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Sample records for incremental baseado na

  1. Incremental haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan; Vilar, Enric; Davenport, Andrew; Farrington, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Thrice-weekly haemodialysis schedules have become the standard default haemodialysis prescription worldwide. Whereas the measurement of residual renal function is accepted practice for peritoneal dialysis patients and the importance of residual renal function in determining technique success is well established, few centres routinely assess residual renal function in haemodialysis patients. Although intradialytic hypotension and episodes of acute kidney injury may predispose to an earlier loss of residual renal function, a significant proportion of haemodialysis patients maintain some residual function long after dialysis initiation. As such, an incremental approach to the initiation of dialysis with careful monitoring of residual renal function may potentially provide some haemodialysis patients with an improved quality of life and greater preservation of residual renal function whilst fewer dialysis sessions may reduce health care costs. Prospective trials are required to determine the optimum approach to the initiation of haemodialysis for the oliguric patient. Once residual renal function has been lost, then dialysis prescriptions should be re-examined to consider the use of longer or more frequent treatment sessions and switching from low-flux to high-flux dialysis or haemodiafiltration to offset retention of middle sized molecules and protein-bound azotaemic solutes.

  2. Number needed to treat and associated incremental costs of treatment with enzalutamide versus abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Massoudi, Marjan; Balk, Mark; Yang, Hongbo; Bui, Cat N; Pandya, Bhavik J; Guo, Jenny; Song, Yan; Wu, Eric Q; Brown, Bruce; Barlev, Arie; Flanders, Scott

    2017-02-01

    Enzalutamide (ENZA) and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone (AA) are approved second-generation hormone therapies for chemotherapy-naïve metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This study compared ENZA with AA in chemotherapy-naïve mCRPC by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT) and associated incremental costs to achieve one additional chemotherapy-naïve patient with mCRPC free of radiographic progression, chemotherapy, or death over a 1-year time horizon. Clinical outcomes were obtained from the PREVAIL and COU-AA-302 trials. Three outcomes were evaluated: radiographic progression-free survival, time to cytotoxic chemotherapy initiation, and overall survival at 1 year. NNT was calculated as the reciprocal of the outcome event rate difference for ENZA compared with AA. The incremental costs to achieve one additional outcome at 1 year were calculated as the difference in cost per treated patient multiplied by the NNT. Per-treated-patient costs were considered from a US payer perspective and included medications, monitoring, adverse events, post-progression treatments, and end-of-life care. Within a 1-year time horizon, the total cost per treated patient for ENZA was $2,666 less than AA. Compared with AA, treating 14 patients with ENZA resulted in one additional patient free of progression or death over 1 year; treating 26 patients with ENZA resulted in one additional patient with chemotherapy delayed over 1 year; and treating 91 patients with ENZA resulted in one additional patient free of death over 1 year. Therefore, ENZA is cost-effective compared with AA for all three outcomes evaluated, and the modeled results suggest ENZA is associated with potentially improved clinical outcomes in delaying chemotherapy initiation and disease progression for chemotherapy-naïve patients. The results are robust in sensitivity analyses, where the effect of changes in key model inputs and assumptions were tested. The results modeled in the present study

  3. Increments toward what?

    PubMed

    Weil, A

    2001-01-01

    Incremental proposals to expand health insurance coverage, such as expansions of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) or creation of new tax credits, should be examined for the values that underlie them and for how they structure future options for additional incremental coverage expansions. This paper examines five design issues in incremental reform: who determines coverage options for the newly insured; what risk pool do they enter; what is the government's contribution toward their coverage; what barriers are created by efforts to encourage efficiency; and how are issues of federalism handled? Tax credits are a departure from past approaches, while an SCHIP expansion is a continuation of current policy directions.

  4. Incremental Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaohua; Pan, Zhoujin; Xi, Yanqiu; Chen, Ling

    By simulating the population size of the human evolution, a PSO algorithm with increment of particle size (IPPSO) was proposed. Without changing the PSO operations, IPPSO can obtain better solutions with less time cost by modifying the structure of traditional PSO. Experimental results show that IPPSO using logistic model is more efficient and requires less computation time than using linear function in solving more complex program problems.

  5. Incremental full configuration interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The incremental expansion provides a polynomial scaling method for computing electronic correlation energies. This article details a new algorithm and implementation for the incremental expansion of full configuration interaction (FCI), called iFCI. By dividing the problem into n-body interaction terms, accurate correlation energies can be recovered at low n in a highly parallel computation. Additionally, relatively low-cost approximations are possible in iFCI by solving for each incremental energy to within a specified threshold. Herein, systematic tests show that FCI-quality energies can be asymptotically reached for cases where dynamic correlation is dominant as well as where static correlation is vital. To further reduce computational costs and allow iFCI to reach larger systems, a select-CI approach (heat-bath CI) requiring two parameters is incorporated. Finally, iFCI provides the first estimate of FCI energies for hexatriene with a polarized double zeta basis set, which has 32 electrons correlated in 118 orbitals, corresponding to a FCI dimension of over 1038.

  6. Freezing increment in keratophakia.

    PubMed

    Swinger, C A; Wisnicki, H J

    In homoplastic keratomileusis, keratophakia, and epikeratophakia, the corneal tissue that provides the final refractive lenticule undergoes a conformational change when frozen. Because corneal tissue is composed primarily of water, an assumed value of 9.08% (approximate volumic percentage expansion of water when frozen) is frequently used for the increase in thickness, or freezing increment, rather than measuring it directly. We evaluated 32 cases of clinical keratophakia and found the increase in thickness to average 37 +/- 21%. In this series of 32 cases, the percentage of patients with a greater than 4 D residual refractive error was 16%. If an assumed freezing increment of 9.08% had been used, the percentage would have been 28%, with two-thirds of these 28% manifesting a marked undercorrection. Because of a lack of studies documenting the behavior of corneal tissue following cryoprotection and freezing, it is suggested that measurements be taken during homoplastic surgery to minimize the potential for significant inaccuracy in obtaining the desired optic result.

  7. Robust incremental condition estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bischof, C.H.; Tang, P.T.P.

    1991-03-29

    This paper presents an improved version of incremental condition estimation, a technique for tracking the extremal singular values of a triangular matrix as it is being constructed one column at a time. We present a new motivation for this estimation technique using orthogonal projections. The paper focuses on an implementation of this estimation scheme in an accurate and consistent fashion. In particular, we address the subtle numerical issues arising in the computation of the eigensystem of a symmetric rank-one perturbed diagonal 2 {times} 2 matrix. Experimental results show that the resulting scheme does a good job in estimating the extremal singular values of triangular matrices, independent of matrix size and matrix condition number, and that it performs qualitatively in the same fashion as some of the commonly used nonincremental condition estimation schemes.

  8. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, Suzette; Yang, Guowei; Rungta, Neha; Khurshid, Sarfraz

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a resurgence of interest in the use of symbolic execution -- a program analysis technique developed more than three decades ago to analyze program execution paths. Scaling symbolic execution and other path-sensitive analysis techniques to large systems remains challenging despite recent algorithmic and technological advances. An alternative to solving the problem of scalability is to reduce the scope of the analysis. One approach that is widely studied in the context of regression analysis is to analyze the differences between two related program versions. While such an approach is intuitive in theory, finding efficient and precise ways to identify program differences, and characterize their effects on how the program executes has proved challenging in practice. In this paper, we present Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE), a novel technique for detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes. The novelty of DiSE is to combine the efficiencies of static analysis techniques to compute program difference information with the precision of symbolic execution to explore program execution paths and generate path conditions affected by the differences. DiSE is a complementary technique to other reduction or bounding techniques developed to improve symbolic execution. Furthermore, DiSE does not require analysis results to be carried forward as the software evolves -- only the source code for two related program versions is required. A case-study of our implementation of DiSE illustrates its effectiveness at detecting and characterizing the effects of program changes.

  9. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  10. Incremental Parsing with Adjoining Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshihide; Matsubara, Shigeki

    This paper describes an incremental parser based on an adjoining operation. By using the operation, we can avoid the problem of infinite local ambiguity. This paper further proposes a restricted version of the adjoining operation, which preserves lexical dependencies of partial parse trees. Our experimental results showed that the restriction enhances the accuracy of the incremental parsing.

  11. Compressive tracking with incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Wen, Gongjian; Zhu, Gao; Zeng, Qiaoling

    2016-09-01

    Various approaches have been proposed for robust visual tracking, among which compressive tracking (CT) yields promising performance. In CT, Haar-like features are efficiently extracted with a very sparse measurement matrix and modeled as an online updated naïve Bayes classifier to account for target appearance change. The naïve Bayes classifier ignores overlap between Haar-like features and assumes that Haar-like features are independently distributed, which leads to drift in complex scenario. To address this problem, we present an extended CT algorithm, which assumes that all Haar-like features are correlated with each other and have multivariate Gaussian distribution. The mean vector and covariance matrix of multivariate normal distribution are incrementally updated with constant computational complexity to adapt to target appearance change. Each frame is associated with a temporal weight to expend less modeling power on old observation. Based on temporal weight, an update scheme with changing but convergent learning rate is derived with strict mathematic proof. Compared with CT, our extended algorithm achieves a richer representation of target appearance. The incremental multivariate Gaussian distribution is integrated into the particle filter framework to achieve better tracking performance. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate that our proposed tracker achieves superior performance both qualitatively and quantitatively over several state-of-the-art trackers.

  12. Implementing Kernel Methods Incrementally by Incremental Nonlinear Projection Trick.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Nojun

    2016-05-20

    Recently, the nonlinear projection trick (NPT) was introduced enabling direct computation of coordinates of samples in a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. With NPT, any machine learning algorithm can be extended to a kernel version without relying on the so called kernel trick. However, NPT is inherently difficult to be implemented incrementally because an ever increasing kernel matrix should be treated as additional training samples are introduced. In this paper, an incremental version of the NPT (INPT) is proposed based on the observation that the centerization step in NPT is unnecessary. Because the proposed INPT does not change the coordinates of the old data, the coordinates obtained by INPT can directly be used in any incremental methods to implement a kernel version of the incremental methods. The effectiveness of the INPT is shown by applying it to implement incremental versions of kernel methods such as, kernel singular value decomposition, kernel principal component analysis, and kernel discriminant analysis which are utilized for problems of kernel matrix reconstruction, letter classification, and face image retrieval, respectively.

  13. Benchmark 3 - Incremental sheet forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elford, Michael; Saha, Pradip; Seong, Daeyong; Haque, MD Ziaul; Yoon, Jeong Whan

    2013-12-01

    Benchmark-3 is designed to predict strains, punch load and deformed profile after spring-back during single tool incremental sheet forming. AA 7075-O material has been selected. A corn shape is formed to 45 mm depth with an angle of 45°. Problem description, material properties, and simulation reports with experimental data are summarized.

  14. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of the...

  15. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of the...

  16. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of the...

  17. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of the...

  18. 18 CFR 154.309 - Incremental expansions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incremental expansions... Changes § 154.309 Incremental expansions. (a) For every expansion for which incremental rates are charged... costs and revenues associated with the expansion, until the Commission authorizes the costs of the...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000 (a... this award. NASA contemplates making additional allotments of funds during performance of this...

  20. 14 CFR 1260.53 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Incremental funding. 1260.53 Section 1260.53... Special Conditions § 1260.53 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding October 2000 (a) Only $___ of the amount indicated on the face of this award is available for payment and allotted to this award....

  1. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... amount indicated on the cover page of this agreement is available for payment. NASA may supplement...

  2. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... amount indicated on the cover page of this agreement is available for payment. NASA may supplement...

  3. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... amount indicated on the cover page of this agreement is available for payment. NASA may supplement...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Incremental funding. 1274.918 Section 1274... COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding... amount indicated on the cover page of this agreement is available for payment. NASA may supplement...

  5. Piezoelectric Driver for Incremental Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruman, Joseph R.

    1987-01-01

    Vibrating device containing two piezoelectric ceramic slabs acts as mechanical driver. Eventually substitutes for small continuous or stepping electric motors of slow to moderate speeds. Piezoelectric driver simple in construction, requires no precise dimensions, inexpensive to make, and needs no lubrication. Not damaged by stalling or overloads and safe for use in explosive atmospheres; Motion controllable in micron-size increments, and holds position when power turned off. Potential applications as positioner or mover. Used to position instrument pointers, antennas, or solar panels; to focus lenses; or operate tuners, recording instruments, or valves.

  6. Property Differencing for Incremental Checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guowei; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces iProperty, a novel approach that facilitates incremental checking of programs based on a property di erencing technique. Speci cally, iProperty aims to reduce the cost of checking properties as they are initially developed and as they co-evolve with the program. The key novelty of iProperty is to compute the di erences between the new and old versions of expected properties to reduce the number and size of the properties that need to be checked during the initial development of the properties. Furthermore, property di erencing is used in synergy with program behavior di erencing techniques to optimize common regression scenarios, such as detecting regression errors or checking feature additions for conformance to new expected properties. Experimental results in the context of symbolic execution of Java programs annotated with properties written as assertions show the e ectiveness of iProperty in utilizing change information to enable more ecient checking.

  7. Webpage Segments Classification with Incremental Knowledge Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Kim, Yang Sok; Kang, Byeong Ho

    This paper suggests an incremental information extraction method for social network analysis of web publications. For this purpose, we employed an incremental knowledge acquisition method, called MCRDR (Multiple Classification Ripple-Down Rules), to classify web page segments. Our experimental results show that our MCRDR-based web page segments classification system successfully supports easy acquisition and maintenance of information extraction rules.

  8. Turns and Increments: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Kang-kwong; Thompson, Sandra A.; Ono, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge of interest in "increments" among students of conversational interaction. This article first outlines "incrementing" as an analytical problem (i.e., as turn constructional unit [TCU] extensions) by tracing its origins back to Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson's (1974) famous turn-taking article. Then, the article…

  9. Relative effects of increment and pedestal duration on the detection of intensity increments a

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Daniel L.; Patra, Harisadhan; Jesteadt, Walt

    2011-01-01

    The detection of a brief increment in the intensity of a longer duration pedestal is commonly used as a measure of intensity-resolution. Increment detection is known to improve with increasing duration of the increment and also with increasing duration of the pedestal, but the relative effects of these two parameters have not been explored in the same study. In several past studies of the effects of increment duration, pedestal duration was increased as increment duration increased. In the present study, increment and pedestal duration were independently manipulated. Increment-detection thresholds were determined for four subjects with normal-hearing using a 500- or 4000-Hz pedestal presented at 60 dB sound pressure level (SPL). Increment durations were 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 ms. Pedestal durations were 20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 ms. Each increment duration was combined with all pedestals of equal or greater duration. Multiple-regression analyses indicate that increment detection under these conditions is determined primarily by pedestal duration. Follow-up experiments ruled out effects of off-frequency listening or overshoot. The results suggest that effects of increment duration have been confounded by effects of pedestal duration in studies that co-varied increment and pedestal duration. Implications for models of temporal integration are discussed. PMID:21476665

  10. Processes of incremental message planning during conversation.

    PubMed

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Konopka, Agnieszka E

    2015-06-01

    Speaking begins with the formulation of an intended preverbal message and linguistic encoding of this information. The transition from thought to speech occurs incrementally, with cascading planning at subsequent levels of production. In this article, we aim to specify the mechanisms that support incremental message preparation. We contrast two hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for incorporating message-level information into a linguistic plan. According to the Initial Preparation view, messages can be encoded as fluent utterances if all information is ready before speaking begins. By contrast, on the Continuous Incrementality view, messages can be continually prepared and updated throughout the production process, allowing for fluent production even if new information is added to the message while speaking is underway. Testing these hypotheses, eye-tracked speakers in two experiments produced unscripted, conjoined noun phrases with modifiers. Both experiments showed that new message elements can be incrementally incorporated into the utterance even after articulation begins, consistent with a Continuous Incrementality view of message planning, in which messages percolate to linguistic encoding immediately as that information becomes available in the mind of the speaker. We conclude by discussing the functional role of incremental message planning in conversational speech and the situations in which this continuous incremental planning would be most likely to be observed.

  11. Incremental Discriminant Analysis in Tensor Space

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Liu; Weidong, Zhao; Tao, Yan; Qiang, Pu; Xiaodan, Du

    2015-01-01

    To study incremental machine learning in tensor space, this paper proposes incremental tensor discriminant analysis. The algorithm employs tensor representation to carry on discriminant analysis and combine incremental learning to alleviate the computational cost. This paper proves that the algorithm can be unified into the graph framework theoretically and analyzes the time and space complexity in detail. The experiments on facial image detection have shown that the algorithm not only achieves sound performance compared with other algorithms, but also reduces the computational issues apparently. PMID:26339229

  12. Separate and combined effects of gabapentin and [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans discriminating [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Wesley, Michael J; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a potential mechanism of action of gabapentin to manage cannabis-use disorders by determining the interoceptive effects of gabapentin in cannabis users discriminating [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol ([INCREMENT]-THC) using a pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedure. Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral [INCREMENT]-THC from placebo and then received gabapentin (600 and 1200 mg), [INCREMENT]-THC (5, 15, and 30 mg), and placebo alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance, and physiological measures were also collected. [INCREMENT]-THC served as a discriminative stimulus, produced positive subjective effects, elevated heart rate, and impaired psychomotor performance. Both doses of gabapentin substituted for the [INCREMENT]-THC discriminative stimulus and engendered subjective and performance-impairing effects that overlapped with those of [INCREMENT]-THC when administered alone. When administered concurrently, gabapentin shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of [INCREMENT]-THC leftward/upward, and combinations of [INCREMENT]-THC and gabapentin generally produced larger effects on cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes relative to [INCREMENT]-THC alone. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids.

  13. Large Deviations for Processes with Independent Increments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    generating function of the increments exists and thus the sample paths of such stochastic processes lie in the space of functions of bounded variation . The...BV[O,1], the space of functions of bounded variation and the topology is that of weak*-convergence. Varadhan (1966) studied the LDP for similar...increments and no Gaussian component which are considered as elements of BV[0,1], the space of functions of bounded variation . The final section

  14. International Space Station Increment Operations Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Horst; Sielaff, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Industrial Operator (IO) has defined End-to-End services to perform efficiently all required operations tasks for the Manned Space Program (MSP) as agreed during the Ministerial Council in Edinburgh in November 2001. Those services are the result of a detailed task analysis based on the operations processes as derived from the Space Station Program Implementation Plans (SPIP) and defined in the Operations Processes Documents (OPD). These services are related to ISS Increment Operations and ATV Mission Operations. Each of these End-to-End services is typically characterised by the following properties: It has a clearly defined starting point, where all requirements on the end-product are fixed and associated performance metrics of the customer are well defined. It has a clearly defined ending point, when the product or service is delivered to the customer and accepted by him, according to the performance metrics defined at the start point. The implementation of the process might be restricted by external boundary conditions and constraints mutually agreed with the customer. As far as those are respected the IO has the free choice to select methods and means of implementation. The ISS Increment Operations Service (IOS) activities required for the MSP Exploitation program cover the complete increment specific cycle starting with the support to strategic planning and ending with the post increment evaluation. These activities are divided into sub-services including the following tasks: - ISS Planning Support covering the support to strategic and tactical planning up to the generation - Development &Payload Integration Support - ISS Increment Preparation - ISS Increment Execution These processes are tight together by the Increment Integration Management, which provides the planning and scheduling of all activities as well as the technical management of the overall process . The paper describes the entire End-to-End ISS Increment Operations service and the

  15. Incremental Support Vector Learning for Ordinal Regression.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Tay, Keng Yeow; Romano, Walter; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    Support vector ordinal regression (SVOR) is a popular method to tackle ordinal regression problems. However, until now there were no effective algorithms proposed to address incremental SVOR learning due to the complicated formulations of SVOR. Recently, an interesting accurate on-line algorithm was proposed for training ν -support vector classification (ν-SVC), which can handle a quadratic formulation with a pair of equality constraints. In this paper, we first present a modified SVOR formulation based on a sum-of-margins strategy. The formulation has multiple constraints, and each constraint includes a mixture of an equality and an inequality. Then, we extend the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm to the modified formulation, and propose an effective incremental SVOR algorithm. The algorithm can handle a quadratic formulation with multiple constraints, where each constraint is constituted of an equality and an inequality. More importantly, it tackles the conflicts between the equality and inequality constraints. We also provide the finite convergence analysis for the algorithm. Numerical experiments on the several benchmark and real-world data sets show that the incremental algorithm can converge to the optimal solution in a finite number of steps, and is faster than the existing batch and incremental SVOR algorithms. Meanwhile, the modified formulation has better accuracy than the existing incremental SVOR algorithm, and is as accurate as the sum-of-margins based formulation of Shashua and Levin.

  16. Incremental lines in mouse molar enamel.

    PubMed

    Sehic, Amer; Nirvani, Minou; Risnes, Steinar

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and periodicity of enamel incremental lines in mouse molars in an attempt to draw attention to some key questions about the rhythm in the activity of the secreting ameloblasts during formation of mouse molar enamel. The mouse molars were ground, etched, and studied using scanning electron microscopy. Lines interpreted as incremental lines generally appeared as grooves of variable distinctness, and were only observed cervically, in the region about 50-250μm from the enamel-cementum junction. The lines were most readily observable in the outer enamel and in the superficial prism-free layer, and were difficult to identify in the deeper parts of enamel, i.e. in the inner enamel with prism decussation. However, in areas where the enamel tended to be hypomineralized the incremental lines were observed as clearly continuous from outer into inner enamel. The incremental lines in mouse molar enamel exhibited an average periodicity of about 4μm, and the distance between the lines decreased towards the enamel surface. We conclude that incremental lines are to some extent visible in mouse molar enamel. Together with data from the literature and theoretical considerations, we suggest that they probably represent a daily rhythm in enamel formation. This study witnesses the layered apposition of mouse molar enamel and supports the theory that circadian clock probably regulates enamel development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotating flexible disk under shaft temperature increment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yong-Chen; He, Ling; Wang, Ji-Xin

    2010-08-01

    A rotating flexible annular thin disk subjected to the temperature increment of the shaft clamping the disk was modeled in this paper. At disk top and bottom surfaces and free outer edge, the heat convection boundaries were assumed. Disk transverse deflection was considered as a function of both disk radial and circumferential coordinates, and temperature distribution was solved along disk thickness and radial directions simultaneously. As a result, the shaft temperature increment causes thermo-elastic instability of some disk modes. Effects of the shaft temperature increment, ratio of disk convective heat transfer coefficient to thermal conductivity, disk thickness, nodal circle and diameter numbers of disk mode on the natural frequencies, thermo-elastic instability and critical angular speed of the disk were discussed.

  18. Incremental Passivity and Incremental Passivity-Based Output Regulation for Switched Discrete-Time Systems.

    PubMed

    Jiao Li; Jun Zhao

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates incremental passivity and output regulation for switched discrete-time systems. We develop the results in two parts. First of all, a concept of incremental passivity is proposed to describe the overall incremental passivity property of a switched discrete-time system in the absence of the classic incremental passivity property of the subsystems. A condition for incremental passivity is given. A certain negative output feedback is designed to produce asymptotic stability. Incremental passivity is shown to be preserved under feedback interconnection. The second part of this paper is concerned with an application of the incremental passivity theory to the output regulation problem for switched discrete-time systems. The key idea is to construct a switched internal model with incremental passivity, which closely links the solvability of the output regulation problem. A characteristic of the switched internal model is that it does not necessarily switch synchronously with the controlled plant, which greatly increases the freedom of design. Once such a switched internal model is established, the output regulation problem is then solved by construction of the feedback interconnection between the controlled plant and the switched internal model. The main usefulness of the strategy is to get rid of the solvability of the output regulation problem for the subsystems.

  19. Incremental SSVEP analysis for BCI implementation.

    PubMed

    Torres Müller, Sandra Mara; Freire Bastos-Filho, Teodiano; Sarcinelli-Filho, Mário

    2010-01-01

    This work presents an incremental analysis of EEG records containing Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP). This analysis consists of two steps: feature extraction, performed using a statistic test, and classification, performed by a decision tree. The result is a system with high classification rate (a test with six volunteers resulted in an average classification rate of 91.2%), high Information Transfer Rate (ITR) (a test with the same six volunteers resulted in an average value of 100.2 bits/min) and processing time, for each incremental analysis, of approximately 120 ms. These are very good features for an efficient Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) implementation.

  20. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental Funding...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental Funding...

  2. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental Funding...

  3. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Incremental funding. 3452....232-71 Incremental funding. As prescribed in 3432.705-2, insert the following provision in solicitations if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is contemplated: Incremental Funding...

  4. 48 CFR 3432.771 - Provision for incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for incremental... for incremental funding. The contracting officer shall insert the provision in 3452.232-71, Incremental Funding, in a solicitation if a cost-reimbursement contract using incremental funding is...

  5. 12 CFR 324.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the FDIC-supervised institution's measure of potential losses due to incremental risk over a one-year.... An FDIC-supervised institution may not include correlation trading positions or securitization... the impact of correlations between default and migration events among obligors. (3) Reflect the effect...

  6. 12 CFR 217.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Board-regulated institution's measure of potential losses due to incremental risk over a one-year.... A Board-regulated institution may not include correlation trading positions or securitization.... (2) Recognize the impact of correlations between default and migration events among obligors. (3...

  7. 12 CFR 3.208 - Incremental risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association's measure of potential losses due to incremental risk over a one-year time horizon at a one-tail.... A national bank or Federal savings association may not include correlation trading positions or.... (2) Recognize the impact of correlations between default and migration events among obligors. (3...

  8. Incremental social learning in particle swarms.

    PubMed

    de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stutzle, Thomas; Van den Enden, Ken; Dorigo, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Incremental social learning (ISL) was proposed as a way to improve the scalability of systems composed of multiple learning agents. In this paper, we show that ISL can be very useful to improve the performance of population-based optimization algorithms. Our study focuses on two particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms: a) the incremental particle swarm optimizer (IPSO), which is a PSO algorithm with a growing population size in which the initial position of new particles is biased toward the best-so-far solution, and b) the incremental particle swarm optimizer with local search (IPSOLS), in which solutions are further improved through a local search procedure. We first derive analytically the probability density function induced by the proposed initialization rule applied to new particles. Then, we compare the performance of IPSO and IPSOLS on a set of benchmark functions with that of other PSO algorithms (with and without local search) and a random restart local search algorithm. Finally, we measure the benefits of using incremental social learning on PSO algorithms by running IPSO and IPSOLS on problems with different fitness distance correlations.

  9. Withholding Increments. Focus on School Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weger, Christine D.; Galante, Susan

    Local boards of education in New Jersey are authorized by law to withhold increments of staff members in certain circumstances. The purpose of this publication is to provide an analysis and summary of decisions involving a board's exercise of this authority, and it is intended to serve as a guide and a reference tool to be used in determining when…

  10. Damage From Increment Borings in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    E. Richard Toole; John L. Gammage

    1959-01-01

    THIS PAPER REPORTS a study of the amount of stain and decay that developed from increment-borer holes in five species of bottomland hardwoods. Though the 0.2-inch holes made by conventional borers are often considered insignificant, it appears that they may result in serious defect.

  11. Existing School Buildings: Incremental Seismic Retrofit Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    The intent of this document is to provide technical guidance to school district facility managers for linking specific incremental seismic retrofit opportunities to specific maintenance and capital improvement projects. The linkages are based on logical affinities, such as technical fit, location of the work within the building, cost saving…

  12. The Cognitive Underpinnings of Incremental Rehearsal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Sashank; Schleisman, Katrina B.

    2014-01-01

    Incremental rehearsal (IR) is a flashcard technique that has been developed and evaluated by school psychologists. We discuss potential learning and memory effects from cognitive psychology that may explain the observed superiority of IR over other flashcard techniques. First, we propose that IR is a form of "spaced practice" that…

  13. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  14. Value-Driven Incremental Development (Poster)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    rework during development. Multi-dimensional Analysis What is the design implication of a release decision? Architecting for Incremental Assurance...measures are needed to make good release decisions? Selected FY14 Results • Improved rework analysis by making architectural dependency information...studies and surveys with organizations revealed architectural rework occurs in such context and can be managed by better quantification of technical

  15. Thermal maturation of incrementally assembled plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Coleman, D. S.; Heizler, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Cretaceous zoned intrusive suites of the Sierra Nevada batholith (SNB) were each assembled over 8-11 million years through incremental amalgamation of sheeted intrusions. Emplacement as small sheet-like increments inhibits development of a voluminous zone of melt bearing rock; instead the active magma body represents only a small portion of the total volume intruded. Plutons formed incrementally will have a protracted thermal history (T-t) that can be elucidated using thermochronologic techniques yielding insights into the thermal evolution of the lithosphere at magma chamber-pluton scales. Thermal histories are derived for plutons from the dike-like John Muir Intrusive Suite (JMIS) and the laccolithic Mount Whitney Intrusive Suite (MWIS), both located in the eastern-central SNB, by correlating estimated zircon saturation and argon closure temperatures with U-Pb zircon and titanite, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole, biotite, and K-feldspar ages. Close agreement among zircon and hornblende ages indicate rapid cooling following intrusion. However, hornblende and biotite ages are separated by 6-9 million years indicating slow protracted cooling. We interpret these data to reflect the thermal maturation of an incrementally assembled magma system in which temperatures cycled between ~500-300°C for millions of years. Hornblende ages were not reset by younger intrusions, therefore maximum reheating temperatures did not exceed ~500°C for geologically significant durations. T-t cooling curves from the intrusive suites are used to calibrate finite difference numerical simulations of pluton assembly. Intrusion geometries are modeled (HEAT 3D, Wohletz, 2007) by stacking horizontal increments from the top-down and bottom-up and vertical increments are emplaced syntaxially and antitaxially and are designed to generate plutons of the approximate dimensions, depth of emplacement, and age range of the Sierran suites. Numerical simulations yield the following general observations: 1) an

  16. Incremental Relaying, Fresh Signal Makes Better Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Luu Quoc; Kong, Hyung Yun

    In terms of outage behavior, it has been shown that incremental relaying achieves the best performance among cooperative diversity protocols such as: Amplify-And-Forward (AF), Decode-And-Forward (DF), and Selection Decode-And-Forward (SDF). Exploiting a limited feedback from the destination, incremental relaying lets the relay forward the signal received from the source whenever an error happens at the destination, then, the signals from both the source and the relay are combined to make a decision. Noticing that the signal from the source, indicated by the error, is detrimental, we propose a new scheme not using that signal but only making a decision based on the fresh signal from the relay. Large performance improvement and complexity reduction are attained as we show in the analysis and simulation results. Theoretical results are derived and shown to match with the simulation counterparts.

  17. A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rafael Coimbra; Engel, Paulo Martins

    2015-01-01

    This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN). The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3) for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2) by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets. PMID:26444880

  18. Human deciduous mandibular molar incremental enamel development.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    Quantitative studies of incremental markings retained within human enamel have reconstructed the duration and rate (crown and cusp formation times, initiation and completion, daily enamel secretion rates) of permanent tooth development. This approach has provided one way of estimating human age-at-death, and facilitated comparative dental studies of primate evolution. Similar applications from deciduous enamel are inhibited because developmental reconstructions from incremental markings for these teeth are less frequently reported in the literature. This study quantified the duration and rate of enamel development for mesial (protoconid, metaconid) and distal cusps (hypoconid, entoconid) for first (dm1) and second (dm2) deciduous mandibular molars from an archaeological sample of modern human juveniles. Crown formation time can be calculated from the dm1 protoconid because growth initiates and completes in this cusp, and from the dm2 protoconid combined with the final period of hypoconid growth. The dm1 postnatal crown formation time included the time taken for the tubercle of Zuckerkandl to develop, and differed slightly compared to radiographic methods. The majority of dm1 protoconid cuspal (occlusal region) enamel formed before birth. The dm2 entoconid enamel formed mainly after birth. Birth reduced daily enamel secretion rates, changed the visibility of incremental markings, and disrupted enamel growth for 3 to 8 days. Findings presented here can contribute to age-at-death estimates for human infants aged 13-postnatal months or less, and should facilitate comparisons of primate deciduous incremental enamel development in an evolutionary context. Regression equations are included so that cuspal formation time can be estimated from enamel thickness. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Sustained mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) plantation heartwood increment.

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Wadsworth; Edgardo. Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    In a search for an increment-based rotation for plantation mahogany(Swietenia macrophylla King), heartwood volume per tree was regressed on DBH (trunk diameter outside bark at 1.4 m above the ground) and merchantable height measurements. We updated a previous study [Wadsworth, F.H., González González, E., Figuera Colón, J.C., Lugo P...

  20. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  1. Incremental grouping of image elements in vision.

    PubMed

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Houtkamp, Roos

    2011-11-01

    One important task for the visual system is to group image elements that belong to an object and to segregate them from other objects and the background. We here present an incremental grouping theory (IGT) that addresses the role of object-based attention in perceptual grouping at a psychological level and, at the same time, outlines the mechanisms for grouping at the neurophysiological level. The IGT proposes that there are two processes for perceptual grouping. The first process is base grouping and relies on neurons that are tuned to feature conjunctions. Base grouping is fast and occurs in parallel across the visual scene, but not all possible feature conjunctions can be coded as base groupings. If there are no neurons tuned to the relevant feature conjunctions, a second process called incremental grouping comes into play. Incremental grouping is a time-consuming and capacity-limited process that requires the gradual spread of enhanced neuronal activity across the representation of an object in the visual cortex. The spread of enhanced neuronal activity corresponds to the labeling of image elements with object-based attention.

  2. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method.

    PubMed

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-28

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  3. Increment cores : how to collect, handle and use them

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Maeglin

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes increment cores (a useful tool in forestry and wood technology) and their uses which include age determination, growth increment, specific gravity determination, fiber length measurements, fibril angle measurements, cell measurements, and pathological investigations. Also described is the use and care of the increment borer which is essential in...

  4. 14 CFR § 1274.918 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incremental funding. § 1274.918 Section Â... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.918 Incremental funding. Incremental Funding July 2002 (a) Of the award amount indicated on the cover page of this Agreement, only...

  5. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    PubMed

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .). Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Incremental Scheduling Engines: Cost Savings through Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and ob.jectives are met and resources are not over-booked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper, presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  7. Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Approach for Estimating Exposures and Incremental Health Effects from Lead During Renovation, Repair, and Painting Activities in Public and Commercial Buildings” (Technical Approach Document). Also available for public review and comment are two supplementary documents: the detailed appendices for the Technical Approach Document and a supplementary report entitled “Developing a Concentration-Response Function for Pb Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Mortality.” Together, these documents describes an analysis for estimating exposures and incremental health effects created by renovations of public and commercial buildings (P&CBs). This analysis could be used to identify and evaluate hazards from renovation, repair, and painting activities in P&CBs. A general overview of how this analysis can be used to inform EPA’s hazard finding is described in the Framework document that was previously made available for public comment (79 FR 31072; FRL9910-44). The analysis can be used in any proposed rulemaking to estimate the reduction in deleterious health effects that would result from any proposed regulatory requirements to mitigate exposure from P&CB renovation activities. The Technical Approach Document describes in detail how the analyses under this approach have been performed and presents the results – expected changes in blood lead levels and health effects due to lead exposure from renovation activities.

  8. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  9. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G.; Loo, Boon Thau

    2017-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations. PMID:28659658

  10. Experimental study of incremental hydrocarbon reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.P.; Atkinson, R.

    1987-07-01

    A series of environmental chamber experiments have been carried out to investigate the incremental reactivities of selected organics with respect to ozone formation in simulated photochemical smog systems. Varying amounts of a test organic were added to or subtracted from a standard four-hydrocarbon minisurrogate - NO/sub x/ - air mixture to determine, as a function of irradiation time, the resulting changes in the amount of ozone formed and NO consumed, relative to the amount of the organic added. The incremental reactivities of toluene, trans-2-butene, and propene decreased significantly with reaction time, with toluene ultimately becoming negatively reactive; n-butane, ethanol, and tert-butyl methyl ether were always positively reactive; and benzaldehyde was always negatively reactive. The results are reasonably consistent with computer model simulations and indicate that the effect of regulating emissions of an organic on ambient ozone will depend not only on the organics reaction rate but also on its reaction mechanism and the conditions under which it is emitted. 33 references, 8 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Incremental learning for automated knowledge capture.

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Zachary O.; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Davis, Warren Leon,; Dixon, Kevin R.; Jones, Brian S.; Martin, Nathaniel; Wendt, Jeremy Daniel

    2013-12-01

    People responding to high-consequence national-security situations need tools to help them make the right decision quickly. The dynamic, time-critical, and ever-changing nature of these situations, especially those involving an adversary, require models of decision support that can dynamically react as a situation unfolds and changes. Automated knowledge capture is a key part of creating individualized models of decision making in many situations because it has been demonstrated as a very robust way to populate computational models of cognition. However, existing automated knowledge capture techniques only populate a knowledge model with data prior to its use, after which the knowledge model is static and unchanging. In contrast, humans, including our national-security adversaries, continually learn, adapt, and create new knowledge as they make decisions and witness their effect. This artificial dichotomy between creation and use exists because the majority of automated knowledge capture techniques are based on traditional batch machine-learning and statistical algorithms. These algorithms are primarily designed to optimize the accuracy of their predictions and only secondarily, if at all, concerned with issues such as speed, memory use, or ability to be incrementally updated. Thus, when new data arrives, batch algorithms used for automated knowledge capture currently require significant recomputation, frequently from scratch, which makes them ill suited for use in dynamic, timecritical, high-consequence decision making environments. In this work we seek to explore and expand upon the capabilities of dynamic, incremental models that can adapt to an ever-changing feature space.

  12. Impacts of frequency increment errors on frequency diverse array beampattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kuandong; Chen, Hui; Shao, Huaizong; Cai, Jingye; Wang, Wen-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Different from conventional phased array, which provides only angle-dependent beampattern, frequency diverse array (FDA) employs a small frequency increment across the antenna elements and thus results in a range angle-dependent beampattern. However, due to imperfect electronic devices, it is difficult to ensure accurate frequency increments, and consequently, the array performance will be degraded by unavoidable frequency increment errors. In this paper, we investigate the impacts of frequency increment errors on FDA beampattern. We derive the beampattern errors caused by deterministic frequency increment errors. For stochastic frequency increment errors, the corresponding upper and lower bounds of FDA beampattern error are derived. They are verified by numerical results. Furthermore, the statistical characteristics of FDA beampattern with random frequency increment errors, which obey Gaussian distribution and uniform distribution, are also investigated.

  13. Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM). Part 1, Section 4: Statistical Design. Aspects of Incremental Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-26

    1 Statistical Aspects of Incremental Sampling Kelly Black Neptune and Company, Inc. kblack@neptuneinc.org EMDQ – La Jolla, CA March 26, 2012 Report...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Neptune and Company, Inc,1435 Garrison St Ste 110,Denver,CO,80215 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  14. BACKUP -- Recovering from incremental tape backups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.

    The importance of making regular backups of your disks in well known, but it can be very frustrating to have a head crash and then discover that you cannot recover from your backups because the manuals do not tell you what to do. The DEC documentation covers most possibilities, but not the case where a removable pack is copied to a new pack, the new pack is then used as the current pack, and incremental backups to tape are then made. This situation is a fairly common one when you have two or more removable disk drives. This note covers backup and recovery in general terms, and details exactly what to do in the above mentioned case.

