrespective of the decision to donate or actual organ donation) and removal of disincentives for directed and paired exchange living donation, such as payment of wages, payment for pain and suffering related to the donor surgery, and payment of directed living kidney donors for participation in Canada's paired exchange program. In contrast, it would be premature to contemplate a regulated system of organ sales that would require a paradigm shift in the current approach to organ donation and legislative change to implement. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased solubility of quartz in water due to complexing by organic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, P.; Siegel, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    Quartz is the most stable natural solid phase of silica. It weathers extremely slowly at the Earth's surface1, and often resists weathering even after all other silicate minerals have been degraded. However, there is ample evidence from both ancient and modern environments indicating enhanced dissolution and mobility of silica under conditions that cannot easily be explained by the inorganic controls of quartz solubility2. Increased solubility of quartz has been observed particularly in soils rich in organic material; however, no direct link between dissolved organic carbon and dissolved silica has been identified3. Here we present evidence for an increase in the solubility of quartz in a natural water brought about by dissolved organic compounds. These compounds were produced by the biodegradation of petroleum, and consist largely of a complex mixture of organic acids. We propose that silica is being complexed and mobilized by these organic acids in waters having close to neutral pH.

  1. Increasing organ donation via changes in the default choice or allocation rule

    PubMed Central

    Li, Danyang; Hawley, Zackary; Schnier, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This research utilizes a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative public policies targeted at increasing the rate of deceased donor organ donation. The experiment includes treatments across different default choices and organ allocation rules inspired by the donor registration systems applied in different countries. Our results indicate that the opt-out with priority rule system generates the largest increase in organ donation relative to an opt-in only program. However, sizeable gains are achievable using either a priority rule or opt-out program separately, with the opt-out rule generating approximately 80% of the benefits achieved under a priority rule program. PMID:24135615

  2. Multiarticular isokinetic high-load eccentric training induces large increases in eccentric and concentric strength and jumping performance.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Christos; Theodosiou, Konstantinos; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Gkantiraga, Evangelia; Gissis, Ioannis; Sambanis, Michalis; Souglis, Athanasios; Sotiropoulos, Aristomenis

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of short-term eccentric exercise training using a custom-made isokinetic leg press device, on concentric and eccentric strength and explosiveness as well as jumping performance. Nineteen healthy males were divided into an eccentric (ECC, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). The ECC group trained twice per week for 8 weeks using an isokinetic hydraulic leg press machine against progressively increasing resistance ranging from 70 to 90% of maximal eccentric force. Jumping performance and maximal force generating capacity were measured before and after eccentric training. In the ECC group, drop jump (DJ) height and maximal power were increased by 13.6 ± 3.2% (p < 0.01) and 25.8 ± 1.2% (p < 0.01), whereas ground contact time was decreased by 17.6 ± 2.6% (p < 0.01). Changes in ankle, knee, and hip joint angles were also reduced by 33.9 ± 1.1%, 31.1 ± 1.0%, and 32.4 ± 1.6% (all p < 0.01), respectively, indicating an increase in muscle stiffness during the DJ. Maximal eccentric and concentric leg press force was increased by 64.9 ± 5.5% (p < 0.01) and 32.2 ± 8.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, and explosiveness, measured as force attained in the first 300 milliseconds, was increased by 49.1 ± 4.8% (p < 0.01) and 77.1 ± 7.7% (p < 0.01), respectively. The CG did not show any statistically significant changes in all parameters measured. The main findings of this study were that maximal concentric and eccentric force, explosiveness, and DJ performance were markedly increased after only 16 training sessions, possibly because of the high eccentric load attained during the bilateral eccentric leg press exercise performed on this custom-made device.

  3. Constitutive TLR4 signalling in intestinal epithelium reduces tumor load by increasing apoptosis in APC(Min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Teo, W L; Low, M J; Meijer, L; Sanderson, I; Pettersson, S; Greicius, G

    2014-01-16

    The microbial pattern-recognizing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are major signal transducers known to shape and influence the postnatal maturation of host intestinal epithelium. Perturbations in this intricate host-microbe cross-talk have been reported to be associated with uncontrolled epithelial cell growth and thus potential cancer development by mechanisms which are largely unknown. We therefore generated transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active TLR4 (CD4-TLR4) linked to an intestinal epithelial cell-specific promoter. Ex vivo analysis of transgenic crypt-villus organoid cultures revealed an increased proliferative capacity and a lowered cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) expression in these organoids compared with wild-type control cultures. Introducing the CD4-TLR4 transgene into APC(Min/+) mice (CD4-TLR4-APC(Min/+)), a model of colorectal carcinoma, resulted in a dramatic drop in tumor load as compared with control APC(Min/+) mice. Intestinal tumors from CD4-TLR4-APC(Min/+) mice displayed reduced Cox-2 protein, elevated interferon β expression and increased caspase-3 activity, which correlated with increased apoptosis in vivo. Thus, our data reveal that host microbiota-mediated signal transduction via TLR4 in intestinal epithelial cells is far more complex than what is previously reported.