  15. Three-year caries increments after fluoride rinses or topical applications with a fluoride varnish.

    PubMed

    Bruun, C; Bille, J; Hansen, K T; Kann, J; Qvist, V; Thylstrup, A

    1985-12-01

    251 9-12-yr-old children completed a 3-yr, double-blind, clinical trial of two caries preventive fluoride programs. Caries increments and progression patterns were compared in two groups of children who rinsed every fortnight with a 0.2% NaF solution or received biannual topical applications with a fluoride varnish (Fluor-Protector). Clinically recorded mean DFS increments were 3.3 +/- 0.2 (SE) in the rinse group and 3.5 +/- 0.2 in the varnish group. In both groups nearly half of these increments were recorded in the occlusal surfaces of second molars. The mean incremental DFS recorded radiographically on approximal surfaces of posterior teeth were 1.1 +/- 0.2 and 1.5 +/- 0.2 in the rinse and varnish group, respectively. None of the inter-group differences were statistically significant (P greater than 0.05). Detailed analyses of the radiographic scores revealed a similar and extremely slow caries progression in the two study groups and they strengthened the conclusion of equal clinical efficacy of the two treatments. None of the fluoride programs had been able to change preestablished patterns of caries development among the children.

  16. Disrupting incrementalism in health care innovation.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Farzad; Zenios, Stefanos

    2011-08-01

    To build enabling innovation frameworks for health care entrepreneurs to better identify, evaluate, and pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. Powerful frameworks have been developed to enable entrepreneurs and investors identify which opportunity areas are worth pursuing and which start-up ideas have the potential to succeed. These frameworks, however, have not been clearly defined and interpreted for innovations in health care. Having a better understanding of the process of innovation in health care allows physician entrepreneurs to innovate more successfully. A review of academic literature was conducted. Concepts and frameworks related to technology innovation were analyzed. A new set of health care specific frameworks was developed. These frameworks were then applied to innovations in various health care subsectors. Health care entrepreneurs would greatly benefit from distinguishing between incremental and disruptive innovations. The US regulatory and reimbursement systems favor incrementalism with a greater chance of success for established players. Small companies and individual groups, however, are more likely to thrive if they adopt a disruptive strategy. Disruption in health care occurs through various mechanisms as detailed in this article. While the main mechanism of disruption might vary across different health care subsectors, it is shown that disruptive innovations consistently require a component of contrarian interpretation to guarantee considerable payoff. If health care entrepreneurs choose to adopt an incrementalist approach, they need to build the risk of disruption into their models and also ascertain that they have a very strong intellectual property (IP) position to weather competition from established players. On the contrary, if they choose to pursue disruption in the market, albeit the competition will be less severe, they need to recognize that the regulatory and reimbursement hurdles are going to be very high. Thus, they would benefit

  17. Validation of daily increments in otoliths of northern squawfish larvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wertheimer, R.H.; Barfoot, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Otoliths from laboratory-reared northern squawfish, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, larvae were examined to determine the periodicity of increment deposition. Increment deposition began in both sagittae and lapilli after hatching. Reader counts indicated that increment formation was daily in sagittae of 1-29-day-old larvae. However, increment counts from lapilli were significantly less than the known ages of northern squawfish larvae, possibly because some increments were not detectable. Otolith readability and age agreement among readers were greatest for young (<11 days) northern squawfish larvae. This was primarily because a transitional zone of low-contrast material began forming in otoliths of 8-11-day-old larvae and persisted until approximately 20 days after hatching. Formation of the transition zone appeared to coincide with the onset of exogenous feeding and continued through yolk sac absorption. Our results indicate that aging wild-caught northern squawfish larvae using daily otolith increment counts is possible.

  18. Incremental analysis of large elastic deformation of a rotating cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of finite deformation upon a rotating, orthotropic cylinder was investigated using a general incremental theory. The incremental equations of motion are developed using the variational principle. The governing equations are derived using the principle of virtual work for a body with initial stress. The governing equations are reduced to those for the title problem and a numerical solution is obtained using finite difference approximations. Since the problem is defined in terms of one independent space coordinate, the finite difference grid can be modified as the incremental deformation occurs without serious numerical difficulties. The nonlinear problem is solved incrementally by totaling a series of linear solutions.

  19. Evolution of cooperation driven by incremental learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Duan, Haibin

    2015-02-01

    It has been shown that the details of microscopic rules in structured populations can have a crucial impact on the ultimate outcome in evolutionary games. So alternative formulations of strategies and their revision processes exploring how strategies are actually adopted and spread within the interaction network need to be studied. In the present work, we formulate the strategy update rule as an incremental learning process, wherein knowledge is refreshed according to one's own experience learned from the past (self-learning) and that gained from social interaction (social-learning). More precisely, we propose a continuous version of strategy update rules, by introducing the willingness to cooperate W, to better capture the flexibility of decision making behavior. Importantly, the newly gained knowledge including self-learning and social learning is weighted by the parameter ω, establishing a strategy update rule involving innovative element. Moreover, we quantify the macroscopic features of the emerging patterns to inspect the underlying mechanisms of the evolutionary process using six cluster characteristics. In order to further support our results, we examine the time evolution course for these characteristics. Our results might provide insights for understanding cooperative behaviors and have several important implications for understanding how individuals adjust their strategies under real-life conditions.

  20. Incremental fusion of partial biometric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    Existing face recognition schemes are mostly based on extracting biometric feature vectors either from whole face images, or from a fixed facial region (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Extreme variation in quality conditions between biometric enrolment and verification stages badly affects the performance of face recognition systems. Such problems have partly motivated several investigations into the use of partial facial features for face recognition. Nevertheless, partial face recognition is potentially useful in several applications, for instance, it used in forensics for detectives to identify individuals after some accidents such as fire or explosion. In this paper, we propose a scheme to fuse the biometric information of partial face images incrementally based on their recognition accuracy (or discriminative power) ranks. Such fusion scheme uses the optimal ratio of full/partial face images in each different quality condition. We found that such scheme is also useful for full face images to enhance authentication accuracy significantly. Nevertheless, it reduces the required storage requirements and processing time of the biometric system. Our experiments show that the required ratio of full/partial facial images to achieve optimal performance varies from (5%) to (80%) according to the quality conditions whereas the authentication accuracy improves significantly for low quality biometric samples.

  1. Recoupling pulse sequences with constant phase increments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2016-10-01

    The paper studies a family of recoupling pulse sequences in magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR, that are characterized by constant phase increments at regular intervals. These pulse sequences can be employed for both homonuclear and heteronuclear recoupling experiments and are robust to dispersion in chemical shifts and rf-inhomogeneity. The homonuclear pulse sequence consists of a building block (2 π) ϕp , where ϕp =p (n - 1) π/n, where n is number of blocks in a rotor period and p = 0, 1, 2, … . The pulse sequence repeats itself every rotor period when n is odd and every two rotor period when n is even. The heteronuclear recoupling pulse sequence consists of a building block (2 π) ϕ1p and (2 π) ϕ2p on channel I and S, where ϕ1p = p (2 n - 3) π/2 n, ϕ2p = p (2 n - 1) π/2 n and n is number of blocks in a rotor period. The recoupling pulse sequences mix the z magnetization. Experimental quantification of this method is shown for 13Cα -13CO , homonuclear recoupling in a sample of Glycine and 15N -13Cα , heteronuclear recoupling in Alanine. Application of this method is demonstrated on a sample of tripeptide N-formyl-[U-13C ,15N ]- Met-Leu-Phe-OH (MLF).

  2. Incremental multidimensional scaling method for database visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basalaj, Wojciech

    1999-03-01

    A collection of entity descriptions may be conveniently represented by a set of tuples or a set of objects with appropriate attributes. The utility of relational and object databases is based on this premise. Methods of multivariate analysis can naturally be applied to such a representation. Multidimensional Scaling deserves particular attention because of its suitability for visualization. The advantage of using Multidimensional Scaling is its generality. Provided that one can judge or calculate the dissimilarity between any pair of data objects, this method can be applied. This makes it invariant to the number and types of object attributes. To take advantage of this method for visualizing large collections of data, however, its inherent computational complexity needs to be alleviated. This is particularly the case for least squares scaling, which involves numerical minimization of a loss function; on the other hand the technique gives better configurations than analytical classical scaling. Numerical optimization requires selection of a convergence criterion, i.e. deciding when to stop. A common solution is to stop after a predetermined number of iterations has been performed. Such an approach, while guaranteed to terminate, may prematurely abort the optimization. The incremental Multidimensional Scaling method presented here solves these problems. It uses cluster analysis techniques to assess the structural significance of groups of data objects. This creates an opportunity to ignore dissimilarities between closely associated objects, thus greatly reducing input size. To detect convergence it maintains a compact representation of all intermediate optimization results. This method has been applied to the analysis of database tables.

  3. Multidimensional incremental parsing for universal source coding.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2008-10-01

    A multidimensional incremental parsing algorithm (MDIP) for multidimensional discrete sources, as a generalization of the Lempel-Ziv coding algorithm, is investigated. It consists of three essential component schemes, maximum decimation matching, hierarchical structure of multidimensional source coding, and dictionary augmentation. As a counterpart of the longest match search in the Lempel-Ziv algorithm, two classes of maximum decimation matching are studied. Also, an underlying behavior of the dictionary augmentation scheme for estimating the source statistics is examined. For an m-dimensional source, m augmentative patches are appended into the dictionary at each coding epoch, thus requiring the transmission of a substantial amount of information to the decoder. The property of the hierarchical structure of the source coding algorithm resolves this issue by successively incorporating lower dimensional coding procedures in the scheme. In regard to universal lossy source coders, we propose two distortion functions, the local average distortion and the local minimax distortion with a set of threshold levels for each source symbol. For performance evaluation, we implemented three image compression algorithms based upon the MDIP; one is lossless and the others are lossy. The lossless image compression algorithm does not perform better than the Lempel-Ziv-Welch coding, but experimentally shows efficiency in capturing the source structure. The two lossy image compression algorithms are implemented using the two distortion functions, respectively. The algorithm based on the local average distortion is efficient at minimizing the signal distortion, but the images by the one with the local minimax distortion have a good perceptual fidelity among other compression algorithms. Our insights inspire future research on feature extraction of multidimensional discrete sources.

  4. Increment Threshold Functions in Retinopathy of Prematurity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ronald M.; Moskowitz, Anne; Bush, Jennifer N.; Fulton, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess scotopic background adaptation in subjects with a history of preterm birth and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Retinopathy of prematurity is known to have long-term effects on rod photoreceptor and rod mediated postreceptor retinal function. Methods Rod-mediated thresholds for detection of 3° diameter, 50 ms stimuli presented 20° from fixation were measured using a spatial forced choice method in 36 subjects (aged 9–17 years) with a history of preterm birth and 11 age similar term-born subjects. Thresholds were measured first in the dark-adapted condition and then in the presence of 6 steady background lights (−2.8 to +2.0 log scot td). A model of the increment threshold function was fit to each subject's thresholds to estimate the dark-adapted threshold (TDA) and the Eigengrau (A0, the background that elevates threshold 0.3 log unit above TDA). Results In subjects with a history of severe ROP, both TDA and A0 were significantly elevated relative to those in former preterms who never had ROP and term-born control subjects. Subjects who had mild ROP had normal TDA but elevated A0. Neither TDA nor A0 differed significantly between former preterms who never had ROP and term-born controls. Conclusions The results suggest that in severe ROP, threshold is affected at a preadaptation site, possibly the rod outer segment. In mild ROP, changes in the Eigengrau may reflect increased intrinsic noise in the photoreceptor or postreceptor circuitry or both. PMID:27145476

  5. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals the amount determined...

  6. Increment Cores How to Collect, Handle, and Use Them.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    rings are discussed by Beaufait detected from a single in- increment, only two will be and Nelson (1957) for cypress. crement core, and multiple cores...For. 56(2):141. Bauck, R., and R. M. Brown. 1955. Sharpening an increment borer. Minn. For. Notes No. 39. Beaufait , W. R., and T. C. Nelson. 1957

  7. Policy Analysis in Education: The Case for Incrementalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Lelia B.

    1981-01-01

    Policy analysts approach problems of decision-making from two distinct perspectives: rational-comprehensive and incremental. This paper examines the theory behind both perspectives and argues that incrementalism may be a more appropriate strategy for applied decision-making in education. In considering the appropriateness of applying…

  8. Increment contracts: southern experience and potential use in the Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Gary W. Zinn; Gary W. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Increment contracts are long-term timber management contracts in which landowners receive regular payments based on the average annual growth of wood their land is capable of producing. Increment contracts have been used on nearly 500,000 acres of private forests in the South. Southern experience suggests that several changes in the contract would improve its utility:...

  9. Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of School Buildings (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krimgold, Frederick; Hattis, David; Green, Melvyn

    Asserting that the strategy of incremental seismic rehabilitation makes it possible for schools to get started now on improving earthquake safety, this manual provides school administrators with the information necessary to assess the seismic vulnerability of their buildings and to implement a program of incremental seismic rehabilitation for…

  10. Prediction of height increment for models of forest growth

    Treesearch

    Albert R. Stage

    1975-01-01

    Functional forms of equations were derived for predicting 10-year periodic height increment of forest trees from height, diameter, diameter increment, and habitat type. Crown ratio was considered as an additional variable for prediction, but its contribution was negligible. Coefficients of the function were estimated for 10 species of trees growing in 10 habitat types...

  11. 26 CFR 1.41-8 - Alternative incremental credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit. 1.41-8 Section 1... Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8 Alternative incremental credit. (a) Determination of credit. At the election of the taxpayer, the credit determined under section 41(a)(1) equals the amount determined under...

  12. Increment detection of bandlimited noises in the chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Shofner, W P; Yost, W A; Sheft, S

    1993-03-01

    A positive reinforcement, adaptive tracking procedure was used to study the intensity discrimination abilities of six chinchillas to noise signals. Increment detection thresholds were obtained using a two-down, one-up tracking rule. The effect of overall noise masker level and the effect of noise bandwidth on increment detection thresholds were studied. The continuous noise masker and the signal increment had equal bandwidths. Increment detection thresholds are independent of overall level for wideband noise; the asymptotic DL for wideband noise is 1.334 dB. In addition, increment detection thresholds decrease as the bandwidth of the noise increases. The observed slope of the bandwidth function for the chinchilla is independent of overall level and is around -2.8 dB/decade. The slope of the bandwidth function obtained for the chinchilla is similar to values reported for human subjects under similar conditions, but is less than the slope predicted by the ideal energy detector model.

  13. Determining the Optimum Number of Increments in Composite Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Hathaway, John E.; Schaalje, G Bruce; Gilbert, Richard O.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2008-09-30

    Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling can be more cost effective than simple random sampling. This paper considers how to determine the optimum number of increments to use in composite sampling. Composite sampling terminology and theory are outlined and a method is developed which accounts for different sources of variation in compositing and data analysis. This method is used to define and understand the process of determining the optimum number of increments that should be used in forming a composite. The blending variance is shown to have a smaller range of possible values than previously reported when estimating the number of increments in a composite sample. Accounting for differing levels of the blending variance significantly affects the estimated number of increments.

  14. LSH-RANSAC: Incremental Matching of Large-Size Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kanji; Saeki, Ken-Ichi; Minami, Mamoru; Ueda, Takeshi

    This paper presents a novel approach for robot localization using landmark maps. With recent progress in SLAM researches, it has become crucial for a robot to obtain and use large-size maps that are incrementally built by other mapper robots. Our localization approach successfully works with such incremental and large-size maps. In literature, RANSAC map-matching has been a promising approach for large-size maps. We extend the RANSAC map-matching so as to deal with incremental maps. We combine the incremental RANSAC with an incremental LSH database and develop a hybrid of the position-based and the appearance-based approaches. A series of experiments using radish dataset show promising results.

  15. Power-law confusion: You say incremental, I say differential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Joshua E.

    1993-01-01

    Power-law distributions are commonly used to describe the frequency of occurrences of crater diameters, stellar masses, ring particle sizes, planetesimal sizes, and meteoroid masses to name a few. The distributions are simple, and this simplicity has led to a number of misstatements in the literature about the kind of power-law that is being used: differential, cumulative, or incremental. Although differential and cumulative power-laws are mathematically trivial, it is a hybrid incremental distribution that is often used and the relationship between the incremental distribution and the differential or cumulative distributions is not trivial. In many cases the slope of an incremental power-law will be nearly identical to the slope of the cumulative power-law of the same distribution, not the differential slope. The discussion that follows argues for a consistent usage of these terms and against the oft-made implicit claim that incremental and differential distributions are indistinguishable.

  16. Efficiency of Oral Incremental Rehearsal versus Written Incremental Rehearsal on Students' Rate, Retention, and Generalization of Spelling Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Dru; Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Konrad, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of an incremental rehearsal oral versus an incremental rehearsal written procedure on a sample of primary grade children's weekly spelling performance. Participants included five second and one first grader who were in need of help with their spelling according to their teachers. An…

  17. An incremental approach to automated protein localisation

    PubMed Central

    Tscherepanow, Marko; Jensen, Nickels; Kummert, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Background The subcellular localisation of proteins in intact living cells is an important means for gaining information about protein functions. Even dynamic processes can be captured, which can barely be predicted based on amino acid sequences. Besides increasing our knowledge about intracellular processes, this information facilitates the development of innovative therapies and new diagnostic methods. In order to perform such a localisation, the proteins under analysis are usually fused with a fluorescent protein. So, they can be observed by means of a fluorescence microscope and analysed. In recent years, several automated methods have been proposed for performing such analyses. Here, two different types of approaches can be distinguished: techniques which enable the recognition of a fixed set of protein locations and methods that identify new ones. To our knowledge, a combination of both approaches – i.e. a technique, which enables supervised learning using a known set of protein locations and is able to identify and incorporate new protein locations afterwards – has not been presented yet. Furthermore, associated problems, e.g. the recognition of cells to be analysed, have usually been neglected. Results We introduce a novel approach to automated protein localisation in living cells. In contrast to well-known techniques, the protein localisation technique presented in this article aims at combining the two types of approaches described above: After an automatic identification of unknown protein locations, a potential user is enabled to incorporate them into the pre-trained system. An incremental neural network allows the classification of a fixed set of protein location as well as the detection, clustering and incorporation of additional patterns that occur during an experiment. Here, the proposed technique achieves promising results with respect to both tasks. In addition, the protein localisation procedure has been adapted to an existing cell

  18. Relation between incremental lines and tensile strength of coronal dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshiko; Saito, Makoto; Yamamoto, Masato; Nishimura, Fumio; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In one aspect, this study examined the tensile strength of coronal dentin, as a function of the location of incremental lines, in two types of teeth: human molar versus bovine incisor. In another aspect, tensile strength in coronal dentin was examined with tensile loading in two different orientations to the incremental lines: parallel versus perpendicular. There were four experimental groups in this study: HPa, human molar dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; HPe, human molar dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines; BPa, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation parallel to the incremental lines; BPe, bovine incisor dentin with tensile orientation perpendicular to the incremental lines. Tensile strengths of the parallel group (HPa and BPa) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the perpendicular group (HPe and BPe). Effect of structural anisotropy, contributed by the incremental lines, was thus confirmed in coronal dentin. However, there were no differences in anisotropy effect between the two tooth types.

  19. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  20. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  1. Damage prediction in incremental forming by using Lemaitre damage model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shenghua; Reis, Ana; Teixeira, Pedro; da Rocha, A. Barata; Lino, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Incremental forming is an innovative flexible method used for manufacturing of the sheet metal products and brings a great insight for the small-batch-size or customized sheet products. Some experiments show that incremental sheet metal forming can undergo higher deformations than traditional sheet metal forming. The traditional method to evaluate formability like forming limit curve (FLD) etc can't give the right answer in incremental forming which is subjected to highly non-monotonic serrated strain paths. In this paper, the Lemaitre' damage model is presented and fully coupled with finite element simulation in commercial software ABAQUS to predict the failure in incremental forming. Results show that the prediction makes a great agreement with the relevant experiments.

  2. An Examination of an Incremental Approach to Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingele, William E.; Reed, Beverly Woods

    1984-01-01

    A study of approximately 600 University of Arkansas remedial algebra students divided into seven control and seven experimental group sections substantially confirms John Saxon's findings that mathematics achievement can be improved by using Saxon's incremental approach to mathematics instruction. (JBM)

  3. Increment and mortality in a virgin Douglas-fir forest.

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Steele; Norman P. Worthington

    1955-01-01

    Is there any basis to the forester's rule of thumb that virgin forests eventually reach an equilibrium where increment and mortality approximately balance? Are we wasting potential timber volume by failing to salvage mortality in old-growth stands?

  4. The Present System Revisited. Part One: Incremental Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of incrementalism as it defines the present system in competitive debate. Outlines the strengths and weaknesses of this slow and deliberate pursuit of diverse goals and contends that it holds much argumentative promise. (JMF)

  5. Boundary value problems with incremental plasticity in granular media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Lee, J. K.; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discussion of the critical state concept in terms of an incremental theory of plasticity in granular (soil) media, and formulation of the governing equations which are convenient for a computational scheme using the finite element method. It is shown that the critical state concept with its representation by the classical incremental theory of plasticity can provide a powerful means for solving a wide variety of boundary value problems in soil media.

  6. Incremental dementia-related expenditures in a medicaid population.

    PubMed

    Bharmal, Murtuza F; Dedhiya, Seema; Craig, Bruce A; Weiner, Michael; Rosenman, Marc; Sands, Laura P; Modi, Ankita; Doebbeling, Caroline; Thomas, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults, understanding expenditures associated with treating medical conditions that are more prevalent among older adults is increasingly important. The objectives of this research were to estimate incremental medical encounters and incremental Medicaid expenditures associated with dementia among Indiana Medicaid recipients 40 years or older in 2004. A retrospective cohort design analyzing Indiana Medicaid administrative claims files was used. Individuals at least 40 years of age with Indiana Medicaid eligibility during 2004 were included. Patients with dementia were identified via diagnosis codes in claims files between July 2001 and December 2004. Adjusted annual incremental medical encounters and expenditures associated with dementia in 2004 were estimated using negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. A total of 18,950 individuals (13%) with dementia were identified from 145,684 who were 40 years or older. The unadjusted mean total annualized Medicaid expenditures for the cohort with dementia ($28,758) were significantly higher than the mean expenditures for the cohort without dementia ($14,609). After adjusting for covariates, Indiana Medicaid incurred annualized incremental expenditures of $9,829 per recipient with dementia. Much of the annual incremental expenditure associated with dementia was driven by the higher number of days in nursing homes and resulting nursing-home expenditures. Drug expenditures accounted for the second largest component of the incremental expenditures. On the basis of disease prevalence and per recipient annualized incremental expenditures, projected incremental annualized Indiana Medicaid spending associated with dementia for persons 40 or more years of age was $186 million. Dementia is associated with significant expenditures among Medicaid recipients. Disease management initiatives designed to reduce nursing-home use among recipients with dementia may

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Incremental Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Exchanges.

    PubMed

    Guest, Steven; Leypoldt, John K; Cassin, Michelle; Schreiber, Martin

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD), the gradual introduction of dialysate exchanges at less than full-dose therapy, has been infrequently described in clinical reports. One concern with less than full-dose dialysis is whether urea clearance targets are achievable with an incremental regimen. In this report, we used a large database of PD patients, across all membrane transport types, and performed urea kinetic modeling determinations of possible incremental regimens for an individual membrane type. ♦ METHODS: Using a modified 3-pore model of peritoneal transport, various incremental manual continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) exchanges employing glucose and/or icodextrin were evaluated. Peritoneal urea clearances from those simulations were added to residual kidney urea clearance for patients with various glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), and the total weekly urea clearance was then compared to the total weekly urea Kt/V target of 1.7. All 4 peritoneal membrane types were modeled. For each simulated prescription, net ultrafiltration and carbohydrate absorption were also calculated. ♦ RESULTS: Incremental CAPD regimens of 2 exchanges a day met adequacy targets if the GFR was 6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in all membrane types. For regimens employing 3 exchanges a day, Kt/V targets were achieved at GFR levels of 4 to 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in high transporters to low transporters but higher tonicity 2.5% glucose solutions or icodextrin were required in some regimens. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that with incremental CAPD regimens, urea kinetic targets are achievable in most new starts to PD with residual kidney function. Incremental PD may be a less intrusive, better accepted initial treatment regime and a cost-effective way to initiate chronic dialysis in the incident patient. The key role of intrinsic kidney function in incremental regimens is highlighted in this analysis and would warrant conscientious monitoring. Copyright © 2017 International

  8. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance.

  9. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  10. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Incremental k-core decomposition: Algorithms and evaluation

    DOE PAGES

    Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem; Gedik, Bugra; Jacques-SIlva, Gabriela; ...

    2016-02-01

    A k-core of a graph is a maximal connected subgraph in which every vertex is connected to at least k vertices in the subgraph. k-core decomposition is often used in large-scale network analysis, such as community detection, protein function prediction, visualization, and solving NP-hard problems on real networks efficiently, like maximal clique finding. In many real-world applications, networks change over time. As a result, it is essential to develop efficient incremental algorithms for dynamic graph data. In this paper, we propose a suite of incremental k-core decomposition algorithms for dynamic graph data. These algorithms locate a small subgraph that ismore » guaranteed to contain the list of vertices whose maximum k-core values have changed and efficiently process this subgraph to update the k-core decomposition. We present incremental algorithms for both insertion and deletion operations, and propose auxiliary vertex state maintenance techniques that can further accelerate these operations. Our results show a significant reduction in runtime compared to non-incremental alternatives. We illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms on different types of real and synthetic graphs, at varying scales. Furthermore, for a graph of 16 million vertices, we observe relative throughputs reaching a million times, relative to the non-incremental algorithms.« less

  12. Incremental k-core decomposition: Algorithms and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem; Gedik, Bugra; Jacques-SIlva, Gabriela; Wu, Kun -Lung; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2016-02-01

    A k-core of a graph is a maximal connected subgraph in which every vertex is connected to at least k vertices in the subgraph. k-core decomposition is often used in large-scale network analysis, such as community detection, protein function prediction, visualization, and solving NP-hard problems on real networks efficiently, like maximal clique finding. In many real-world applications, networks change over time. As a result, it is essential to develop efficient incremental algorithms for dynamic graph data. In this paper, we propose a suite of incremental k-core decomposition algorithms for dynamic graph data. These algorithms locate a small subgraph that is guaranteed to contain the list of vertices whose maximum k-core values have changed and efficiently process this subgraph to update the k-core decomposition. We present incremental algorithms for both insertion and deletion operations, and propose auxiliary vertex state maintenance techniques that can further accelerate these operations. Our results show a significant reduction in runtime compared to non-incremental alternatives. We illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms on different types of real and synthetic graphs, at varying scales. Furthermore, for a graph of 16 million vertices, we observe relative throughputs reaching a million times, relative to the non-incremental algorithms.

  13. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  14. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Christos A; Siegling, A B

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed.

  15. Studies on protein production by yeasts. IV. Incremental feeding modulus.

    PubMed

    El-Sawy, M; Mahmoud, S A; Abdel-Hafez, A M; Ramadan, E M

    1977-01-01

    S. cerevisiae Gr. 104 which seemed to be the most efficient strain in protein production, was used for investigating its optimum incremental feeding modulus that gives the highest economical yield. Therefore, different hourly rates of incremental feeding, ranging from 1.14 to 1.22, were used and the yeast yield for each rate was determined. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory fermentor vessel of 5 liter capacity, using molasses, ammonium sulphate, and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as feeding substances with optimum pH, temperature, and effective aeration. The optimum incremental feeding for this strain (which is the rate of molasses feeding corresponding to the exponential growth rate) was found to be 1.18. At this rate the best economical use of the substrate was obtained with the production of yield, close to the theoretically calculated yield.

  16. Martingales, nonstationary increments, and the efficient market hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauley, Joseph L.; Bassler, Kevin E.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2008-06-01

    We discuss the deep connection between nonstationary increments, martingales, and the efficient market hypothesis for stochastic processes x(t) with arbitrary diffusion coefficients D(x,t). We explain why a test for a martingale is generally a test for uncorrelated increments. We explain why martingales look Markovian at the level of both simple averages and 2-point correlations. But while a Markovian market has no memory to exploit and cannot be beaten systematically, a martingale admits memory that might be exploitable in higher order correlations. We also use the analysis of this paper to correct a misstatement of the ‘fair game’ condition in terms of serial correlations in Fama’s paper on the EMH. We emphasize that the use of the log increment as a variable in data analysis generates spurious fat tails and spurious Hurst exponents.

  17. A heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odubiyi, Jide B.; Zoch, David R.

    1989-01-01

    An heuristic approach to incremental and reactive scheduling is described. Incremental scheduling is the process of modifying an existing schedule if the initial schedule does not meet its stated initial goals. Reactive scheduling occurs in near real-time in response to changes in available resources or the occurrence of targets of opportunity. Only minor changes are made during both incremental and reactive scheduling because a goal of re-scheduling procedures is to minimally impact the schedule. The described heuristic search techniques, which are employed by the Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE), a prototype generic scheduler, efficiently approximate the cost of reaching a goal from a given state and effective mechanisms for controlling search.

  18. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses. PMID:28824517

  19. Estimating Incremental Costs with Skew: A Cautionary Note

    PubMed Central

    Polgreen, Linnea A.; Brooks, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models (GLMs) with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. Objectives To demonstrate that when modeling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. Methods We simulated cost data using a linear model with a “treatment”, a covariate, and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). Results All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Conclusions Although specification checks are always needed, the potential of misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean. PMID:22762544

  20. Incremental Hemodialysis: The University of California Irvine Experience.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani-Ghajar, Mehrdad; Rojas-Bautista, Vanessa; Lau, Wei-Ling; Pahl, Madeleine; Hernandez, Miguel; Jin, Anna; Reddy, Uttam; Chou, Jason; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Rhee, Connie M

    2017-05-01

    Incremental hemodialysis has been examined as a viable hemodialysis regimen for selected end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Preservation of residual kidney function (RKF) has been the driving impetus for this approach given its benefits upon the survival and quality of life of dialysis patients. While clinical practice guidelines recommend an incremental start of dialysis in peritoneal dialysis patients with substantial RKF, there remains little guidance with respect to incremental hemodialysis as an initial renal replacement therapy regimen. Indeed, several large population-based studies suggest that incremental twice-weekly vs. conventional thrice-weekly hemodialysis has favorable impact upon RKF trajectory and survival among patients with adequate renal urea clearance and/or urine output. In this report, we describe a case series of 13 ambulatory incident ESRD patients enrolled in a university-based center's Incremental Hemodialysis Program over the period of January 2015 to August 2016 and followed through December 2016. Among five patients who maintained a twice-weekly hemodialysis schedule vs. eight patients who transitioned to thrice-weekly hemodialysis, we describe and compare patients' longitudinal case-mix, laboratory, and dialysis treatment characteristics over time. The University of California Irvine Experience is the first systemically examined twice-weekly hemodialysis practice in North America. While future studies are needed to refine the optimal approaches and the ideal patient population for implementation of incremental hemodialysis, our case-series serves as a first report of this innovative management strategy among incident ESRD patients with substantial RKF, and a template for implementation of this regimen. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  2. Estimating incremental costs with skew: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Brooks, John M

    2012-09-01

    Cost data in healthcare are often skewed across patients. Thus, researchers have used either a log transformation of the dependent variable or generalized linear models with log links. However, frequently these non-linear approaches produce non-linear incremental effects: the incremental effects differ at different levels of the covariates, and this can cause dramatic effects on predicted cost. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when modelling skewed data, log link functions or log transformations are not necessary and have unintended effects. We simulated cost data using a linear model with a 'treatment', a covariate and a specified number of observations with excessive cost (skewed data). We also used actual data from a pain-relief intervention among hip-replacement patients. We then estimated cost models using various functional approaches suggested to handle skew and calculated the incremental cost of treatment at various levels of the covariate(s). All of these methods provide unbiased estimates of the incremental effect of treatment on costs at the mean level of the covariate. However, in some log-based models the implied incremental treatment cost doubled between extreme low and high values of the covariate in a manner inconsistent with the underlying linear model. Although specification checks are always needed, the potential for misleading incremental estimates resulting from log-based specifications is often ignored. In this era of cost containment and comparisons of treatment effectiveness it is vital that researchers and policymakers understand the limitation of the inferences that can be made using log-based models for patients whose characteristics differ from the sample mean.

  3. Incremental Hospital Costs Associated With Comorbidities of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Black, Libby; Hulsey, Thomas; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel C; Ebeling, Myla D

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), defined as birth at a gestational age (GA) of less than 37 weeks, is associated with increased hospital costs. Lower GA at birth is negatively correlated with the presence of neonatal comorbidities, further increasing costs. This study evaluated incremental costs associated with comorbidities of PTB following spontaneous labor at 24-36 weeks. Birth records from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Medical University of South Carolina were screened to identify infants born at GA 23-37 weeks after uncomplicated singleton pregnancies and surviving to discharge. Comorbidities of interest and incremental costs were analyzed with a partial least squares (PLS) regression model adjusted for comorbidities and GA. Incremental comorbidity-associated costs, as well as total costs, were estimated for infants of GA 24-36 weeks. A total of 4,292 delivery visit records were analyzed. Use of the PLS regression model eliminated issues of multicollinearity and allowed derivation of stable cost estimates. Incremental costs of comorbidities at a mean GA of 34 weeks ranged from $4,529 to $23,121, and exceeded $9,000 in 6 cases. Incremental costs rangedfrom a high of $41,161 for a GA 24-week infant with a comorbidity of retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgery (ROP4) to $3,683 for a GA 36-week infant with a comorbidity of convulsions. Incremental comorbidity costs are additive, so the costs for infants with multiple comorbidities could easily exceed the high of $41,161 seen with ROP4. The PLS regression model allowed derivation of stable cost estimates from multivariate and highly collinear data and can be used in future cost analyses. Using this data set, predicted costs of all comorbidities, as well as total costs, negatively correlated with GA at birth.

  4. An online incremental orthogonal component analysis method for dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Xu, Ye; Shen, Furao; Zhao, Jinxi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a fast linear dimensionality reduction method named incremental orthogonal component analysis (IOCA). IOCA is designed to automatically extract desired orthogonal components (OCs) in an online environment. The OCs and the low-dimensional representations of original data are obtained with only one pass through the entire dataset. Without solving matrix eigenproblem or matrix inversion problem, IOCA learns incrementally from continuous data stream with low computational cost. By proposing an adaptive threshold policy, IOCA is able to automatically determine the dimension of feature subspace. Meanwhile, the quality of the learned OCs is guaranteed. The analysis and experiments demonstrate that IOCA is simple, but efficient and effective.

  5. Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-07-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine, noncreative work. Results demonstrate that willingness to take risks, resources for creativity, and career commitment are associated primarily with radical creativity; that the presence of creative coworkers and organizational identification are associated with incremental creativity; and that conformity and organizational identification are linked with routine performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  6. Lubrication study for Single Point Incremental Forming of Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawale, Kishore; Ferreira Duarte, José; Reis, Ana; Silva, M. B.

    2016-08-01

    In conventional machining and sheet metal forming processes, in general, lubrication assists to increase the quality of the final product. Similarly it is observed that there is a positive effect of the use of lubrication in Single point incremental forming, namely in the surface roughness. This study is focused on the investigation of the most appropriate lubricant for incremental forming of copper sheet. The study involves the selection of the best lubricant from a range of several lubricants that provides the best surface finishing. The influence of the lubrication on other parameters such as the maximum forming angle, the fracture strains and the deformed profile are also studied for Copper.

  7. 48 CFR 52.237-6 - Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental Payment by... Provisions and Clauses 52.237-6 Incremental Payment by Contractor to Government. As prescribed in 37.304(c... to the contractor for increments of property, only upon receipt of those payments: Incremental...

  8. 40 CFR 60.2595 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... increment of progress? If you fail to meet an increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in table 1 of this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you...

  9. 40 CFR 60.2835 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... increment of progress? If you fail to meet an increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in table 1 of this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you...

  10. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  11. Incremental principal component pursuit for video background modeling

    DOEpatents

    Rodriquez-Valderrama, Paul A.; Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-03-14

    An incremental Principal Component Pursuit (PCP) algorithm for video background modeling that is able to process one frame at a time while adapting to changes in background, with a computational complexity that allows for real-time processing, having a low memory footprint and is robust to translational and rotational jitter.

  12. 48 CFR 3452.232-71 - Incremental funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incremental funding. 3452.232-71 Section 3452.232-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and...

  13. Some Suggestions for Modifying the Incremental Influence of Organizational Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhail, S. Morton; Gavin, James F.

    1979-01-01

    Examines ways of modifying incremental influence. Results suggest that referent power can be altered by affecting the interpersonal attraction of group members. Implications for organizational intervention and practice are discussed, and some possible modifications to the theoretical framework of power are advanced. (Author)

  14. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management ...Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority MDD - Materiel...product office has full life-cycle management responsibility of the upgraded authoritative biometrics enterprise repository system , known as DoD

  15. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  16. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  17. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  18. 78 FR 22770 - Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... SECURITY 8 CFR Parts 103 and 208 RIN 1615-AB83 Immigration Benefits Business Transformation, Increment I; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY: On August 29, 2011, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) published...

  19. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  20. 17 CFR 242.612 - Minimum pricing increment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum pricing increment. 242.612 Section 242.612 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation...

  1. Tax Increment Financing and Education Expenditures: The Case of Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    This is the first study to directly examine the relationship between tax increment financing (TIF) and education expenditures, using the state of Iowa as a case study. I find that greater use of TIF is associated with reduced education expenditures. I also find little evidence to support the commonly held proposition that school spending increases…

  2. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  3. Retroactive Operations: On "Increments" in Mandarin Chinese Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ni Eng

    2014-01-01

    Conversation Analysis (CA) has established repair (Schegloff, Jefferson & Sacks 1977; Schegloff 1979; Kitzinger 2013) as a conversational mechanism for managing contingencies of talk-in-interaction. In this dissertation, I look at a particular sort of "repair" termed TCU-continuations (or otherwise known increments in other…

  4. Incremental logistic regression for customizing automatic diagnostic models.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Salvador; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, and following the new trends in medicine, statistical learning techniques have been used for developing automatic diagnostic models for aiding the clinical experts throughout the use of Clinical Decision Support Systems. The development of these models requires a large, representative amount of data, which is commonly obtained from one hospital or a group of hospitals after an expensive and time-consuming gathering, preprocess, and validation of cases. After the model development, it has to overcome an external validation that is often carried out in a different hospital or health center. The experience is that the models show underperformed expectations. Furthermore, patient data needs ethical approval and patient consent to send and store data. For these reasons, we introduce an incremental learning algorithm base on the Bayesian inference approach that may allow us to build an initial model with a smaller number of cases and update it incrementally when new data are collected or even perform a new calibration of a model from a different center by using a reduced number of cases. The performance of our algorithm is demonstrated by employing different benchmark datasets and a real brain tumor dataset; and we compare its performance to a previous incremental algorithm and a non-incremental Bayesian model, showing that the algorithm is independent of the data model, iterative, and has a good convergence.

  5. Application of incremental unknowns to the Burgers equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Haecheon; Temam, Roger

    1993-01-01

    In this article, we make a few remarks on the role that attractors and inertial manifolds play in fluid mechanics problems. We then describe the role of incremental unknowns for approximating attractors and inertial manifolds when finite difference multigrid discretizations are used. The relation with direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation is also mentioned.

  6. Assessing the Incremental Algorithm: A Response to Krahmer et al.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This response discusses the experiment reported in Krahmer et al.'s Letter to the Editor of "Cognitive Science". We observe that their results do not tell us whether the Incremental Algorithm is better or worse than its competitors, and we speculate about implications for reference in complex domains, and for learning from "normal" (i.e.,…

  7. Against the Odds: Academic Underdogs Benefit from Incremental Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jody L.; Burnette, Jeni L.; Allison, Scott T.; Stone, Heather

    2011-01-01

    An implicit theory of ability approach to motivation argues that students who believe traits to be malleable (incremental theorists), relative to those who believe traits to be fixed (entity theorists), cope more effectively when academic challenges arise. In the current work, we integrated the implicit theory literature with research on top dog…

  8. Variations in serum magnesium and hormonal levels during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel Angel; Iñigo, Carmen; Calvo, Maria Luisa; Escanero, Jesús Fernando

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between plasma magnesium levels and hormonal variations during an incremental exercise test until exhaustion in 27, well-trained, male endurance athletes. After a warm-up of 10 min at 2 W/kg, the test began at an initial workload of 2.5 W/kg and continued with increments of 0.5 W/kg every 10 min until exhaustion. Plasma magnesium, catecholamine, insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, aldosterone and cortisol levels were determined at rest, at the end of each stage and three, five and seven minutes post-exercise. With the incremental exercise test, no variations in plasma magnesium levels were found, while plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline, PTH, glucagon and cortisol levels increased significantly. Over the course of the exercise, plasma levels of insulin decreased significantly, but those of calcitonin remained steady. During the recovery period, catecholamines and insulin returned to basal levels. These findings indicate that the magnesium status of euhydrated endurance athletes during incremental exercise testing may be the result of the interrelation between several hormonal variations.

  9. Application of an Incremental Evolution Technique to Spacecraft Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the intuition that is often easier to learn to solve difficult problems after similar, simpler problems have been learned, incremental evolution is a recently proposed extension to evolutionary algorithms in which the evaluation function against which a population is evolved is scaled over time.

  10. Self-correcting incremental approach in nonlinear structural mechanics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massett, D. A.; Stricklin, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    A self-correcting, incremental-solution procedure has been developed which seems to be promising in solving geometrically highly nonlinear problems. The procedure is also applicable to systems with many degrees of freedom where the bandwidth of the stiffness matrix is large compared with the narrow bandwidth for the shell of revolution.

  11. The Incremental Validity of Positive Emotions in Predicting School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ashley D.; Huebner, E. Scott; Reschly, Amy L.; Valois, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental…

  12. Optimal tree increment models for the Northeastern United Statesq

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2003-01-01

    used the potential relative increment (PRI) methodology to develop optimal tree diameter growth models for the Northeastern United States. Thirty species from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Database yielded 69,676 individuals, which were then reduced to fast-growing subsets for PRI analysis. For instance, only 14 individuals from the greater than 6,300-tree eastern...

  13. Optimal Tree Increment Models for the Northeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2005-01-01

    I used the potential relative increment (PRI) methodology to develop optimal tree diameter growth models for the Northeastern United States. Thirty species from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Database yielded 69,676 individuals, which were then reduced to fast-growing subsets for PRI analysis. For instance, only 14 individuals from the greater than 6,300-tree eastern...

  14. Incremental validity of a measure of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Hayslip, Bert

    2005-10-01

    After the Schutte Self-Report Inventory of Emotional Intelligence (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was found to predict college grade point average, subsequent emotional intelligence (EI)-college adjustment research has used inconsistent measures and widely varying criteria, resulting in confusion about the construct's predictive validity. In this study, we assessed the SSRI's incremental validity for a wide range of adjustment criteria, pitting it against a competing trait measure, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), and tests of fluid and crystallized intelligence. At a broad bandwidth, the SSRI total score significantly and uniquely predicted variance beyond NEO-FFI domain scores in the UCLA Loneliness Scale, Revised (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrono, 1980) scores. Higher fidelity analyses using previously identified SSRI factors and NEO-FFI item clusters revealed that the SSRI's Optimism/Mood Regulation and Emotion Appraisal factors contributed unique variance to self-reported study habits and social stress, respectively. The potential moderation of incremental validity by gender did not reach significance due to loss of power from splitting the sample, and mediational analyses revealed the SSRI Optimism/Mood Regulation factor was both directly and indirectly related to various criteria. We discuss the small magnitude of incremental validity coefficients and the differential incremental validity of SSRI factor and total scores.

  15. Effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal When Implemented by a Paraprofessional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen-Brown, Shawna; Panahon, Carlos J.; Schreiber, Cassandra M.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research has established incremental rehearsal (IR) as an effective intervention for teaching basic skills in various student populations. However, there have been no published studies to date in which interventionists have been school-based personnel rather than researchers. In this study, a paraprofessional implemented IR with…

  16. Generation of Referring Expressions: Assessing the Incremental Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Deemter, Kees; Gatt, Albert; van der Sluis, Ielka; Power, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A substantial amount of recent work in natural language generation has focused on the generation of "one-shot" referring expressions whose only aim is to identify a target referent. Dale and Reiter's Incremental Algorithm (IA) is often thought to be the best algorithm for maximizing the similarity to referring expressions produced by people. We…

  17. Retroactive Operations: On "Increments" in Mandarin Chinese Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ni Eng

    2014-01-01

    Conversation Analysis (CA) has established repair (Schegloff, Jefferson & Sacks 1977; Schegloff 1979; Kitzinger 2013) as a conversational mechanism for managing contingencies of talk-in-interaction. In this dissertation, I look at a particular sort of "repair" termed TCU-continuations (or otherwise known increments in other…

  18. Incremental Validity in the Clinical Assessment of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Zhou, Xiaobin; Lackaff, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the increment of clinical validity in early childhood assessment of physical impairment (PI), developmental delay (DD), and autism (AUT) using multiple standardized developmental screening measures such as performance measures and parent and teacher rating scales. Hierarchical regression and sensitivity/specificity analyses…

  19. Peaks beyond Phonology: Adolescence, Incrementation, and Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagliamonte, Sali A.; D'Arcy, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    What is the mechanism by which a linguistic change advances across successive generations of speakers? We explore this question by using the model of incrementation provided in Labov 2001 and analyzing six current changes in English. Extending Labov's focus on recent and vigorous phonological changes, we target ongoing morphosyntactic(-semantic)…

  20. Factors affecting the use of increment cores to assess fixation

    Treesearch

    Stan T. Lebow

    2001-01-01

    As part of an effort to ensure that treated wood products have minimal environmental and handling concerns, an American Wood Preservers Association task force is considering the development of a test to assess the degree of fixation of Waterborne wood preservatives. The proposed test involves removal and leaching of increment cores. This paper describes a laboratory...

  1. Understanding the incremental value of novel diagnostic tests for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Dowdy, David

    2015-12-03

    Tuberculosis is a major source of global mortality caused by infection, partly because of a tremendous ongoing burden of undiagnosed disease. Improved diagnostic technology may play an increasingly crucial part in global efforts to end tuberculosis, but the ability of diagnostic tests to curb tuberculosis transmission is dependent on multiple factors, including the time taken by a patient to seek health care, the patient's symptoms, and the patterns of transmission before diagnosis. Novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis have conventionally been evaluated on the basis of characteristics such as sensitivity and specificity, using assumptions that probably overestimate the impact of diagnostic tests on transmission. We argue for a shift in focus to the evaluation of such tests' incremental value, defining outcomes that reflect each test's purpose (for example, transmissions averted) and comparing systems with the test against those without, in terms of those outcomes. Incremental value can also be measured in units of outcome per incremental unit of resource (for example, money or human capacity). Using a novel, simplified model of tuberculosis transmission that addresses some of the limitations of earlier tuberculosis diagnostic models, we demonstrate that the incremental value of any novel test depends not just on its accuracy, but also on elements such as patient behaviour, tuberculosis natural history and health systems. By integrating these factors into a single unified framework, we advance an approach to the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for tuberculosis that considers the incremental value at the population level and demonstrates how additional data could inform more-effective implementation of tuberculosis diagnostic tests under various conditions.

  2. Na(+) permeates through L-type Ca(2+) channel in bovine airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Bettina; Flores-Soto, Edgar; Reyes-García, Jorge; Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Carbajal, Verónica; Montaño, Luis M

    2016-07-05

    Membrane depolarization of airway smooth muscle (ASM) opens L-type voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC) allowing Ca(2+) entrance to produce contraction. In Ca(2+) free conditions Na(+) permeates through L-VDCC in excitable and non-excitable cells and this phenomenon is annulled at µM Ca(2+) concentrations. Membrane depolarization also induces activation of Gq proteins and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. In bovine ASM, KCl induced a transient contraction sensitive to nifedipine in Ca(2+)free medium, indicating an additional mechanism to the SR-Ca(2+) release. It is possible that Na(+) could permeate through L-VDCC in bovine ASM. KCl induced a transient contraction in Ca(2+) free medium with a fast intracellular Ca(2+) increment, reduced by TMB-8. This contraction was abolished by caffeine and CPA, diminished with nifedipine and augmented by Bay K8644. Increasing extracellular Na(+) concentration in tracheal myocytes, proportionally augmented the SBFI fluorescence ratio, suggesting an increment in the intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)]i). 50mM Na(+) with and without Ca(2+) induced a [Na(+)]i increment, enhanced by Bay K8644 and inhibited with D-600. In Ca(2+) free medium, KCl increased [Na(+)]i. Ba(2+) currents corresponding to L-VDCC were observed in myocytes and Na(+) permeated in the presence and absence of Ca(2+). SBFI-loaded myocytes in Na(+) and Ca(2+) containing Krebs stimulated with carbachol showed a Na(+) increment with a plateau. D-600 and 2-APB almost abolished the carbachol-induced Na(+) increment. RT-PCR demonstrated that CaV1.2 is the only L-VDCC subunit present in ASM. under physiological conditions, Na(+) permeates through L-VDCC in bovine ASM, probably contributing to sustain membrane depolarization during agonist stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Constrained incremental predictive controller design for a flexible joint robot.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nemat Ollah; Towhidkhah, Farzad

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, an improved predictive control algorithm for controlling a typical nonlinear flexible-joint robot (FJR) with input constraint is proposed. The receding horizon algorithm, called generalized incremental predictive control (GIPC), utilizes both present and previous states rather than present states only. The GIPC algorithm includes the weighted difference of the current and the previous states and the summation of the control action increments. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, it is implemented to the FJR and the results are compared with those of generalized predictive control (GPC). It is demonstrated that the proposed GIPC algorithm is more robust than the standard GPC method. Furthermore, the constrained GIPC algorithm using the quadratic programming removes instabilities caused by actuator saturation.

  4. Incremental projection approach of regularization for inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Souopgui, Innocent; Ngodock, Hans E.; Vidard, Arthur Le Dimet, François-Xavier

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents an alternative approach to the regularized least squares solution of ill-posed inverse problems. Instead of solving a minimization problem with an objective function composed of a data term and a regularization term, the regularization information is used to define a projection onto a convex subspace of regularized candidate solutions. The objective function is modified to include the projection of each iterate in the place of the regularization. Numerical experiments based on the problem of motion estimation for geophysical fluid images, show the improvement of the proposed method compared with regularization methods. For the presented test case, the incremental projection method uses 7 times less computation time than the regularization method, to reach the same error target. Moreover, at convergence, the incremental projection is two order of magnitude more accurate than the regularization method.

  5. Thermomechanical simulations and experimental validation for high speed incremental forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Gagliardi, Francesco; Filice, Luigino; Romero, Natalia

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet forming (ISF) consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. The drawback of this process is its slowness. In this study, a high speed variant has been investigated from both numerical and experimental points of view. The aim has been the design of a FEM model able to perform the material behavior during the high speed process by defining a thermomechanical model. An experimental campaign has been performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility. The first results have shown how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed ISF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature increment. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process confirming substantially experimental evidence.

  6. Reynolds number scaling of velocity increments in isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Kartik P.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.; Yeung, P. K.

    2017-02-01

    Using the largest database of isotropic turbulence available to date, generated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations on an 81923 periodic box, we show that the longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale identically in the inertial range. By examining the DNS data at several Reynolds numbers, we infer that the contradictory results of the past on the inertial-range universality are artifacts of low Reynolds number and residual anisotropy. We further show that both longitudinal and transverse velocity increments scale on locally averaged dissipation rate, just as postulated by Kolmogorov's refined similarity hypothesis, and that, in isotropic turbulence, a single independent scaling adequately describes fluid turbulence in the inertial range.

  7. A Comparative Study of Failure with Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. H.; Song, N. N.; Pires, F. M. Andrade

    2016-08-01

    Incremental forming (ISF) is an innovative flexible sheet metal forming process which can be used to manufacture complex shapes from various materials. Due to its flexibility, it has attracted more and more attention over recent decades. Localized deformation and shear through the thickness are essential characteristics of ISF. These lead to specific failure modes and formability of ISF that are different from the conventional stamping process. In this contribution, three continuum damage models (Lemaitre, Gurson, extended GTN models) are formulated and fully coupled with the finite element simulation in a commercial software ABAQUS to predict failure in incremental forming. A comparative investigation of these three damage models has been carried out to analyze both the deformation behavior and failure mechanisms.

  8. The Space Station decision - Incremental politics and technological choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1990-01-01

    Using primary documents and interviews with participants, this book describes the events that led up to the 1984 decision that NASA should build a permanently occupied, international space station in low earth orbit. The role that civil servants in NASA played in initiating the program is highlighted. The trail of the Space Station proposal as its advocates devised strategies to push it through the White House policy review process is followed. The critical analysis focuses on the way in which 'incrementalism' (the tendency of policy makers to introduce incremental changes once projects are under way) operated in connection with the Space Station program. The book calls for a commitment to a long-range space policy.

  9. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  10. Markovian properties of velocity increments in boundary layer turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutkun, Murat

    2017-08-01

    Markovian properties of the turbulent velocity increments in a flat plate boundary layer at Reθ of 19100 are investigated using hot-wire anemometry measurements of the streamwise velocity component in a wind tunnel. Increments of the longitudinal velocities at different wall-normal positions show that the flow exhibits Markovian properties when the separation between different scales, or the Markov-Einstein coherence length, is on the order of the Taylor microscale, λ. The results indicate that Markovian nature of turbulence evolves across the boundary layer showing certain characteristics pertaining to the distance to the wall. The connection between the Markovian properties of turbulent boundary layer and existence of the spectral gap is explored. Markovianity of the process is also discussed in relation to the nonlocal nonlinear versus local nonlinear transfer of energy, triadic interactions and dissipation.

  11. The Space Station decision - Incremental politics and technological choice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, Howard E.

    1990-01-01

    Using primary documents and interviews with participants, this book describes the events that led up to the 1984 decision that NASA should build a permanently occupied, international space station in low earth orbit. The role that civil servants in NASA played in initiating the program is highlighted. The trail of the Space Station proposal as its advocates devised strategies to push it through the White House policy review process is followed. The critical analysis focuses on the way in which 'incrementalism' (the tendency of policy makers to introduce incremental changes once projects are under way) operated in connection with the Space Station program. The book calls for a commitment to a long-range space policy.

  12. Incremental Knowledge Base Construction Using DeepDive.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jaeho; Wu, Sen; Wang, Feiran; De Sa, Christopher; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Populating a database with unstructured information is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of extraction, cleaning, and integration. Recent names used for this problem include dealing with dark data and knowledge base construction (KBC). In this work, we describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems, and we present techniques to make the KBC process more efficient. We observe that the KBC process is iterative, and we develop techniques to incrementally produce inference results for KBC systems. We propose two methods for incremental inference, based respectively on sampling and variational techniques. We also study the tradeoff space of these methods and develop a simple rule-based optimizer. DeepDive includes all of these contributions, and we evaluate Deep-Dive on five KBC systems, showing that it can speed up KBC inference tasks by up to two orders of magnitude with negligible impact on quality.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-1050 during incremental ECAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamati, M.; Tamimi, S.; Moturu, S.; Sivaswamy, G.; Qarni, M.; Rosochowski, A.

    2017-05-01

    Incremental ECAP is a new method of ECAP process were the severe shear deformation is incrementally applied on the sample resulting in grain refining and new texture developing. The fundamental objective of the present work is an observation of effect of different passes of I-ECAP on microstructure and mechanical properties of AA1050 billet. To that end, 8 pass of I-ECAP have been carried out using Bc route and microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of the I-ECAPed samples have been studied. The EBSD and TEM analyses indicates that I-ECAP is as capable as conventional ECAP to grain refinements and a UFG structure is resulted after I-ECAP cycles. Tensile testing and hardness measurements indicates that mechanical properties of the Al-1050 billets increases dramatically by increasing the I-ECAP passes.

  14. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  15. Electrical-assisted double side incremental forming and processes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2014-06-03

    A process for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component is provided. The process can include providing a double side incremental forming machine, the machine operable to perform a plurality of double side incremental deformations on the sheet metal component and also apply an electric direct current to the sheet metal component during at least part of the forming. The direct current can be applied before or after the forming has started and/or be terminated before or after the forming has stopped. The direct current can be applied to any portion of the sheet metal. The electrical assistance can reduce the magnitude of force required to produce a given amount of deformation, increase the amount of deformation exhibited before failure and/or reduce any springback typically exhibited by the sheet metal component.

  16. Power calculation of linear and angular incremental encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofev, Aleksandr V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.; Mednikov, Sergey V.; Sycheva, Elena A.

    2016-04-01

    Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and transmit the measured values back to the control unit. The capabilities of these systems are undergoing continual development in terms of their resolution, accuracy and reliability, their measuring ranges, and maximum speeds. This article discusses the method of power calculation of linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders, to find the optimum parameters for its components, such as light emitters, photo-detectors, linear and angular scales, optical components etc. It analyzes methods and devices that permit high resolutions in the order of 0.001 mm or 0.001°, as well as large measuring lengths of over 100 mm. In linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders optical beam is usually formulated by a condenser lens passes through the measuring unit changes its value depending on the movement of a scanning head or measuring raster. Past light beam is converting into an electrical signal by the photo-detecter's block for processing in the electrical block. Therefore, for calculating the energy source is a value of the desired value of the optical signal at the input of the photo-detecter's block, which reliably recorded and processed in the electronic unit of linear and angular incremental optoelectronic encoders. Automation technology is constantly expanding its role in improving the efficiency of manufacturing and testing processes in all branches of industry. More than ever before, the mechanical movements of linear slides, rotary tables, robot arms, actuators, etc. are numerically controlled. Linear and angular incremental photoelectric encoders measure mechanical motion and

  17. Cold pressure welding by incremental rolling: Deformation zone analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Homberg, Werner; Hoppe, Christian; Grundmeier, Guido; Hordych, Illia; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we analyse the deformation zone that forms during cold welding of metal pairs by incremental rolling. The tool geometry has great influence on the forming behaviour and the overall shape of the metal part. In order to improve the process, an increase in surface exposure is aspired since it should lead to an increased weld strength. Six tool geometries were tested by means of FEA and analysed based on the surface exposure created between the surfaces in contact.

  18. Primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity.

    PubMed

    Brümmer, V; Schneider, S; Strüder, H K; Askew, C D

    2011-05-05

    While the effects of exercise on brain cortical activity from pre-to post-exercise have been thoroughly evaluated, few studies have investigated the change in activity during exercise. As such, it is not clear to what extent changes in exercise intensity influence brain cortical activity. Furthermore, due to the difficulty in using brain-imaging methods during complex whole-body movements like cycling, it is unclear to what extent the activity in specific brain areas is altered with incremental exercise intensity over time. Latterly, active electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes combined with source localization methods allow for the assessment of brain activity, measured as EEG current density, within specific cortical regions. The present study aimed to investigate the application of this method during exercise on a cycle ergometer, and to investigate the effect of increasing exercise intensity on the magnitude and location of any changes in electrocortical current density. Subjects performed an incremental cycle ergometer test until subjective exhaustion. Current density of the EEG recordings during each test stage, as well as before and after exercise, was determined. Spatial changes in current density were localized using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) to three regions of interest; the primary motor cortex, primary sensory cortex and prefrontal cortex, and were expressed relative to current density within the local lobe. It was demonstrated that the relative current density of the primary motor cortex was intensified with increasing exercise intensity, whereas activity of the primary sensory cortex and that of the prefrontal cortex were not altered with exercise. The results indicate that the combined active EEG/LORETA method allows for the recording of brain cortical activity during complex movements and incremental exercise. These findings indicate that primary motor cortex activity is elevated with incremental exercise intensity

  19. Incremental Window-based Protein Sequence Alignment Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-23

    Huzefa Rangwala and George Karypis March 23, 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of... Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Incremental Window-based Protein Sequence Alignment Algorithms Huzefa Rangwala and George Karypis...Then it per- forms a series of iterations in which it performs the following three steps: First, it extracts from ’ the residue-pair with the highest

  20. International Space Station Increment-2 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data, collected aboard the International Space Station during the period of May to August 2001, the Increment-2 phase of the station. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels during activities that took place during the Increment-2 segment. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraints, lack of precise information regarding some payload operations and other station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-2 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: 1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and the vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. 2) The Space

  1. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  2. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  3. Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.

  4. External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E-DISH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, J. W.; Introne, Steve; Bedell, Lisa; Credle, Ben; Holp, Graham; Ly, Siao; Tait, Terry

    1994-01-01

    A Mars habitat transport system was designed as part of the NASA Mars exploration program. The transport system, the External Device to Incrementally Skid the Habitat (E - DISH), will be used to transport Mars habitats from their landing sites to the colony base and will be detached after unloading. The system requirements for Mars were calculated and scaled for model purposes. Specific model materials are commonly found and recommendations for materials for the Mars design are included.

  5. Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 (DAI Inc 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Defense Agencies Initiative Increment 2 ( DAI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and Abbreviations for MAIS Programs...Year U.S.C- United States Code USD(AT&L) - Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, & Logistics DAI Inc 2 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Mr

  6. Incremental holographic recording in lithium niobate with active phase locking.

    PubMed

    Peithmann, K; Wiebrock, A; Buse, K

    1998-12-15

    Angular-multiplexed hologram recording in iron-doped lithium niobate crystals was carried out with near-infrared light. An incremental recording schedule with active phase locking of the light pattern onto the hologram was used. Continuous and reproducible recording of holograms of equal efficiency was achieved, and a hologram multiplexing number, M/#=2 , for a 5-mm-thick crystal was obtained at a 760-nm wavelength of light.

  7. An incremental strategy for calculating consistent discrete CFD sensitivity derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korivi, Vamshi Mohan; Taylor, Arthur C., III; Newman, Perry A.; Hou, Gene W.; Jones, Henry E.

    1992-01-01

    In this preliminary study involving advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, an incremental formulation, also known as the 'delta' or 'correction' form, is presented for solving the very large sparse systems of linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For typical problems in 2D, a direct solution method can be applied to these linear equations which are associated with aerodynamic sensitivity analysis. For typical problems in 2D, a direct solution method can be applied to these linear equations in either the standard or the incremental form, in which case the two are equivalent. Iterative methods appear to be needed for future 3D applications; however, because direct solver methods require much more computer memory than is currently available. Iterative methods for solving these equations in the standard form result in certain difficulties, such as ill-conditioning of the coefficient matrix, which can be overcome when these equations are cast in the incremental form; these and other benefits are discussed. The methodology is successfully implemented and tested in 2D using an upwind, cell-centered, finite volume formulation applied to the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations. Results are presented for two laminar sample problems: (1) transonic flow through a double-throat nozzle; and (2) flow over an isolated airfoil.

  8. Design and Performance Analysis of Incremental Networked Predictive Control Systems.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhong-Hua; Liu, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Donghua

    2016-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the design and performance analysis of networked control systems with network-induced delay, packet disorder, and packet dropout. Based on the incremental form of the plant input-output model and an incremental error feedback control strategy, an incremental networked predictive control (INPC) scheme is proposed to actively compensate for the round-trip time delay resulting from the above communication constraints. The output tracking performance and closed-loop stability of the resulting INPC system are considered for two cases: 1) plant-model match case and 2) plant-model mismatch case. For the former case, the INPC system can achieve the same output tracking performance and closed-loop stability as those of the corresponding local control system. For the latter case, a sufficient condition for the stability of the closed-loop INPC system is derived using the switched system theory. Furthermore, for both cases, the INPC system can achieve a zero steady-state output tracking error for step commands. Finally, both numerical simulations and practical experiments on an Internet-based servo motor system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Early ventilation-heart rate breakpoint during incremental cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Gravier, G; Delliaux, S; Ba, A; Delpierre, S; Guieu, R; Jammes, Y

    2014-03-01

    Previous observations having reported a transient hypoxia at the onset of incremental exercise, we investigated the existence of concomitant ventilatory and heart rate (HR) breakpoints.33 subjects executed a maximal cycling exercise with averaging for successive 5-s periods of HR, ventilation, tidal volume (VT), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/Ti), and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 (PETO2) and CO2. In 10 subjects, the transcutaneous partial pressure of O2 (PtcO2) was recorded and the venous blood lactic acid (LA) concentration measured.At the beginning of exercise, PETO2 decreased, reaching a nadir, then progressively increased until the exercise ended. PtcO2 varied in parallel. Whether or not a 0-W cycling period preceded the incremental exercise, the rate of changes in VE, VT, VT/Ti and HR significantly increased when the nadir PO2 was reached. The ventilatory/ HR breakpoint was measured at 33±4% of VO2max, whereas the ventilatory threshold (VTh) was detected at 67±4% of VO2max and LA began to increase at 45 to 50% of VO2max.During incremental cycling exercise, we identified the existence of HR and ventilatory breakpoints in advance of both lactate and ventilatory thresholds which coincided with modest hypoxia and hypercapnia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Incremental comprehension of spoken quantifier sentences: Evidence from brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Freunberger, Dominik; Nieuwland, Mante S

    2016-09-01

    Do people incrementally incorporate the meaning of quantifier expressions to understand an unfolding sentence? Most previous studies concluded that quantifiers do not immediately influence how a sentence is understood based on the observation that online N400-effects differed from offline plausibility judgments. Those studies, however, used serial visual presentation (SVP), which involves unnatural reading. In the current ERP-experiment, we presented spoken positive and negative quantifier sentences ("Practically all/practically no postmen prefer delivering mail, when the weather is good/bad during the day"). Different from results obtained in a previously reported SVP-study (Nieuwland, 2016) sentence truth-value N400 effects occurred in positive and negative quantifier sentences alike, reflecting fully incremental quantifier comprehension. This suggests that the prosodic information available during spoken language comprehension supports the generation of online predictions for upcoming words and that, at least for quantifier sentences, comprehension of spoken language may proceed more incrementally than comprehension during SVP reading. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate response among growth increments of fish and trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guyette, R.P.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1995-01-01

    Significant correlations were found among the annual growth increments of stream fish, trees, and climate variables in the Ozark region of the United States. The variation in annual growth increments of rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) from the Jacks Fork River was significantly correlated over 22 years with the ring width of four tree species: white oak (Quercus alba), post oak (Quercus stellata), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Rock bass growth and tree growth were both significantly correlated with July rainfall and stream discharge. Variations in annual growth of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) from four streams were significantly correlated over 29 years (1939-1968) with mean May maximum air temperature but not with tree growth. The magnitude and significance of correlations among growth increments from fish and trees imply that conditions such as topography, stream gradient, organism age, and the distribution of a population relative to its geographic range can influence the climatic response of an organism. The timing and intensity of climatic variables may produce different responses among closely related species.

  12. Incremental adaptation to yaw head turns during 30 RPM centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Elias, Paul Z; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R

    2008-08-01

    A 3-day incremental protocol was conducted with the aim of adapting human subjects to make head movements comfortably during 30 RPM centrifugation. With motion sickness as a potentially limiting factor, the protocol was designed using a quantitative motion sickness model based upon the neural mismatch sensory conflict theory. Centrifuge velocity was incremented from 14 RPM on day 1, to 23 RPM on day 2, to 30 RPM on day 3, with subjects making a total of 42 head movements on each day. Twenty-four subjects completed the experiment with average motion sickness levels below five (out of 20). Four subjects aborted due to motion sickness. Adaptation of non-compensatory vertical nystagmus was observed through an 18% decrease in the vertical aVOR time constant over the 3 days. Subjective intensity ratings for the head movements decreased by approximately 40% over the 3 days, while illusory motion duration decreased by 18%. Feasibility of head movements during 30 RPM rotation was demonstrated with only 3 days of incremental training.

  13. Online Bimanual Manipulation Using Surface Electromyography and Incremental Learning.

    PubMed

    Strazzulla, Ilaria; Nowak, Markus; Controzzi, Marco; Cipriani, Christian; Castellini, Claudio

    2017-03-01

    The paradigm of simultaneous and proportional myocontrol of hand prostheses is gaining momentum in the rehabilitation robotics community. As opposed to the traditional surface electromyography classification schema, in simultaneous and proportional control the desired force/torque at each degree of freedom of the hand/wrist is predicted in real-time, giving to the individual a more natural experience, reducing the cognitive effort and improving his dexterity in daily-life activities. In this study we apply such an approach in a realistic manipulation scenario, using 10 non-linear incremental regression machines to predict the desired torques for each motor of two robotic hands. The prediction is enforced using two sets of surface electromyography electrodes and an incremental, non-linear machine learning technique called Incremental Ridge Regression with Random Fourier Features. Nine able-bodied subjects were engaged in a functional test with the aim to evaluate the performance of the system. The robotic hands were mounted on two hand/wrist orthopedic splints worn by healthy subjects and controlled online. An average completion rate of more than 95% was achieved in single-handed tasks and 84% in bimanual tasks. On average, 5 min of retraining were necessary on a total session duration of about 1 h and 40 min. This work sets a beginning in the study of bimanual manipulation with prostheses and will be carried on through experiments in unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees thus increasing its scientific value.

  14. Incremental validity of emotional intelligence ability in predicting academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    We tested the incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (El) in predicting academic achievement in undergraduate students, controlling for cognitive abilities and personality traits. Academic achievement has been conceptualized in terms of the number of exams, grade point average, and study time taken to prepare for each exam. Additionally, gender differences were taken into account in these relationships. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, the reduced version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and academic achievement measures. Results showed that El abilities were positively related to academic achievement indices, such as the number of exams and grade point average; total El ability and the Perceiving branch were negatively associated with the study time spent preparing for exams. Furthermore, El ability adds a percentage of incremental variance with respect to cognitive ability and personality variables in explaining scholastic success. The magnitude of the associations between El abilities and academic achievement measures was generally higher for men than for women. Jointly considered, the present findings support the incremental validity of the MSCEIT and provide positive indications of the importance of El in students' academic development. The helpfulness of El training in the context of academic institutions is discussed.

  15. Incremental learning for ν-Support Vector Regression.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bin; Sheng, Victor S; Wang, Zhijie; Ho, Derek; Osman, Said; Li, Shuo

    2015-07-01

    The ν-Support Vector Regression (ν-SVR) is an effective regression learning algorithm, which has the advantage of using a parameter ν on controlling the number of support vectors and adjusting the width of the tube automatically. However, compared to ν-Support Vector Classification (ν-SVC) (Schölkopf et al., 2000), ν-SVR introduces an additional linear term into its objective function. Thus, directly applying the accurate on-line ν-SVC algorithm (AONSVM) to ν-SVR will not generate an effective initial solution. It is the main challenge to design an incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm. To overcome this challenge, we propose a special procedure called initial adjustments in this paper. This procedure adjusts the weights of ν-SVC based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions to prepare an initial solution for the incremental learning. Combining the initial adjustments with the two steps of AONSVM produces an exact and effective incremental ν-SVR learning algorithm (INSVR). Theoretical analysis has proven the existence of the three key inverse matrices, which are the cornerstones of the three steps of INSVR (including the initial adjustments), respectively. The experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that INSVR can avoid the infeasible updating paths as far as possible, and successfully converges to the optimal solution. The results also show that INSVR is faster than batch ν-SVR algorithms with both cold and warm starts.

  16. Information bottleneck based incremental fuzzy clustering for large biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongli; Wan, Xing

    2016-08-01

    Incremental fuzzy clustering combines advantages of fuzzy clustering and incremental clustering, and therefore is important in classifying large biomedical literature. Conventional algorithms, suffering from data sparsity and high-dimensionality, often fail to produce reasonable results and may even assign all the objects to a single cluster. In this paper, we propose two incremental algorithms based on information bottleneck, Single-Pass fuzzy c-means (spFCM-IB) and Online fuzzy c-means (oFCM-IB). These two algorithms modify conventional algorithms by considering different weights for each centroid and object and scoring mutual information loss to measure the distance between centroids and objects. spFCM-IB and oFCM-IB are used to group a collection of biomedical text abstracts from Medline database. Experimental results show that clustering performances of our approaches are better than such prominent counterparts as spFCM, spHFCM, oFCM and oHFCM, in terms of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health level seven interoperability strategy: big data, incrementally structured.

    PubMed

    Dolin, R H; Rogers, B; Jaffe, C

    2015-01-01

    Describe how the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA), a foundational standard in US Meaningful Use, contributes to a "big data, incrementally structured" interoperability strategy, whereby data structured incrementally gets large amounts of data flowing faster. We present cases showing how this approach is leveraged for big data analysis. To support the assertion that semi-structured narrative in CDA format can be a useful adjunct in an overall big data analytic approach, we present two case studies. The first assesses an organization's ability to generate clinical quality reports using coded data alone vs. coded data supplemented by CDA narrative. The second leverages CDA to construct a network model for referral management, from which additional observations can be gleaned. The first case shows that coded data supplemented by CDA narrative resulted in significant variances in calculated performance scores. In the second case, we found that the constructed network model enables the identification of differences in patient characteristics among different referral work flows. The CDA approach goes after data indirectly, by focusing first on the flow of narrative, which is then incrementally structured. A quantitative assessment of whether this approach will lead to a greater flow of data and ultimately a greater flow of structured data vs. other approaches is planned as a future exercise. Along with growing adoption of CDA, we are now seeing the big data community explore the standard, particularly given its potential to supply analytic en- gines with volumes of data previously not possible.

  18. An Enhanced Visualization Process Model for Incremental Visualization.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Hans-Jorg; Angelini, Marco; Santucci, Giuseppe; Schumann, Heidrun

    2016-07-01

    With today's technical possibilities, a stable visualization scenario can no longer be assumed as a matter of course, as underlying data and targeted display setup are much more in flux than in traditional scenarios. Incremental visualization approaches are a means to address this challenge, as they permit the user to interact with, steer, and change the visualization at intermediate time points and not just after it has been completed. In this paper, we put forward a model for incremental visualizations that is based on the established Data State Reference Model, but extends it in ways to also represent partitioned data and visualization operators to facilitate intermediate visualization updates. In combination, partitioned data and operators can be used independently and in combination to strike tailored compromises between output quality, shown data quantity, and responsiveness-i.e., frame rates. We showcase the new expressive power of this model by discussing the opportunities and challenges of incremental visualization in general and its usage in a real world scenario in particular.

  19. International Space Station Increment-2 Quick Look Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this quick look report is to disseminate the International Space Station (ISS) Increment-2 reduced gravity environment preliminary analysis in a timely manner to the microgravity scientific community. This report is a quick look at the processed acceleration data collected by the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) during the period of May 3 to June 8, 2001. The report is by no means an exhaustive examination of all the relevant activities, which occurred during the time span mentioned above for two reasons. First, the time span being considered in this report is rather short since the MAMS was not active throughout the time span being considered to allow a detailed characterization. Second, as the name of the report implied, it is a quick look at the acceleration data. Consequently, a more comprehensive report, the ISS Increment-2 report, will be published following the conclusion of the Increment-2 tour of duty. NASA sponsors the MAMS and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System (SAMS) to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the MAMS and the SAMS units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the ISS. The MAMS unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasisteady acceleration data measurements, while the SAMS unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration data measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The ISS reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses mostly the MAMS acceleration data measurements (the Increment-2 report will cover both systems). The MAMS has two sensors. The MAMS Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, which is a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and

  20. 40 CFR 62.14555 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... violation of the standards under this subpart. If you fail to meet an increment of progress, you must submit... continue to submit reports each subsequent calendar month until the increment of progress is met. ...

  1. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. PACS 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids PMID:25346648

  2. Increment of specific heat capacity of solar salt with SiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable. 65.: Thermal properties of condensed matter; 65.20.-w: Thermal properties of liquids; 65.20.Jk: Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids.

  3. Syneretic response to incremental pressures in calf lenses.

    PubMed

    Lizak, Martin J; Zigler, J Samuel; Bettelheim, Frederick A

    2005-01-01

    Syneretic response to pressure variation of 1 atm or more has been demonstrated previously in bovine and human lenses with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements. This study is designed to prove that a similar response is observable in smaller pressure increments closer to the normal physiological range. Excised calf eyes were enucleated, the lenses dissected out, and immersed in medium. The lenses were exposed to incremental pressures ranging from 1 to 3 atm. At each pressure increment, a series of T1-weighted and spin echo images were acquired. Each image was segmented into seven regions of interest and tabulated. Longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times were calculated from numerical fits of the experimental values to a one-term exponential expression. The relaxation parameters were obtained from fitting the image intensities to exponential equations, which yielded a relaxation time T and a pre-exponential factor M. The relaxation times and the pre-exponential terms of both parameters displayed linear dependence on pressure. There was no evidence of a threshold for syneretic response. Both T1 and T2 relaxation times decreased with increasing pressure. The pre-exponential term M2 increased with pressure, whereas M1 decreased with pressure; however, the slope of the latter was statistically not significantly different from zero. Syneretic response to pressure in calf lenses as determined by NMR relaxation measurements proved to be linearly dependent on pressure over a wide range of hydrostatic pressures. There was no range where the syneretic response was absent. These two findings allow the conclusion that the phenomenon observed hitherto at large pressure changes in vitro could be operative in vivo under physiological pressure changes during accommodation.

  4. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise.

    PubMed

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network "connectome" which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain.

  5. Product Quality Modelling Based on Incremental Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Qin, B.; Shi, W.

    2012-05-01

    Incremental Support vector machine (ISVM) is a new learning method developed in recent years based on the foundations of statistical learning theory. It is suitable for the problem of sequentially arriving field data and has been widely used for product quality prediction and production process optimization. However, the traditional ISVM learning does not consider the quality of the incremental data which may contain noise and redundant data; it will affect the learning speed and accuracy to a great extent. In order to improve SVM training speed and accuracy, a modified incremental support vector machine (MISVM) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the margin vectors are extracted according to the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) condition; then the distance from the margin vectors to the final decision hyperplane is calculated to evaluate the importance of margin vectors, where the margin vectors are removed while their distance exceed the specified value; finally, the original SVs and remaining margin vectors are used to update the SVM. The proposed MISVM can not only eliminate the unimportant samples such as noise samples, but also can preserve the important samples. The MISVM has been experimented on two public data and one field data of zinc coating weight in strip hot-dip galvanizing, and the results shows that the proposed method can improve the prediction accuracy and the training speed effectively. Furthermore, it can provide the necessary decision supports and analysis tools for auto control of product quality, and also can extend to other process industries, such as chemical process and manufacturing process.