  4. Polystyrene-graft-polyglycerol resins: a new type of high-loading hybrid support for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Roller, Sebastian; Türk, Holger; Stumbé, Jean-François; Rapp, Wolfgang; Haag, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The preparation of a dendritic graft polymer by a very efficient synthesis of polyglycerol directly on a polystyrene resin is presented. This one-step process can be performed on a multigram scale to provide a chemically stable polymeric support. The resulting hybrid polymers were fully characterized by diverse analytical methods (NMR, IR, ESEM, UV detection of cleaved protecting groups, and mass-spectrometric methods). They combine a high loading capacity (up to 4.3 mmol g(-1)) with good swelling properties in a wide range of solvents (including water), which is the major drawback for many existing solid phase supports. In comparison to the widely employed PEGylated resins, these hybrid materials offer a 10-fold higher loading capacity. Their suitability as supports for organic synthesis and for the immobilization of reagents has been demonstrated. These materials also swell in water, and consequently, it should be possible to use these new hybrid materials for synthesis in protic solvents.

  5. Coadministration of doxorubicin and etoposide loaded in camel milk phospholipids liposomes showed increased antitumor activity in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M; Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Alorainy, Mohammed S; Rahmani, Arshad H; Khan, Masood A

    2015-01-01

    Small unilamellar vesicles from camel milk phospholipids (CML) mixture or from 1,2 dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were prepared, and anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox) or etoposide (ETP) were loaded. Liposomal formulations were used against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Results showed a very high percentage of Dox encapsulation (~98%) in liposomes (Lip) prepared from CML-Lip or DPPC-Lip, whereas the percentage of encapsulations of ETP was on the lower side, 22% of CML-Lip and 18% for DPPC-Lip. Differential scanning calorimetry curves show that Dox enhances the lamellar formation in CML-Lip, whereas ETP enhances the nonlamellar formation. Differential scanning calorimetry curves also showed that the presence of Dox and ETP together into DPPC-Lip produced the interdigitation effect. The in vivo anticancer activity of liposomal formulations of Dox or ETP or a combination of both was assessed against benzopyrene (BAP)-induced fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of Dox and ETP loaded into CML-Lip showed increased survival and reduced tumor growth compared to other groups, including the combination of Dox and ETP in DPPC-Lip. Fibrosarcoma-bearing mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed much higher tumor growth compared to those groups treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP). Immunohistochemical study was also performed to show the expression of tumor-suppressor PTEN, and it was found that the tumor tissues from the group of mice treated with a combination of free (Dox + ETP) showed greater loss of cytoplasmic PTEN than tumor tissues obtained from the groups of mice treated with CML-Lip-(Dox + ETP) or DPPC-Lip-(Dox + ETP).

  6. Stratospheric Inorganic Bromine Loading Inferred from CONTRAST BrO and Organic Bromine Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wales, P.; Nicely, J. M.; Anderson, D. C.; Canty, T. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donets, V.; Lueb, R.; Navarro, M. A.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Riemer, D. D.; Chen, D.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Volkamer, R. M.; Koenig, T. K.; Baidar, S.; Dix, B. K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wolfe, G.; Hanisco, T. F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Fernandez, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Honomichl, S.; Pan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) aircraft campaigns sampled the tropical Western Pacific in the winter of 2014. In this region, strong convection provides an efficient pathway to transport very short lived (VSL) biogenic bromocarbons and their degradation products from the marine boundary layer to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. A stratospheric tracer-tracer relation will be developed based on CONTRAST and ATTREX whole air sampler observations of CFC-11, a commonly measured stratospheric tracer, and bromocarbons. This relation will be used to calculate the release of inorganic bromine both from VSL source gas injection and from long-lived bromocarbons as a function of CFC-11. Additionally, a photochemical box model will be used to infer inorganic bromine loading using CONTRAST BrO observations taken in the lower stratosphere using CIMS and DOAS instruments. The inferred inorganic bromine loading will be combined with the tracer-tracer relation to provide an estimate of VSL product gas injection. This work will provide an observations-based method for calculating stratospheric inorganic bromine loading from CFC-11 to be used in future modelling studies.

  7. Method of loading organic materials with group III plus lanthanide and actinide elements

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Huei-Ho, Chuen; Brown, Gilbert M.; Hurlbut, Charles

    2003-04-08

    Disclosed is a composition of matter comprising a tributyl phosphate complex of a group 3, lanthanide, actinide, or group 13 salt in an organic carrier and a method of making the complex. These materials are suitable for use in solid or liquid organic scintillators, as in x-ray absorption standards, x-ray fluorescence standards, and neutron detector calibration standards.

  8. Increased delivery stride length places greater loads on the ankle joint in elite male cricket fast bowlers.

    PubMed

    Spratford, Wayne; Hicks, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect stride length has on ankle biomechanics of the leading leg with reference to the potential risk of injury in cricket fast bowlers. Ankle joint kinematic and kinetic data were collected from 51 male fast bowlers during the stance phase of the final delivery stride. The bowling cohort comprised national under-19, first class and international-level athletes. Bowlers were placed into either Short, Average or Long groups based on final stride length, allowing statistical differences to be measured. A multivariate analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post-hoc correction (α = 0.05) revealed significant differences between peak plantarflexion angles (Short-Long P = 0.005, Average and Long P = 0.04) and negative joint work (Average-Long P = 0.026). This study highlighted that during fast bowling the ankle joint of the leading leg experiences high forces under wide ranges of movement. As stride length increases, greater amounts of negative work and plantarflexion are experienced. These increases place greater loads on the ankle joint and move the foot into positions that make it more susceptible to injuries such as posterior impingement syndrome.