  6. International Space Station Increment-3 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy; Grodsinksy, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of August to December 2001. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-3. However, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to the station in support of science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit was flown to support experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. Both acceleration systems are also used in support of the vehicle microgravity requirements verification. The International Space Station Increment-3 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: (1) The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem, a low frequency range sensor (up to 1 Hz), is used to characterize the quasi-steady environment for payloads and vehicle, and the High Resolution Accelerometer Package, which is used to characterize the vibratory environment up to 100 Hz. (2) The Space Acceleration Measurement System, which is

  7. Metastable Pain-Attention Dynamics during Incremental Exhaustive Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Slapšinskaitė, Agnė; Hristovski, Robert; Razon, Selen; Balagué, Natàlia; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain attracts attention on the bodily regions. Attentional allocation toward pain results from the neural communication across the brain-wide network “connectome” which consists of pain-attention related circuits. Connectome is intrinsically dynamic and spontaneously fluctuating on multiple time-scales. The present study delineates the pain-attention dynamics during incremental cycling performed until volitional exhaustion and investigates the potential presence of nested metastable dynamics. Method: Fifteen young and physically active adults completed a progressive incremental cycling test and reported their discomfort and pain on a body map every 15 s. Results: The analyses revealed that the number of body locations with perceived pain and discomfort increased throughout five temporal windows reaching an average of 4.26 ± 0.59 locations per participant. A total of 37 different locations were reported and marked as painful for all participants throughout the cycling task. Significant differences in entropy were observed between all temporal windows except the fourth and fifth windows. Transient dynamics of bodily locations with perceived discomfort and pain were spanned by three principal components. The metastable dynamics of the body pain locations groupings over time were discerned by three time scales: (1) the time scale of shifts (15 s); (2) the time scale of metastable configurations (100 s), and (3) the observational time scale (1000 s). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that body locations perceived as painful increase throughout the incremental cycling task following a switching metastable and nested dynamics. These findings support the view that human brain is intrinsically organized into active, mutually interacting complex and nested functional networks, and that subjective experiences inherent in pain perception depict identical dynamical principles to the neural tissue in the brain. PMID:28111563

  8. IPSILON: incremental parsing for semantic indexing of latent concepts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2010-07-01

    A new framework for content-based image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of a universal source coding scheme, is investigated. Based upon a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithm, extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing code, the proposed method captures the occurrence pattern of visual elements from a given image. A linguistic processing technique, namely the latent semantic analysis (LSA) method, is then employed to identify associative ensembles of visual elements, which lay the foundation for intelligent visual information analysis. In 2-D applications, incremental parsing decomposes an image into elementary patches that are different from the conventional fixed square-block type patches. When used in compressive representations, it is amenable in schemes that do not rely on average distortion criteria, a methodology that is a departure from the conventional vector quantization. We call this methodology a parsed representation. In this article, we present our implementations of an image retrieval system, called IPSILON, with parsed representations induced by different perceptual distortion thresholds. We evaluate the effectiveness of the use of the parsed representations by comparing their performance with that of four image retrieval systems, one using the conventional vector quantization for visual information analysis under the same LSA paradigm, another using a method called SIMPLIcity which is based upon an image segmentation and integrated region matching, and the other two based upon query-by-semantic-example and query-by-visual-example. The first two of them were tested with 20,000 images of natural scenes, and the others were tested with a portion of the images. The experimental results show that the proposed parsed representation efficiently captures the salient features in visual images and the IPSILON systems outperform other systems in terms of retrieval precision and distortion

  9. Evaluation of incremental reactivity and its uncertainty in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Martien, Philip T; Harley, Robert A; Milford, Jana B; Russell, Armistead G

    2003-04-15

    The incremental reactivity (IR) and relative incremental reactivity (RIR) of carbon monoxide and 30 individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were estimated for the South Coast Air Basin using two photochemical air quality models: a 3-D, grid-based model and a vertically resolved trajectory model. Both models include an extended version of the SAPRC99 chemical mechanism. For the 3-D modeling, the decoupled direct method (DDM-3D) was used to assess reactivities. The trajectory model was applied to estimate uncertainties in reactivities due to uncertainties in chemical rate parameters, deposition parameters, and emission rates using Monte Carlo analysis with Latin hypercube sampling. For most VOC, RIRs were found to be consistent in rankings with those produced by Carter using a box model. However, 3-D simulations show that coastal regions, upwind of most of the emissions, have comparatively low IR but higher RIR than predicted by box models for C4-C5 alkenes and carbonyls that initiate the production of HOx radicals. Biogenic VOC emissions were found to have a lower RIR than predicted by box model estimates, because emissions of these VOC were mostly downwind of the areas of primary ozone production. Uncertainties in RIR of individual VOC were found to be dominated by uncertainties in the rate parameters of their primary oxidation reactions. The coefficient of variation (COV) of most RIR values ranged from 20% to 30%, whereas the COV of absolute incremental reactivity ranged from about 30% to 40%. In general, uncertainty and variability both decreased when relative rather than absolute reactivity metrics were used.

  10. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced... Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave. (a) Minimum increment. (1) When an employee takes FMLA leave on an intermittent or...

  11. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced... Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave. (a) Minimum increment. (1) When an employee takes FMLA leave on an intermittent or...

  12. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced... Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave. (a) Minimum increment. (1) When an employee takes FMLA leave on an intermittent or...

  13. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced... Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave. (a) Minimum increment. (1) When an employee takes FMLA leave on an intermittent or...

  14. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  15. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  16. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. 874.1070 Section 874.1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter. (a) Identification. A short increment sensitivity index...

  17. 40 CFR 62.14555 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... violation of the standards under this subpart. If you fail to meet an increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the due date for that increment of progress. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1605 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the specified date in table 1 of this subpart for achieving that increment of progress. The notification must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment. You must include in...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1605 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the specified date in table 1 of this subpart for achieving that increment of progress. The notification must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment. You must include in...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15060 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... increment of progress? If you fail to meet an increment of progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the specified date in table 1 of this subpart for achieving that increment of progress. This notification must inform the Administrator that you did not...

  1. Supply Chain Planning with Incremental Development, Modular Design, and Evolutionary Updates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-22

    Systems Simulation , Deterministic and Stochastic Optimization, etc. In addition to consulting for several companies, he has also worked as a...efficiency, and inventory effectiveness. Evolutionary update: Planned or opportunistic updates to system hardware and software that address requirements...incremental development approach. Incremental development: A development process in which hardware and/or software capability is delivered in increments

  2. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed Central

    Carminatti, Lorival J.; Possamai, Carlos A. P.; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F.; de Lucas, Ricardo D.; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key points T-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests. T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness. In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol. PMID:24149741

  3. Testing single point incremental forming molds for thermoforming operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Daniel; de Sousa, Ricardo Alves; Torcato, Ricardo

    2016-10-01

    Low pressure polymer processing processes as thermoforming or rotational molding use much simpler molds then high pressure processes like injection. However, despite the low forces involved with the process, molds manufacturing for this operations is still a very material, energy and time consuming operation. The goal of the research is to develop and validate a method for manufacturing plastically formed sheets metal molds by single point incremental forming (SPIF) operation for thermoforming operation. Stewart platform based SPIF machines allow the forming of thick metal sheets, granting the required structural stiffness for the mold surface, and keeping the short lead time manufacture and low thermal inertia.

  4. Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Villar, Ignacio; Corres, Jesus M.; Achaerandio, Miguel; Arregui, Francisco J.; Matias, Ignacio R.

    2006-12-01

    The incremental deposition of a thin overlay on the cladding of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induces important resonance wavelength shifts in the transmission spectrum. The phenomenon is proved theoretically with a vectorial method based on hybrid modes and coupled mode theory, and experimentally with electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process. The phenomenon is repeated periodically for specific overlay thickness values with the particularity that the shape of the resonance wavelength shift depends on the thickness of the overlay. The main applications are the design of wide optical filters and multiparameter sensing devices.

  5. Beyond Incrementalism? SCHIP and the politics of health reform.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Jonathan B; Lyons, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    When Congress enacted the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in 1997, it was heralded as a model of bipartisan, incremental health policy. However, despite the program's achievements in the ensuing decade, SCHIP's reauthorization triggered political conflict, and efforts to expand the program stalemated in 2007. The 2008 elections broke that stalemate, and in 2009 the new Congress passed, and President Barack Obama signed, legislation reauthorizing SCHIP. Now that attention is turning to comprehensive health reform, what lessons can reformers learn from SCHIP's political adventures?

  6. Comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for crystalline neon.

    PubMed

    Nolan, S J; Bygrave, P J; Allan, N L; Manby, F R

    2010-02-24

    We present a critical comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for the evaluation of the static cohesive energy of crystalline neon. Both of these schemes make it possible to apply the methods of molecular electronic structure theory to crystalline solids, offering a systematically improvable alternative to density functional theory. Results from both methods are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies of solid neon and potential sources of error are discussed. We explore the similarities of the two methods and demonstrate how they may be used in tandem to study crystalline solids.

  7. Nuclear cycler: An incremental approach to the deflection of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Massimiliano; Thiry, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel deflection approach based on nuclear explosions: the nuclear cycler. The idea is to combine the effectiveness of nuclear explosions with the controllability and redundancy offered by slow push methods within an incremental deflection strategy. The paper will present an extended model for single nuclear stand-off explosions in the proximity of elongated ellipsoidal asteroids, and a family of natural formation orbits that allows the spacecraft to deploy multiple bombs while being shielded by the asteroid during the detonation.

  8. Spectral evolution with incremental nanocoating of long period fiber gratings.

    PubMed

    Del Villar, Ignacio; Corres, Jesus M; Achaerandio, Miguel; Arregui, Francisco J; Matias, Ignacio R

    2006-12-11

    The incremental deposition of a thin overlay on the cladding of a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induces important resonance wavelength shifts in the transmission spectrum. The phenomenon is proved theoretically with a vectorial method based on hybrid modes and coupled mode theory, and experimentally with electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process. The phenomenon is repeated periodically for specific overlay thickness values with the particularity that the shape of the resonance wavelength shift depends on the thickness of the overlay. The main applications are the design of wide optical filters and multiparameter sensing devices.

  9. An incremental interactive algorithm for regular grammar inference

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.; Honavar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Grammar inference, a problem with many applications in pattern recognition and language learning, is defined as follows: For an unknown grammar G, given a finite set of positive examples S{sup +} that belong to L(G), and possibly a finite set of negative examples S{sup -}, infer a grammar G* equivalent to G. Different restrictions on S{sup +} and S{sup -} and the interaction of the learner with the teacher or the environment give rise to different variants of this task. We present an interactive incremental algorithm for inference of a finite state automaton (FSA) corresponding to an unknown regular grammar.

  10. Incremental concept learning with few training examples and hierarchical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Schutte, Klamer; Azzopardi, George; Burghouts, Gertjan J.

    2015-10-01

    Object recognition and localization are important to automatically interpret video and allow better querying on its content. We propose a method for object localization that learns incrementally and addresses four key aspects. Firstly, we show that for certain applications, recognition is feasible with only a few training samples. Secondly, we show that novel objects can be added incrementally without retraining existing objects, which is important for fast interaction. Thirdly, we show that an unbalanced number of positive training samples leads to biased classifier scores that can be corrected by modifying weights. Fourthly, we show that the detector performance can deteriorate due to hard-negative mining for similar or closely related classes (e.g., for Barbie and dress, because the doll is wearing a dress). This can be solved by our hierarchical classification. We introduce a new dataset, which we call TOSO, and use it to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the localization and recognition of multiple objects in images.

  11. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Jan H.; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period. PMID:23898265

  12. Determination of season at death using dental cementum increment analysis.

    PubMed

    Wedel, Vicki L

    2007-11-01

    Dental cementum anchors teeth into their sockets via the periodontal ligament. In mammals, dental cementum is laid down in alternating opaque and translucent bands representing winter (dormant) and summer (growth) seasons. Each pair of bands represents 1 year of life. Estimates of age at death based on counting pairs of bands are highly accurate. If the timing of the transition between winter and summer bands could be identified in humans, dental cementum increment analysis could be used to specify the season at death. This pilot project attempts to determine when these transitions occur and thus provide forensic anthropologists with a technique that would refine our estimates of postmortem interval. Extracted teeth were obtained from a local oral surgeon, embedded, sectioned, ground, polished, and examined under transmitted polarized light. The outermost increment was identified and measured along with other randomly chosen like bands. A transition from translucent to opaque bands was observed in teeth extracted in early October, while teeth extracted in early April exhibited nascent translucent bands. Further, significant correlations were observed between band thickness and number of days into either season, suggesting that band width increases as either season progresses. In this blind study, extracted teeth were effectively sorted into the spring/summer or fall/winter season 99% of the time.

  13. Predicting Robust Vocabulary Growth from Measures of Incremental Learning

    PubMed Central

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn

    2011-01-01

    We report a study of incremental learning of new word meanings over multiple episodes. A new method called MESA (Markov Estimation of Semantic Association) tracked this learning through the automated assessment of learner-generated definitions. The multiple word learning episodes varied in the strength of contextual constraint provided by sentences, in the consistency of this constraint, and in the spacing of sentences provided for each trained word. Effects of reading skill were also examined. Results showed that MESA scores increased with each word learning encounter. MESA growth curves were affected by context constraint, spacing of practice, and reading skill. Most important, the accuracy of participant responses (MESA scores) during learning predicted which words would be retained over a 1-week period. These results support the idea that word learning is incremental and that partial gains in knowledge depend on properties of both the context and the learner. The introduction of MESA presents new opportunities to test word-learning theories and the complex factors that affect growth of word knowledge over time and in different contexts. PMID:21442050

  14. Muscle activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings during incremental running.

    PubMed

    Camic, Clayton L; Kovacs, Attila J; Enquist, Evan A; McLain, Trisha A; Hill, Ethan C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of responses for the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude vs. oxygen uptake ( V̇O2 ) relationships from muscles of the quadriceps femoris and hamstrings during incremental treadmill running. Twelve men volunteered to perform an incremental test to exhaustion while EMG signals were recorded from the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus muscles. Polynomial regression analyses were used to determine the best model fit for the EMG amplitude vs. V̇O2 relationships. There were significant (P < 0.05) increases in EMG amplitude across V̇O2 for the vastus lateralis (quadratic, R = 0.995), vastus medialis (quadratic, R = 0.997), biceps femoris (cubic, R = 0.999), and semitendinosus (linear, R = 0.992) muscles as well as the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio (cubic, R = 0.999). These findings indicate that the patterns of responses for muscle activation vs. exercise intensity appear to be unique among muscles of the thigh. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. STS-102 Expedition 2 Increment and Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Merri Sanchez, Expedition 2 Increment Manager, John Uri, Increment Scientist, and Lybrease Woodard, Lead Payload Operations Director, give an overview of the upcoming activities and objectives of the Expedition 2's (E2's) mission in this prelaunch press conference. Ms. Sanchez describes the crew rotation of Expedition 1 to E2, the timeline E2 will follow during their stay on the International Space Station (ISS), and the various flights going to the ISS and what each will bring to ISS. Mr. Uri gives details on the on-board experiments that will take place on the ISS in the fields of microgravity research, commercial, earth, life, and space sciences (such as radiation characterization, H-reflex, colloids formation and interaction, protein crystal growth, plant growth, fermentation in microgravity, etc.). He also gives details on the scientific facilities to be used (laboratory racks and equipment such as the human torso facsimile or 'phantom torso'). Ms. Woodard gives an overview of Marshall Flight Center's role in the mission. Computerized simulations show the installation of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) onto the ISS and the installation of the airlock using SSRMS. Live footage shows the interior of the ISS, including crew living quarters, the Progress Module, and the Destiny Laboratory. The three then answer questions from the press.

  16. Communication: Phase incremented echo train acquisition in NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltisberger, Jay H.; Walder, Brennan J.; Keeler, Eric G.; Kaseman, Derrick C.; Sanders, Kevin J.; Grandinetti, Philip J.

    2012-06-01

    We present an improved and general approach for implementing echo train acquisition (ETA) in magnetic resonance spectroscopy, particularly where the conventional approach of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) acquisition would produce numerous artifacts. Generally, adding ETA to any N-dimensional experiment creates an N + 1 dimensional experiment, with an additional dimension associated with the echo count, n, or an evolution time that is an integer multiple of the spacing between echo maxima. Here we present a modified approach, called phase incremented echo train acquisition (PIETA), where the phase of the mixing pulse and every other refocusing pulse, ϕP, is incremented as a single variable, creating an additional phase dimension in what becomes an N + 2 dimensional experiment. A Fourier transform with respect to the PIETA phase, ϕP, converts the ϕP dimension into a Δp dimension where desired signals can be easily separated from undesired coherence transfer pathway signals, thereby avoiding cumbersome or intractable phase cycling schemes where the receiver phase must follow a master equation. This simple modification eliminates numerous artifacts present in NMR experiments employing CPMG acquisition and allows "single-scan" measurements of transverse relaxation and J-couplings. Additionally, unlike CPMG, we show how PIETA can be appended to experiments with phase modulated signals after the mixing pulse.

  17. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  18. Incremental Scheduling Engines for Human Exploration of the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Phillips, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    As humankind embarks on longer space missions farther from home, the requirements and environments for scheduling the activities performed on these missions are changing. As we begin to prepare for these missions it is appropriate to evaluate the merits and applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. Scheduling engines temporally arrange tasks onto a timeline so that all constraints and objectives are met and resources are not overbooked. Scheduling engines used to schedule space missions fall into three general categories: batch, mixed-initiative, and incremental. This paper presents an assessment of the engine types, a discussion of the impact of human exploration of the moon and Mars on planning and scheduling, and the applicability of the different types of scheduling engines. This paper will pursue the hypothesis that incremental scheduling engines may have a place in the new environment; they have the potential to reduce cost, to improve the satisfaction of those who execute or benefit from a particular timeline (the customers), and to allow astronauts to plan their own tasks and those of their companion robots.

  19. Electromyographic adjustments during continuous and intermittent incremental fatiguing cycling.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Valdes, E; Guzman-Venegas, R A; Silvestre, R A; Macdonald, J H; Falla, D; Araneda, O F; Haichelis, D

    2016-11-01

    We studied the sensitivity of electromyographic (EMG) variables to load and muscle fatigue during continuous and intermittent incremental cycling. Fifteen men attended three laboratory sessions. Visit 1: lactate threshold, peak power output, and VO2max . Visits 2 and 3: Continuous (more fatiguing) and intermittent (less fatiguing) incremental cycling protocols [20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of peak power output (PPO)]. During both protocols, multichannel EMG signals were recorded from vastus lateralis: muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), instantaneous mean frequency (iMNF), and absolute and normalized root mean square (RMS) were analyzed. MFCV differed between protocols (P < 0.001), and only increased consistently with power output during intermittent cycling. RMS parameters were similar between protocols, and increased linearly with power output. However, only normalized RMS was higher during the more fatiguing 100% PPO stage of the continuous protocol [continuous-intermittent mean difference (95% CI): 45.1 (8.5% to 81.7%)]. On the contrary, iMNF was insensitive to load changes and muscle fatigue (P = 0.14). Despite similar power outputs, continuous and intermittent cycling influenced MFCV and normalized RMS differently. Only normalized RMS was sensitive to both increases in power output (in both protocols) and muscle fatigue, and thus is the most suitable EMG parameter to monitor changes in muscle activation during cycling.

  20. Numerical simulation of high speed incremental forming of aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina, Ambrogio; Teresa, Citrea; Luigino, Filice; Francesco, Gagliardi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an innovative process is analyzed with the aim to satisfy the industrial requirements, such as process flexibility, differentiation and customizing of products, cost reduction, minimization of execution time, sustainable production, etc. The attention is focused on incremental forming process, nowadays used in different fields such as: rapid prototyping, medical sector, architectural industry, aerospace and marine, in the production of molds and dies. Incremental forming consists in deforming only a small region of the workspace through a punch driven by a NC machine. SPIF is the considered variant of the process, in which the punch gives local deformation without dies and molds; consequently, the final product geometry can be changed by the control of an actuator without requiring a set of different tools. The drawback of this process is its slowness. The aim of this study is to assess the IF feasibility at high speeds. An experimental campaign will be performed by a CNC lathe with high speed to test process feasibility and the influence on materials formability mainly on aluminum alloys. The first results show how the material presents the same performance than in conventional speed IF and, in some cases, better material behavior due to the temperature field. An accurate numerical simulation has been performed to investigate the material behavior during the high speed process substantially confirming experimental evidence.

  1. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient.

    PubMed

    Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2012-05-08

    All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.

  2. Transformational adaptation when incremental adaptations to climate change are insufficient

    PubMed Central

    Kates, Robert W.; Travis, William R.; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    All human–environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations. PMID:22509036

  3. Polynomial-style region incremental multisecret image sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ran-Zan; Lin, Yung-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper proposes a polynomial-style region incremental multisecret image sharing (PBRIMSIS), for sharing multiple secrets in an image among n participants. The method enables the dealer to distribute the content of an image S to multiple regions, where each region is associated with a certain level of secrecy. In the proposed n-level PBRIMSIS scheme, input image S is encoded to n+1 shadow images that exhibit the following features: a. each shadow image cannot reveal any region in S, b. any t (2 <= t <= n + 1) shadow images can be used to reveal these regions associated with up to t - 1 secret levels, and c. S can be completely reconstructed when all of the n+1 shadow images are available. A discrete cosine transform-based PBRIMSIS with a smaller shadow image scheme is designed to improve the transmission and storage of the generated shadow images. The property of incremental disclosure to the region-based secrets in an image is applicable to image sharing in diverse applications that require the sharing of multiple secrets with different secrecy priorities, such as in cooperative working or in military secrets.

  4. Experimental determination of the periodicity of incremental features in enamel

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T M

    2006-01-01

    Vital labelling of hard tissues was used to examine the periodicity of features of dental enamel microstructure. Fluorescent labels were administered pre- and postnatally to developing macaques (Macaca nemestrina), which were identified histologically in dentine and related to accentuated lines in enamel, allowing for counts of features within known-period intervals. This study demonstrates that cross-striations represent a daily rhythm in enamel secretion, and suggests that intradian lines are the result of a similar 12-h rhythm. Retzius lines were found to have a regular periodicity within individual dentitions, and laminations appear to represent a daily rhythm that also shows 12-h subdivisions. The inclusion of intradian lines and laminations represents the first empirical evidence for their periodicities in primates; these features frequently complicate precise measurements of secretion rate and Retzius line periodicity, which are necessary for determination of crown formation time. The biological basis of incremental feature formation is not completely understood; long-period features may result from interactions between short-period rhythms, although this does not explain the known range of Retzius line periodicities within humans or among primates. Studies of the genetic, neurological and hormonal basis of incremental feature formation are needed to provide more insight into their physiological and structural basis. PMID:16420383

  5. Incremental Knowledge Base Construction Using DeepDive

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaeho; Wu, Sen; Wang, Feiran; De Sa, Christopher; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Populating a database with unstructured information is a long-standing problem in industry and research that encompasses problems of extraction, cleaning, and integration. Recent names used for this problem include dealing with dark data and knowledge base construction (KBC). In this work, we describe DeepDive, a system that combines database and machine learning ideas to help develop KBC systems, and we present techniques to make the KBC process more efficient. We observe that the KBC process is iterative, and we develop techniques to incrementally produce inference results for KBC systems. We propose two methods for incremental inference, based respectively on sampling and variational techniques. We also study the tradeoff space of these methods and develop a simple rule-based optimizer. DeepDive includes all of these contributions, and we evaluate Deep-Dive on five KBC systems, showing that it can speed up KBC inference tasks by up to two orders of magnitude with negligible impact on quality. PMID:27144081

  6. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFr), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine bum, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  7. Incremental learning of skill collections based on intrinsic motivation.

    PubMed

    Metzen, Jan H; Kirchner, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Life-long learning of reusable, versatile skills is a key prerequisite for embodied agents that act in a complex, dynamic environment and are faced with different tasks over their lifetime. We address the question of how an agent can learn useful skills efficiently during a developmental period, i.e., when no task is imposed on him and no external reward signal is provided. Learning of skills in a developmental period needs to be incremental and self-motivated. We propose a new incremental, task-independent skill discovery approach that is suited for continuous domains. Furthermore, the agent learns specific skills based on intrinsic motivation mechanisms that determine on which skills learning is focused at a given point in time. We evaluate the approach in a reinforcement learning setup in two continuous domains with complex dynamics. We show that an intrinsically motivated, skill learning agent outperforms an agent which learns task solutions from scratch. Furthermore, we compare different intrinsic motivation mechanisms and how efficiently they make use of the agent's developmental period.

  8. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper. © 2011 IEEE

  9. Incremental ECAP of thick continuous plates - machine and initial trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, A.; Olejnik, L.

    2014-08-01

    Incremental ECAP (I-ECAP) can be used for SPD of continuous bars, plates and sheets. This paper describes design, construction and preliminary trials of a prototype machine capable of processing thick continuous plates. To increase productivity, a two-turn I-ECAP is used, which is equivalent to route C in conventional one-turn ECAP. The machine has a reciprocating punch inclined at 45°, a clamp holding the plate in the die during deformation and a feeder incrementally feeding the plate when it is not deformed; all these devices are driven by hydraulic actuators controlled by a PLC. The machine is capable of deforming materials at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures. The die is heated with electric heaters. The machine has also an integrated cooling system and a lubrication system. The material used for the initial trials was Al 1050 plate (10×50×1000) conversion coated with calcium aluminate and lubricated with dry soap. The process was carried out at room temperature using 1.6 mm feeding stroke and a low cycle frequency of approximately 0.2 Hz. The UFG structure after the first pass of the process revealed by STEM confirms process feasibility.

  10. Predicting head injury risk during International Space Station increments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Aaron S; Zakrajsek, Anne D; Lewandowski, Beth E; Brooker, John E; Myers, Jerry G

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program is using a probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify acute and chronic medical risks to manned spaceflight. The objective of this project was to estimate the likelihood of a neurological head injury to a crewmember severe enough to require medical assessment, treatment, or evacuation during a typical International Space Station (ISS) increment. A 2 degree-of-freedom analytical model of the human head was created to allow for analysis of the impact response. The output of the model is acceleration of the head, which was used to determine the probability that the simulated impact resulted in a head injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 3 or greater. These data were then integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment, which outputs a likelihood of injury with a representative measure of the uncertainty. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to vary input parameters over their defined distributions. The mean probability of a moderate neurological injury (AIS 3 or greater) occurring due to a head impact by a crewmember translating through the ISS is 1.16 x 10(-4) per 6-mo mission increment (2.32 x 10(-4) per year). Our head injury prediction model has shown that there is a low, yet not insignificant, probability of neurological head injury of AIS score 3 or greater. The results from this simulation will be input into the parent Integrated Medical Model, which incorporates the risks of over 80 different medical events in order to inform mission planning scenarios.

  11. Demonstration/Validation of Incremental Sampling at Two Diverse Military Ranges and Development of an Incremental Sampling Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    characterize ten decision units $62,725 $39,500 $18,900 E2S2 - June 20102 2 –40National Defense Center for Energy and Environment Validation of EVC Soil...Stick • EVC Soil Stick used in Fort Lewis to collect eight replicate samples (0-2.5 cm depth) of 100 increments each • Same decision unit as...Energy and Environment Fort Lewis Live-Fire Laboratory Replicates NG Results Using EVC Tool (mg/kg) Sample Type Replicates Mean Std Dev % RSD 1 2 3

  12. 39 CFR 3050.23 - Documentation supporting incremental cost estimates in the Postal Service's section 3652 report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation supporting incremental cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PERIODIC REPORTING § 3050.23 Documentation supporting incremental cost... incremental cost model shall be reported. ...

  13. A New Sheet Metal Forming System Based on Incremental Punching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuanxin

    Stamping is one of the most commonly used manufacturing processes. Everyday, millions of parts are formed by this process. The conventional stamping is to form a part in one or several operations with a press machine and a set/sets of dies. It is very efficient but is not cost effective for small batch production parts and prototypes as the dies are expensive and time consuming to make. Recently, with the increasing demands for low-volume and customer-made products, a die-less forming method, Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISMF), has become one of the leading R&D topics in the industry. ISMF uses a small generic tool to apply a sequence of operations along the given path to deform the sheet incrementally. These small deformations accumulate to form the final shape of the part. As a result, different parts can be made by the same setup. Despite of some 30 years of research and development, however, ISMF technology is still premature for industrial applications due to the following reasons: The accuracy of the part is limited; the surface roughness is poor; and the productivity is low. This motivates the presented research. In this research, a new incremental forming system based on incremental punching is designed and built. The system consists of a 3-axes CNC platform, a high speed hydraulic cylinder with a hemispherical forming tool, and a PC-based CNC control system. The hydraulic system provides the forming force to deform the sheet metal with constant stokes, while the CNC system positions the part. When forming a part, the forming tool punches the sheet metal along the given contour of the part punch by punch; when one layer of the part is completed, the forming tool moves down to the next layer; and the process is finished till all layers are completed. The CNC control system works with standard NC code, and hence, is easy to use. In order to ensure the desirable performance of the machine, dynamic analysis of the machine is necessary. The analysis is

  14. Incremental Carcass Theory of Polycrystalline Media at Large Elastic and Plastic Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    A two-level carcass theory as applied to media with a polycrystalline structure at large elastic and plastic deformation of crystals (crystal grains) is presented. The theory is incremental, in accordance with the incremental nature of governing equations of a crystal, which take into account the prehistory of its deformation in the medium. The theory is based on the field of carcass (macroscopic) displacements, which determines the material displacements of carcass points and carcass (macroscopic) deformations of the medium. At the macromechanical level, the equations of macroscopic deformation and motion are given in an incremental form. At the micromechanical (locally structural) level, incremental microboundary-value problems for nodal presentation blocks of the polycrystalline material are solved on the basis of carcass displacements and their increments. From the internal fields of nodal blocks and their increments found, the incremental macroscopic stresses are determined, which allow one to close the system of equations of the macromechanical level of analysis.

  15. Incremental Volumetric Remapping Method: Analysis and Error Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. J.; Alves, J. L.; Oliveira, M. C.; Rodrigues, D. M.; Menezes, L. F.

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the error associated with the remapping problem is analyzed. A range of numerical results that assess the performance of three different remapping strategies, applied to FE meshes that typically are used in sheet metal forming simulation, are evaluated. One of the selected strategies is the previously presented Incremental Volumetric Remapping method (IVR), which was implemented in the in-house code DD3TRIM. The IVR method fundaments consists on the premise that state variables in all points associated to a Gauss volume of a given element are equal to the state variable quantities placed in the correspondent Gauss point. Hence, given a typical remapping procedure between a donor and a target mesh, the variables to be associated to a target Gauss volume (and point) are determined by a weighted average. The weight function is the Gauss volume percentage of each donor element that is located inside the target Gauss volume. The calculus of the intersecting volumes between the donor and target Gauss volumes is attained incrementally, for each target Gauss volume, by means of a discrete approach. The other two remapping strategies selected are based in the interpolation/extrapolation of variables by using the finite element shape functions or moving least square interpolants. The performance of the three different remapping strategies is address with two tests. The first remapping test was taken from a literature work. The test consists in remapping successively a rotating symmetrical mesh, throughout N increments, in an angular span of 90°. The second remapping error evaluation test consists of remapping an irregular element shape target mesh from a given regular element shape donor mesh and proceed with the inverse operation. In this second test the computation effort is also measured. The results showed that the error level associated to IVR can be very low and with a stable evolution along the number of remapping procedures when compared with the other

  16. ARIES: Acquisition of Requirements and Incremental Evolution of Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a requirements/specification environment specifically designed for large-scale software systems. This environment is called ARIES (Acquisition of Requirements and Incremental Evolution of Specifications). ARIES provides assistance to requirements analysts for developing operational specifications of systems. This development begins with the acquisition of informal system requirements. The requirements are then formalized and gradually elaborated (transformed) into formal and complete specifications. ARIES provides guidance to the user in validating formal requirements by translating them into natural language representations and graphical diagrams. ARIES also provides ways of analyzing the specification to ensure that it is correct, e.g., testing the specification against a running simulation of the system to be built. Another important ARIES feature, especially when developing large systems, is the sharing and reuse of requirements knowledge. This leads to much less duplication of effort. ARIES combines all of its features in a single environment that makes the process of capturing a formal specification quicker and easier.

  17. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process. On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  18. Incremental forming of aluminium alloys in cryogenic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhove, Hans; Mohammadi, Amirahmad; Duflou, Joost R.

    2016-10-01

    Incremental Sheet Forming processes suffer from stringent forming limits, restricting the range of producible geometries. Through in-process cooling of the sheet to cryogenic level, this paper explores the potential of altering material properties benefiting the formability and residual hardness of different aluminium alloys. Global cooling of aluminium sheets with liquid nitrogen and dry ice allows to reach temperatures of 78K and 193K respectively. Extended with experiments at room temperature (293K), these tests form a base for comparison of surface quality, formability and residual hardness. As an aluminium alloy commonly used for its high strength to weight ratio, but suffering from limited formability compared to draw-quality steels, AA5083-H111 is of interest for cryogenic treatment. AA1050-H24 is included in the test campaign as a base for commercially pure aluminium.

  19. Improving process performance in Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Manco, G. L.

    2011-01-17

    Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a relatively new process in which a sheet clamped along the borders is progressively deformed through a hemispherical tool. The tool motion is CNC controlled and the path is designed using a CAD-CAM approach, with the aim to reproduce the final shape contour such as in the surface milling. The absence of a dedicated setup and the related high flexibility is the main point of strength and the reason why several researchers focused their attentions on the ISF process.On the other hand the process slowness is the most relevant drawback which reduces a wider industrial application. In the paper, a first attempt to overcome this process limitation is presented taking into account a relevant speed increasing respect to the values currently used.

  20. Quantifiers are incrementally interpreted in context, more than less

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Thomas P.; DeLong, Katherine A.; Kutas, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Language interpretation is often assumed to be incremental. However, our studies of quantifier expressions in isolated sentences found N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) evidence for partial but not full immediate quantifier interpretation (Urbach & Kutas, 2010). Here we tested similar quantifier expressions in pragmatically supporting discourse contexts (Alex was an unusual toddler. Most/Few kids prefer sweets/vegetables…) while participants made plausibility judgments (Experiment 1) or read for comprehension (Experiment 2). Control Experiments 3A (plausibility) and 3B (comprehension) removed the discourse contexts. Quantifiers always modulated typical and/or atypical word N400 amplitudes. However, only the real-time N400 effects only in Experiment 2 mirrored offline quantifier and typicality crossover interaction effects for plausibility ratings and cloze probabilities. We conclude that quantifier expressions can be interpreted fully and immediately, though pragmatic and task variables appear to impact the speed and/or depth of quantifier interpretation. PMID:26005285

  1. Data Stream Prediction Using Incremental Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Kei; Miura, Takao

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for time-series prediction. Here we assume that time-series data occur depending on event which is unobserved directly, and we estimate future data as output from the most likely event which will happen at the time. In this investigation we model time-series based on event sequence by using Hidden Markov Model(HMM), and extract time-series patterns as trained HMM parameters. However, we can’t apply HMM approach to data stream prediction in a straightforward manner. This is because Baum-Welch algorithm, which is traditional unsupervised HMM training algorithm, requires many stored historical data and scan it many times. Here we apply incremental Baum-Welch algorithm which is an on-line HMM training method, and estimate HMM parameters dynamically to adapt new time-series patterns. And we show some experimental results to see the validity of our method.

  2. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  3. Scalable Prediction of Energy Consumption using Incremental Time Series Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Noor, Muhammad Usman

    2013-10-09

    Time series datasets are a canonical form of high velocity Big Data, and often generated by pervasive sensors, such as found in smart infrastructure. Performing predictive analytics on time series data can be computationally complex, and requires approximation techniques. In this paper, we motivate this problem using a real application from the smart grid domain. We propose an incremental clustering technique, along with a novel affinity score for determining cluster similarity, which help reduce the prediction error for cumulative time series within a cluster. We evaluate this technique, along with optimizations, using real datasets from smart meters, totaling ~700,000 data points, and show the efficacy of our techniques in improving the prediction error of time series data within polynomial time.

  4. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; Rugina, R; McKee, S A

    2008-01-21

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, reduces checkpoint sizes by as much as 80% and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  5. The science pendulum: From programmatic to incremental-and back?

    PubMed

    Bradley, Margaret M

    2017-01-01

    The climate in which scientific research is conducted changes over time, and in recent years there has been a shift from a positive view of programmatic science to a more negative evaluation that its contribution to scientific progress is only incremental. In this special issue focusing on the tools of a programmatic approach-replication, reliability and reproducibility-I reflect on changes in scientific practice over my research career, considering some factors contributing to changes in emphasis and highlighting potential pitfalls, particularly in terms of the impact on scientific progress and future scientists. In concluding, I suggest that, as members of the scientific community, we can influence current scientific practices in our day-to-day roles as authors, reviewers, investigators, editors, employers, and educators.

  6. Process Mechanics Analysis in Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Fratini, L.; Micari, F.

    2004-06-01

    The request of highly differentiated products and the need of process flexibility have brought the researchers to focus the attention on innovative sheet forming processes. Industrial application of conventional processes is, in fact, economically convenient just for large scale productions; furthermore conventional processes do not allow to fully satisfy the mentioned demand of flexibility. In this contest, single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an innovative and flexible answer to market requests. The process is characterized by a peculiar process mechanics, being the sheet plastically deformed only through a localised stretching mechanism. Some recent experimental studies have shown that SPIF permits a relevant increase of formability limits, just as a consequence of the peculiar deformation mechanics. The research here addressed is focused on the theoretical investigation of process mechanics; the aim was to achieve a deeper understanding of basic phenomena involved in SPIF which justify the above mentioned formability enhancing.

  7. Incremental Transductive Learning Approaches to Schistosomiasis Vector Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Terence; Bi, Yaxin; Wang, Haiying; Browne, Fiona

    2016-08-01

    The key issues pertaining to collection of epidemic disease data for our analysis purposes are that it is a labour intensive, time consuming and expensive process resulting in availability of sparse sample data which we use to develop prediction models. To address this sparse data issue, we present the novel Incremental Transductive methods to circumvent the data collection process by applying previously acquired data to provide consistent, confidence-based labelling alternatives to field survey research. We investigated various reasoning approaches for semi-supervised machine learning including Bayesian models for labelling data. The results show that using the proposed methods, we can label instances of data with a class of vector density at a high level of confidence. By applying the Liberal and Strict Training Approaches, we provide a labelling and classification alternative to standalone algorithms. The methods in this paper are components in the process of reducing the proliferation of the Schistosomiasis disease and its effects.

  8. Incremental cost pricing of transmission services. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report, prepared by ICF Resources, under a sub-contract with IT Corporation, is concerned chiefly with examining the economic concepts underlying an Incremental Cost Pricing Framework (ICPF), which is defined here as a pricing regime that takes into account several factors: economic efficiency in terms of sending the correct long-term price signals to both users and owners of transmission assets; pricing of individual services in relationship to cost causation; full recovery of costs associated with transmission service; and applicability to real-world power systems without extraordinary administrative burdens. In the course of this examination, the report makes assumptions, as necessary, and assesses the extent to which they may or may not comport with real-world conditions. It also assesses the pros and cons of different approaches to pricing various components of transmission service without making a recommendation as to the superiority of one approach over another from a public policy perspective.

  9. Incremental non-equal channel angular pressing - FE simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosochowski, Andrzej; Olejnik, Lech

    2016-10-01

    Equal channel angular pressing is the most popular process of severe plastic deformation used to refine grain structure in metals in order to improve their properties. One of the features of severe plastic deformation is lack of change of billet's shape and dimensions. However, for practical reasons, departure from this pure definition might be useful. This paper considers a possibility of changing billet's cross section in the first pass of the incremental version of equal channel angular pressing from round to rectangular to avoid material loss when machining the initial billet. The process has been simulated using a finite element program Abaqus. This simulation showed feasibility of the process and provided information regarding tool geometry and required forces.

  10. Compiler-Enhanced Incremental Checkpointing for OpenMP Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; Marques, D; Pingali, K; McKee, S; Rugina, R

    2009-02-18

    As modern supercomputing systems reach the peta-flop performance range, they grow in both size and complexity. This makes them increasingly vulnerable to failures from a variety of causes. Checkpointing is a popular technique for tolerating such failures, enabling applications to periodically save their state and restart computation after a failure. Although a variety of automated system-level checkpointing solutions are currently available to HPC users, manual application-level checkpointing remains more popular due to its superior performance. This paper improves performance of automated checkpointing via a compiler analysis for incremental checkpointing. This analysis, which works with both sequential and OpenMP applications, significantly reduces checkpoint sizes and enables asynchronous checkpointing.