  9. Climate driven release of carbon and mercury from permafrost mires increases mercury loading to sub-arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Rydberg, Johan; Klaminder, Jonatan; Rosén, Peter; Bindler, Richard

    2010-09-15

    In sub-arctic and arctic regions mercury is an element of concern for both wildlife and humans. Over thousands of years large amounts of atmospherically deposited mercury, both from natural and anthropogenic sources, have been sequestered together with carbon in northern peatlands. Many of these peatlands are currently underlain by permafrost, which controls mire stability and hydrology. With the ongoing climate change there is concern that permafrost thawing will turn large areas of these northern peatlands from carbon/mercury-sinks into much wetter carbon/mercury-sources. Here we can show that such a change in mire structure in the sub-arctic Stordalen mire in northern Sweden actually is responsible for an increased export of mercury to the adjacent lake Inre Harrsjön. We also show that sediment mercury accumulation rates during a warm period in the pre-industrial past were higher than in the 1970s when atmospheric input peaked, indicating that in areas with permafrost, climate can have an effect on mercury loading to lakes as large as anthropogenic emissions. Thawing of permafrost and the subsequent export of carbon is a widespread phenomenon, and the projection is that it will increase even more in the near future. Together with our observations from Stordalen, this makes northern peatlands into a substantial source of mercury, at risk of being released into sensitive arctic freshwater and marine systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. AnSBBR applied to a personal care industry wastewater treatment: effects of fill time, volume treated per cycle, and organic load.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, José Alberto Domingues; Oliveira, Ricardo Polisaitis; Ratusznei, Suzana Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Foresti, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    A study was performed regarding the effect of the relation between fill time, volume treated per cycle, and influent concentration at different applied organic loadings on the stability and efficiency of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor containing immobilized biomass on polyurethane foam with recirculation of the liquid phase (AnSBBR) applied to the treatment of wastewater from a personal care industry. Total cycle length of the reactor was 8 h (480 min). Fill times were 10 min in the batch operation, 4 h in the fed-batch operation, and a 10-min batch followed by a 4-h fed batch in the mixed operation. Settling time was not necessary since the biomass was immobilized and decant time was 10 min. Volume of liquid medium in the reactor was 2.5 L, whereas volume treated per cycle ranged from 0.88 to 2.5 L in accordance with fill time. Influent concentration varied from 300 to 1,425 mg COD/L, resulting in an applied volumetric organic load of 0.9 and 1.5 g COD/L.d. Recirculation flow rate was 20 L/h, and the reactor was maintained at 30 °C. Values of organic matter removal efficiency of filtered effluent samples were below 71% in the batch operations and above 74% in the operations of fed batch followed by batch. Feeding wastewater during part of the operational cycle was beneficial to the system, as it resulted in indirect control over the conversion of substrate into intermediates that would negatively interfere with the biochemical reactions regarding the degradation of organic matter. As a result, the average substrate consumption increased, leading to higher organic removal efficiencies in the fed-batch operations.

  11. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sharon S.; Tusch, Erich S.; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Daffner, Kirk R.

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models. PMID:27536226

  12. Increases in tropical rainfall driven by changes in frequency of organized deep convection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jackson; Jakob, Christian; Rossow, William B; Tselioudis, George

    2015-03-26

    Increasing global precipitation has been associated with a warming climate resulting from a strengthening of the hydrological cycle. This increase, however, is not spatially uniform. Observations and models have found that changes in rainfall show patterns characterized as 'wet-gets-wetter' and 'warmer-gets-wetter'. These changes in precipitation are largely located in the tropics and hence are probably associated with convection. However, the underlying physical processes for the observed changes are not entirely clear. Here we show from observations that most of the regional increase in tropical precipitation is associated with changes in the frequency of organized deep convection. By assessing the contributions of various convective regimes to precipitation, we find that the spatial patterns of change in the frequency of organized deep convection are strongly correlated with observed change in rainfall, both positive and negative (correlation of 0.69), and can explain most of the patterns of increase in rainfall. In contrast, changes in less organized forms of deep convection or changes in precipitation within organized deep convection contribute less to changes in precipitation. Our results identify organized deep convection as the link between changes in rainfall and in the dynamics of the tropical atmosphere, thus providing a framework for obtaining a better understanding of changes in rainfall. Given the lack of a distinction between the different degrees of organization of convection in climate models, our results highlight an area of priority for future climate model development in order to achieve accurate rainfall projections in a warming climate.

  13. Increases in dissolved organic carbon accelerate loss of toxic Al in Adirondack lakes recovering from acidification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Dukett, James E; Houck, Nathan; Snyder, Phillip; Capone, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing pH and decreasing Al in surface waters recovering from acidification have been accompanied by increasing concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and associated organic acids that partially offset pH increases and complicate assessments of recovery from acidification. To better understand the processes of recovery, monthly chemistry from 42 lakes in the Adirondack region, NY, collected from 1994 to 2011, were used to (1) evaluate long-term changes in DOC and associated strongly acidic organic acids and (2) use the base-cation surplus (BCS) as a chemical index to assess the effects of increasing DOC concentrations on the Al chemistry of these lakes. Over the study period, the BCS increased (p < 0.01) and concentrations of toxic inorganic monomeric Al (IMAl) decreased (p < 0.01). The decreases in IMAl were greater than expected from the increases in the BCS. Higher DOC concentrations that increased organic complexation of Al resulted in a decrease in the IMAl fraction of total monomeric Al from 57% in 1994 to 23% in 2011. Increasing DOC concentrations have accelerated recovery in terms of decreasing toxic Al beyond that directly accomplished by reducing atmospheric deposition of strong mineral acids.

  14. Shifting the pulsatility by increasing the change in rotational speed for a rotary LVAD using a native heart load control system.

    PubMed

    Date, Kazuma; Nishimura, Takashi; Takewa, Yoshiaki; Kishimoto, Satoru; Arakawa, Mamoru; Umeki, Akihide; Ando, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihide; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Ono, Minoru; Tatsumi, Eisuke

    2016-12-01

    We have previously developed a native heart load control system for a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) ((EVAHEART(®); Sun Medical) and demonstrated that the rotational speed (RS) in synchronization with the cardiac cycle can alter pulsatility and left ventricular (LV) load under general anesthesia. In this study, we assessed the effects of different levels of increase in RS on pulsatility and LV load in the chronic awake phase. We implanted the EVAHEART via left thoracotomy in 7 normal goats (59.3 ± 4.6 kg). Two weeks after implantation, we examined the effects of co-pulse mode (increased RS in the systolic phase) and counter-pulse mode (increased RS in the diastolic phase), as well as shifting the change in RS from 250 to 500 rpm, and 750 rpm in both modes on pulsatility and LV load. Pulsatility was assessed using pulse pressure and mean dP/dt max of aortic pressure. LV load was assessed using stroke work and left ventricle end-diastolic volume determined from LV pressure-volume loops. In the co-pulse mode, pulsatility values increased as the change in RS increased. By contrast, in the counter-pulse mode, these values decreased as the change in RS increased. LV load increased significantly in the co-pulse mode compared with the counter-pulse mode, but there were no significant differences among the three levels of RS increase in either mode. Increasing RS to varying degrees with our newly developed system could contribute to pulsatility. However, it appeared to have little effect on LV load in normal hearts.

  15. Influence of organic carbon and nitrate loading on partitioning between dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and N2 production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardison, Amber K.; Algar, Christopher K.; Giblin, Anne E.; Rich, Jeremy J.

    2015-09-01

    Biologically available nitrogen is removed from ecosystems through the microbial processes of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) or denitrification, while dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) retains it. A mechanistic understanding of controls on partitioning among these pathways is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to conduct a manipulative experiment to determine the influence of organic C and NO3- loading on partitioning. Sediment was collected from a location on the southern New England shelf (78 m water depth) and sieved. Half of the sediment was mixed with freeze-dried phytoplankton and the other half was not. Sediment was then spread into 1.5 mm, "thin discs" closed at the bottom and placed in large aquarium tanks with filtered, N2/CO2 sparged seawater to maintain O2 limited conditions. Half of the discs received high NO3- loading, while the other half received low NO3- loading, resulting in a multifactorial design with four treatments: no C addition, low NO3- (-C-N); C addition, low NO3- (+C-N); no C addition, high NO3- (-C+N); and C addition, high NO3- (+C+N). Sediment discs were incubated in the tanks for 7 weeks, during which time inorganic N (NH4+, NO3-, and NO2-) was monitored, and sediment discs were periodically removed from the tanks to conduct 15N isotope labeling experiments in vials to measure potential rates of anammox, denitrification, and DNRA. Temporal dynamics of inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were indicative of anoxic N metabolism, with strong response of the build up or consumption of the intermediate NO2-, depending on treatments. Vial incubation experiments with added 15NO2- + 14NH4+ indicated significant denitrification and DNRA activity in sediment thin discs, but incubations with added 15NH4+ + 14NO2- indicated anammox was not at all significant. Inorganic N concentrations in the tanks were fit to a reactive transport model assuming different N transformations. Organic C decomposition rates