  11. 3-D Lung Segmentation by Incremental Constrained Nonnegative Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Asl, Ehsan; Zurada, Jacek M; Gimelfarb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2016-05-01

    Accurate lung segmentation from large-size 3-D chest-computed tomography images is crucial for computer-assisted cancer diagnostics. To efficiently segment a 3-D lung, we extract voxel-wise features of spatial image contexts by unsupervised learning with a proposed incremental constrained nonnegative matrix factorization (ICNMF). The method applies smoothness constraints to learn the features, which are more robust to lung tissue inhomogeneities, and thus, help to better segment internal lung pathologies than the known state-of-the-art techniques. Compared to the latter, the ICNMF depends less on the domain expert knowledge and is more easily tuned due to only a few control parameters. Also, the proposed slice-wise incremental learning with due regard for interslice signal dependencies decreases the computational complexity of the NMF-based segmentation and is scalable to very large 3-D lung images. The method is quantitatively validated on simulated realistic lung phantoms that mimic different lung pathologies (seven datasets), in vivo datasets for 17 subjects, and 55 datasets from the Lobe and Lung Analysis 2011 (LOLA11) study. For the in vivo data, the accuracy of our segmentation w.r.t. the ground truth is 0.96 by the Dice similarity coefficient, 9.0 mm by the modified Hausdorff distance, and 0.87% by the absolute lung volume difference, which is significantly better than for the NMF-based segmentation. In spite of not being designed for lungs with severe pathologies and of no agreement between radiologists on the ground truth in such cases, the ICNMF with its total accuracy of 0.965 was ranked fifth among all others in the LOLA11. After excluding the nine too pathological cases from the LOLA11 dataset, the ICNMF accuracy increased to 0.986.

  12. Pacing accuracy during an incremental step test in adolescent swimmers.

    PubMed

    Scruton, Adrian; Baker, James; Roberts, Justin; Basevitch, Itay; Merzbach, Viviane; Gordon, Dan

    2015-01-01

    To assess pacing accuracy in a group of adolescent swimmers during an incremental step test. Fifteen well-trained swimmers (age 15±1.5 years; height 170.2±8.8 cm; mass 60.2±6.6 kg), completed two 7×200 m tests, separated by ~72 hours. They swam to a predetermined incrementally increasing pace per step and were instructed to swim at even pace. Upon completion of each step, rating of perceived exertion, heart rate and blood lactate were recorded. Significant differences observed for both trials between actual and predicted swim time (P<0.05). Significant differences also observed between the first and second 100 m of each step in trial 1 for step 1 (P=0.001, effect size [ES] =0.54), step 2 (P=0.0001, ES =0.57), step 4 (P=0.0001, ES =0.53), step 5 (P=0.005, ES =0.65), step 6 (P=0.0001, ES =0.50), and step 7 (P=0.0001, ES =0.70). Similar responses witnessed for trial 2 (P<0.05). Findings suggest that the finite anaerobic capacity was engaged sooner than would normally be anticipated, as a function of an inability to regulate pace. This is proposed to be a consequence of the volume of exposure to the biological and psychological sensations and cognitive developmental status. Given the apparent error in pacing judgment exhibited in this population group, caution should be applied when adopting such tests to monitor training responses with adolescent athletes, and alternate means of modulating pace be investigated.

  13. Incremental learning with SVM for multimodal classification of prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    García Molina, José Fernando; Zheng, Lei; Sertdemir, Metin; Dinter, Dietmar J; Schönberg, Stefan; Rädle, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Robust detection of prostatic cancer is a challenge due to the multitude of variants and their representation in MR images. We propose a pattern recognition system with an incremental learning ensemble algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) tackling this problem employing multimodal MR images and a texture-based information strategy. The proposed system integrates anatomic, texture, and functional features. The data set was preprocessed using B-Spline interpolation, bias field correction and intensity standardization. First- and second-order angular independent statistical approaches and rotation invariant local phase quantization (RI-LPQ) were utilized to quantify texture information. An incremental learning ensemble SVM was implemented to suit working conditions in medical applications and to improve effectiveness and robustness of the system. The probability estimation of cancer structures was calculated using SVM and the corresponding optimization was carried out with a heuristic method together with a 3-fold cross-validation methodology. We achieved an average sensitivity of 0.844 ± 0.068 and a specificity of 0.780 ± 0.038, which yielded superior or similar performance to current state of the art using a total database of only 41 slices from twelve patients with histological confirmed information, including cancerous, unhealthy non-cancerous and healthy prostate tissue. Our results show the feasibility of an ensemble SVM being able to learn additional information from new data while preserving previously acquired knowledge and preventing unlearning. The use of texture descriptors provides more salient discriminative patterns than the functional information used. Furthermore, the system improves selection of information, efficiency and robustness of the classification. The generated probability map enables radiologists to have a lower variability in diagnosis, decrease false negative rates and reduce the time to recognize and delineate structures in

  14. Incremental enamel development in modern human deciduous anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    This study reconstructs incremental enamel development for a sample of modern human deciduous mandibular (n = 42) and maxillary (n = 42) anterior (incisors and canines) teeth. Results are compared between anterior teeth, and with previous research for deciduous molars (Mahoney: Am J Phys Anthropol 144 (2011) 204-214) to identify developmental differences along the tooth row. Two hypotheses are tested: Retzius line periodicity will remain constant in teeth from the same jaw and range from 6 to 12 days among individuals, as in human permanent teeth; daily enamel secretion rates (DSRs) will not vary between deciduous teeth, as in some human permanent tooth types. A further aim is to search for links between deciduous incremental enamel development and the previously reported eruptionsequence. Retzius line periodicity in anterior teeth ranged between 5 and 6 days, but did not differ between an incisor and molar of one individual. Intradian line periodicity was 12 h. Mean cuspal DSRs varied slightly between equivalent regions along the tooth row. Mandibular incisors initiated enamel formation first, had the fastest mean DSRs, the greatest prenatal formation time, and based upon prior studies are the first deciduous tooth to erupt. Relatively rapid development in mandibular incisors in advance of early eruption may explain some of the variation in DSRs along the tooth row that cannot be explained by birth. Links between DSRs, enamel initiation times, and the deciduous eruption sequence are proposed. Anterior crown formation times presented here can contribute toward human infant age-at-death estimates. Regression equations for reconstructing formation time in worn incisors are given.

  15. Genetic Algorithm Based Incremental Learning For Optimal Weight and Classifier Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulley, Gregory; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-11-01

    The ability of a classifier to take on new information and classes by evolving the classifier without it having to be fully retrained is known as incremental learning. Incremental learning has been successfully applied to many classification problems, where the data is changing and is not all available at once. In this paper there is a comparison between Learn++, which is one of the most recent incremental learning algorithms, and the new proposed method of Incremental Learning Using Genetic Algorithm (ILUGA). Learn++ has shown good incremental learning capabilities on benchmark datasets on which the new ILUGA method has been tested. ILUGA has also shown good incremental learning ability using only a few classifiers and does not suffer from catastrophic forgetting. The results obtained for ILUGA on the Optical Character Recognition (OCR) and Wine datasets are good, with an overall accuracy of 93% and 94% respectively showing a 4% improvement over Learn++.MT for the difficult multi-class OCR dataset.

  16. Incremental triangulation by way of edge swapping and local optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltberger, N. Lyn

    1994-01-01

    This document is intended to serve as an installation, usage, and basic theory guide for the two dimensional triangulation software 'HARLEY' written for the Silicon Graphics IRIS workstation. This code consists of an incremental triangulation algorithm based on point insertion and local edge swapping. Using this basic strategy, several types of triangulations can be produced depending on user selected options. For example, local edge swapping criteria can be chosen which minimizes the maximum interior angle (a MinMax triangulation) or which maximizes the minimum interior angle (a MaxMin or Delaunay triangulation). It should be noted that the MinMax triangulation is generally only locally optical (not globally optimal) in this measure. The MaxMin triangulation, however, is both locally and globally optical. In addition, Steiner triangulations can be constructed by inserting new sites at triangle circumcenters followed by edge swapping based on the MaxMin criteria. Incremental insertion of sites also provides flexibility in choosing cell refinement criteria. A dynamic heap structure has been implemented in the code so that once a refinement measure is specified (i.e., maximum aspect ratio or some measure of a solution gradient for the solution adaptive grid generation) the cell with the largest value of this measure is continually removed from the top of the heap and refined. The heap refinement strategy allows the user to specify either the number of cells desired or refine the mesh until all cell refinement measures satisfy a user specified tolerance level. Since the dynamic heap structure is constantly updated, the algorithm always refines the particular cell in the mesh with the largest refinement criteria value. The code allows the user to: triangulate a cloud of prespecified points (sites), triangulate a set of prespecified interior points constrained by prespecified boundary curve(s), Steiner triangulate the interior/exterior of prespecified boundary curve

  17. Incremental peritoneal dialysis: a 10 year single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Massimo; Vizzardi, Valerio; Valerio, Francesca; Ravera, Sara; Manili, Luigi; Zubani, Roberto; Lucca, Bernardo J A; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Incremental dialysis consists in prescribing a dialysis dose aimed towards maintaining total solute clearance (renal + dialysis) near the targets set by guidelines. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incrPD) is defined as one or two dwell-times per day on CAPD, whereas standard peritoneal dialysis (stPD) consists in three-four dwell-times per day. Single-centre cohort study. Enrollement period: January 2002-December 2007; end of follow up (FU): December 2012. incident patients with FU ≥6 months, initial residual renal function (RRF) 3-10 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA, renal indication for PD. Median incrPD duration was 17 months (I-III Q: 10; 30). There were no statistically significant differences between 29 patients on incrPD and 76 on stPD regarding: clinical, demographic and anthropometric characteristics at the beginning of treatment, adequacy indices, peritonitis-free survival (peritonitis incidence: 1/135 months-patients in incrPD vs. 1/52 months-patients in stPD) and patient survival. During the first 6 months, RRF remained stable in incrPD (6.20 ± 2.02 vs. 6.08 ± 1.47 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA; p = 0.792) whereas it decreased in stPD (4.48 ± 2.12 vs. 5.61 ± 1.49; p < 0.001). Patient survival was affected negatively by ischemic cardiopathy (HR: 4.269; p < 0.001), peripheral and cerebral vascular disease (H2.842; p = 0.006) and cirrhosis (2.982; p = 0.032) and positively by urine output (0.392; p = 0.034). Hospitalization rates were significantly lower in incrPD (p = 0.021). Eight of 29 incrPD patients were transplanted before reaching full dose treatment. IncrPD is a safe modality to start PD; compared to stPD, it shows similar survival rates, significantly less hospitalization, a trend towards lower peritonitis incidence and slower reduction of renal function.

  18. Evaluation of Incremental Improvement in the NWS MPE Precipitation Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, L.; Habib, E. H.

    2009-12-01

    This study focuses on assessment of incremental improvement in the multi-sensor precipitation estimates (MPE) developed by the National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast Centers (RFC). The MPE product is based upon merging of data from WSR-88D radar, surface rain gauge, and occasionally geo-stationary satellite data. The MPE algorithm produces 5 intermediate sets of products known as: RMOSAIC, BMOSAIC, MMOSAIC, LMOSAIC, and MLMOSAIC. These products have different bias-removal and optimal gauge-merging mechanisms. The final product used in operational applications is selected by the RFC forecasters. All the MPE products are provided at hourly temporal resolution and over a national Hydrologic Rainfall Analysis Project (HRAP) grid of a nominal size of 4 square kilometers. To help determine the incremental improvement of MPE estimates, an evaluation analysis was performed over a two-year period (2005-2006) using 13 independently operated rain gauges located within an area of ~30 km2 in south Louisiana. The close proximity of gauge sites to each other allows for multiple gauges to be located within the same HRAP pixel and thus provides reliable estimates of true surface rainfall to be used as a reference dataset. The evaluation analysis is performed over two temporal scales: hourly and event duration. Besides graphical comparisons using scatter and histogram plots, several statistical measures are also applied such as multiplicative bias, additive bias, correlation, and error standard deviation. The results indicated a mixed performance of the different products over the study site depending on which statistical metric is used. The products based on local bias adjustment have lowest error standard deviation but worst multiplicative bias. The opposite is true for products that are based on mean-filed bias adjustment. Optimal merging with gauge fields lead to a reduction in the error quantiles of the products. The results of the current study will provide insight into

  19. A comparative study of velocity increment generation between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norilmi Amilia

    2016-02-01

    The motorized momentum exchange tether (MMET) is capable of generating useful velocity increments through spin–orbit coupling. This study presents a comparative study of the velocity increments between the rigid body and flexible models of MMET. The equations of motions of both models in the time domain are transformed into a function of true anomaly. The equations of motion are integrated, and the responses in terms of the velocity increment of the rigid body and flexible models are compared and analysed. Results show that the initial conditions, eccentricity, and flexibility of the tether have significant effects on the velocity increments of the tether.

  20. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Rajwani, Adil; Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was <50%. CMR was frequently able to inform and influence decision-making in routine clinical practice, even with analyses that accepted only incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service.

  1. The incremental impact of cardiac MRI on clinical decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Michael J; Richardson, James D; Child, Nicholas M; Maredia, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite a significant expansion in the use of cardiac MRI (CMR), there is inadequate evaluation of its incremental impact on clinical decision-making over and above other well-established modalities. We sought to determine the incremental utility of CMR in routine practice. Methods: 629 consecutive CMR studies referred by 44 clinicians from 9 institutions were evaluated. Pre-defined algorithms were used to determine the incremental influence on diagnostic thinking, influence on clinical management and thus the overall clinical utility. Studies were also subdivided and evaluated according to the indication for CMR. Results: CMR provided incremental information to the clinician in 85% of cases, with incremental influence on diagnostic thinking in 85% of cases and incremental impact on management in 42% of cases. The overall incremental utility of CMR exceeded 90% in 7 out of the 13 indications, whereas in settings such as the evaluation of unexplained ventricular arrhythmia or mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this was <50%. Conclusion: CMR was frequently able to inform and influence decision-making in routine clinical practice, even with analyses that accepted only incremental clinical information and excluded a redundant duplication of imaging. Significant variations in yield were noted according to the indication for CMR. These data support a wider integration of CMR services into cardiac imaging departments. Advances in knowledge: These data are the first to objectively evaluate the incremental value of a UK CMR service in clinical decision-making. Such data are essential when seeking justification for a CMR service. PMID:26493468

  2. Incremental and single trauma produce equivalent subfailure soft tissue injury of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Ghole, Saif A; Ivancic, Paul C; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Gimenez, S Elena; Panjabi, Manohar M

    2004-10-01

    Automotive collision simulations have been performed using either incremental or single trauma. In single trauma, a single impact is performed, while in incremental trauma, a series of impacts of increasing severity are executed. Equivalency of incremental and single trauma for soft tissue injury severity due to the final impact has not been established. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether incremental and single trauma produced similar cervical spine subfailure injury severity due to simulated frontal impacts. Porcine cervical spine specimens (C2-T1) of the incremental trauma group were subjected to five frontal impacts (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, 8 g), while single trauma specimens were subjected to a single impact (8 g). Flexibility tests were performed on specimens while intact and following each impact. Intact and post 8 g flexibility parameters were compared within incremental and single trauma groups and between groups. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between incremental and single trauma groups when either intact or post 8 g flexibility parameters were compared. Significant increases in flexibility parameters from intact to post 8 g were observed in both groups, indicating soft tissue injury. Incremental and single trauma produced equivalent subfailure cervical spine injury in simulated impacts, for the experimental conditions studied. This study may facilitate greater use of the incremental trauma protocol in future experimental designs.

  3. 40 CFR 62.14540 - When must I complete each increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress §...

  4. 40 CFR 62.14555 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress §...

  5. 40 CFR 62.14555 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress §...

  6. 40 CFR 62.14540 - When must I complete each increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress §...

  7. Age estimation from dental cementum incremental lines and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Dias, P E M; Beaini, T L; Melani, R F H

    2010-12-01

    Age estimation by counting incremental lines in cementum added to the average age of tooth eruption is considered an accurate method by some authors, while others reject it stating weak correlation between estimated and actual age. The aim of this study was to evaluate this technique and check the influence of periodontal disease on age estimates by analyzing both the number of cementum lines and the correlation between cementum thickness and actual age on freshly extracted teeth. Thirty one undecalcified ground cross sections of approximately 30 µm, from 25 teeth were prepared, observed, photographed and measured. Images were enhanced by software and counts were made by one observer, and the results compared with two control-observers. There was moderate correlation ((r)=0.58) for the entire sample, with mean error of 9.7 years. For teeth with periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.03 with a mean error of 22.6 years. For teeth without periodontal pathologies, correlation was 0.74 with mean error of 1.6 years. There was correlation of 0.69 between cementum thickness and known age for the entire sample, 0.25 for teeth with periodontal problems and 0.75 for teeth without periodontal pathologies. The technique was reliable for periodontally sound teeth, but not for periodontally diseased teeth.

  8. Extending XNAT Platform with an Incremental Semantic Framework.

    PubMed

    Timón, Santiago; Rincón, Mariano; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Informatics increases the yield from neuroscience due to improved data. Data sharing and accessibility enable joint efforts between different research groups, as well as replication studies, pivotal for progress in the field. Research data archiving solutions are evolving rapidly to address these necessities, however, distributed data integration is still difficult because of the need of explicit agreements for disparate data models. To address these problems, ontologies are widely used in biomedical research to obtain common vocabularies and logical descriptions, but its application may suffer from scalability issues, domain bias, and loss of low-level data access. With the aim of improving the application of semantic models in biobanking systems, an incremental semantic framework that takes advantage of the latest advances in biomedical ontologies and the XNAT platform is designed and implemented. We follow a layered architecture that allows the alignment of multi-domain biomedical ontologies to manage data at different levels of abstraction. To illustrate this approach, the development is integrated in the JPND (EU Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disease) APGeM project, focused on finding early biomarkers for Alzheimer's and other dementia related diseases.

  9. Subgroup specific incremental value of new markers for risk prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qian M.; Zheng, Yingye

    2013-01-01

    In many clinical applications, understanding when measurement of new markers is necessary to provide added accuracy to existing prediction tools could lead to more cost effective disease management. Many statistical tools for evaluating the incremental value (IncV) of the novel markers over the routine clinical risk factors have been developed in recent years. However, most existing literature focuses primarily on global assessment. Since the IncVs of new markers often vary across subgroups, it would be of great interest to identify subgroups for which the new markers are most/least useful in improving risk prediction. In this paper we provide novel statistical procedures for systematically identifying potential traditional-marker based subgroups in whom it might be beneficial to apply a new model with measurements of both the novel and traditional markers. We consider various conditional time-dependent accuracy parameters for censored failure time outcome to assess the subgroup-specific IncVs. We provide non-parametric kernel-based estimation procedures to calculate the proposed parameters. Simultaneous interval estimation procedures are provided to account for sampling variation and adjust for multiple testing. Simulation studies suggest that our proposed procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed procedures are applied to the Framingham Offspring Study to examine the added value of an inflammation marker, C-reactive protein, on top of the traditional Framingham risk score for predicting 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23263882

  10. The Incremental Inpatient Costs Associated with Marijuana Comorbidity*

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ringel, Jeanne; Dobkin, Carlos; Truong, Khoa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the incremental cost of marijuana comorbidity for alcohol, mood and thought diagnoses in hospital settings. We use data from the 1993–2000 National Hospital Discharge Survey to examine the effect on length of stay and the 1995–2000 Florida Hospital Discharge Data to examine charges. General Linear Modeling (GLM) and propensity score methods are employed to deal with concerns stemming from the distribution of the dependent variables and statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics of marijuana users versus non-users. Marijuana comorbidity is associated with longer length of stays and higher charges for patients suffering from a primary diagnosis of an alcohol problem. We also find higher average charges for patients suffering from mood disorders, though the finding is not robust across all model specifications. We do not find any significant effects for thought disorders. Findings from this study suggest that a marijuana comorbidity increases the cost of treating patients with alcohol problems and mood disorder diagnoses, implying that there may be real health consequences associated with marijuana abuse and dependence and more work considering this possibility is warranted. PMID:17928166

  11. Nonlinear reanalysis for structural modifications based on residual increment approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materna, Daniel; Kalpakides, Vassilios K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reanalysis method for nonlinear problems. The main objective is to predict the changes in the state variables due to given design modifications, e.g. changes in the cross-sections, the geometry, material parameters etc. The approach is based on residual increment approximations, which are used within an iterative algorithm. The reanalysis method requires only the evaluation of residual vectors, which can be done very fast and efficient. Moreover, the validity of the approach is extended by using a rational approximation method. In contrast to other existing reanalysis methods, which are based on the evaluation of changed stiffness matrices, only residual vectors have to be computed and stored. The approach is general and can be applied to linear and nonlinear problems with different kind of design modifications. Furthermore, the proposed reanalysis method is easy to implement in existing finite element programs, because no derivatives with respect to the design variables are necessary. The capability of the proposed framework is demonstrated by means of several computational examples from nonlinear elasticity.

  12. [Effect of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory system during incremental exercise].

    PubMed

    Mesaki, N; Sasaki, J; Shoji, M; Iwasaki, H; Asano, K; Eda, M

    1986-01-01

    According to the results of questionnaires to college athletes, they believe the follicular phase is better than luteal phase for competitive sports. However, it is not clear whether there is significant difference in athletic performance between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the cardiorespiratory system were investigated in exercising women who are top players of basketball in Japan. They performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer. During the exercise, the ECG and heart rate (HR) were monitored. The expired air was sampled continuously and expiratory gas volume/minute (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), gas exchange ratio(R) and respiratory rate (Resp. E.) were measured. Blood samples were collected to measure the blood lactic acid concentration during the exercise. HR in the luteal phase is higher than in the follicular phase at rest and throughout the exercise. VE, R and Resp. R. at rest and during exercise indicated a tendency to a higher level in the follicular phase. The blood lactic acid concentration during exercise in the follicular phase indicated a tendency to increase more rapidly than in luteal phase. However, no statistical differences in the cardiorespiratory system were detected when the follicular and luteal phase were compared. These results did not indicate conclusively in which phase it is better for athletic women to take part in competitive sports.

  13. Extending XNAT Platform with an Incremental Semantic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Timón, Santiago; Rincón, Mariano; Martínez-Tomás, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Informatics increases the yield from neuroscience due to improved data. Data sharing and accessibility enable joint efforts between different research groups, as well as replication studies, pivotal for progress in the field. Research data archiving solutions are evolving rapidly to address these necessities, however, distributed data integration is still difficult because of the need of explicit agreements for disparate data models. To address these problems, ontologies are widely used in biomedical research to obtain common vocabularies and logical descriptions, but its application may suffer from scalability issues, domain bias, and loss of low-level data access. With the aim of improving the application of semantic models in biobanking systems, an incremental semantic framework that takes advantage of the latest advances in biomedical ontologies and the XNAT platform is designed and implemented. We follow a layered architecture that allows the alignment of multi-domain biomedical ontologies to manage data at different levels of abstraction. To illustrate this approach, the development is integrated in the JPND (EU Joint Program for Neurodegenerative Disease) APGeM project, focused on finding early biomarkers for Alzheimer's and other dementia related diseases. PMID:28912709

  14. Warm Forming of Mg Sheets: From Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulacia, Ibai; Galdos, Lander; Esnaola, Jon Ander; Larrañaga, Jon; Arruebarrena, Gurutze; de Argandoña, Eneko Saenz; Hurtado, Iñaki

    2014-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are generating interest in the automotive and aeronautic industries due to their low density and potential to reduce gross vehicular weight. However, the formability of these alloys is poor and they are very difficult to be formed at room temperature due to their strong basal texture in rolled form. In this paper, the potential of magnesium alloy sheets to be processed at warm conditions is studied for four different forming technologies: incremental forming (IF), deep drawing (DD), hydroforming (HF), and electromagnetic forming (EMF). Forming mechanisms and process window are experimentally characterized by monitoring different process parameters. Special focus is made on the influence of the forming temperature and the strain rate. Thus, experiments at temperatures from room to 523 K (250 °C) and a wide range of strain rates, between 10-3 up to 103 s-1 according to each process nature and scope, are conducted. It is observed that, even the inherent forming rate range of each process vary considerably, increasing forming temperature increases formability for all of these forming processes. In the other hand, an opposing effect of the strain rate is observed between the quasi-static processes (IF, DD, and HF) and the high speed process (EMF). Thus, a detrimental effect on formability is observed when increasing strain rate for quasi-static processes, while a mild increase is observed for EMF.

  15. The incremental inpatient costs associated with marijuana comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Ringel, Jeanne; Dobkin, Carlos; Truong, Khoa

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the incremental cost of marijuana comorbidity for alcohol, mood and thought diagnoses in hospital settings. We use data from the 1993-2000 National Hospital Discharge Survey to examine the effect on length of stay and the 1995-2000 Florida Hospital Discharge Data to examine charges. General linear modeling (GLM) and propensity score methods are employed to deal with concerns stemming from the distribution of the dependent variables and statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics of marijuana users versus non-users. Marijuana comorbidity is associated with longer length of stays and higher charges for patients suffering from a primary diagnosis of an alcohol problem. We also find higher average charges for patients suffering from mood disorders, though the finding is not robust across all model specifications. We do not find any significant effects for thought disorders. Findings from this study suggest that a marijuana comorbidity increases the cost of treating patients with alcohol problems and mood disorder diagnoses, implying that there may be real health consequences associated with marijuana abuse and dependence and more work considering this possibility is warranted.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Incremental Sheet Forming by Simplified Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamézière, A.; Yu, Y.; Robert, C.; Ayed, L. Ben; Nouari, M.; Batoz, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) is a process, which can transform a flat metal sheet in a 3D complex part using a hemispherical tool. The final geometry of the product is obtained by the relative movement between this tool and the blank. The main advantage of that process is that the cost of the tool is very low compared to deep drawing with rigid tools. The main disadvantage is the very low velocity of the tool and thus the large amount of time to form the part. Classical contact algorithms give good agreement with experimental results, but are time consuming. A Simplified Approach for the contact management between the tool and the blank in ISF is presented here. The general principle of this approach is to imposed displacement of the nodes in contact with the tool at a given position. On a benchmark part, the CPU time of the present Simplified Approach is significantly reduced compared with a classical simulation performed with Abaqus implicit.

  17. Numerical Studies and Equipment Development for Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabuto, S. R.; Sena, J. I. V.; Afonso, D.; Martins, M. A. B. E.; Coelho, R. M.; Ferreira, J. A. F.; Valente, R. A. F.; de Sousa, R. J. Alves

    2011-05-01

    This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in the context of a research project carried out at the University of Aveiro, Portugal on both numerical and experimental viewpoints concerning Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF). On the experimental side, the general guidelines on the development of a new SPIF machine are detailed. The innovation features are related to the choice of a six-degrees-of-freedom, parallel kinematics machine, with a high payload, to broad the range of materials to be tested, and allowing for a higher flexibility on tool-path generation. On the numerical side, preliminary results on simulation of SPIF processes resorting to an innovative solid-shell finite element are presented. The final target is an accurate and fast simulation of SPIF processes by means of numerical methods. Accuracy is obtained through the use of a finite element accounting for three-dimensional stress and strain fields. The developed formulation allows for an unlimited number of integration points through its thickness direction, which promotes accuracy without loss of CPU efficiency. Preliminary results and designs are shown and discussions over the obtained solutions are provided in order to further improve the research framework.

  18. AF fixer: new incremental OPC method for optimizing assist feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Gon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Suh, Sung-Soo; Kim, Young-Chang; Lee, Suk-Joo; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung; Moon, Joo-Tae; Barnes, Levi D.; Li, Xiaohai; Lugg, Robert M.; Lee, Sooryong; Koo, Kyoil; Do, Munhoe; Amoroso, Frank P.; Painter, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Due to shrinking design nodes and to some limitations of scanners, extreme off-axis illumination (OAI) required and its use and implementation of assist features (AF) to solve depth of focus (DOF) problems for isolated features and specific pitch regions is essential. But unfortunately, the strong periodic character of OAI illumination makes AF's print more easily. Present OPC flows generate AFs before OPC, which is also causes some AF printing problems. At present, mask manufacturers must downsize AF's below 30nm to solve this problem. This is challenging and increases mask cost. We report on an AF-fixer tool which is able to check AF printability and correct weak points with minimal cost in terms of DOF after OPC. We have devised an effective algorithm that removes printing AF's. It can not only search for the best non-printing AF condition to meet the DOF spec, but also reports uncorrectable spots, which could be marked as design errors. To limit correction times and to maximize DOF in full-chip correction, a process window (PW) model and incremental OPC method are applied. This AF fixer, which suggests optimum AF in only weak point region, solves AF printing problems economically and accurately.

  19. Incremental planning to control a blackboard-based problem solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durfee, E. H.; Lesser, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    To control problem solving activity, a planner must resolve uncertainty about which specific long-term goals (solutions) to pursue and about which sequences of actions will best achieve those goals. A planner is described that abstracts the problem solving state to recognize possible competing and compatible solutions and to roughly predict the importance and expense of developing these solutions. With this information, the planner plans sequences of problem solving activities that most efficiently resolve its uncertainty about which of the possible solutions to work toward. The planner only details actions for the near future because the results of these actions will influence how (and whether) a plan should be pursued. As problem solving proceeds, the planner adds new details to the plan incrementally, and monitors and repairs the plan to insure it achieves its goals whenever possible. Through experiments, researchers illustrate how these new mechanisms significantly improve problem solving decisions and reduce overall computation. They briefly discuss current research directions, including how these mechanisms can improve a problem solver's real-time response and can enhance cooperation in a distributed problem solving network.

  20. Incremental dental development: methods and applications in hominoid evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tanya M

    2008-02-01

    This survey of dental microstructure studies reviews recent methods used to quantify developmental variables (daily secretion rate, periodicity of long-period lines, extension rate, formation time) and applications to the study of hominoid evolution. While requisite preparative and analytical methods are time consuming, benefits include more precise identification of tooth crown initiation and completion than conventional radiographic approaches. Furthermore, incremental features facilitate highly accurate estimates of the speed and duration of crown and root formation, stress experienced during development (including birth), and age at death. These approaches have provided insight into fossil hominin and Miocene hominoid life histories, and have also been applied to ontogenetic and taxonomic studies of fossil apes and humans. It is shown here that, due to the rapidly evolving nature of dental microstructure studies, numerous methods have been applied over the past few decades to characterize the rate and duration of dental development. Yet, it is often unclear whether data derived from different methods are comparable or which methods are the most accurate. Areas for future research are identified, including the need for validation and standardization of certain methods, and new methods for integrating nondestructive structural and developmental studies are highlighted.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Single Point Incremental Sheet Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Dejardin, S.; Thibaud, S.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    As recent studies introduced Incremental Sheet Forming (ISF) process as a very promising technology to manufacture sheet metal parts by the CNC controlled movement of a simple generative tool, industrial interests on ISF have increased. Indeed, due to its various advantages, such process has been demonstrated as an alternative to reduce costs resulting from stamping technology when small batches or prototypes have to be manufactured. Nevertheless, the process still needs further developments. A process analysis based on experimental and numerical investigations is required to carefully analyze the capabilities of the process and to consolidate its application in sheet metal industries. Starting from experimental results on standard components to show the interest of ISF, an application is carried out accounting flexibility of the process linked to the fact that the punches or dies are avoided and preliminary results have been obtained through experimental tests to manufacture micro parts. At the same time, a FEM analysis has been carried out in order to get the characteristics of the formed parts. In order to study the control of the process, a first study is carried out to perform an on-line sheet thickness measurement.

  2. Automating the Incremental Evolution of Controllers for Physical Robots.

    PubMed

    Faíña, Andrés; Jacobsen, Lars Toft; Risi, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary robotics is challenged with some key problems that must be solved, or at least mitigated extensively, before it can fulfill some of its promises to deliver highly autonomous and adaptive robots. The reality gap and the ability to transfer phenotypes from simulation to reality constitute one such problem. Another lies in the embodiment of the evolutionary processes, which links to the first, but focuses on how evolution can act on real agents and occur independently from simulation, that is, going from being, as Eiben, Kernbach, & Haasdijk [2012, p. 261] put it, "the evolution of things, rather than just the evolution of digital objects.…" The work presented here investigates how fully autonomous evolution of robot controllers can be realized in hardware, using an industrial robot and a marker-based computer vision system. In particular, this article presents an approach to automate the reconfiguration of the test environment and shows that it is possible, for the first time, to incrementally evolve a neural robot controller for different obstacle avoidance tasks with no human intervention. Importantly, the system offers a high level of robustness and precision that could potentially open up the range of problems amenable to embodied evolution.

  3. Process Parameters Optimization in Single Point Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, Vishal; Aryal, Ashmin; Katyal, Puneet; Goswami, Amitesh

    2016-04-01

    This work aims to optimize the formability and surface roughness of parts formed by the single-point incremental forming process for an Aluminium-6063 alloy. The tests are based on Taguchi's L18 orthogonal array selected on the basis of DOF. The tests have been carried out on vertical machining center (DMC70V); using CAD/CAM software (SolidWorks V5/MasterCAM). Two levels of tool radius, three levels of sheet thickness, step size, tool rotational speed, feed rate and lubrication have been considered as the input process parameters. Wall angle and surface roughness have been considered process responses. The influential process parameters for the formability and surface roughness have been identified with the help of statistical tool (response table, main effect plot and ANOVA). The parameter that has the utmost influence on formability and surface roughness is lubrication. In the case of formability, lubrication followed by the tool rotational speed, feed rate, sheet thickness, step size and tool radius have the influence in descending order. Whereas in surface roughness, lubrication followed by feed rate, step size, tool radius, sheet thickness and tool rotational speed have the influence in descending order. The predicted optimal values for the wall angle and surface roughness are found to be 88.29° and 1.03225 µm. The confirmation experiments were conducted thrice and the value of wall angle and surface roughness were found to be 85.76° and 1.15 µm respectively.

  4. Incremental and unifying modelling formalism for biological interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Yartseva, Anastasia; Klaudel, Hanna; Devillers, Raymond; Képès, François

    2007-01-01

    Background An appropriate choice of the modeling formalism from the broad range of existing ones may be crucial for efficiently describing and analyzing biological systems. Results We propose a new unifying and incremental formalism for the representation and modeling of biological interaction networks. This formalism allows automated translations into other formalisms, thus enabling a thorough study of the dynamic properties of a biological system. As a first illustration, we propose a translation into the R. Thomas' multivalued logical formalism which provides a possible semantics; a methodology for constructing such models is presented on a classical benchmark: the λ phage genetic switch. We also show how to extract from our model a classical ODE description of the dynamics of a system. Conclusion This approach provides an additional level of description between the biological and mathematical ones. It yields, on the one hand, a knowledge expression in a form which is intuitive for biologists and, on the other hand, its representation in a formal and structured way. PMID:17996051

  5. An incremental high-utility mining algorithm with transaction insertion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Gan, Wensheng; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  6. An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nicholas; Sellis, Timos

    1994-01-01

    We investigated a number of design and performance issues of interoperable database management systems (DBMS's). The major results of our investigation were obtained in the areas of client-server database architectures for heterogeneous DBMS's, incremental computation models, buffer management techniques, and query optimization. We finished a prototype of an advanced client-server workstation-based DBMS which allows access to multiple heterogeneous commercial DBMS's. Experiments and simulations were then run to compare its performance with the standard client-server architectures. The focus of this research was on adaptive optimization methods of heterogeneous database systems. Adaptive buffer management accounts for the random and object-oriented access methods for which no known characterization of the access patterns exists. Adaptive query optimization means that value distributions and selectives, which play the most significant role in query plan evaluation, are continuously refined to reflect the actual values as opposed to static ones that are computed off-line. Query feedback is a concept that was first introduced to the literature by our group. We employed query feedback for both adaptive buffer management and for computing value distributions and selectivities. For adaptive buffer management, we use the page faults of prior executions to achieve more 'informed' management decisions. For the estimation of the distributions of the selectivities, we use curve-fitting techniques, such as least squares and splines, for regressing on these values.

  7. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ˜0.3 nrad rms over ˜30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (˜57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  8. A novel instrument for generating angular increments of 1 nanoradian.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Simon G; Bugnar, Alex; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal; Scott, Stewart; Hillman, Michael; Grindrod, Jamie; Johnson, Iain

    2015-12-01

    Accurate generation of small angles is of vital importance for calibrating angle-based metrology instruments used in a broad spectrum of industries including mechatronics, nano-positioning, and optic fabrication. We present a novel, piezo-driven, flexure device capable of reliably generating micro- and nanoradian angles. Unlike many such instruments, Diamond Light Source's nano-angle generator (Diamond-NANGO) does not rely on two separate actuators or rotation stages to provide coarse and fine motion. Instead, a single Physik Instrumente NEXLINE "PiezoWalk" actuator provides millimetres of travel with nanometre resolution. A cartwheel flexure efficiently converts displacement from the linear actuator into rotary motion with minimal parasitic errors. Rotation of the flexure is directly measured via a Magnescale "Laserscale" angle encoder. Closed-loop operation of the PiezoWalk actuator, using high-speed feedback from the angle encoder, ensures that the Diamond-NANGO's output drifts by only ∼0.3 nrad rms over ∼30 min. We show that the Diamond-NANGO can reliably move with unprecedented 1 nrad (∼57 ndeg) angular increments over a range of >7000 μrad. An autocollimator, interferometer, and capacitive displacement sensor are used to independently confirm the Diamond-NANGO's performance by simultaneously measuring the rotation of a reflective cube.

  9. On the Distribution of Protein Refractive Index Increments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Brown, Patrick H.; Schuck, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The protein refractive index increment, dn/dc, is an important parameter underlying the concentration determination and the biophysical characterization of proteins and protein complexes in many techniques. In this study, we examine the widely used assumption that most proteins have dn/dc values in a very narrow range, and reappraise the prediction of dn/dc of unmodified proteins based on their amino acid composition. Applying this approach in large scale to the entire set of known and predicted human proteins, we obtain, for the first time, to our knowledge, an estimate of the full distribution of protein dn/dc values. The distribution is close to Gaussian with a mean of 0.190 ml/g (for unmodified proteins at 589 nm) and a standard deviation of 0.003 ml/g. However, small proteins <10 kDa exhibit a larger spread, and almost 3000 proteins have values deviating by more than two standard deviations from the mean. Due to the widespread availability of protein sequences and the potential for outliers, the compositional prediction should be convenient and provide greater accuracy than an average consensus value for all proteins. We discuss how this approach should be particularly valuable for certain protein classes where a high dn/dc is coincidental to structural features, or may be functionally relevant such as in proteins of the eye. PMID:21539801

  10. The Impact of Apheresis Platelet Manipulation on Corrected Count Increment

    PubMed Central

    Karafin, Matthew; Fuller, Alice K.; Savage, William J.; King, Karen E.; Ness, Paul M; Tobian, Aaron A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concentrating and washing apheresis platelets (APs) substantially reduce the number of allergic transfusion reactions likely due to removal of plasma. However, these processes may damage platelets. This study evaluated whether concentrating or washing APs decrease the Corrected Count Increment (CCI). Study Design and Methods This retrospective study evaluated individuals who initially received unmanipulated APs and subsequently received concentrated and/or washed APs at a large university hospital between 1998 and 2009. Concentrated units were prepared by reducing the plasma volume of APs by a goal of >67%. Washed units were prepared by washing the APs with 1L normal saline. The CCI (plt × m2/uL) for all transfusions was calculated. Hypothesis testing was performed with Student’s t-tests for continuous variables and chi-square tests for dichotomous variables. Results We evaluated 121 individuals; 46 patients who received unmanipulated, concentrated and then washed APs, 59 patients who received unmanipulated and then concentrated APs; and 16 patients who received unmanipulated and then washed APs. Patient demographics were similar among the three groups. The mean CCI for unmanipulated AP transfusions at 0–2 hours post transfusion were significantly higher than concentrated and washed platelet transfusions (p<0.001). However, when accounting for platelet loss due to manipulation, concentrating APs did not impact the CCI, but the CCI remained significantly lower for washed products at all time points post transfusion (40.7% mean reduction at 20–24 hours, p<0.001). Conclusions Washing APs significantly reduces platelet count recovery and survival, as demonstrated by a significantly reduced CCI. PMID:22233358

  11. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    A new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya-Babuška-Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie-Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  12. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    DOE PAGES

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; ...