  16. Increasing organ donation in Hispanic Americans: the role of media and other community outreach efforts.

    PubMed

    Salim, Ali; Ley, Eric J; Berry, Cherisse; Schulman, Danielle; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for organs continues to outpace supply. This gap is most pronounced in minority populations, who constitute more than 40% of the organ waiting list. Hispanic Americans are particularly less likely to donate compared with other minorities for reasons that remain poorly understood and difficult to change. To determine whether outreach interventions that target Hispanic Americans improve organ donation outcomes. Prospective before-after study of 4 southern California neighborhoods with a high percentage of Hispanic American residents. We conducted cross-sectional telephone surveys before and 2 years after outreach interventions. Respondents 18 years or older were drawn randomly from lists of Hispanic surnames. Awareness, perceptions, and beliefs regarding organ donation and intent to donate were measured and compared before and after interventions. Television and radio commercials about organ donation and educational programs at 5 high schools and 4 Catholic churches. Number of survey participants who specify intent to donate. A total of 402 preintervention and 654 postintervention individuals participated in the surveys. We observed a significant increase in awareness of and knowledge about organ donation and a significant increase in the intent to donate (17.7% vs 12.1%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.06-2.26; P = .02]). Focused donor outreach programs sustain awareness and knowledge and can significantly improve intent to donate organs in the Hispanic American population. These programs should continue to be evaluated and implemented to influence donor registration.

  17. Climate Change and Nutrient Loading: Controls on Phytoplankton Growth and Dissolved Organic Matter Quality in Lakes in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Khan, A. L.; Hohner, A.; Rosario, F.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding connection between DOM quality and reactivity is important for evaluating processes driving recent increases in DOC. One potential driver may be greater phytoplankton growth associated with earlier ice-out and concomitant increases in nitrogen loading in mountain lakes. This study examined DOM patterns in 30 lakes and reservoirs which were sampled during the summer algal bloom peak in Colorado. Algal species identified using a FlowCAM imaging microscope and DOM quality was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy. The results showed that the DOM quality was indicative of microbial sources in lakes with greater algal abundance and higher DOC concentrations. In low DOC lakes the fluorescence signature suggested that photo-bleaching was also an influence. These results indicate that further development and application of a recent model for algal DOM production could be used in concert with climate and nutrient loading scenarios to predict DOM concentrations and quality in CO lakes and reservoirs.

  18. Changes in the location of biodiversity-ecosystem function hot spots across the seafloor landscape with increasing sediment nutrient loading.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Simon F; Hewitt, Judi E; Kraan, Casper; Lohrer, A M; Pilditch, Conrad A; Douglas, Emily

    2017-04-12

    Declining biodiversity and loss of ecosystem function threatens the ability of habitats to contribute ecosystem services. However, the form of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function (BEF) and how relationships change with environmental change is poorly understood. This limits our ability to predict the consequences of biodiversity loss on ecosystem function, particularly in real-world marine ecosystems that are species rich, and where multiple ecosystem functions are represented by multiple indicators. We investigated spatial variation in BEF relationships across a 300 000 m(2) intertidal sandflat by nesting experimental manipulations of sediment pore water nitrogen concentration into sites with contrasting macrobenthic community composition. Our results highlight the significance of many different elements of biodiversity associated with environmental characteristics, community structure, functional diversity, ecological traits or particular species (ecosystem engineers) to important functions of coastal marine sediments (benthic oxygen consumption, ammonium pore water concentrations and flux across the sediment-water interface). Using the BEF relationships developed from our experiment, we demonstrate patchiness across a landscape in functional performance and the potential for changes in the location of functional hot and cold spots with increasing nutrient loading that have important implications for mapping and predicating change in functionality and the concomitant delivery of ecosystem services. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study.

    PubMed

    Aulická, Stefania Rusnáková; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, Marek; Bočková, Martina; Chrastina, Jan; Rektor, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    We studied the appearance of broadband oscillatory changes (ranging 2-45 Hz) induced by a cognitive task with two levels of complexity. The event-related de/synchronizations (ERD/S) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were evaluated in an executive function test. Four epilepsy surgery candidates with intracerebral electrodes implanted in the ACC and three Parkinson's disease patients with externalized deep brain stimulation electrodes implanted in the STN participated in the study. A Flanker test (FT) with visual stimuli (arrows) was performed. Subjects reacted to four types of stimuli presented on the monitor by pushing the right or left button: congruent arrows to the right or left side (simple task) and incongruent arrows to the right or left side (more difficult complex task). We explored the activation of STN and the activation of the ACC while processing the FT. Both conditions, i.e. congruent and incongruent, induced oscillatory changes in the ACC and also STN with significantly higher activation during incongruent trial. At variance with the ACC, in the STN not only the ERD beta but also the ERD alpha activity was significantly more activated by the incongruent condition. In line with our earlier studies, the STN appears to be involved in activities linked with increased cognitive load. The specificity and complexity of task-related activation of the STN might indicate the involvement of the STN in processes controlling human behaviour, e.g. in the selection and inhibition of competing alternatives.

  20. Maintenance of phenol hydroxylase genotypes at high diversity in bioreactors exposed to step increases in phenol loading.

    PubMed

    Basile, Laura A; Erijman, Leonardo

    2010-08-01

    To better understand how the composition of bacterial communities changes in response to different environmental conditions, we examined the influence of increasing phenol load on the distribution of the protein-coding functional gene of the largest subunit of phenol hydroxylase (LmPH) and of the 16S rRNA gene in lab-scale activated sludge reactors. LmPH diversity was assessed initially from a total of 124 clone sequences retrieved from two reactors exposed to a low (0.25 g L(-1)) and a high (2.5 g L(-1)) phenol concentration. The quantitative changes in the concentration of the eight detected genotypes accompanied changes in the phenol degradation rates, indicating a community structure-function relationship. Nonmetric dimensional analysis showed that LmPH genotypes and the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns clustered together by phenol concentration, rather than by reactor identity. Seven isolates, representing cultivated strains of each of the observed LmPH genotypes, exhibited a rather narrow range of physiological diversity, in terms of the growth rate and the kinetic parameters of the phenol-degrading activity. We suggest that lab-scale reactors support many ecological niches, which allow the maintenance of a high diversity of ecotypes through varying concentrations of phenol, but the ability of particular strains to become dominant members of the community under the different environmental conditions cannot be predicted easily solely from their phenol-degrading properties.

  1. Sensor Deployment for Geographic, Load Balanced Hierarchical Organization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Amit Kr.; Gautam, Ajay Kr.; Patel, R. B.

    2010-11-01

    In order to provide load balancing in clustered sensor deployment, the upstream clusters (near the BS) are kept smaller in size as compared to downstream ones (away from BS). Moreover, geographic awareness is also desirable in order to further enhance energy efficiency. But, this must be cost effective, since most of current location awareness strategies are either cost and weight inefficient (GPS) or are complex, inaccurate and unreliable in operation. This paper presents design and implementation of a Geographic LOad BALanced (GLOBAL) Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. A mathematical formulation is provided for determining the number of sensor nodes in each cluster. This enables uniform energy consumption after the multi-hop data transmission towards BS. Either the sensors can be manually deployed or the clusters be so formed that the sensor are efficiently distributed as per formulation. The latter strategy is elaborated in this contribution. Methods to provide static clustering and custom cluster sizes with location awareness are also provided in the given work. Finally, low mobility node applications can also implement the proposed work.

  2. Increased zinc and copper availability in organic waste amended soil potentially involving distinct release mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tella, Marie; Bravin, Matthieu N; Thuriès, Laurent; Cazevieille, Patrick; Chevassus-Rosset, Claire; Collin, Blanche; Chaurand, Perrine; Legros, Samuel; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at determining the fate of trace elements (TE) following soil organic waste (OW) application. We used a unique combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analyses, to determine TE speciation, with incubation experiments for in situ monitoring of TE availability patterns over a time course with the technique of the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). We showed that copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) availability were both increased in OW-amended soil, but their release was controlled by distinct mechanisms. Zn speciation in OW was found to be dominated by an inorganic species, i.e. Zn sorbed on Fe oxides. Zn desorption from Fe oxides could explain the increase in Zn availability in OW-amended soil. Cu speciation in OW was dominated by organic species. Cu release through the mineralization of organic carbon from OW was responsible for the increase in Cu availability.

  3. Role of More Active Identification of Brain-Dead Cases in Increasing Organ Donation.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Beigee, Farahnaz; Mohsenzadeh, Mojtaba; Shahryari, Shagin; Mojtabaee, Meysam

    2017-02-01

    Organ donor shortage is a worldwide problem, resulting in 10% to 30% mortality rates for patients on wait lists for organ transplant. For brain-dead patients in Iran, it is mandatory for intensive care unit patients with Glasgow Coma Scale below 5/15 to be reported to an organ procurement unit. However, this process has not been functioning effectively. Here, we present the effects of changing the strategies on detecting brain-dead cases on the organ donor pool. From March 2015 to March 2016, we changed our strategy in active detection of brain-dead cases. Since March 2015, our newly established protocol for active detection of brain-dead cases includes the following changes: (1) instead of calling high-volume intensive care units 3 times per week, we switched to calling every day in the morning; (2) instead of calling low-volume intensive care units 1 time per week, we switched to calling 3 times per week; (3) we included intensive care units (cardiac and general), neurosurgery, and emergency departments, as well as nursing supervisor offices, in our call and visit lists; and (4) we increased visits to wards by our trained staff as inspectors. From March 2015 to March 2016, the number of reported suspected brain-dead cases has increased from 224 to 460 per year, with proven brain death increasing from 180 to 306 cases. The actual number of donors has also increased, from 116 to 165 donations (53% increase) over 1 year. More proactive strategies have had significant effects on brain-dead detection, resulting in significantly increased donor pools and organ donations. In countries with low cooperation of hospital staff, more proactive engagement in detecting brain-dead cases is a good solution to prevent loss of potential organ donors, with a final result of decreasing wait list mortality.