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes,more » and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.« less

  13. Changes in carpal tunnel compliance with incremental flexor retinaculum release.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhi, Rubina; Xiu, Kaihua; Guo, Xin; Li, Zong-Ming

    2016-04-13

    Flexor retinaculum transection is a routine surgical treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome, yet the biomechanical and clinical sequelae of the procedure remain unclear. We investigated the effects of flexor retinaculum release on carpal tunnel structural compliance using cadaveric hands. The flexor retinaculum was incrementally and sequentially released with transections of 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of the transverse carpal ligament, followed by the distal aponeurosis and then the antebrachial fascia. Paired outward 10 N forces were applied to the insertion sites of the transverse carpal ligament at the distal (hamate-trapezium) and proximal (pisiform-scaphoid) levels of the carpal tunnel. Carpal tunnel compliance was defined as the change in carpal arch width normalized to the constant 10 N force. With the flexor retinaculum intact, carpal tunnel compliance at the proximal level, 0.696 ± 0.128 mm/N, was 13.6 times greater than that at the distal level, 0.056 ± 0.020 mm/N. Complete release of the transverse carpal ligament was required to achieve a significant gain in compliance at the distal level (p < 0.05). Subsequent release of the distal aponeurosis resulted in an appreciable additional increase in compliance (43.0 %, p = 0.052) at the distal level, but a minimal increase (1.7 %, p = 0.987) at the proximal level. Complete flexor retinaculum release provided a significant gain in compliance relative to transverse carpal ligament release alone at both proximal and distal levels (p < 0.05). Overall, complete flexor retinaculum release increased proximal compliance by 52 % and distal compliance by 332 %. The increase in carpal tunnel compliance with complete flexor retinaculum release helps explain the benefit of carpal tunnel release surgery for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

  14. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  15. Physiological increments in epinephrine stimulate metabolic rate in humans.

    PubMed

    Staten, M A; Matthews, D E; Cryer, P E; Bier, D M

    1987-09-01

    Markedly elevated plasma epinephrine is known to increase metabolic rate (MR), but such levels of epinephrine are encountered infrequently in normal free-living subjects. We studied whether epinephrine levels common in usual daily activities can affect MR and thus possibly regulate caloric expenditure. To aid definition of a MR threshold, we first measured the hourly and daily variation in MR within individuals by measuring the MR of four individuals by indirect calorimetry for 6 h on six separate occasions without any intervention. We found that hour-to-hour variation (2.0 +/- 0.9%) and the day-to-day variation (2.7 +/- 0.9%) were low, thus allowing confident detection of small increments in metabolic rate during epinephrine infusion. To define a threshold for epinephrine's effect to increase MR, we studied five normal-weight postabsorptive young men on four separate occasions. During the 1st h of each 5-h study period, saline was infused intravenously. Then, during the subsequent 4 h, subjects received intravenous infusion of saline or epinephrine at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 microgram/min (randomized). A significant increase in MR (3.6 +/- 1.0% SE) was measured with the lowest epinephrine infusion rate (venous plasma concentration, 94 +/- 32 pg/ml). The increases in MR correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001) with increases in plasma epinephrine. The threshold concentration (upper 95% confidence limit) of epinephrine to affect MR was 90 pg/ml, a concentration frequently occurring in daily life. Thus epinephrine may play an important role in weight maintenance by affecting energy expenditure.

  16. A hybrid incremental projection method for thermal-hydraulics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Christon, Mark A.; Bakosi, Jozsef; Nadiga, Balasubramanya T.; Berndt, Markus; Francois, Marianne M.; Stagg, Alan K.; Xia, Yidong; Luo, Hong

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new second-order accurate, hybrid, incremental projection method for time-dependent incompressible viscous flow is introduced in this paper. The hybrid finite-element/finite-volume discretization circumvents the well-known Ladyzhenskaya–Babuška–Brezzi conditions for stability, and does not require special treatment to filter pressure modes by either Rhie–Chow interpolation or by using a Petrov–Galerkin finite element formulation. The use of a co-velocity with a high-resolution advection method and a linearly consistent edge-based treatment of viscous/diffusive terms yields a robust algorithm for a broad spectrum of incompressible flows. The high-resolution advection method is shown to deliver second-order spatial convergence on mixed element topology meshes, and the implicit advective treatment significantly increases the stable time-step size. The algorithm is robust and extensible, permitting the incorporation of features such as porous media flow, RANS and LES turbulence models, and semi-/fully-implicit time stepping. A series of verification and validation problems are used to illustrate the convergence properties of the algorithm. The temporal stability properties are demonstrated on a range of problems with 2 ≤ CFL ≤ 100. The new flow solver is built using the Hydra multiphysics toolkit. The Hydra toolkit is written in C++ and provides a rich suite of extensible and fully-parallel components that permit rapid application development, supports multiple discretization techniques, provides I/O interfaces, dynamic run-time load balancing and data migration, and interfaces to scalable popular linear solvers, e.g., in open-source packages such as HYPRE, PETSc, and Trilinos.

  17. An Incremental Type-2 Meta-Cognitive Extreme Learning Machine.

    PubMed

    Pratama, Mahardhika; Zhang, Guangquan; Er, Meng Joo; Anavatti, Sreenatha

    2017-02-01

    Existing extreme learning algorithm have not taken into account four issues: 1) complexity; 2) uncertainty; 3) concept drift; and 4) high dimensionality. A novel incremental type-2 meta-cognitive extreme learning machine (ELM) called evolving type-2 ELM (eT2ELM) is proposed to cope with the four issues in this paper. The eT2ELM presents three main pillars of human meta-cognition: 1) what-to-learn; 2) how-to-learn; and 3) when-to-learn. The what-to-learn component selects important training samples for model updates by virtue of the online certainty-based active learning method, which renders eT2ELM as a semi-supervised classifier. The how-to-learn element develops a synergy between extreme learning theory and the evolving concept, whereby the hidden nodes can be generated and pruned automatically from data streams with no tuning of hidden nodes. The when-to-learn constituent makes use of the standard sample reserved strategy. A generalized interval type-2 fuzzy neural network is also put forward as a cognitive component, in which a hidden node is built upon the interval type-2 multivariate Gaussian function while exploiting a subset of Chebyshev series in the output node. The efficacy of the proposed eT2ELM is numerically validated in 12 data streams containing various concept drifts. The numerical results are confirmed by thorough statistical tests, where the eT2ELM demonstrates the most encouraging numerical results in delivering reliable prediction, while sustaining low complexity.

  18. A demonstration of the instream flow incremental methodology, Shenandoah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert; Hayes, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Current and projected demands on the water resources of the Shenandoah River have increased concerns for the potential effect of these demands on the natural integrity of the Shenandoah River system. The Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) process attempts to integrate concepts of water-supply planning, analytical hydraulic engineering models, and empirically derived habitat versus flow functions to address water-use and instream-flow issues and questions concerning life-stage specific effects on selected species and the general well being of aquatic biological populations.The demonstration project also sets the stage for the identification and compilation of the major instream-flow issues in the Shenandoah River Basin, development of the required multidisciplinary technical team to conduct more detailed studies, and development of basin specific habitat and flow requirements for fish species, species assemblages, and various water uses in the Shenandoah River Basin. This report presents the results of an IFIM demonstration project, conducted on the main stem Shenandoah River in Virginia, during 1996 and 1997, using the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model.Output from PHABSIM is used to address the general flow requirements for water supply and recreation and habitat for selected life stages of several fish species. The model output is only a small part of the information necessary for effective decision making and management of river resources. The information by itself is usually insufficient for formulation of recommendations regarding instream-flow requirements. Additional information, for example, can be obtained by analysis of habitat time-series data, habitat duration data, and habitat bottlenecks. Alternative-flow analysis and habitat-duration curves are presented.

  19. No Fear of Commitment: Children's Incremental Interpretation in English and Japanese Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaki, Akira; Davidson White, Imogen; Goro, Takuya; Lidz, Jeffrey; Phillips, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Much work on child sentence processing has demonstrated that children are able to use various linguistic cues to incrementally resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities, but they fail to use syntactic or interpretability cues that arrive later in the sentence. The present study explores whether children incrementally resolve filler-gap dependencies,…

  20. 26 CFR 1.41-8T - Alternative incremental credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8T Alternative incremental credit (temporary). (a) For further..., “Credit for Increasing Research Activities,” (or successor form) relating to the election of the AIRC,...

  1. Comparison of the Incremental Validity of the Old and New MCAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; And Others

    The predictive and incremental validity of both the Old and New Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) was examined and compared with a sample of over 300 medical students. Results of zero order and incremental validity coefficients, as well as prediction models resulting from all possible subsets regression analyses using Mallow's Cp criterion,…

  2. Influence of Rotation Increments on Imaging Performance for a Rotatory Dual-Head PET System

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanzhen; Cao, Xu; Cao, Xuezhou; Wang, Jianxun; Li, Liang; Chen, Xueli

    2017-01-01

    For a rotatory dual-head positron emission tomography (PET) system, how to determine the rotation increments is an open problem. In this study, we simulated the characteristics of a rotatory dual-head PET system. The influences of different rotation increments were compared and analyzed. Based on this simulation, the imaging performance of a prototype system was verified. A reconstruction flowchart was proposed based on a precalculated system response matrix (SRM). The SRM made the relationships between the voxels and lines of response (LORs) fixed; therefore, we added the interpolation method into the flowchart. Five metrics, including spatial resolution, normalized mean squared error (NMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), contrast-to-noise (CNR), and structure similarity (SSIM), were applied to assess the reconstructed image quality. The results indicated that the 60° rotation increments with the bilinear interpolation had advantages in resolution, PSNR, NMSE, and SSIM. In terms of CNR, the 90° rotation increments were better than other increments. In addition, the reconstructed images of 90° rotation increments were also flatter than that of 60° increments. Therefore, both the 60° and 90° rotation increments could be used in the real experiments, and which one to choose may depend on the application requirement. PMID:28154827

  3. Predicting height increment of young-growth mixed conifers in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Leroy K. Dolph

    1988-01-01

    Estimates of forest growth (increment) are used for evaluating productivity of land and to project growing stock into the future. Since volume is the accepted parameter for measuring forest growth (Spurr 1952), estimates of periodic volume increment for individual trees on inventory plots form the basis for appraising the productivity of the land and timber.

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after.../yr.b Increment 4—Complete on-site construction 30 months after initial NMOC emission rate report...

  6. Word Decoding Development in Incremental Phonics Instruction in a Transparent Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaars, Moniek M.; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the development of word decoding skills during incremental phonics instruction in Dutch as a transparent orthography. A representative sample of 973 Dutch children in the first grade (M[subscript age] = 6;1, SD = 0;5) was exposed to incremental subsets of Dutch grapheme-phoneme correspondences…

  7. Dimension reduction for p53 protein recognition by using incremental partial least squares.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xue-Qiang; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    As an important tumor suppressor protein, reactivating mutated p53 was found in many kinds of human cancers and that restoring active p53 would lead to tumor regression. In recent years, more and more data extracted from biophysical simulations, which makes the modelling of mutant p53 transcriptional activity suffering from the problems of huge amount of instances and high feature dimension. Incremental feature extraction is effective to facilitate analysis of large-scale data. However, most current incremental feature extraction methods are not suitable for processing big data with high feature dimension. Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been demonstrated to be an effective dimension reduction technique for classification. In this paper, we design a highly efficient and powerful algorithm named Incremental Partial Least Squares (IPLS), which conducts a two-stage extraction process. In the first stage, the PLS target function is adapted to be incremental with updating historical mean to extract the leading projection direction. In the last stage, the other projection directions are calculated through equivalence between the PLS vectors and the Krylov sequence. We compare IPLS with some state-of-the-arts incremental feature extraction methods like Incremental Principal Component Analysis, Incremental Maximum Margin Criterion and Incremental Inter-class Scatter on real p53 proteins data. Empirical results show IPLS performs better than other methods in terms of balanced classification accuracy.

  8. Using Incremental Rehearsal for Building Fluency of Sight Words for Children with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldawish, Abeer

    2017-01-01

    Incremental Rehearsal (IR) is an effective, evidence-based intervention for teaching words that uses high repetition and a high ratio of unknown and known items. The purpose of the present research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using Incremental Rehearsal to improve the fluency in reading sight words for three elementary students…

  9. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  10. Incremental soil sampling root water uptake, or be great through others

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ray Allmaras pursued several research topics in relation to residue and tillage research. He looked for new tools to help explain soil responses to tillage, including disk permeameters and image analysis. The incremental sampler developed by Pikul and Allmaras allowed small-depth increment, volumetr...

  11. 48 CFR 232.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. 232.704-70 Section 232.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Funding 232.704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor...

  12. 48 CFR 2432.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. 2432.704-70 Section 2432.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor's notice under...

  13. 48 CFR 232.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. 232.704-70 Section 232.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Funding 232.704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor...

  14. 48 CFR 2432.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. 2432.704-70 Section 2432.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor's notice under...

  15. 48 CFR 232.704-70 - Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. 232.704-70 Section 232.704-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Contract Funding 232.704-70 Incrementally funded fixed-price contracts. (a) Upon receipt of the contractor...

  16. Incremental stress-strain relation from granular elasticity: comparison to experiments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2008-02-01

    Granular media are reversible and elastic if the stress increments are small enough. An elastic stress-strain relation, employed previously to determine static stress distributions, in this paper is compared to experiments by Kuwano and Jardine [Geotechnique 52, 727 (2002)] on incremental stress-strain relations, and shown to yield satisfactory agreement. In addition, the yield condition is given a firmer footing.

  17. Incremental Beliefs of Ability, Achievement Emotions and Learning of Singapore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wenshu; Lee, Kerry; Ng, Pak Tee; Ong, Joanne Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships of students' incremental beliefs of math ability to their achievement emotions, classroom engagement and math achievement. A sample of 273 secondary students in Singapore were administered measures of incremental beliefs of math ability, math enjoyment, pride, boredom and anxiety, as well as math classroom…

  18. No Fear of Commitment: Children's Incremental Interpretation in English and Japanese Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaki, Akira; Davidson White, Imogen; Goro, Takuya; Lidz, Jeffrey; Phillips, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Much work on child sentence processing has demonstrated that children are able to use various linguistic cues to incrementally resolve temporary syntactic ambiguities, but they fail to use syntactic or interpretability cues that arrive later in the sentence. The present study explores whether children incrementally resolve filler-gap dependencies,…

  19. 40 CFR 60.5105 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in Table 1 to this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you must continue to submit reports each subsequent calendar month until...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2595 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in table 1 of this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you must continue to submit reports each subsequent calendar...

  1. 40 CFR 60.2835 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... progress, you must submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in table 1 of this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you must continue to submit reports each subsequent calendar...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5105 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... submit a notification to the Administrator postmarked within 10 business days after the date for that increment of progress in Table 1 to this subpart. You must inform the Administrator that you did not meet the increment, and you must continue to submit reports each subsequent calendar month until...

  3. 26 CFR 1.41-8T - Alternative incremental credit (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Alternative incremental credit (temporary). 1.41... INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.41-8T Alternative incremental credit (temporary). (a) For further..., “Credit for Increasing Research Activities,” (or successor form) relating to the election of the AIRC, and...

  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission rate report or the first annual emission rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or the first annual emission rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50...

  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission rate report or the first annual emission rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months after initial NMOC emission rate report or the first annual emission rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50...

  6. Summary of the Science performed onboard the International Space Station during Increments 12 and 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol

    2007-01-01

    By September of 2007, continuous human presence on the International Space Station will reach a milestone of eighty months. The many astronauts and cosmonauts, who live onboard the station during the last fourteen Increments over that time span, spend their time building the station as well as performing science on a daily basis. Over those eighty months, the U.S astronauts crew members logged over 2954 hours of research time. Far more research time has been accumulated by experiments controlled by investigators on the ground. The U.S astronauts conducted over one hundred and twenty six (126) science investigations. From these hundred and twenty six science investigations, many were operated across multiple Increments. The crew also installed, activated and operated nine (9) science racks that supported six science disciplines ranging from material sciences to life science. By the end of Increment 14, a total of 5083 kg of research rack mass were ferried to the station as well as 5021 kg of research mass. The objectives of this paper are three-fold. (1) To briefly review the science conducted on the International Space Station during the previous eleven Increments; (2) to discuss in detail the science investigations that were conducted on the station during Increments 12 and 13. The discussion will focus mainly on the primary objectives of each investigation and their associated hypotheses that were investigated during these two Increments. Also, some preliminary science results will be discussed for each of the investigation as science results availability permit. (3) The paper will briefly touch on what the science complement planning was and what was actually accomplished due to real time science implementation and challenges during these two Increments in question to illustrate the challenges of daily science activity while the science platform is under construction. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss the science research complements for the other two

  7. .VO2max is not altered by self-pacing during incremental exercise.

    PubMed

    Chidnok, Weerapong; Dimenna, Fred J; Bailey, Stephen J; Burnley, Mark; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that incremental cycling to exhaustion that is paced using clamps of the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) elicits higher .VO2max values compared to a conventional ramp incremental protocol when test duration is matched. Seven males completed three incremental tests to exhaustion to measure .VO2max. The incremental protocols were of similar duration and included: a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with constant cadence (RAMP1); a ramp test at 30 W min(-1) with cadence free to fluctuate according to subject preference (RAMP2); and a self-paced incremental test in which the power output was selected by the subject according to prescribed increments in RPE (SPT). The subjects also completed a .VO2max 'verification' test at a fixed high-intensity power output and a 3-min all-out test. No difference was found for .VO2max between the incremental protocols (RAMP1 = 4.33 ± 0.60 L min(-1); RAMP2 = 4.31 ± 0.62 L min(-1); SPT = 4.36 ± 0.59 L min(-1); P > 0.05) nor between the incremental protocols and the peak.VO2max measured during the 3-min all-out test (4.33 ± 0.68 L min(-1)) or the .VO2max measured in the verification test (4.32 ± 0.69 L min(-1)). The integrated electromyogram, blood lactate concentration, heart rate and minute ventilation at exhaustion were not different (P > 0.05) between the incremental protocols. In conclusion, when test duration is matched, SPT does not elicit a higher .VO2max compared to conventional incremental protocols. The striking similarity of .VO2max measured across an array of exercise protocols indicates that there are physiological limits to the attainment of .VO2max that cannot be exceeded by self-pacing.

  8. Incremental shuttle walk test distance and autonomic dysfunction predict survival in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Billings, Catherine G; Hurdman, Judith A; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Smith, Ian A; Austin, Matthew; Armstrong, Iain J; Hamilton, Neil; Charalampopoulos, Athanasios; Sabroe, Ian; Swift, Andrew J; Rothman, Alexander M; Wild, Jim M; Lawrie, Allan; Waterhouse, Judith C; Kiely, David G

    2017-08-01

    To ensure effective monitoring of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a simple, reliable assessment of exercise capacity applicable over a range of disease severity is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) to correlate with disease severity, measure sensitivity to change, and predict survival in PAH. We enrolled 418 treatment-naïve patients with PAH with baseline ISWT within 3 months of cardiac catheterization. Clinical validity and prognostic value of ISWT distance were assessed at baseline and 1 year. ISWT distance was found to correlate at baseline with World Health Organization functional class, Borg score, and hemodynamics without a ceiling effect (all p < 0.001). Walking distance at baseline and after treatment predicted survival; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ability of ISWT distance to predict mortality was 0.655 (95% confidence interval 0.553-0.757; p = 0.004) at baseline and 0.737 (95% confidence interval 0.643-0.827; p < 0.001) at 1 year after initiation of treatment. Change in ISWT distance also predicted survival (p = 0.04). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) parameters reflecting autonomic response to exercise (highest HR, change in HR, HR recovery at 1 minute >18 beats/min, highest SBP, change in SBP, and 3-minute SBP ratio) were significant predictors of survival (all p < 0.05). In patients with PAH, the ISWT is simple to perform, allows assessment of maximal exercise capacity, is sensitive to treatment effect, predicts outcome, and has no ceiling effect. Also, measures of autonomic function made post-exercise predict survival in PAH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side effects.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, Jesús G; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the oral dose of caffeine needed to increase muscle force and power output during all-out single multijoint movements. Thirteen resistance-trained men underwent a battery of muscle strength and power tests in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, under four different conditions: (a) placebo ingestion (PLAC) or with caffeine ingestion at doses of (b) 3 mg · kg(-1) body weight (CAFF 3mg), (c) 6 mg · kg(-1) (CAFF 6mg), and (d) 9 mg · kg(-1) (CAFF 9mg). The muscle strength and power tests consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity and muscle power output during free-weight full-squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% one-repetition maximum [1RM]). Cycling peak power output was measured using a 4-s inertial load test. Caffeine side effects were evaluated at the end of each trial and 24 h later. Mean propulsive velocity at light loads (25%-50% 1RM) increased significantly above PLAC for all caffeine doses (5.4%-8.5%, P = 0.039-0.003). At the medium load (75% 1RM), CAFF 3mg did not improve SQ or BP muscle power or BP velocity. CAFF 9mg was needed to enhance BP velocity and SQ power at the heaviest load (90% 1RM) and cycling peak power output (6.8%-11.7%, P = 0.03-0.05). The CAFF 9mg trial drastically increased the frequency of the adverse side effects (15%-62%). The ergogenic dose of caffeine required to enhance neuromuscular performance during a single all-out contraction depends on the magnitude of load used. A dose of 3 mg · kg(-1) is enough to improve high-velocity muscle actions against low loads, whereas a higher caffeine dose (9 mg · kg(-1)) is necessary against high loads, despite the appearance of adverse side effects.

  10. Do otolith increments allow correct inferences about age and growth of coral reef fishes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    Otolith increment structure is widely used to estimate age and growth of marine fishes. Here, I test the accuracy of the long-term otolith increment analysis of the lemon damselfish Pomacentrus moluccensis to describe age and growth characteristics. I compare the number of putative annual otolith increments (as a proxy for actual age) and widths of these increments (as proxies for somatic growth) with actual tagged fish-length data, based on a 6-year dataset, the longest time course for a coral reef fish. Estimated age from otoliths corresponded closely with actual age in all cases, confirming annual increment formation. However, otolith increment widths were poor proxies for actual growth in length [linear regression r 2 = 0.44-0.90, n = 6 fish] and were clearly of limited value in estimating annual growth. Up to 60 % of the annual growth variation was missed using otolith increments, suggesting the long-term back calculations of otolith growth characteristics of reef fish populations should be interpreted with caution.

  11. Comparison of an incremental versus single-step retraction model for intraoperative compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platenik, Leah A.; Miga, Michael I.; Roberts, David W.; Kennedy, Francis E.; Hartov, Alex; Lunn, Karen E.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2001-05-01

    Distortion between the operating field and preoperative images increases as image-guided surgery progresses. Retraction is a typical early-stage event that causes significant tissue deformation, which can be modeled as an intraoperative compensation strategy. This study compares the predictive power of incremental versus single-step retraction models in the porcine brain. In vivo porcine experiments were conducted that involved implanting markers in the brain whose trajectories were tracked in CT scans following known incremental deformations induced by a retractor blade placed interhemispherically. Studies were performed using a 3D consolidation model of brain deformation to investigate the relative predictive benefits of incremental versus single-step retraction simulations. The results show that both models capture greater than 75% of tissue loading due to retraction. We have found that the incremental approach outperforms the single-step method with an average improvement of 1.5%-3%. More importantly it also preferentially recovers the directionality of movement, providing better correspondence to intraoperative surgical events. A new incremental approach to tissue retraction has been developed and shown to improve data-model match in retraction experiments in the porcine brain. Incremental retraction modeling is an improvement over previous single- step models, which does not incur additional computational to overhead. Results in the porcine brain show that even when the overall displacement magnitudes between the two models are similar, directional trends of the displacement field are often significantly improved with the incremental method.

  12. Space-time quantitative source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Guo, Mingwu; Xiao, Lu; Huang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the space-time trends and detecting the sources of heavy metal accumulation in soils have important consequences in the prevention and treatment of soil heavy metal pollution. In this study, we collected soil samples in the eastern part of the Qingshan district, Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, during the period 2010-2014. The Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in soils exhibited a significant accumulation during 2010-2014. The spatiotemporal Kriging technique, based on a quantitative characterization of soil heavy metal concentration variations in terms of non-separable variogram models, was employed to estimate the spatiotemporal soil heavy metal distribution in the study region. Our findings showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations have an obvious incremental tendency from the southwestern to the central part of the study region. However, the Pb concentrations exhibited an obvious tendency from the northern part to the central part of the region. Then, spatial overlay analysis was used to obtain absolute and relative concentration increments of adjacent 1- or 5-year periods during 2010-2014. The spatial distribution of soil heavy metal concentration increments showed that the larger increments occurred in the center of the study region. Lastly, the principal component analysis combined with the multiple linear regression method were employed to quantify the source apportionment of the soil heavy metal concentration increments in the region. Our results led to the conclusion that the sources of soil heavy metal concentration increments should be ascribed to industry, agriculture and traffic. In particular, 82.5% of soil heavy metal concentration increment during 2010-2014 was ascribed to industrial/agricultural activities sources. Using STK and SOA to obtain the spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration increments in soils. Using PCA-MLR to quantify the source apportionment of soil heavy metal concentration increments. Copyright © 2017

  13. The Crucial Role of Error Correlation for Uncertainty Modeling of CFD-Based Aerodynamics Increments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.; Walker, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I ascent aerodynamics database for Design Cycle 3 (DAC-3) was built from wind-tunnel test results and CFD solutions. The wind tunnel results were used to build the baseline response surfaces for wind-tunnel Reynolds numbers at power-off conditions. The CFD solutions were used to build increments to account for Reynolds number effects. We calculate the validation errors for the primary CFD code results at wind tunnel Reynolds number power-off conditions and would like to be able to use those errors to predict the validation errors for the CFD increments. However, the validation errors are large compared to the increments. We suggest a way forward that is consistent with common practice in wind tunnel testing which is to assume that systematic errors in the measurement process and/or the environment will subtract out when increments are calculated, thus making increments more reliable with smaller uncertainty than absolute values of the aerodynamic coefficients. A similar practice has arisen for the use of CFD to generate aerodynamic database increments. The basis of this practice is the assumption of strong correlation of the systematic errors inherent in each of the results used to generate an increment. The assumption of strong correlation is the inferential link between the observed validation uncertainties at wind-tunnel Reynolds numbers and the uncertainties to be predicted for flight. In this paper, we suggest a way to estimate the correlation coefficient and demonstrate the approach using code-to-code differences that were obtained for quality control purposes during the Ares I CFD campaign. Finally, since we can expect the increments to be relatively small compared to the baseline response surface and to be typically of the order of the baseline uncertainty, we find that it is necessary to be able to show that the correlation coefficients are close to unity to avoid overinflating the overall database uncertainty with the addition of the increments.

  14. Incremental learning of probabilistic rules from clinical databases based on rough set theory.

    PubMed Central

    Tsumoto, S.; Tanaka, H.

    1997-01-01

    Several rule induction methods have been introduced in order to discover meaningful knowledge from databases, including medical domain. However, most of the approaches induce rules from all the data in databases and cannot induce incrementally when new samples are derived. In this paper, a new approach to knowledge acquisition, which induce probabilistic rules incrementally by using rough set technique, is introduced and was evaluated on two clinical databases. The results show that this method induces the same rules as those induced by ordinary non-incremental learning methods, which extract rules from all the datasets, but that the former method requires more computational resources than the latter approach. PMID:9357616

  15. Stage duration and increase of work load in incremental testing on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Stockhausen, W; Grathwohl, D; Bürklin, C; Spranz, P; Keul, J

    1997-01-01

    Any variation of the test protocol for incremental testing (IT) in cycle ergometry may affect the accuracy of the determination of anaerobic threshold (AnT). For lactate threshold concepts, indicating the maximum lactate steady-state (max Lass), the formation of the quasi-steady-state (QSS=95% of steady-state level) is evident. Previous studies have not specified the time that it takes for blood lactate to stabilize following incremental changes in WL. The purpose of this study was to identify the minimum duration of exercise necessary to establish QSS following various increments in WL (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 W). Eight male endurance-trained cyclists [relative maximal oxygen consumption = 64.8 (4.2) ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)] performed three different exercise tests on a cycle ergometer: (1) an exhaustive IT with a starting WL of 100 W, followed by 20-W increments every 3 min; (2) a threshold test with 20-W increments every 9 min to determine the MaxLaSS; and (3) five incremental exercise tests (from 100/110 W, with 20-W increments every 3 min) with a final 10-, 20-, 30-, 40- or 50- W increment lasting 10 min, at 10 W below MaxLaSS (T10-T50 experiments). The time constant of lactate kinetics (tau), the time constant of lactate elimination, and the time taken to elicite QSS, defined as 95% of the time taken to reach steady-state level (t95%), were calculated in the T10-T50 experiments. The tau and t95% increased significantly with WL increment size: the correlation was not linear. Smaller WL increments required proportionally longer durations. Mean (SD) t95% values (min:s) were 1:57 (0:27) (T10), 2:58 (0.16) (T20), 4:08 (0:23) (T30), 4:45 (0:45) (T40) and 5:06 (0:43) (T50). The application of these references in IT protocols may lead to an extension of total test duration, particularly with smaller increments. Therefore, lactate threshold modelling, the training status of the athletes and comparability with lactate measurements obtained during training events should be

  16. Incremental costs of global environmental benefits. Global Environment Facility Working Paper 5

    SciTech Connect

    King, K.

    1993-11-01

    The report covers the conceptual, analytical, and strategic issues involved in measuring the costs and potential benefits of environmental programs. This paper surveys the core issues that will be explored in the Global Environment Facility`s (GEF) Program for Measuring Incremental Costs for the Environment (PRINCE). This research examines the measurement of incremental costs associated with reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases, protecting international waters, and conserving global biodiversity. An appendix provides examples of environmental protection efforts that incur net incremental costs. Another delineates principles for equitable resource transfers.

  17. Geographic Variations in Incremental Costs of Heart Disease Among Medicare Beneficiaries, by Type of Service, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Matthew; Hockenberry, Jason; Casper, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Using 2012 data on fee-for-service Medicare claims, we documented regional and county variation in incremental standardized costs of heart disease (ie, comparing costs between beneficiaries with heart disease and beneficiaries without heart disease) by type of service (eg, inpatient, outpatient, post-acute care). Absolute incremental total costs varied by region. Although the largest absolute incremental total costs of heart disease were concentrated in southern and Appalachian counties, geographic patterns of costs varied by type of service. These data can be used to inform development of policies and payment models that address the observed geographic disparities. PMID:28033089

  18. Exercise-induced increments in plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline.

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, G A; Webb, J G; Walle, T; Bai, S A; Daniell, H B; Gourley, L; Boyd Loadholt, C; Gaffney, T E

    1983-01-01

    Exercise-induced changes in the plasma levels of propranolol and noradrenaline were determined in nine volunteers. Total plasma propranolol levels were increased during submaximal treadmill exercise, with exercise-induced increments of 13 +/- 4% at 4 h after the last dose, 18 +/- 7% at 9 h and 41 +/- 5% at 16 h. Exercise-induced increments in plasma propranolol were observed after single as well as repeated doses. During exercise, increments in plasma propranolol were correlated temporally with changes in plasma noradrenaline. Exercise-induced increments in plasma noradrenaline were greater during propranolol administration than during placebo periods. The changes in plasma propranolol concentration during exercise may reflect a redistribution of propranolol at its site(s) of action. PMID:6661342

  19. What Oracle doesn`t tell you about CASE: An incremental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, A.M.

    1995-04-04

    Oracle CASE is a very large, complex software tool. The incremental-approach method described here helps developers break the analysis paralysis syndrome by using a group of rules of thumb to build more and better applications faster.

  20. Strategic Planning vs. Disjointed Incrementalism: An Institutional Research Perspective. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Paul M.; And Others

    Strategic planning in higher education is discussed from the perspective of institutional research. Attention is directed to: institutional mission, institutional assessment, institutional leadership, environmental assessment, market analysis, and competitive position. Strategic planning merges incrementalism, which focuses on flexibility,…

  1. Increment-borer methods for determining fire history in coniferous forests

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Barrett; Stephen F. Arno

    1988-01-01

    Describes use of increment borers for interpreting fire history in coniferous forests. These methods are intended for use in wildernesses, parks, and other natural areas where sawing cross-sections from fire-scarred trees is prohibited.

  2. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  3. Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.

  4. Incremental generation of answers during the comprehension of questions with quantifiers.

    PubMed

    Bott, Oliver; Augurzky, Petra; Sternefeld, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents a study on the online interpretation of quantified questions involving complex domain restriction, for instance, are all triangles blue that are in the circle. Two probe reaction time (RT) task experiments were conducted to study the incremental nature of answer generation while manipulating visual contexts and response hand overlap between tasks. We manipulated the contexts in such a way that the incremental answer to the question changed from 'yes' to 'no' or remained the same before and after encountering the extraposed relative clause. The findings of both experiments provide evidence for incremental answer preparation but only if the context did not involve the risk of answer revision. Our results show that preliminary output from incremental semantic interpretation results in response priming that facilitates congruent responses in the probe RT task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Environment for Incremental Development of Distributed Extensible Asynchronous Real-time Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Charles K.; Burleigh, Scott; Briggs, Hugh C.; Auernheimer, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Incremental parallel development of distributed real-time systems is difficult. Architectural techniques and software tools developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Flight System Testbed make feasible the integration of complex systems in various stages of development.

  6. Application of a shear-modified GTN model to incremental sheet forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Malhotra, Rajiv; Liu, W. K.; Cao, Jian

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates the effects of using a shear-modified Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, which is based on the mechanics of voids, for simulating material behavior in the incremental forming process. The problem chosen for analysis is a simplified version of the NUMISHEET 2014 incremental forming benchmark test. The implications of the shear-modification of the model specifically for incremental sheet forming processes are confirmed using finite element analysis. It is shown that including the shear term has a significant effect on fracture timing in incremental forming, which is not well reflected in the observed tensile test simulations for calibration. The numerical implementation and the need for comprehensive calibration of the model are briefly discussed.

  7. On incremental non-linearity in granular media: phenomenological and multi-scale views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darve, Félix; Nicot, François

    2005-12-01

    On the basis of fundamental constitutive laws such as elasticity, perfect plasticity, and pure viscosity, many elasto-viscoplastic constitutive relations have been developed since the 1970s through phenomenological approaches. In addition, a few more recent micro-mechanical models based on multi-scale approaches are now able to describe the main macroscopic features of the mechanical behaviour of granular media. The purpose of this paper is to compare a phenomenological constitutive relation and a micro-mechanical model with respect to a basic issue regularly raised about granular assemblies: the incrementally non-linear character of their behaviour. It is shown that both phenomenological and micro-mechanical models exhibit an incremental non-linearity. In addition, the multi-scale approach reveals that the macroscopic incremental non-linearity could stem from the change in the regime of local contacts between particles (from plastic regime to elastic regime) in terms of the incremental macroscopic loading direction. Copyright

  8. Characterizing the performance of the PTB line scale interferometer by measuring photoelectric incremental encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koening, Rainer; Fluegge, Jens; Bosse, Harald

    2005-08-01

    Until today one dimensional length comparators or line scale interferometers are used to realize and disseminate the unit of length. The performance of the vacuum length comparator of the PTB, the Nanometer Comparator, was characterized by measuring photoelectric incremental encoders. In some respects the measurements were used to optimize the performance of the instrument, e.g. with respect to its noise characteristics. The non-linearity of its vacuum interferometer could be determined to show an amplitude of 0.2 nm. The reproducibility of the measurement of an incremental encoder system with 280 mm measuring range was 0.3 nm. Currently, the relative expanded measurement uncertainty for the calibration of incremental encoder systems is in the range of 2x10-8. These results show that incremental encoders are well suited to characterize one dimensional length measuring machines.

  9. A System to Derive Optimal Tree Diameter Increment Models from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB)

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    This article is an introduction to the computer software used by the Potential Relative Increment (PRI) approach to optimal tree diameter growth modeling. These DOS programs extract qualified tree and plot data from the Eastwide Forest Inventory Data Base (EFIDB), calculate relative tree increment, sort for the highest relative increments by diameter class, and...

  10. Marginal increment analysis: a new statistical approach of testing for temporal periodicity in fish age verification.

    PubMed

    Okamura, H; Punt, A E; Semba, Y; Ichinokawa, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes a new and flexible statistical method for marginal increment analysis that directly accounts for periodicity in circular data using a circular-linear regression model with random effects. The method is applied to vertebral marginal increment data for Alaska skate Bathyraja parmifera. The best fit model selected using the AIC indicates that growth bands are formed annually. Simulation, where the underlying characteristics of the data are known, shows that the method performs satisfactorily when uncertainty is not extremely high.

  11. Fluctuations of the Increment of the Argument for the Gaussian Entire Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Jeremiah; Sodin, Mikhail

    2017-07-01

    The Gaussian entire function is a random entire function, characterised by a certain invariance with respect to isometries of the plane. We study the fluctuations of the increment of the argument of the Gaussian entire function along planar curves. We introduce an inner product on finite formal linear combinations of curves (with real coefficients), that we call the signed length, which describes the limiting covariance of the increment. We also establish asymptotic normality of fluctuations.

  12. A variable step incremental procedure. [for nonlinear equations in finite element structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a variable step incremental procedure for the solution of nonlinear equations in finite element structural analysis. The proposed procedure is effective in improving the accuracy of the basic incremental technique and in providing, in addition, an accurate estimate of the discretization error. The proposed approach is highly appropriate for solving problems for which the user has no a priori estimate of the step size to use.

  13. Invariance of specific mass increment in the case of non-equilibrium growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Sergeev, A. P.; Terentiev, P. S.

    2015-09-01

    The invariance of specific mass increments of crystalline structures that co-exist in the case of non-equilibrium growth is grounded for the first time by using the maximum entropy production principle. Based on the hypothesis of the existence of a universal growth equation, and through the dimensional analysis, an explicit form of the time-dependent specific mass increment is proposed. The applicability of the obtained results for describing growth in animate nature is discussed.

  14. Broad Learning System: An Effective and Efficient Incremental Learning System Without the Need for Deep Architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L Philip; Liu, Zhulin

    2017-07-21

    Broad Learning System (BLS) that aims to offer an alternative way of learning in deep structure is proposed in this paper. Deep structure and learning suffer from a time-consuming training process because of a large number of connecting parameters in filters and layers. Moreover, it encounters a complete retraining process if the structure is not sufficient to model the system. The BLS is established in the form of a flat network, where the original inputs are transferred and placed as "mapped features" in feature nodes and the structure is expanded in wide sense in the "enhancement nodes." The incremental learning algorithms are developed for fast remodeling in broad expansion without a retraining process if the network deems to be expanded. Two incremental learning algorithms are given for both the increment of the feature nodes (or filters in deep structure) and the increment of the enhancement nodes. The designed model and algorithms are very versatile for selecting a model rapidly. In addition, another incremental learning is developed for a system that has been modeled encounters a new incoming input. Specifically, the system can be remodeled in an incremental way without the entire retraining from the beginning. Satisfactory result for model reduction using singular value decomposition is conducted to simplify the final structure. Compared with existing deep neural networks, experimental results on the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology database and NYU NORB object recognition dataset benchmark data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed BLS.