  4. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    PubMed

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  5. Increased Fluvial Dissolved Organic Carbon Fluxes over 130 Years of Land-Use Change in the Thames Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noacco, V.; Howden, N. J. K.; Wagener, T.; Worrall, F.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates drivers of changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in the UK's River Thames basin between 1881 and 2011. Specifically, we consider how impacts of land-use change drive increases in DOC concentrations and fluxes at the basin outlet. First, we estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in the Thames basin for the period. Second, SOC losses due to land-use change are partitioned into DOC lost to surface waters through runoff, DOC leached into deeper soils and groundwater, and losses to the atmosphere as CO2. SOC stocks for each year are calculated from a large database of typical SOC levels for land-uses present in the Thames basin and are combined with literature values of transition times for SOC to adjust to a new level following land-use change. We also account for climate change effects on SOC stock due to temperature increases, which reduces SOC stocks as soil organic matter turnover rates increase. Soil carbon fluxes are calculated as the inter-annual change in SOC. We use a 130 year record of DOC concentration in the Thames, and parameters from previous long-term nitrate modeling, to constrain estimates of fluvial DOC rises caused by SOC losses. We developed a sewage model to evaluate the relative contribution of point and diffuse sources to the total DOC flux. The results show that sewage effluent point sources do not contribute to DOC concentration at the monitoring point, except for isolated periods of exceptionally low flow. Our work shows for the majority of years, diffuse sources are the main contributor to annual DOC loads. Moreover even though there are many small inter-annual variations in DOC concentration, the major change in both estimated SOC storage and fluvial DOC export occurred during WWII due to substantial changes in land-use, the legacy of which continues to date.

  6. Susceptibility of experimental faults to pore pressure increase: insights from load-controlled experiments on calcite-bearing rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnuolo, Elena; Violay, Marie; Nielsen, Stefan; Cornelio, Chiara; Di Toro, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    Fluid pressure has been indicated as a major factor controlling natural (e.g., L'Aquila, Italy, 2009 Mw 6.3) and induced seismicity (e.g., Wilzetta, Oklahoma, 2011 Mw 5.7). Terzaghi's principle states that the effective normal stress is linearly reduced by a pore pressure (Pf) increase σeff=σn(1 - αPf), where the effective stress parameter α, may be related to the fraction of the fault area that is flooded. A value of α =1 is often used by default, with Pf shifting the Mohr circle towards lower normal effective stresses and anticipating failure on pre-existing faults. However, within a complex fault core of inhomogeneous permeability, α may vary in a yet poorly understood way. To shed light on this problem, we conducted experiments on calcite-bearing rock samples (Carrara marble) at room humidity conditions and in the presence of pore fluids (drained conditions) using a rotary apparatus (SHIVA). A pre-cut fault is loaded by constant shear stress τ under constant normal stress σn=15 MPa until a target value corresponding roughly to the 80 % of the frictional fault strength. The pore pressure Pf is then raised with regular pressure and time steps to induce fault instability. Assuming α=1 and a threshold for instability τp_eff=μp σeff, the experiments reveal that an increase of Pf does not necessarily induce an instability even when the effective strength threshold is largely surpassed (e.g., τp_eff=1.3 μpσeff). This result may indicate that the Pf increase did not instantly diffuse throughout the slip zone, but took a finite time to equilibrate with the external imposed pressure increase due to finite permeability. Under our experimental conditions, a significant departure from α=1 is observed provided that the Pf step is shorter than about < 20s. We interpret this delay as indicative of the diffusion time (td), which is related to fluid penetration length l by l = √ κtd-, where κ is the hydraulic diffusivity on the fault plane. We show that a

  7. Impact of organic loading rate on the performance of psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and wheat straw: long-term operation.

    PubMed

    Saady, Noori M Cata; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Development of efficient processes for valorising animal wastes would be a major advancement in cold-climate regions. This paper reports the results of long term (315 days experiment) of novel psychrophilic (20°C) dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) of cow feces and wheat straw in laboratory scale sequence batch reactor operated at increasing organic loading rate. The PDAD process fed with a mixture of feces and straw (TS of 27%) over a treatment cycle length of 21 days at organic loading rate (OLR) 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1) (of 2.9 ± 0.1, 3.7 ± 0.1, and 4.4 ± 0.1g VS kg(-1) inoculum d(-1), respectively) resulted in average specific methane yield (SMY) of 187.3 ± 18.1, 163.6 ± 39.5, 150.8 ± 32.9 N L CH4 kg(-1)VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.4 at OLR of 6.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum d(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction.

  8. Linking Load, Fuel, and Emission Controls to Photochemical Production of Secondary Organic Aerosol from a Diesel Engine.

    PubMed

    Jathar, Shantanu H; Friedman, Beth; Galang, Abril A; Link, Michael F; Brophy, Patrick; Volckens, John; Eluri, Sailaja; Farmer, Delphine K

    2017-02-07

    Diesel engines are important sources of fine particle pollution in urban environments, but their contribution to the atmospheric formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is not well constrained. We investigated direct emissions of primary organic aerosol (POA) and photochemical production of SOA from a diesel engine using an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). In less than a day of simulated atmospheric aging, SOA production exceeded POA emissions by an order of magnitude or more. Efficient combustion at higher engine loads coupled to the removal of SOA precursors and particle emissions by aftertreatment systems reduced POA emission factors by an order of magnitude and SOA production factors by factors of 2-10. The only exception was that the retrofitted aftertreatment did not reduce SOA production at idle loads where exhaust temperatures were low enough to limit removal of SOA precursors in the oxidation catalyst. Use of biodiesel resulted in nearly identical POA and SOA compared to diesel. The effective SOA yield of diesel exhaust was similar to that of unburned diesel fuel. While OFRs can help study the multiday evolution, at low particle concentrations OFRs may not allow for complete gas/particle partitioning and bias the potential of precursors to form SOA.

  9. Modular tubular microbial fuel cells for energy recovery during sucrose wastewater treatment at low organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Rae; Premier, Giuliano C; Hawkes, Freda R; Rodríguez, Jorge; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2010-02-01

    Energy recovery while treating low organic loads has been investigated using longitudinal tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC) reactors. Duplicate reactors, each consisting of two modules, were operated with influent sucrose organic loading rates (OLRs) between 0.04 and 0.42 g COD/l/d. Most soluble COD (sCOD) removal occurred in the first modules with predominantly VFAs reaching the second modules. Coulombic efficiency (CE) in the second modules ranged from 9% to 92% which was 3-4 times higher than the first modules. The maximum energy production was 1.75 W h/g COD in the second modules at OLR 0.24 g/l/d, up to 10 times higher than the first modules, attributable to non-fermentable substrate. A simple plug flow model of the reactors, including a generic non-electrogenic reaction competing for acetate, was developed. This modular tubular design can reproducibly distribute bioprocesses between successive modules and could be scalable, acting as a polishing stage while reducing energy requirements in wastewater treatment.

  10. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  11. Is there an independent association between burnout and increased allostatic load? Testing the contribution of psychological distress and depression.

    PubMed

    Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (β = 0.06, p =0.003) and cynicism (β = 0.03, p = 0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (β = 0.03, p = 0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60 percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.

  12. Ectopic expression of a Chinese cabbage BrARGOS gene in Arabidopsis increases organ size.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bao; Zhou, Xincheng; Xu, Feng; Gao, Jianwei

    2010-06-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis) is a common and economically important crop in Asia. Specific targets of plant breeding programs for cabbage have been improvement in yield, resistance to environment stresses, and nutrition quality by means of genetic manipulation. To obtain information on yield improvement applicable for the genetic engineering approach, we have attempted to dissect the molecular pathways that regulate organ size. We first isolated a putative homolog of ARGOS full-length cDNA from Chinese cabbage leaves, which we designated BrARGOS. At the transcription level, BrARGOS was detected in all organs tested in Chinese cabbage. To test the function of this gene, we then engineered Arabidopsis plants that would overexpress BrARGOS ectopically. The organs of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were significantly larger than those of the control plants. This increase in size was due to enhanced cell proliferation, with no contribution from cell expansion. The molecular analysis revealed that overexpression of BrARGOS up-regulated the transcription of several genes involved in the control of organ size. These results suggest that the BrARGOS gene may function as one of the regulators of organ size in Chinese cabbage. As such, manipulation of the BrARGOS gene may significantly increase the size of Chinese cabbage organs, such as Chinese cabbage heads.

  13. Application of organic IR788-loaded semi-interpenetrating network dyes for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuc Nguyen, Van; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Mingyeong; Kwak, Minseok; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we present the feasibility of a biocompatible Lumogen® IR788-loaded polymeric nanoparticle (NP) as a novel photoabsorbing agent for photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The NP was fabricated through a semi-interpenetrating network (sIPN) within the core of F127 resulting in IR788-sIPN formation. To evaluate the PA sensitivity of the material, tubing phantoms were injected with various concentrations of IR788-sIPN, and H1975 lung-tumor-bearing mice were intratumorally injected with IR788-sIPN. Compared with the background, the PA contrast was enhanced up to 80 and 40% in the phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively. IR788-sIPN can be a feasible IR-absorbing material for early cancer detection.

  14. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Enikö; Liébana, Raquel; Hermansson, Malte; Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the factors influencing community assembly in granular sludge, such as the effects of reactor operation strategies and influent wastewater composition. Here, we analyze the development of the microbiomes in parallel laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactors operated at low (0.9 kg m(-3)d(-1)), moderate (1.9 kg m(-3)d(-1)) and high (3.7 kg m(-3)d(-1)) organic loading rates (OLRs) and the same ammonium loading rate (0.2 kg NH4-N m(-3)d(-1)) for 84 days. Complete removal of organic carbon and ammonium was achieved in all three reactors after start-up, while the nitrogen removal (denitrification) efficiency increased with the OLR: 0% at low, 38% at moderate, and 66% at high loading rate. The bacterial communities at different loading rates diverged rapidly after start-up and showed less than 50% similarity after 6 days, and below 40% similarity after 84 days. The three reactor microbiomes were dominated by different genera (mainly Meganema, Thauera, Paracoccus, and Zoogloea), but these genera have similar ecosystem functions of EPS production, denitrification and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage. Many less abundant but persistent taxa were also detected within these functional groups. The bacterial communities were functionally redundant irrespective of the loading rate applied. At steady-state reactor operation, the identity of the core community members was rather stable, but their relative abundances changed considerably over time. Furthermore, nitrifying bacteria were low in relative abundance and diversity in all reactors, despite their large contribution to nitrogen turnover. The results suggest that the OLR has

  15. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Enikö; Liébana, Raquel; Hermansson, Malte; Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the