  15. Molecular Dipole Moments within the Incremental Scheme Using the Domain-Specific Basis-Set Approach.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Benjamin; Coriani, Sonia; Friedrich, Joachim

    2016-07-12

    We present the first implementation of the fully automated incremental scheme for CCSD unrelaxed dipole moments using the domain-specific basis-set approach. Truncation parameters are varied, and the accuracy of the method is statistically analyzed for a test set of 20 molecules. The local approximations introduce small errors at second order and negligible ones at third order. For a third-order incremental CCSD expansion with a CC2 error correction, a cc-pVDZ/SV domain-specific basis set (tmain = 3.5 Bohr), and the truncation parameter f = 30 Bohr, we obtain a mean error of 0.00 mau (-0.20 mau) and a standard deviation of 1.95 mau (2.17 mau) for the total dipole moments (Cartesian components of the dipole vectors). By analyzing incremental CCSD energies, we demonstrate that the MP2 and CC2 error correction schemes are an exclusive correction for the domain-specific basis-set error. Our implementation of the incremental scheme provides fully automated computations of highly accurate dipole moments at reduced computational cost and is fully parallelized in terms of the calculation of the increments. Therefore, one can utilize the incremental scheme, on the same hardware, to extend the basis set in comparison to standard CCSD and thus obtain a better total accuracy.

  16. Leakage associated with single or multiple increment backfill with the Obtura II gutta-percha system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B T; Bond, M S

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare dye leakage between canals backfilled in a single increment and canals backfilled in multiple increments using the Obtura II system with two different sealers. Sixty extracted single canal teeth were decoronated, cleaned, and shaped. After master cone fit and placement of either Roth 801 or AH26 sealers, the canals were down-packed to 4 mm from working length. The teeth were then divided into 4 groups of 15: group 1--Roth 801 sealer with 1 increment of Obtura II back-fill; group 2--Roth 801 sealer backfilled in 4- to 5-mm increments; group 3--AH26 sealer with 1 increment of backfill; and group 4--AH26 sealer backfilled in 4- to 5-mm increments. After sealer set, the teeth were apicected 5 mm from working length. The apices were discarded. The coronal segments were coated with two layers of fingernail polish, except for the resected apical end. The teeth were immersed in Pelikan ink for 5 days. The teeth were then decalcified, dehydrated, and rendered transparent in methylsalicylate. Dye penetration was measured on four surfaces of each root. The mean measurements of each tooth were averaged for each group. Leakage of group 1 was 6.69; group 2, 5.39; group 3, 5.71; and group 4, 5.02. Differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This study suggests that it may be clinically acceptable to backfill canals up to 10 mm in a single increment using sealer and the Obtura II gutta-percha system.

  17. Incremental Reactivity Effects on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Urban Atmospheres with and without Biogenic Influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, Mary; Li, Lijie; Carter, William P. L.; Cocker, David R., III

    2016-04-01

    Two different surrogate mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were developed to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at atmospheric reactivities similar to urban regions with varying biogenic influence levels. Environmental chamber simulations were designed to enable the study of the incremental aerosol formation from select anthropogenic (m-Xylene, 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene, and 1-Methylnaphthalene) and biogenic (α-pinene) precursors under the chemical reactivity set by the two different surrogate mixtures. The surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were based on that used to develop the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors for evaluation of O3 forming potential. Multiple incremental aerosol formation experiments were performed in the University of California Riverside (UCR) College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) dual 90m3 environmental chambers. Incremental aerosol yields were determined for each of the VOCs studied and compared to yields found from single precursor studies. Aerosol physical properties of density, volatility, and hygroscopicity were monitored throughout experiments. Bulk elemental chemical composition from high-resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) data will also be presented. Incremental yields and SOA chemical and physical characteristics will be compared with data from previous single VOC studies conducted for these aerosol precursors following traditional VOC/NOx chamber experiments. Evaluation of the incremental effects of VOCs on SOA formation and properties are paramount in evaluating how to best extrapolate environmental chamber observations to the ambient atmosphere and provides useful insights into current SOA formation models. Further, the comparison of incremental SOA from VOCs in varying surrogate urban atmospheres (with and without strong biogenic influence) allows for a unique perspective on the impacts

  18. Incremental and comparative health care expenditures for head and neck cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine M; Bhattacharyya, Neil

    2014-10-01

    Determine the incremental costs associated with head and neck cancer (HNCa) and compare the costs with other common cancers. Cross-sectional analysis of a healthcare expenditure database. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is a national survey of US households. All cases of HNCa were extracted for 2006, 2008, and 2010. The incremental expenditures associated with HNCa were determined by comparing the healthcare expenditures of individuals with HNCa to the population without cancer, controlling for age, sex, education, insurance status, marital status, geographic region, and comorbidities. Healthcare expenditures for HNCa were then compared to individuals with lung cancer and colon cancer to determine relative healthcare expenditures. An estimated 264,713 patients (annualized) with HNCa were identified. The mean annual healthcare expenditures per individual for HNCa were $23,408 ± $3,397 versus $3,860 ± $52 for those without cancer. The mean adjusted incremental cost associated with HNCa was $15,852 ± $3,297 per individual (P < .001). Within this incremental cost, there was an increased incremental outpatient services cost of $3,495 ± $1,044 (P = .001) and an increased incremental hospital inpatient cost of $6,783 ± $2,894 (P = .020) associated with HNCa. The annual healthcare expenditures per individual fell in between those for lung cancer ($25,267 ± $2,375, P = .607) and colon cancer ($16,975 ± $1,291, P = .055). Despite its lower relative incidence, HNCa is associated with a significant incremental increase in annual healthcare expenditures per individual, which is comparable to or higher than other common cancers. In aggregate, the estimated annual costs associated with HNCa are $4.20 billion. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Does Incremental Positioning (Weight Shifts) Reduce Pressure Injuries in Critical Care Patients?

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Lee Ann; Langin, Julia; Pike, Caitlin A; Pezzella, Patricia

    Incremental positioning or weight shifts are often suggested as an alternative to standard repositioning/turning in critical care patients deemed clinically unstable. This evidence-based report card reviews whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. A scoping review of the literature was conducted for studies related to repositioning and hospital-acquired pressure injuries in high-risk, critical care patients. The databases searched were CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed. Key words used in the search were "intensive care," "critical care," "pressure ulcer(s)," "pressure injury(ies)," "pressure sore(s)," "turn(s)," "turning," "shift(s)," "shifting," "position(s)," OR "positioning, cardiopulmonary support." The search yielded 183 articles. The search was then narrowed to those published within the past 10 years, yielding 35 citations. Following title and abstract review, 5 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria; an additional 13 articles were found by ancestry and hand-searching. No evidence was identified that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts reduce hospital-acquired sacral/buttocks pressure injuries in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. In addition, no evidence was found that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts affect interface pressure on the sacrum/buttocks. However, there was evidence that incremental positioning and/or weight shifts do impact gravitational equilibrium. Despite the paucity of evidence, incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are recommended as an intervention in critical care patients deemed too unstable to turn. Further research is needed to examine whether incremental positioning and/or weight shifts are effective in reducing pressure injuries in critical care patients.

  20. Influence of Pedaling Cadence and Incremental Protocol on the Estimation of EMGFT.

    PubMed

    Duff, Timothy M; Fournier, Hallie; Hopp, Orie B; Ochshorn, Eli; Sanders, Eric S; Stevens, Rachel E; Malek, Moh H

    2016-08-01

    Duff, TM, Fournier, H, Hopp, OB, Ochshorn, E, Sanders, ES, Stevens, RE, and Malek, MH. Influence of pedaling cadence and incremental protocol on the estimation of EMGFT. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2206-2211, 2016-Theoretically, the electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that an individual can exercise at indefinitely without an increase in electromyography (EMG) amplitude. This index is estimated from a single incremental test. There are, however, factors that may influence EMG amplitude such as pedaling cadence or the incremental protocol used. The purposes of this study were to determine whether different pedaling cadences and/or incremental protocols influence the estimation of the EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men performed incremental cycle ergometry on three separate visits. The participants exercised using the following combinations of pedaling cadences and incremental protocols in random order: 25 W at 70 RPM; 13 W at 70 RPM; and 25 W at 100 RPM. The EMGFT value was determined from the vastus lateralis muscle of each participant for each of the three conditions. Separate 1-way repeated measures analysis of variances were performed to determine mean differences for various outcome indices. The mean maximal power output for the 13 W at 70 RPM condition was significantly lower than the two other conditions. There were, however, no significant mean differences (F (2,14) = 2.03; p = 0.169) for EMGFT between the three conditions. The findings of this study indicated that different pedaling cadences and incremental protocols did not influence the estimation of the EMGFT.

  1. Oxygen uptake kinetics during incremental- and decremental-ramp cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Ozyener, Fadil; Rossiter, Harry B; Ward, Susan A; Whipp, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), both above and below the lactate threshold (θL), i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2) above θL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min(-1), depending on fitness). On another day, the work rate (WR) was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min(-1) (step-decremental ramp). Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of θL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine) and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer). The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min(-1)·W(-1) (p < 0.005). The sub-maximal decremental-ramp slope, however, was only 9. 8 ± 0.9 ml·min(-1)·W(-1): not significantly different from that of the incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-θL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics. Key pointsThe slope of the decremental-ramp response is appreciably greater than that of the incremental.The response dynamics in supra-θL domain of the incremental-ramp appear not to manifest actual first-order kinetics.The mechanisms underlying the different dynamic response behaviour for incremental and decremental ramps are presently unclear.

  2. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Stella S.; Lemes, Brunno; de T. C. de Carvalho, Paulo; N. de Lima, Rafael; S. Bocalini, Danilo; A. S. Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A. Casarin, Cezar; L. Andrade, Erinaldo; J. Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library’s, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. Results: The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. Conclusion: The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load. PMID:27347221

  3. [From the therapeutic utility to the added therapeutic value and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio].

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, Jaume; Peiró, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    From the social perspective, the concepts of therapeutic utility and degree of innovation of new drugs should be referred to their social added value in relation to the available treatment alternatives and the added costs that they imply; that is, to their incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The analytic elements highlighting this approach are: 1) the dimensions of the social value of the medication that should go beyond the conventional outcomes measures to also incorporate measures of health related quality of life, patient and family comfort and convenience, healthcare consumption avoided and productive losses avoided; 2) the relative or incremental character of this value that should be quantified in front of previous alternatives -not versus placebo- and under conditions of real use; and 3) the incremental costs that bears the administration of the new medication. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is the appropriate approach for decisions about coverage of a treatment by the public insurer, the price that he is willing to pay for the drug, and the clinical situations and patient groups in which it is recommended. The incremental cost-effectiveness analysis and the use of an indicative threshold of the maximum cost that the society is willing to pay for one additional "quality adjusted life year" are the essential elements of this approach, which doesn't require to fix the price of the new medications at the threshold of the willingness to pay.

  4. Characterization of enamel incremental markings and crown growth parameters in minipig molars.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Breuer, Friederike; Richards, Alan; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    We studied the structure and periodicity of regular incremental markings in third molar enamel of minipigs. Light microscopy of ground sections revealed the presence of incremental markings matching the description of laminations. Their number within the section planes closely paralleled crown formation time (CFT) in days reported for minipig third molars, thereby indicating the daily nature of laminations. Spacing of consecutive laminations increased from lowest values in the inner to highest values in the outer enamel, where mean daily secretion rates of about 20 µm were recorded. Mean enamel extension rates determined for deciles along the enamel-dentin junction varied between highest values (155 µm/day) in the most cuspally located and lowest values (19 µm/day) in cervical enamel. Backscattered electron imaging in the SEM revealed the presence of thin, regularly spaced hypermineralized incremental lines in the outer enamel portion. These lines exhibited the same spacing as the laminations and were, thus, likewise regarded as daily incremental markings. Between two successive daily incremental markings, subdaily growth marks were discernible in light microscopic and in BSE-SEM images. These subdaily growth marks closely resembled the (daily) prism-cross striations of human enamel. Supra-daily growth marks were not identified in the minipig enamel. The results of this study parallels previous findings in sheep enamel. It is cautioned that CFT of ungulate teeth may be considerably overestimated if the periodicity established for growth marks in human enamel is uncritically transferred to the analysis of morphologically similar growth marks in ungulate enamel.

  5. Temperature Humidity and Sea Level Pressure Increments Induced by 1DVAR Analysis of GPS Refractivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; Kursinski, Emil Robert; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) transmitted signals are affected by the atmosphere. Using the radio occultation technique, where a receiver is placed on a low-Earth-orbiting platform. it is possible to perform soundings. by measuring the bending angles of the rays. The information can be converted into atmospheric refractivity. We have developed a one dimensional variational (1DVAR) analysis that uses GPS/MET 1995 refractivity and 6-hour FVDAS (Finite Volume Data Assimilation System) forecasts as background information to constrain the retrievals. The analysis increments are defined as 1DVAR minus background temperature, humidity and sea level pressure. Before assimilating the 1DVAR profiles into the FVDAS. the increments need to be understood. First, some bias could be induced in the retrievals when confronted with actual biased data: second. bias in the back-round could create undesired bias in the retrievals. Anv bias in the analyses will ultimately change the climatology of the model the retrievals will be assimilated into. We relate the increments to the reduction of the difference between observed minus computed refractivity profiles. We also point out the difference in the mean increments using backgrounds which have assimilated either NESDIS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) operational retrievals or Data Assimilation Office (DAO) TOVS interactive retrievals. The climatology of the model in terms of refractivity is significantly different and this impacts the GPS 1DVAR increments. This testifies that changing the basic load of assimilated data has an influence on the impact the GPS data may have in a DAS.

  6. Chromatic discrimination in the presence of incremental and decremental rod pedestals.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J; Pokorny, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Signals from rods can alter chromatic discrimination. Here, chromatic discrimination ellipses were determined in the presence of rod incremental and decremental pedestals at mesopic light levels. The data were represented in a relative cone Troland space, normalized by discrimination thresholds measured along the cardinal axes without a rod pedestal. In the quadrant of cone space where L-cone relative to M-cone excitation increased, and S-cone excitation decreased, rod incremental pedestals degraded chromatic discrimination, and rod decremental pedestals improved chromatic discrimination. Discrimination in the other three quadrants of cone space was unaffected by the incremental or decremental rod pedestals. A second experiment measured chromatic discrimination under conditions where cone pedestals were matched to the appearances of the incremental and decremental rod pedestals. Based on the matching pedestal data, discrimination then could be measured independently along the cardinal axes using either chromatic [L/(L + M); S/(L + M)] or luminance (L + M) pedestal components. The discrimination data altered by the rod pedestals were similar to chromatic cone pedestals for L/M increment discrimination, but similar to luminance cone pedestals for S decrement discrimination. The results indicated that the rod and cone signals combined differently in determining chromatic discrimination for different post-receptoral pathways.

  7. Does Stroke Volume Increase During an Incremental Exercise? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Stella S; Lemes, Brunno; de T C de Carvalho, Paulo; N de Lima, Rafael; S Bocalini, Danilo; A S Junior, José; Arsa, Gisela; A Casarin, Cezar; L Andrade, Erinaldo; J Serra, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac output increases during incremental-load exercise to meet metabolic skeletal muscle demand. This response requires a fast adjustment in heart rate and stroke volume. The heart rate is well known to increase linearly with exercise load; however, data for stroke volume during incremental-load exercise are unclear. Our objectives were to (a) review studies that have investigated stroke volume on incremental load exercise and (b) summarize the findings for stroke volume, primarily at maximal-exercise load. A comprehensive review of the Cochrane Library's, Embase, Medline, SportDiscus, PubMed, and Web of Sci-ence databases was carried out for the years 1985 to the present. The search was performed between February and June 2014 to find studies evaluating changes in stroke volume during incremental-load exercise. Controlled and uncontrolled trials were evaluated for a quality score. The stroke volume data in maximal-exercise load are inconsistent. There is evidence to hypothesis that stroke volume increases during maximal-exercise load, but other lines of evidence indicate that stroke volume reaches a plateau under these circumstances, or even decreases. The stroke volume are unclear, include contradictory evidence. Additional studies with standardized reporting for subjects (e.g., age, gender, physical fitness, and body position), exercise test protocols, and left ventricular function are required to clarify the characteristics of stroke volume during incremental maximal-exercise load.

  8. An incremental-iterative method for modeling damage evolution in voxel-based microstructure models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-Zhi; Yvonnet, Julien

    2015-02-01

    Numerical methods motivated by rapid advances in image processing techniques have been intensively developed during recent years and increasingly applied to simulate heterogeneous materials with complex microstructure. The present work aims at elaborating an incremental-iterative numerical method for voxel-based modeling of damage evolution in quasi-brittle microstructures. The iterative scheme based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the real space domain (Yvonnet, in Int J Numer Methods Eng 92:178-205, 2012) is first cast into an incremental form so as to implement nonlinear material models efficiently. In the proposed scheme, local strain increments at material grid points are computed iteratively by a mapping operation through a transformation array, while local stresses are determined using a constitutive model that accounts for material degradation by damage. For validation, benchmark studies and numerical simulations using microtomographic data of concrete are performed. For each test, numerical predictions by the incremental-iterative scheme and the finite element method, respectively, are presented and compared for both global responses and local damage distributions. It is emphasized that the proposed incremental-iterative formulation can be straightforwardly applied in the framework of other Lippmann-Schwinger equation-based schemes, like the fast Fourier transform method.

  9. Temperature Humidity and Sea Level Pressure Increments Induced by 1DVAR Analysis of GPS Refractivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poli, Paul; Joiner, Joanna; Kursinski, Emil Robert; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) transmitted signals are affected by the atmosphere. Using the radio occultation technique, where a receiver is placed on a low-Earth-orbiting platform. it is possible to perform soundings. by measuring the bending angles of the rays. The information can be converted into atmospheric refractivity. We have developed a one dimensional variational (1DVAR) analysis that uses GPS/MET 1995 refractivity and 6-hour FVDAS (Finite Volume Data Assimilation System) forecasts as background information to constrain the retrievals. The analysis increments are defined as 1DVAR minus background temperature, humidity and sea level pressure. Before assimilating the 1DVAR profiles into the FVDAS. the increments need to be understood. First, some bias could be induced in the retrievals when confronted with actual biased data: second. bias in the back-round could create undesired bias in the retrievals. Anv bias in the analyses will ultimately change the climatology of the model the retrievals will be assimilated into. We relate the increments to the reduction of the difference between observed minus computed refractivity profiles. We also point out the difference in the mean increments using backgrounds which have assimilated either NESDIS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) operational retrievals or Data Assimilation Office (DAO) TOVS interactive retrievals. The climatology of the model in terms of refractivity is significantly different and this impacts the GPS 1DVAR increments. This testifies that changing the basic load of assimilated data has an influence on the impact the GPS data may have in a DAS.

  10. Contrasting patterns of diameter and biomass increment across tree functional groups in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Helen C; Baker, Timothy R; Martinez, Rodolfo Vasquez; Monteagudo, Abel; Phillips, Oliver L

    2008-12-01

    Species' functional traits may help determine rates of carbon gain, with physiological and morphological trade-offs relating to shade tolerance affecting photosynthetic capacity and carbon allocation strategies. However, few studies have examined these trade-offs from the perspective of whole-plant biomass gain of adult trees. We compared tree-level annual diameter increments and annual above-ground biomass (AGB) increments in eight long-term plots in hyper-diverse northwest Amazonia to wood density (rho; a proxy for shade tolerance), whilst also controlling for resource supply (light and soil fertility). rho and annual diameter increment were negatively related, confirming expected differences in allocation associated with shade tolerance, such that light-demanding species allocate a greater proportion of carbon to diameter gain at the expense of woody tissue density. However, contrary to expectations, we found a positive relationship between rho and annual AGB increment in more fertile sites, although AGB gain did not differ significantly with rho class on low-fertility sites. Whole-plant carbon gain may be greater in shade-tolerant species due to higher total leaf area, despite lower leaf-level carbon assimilation rates. Alternatively, rates of carbon loss may be higher in more light-demanding species: higher rates of litterfall, respiration or allocation to roots, are all plausible mechanisms. However, the relationships between rho and AGB and diameter increments were weak; resource availability always exerted a stronger influence on tree growth rates.

  11. Incremental and infrequent hemodialysis: a new paradigm for both dialysis initiation and conservative management.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Ghahremani-Ghajar, Mehrdad; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-06-01

    Registry or national dialysis data show that a sizeable proportion of contemporary dialysis patients have substantial levels of residual kidney function especially upon transitioning to dialysis therapy. However, among incident hemodialysis patients, the prevailing paradigm has been to initiate "full-dose" triweekly treatment schedules irrespective of native kidney function in most developed countries. Recognizing the benefits of residual kidney function upon the health and survival of dialysis patients, there has been growing interest in incremental hemodialysis, in which dialysis frequency and dose are tailored according to the degree of patients' residual kidney function. Infrequent hemodialysis can also be used for those who prefer a more conservative approach in managing uremia. Clinical practice guidelines support the use of twice-weekly hemodialysis among patients with adequate residual kidney function (renal urea clearance >3 mL/min/1.73 m2), and a growing body of evidence indicates that incremental hemodialysis is associated with better preservation of residual kidney function without adversely impacting survival. Nonetheless, incremental hemodialysis remains an underutilized approach in this population. In this review, we will discuss the history of the twice- versus triweekly hemodialysis schedules; current clinical practice guidelines regarding infrequent hemodialysis; emerging data on incremental treatment regimens and outcomes; and guidelines for the practical implementation of incremental and infrequent hemodialysis in the clinical setting.

  12. Incremental validity of the Psychopathy Checklist facet scores: predicting release outcome in six samples.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D; Knight, Raymond A; Grann, Martin; Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2008-05-01

    The incremental validity of the 4 facet scores (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, Antisocial) of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995) was evaluated in 6 forensic/correctional samples with average follow-ups ranging from 20 weeks to 10 years. Results indicated that whereas Facet 4 (Antisocial) achieved incremental validity relative to the first 3 facets (Interpersonal, Affective, and Lifestyle) in predicting recidivism in all 6 samples, a block of the first 3 facets achieved incremental validity relative to the 4th facet in only 1 sample. Thus, although there was consistent support for the incremental validity of Facet 4 above and beyond the first 3 facets, there was minimal support for the incremental validity of Facets 1, 2, and 3 above and beyond Facet 4. The implications of these findings for the psychopathy construct in general and the PCL-R/SV in particular are discussed.

  13. Incremental pacing for the diagnosis of complete cavotricuspid isthmus block during radiofrequency ablation of atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Bazan, Victor; Martí-Almor, Julio; Perez-Rodon, Jordi; Bruguera, Jordi; Gerstenfeld, Edward P; Callans, David J; Marchlinski, Francis E

    2010-01-01

    Complete conduction block of the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) reduces atrial flutter recurrences after ablation. Incremental rapid pacing may distinguish slow conduction from complete CTI conduction block. Fifty-two patients (67 +/- 9 years) undergoing 55 CTI ablation procedures were included. With ablation, double potentials (DPs) separated by an isoelectric line of > or =30 ms were obtained. Incremental atrial pacing (600-250 ms) was performed from coronary sinus (CS) and low lateral right atrium (LLRA). A <20 ms increase in the DPs distance during incremental pacing was indexed as complete CTI block. In 8 patients, an initial <20 ms DPs distance increase was noted; direct complete isthmus block was suggested and no additional ablation performed. In the remaining, the CTI line was remapped for conduction gaps and additional radiofrequency energy pulses applied. Complete block, as indexed by incremental pacing, occurred in 46 of 55 procedures, with one flutter recurrence (follow-up 8 +/- 2 months): DPs interval variation of 116 +/- 20 to 123 +/- 20 ms (CS), P = 0.21; and 122 +/- 25 to 135 +/- 35 ms (LLRA), P = 0.17. The remaining 9 patients (persistent rate-dependent DPs increase) presented 3 flutter recurrences, P = 0.01: DP distance from 127 +/- 15 to 161 +/- 18 ms (CS), P < 0.001; and 114 +/- 24 to 142 +/- 10 ms (LLRA), P = 0.007. Incremental pacing distinguishes complete CTI block from persistent conduction. Such identification, accompanied by additional ablation to achieve block, should minimize flutter recurrences after ablative therapy.

  14. Numerical simulation of pseudoelastic shape memory alloys using the large time increment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Weihong; Zaki, Wael; Moumni, Ziad

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents a numerical implementation of the large time increment (LATIN) method for the simulation of shape memory alloys (SMAs) in the pseudoelastic range. The method was initially proposed as an alternative to the conventional incremental approach for the integration of nonlinear constitutive models. It is adapted here for the simulation of pseudoelastic SMA behavior using the Zaki-Moumni model and is shown to be especially useful in situations where the phase transformation process presents little or lack of hardening. In these situations, a slight stress variation in a load increment can result in large variations of strain and local state variables, which may lead to difficulties in numerical convergence. In contrast to the conventional incremental method, the LATIN method solve the global equilibrium and local consistency conditions sequentially for the entire loading path. The achieved solution must satisfy the conditions of static and kinematic admissibility and consistency simultaneously after several iterations. 3D numerical implementation is accomplished using an implicit algorithm and is then used for finite element simulation using the software Abaqus. Computational tests demonstrate the ability of this approach to simulate SMAs presenting flat phase transformation plateaus and subjected to complex loading cases, such as the quasi-static behavior of a stent structure. Some numerical results are contrasted to those obtained using step-by-step incremental integration.

  15. Incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo for autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Gangqi; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposed a new incremental inverse kinematics based vision servo approach for robotic manipulators to capture a non-cooperative target autonomously. The target's pose and motion are estimated by a vision system using integrated photogrammetry and EKF algorithm. Based on the estimated pose and motion of the target, the instantaneous desired position of the end-effector is predicted by inverse kinematics and the robotic manipulator is moved incrementally from its current configuration subject to the joint speed limits. This approach effectively eliminates the multiple solutions in the inverse kinematics and increases the robustness of the control algorithm. The proposed approach is validated by a hardware-in-the-loop simulation, where the pose and motion of the non-cooperative target is estimated by a real vision system. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed estimation approach for the target and the incremental control strategy for the robotic manipulator.

  16. Linear-scaling generation of potential energy surfaces using a double incremental expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2016-08-01

    We present a combination of the incremental expansion of potential energy surfaces (PESs), known as n-mode expansion, with the incremental evaluation of the electronic energy in a many-body approach. The application of semi-local coordinates in this context allows the generation of PESs in a very cost-efficient way. For this, we employ the recently introduced flexible adaptation of local coordinates of nuclei (FALCON) coordinates. By introducing an additional transformation step, concerning only a fraction of the vibrational degrees of freedom, we can achieve linear scaling of the accumulated cost of the single point calculations required in the PES generation. Numerical examples of these double incremental approaches for oligo-phenyl examples show fast convergence with respect to the maximum number of simultaneously treated fragments and only a modest error introduced by the additional transformation step. The approach, presented here, represents a major step towards the applicability of vibrational wave function methods to sizable, covalently bound systems.

  17. Incremental Validity of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF).

    PubMed

    Siegling, A B; Vesely, Ashley K; Petrides, K V; Saklofske, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incremental validity of the adult short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue-SF) in predicting 7 construct-relevant criteria beyond the variance explained by the Five-factor model and coping strategies. Additionally, the relative contributions of the questionnaire's 4 subscales were assessed. Two samples of Canadian university students completed the TEIQue-SF, along with measures of the Big Five, coping strategies (Sample 1 only), and emotion-laden criteria. The TEIQue-SF showed consistent incremental effects beyond the Big Five or the Big Five and coping strategies, predicting all 7 criteria examined across the 2 samples. Furthermore, 2 of the 4 TEIQue-SF subscales accounted for the measure's incremental validity. Although the findings provide good support for the validity and utility of the TEIQue-SF, directions for further research are emphasized.

  18. Adaptive object recognition model using incremental feature representation and hierarchical classification.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sungmoon; Lee, Minho

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive object recognition model based on incremental feature representation and a hierarchical feature classifier that offers plasticity to accommodate additional input data and reduces the problem of forgetting previously learned information. The incremental feature representation method applies adaptive prototype generation with a cortex-like mechanism to conventional feature representation to enable an incremental reflection of various object characteristics, such as feature dimensions in the learning process. A feature classifier based on using a hierarchical generative model recognizes various objects with variant feature dimensions during the learning process. Experimental results show that the adaptive object recognition model successfully recognizes single and multiple-object classes with enhanced stability and flexibility.

  19. Exact Statistics of Record Increments of Random Walks and Lévy Flights.

    PubMed

    Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N; Schehr, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    We study the statistics of increments in record values in a time series {x_{0}=0,x_{1},x_{2},…,x_{n}} generated by the positions of a random walk (discrete time, continuous space) of duration n steps. For arbitrary jump length distribution, including Lévy flights, we show that the distribution of the record increment becomes stationary, i.e., independent of n for large n, and compute it explicitly for a wide class of jump distributions. In addition, we compute exactly the probability Q(n) that the record increments decrease monotonically up to step n. Remarkably, Q(n) is universal (i.e., independent of the jump distribution) for each n, decaying as Q(n)∼A/sqrt[n] for large n, with a universal amplitude A=e/sqrt[π]=1.53362….

  20. Incremental expansions for the ground-state energy of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, J.; Flach, S.; Kladko, K.

    1999-02-01

    A generalization of Faddeev{close_quote}s approach of the three-body problem to the many-body problem leads to the method of increments. This method was recently applied to account for the ground-state properties of Hubbard-Peierls chains [J. Malek, K. Kladko, and S. Flach, JETP Lett. {bold 67}, 1052 (1998)]. Here we generalize this approach to two-dimensional square lattices and explicitly treat the incremental expansion up to third order. Comparing our numerical results with various other approaches (Monte Carlo, cumulant approaches) we show that incremental expansions are very efficient because good accuracy with these approaches is achieved treating lattice segments composed of eight sites only. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. The balanced scorecard: an incremental approach model to health care management.

    PubMed

    Pineno, Charles J

    2002-01-01

    The balanced scorecard represents a technique used in strategic management to translate an organization's mission and strategy into a comprehensive set of performance measures that provide the framework for implementation of strategic management. This article develops an incremental approach for decision making by formulating a specific balanced scorecard model with an index of nonfinancial as well as financial measures. The incremental approach to costs, including profit contribution analysis and probabilities, allows decisionmakers to assess, for example, how their desire to meet different health care needs will cause changes in service design. This incremental approach to the balanced scorecard may prove to be useful in evaluating the existence of causality relationships between different objective and subjective measures to be included within the balanced scorecard.

  2. Incremental Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Disorder Traits With Respect to Psychosocial Impairment.

    PubMed

    Simms, Leonard J; Calabrese, William R

    2016-02-01

    Traditional personality disorders (PDs) are associated with significant psychosocial impairment. DSM-5 Section III includes an alternative hybrid personality disorder (PD) classification approach, with both type and trait elements, but relatively little is known about the impairments associated with Section III traits. Our objective was to study the incremental validity of Section III traits--compared to normal-range traits, traditional PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology--in predicting psychosocial impairment. To that end, 628 current/recent psychiatric patients completed measures of PD traits, normal-range traits, traditional PD criteria, psychiatric symptomatology, and psychosocial impairments. Hierarchical regressions revealed that Section III PD traits incrementally predicted psychosocial impairment over normal-range personality traits, PD criterion counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology. In contrast, the incremental effects for normal-range traits, PD symptom counts, and common psychiatric symptomatology were substantially smaller than for PD traits. These findings have implications for PD classification and the impairment literature more generally.

  3. Nonstationary increments, scaling distributions, and variable diffusion processes in financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; McCauley, Joseph L.; Gunaratne, Gemunu H.

    2007-10-01

    Fat-tailed distributions have been reported in fluctuations of financial markets for more than a decade. Sliding interval techniques used in these studies implicitly assume that the underlying stochastic process has stationary increments. Through an analysis of intraday increments, we explicitly show that this assumption is invalid for the Euro-Dollar exchange rate. We find several time intervals during the day where the standard deviation of increments exhibits power law behavior in time. Stochastic dynamics during these intervals is shown to be given by diffusion processes with a diffusion coefficient that depends on time and the exchange rate. We introduce methods to evaluate the dynamical scaling index and the scaling function empirically. In general, the scaling index is significantly smaller than previously reported values close to 0.5. We show how the latter as well as apparent fat-tailed distributions can occur only as artifacts of the sliding interval analysis.

  4. Online State-Based Structured SVM Combined With Incremental PCA for Robust Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yingjie; Xu, De; Wang, Xingang; Bai, Mingran

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust state-based structured support vector machine (SVM) tracking algorithm combined with incremental principal component analysis (PCA). Different from the current structured SVM for tracking, our method directly learns and predicts the object's states and not the 2-D translation transformation during tracking. We define the object's virtual state to combine the state-based structured SVM and incremental PCA. The virtual state is considered as the most confident state of the object in every frame. The incremental PCA is used to update the virtual feature vector corresponding to the virtual state and the principal subspace of the object's feature vectors. In order to improve the accuracy of the prediction, all the feature vectors are projected onto the principal subspace in the learning and prediction process of the state-based structured SVM. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences validate the effectiveness and robustness of our approach.

  5. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening.

  6. Linear Increments with Non-monotone Missing Data and Measurement Error.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Shaun R; Farewell, Daniel; White, Ian R

    2016-12-01

    Linear increments (LI) are used to analyse repeated outcome data with missing values. Previously, two LI methods have been proposed, one allowing non-monotone missingness but not independent measurement error and one allowing independent measurement error but only monotone missingness. In both, it was suggested that the expected increment could depend on current outcome. We show that LI can allow non-monotone missingness and either independent measurement error of unknown variance or dependence of expected increment on current outcome but not both. A popular alternative to LI is a multivariate normal model ignoring the missingness pattern. This gives consistent estimation when data are normally distributed and missing at random (MAR). We clarify the relation between MAR and the assumptions of LI and show that for continuous outcomes multivariate normal estimators are also consistent under (non-MAR and non-normal) assumptions not much stronger than those of LI. Moreover, when missingness is non-monotone, they are typically more efficient.

  7. Influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of composite base materials.

    PubMed

    Omran, Tarek A; Garoushi, Sufyan; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Lassila, Lippo V; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2017-06-01

    Bulk-fill resin composites (BFCs) are gaining popularity in restorative dentistry due to the reduced chair time and ease of application. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of increment thickness on dentin bond strength and light transmission of different BFCs and a new discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite. One hundred eighty extracted sound human molars were prepared for a shear bond strength (SBS) test. The teeth were divided into four groups (n = 45) according to the resin composite used: regular particulate filler resin composite: (1) G-ænial Anterior [GA] (control); bulk-fill resin composites: (2) Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill [TEBF] and (3) SDR; and discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite: (4) everX Posterior [EXP]. Each group was subdivided according to increment thickness (2, 4, and 6 mm). The irradiance power through the material of all groups/subgroups was quantified (MARC® Resin Calibrator; BlueLight Analytics Inc.). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. SBS and light irradiance decreased as the increment's height increased (p < 0.05), regardless of the type of resin composite used. EXP presented the highest SBS in 2- and 4-mm-thick increments when compared to other composites, although the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Light irradiance mean values arranged in descending order were (p < 0.05) EXP, SDR, TEBF, and GA. As increment thickness increased, the light transmission decreased for all tested resin composites. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest value of curing light transmission, which was also seen in improved bonding strength to the underlying dentin surface. Discontinuous fiber-reinforced composite can be applied safely in bulks of 4-mm increments same as other bulk-fill composites, although, in 2-mm thickness, the investigated composites showed better performance.

  8. Incremental value of natriuretic peptide measurement in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Santaguida, Pasqualina L; Don-Wauchope, Andrew C; Ali, Usman; Oremus, Mark; Brown, Judy A; Bustamam, Amy; Hill, Stephen A; Booth, Ronald A; Sohel, Nazmul; McKelvie, Robert; Balion, Cynthia; Raina, Parminder

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) independently add incremental value for predicting mortality and morbidity in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). Medline(®), Embase™, AMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL were searched from 1989 to June 2012. We also searched reference lists of included articles, systematic reviews, and the gray literature. Studies were screened for eligibility criteria and assessed for risk of bias. Data were extracted on study design, population demographics, assay cutpoints, prognostic risk prediction model covariates, statistical methods, outcomes, and results. From 183 citations, only seven studies (5 BNP and 2 NT-proBNP) considered incremental value in ADHF subjects admitted to acute care centers. Admission assay levels and length of follow-up varied for BNP studies (31 days to 12 months) and for NT-proBNP studies (25-82 months). All studies presented at least one estimate of incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP relative to the base prognostic model. Using discrimination or likelihood statistics, these studies consistently showed that BNP or NT-proBNP increased model performance. Three studies used reclassification and model validation computations to establish incremental value; these studies showed less consistency with respect to added value. In conclusion, the literature assessing incremental value of BNP/NT-proBNP in ADHF populations is limited to seven studies evaluating only mortality outcomes and at moderate risk of bias. Although there were differences in the base risk prediction models, assay cutpoints, and lengths of follow-up, there was consistency in BNP/NT-proBNP adding incremental value in prediction models in ADHF patients.

  9. Clinical burden and incremental cost of fractures in postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lia; Roskell, Neil; Castellsague, Jordi; Beard, Steve; Rycroft, Catherine; Abeysinghe, Shaun; Shannon, Paul; Gitlin, Matthew; Robbins, Sean

    2012-09-01

    This cohort study of postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom aged ≥50years determined the incremental cost of health care and clinical outcomes in the 12months following incident, selected fractures (non-vertebral non-hip [NVNHF], vertebral [VF] and multiple [MF]). Incremental costs and outcomes of the fracture cohorts were compared with those of cohorts comprised of women without fractures who were individually matched on age and comorbidity. Cohorts were identified from The Health Improvement Network database, a primary health care database, from 2001 to 2005. We estimated 1-year incremental costs (hospitalizations; general practice, accident/emergency, and referral visits; and prescription medications) associated with each fracture type. Descriptive analyses examined occurrence of subsequent fractures and death. No long-term health care costs or outcomes were assessed. Overall, 14,030 women had NVNHF, 1471 had VF, and 193 had MF. The risk of death was greater for women with fractures than for women in the non-fracture cohorts. Mean incremental cost for fractures compared with no fractures was £1152 for VF; £690 for NVNHF, and £2581 for MF. Of the total incremental cost, hospitalizations represented 54%-90% and medications represented 7%-29%. In all fracture cohorts, most of the total annual costs were concentrated in the 6months after the date of fracture. Fractures among postmenopausal women represent an important burden to the health system due to the increase in health resource utilization and related costs. In this study, hospitalizations were the main driver of the overall incremental cost during the 12months following the fracture. Mortality in women in the selected fracture cohorts was higher than in women in the non-fracture cohorts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Incremental Peritoneal Dialysis in a Large Contemporary Peritoneal Dialysis Program.

    PubMed

    Ankawi, Ghada A; Woodcock, Nancy I; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X; Blake, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The use of an incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) strategy in a large contemporary patient population has not been described. We report the use of this strategy in clinical practice, the prescriptions required, and the clearances achieved in a large center which has routinely used this approach for more than 10 years. This is a cross-sectional observational study. A single large Canadian academic center. This study collected data on 124 prevalent PD patients at a single Canadian academic center. The proportion of patients who achieve the clearance target on a low clearance or incremental PD prescription; the actual PD prescriptions and consequent total, peritoneal, and renal urea clearances [Kt/V] achieved; and patient and technique survival and peritonitis rate in comparison with national and international reports. Of the 124 prevalent PD patients in this PD unit, 106 (86%) were achieving the Kt/V target, and of these, 54 (44% of all patients) were doing so using incremental PD prescriptions. Fifty of these incremental PD patients were using automated PD (APD) with either no day dwell (68%) or less than 7 days a week treatment (12%) or both (20%). Patient survival in our PD unit was not different from that reported in Canada as a whole. Peritonitis rates were better than internationally recommended standards. This is an observational study with no randomized control group. Incremental PD is feasible in a contemporary PD population treated mainly with APD. Almost half of the patients were able to achieve clearance targets while receiving less onerous and less costly low clearance prescriptions. We suggest that incremental PD should be widely used as a cost-effective strategy in PD.

  11. The Use of Incremental Peritoneal Dialysis in a Large Contemporary Peritoneal Dialysis Program

    PubMed Central

    Ankawi, Ghada A.; Woodcock, Nancy I.; Jain, Arsh K.; Garg, Amit X.; Blake, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of an incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD) strategy in a large contemporary patient population has not been described. Objective: We report the use of this strategy in clinical practice, the prescriptions required, and the clearances achieved in a large center which has routinely used this approach for more than 10 years. Design: This is a cross-sectional observational study. Setting: A single large Canadian academic center. Patients: This study collected data on 124 prevalent PD patients at a single Canadian academic center. Methods and Measurements: The proportion of patients who achieve the clearance target on a low clearance or incremental PD prescription; the actual PD prescriptions and consequent total, peritoneal, and renal urea clearances [Kt/V] achieved; and patient and technique survival and peritonitis rate in comparison with national and international reports. Results: Of the 124 prevalent PD patients in this PD unit, 106 (86%) were achieving the Kt/V target, and of these, 54 (44% of all patients) were doing so using incremental PD prescriptions. Fifty of these incremental PD patients were using automated PD (APD) with either no day dwell (68%) or less than 7 days a week treatment (12%) or both (20%). Patient survival in our PD unit was not different from that reported in Canada as a whole. Peritonitis rates were better than internationally recommended standards. Limitations: This is an observational study with no randomized control group. Conclusions: Incremental PD is feasible in a contemporary PD population treated mainly with APD. Almost half of the patients were able to achieve clearance targets while receiving less onerous and less costly low clearance prescriptions. We suggest that incremental PD should be widely used as a cost-effective strategy in PD. PMID:28781885

  12. Considerations on the Selection of Materials for Prosthetic Parts Obtained by Incremental Forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotigă, Carmen; Bologa, Octavian; Deac, Cristian

    2014-11-01

    Incremental forming is a novel but promising procedure for the flexible manufacturing of parts starting from metal sheets. It could be very useful in the medical area and especially in orthopedic prosthetics, where each part needs to be very precisely made, but at the same time has to have a unique shape. In this context, the selection of the material that could best satisfy the manufacturing and usage requirements is very important. The current paper suggests a unified parameter that could be used for assessing the suitability of a specific material for the manufacturing, by incremental forming, of prosthetic parts that would be used in human surgery

  13. International Space Station Increment-4/5 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin; Reckart, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of some of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the International Space Station during the period of December 2001 to December 2002. Unlike the past two ISS Increment reports, which were increment specific, this summary report covers two increments: Increments 4 and 5, hereafter referred to as Increment-4/5. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels for the activities that took place during Increment-4/5. Due to time constraint and lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload operations and station activities, not a11 of the activities were analyzed for this report. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Microgravity System to support microgravity science experiments which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On April 19, 2001, both the Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System and the Space Acceleration Measurement System units were launched on STS-100 from the Kennedy Space Center for installation on the International Space Station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System supports science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System unit supports experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The International Space Station Increment-4/5 reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by both sets of accelerometer systems: The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System, which consists of two sensors: the low-frequency Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment Sensor Subsystem and the higher frequency High Resolution Accelerometer Package. The low frequency sensor measures up to 1 Hz, but is routinely trimmean filtered to yield much lower frequency acceleration data up to 0.01 Hz. This filtered data can be mapped to arbitrary

  14. Cross-Sectional and Incremental Changes in Working Memory and Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sectional and incremental age effects on cognitive processes that underlie individual differences in components of working memory (WM; phonological loop, visual-spatial sketchpad, executive processing) and mathematical problem-solving accuracy were examined in elementary school children. A battery of tests was administered that assessed…

  15. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-17

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  16. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  17. A height increment equation for young ponderosa pine plantations using precipitation and soil factors

    Treesearch

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    2001-01-01

    A height increment equation was used to determine the effects of site quality and competing herbaceous vegetation on the development of ponderosa pine seedlings (Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum Engelm.). Study areas were established in 36 plantations across northwest and west-central Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (...

  18. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Internal Structure, Convergent, Criterion, and Incremental Validity in an Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Federica; Smith, Martin M.; Surcinelli, Paola; Baldaro, Bruno; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure and validity of the Italian translation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data were self-reported from 227 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the scale. Hierarchical regressions also demonstrated its incremental validity beyond demographics, the…

  19. Software designs of image processing tasks with incremental refinement of computation.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Davide; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2010-08-01

    Software realizations of computationally-demanding image processing tasks (e.g., image transforms and convolution) do not currently provide graceful degradation when their clock-cycles budgets are reduced, e.g., when delay deadlines are imposed in a multitasking environment to meet throughput requirements. This is an important obstacle in the quest for full utilization of modern programmable platforms' capabilities since worst-case considerations must be in place for reasonable quality of results. In this paper, we propose (and make available online) platform-independent software designs performing bitplane-based computation combined with an incremental packing framework in order to realize block transforms, 2-D convolution and frame-by-frame block matching. The proposed framework realizes incremental computation: progressive processing of input-source increments improves the output quality monotonically. Comparisons with the equivalent nonincremental software realization of each algorithm reveal that, for the same precision of the result, the proposed approach can lead to comparable or faster execution, while it can be arbitrarily terminated and provide the result up to the computed precision. Application examples with region-of-interest based incremental computation, task scheduling per frame, and energy-distortion scalability verify that our proposal provides significant performance scalability with graceful degradation.

  20. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  1. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  2. Integrating Incremental Learning and Episodic Memory Models of the Hippocampal Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Myers, C. E.; Gluck, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    By integrating previous computational models of corticohippocampal function, the authors develop and test a unified theory of the neural substrates of familiarity, recollection, and classical conditioning. This approach integrates models from 2 traditions of hippocampal modeling, those of episodic memory and incremental learning, by drawing on an…

  3. Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, C. B.; Gould, Lawrence V.; King, Dennis; Parker, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units. Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed. Specifically, the simple costing model, unit…

  4. Evaluating growth assumptions using diameter or radial increments in natural even-aged longleaf pine

    Treesearch

    John C. Gilbert; Ralph S. Meldahl; Jyoti N. Rayamajhi; John S. Kush

    2010-01-01

    When using increment cores to predict future growth, one often assumes future growth is identical to past growth for individual trees. Once this assumption is accepted, a decision has to be made between which growth estimate should be used, constant diameter growth or constant basal area growth. Often, the assumption of constant diameter growth is used due to the ease...

  5. Periodic Annual Diameter Increment After Overstory Removal in Mixed Conifer Stands

    Treesearch

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; K. Leroy Dolph; John R. Anstead

    1998-01-01

    Diameter growth rates of understory trees were measured for periods both before and after overstory removal on six study areas in northern California. All the species responded with increased diameter growth after adjusting to their new environments. Linear regression equations that predict periodic annual increment of the diameters of the residual trees after...

  6. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  7. Integrated Strategic Planning and Analysis Network Increment 5 (ISPAN Inc 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Integrated Strategic Planning and Analysis Network Increment 5 (ISPAN Inc 5) Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED ISPAN Inc 5 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common Acronyms and...of Dollars MAIS - Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone Decision Authority

  8. Electrophysiological Evidence for Incremental Lexical-Semantic Integration in Auditory Compound Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koester, Dirk; Holle, Henning; Gunter, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the time-course of semantic integration in auditory compound word processing. Compounding is a productive mechanism of word formation that is used frequently in many languages. Specifically, we examined whether semantic integration is incremental or is delayed until the head, the last constituent in German, is…

  9. Using Incremental Rehearsal to Teach Letter Sounds to English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Wilson, Jennifer; Egan, Andrea; Brandes, Dana; Kunkel, Amy; Peterson, Meredith; McComas, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of incremental rehearsal (IR) on letter sound expression for one kindergarten and one first grade English learner who were below district benchmark for letter sound fluency. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across sets of unknown letter sounds was used to evaluate the effect of IR on letter-sound expression…

  10. Predictive and Incremental Validity of the New MCAT Science Problems Subtest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; And Others

    The predictive and incremental validity of the New Medical College Admission Test (New MCAT) Science Problems Subtest was examined with a sample of over 165 medical students. Criterion measures were National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I (basic science) and Part II (clinical science) performance. The Science Problems subscore is derived…

  11. Planning Comprehensively and Implementing Incrementally in an Age of Tightening Budgets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastroni, John P.; Schwartz, Celeste Marie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a comprehensive plan for the acquisition, maintenance, and upgrade of educational technology at Montgomery County Community College (Blue Bell, Pennsylvania). Indicates that despite comprehensive planning, implementation was incremental and contingent on the availability of resources. (JDI)

  12. Quality and Growth Implications of Incremental Costing Models for Distance Education Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, C. B.; Gould, Lawrence V.; King, Dennis; Parker, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore quality and growth implications emergent from various incremental costing models applied to distance education units. Prior research relative to costing models and three competing costing models useful in the current distance education environment are discussed. Specifically, the simple costing model, unit…

  13. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  14. Quantifiers More or Less Quantify On-Line: ERP Evidence for Partial Incremental Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded during RSVP reading to test the hypothesis that quantifier expressions are incrementally interpreted fully and immediately. In sentences tapping general knowledge ("Farmers grow crops/worms as their primary source of income"), Experiment 1 found larger N400s for atypical ("worms") than typical objects…

  15. Phonological Priming in Young Children Who Stutter: Holistic versus Incremental Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Method: Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and…

  16. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p < 0.01). During incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p < 0.01). StO2 in both muscles was significantly decreased under hypoxic compared with normoxic conditions at all running speeds (p < 0.01). The rate at which StO2 was decreased by hypoxia was greater in the vastus lateralis as the running speed increased, whereas it changed little in the medial gastrocnemius. These results suggest that the thigh is more deoxygenated than the calf under hypoxic conditions, and that the effects of hypoxia on tissue oxygenation differ between these two muscles during incremental running.

  17. Phonological Priming in Young Children Who Stutter: Holistic versus Incremental Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Conture, Edward G.; Ohde, Ralph N.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the holistic versus incremental phonological encoding processes of young children who stutter (CWS; N = 26) and age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS; N = 26) via a picture-naming auditory priming paradigm. Method: Children named pictures during 3 auditory priming conditions: neutral, holistic, and…

  18. Is It that Difficult to Find a Good Preference Order for the Incremental Algorithm?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahmer, Emiel; Koolen, Ruud; Theune, Mariet

    2012-01-01

    In a recent article published in this journal (van Deemter, Gatt, van der Sluis, & Power, 2012), the authors criticize the Incremental Algorithm (a well-known algorithm for the generation of referring expressions due to Dale & Reiter, 1995, also in this journal) because of its strong reliance on a pre-determined, domain-dependent Preference Order.…

  19. The validity of incremental exercise testing in discriminating of physiological profiles in elite runners.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; Munguía-Izquierdo, D; Carranza-García, L E; Reverter-Masía, J; Torres-Dávila, C G; Medina-Rodríguez, R E

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether traditional ergoespirometric incremental exercise testing carried out to the point of exhaustion could be useful in distinguishing the physiological profiles of elite runners that compete in races that lasted about 8 minutes versus those that lasted about 2 hours. Ten male marathon runners (performance time: 2:12:04, coefficient of variation (CV) = 2.33%) and 8 male 3000 m steeplechase runners (performance time: 8:37.83, CV = 2.12%) performed an incremental test on the treadmill (starting speed 10 km·h-1; increments, 2 km·h-1; increment duration, 3 min to exhaustion). Heart rate (HR), VO2, and lactate concentrations were measured at the end of each exercise level. At maximal effort, there were no differences between the groups regarding VO2max and maximal HR; however, the workload time, vVO2max and peak treadmill velocity were significantly higher in the 3000 m steeplechase group (p<0.05). At submaximal effort, there were no significant differences between groups for VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1), HR, or lactate. Our results show that this type of testing was not sufficient for discriminating the physiological profiles of elite runners who competed in middle-distance versus long-distance events (e.g. in the marathon and the 3000 m steeplechase).

  20. One Size Does Not Fit All: Managing Radical and Incremental Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Lucy L.; Lim, Hyoun Sook; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Moye, Neta

    2012-01-01

    This research extends creativity theory by re-conceptualizing creativity as a two-dimensional construct (radical and incremental) and examining the differential effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards, and supportive supervision on perceptions of creativity. We hypothesize and find two distinct types of creativity that are associated…

  1. Where to Look? Creative Self-Efficacy, Knowledge Retrieval, and Incremental and Radical Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaussi, Kimberly S.; Randel, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Although incremental creativity and radical creativity have been established as two distinct types of creativity, many questions remain about the antecedents and processes that result in these two types of creativity. This field study considered the impact of a motivational factor (creative self-efficacy), as well as factors that involve…

  2. A photon counting detector model based on increment matrices to simulate statistically correct detector signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faby, Sebastian; Maier, Joscha; Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Lell, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We present a novel increment matrix concept to simulate the correlations in an energy-selective photon counting detector. Correlations between the energy bins of neighboring detector pixels are introduced by scattered and fluorescence photons, together with the broadening of the induced charge clouds as they travel towards the electrodes, leading to charge sharing. It is important to generate statistically correct detector signals for the different energy bins to be able to realistically assess the detector's performance in various tasks, e.g. material decomposition. Our increment matrix concept describes the counter increases in neighboring pixels on a single event level. Advantages of our model are the fact that much less random numbers are required than simulating single photons and that the increment matrices together with their probabilities have to be generated only once and can be stored for later use. The different occurring increment matrix sets and the corresponding probabilities are simulated using an analytic model of the photon-matter-interactions based on the photoelectric effect and Compton scattering, and the charge cloud drift, featuring thermal diffusion and Coulomb expansion of the charge cloud. The results obtained with this model are evaluated in terms of the spectral response for different detector geometries and the resulting energy bin sensitivity. Comparisons to published measured data and a parameterized detector model show both a good qualitative and quantitative agreement. We also studied the resulting covariance of reconstructed energy bin images.

  3. A transdiagnostic approach to examining the incremental predictive power of emotion regulation and basic personality dimensions.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Kasey; Rozek, David C; Stasik-O'Brien, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Watson, David

    2016-10-01

    Although personality and emotion regulation abilities appear to overlap considerably, few studies have adopted an integrative approach by examining personality and emotion regulation together. Therefore, it is unclear how much incremental power emotion regulation demonstrates in predicting psychopathology beyond personality traits, and vice versa. Results from a community sample characterized by high levels of psychopathology (N = 299) indicated that personality and emotion regulation represent strongly related but distinguishable constructs, with both showing incremental power beyond the other in many cases in predicting self-reported and interview-rated psychopathology. More specifically, difficulties in responding adaptively to negative emotional experiences displayed predictive power beyond neuroticism and other personality traits in predicting internalizing psychopathology and psychoticism. Conversely, neuroticism displayed substantial incremental predictive power beyond emotion regulation and other five-factor model traits, especially for anxiety and other internalizing psychopathology. Other five-factor model traits also showed incremental predictive power in specific cases (e.g., agreeableness and conscientiousness showed specificity in predicting antagonism and disinhibition, respectively). These data provide a starting point for developing a finer-grained understanding of how emotion dysregulation and personality traits are implicated in a range of psychopathology, highlighting the value of adopting an integrative approach of examining emotion regulation and personality traits concurrently. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Global Combat Support System Army Increment 1 (GCSS-A Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Division, with Retail Supply Functions, Unit Level Supply, Maintenance, Property Book and Finances (support to tactical and installation supply and...maintenance). Release 1.2 will provide a disconnected Maintenance capability and additional Finance capabilities. GCSS-A Increment 2 is planned to add

  5. Single-point incremental forming of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Honghan; Guo, Guiqiang; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-12-01

    Many aluminum alloy sheet metal parts with complex geometry in airplane are often formed by drop hammer forming with intermediate annealing and then heat treated into T temper. The manufacturing cost is very high because of a number of forming and heat treatment steps. Incremental sheet forming can form complex parts because of larger forming limit than conventional stamping. So the research that the part is formed directly from T temper aluminum alloy sheet using incremental sheet forming is very attractive. 2024-T3 is the aluminum alloy used mostly in aerospace manufacturing. Single-point incremental forming experiments with 2024-T3 are carried to form cone shape parts. In this work, the formability of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy sheets in single-point incremental forming was preliminarily studied. Effect of tool diameter and wall angle on the formability were investigated. It is found that the surface roughness can be reduced and the forming depth of the cone shape part can be increased by increasing the tool diameter.

  6. A diameter increment model for Red Fir in California and Southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    Periodic (10-year) diameter increment of individual red fir trees in Califomia and southern Oregon can be predicted from initial diameter and crown ratio of each tree, site index, percent slope, and aspect of the site. The model actually predicts the natural logarithm ofthe change in squared diameter inside bark between the startand the end of a 10-year growth period....

  7. Predicting height increment of young-growth red fir in California and southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    K. Leroy Dolph

    1992-01-01

    An equation is given to estimate 10-year height increment for young-growth red fir trees in California and southern Oregon. The independent variables are the individual tree, stand, and site characteristics significantly related to a tree's height growth. Data used to develop the equation came from stem analysis of 492 trees sampled from 56 stands in the study...

  8. Incrementality and additionality: A new dimension to North-South resource transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, A. . School of Environmental Sciences); Werksman, J. . Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development)

    1994-06-01

    In the last four years, incrementality'' and additionality'' have emerged as new terms in the evolving lexicon of international environmental diplomacy. As Parties to the Conventions on Climate Change, Biodiversity and the Ozone Layer, industrialized states undertake to provide sufficient additional resources (the principle of additionality) to meet the incremental cost (the concept of incrementality) of measures undertaken by the developing countries to tackle global environmental problems. Issues of incrementality and additionality go to the heart of a much deeper and highly contentious debate on who should pay the costs of responding to global environmental problems; on how the payment should be made; on which agency or agencies should manage the transfers; and upon which parties should be compensated. Every sign is that if the overall North to South transfer breaks down or is retarded, then the process of implementing the aforementioned agreements may be jeopardized. This paper reviews the emergency of the two terms in international environmental politics; it pinpoints the theoretical and practical difficulties of defining and implementing them; and it assesses whether these difficulties and conflicts of opinion may, in some manner, be resolved.

  9. Predictive and Incremental Validity of the New MCAT Science Problems Subtest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; And Others

    The predictive and incremental validity of the New Medical College Admission Test (New MCAT) Science Problems Subtest was examined with a sample of over 165 medical students. Criterion measures were National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I (basic science) and Part II (clinical science) performance. The Science Problems subscore is derived…

  10. Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

  11. Even Highly Correlated Measures Can Add Incrementally to Predicting Recidivism among Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchishin, Kelly M.; Hanson, R. Karl; Helmus, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Criterion-referenced measures, such as those used in the assessment of crime and violence, prioritize predictive accuracy (discrimination) at the expense of construct validity. In this article, we compared the discrimination and incremental validity of three commonly used criterion-referenced measures for sex offenders (Rapid Risk Assessment for…

  12. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  13. Predictive and Incremental Validity of Global and Domain-Based Adolescent Life Satisfaction Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haranin, Emily C.; Huebner, E. Scott; Suldo, Shannon M.

    2007-01-01

    Concurrent, predictive, and incremental validity of global and domain-based adolescent life satisfaction reports are examined with respect to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS), Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), and measures of internalizing and externalizing…

  14. Incremental and Predictive Utility of Formative Assessment Methods of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Amanda M.; Hintze, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Formative assessment measures are commonly used in schools to assess reading and to design instruction accordingly. The purpose of this research was to investigate the incremental and concurrent validity of formative assessment measures of reading comprehension. It was hypothesized that formative measures of reading comprehension would contribute…

  15. Career Decision-Making Profiles vs. Styles: Convergent and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Gadassi, Reuma; Mashiah-Cohen, Rona

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated the convergent and incremental validity of the multidimensional model and questionnaire--the Career Decision-Making Profiles ("CDMP," Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Peretz-Asulin, & Gadassi, 2010)--by comparing it to two prevalent decision-making style models. Study 1 compared the "CDMP" to the Vocational Decision…

  16. The Incremental Validity and Clinical Utility of the MMPI-2 Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margarita B.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The incremental validity and clinical utility of the recently developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (Fptsd) was examined in relation to the family of MMPI-2 F scales in distinguishing feigned post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from disability claimants with PTSD.…

  17. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  18. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Internal Structure, Convergent, Criterion, and Incremental Validity in an Italian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrei, Federica; Smith, Martin M.; Surcinelli, Paola; Baldaro, Bruno; Saklofske, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the structure and validity of the Italian translation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Data were self-reported from 227 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the scale. Hierarchical regressions also demonstrated its incremental validity beyond demographics, the…

  19. The role of behaviour in inequality in increments of dental caries among Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Wael; Suominen, Anna L; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Aromaa, Arpo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from cross-sectional studies implies that dental behaviours partially explain inequalities in oral health. To assess whether dental behaviours completely eliminate inequality in increments of dental caries in a sample of Finnish adults. The baseline data were collected from the Health 2000 survey, a nationally representative survey of 8,028 individuals aged 30 years or older living in mainland Finland. Four years later, 1,248 subjects were invited for oral re-examination, and 1,049 agreed to participate (84% response rate). At baseline, participants provided information on demographics, education and dental behaviours (dental attendance, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, sugar consumption and daily smoking). Oral examinations at baseline and follow-up were identical. Adults with basic education had significantly greater increments of DMFT (incidence rate ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85) and DT (incidence rate ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.27-3.90) than those with high education. Adjusting for single behaviours attenuated but did not eliminate education inequality in DMFT and DT increments, tooth brushing having the greatest impact on inequality. Simultaneous adjustment for all behaviours eliminated the significant relationship between education and caries increment. Accounting for important dental behaviours appears to explain all education inequality in dental caries in Finnish adults. The results should be interpreted with caution when applied to less egalitarian populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Quantifiers More or Less Quantify On-Line: ERP Evidence for Partial Incremental Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbach, Thomas P.; Kutas, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials were recorded during RSVP reading to test the hypothesis that quantifier expressions are incrementally interpreted fully and immediately. In sentences tapping general knowledge ("Farmers grow crops/worms as their primary source of income"), Experiment 1 found larger N400s for atypical ("worms") than typical objects…

  1. 'Incremental thermocouple probe' for testing insulation erosion on a rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Reginald J.

    1993-01-01

    An incremental thermocouple probe was developed to measure insulation erosion during a solid rocket motor firing. The probe's new and unique design is described along with its theory of operation. Data from an actual firing are reported which show that the probe's performance greatly exceeded predictions and present technology as a temperature measurement device and as an event gage.

  2. Incremental Benefits of a Daily Report Card Intervention over Time for Youth with Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Julie Sarno; Holdaway, Alex S.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Evans, Steven W.; Himawan, Lina K.; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Murphy, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the percentage of children who respond positively to a daily report card (DRC) intervention and the extent to which students achieve incremental benefits with each month of intervention in a general education classroom. Participants were 66 children (87% male) with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or disruptive behavior…

  3. A Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network based on local distribution learning.

    PubMed

    Xing, Youlu; Shi, Xiaofeng; Shen, Furao; Zhou, Ke; Zhao, Jinxi

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an unsupervised incremental learning neural network based on local distribution learning, which is called Local Distribution Self-Organizing Incremental Neural Network (LD-SOINN). The LD-SOINN combines the advantages of incremental learning and matrix learning. It can automatically discover suitable nodes to fit the learning data in an incremental way without a priori knowledge such as the structure of the network. The nodes of the network store rich local information regarding the learning data. The adaptive vigilance parameter guarantees that LD-SOINN is able to add new nodes for new knowledge automatically and the number of nodes will not grow unlimitedly. While the learning process continues, nodes that are close to each other and have similar principal components are merged to obtain a concise local representation, which we call a relaxation data representation. A denoising process based on density is designed to reduce the influence of noise. Experiments show that the LD-SOINN performs well on both artificial and real-word data.

  4. Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

  5. Potential relative increment (PRI): a new method to empirically derive optimal tree diameter growth

    Treesearch

    Don C Bragg

    2001-01-01

    Potential relative increment (PRI) is a new method to derive optimal diameter growth equations using inventory information from a large public database. Optimal growth equations for 24 species were developed using plot and tree records from several states (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) of the North Central US. Most species were represented by thousands of...

  6. The efficacy of using inventory data to develop optimal diameter increment models

    Treesearch

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    Most optimal tree diameter growth models have arisen through either the conceptualization of physiological processes or the adaptation of empirical increment models. However, surprisingly little effort has been invested in the melding of these approaches even though it is possible to develop theoretically sound, computationally efficient optimal tree growth models...

  7. MEG Evidence for Incremental Sentence Composition in the Anterior Temporal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Jonathan R.; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-01-01

    Research investigating the brain basis of language comprehension has associated the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) with sentence-level combinatorics. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we test the parsing strategy implemented in this brain region. The number of incremental parse steps from a predictive left-corner parsing strategy that is…

  8. 40 CFR 60.2595 - What if I do not meet an increment of progress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... progress? 60.2595 Section 60.2595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and... or Before November 30, 1999 Model Rule-Increments of Progress § 60.2595 What if I do not meet...

  9. Investigating Postgraduate College Admission Interviews: Generalizability Theory Reliability and Incremental Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.; Castillo, Irene Borges

    2007-01-01

    The use of face-to-face interviews is controversial for college admissions decisions in light of the lack of availability of validity and reliability evidence for most college admission processes. This study investigated reliability and incremental predictive validity of a face-to-face postgraduate college admission interview with a sample of…

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ggg of... - Generic Compliance Schedule and Increments of Progress a

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills That Commenced Construction Prior to May 30, 1991 and Have Not Been Modified or Reconstructed Since May 30, 1991... rate report showing NMOC emissions ≥ 50 Mg/yr.b Increment 3—Begin on-site construction 24 months...

  11. One Size Does Not Fit All: Managing Radical and Incremental Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Lucy L.; Lim, Hyoun Sook; D'Innocenzo, Lauren; Moye, Neta

    2012-01-01

    This research extends creativity theory by re-conceptualizing creativity as a two-dimensional construct (radical and incremental) and examining the differential effects of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic rewards, and supportive supervision on perceptions of creativity. We hypothesize and find two distinct types of creativity that are associated…

  12. Where to Look? Creative Self-Efficacy, Knowledge Retrieval, and Incremental and Radical Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaussi, Kimberly S.; Randel, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Although incremental creativity and radical creativity have been established as two distinct types of creativity, many questions remain about the antecedents and processes that result in these two types of creativity. This field study considered the impact of a motivational factor (creative self-efficacy), as well as factors that involve…

  13. Factorial Structure of the Career Decision Scale: Incremental Validity of the Five-Factor Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Ronald C.; Ferry, Ashley; Bullock, Melinda; Camarotti-Carvalho, Ana; Collingwood, Melinda; Eilers, Scott; Meyer, Luke; Nurre, Emily; Woelfel, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    For comparison of one-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Indecision scale of the Career Decision Scale, results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 686) indicated the best fit for the three-factor structure. Multiple regression analysis results indicated incremental validity of the five-factor model for predicting dimensions of career…

  14. Taking the Next Step: Combining Incrementally Valid Indicators to Improve Recidivism Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of combining indicators to improve recidivism prediction was evaluated in a sample of released federal prisoners randomly divided into a derivation subsample (n = 550) and a cross-validation subsample (n = 551). Five incrementally valid indicators were selected from five domains: demographic (age), historical (prior convictions),…

  15. Incremental Efficiency of WISC-III Factor Scores in Predicting Achievement: What Do They Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glutting, Joseph J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Ward, Thomas; Ward, Sandra; Hale, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    The incremental validity of factor scores from the Wechlser Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) in predicting scores on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) was studied in 283 nonreferred children and 636 referred for evaluation. The Full Scale IQ of the WISC-III was the best predictor of WIAT achievement. (SLD)

  16. Factorial Structure of the Career Decision Scale: Incremental Validity of the Five-Factor Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Ronald C.; Ferry, Ashley; Bullock, Melinda; Camarotti-Carvalho, Ana; Collingwood, Melinda; Eilers, Scott; Meyer, Luke; Nurre, Emily; Woelfel, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    For comparison of one-, three-, and four-factor structures of the Indecision scale of the Career Decision Scale, results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 686) indicated the best fit for the three-factor structure. Multiple regression analysis results indicated incremental validity of the five-factor model for predicting dimensions of career…

  17. Residual Stress In Sheet Metal Parts Made By Incremental Forming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Hideo; Motomura, Kazuo

    2007-05-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming, which uses a CNC forming stylus, is new flexible forming process not requiring the use of any expensive dies. We have applied the incremental forming process to dental prosthesis. This new process, however, posed difficult problems. After removing the outer portion of the incremental formed sheet metal part, the inner part is distorted. In this paper, the residual stress in the sheet metal part obtained by incremental forward stretch forming operations has been examined. Numerical simulations were conducted for solid elements. When small rigid ball slides on the metal sheet with a certain vertical feed, tension residual stress is produced in the upper layer of the sheet and compression stress in the lower. Then, the resultant moments throughout the sheet cause negative spring-back when the outer portion is removed. A systematic study of the behavior was conducted in this paper. Parameters considered included the tool radius and the vertical tool feed rate. The tip radius of forming stylus has a significant influence on the residual stress. The smaller radius of forming stylus, the larger bending force becomes. And new process with double forming styluses is examined to reduce the bending force.

  18. 17 CFR 1.29 - Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Increment or interest resulting from investment of customer funds. 1.29 Section 1.29 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money...

  19. Career Decision-Making Profiles vs. Styles: Convergent and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Gadassi, Reuma; Mashiah-Cohen, Rona

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated the convergent and incremental validity of the multidimensional model and questionnaire--the Career Decision-Making Profiles ("CDMP," Gati, Landman, Davidovitch, Peretz-Asulin, & Gadassi, 2010)--by comparing it to two prevalent decision-making style models. Study 1 compared the "CDMP" to the Vocational Decision…

  20. A prediction model for Atlantic named storm frequency using a year-by-year increment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, K.

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a year-by-year incremental approach to forecasting the Atlantic named storm frequency (ATSF) for the hurricane season (June 1- November 30). The year-by-year increase or decrease in the ATSF is first forecasted to yield a net ATSF prediction. Six key predictors for the year-by-year increment in the number of Atlantic named tropical storms have been identified that are available before May 1. The forecast model for the year-by-year increment of the ATSF is first established using a multi-linear regression method based on data taken from the years of 1965-1999, and the forecast model of the ATSF is then derived. The prediction model for the ATSF shows good prediction skill. Compared to the climatological average mean absolute error (MAE) of 4.1, the percentage improvement in the MAE is 29 % for the hindcast period of 2004-2009 and 46 % for the cross-validation test from 1985-2009 (26 yrs). This work demonstrates that the year-by-year incremental approach has the potential to improve operational forecasting skill for the ATSF.

  1. A Comparison of Increment Core Sampling for Estimating Tree Specific Gravity

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Taras; Harold E. Wadlgren

    1963-01-01

    Increment cores have been used to evaluate such tree characteristics as age, rate of growth, percentage of various types of tissue, chemical composition, and density. Of the wood characteristics listed, density has come to be of considerable interest to numerous researchers, since it is highly correlated with the strength properties, workability, and weight of wood....

  2. Improving tree age estimates derived from increment cores: a case study of red pine

    Treesearch

    Shawn Fraver; John B. Bradford; Brian J. Palik

    2011-01-01

    Accurate tree ages are critical to a range of forestry and ecological studies. However, ring counts from increment cores, if not corrected for the years between the root collar and coring height, can produce sizeable age errors. The magnitude of errors is influenced by both the height at which the core is extracted and the growth rate. We destructively sampled saplings...

  3. Per tree estimates with n-tree distance sampling: an application to increment core data

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Lynch; Robert F. Wittwer

    2002-01-01

    Per tree estimates using the n trees nearest a point can be obtained by using a ratio of per unit area estimates from n-tree distance sampling. This ratio was used to estimate average age by d.b.h. classes for cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) on the Cimarron National Grassland. Increment...

  4. Modeling individual tree growth by fusing diameter tape and increment core data

    Treesearch

    Erin M. Schliep; Tracy Qi Dong; Alan E. Gelfand; Fan. Li

    2014-01-01

    Tree growth estimation is a challenging task as difficulties associated with data collection and inference often result in inaccurate estimates. Two main methods for tree growth estimation are diameter tape measurements and increment cores. The former involves repeatedly measuring tree diameters with a cloth or metal tape whose scale has been adjusted to give diameter...

  5. Two Levels of Caffeine Ingestion on Blood Lactate and Free Fatty Acid Responses during Incremental Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the effects of two doses of caffeine on the lactate threshold and also to examine the effects on substrate utilization during incremental cycle ergometry. Results found that caffeine increased heart rates and free fatty acid levels for all workloads and decreased blood lactate levels at some of the workloads.…

  6. The Incremental Validity and Clinical Utility of the MMPI-2 Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Margarita B.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The incremental validity and clinical utility of the recently developed Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) Infrequency Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale (Fptsd) was examined in relation to the family of MMPI-2 F scales in distinguishing feigned post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from disability claimants with PTSD.…

  7. Incremental approach for radial basis functions mesh deformation with greedy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Mohamed M.; Koomullil, Roy P.; Shehata, Ahmed S.

    2017-07-01

    Mesh Deformation is an important element of any fluid-structure interaction simulation. In this article, a new methodology is presented for the deformation of volume meshes using incremental radial basis function (RBF) based interpolation. A greedy algorithm is used to select a small subset of the surface nodes iteratively. Two incremental approaches are introduced to solve the RBF system of equations: 1) block matrix inversion based approach and 2) modified LU decomposition approach. The use of incremental approach decreased the computational complexity of solving the system of equations within each greedy algorithm's iteration from O (n3) to O (n2). Results are presented from an accuracy study using specified deformations on a 2D surface. Mesh deformations for bending and twisting of a 3D rectangular supercritical wing have been demonstrated. Outcomes showed the incremental approaches reduce the CPU time up to 67% as compared to a traditional RBF matrix solver. Finally, the proposed mesh deformation approach was integrated within a fluid-structure interaction solver for investigating a flow induced cantilever beam vibration.

  8. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Fff of... - Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Generic Compliance Schedules and Increments of Progress 5 Table 5 to Subpart FFF of Part 62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal...

  12. Taking the Next Step: Combining Incrementally Valid Indicators to Improve Recidivism Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of combining indicators to improve recidivism prediction was evaluated in a sample of released federal prisoners randomly divided into a derivation subsample (n = 550) and a cross-validation subsample (n = 551). Five incrementally valid indicators were selected from five domains: demographic (age), historical (prior convictions),…

  13. Statistical Properties of Line Centroid Velocity Increments in the rho Ophiuchi Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lis, D. C.; Keene, Jocelyn; Li, Y.; Phillips, T. G.; Pety, J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a comparison of histograms of CO (2-1) line centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud with those computed for spectra synthesized from a three-dimensional, compressible, but non-starforming and non-gravitating hydrodynamic simulation. Histograms of centroid velocity increments in the rho Ophiuchi cloud show clearly non-Gaussian wings, similar to those found in histograms of velocity increments and derivatives in experimental studies of laboratory and atmospheric flows, as well as numerical simulations of turbulence. The magnitude of these wings increases monotonically with decreasing separation, down to the angular resolution of the data. This behavior is consistent with that found in the phase of the simulation which has most of the properties of incompressible turbulence. The time evolution of the magnitude of the non-Gaussian wings in the histograms of centroid velocity increments in the simulation is consistent with the evolution of the vorticity in the flow. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the wings are associated with the shock interaction regions. Moreover, in an active starforming region like the rho Ophiuchi cloud, the effects of shocks may be more important than in the simulation. However, being able to identify shock interaction regions in the interstellar medium is also important, since numerical simulations show that vorticity is generated in shock interactions.

  14. Incremental Real-Time Bundle Adjustment for Multi-Camera Systems with Points at Infinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Läbe, T.; Förstner, W.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a concept and first experiments on a keyframe-based incremental bundle adjustment for real-time structure and motion estimation in an unknown scene. In order to avoid periodic batch steps, we use the software iSAM2 for sparse nonlinear incremental optimization, which is highly efficient through incremental variable reordering and fluid relinearization. We adapted the software to allow for (1) multi-view cameras by taking the rigid transformation between the cameras into account, (2) omnidirectional cameras as it can handle arbitrary bundles of rays and (3) scene points at infinity, which improve the estimation of the camera orientation as points at the horizon can be observed over long periods of time. The real-time bundle adjustment refers to sets of keyframes, consisting of frames, one per camera, taken in a synchronized way, that are initiated if a minimal geometric distance to the last keyframe set is exceeded. It uses interest points in the keyframes as observations, which are tracked in the synchronized video streams of the individual cameras and matched across the cameras, if possible. First experiments show the potential of the incremental bundle adjustment w.r.t. time requirements. Our experiments are based on a multi-camera system with four fisheye cameras, which are mounted on a UAV as two stereo pairs, one looking ahead and one looking backwards, providing a large field of view.

  15. Basal area increment and growth efficiency as functions of canopy dynamics and stem mechanics

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Dean

    2004-01-01

    Crown and canopy structurecorrelate with growth efficiency and also determine stem size and taper as described by the uniform stress principle of stem formation. A regression model was derived from this principle that expresses basal area increment in terms of the amount and vertical distribution of leaf area and change in these variables during a growth period. This...

  16. B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-224 B-2 Extremely High Frequency SATCOM and Computer Increment 1 (B-2 EHF Inc 1) As of FY...Officer PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP

  17. Word decoding development in incremental phonics instruction in a transparent orthography.

    PubMed

    Schaars, Moniek M H; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The present longitudinal study aimed to investigate the development of word decoding skills during incremental phonics instruction in Dutch as a transparent orthography. A representative sample of 973 Dutch children in the first grade (Mage  = 6;1, SD = 0;5) was exposed to incremental subsets of Dutch grapheme-phoneme correspondences during 6 consecutive blocks of 3 weeks of phonics instruction. Children's accuracy and efficiency of curriculum embedded word decoding were assessed after each incremental block, followed by a standardized word decoding measurement. Precursor measures of rapid naming, short-term memory, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and letter knowledge were assessed by the end of kindergarten and subsequently related to the word decoding efficiency in the first grade. The results showed that from the very beginning, children attained ceiling levels of decoding accuracy, whereas their efficiency scores increased despite the incremental character of the consecutive decoding assessments embedded in the curriculum. Structural equation modelling demonstrated high stability of the individual differences assessed by word decoding efficiency during phonics instruction during the first 5 months of the first grade. Curriculum embedded word decoding was highly related to standardized word decoding after phonics instruction was completed. Finally, early literacy and lexical retrieval, and to a lesser extent verbal and visual short term memory, predicted the first fundamental processes of mastering word decoding skills.

  18. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  19. Relating annual increments of the endangered Blanding's turtle plastron growth to climate

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Monik G; Laroque, Colin P; Herman, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    This research is the first published study to report a relationship between climate variables and plastron growth increments of turtles, in this case the endangered Nova Scotia Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). We used techniques and software common to the discipline of dendrochronology to successfully cross-date our growth increment data series, to detrend and average our series of 80 immature Blanding's turtles into one common chronology, and to seek correlations between the chronology and environmental temperature and precipitation variables. Our cross-dated chronology had a series intercorrelation of 0.441 (above 99% confidence interval), an average mean sensitivity of 0.293, and an average unfiltered autocorrelation of 0.377. Our master chronology represented increments from 1975 to 2007 (33 years), with index values ranging from a low of 0.688 in 2006 to a high of 1.303 in 1977. Univariate climate response function analysis on mean monthly air temperature and precipitation values revealed a positive correlation with the previous year's May temperature and current year's August temperature; a negative correlation with the previous year's October temperature; and no significant correlation with precipitation. These techniques for determining growth increment response to environmental variables should be applicable to other turtle species and merit further exploration. PMID:24963390

  20. Evaluation of CSRA CESA Project for Incremental Improvement in Career Education, 1976-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Robert B.; Smith, Lyle R.

    Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency (CSRA CESA) implemented a career education project for grades K-12 in the Columbia County School System to develop a replicable model for incremental improvements. The major emphasis was the infusion of career education activities into the teaching of basic skills. Program…